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Sample records for lesiones del manguito

  1. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  2. Pink lesions.

    PubMed

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  3. [Benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Pickhard, A; Reiter, R

    2013-05-01

    Benign vocal fold lesions are grouped in lesions arising from the epithelium like papillomas, lesions affecting the Reinke's space (nodules, polyps, cysts, Reinkes's edema as a form of chronic laryngitis) and lesions affecting the arytenoid (granulomas). A multifactorial genesis is assumed. Main symptoms are dysphonia and hyperfunctional vocal behavior that might also be a cause of these lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000865.htm Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection with the ...

  5. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  6. Aetiology of abfraction lesions.

    PubMed

    Lyons, K

    2001-09-01

    The aetiology of abfraction lesions is complex. Most evidence indicates that physical loading forces are a major contributing factor, although they are unlikely to be entirely responsible. Intraoral chemical influences and toothbrush abrasion, combined with the dynamics of inter-occlusal activity such as chewing, swallowing, and parafunction, lead to stress corrosion and may contribute to abfraction lesions. The multifactorial aetiology that operates in the initiation and progression of these lesions has made investigation difficult. Various theories have been proposed and numerous surveys and studies conducted, but the primary causal factor has yet to be definitively determined. This review concludes that occlusal loading is the initiating factor in the development of abfraction lesions.

  7. Preinvasive lesions

    Cancer.gov

    This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.

  8. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  9. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  10. Multifocal vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T

    2016-09-01

    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations.

  11. Incidental vertebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Walcott, Brian P

    2011-12-01

    Incidental vertebral lesions on imaging of the spine are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Contributing factors include the aging population, the increasing prevalence of back pain, and increased usage of MR imaging. Additionally, refinements in CT and MR imaging have increased the number of demonstrable lesions. The management of incidental findings varies among practitioners and commonly depends more on practice style than on data or guidelines. In this article we review incidental findings within the vertebral column and review management of these lesions, based on available Class III data.

  12. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  13. Bilateral lacrimal caruncle lesions

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Yuta; Takai, Yoshiko; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of a lesion on the medial lacrimal canthus of both eyes. He had a history of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, i.e., pANCA-positive interstitial pneumonia. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging excluded space occupying lesions, and laboratory testing excluded thyroid-related diseases. The masses were excised, and histopathological examinations showed sebaceous gland hyperplasia and inflammatory changes around the gland. In addition, the specimen from the left eye showed a retention cyst possibly caused by an infection. It was also possible that the use of steroid was involved in the development of the lesions. A relationship between the ANCA and the lesions was not completely eliminated. PMID:28303065

  14. Talar Dome Lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... the talus. During this period of immobilization, nonweightbearing range-of-motion exercises may be recommended. Oral medications. Nonsteroidal anti- ... in reducing the pain and inflammation. Physical therapy. Range-of-motion and strengthening exercises are beneficial once the lesion ...

  15. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  17. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  18. Intraventricular mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Sobel, D.F.; Kelley, W.M.; Norman, D.

    1984-11-01

    Determining the precise etiology of an intraventricular mass can be a difficult diagnostic problem. CT and angiographic findings were reviewed in a series of 73 patients who had intraventricular masses. The histologic diagnosis can be suggested preoperatively by an analysis of the frequency of lesions occurring at a given ventricular location, lesion density before and after administration of contrast material, age, and sex of the patient, morphologic appearance of the mass, and presence or absence of hydrocephalus. Angiography is useful when meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma, or arteriovenous malformation are considered.

  19. Chronic cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marchell, Richard M; Judson, Marc A

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoidosis involvement of the skin is common. The skin lesions of sarcoidosis may be nonspecific, showing a nondiagnostic inflammatory reaction pattern on histologic evaluation. Nonspecific skin lesions are often associated with an acute presentation of sarcoidosis and, in general, portend a good prognosis. Specific sarcoidosis skin lesions reveal typical sarcoid granulomas on histologic examination. These lesions tend to be chronic and require therapy for resolution. This article will review the epidemiology, diagnostic evaluation, and description of the various chronic skin lesions of sarcoidosis. Various images of these skin lesions will be demonstrated.

  20. Tumorous lesions of the hand.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Kilgore, E; Newmeyer, W

    1985-03-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of 543 tumorous lesions of the hand seen in a busy office practice for a 5-year period from April 1976 to April 1981. The lesions were grouped as benign lesions, of either the soft tissue or skeletal type, or as malignant lesions. The overall chance that a hand tumor was malignant was 2% (11 of 543). There was significant association of palmar radial ganglion and carpal tunnel syndrome (15%). Ganglions recur more often after aspiration than after surgery. Certain lesions, particularly a mucous cyst, have a high postoperative complication rate. A few of these unique lesions are described.

  1. Skin lesions in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Goodfield, M

    1994-05-01

    Psoriatic skin disease is common; it occurs at all ages and co-exists with joint disease in approximately 10% of cases. All areas of skin, scalp and nails may be involved. In the typical case, the skin lesions are easy to recognize. Atypical forms of skin involvement and lesions at unusual sites are less easily diagnosed by non-specialists. The cause is unknown, but there is a clear genetic element, with external factors being important in precipitation and exacerbations of the condition. Topical treatment is successful in most patients, but in resistant cases combinations of systemic therapy and ultraviolet radiation usually give good control. Although there is no cure, the majority of sufferers live normal lives and, with the exception of severe erythrodermic or generalized pustular psoriasis, there is no mortality. Morbidity, particularly social and occupational, is more of a problem than is often acknowledged.

  2. Acute periodontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  3. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Skin lesion gram stain Images Viral lesion culture References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  4. Klatskin-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, M. P.; Marudanayagam, R.

    2012-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5–15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature. PMID:22811587

  5. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  6. [Bony Bankart lesions].

    PubMed

    Spiegl, U J; Braun, S; Euler, S A; Warth, R J; Millett, P J

    2014-12-01

    Fractures of the anteroinferior glenoid rim, termed bony Bankart lesions, have been reported to occur in up to 22% of first time anterior shoulder dislocations. The primary goal of treatment is to create a stable glenohumeral joint and a good shoulder function. Options for therapeutic intervention are largely dependent on the chronicity of the lesion, the activity level of the patient and postreduction fracture characteristics, such as the size, location and number of fracture fragments. Non-operative treatment can be successful for small, acute fractures, which are anatomically reduced after shoulder reduction. However, in patients with a high risk profile for recurrent instability initial Bankart repair is recommended. Additionally, bony fixation is recommended for acute fractures that involve more than 15-20% of the inferior glenoid diameter. On the other hand chronic fractures are generally managed on a case-by-case basis depending on the amount of fragment resorption and bony erosion of the anterior glenoid with high recurrence rates under conservative therapy. When significant bone loss of the anterior glenoid is present, anatomical (e.g. iliac crest bone graft and osteoarticular allograft) or non-anatomical (e.g. Latarjet and Bristow) reconstruction of the anterior glenoid is often indicated.

  7. Bullous lesions in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Rencic, Adrienne; Goyal, Supriya; Mofid, Mona; Wigley, Frederick; Nousari, H Carlos

    2002-06-01

    The occurrence of bullous lesions in localized or systemic scleroderma is rare. Three histologic patterns have been reported: lichen sclerosus et atrophicus-like, lymphangiectatic blisters and autoimmune blistering diseases. To investigate the frequency, clinical, and immunopathologic features of patients with scleroderma and bullous eruptions and to review the literature regarding this rare condition. A retrospective study of 53 cases of scleroderma (localized, generalized, and systemic) in the dermatology and rheumatology clinics at one institution over an 8-year span. Clinical, serologic, and immunopathologic findings were analyzed in four cases. Four of 53 patients exhibited bullous lesions in association with scleroderma. The first case illustrates lymphangioma-like clinical and pathologic presentation. The second case demonstrates bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus-like pattern. The other two cases exemplify a superimposed autoimmune skin disease, epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and penicillamine induced pemphigus foliaceus after treatment for systemic scleroderma. Of the 53 original patients, we have described four cases of bullous scleroderma (7.5%) Illustrating several pathogenetic mechanisms of bulla formation. inflammatory (lichen sclerosus et atrophicus), fibrotic/obstructive (lymphangiomatous), autoimmune (epidermolysis bullosa acquisita), and pemphigus foliaceus. The final case illustrates bullae as a complication of therapy for the underlying scleroderma.

  8. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions.

    PubMed

    González, Joaquín V; Gutiérrez, Rafael A; Keszler, Alicia; Colacino, Maria del Carmen; Alonio, Lidia V; Teyssie, Angelica R; Picconi, Maria Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.

  9. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Automated Estimation Of Lesion Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttimann, Urs E.; Webber, Richard L.; Groenhuis, Roelf A. J.; Troullos, Emanuel; Rethman, Michael T.

    1985-06-01

    Two methods were studied of estimating automatically the relative volume of local lesions in digital subtractions radiographs. The first method approximates the projected, lesion area by an equivalent circular area, and the second by an equivalent polygonal area. Lesion volume is estimated in both methods as equivalent area times the average gray-level difference between the detected area and the surrounding background. Regression results of the estimated relative volume versus the calibrated size of lesions induced in dry human mandibles showed the polygonal approximation to be superior. This method also permitted successful monitoring of bone remodelling during the healing process of surgically induced lesions in dogs. The quantitative results, as well as the examples from in vivo lesions demonstrate feasibility and clinically relavance of the methodology.

  11. Laser treatment of pigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D J

    1997-07-01

    Several pigment-specific lasers can effectively treat epidermal and dermal pigmented lesions without complications using the basic principles of selective photothermolysis. Although such pigmented lesions as solar lentigines and nevi of Ota are relatively easy to treat using pigment-specific laser technology, café-au-lait macules and melasma show variable responses to treatment. New, long-pulsed pigment-specific lasers may prove to further enhance the clinical results obtained in resistant pigmented lesions and other conditions.

  12. Fuzzy description of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Ballerini, Lucia; Fisher, Robert B.; Aldridge, Ben; Rees, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    We propose a system for describing skin lesions images based on a human perception model. Pigmented skin lesions including melanoma and other types of skin cancer as well as non-malignant lesions are used. Works on classification of skin lesions already exist but they mainly concentrate on melanoma. The novelty of our work is that our system gives to skin lesion images a semantic label in a manner similar to humans. This work consists of two parts: first we capture they way users perceive each lesion, second we train a machine learning system that simulates how people describe images. For the first part, we choose 5 attributes: colour (light to dark), colour uniformity (uniform to non-uniform), symmetry (symmetric to non-symmetric), border (regular to irregular), texture (smooth to rough). Using a web based form we asked people to pick a value of each attribute for each lesion. In the second part, we extract 93 features from each lesions and we trained a machine learning algorithm using such features as input and the values of the human attributes as output. Results are quite promising, especially for the colour related attributes, where our system classifies over 80% of the lesions into the same semantic classes as humans.

  13. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  14. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Periapical lesions develop as sequelae to pulp disease. They often occur without any episode of acute pain and are discovered on routine radiographic examination. The incidence of cysts within periapical lesions varies between 6 and 55%. The occurrence of periapical granulomas ranges between 9.3 and 87.1%, and of abscesses between 28.7 and 70.07%. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. A review of literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: the conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, method using calcium hydroxide, Lesion Sterilization and Repair Therapy, and the Apexum procedure. Monitoring the healing of periapical lesions is essential through periodic follow-up examinations. PMID:21217952

  15. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  16. Repair-Resistant DNA Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The eukaryotic global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) pathway is the major mechanism that removes most bulky and some nonbulky lesions from cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that certain DNA lesions are repaired slowly or are entirely resistant to repair in cells, tissues, and in cell extract model assay systems. It is well established that the eukaryotic DNA lesion-sensing proteins do not detect the damaged nucleotide, but recognize the distortions/destabilizations in the native DNA structure caused by the damaged nucleotides. In this article, the nature of the structural features of certain bulky DNA lesions that render them resistant to NER, or cause them to be repaired slowly, is compared to that of those that are good-to-excellent NER substrates. Understanding the structural features that distinguish NER-resistant DNA lesions from good NER substrates may be useful for interpreting the biological significance of biomarkers of exposure of human populations to genotoxic environmental chemicals. NER-resistant lesions can survive to replication and cause mutations that can initiate cancer and other diseases. Furthermore, NER diminishes the efficacy of certain chemotherapeutic drugs, and the design of more potent pharmaceuticals that resist repair can be advanced through a better understanding of the structural properties of DNA lesions that engender repair-resistance. PMID:28750166

  17. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-01-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5. PMID:24324319

  18. Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Argenziano, G; Chimenti, S; Ruocco, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the basic concepts of dermoscopy, the various dermoscopic equipments and the standard criteria for diagnosing pigmented skin lesions. In assessing dermoscopic images, both global and local features can be recognized. These features will be systematically described and illustrated in Part I of this article. First, we will focus on 8 morphologically rather distinctive global features that allow a quick, preliminary categorization of a given pigmented skin lesion. Second, we will describe various local features representing the letters of the dermoscopic alphabet. The local features permit a more detailed assessment of pigmented skin lesions.

  19. No carious cervical lesions: abfraction.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-10-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5.

  20. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  1. Bilateral ptosis: Lesion in the oculomotor nuclei or supranuclear lesion?

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, Julien; Montoute, Timothy; Levivier, Marc; Borruat, François-Xavier; Diserens, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral ptosis is a very interesting clinical challenge for doctors because of the multiple possible localizations of a lesion which can lead to this neurological sign. Through this case report, we aim to determine the difference between an apraxia of lid opening (ALO) with difficulty in initiating the act of lid elevation, in spite of adequate understanding, motor control and cranial nerve pathways, and a bilateral ptosis with a lesion in the oculomotor nucleus or blepharospasm. The case report of a 50-year-old patient presenting bilateral ptosis and multiple ischemic lesions in the brainstem and bilateral frontal lobe lesions after the emergency removal of a large frontal tumor. Our patient had an ALO according to the neurological follow-up and showed the ability, after a few weeks, of initiating the act of opening her eyes with her hand. The ophthalmic evaluation confirmed that in her case the ALO was associated with a nuclear lesion of the oculomotor nerve secondary to a midbrain lesion. Our case report confirms multiple differential diagnoses in bilateral ptosis and the importance of clinical examination in spite of good neurological imaging.

  2. Voxel-based lesion mapping of meningioma: a comprehensive lesion location mapping of 260 lesions.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Ryuichi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Arita, Hideyuki; Kagawa, Naoki; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE In the present study the authors aimed to determine preferred locations of meningiomas by avoiding descriptive analysis and instead using voxel-based lesion mapping and 3D image-rendering techniques. METHODS Magnetic resonance images obtained in 248 treatment-naïve meningioma patients with 260 lesions were retrospectively and consecutively collected. All images were registered to a 1-mm isotropic, high-resolution, T1-weighted brain atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (the MNI152), and a lesion frequency map was created, followed by 3D volume rendering to visualize the preferred locations of meningiomas in 3D. RESULTS The 3D lesion frequency map clearly showed that skull base structures such as parasellar, sphenoid wing, and petroclival regions were commonly affected by the tumor. The middle one-third of the superior sagittal sinus was most commonly affected in parasagittal tumors. Substantial lesion accumulation was observed around the leptomeninges covering the central sulcus and the sylvian fissure, with very few lesions observed at the frontal, parietal, and occipital convexities. CONCLUSIONS Using an objective visualization method, meningiomas were shown to be located around the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus, the perisylvian convexity, and the skull base. These observations, which are in line with previous descriptive analyses, justify further use of voxel-based lesion mapping techniques to help understand the biological nature of this disease.

  3. Herpes viral culture of lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus; Herpes simplex virus culture Images Viral lesion culture References Costello M, Sabatini LM, Yungbluth M. Viral infections. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  4. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  5. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  6. Biomagnetic activity in ovarian lesions.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, P; Anninos, P; Kotini, A; Limberis, B; Galazios, G

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND-MATERIALS: This study aimed to investigate biomagnetic activity in benign and malignant ovarian diseases using the biomagnetometer SQUID. Magnetic recordings were obtained from 40 patients with palpable ovarian lesions. 19 of these were invasive carcinomas, and 21 were benign ovarian lesions. We used a one channel biomagnetometer SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), in order to measure the magnetic field from benign and malignant ovarian diseases. Interestingly, the ovarian lesion waveforms and the corresponding spectral densities were of high amplitude in most (96%) malignant ovarian lesions, and of low amplitude in most (95%) benign ovarian diseases. These findings were of statistical significance (students t-test p < 0.005). It is suggested that biomagnetic measurement of benign and malignant ovarian diseases, which is an entirely new application of SQUID technology, is a promising procedure for assessing ovarian tumors.

  7. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Itchy lesions in pigmented skin

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Rachel; Ahmeen, Mahreen; Fleming, Ann; Hoque, Shamali

    2013-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with type VI skin presented with 1-year history of pruritic lesions affecting her arms, chest and legs. The lesions were approximately 5 mm in diameter, annular and with a raised border. A skin biopsy was performed which showed a diagnosis of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Porokeratosis is an unusual presentation in pigmented skin and there are very limited reports of this occurrence in the literature. PMID:24114602

  9. Lesions of the clitoris: a review.

    PubMed

    Heller, Debra S

    2015-01-01

    The clitoris may become involved by vulvar lesions. There are also lesions arising from the clitoris. A familiarity with these lesions is necessary for the high index of suspicion needed for their diagnosis.

  10. Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances.

  11. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  12. Imaging of peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Koltzenburg, Martin; Bendszus, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Clinical investigations of peripheral nerve lesions routinely involve nerve conduction studies and electromyography. Imaging studies are often used to exclude focal mass lesions or external compression and to visualize muscle atrophy. More recently, it has been recognized that magnetic resonance imaging can identify changes in peripheral nerves and secondary neurogenic alterations in skeletal muscle, which may significantly enhance its use in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disease. Acute axonal nerve lesions cause a hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images at and distal to the lesion site, which correlates with Wallerian degeneration and nerve oedema. Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles provide an exciting new tool to detect the invasion of macrophages into the degenerating nerve distal to an axonal lesion. Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time and gadolinium enhancement of denervated muscle develop in parallel to the development of spontaneous activity on electromyography, and are probably the consequence of capillary enlargement and increased muscular blood volume. Magnetic resonance imaging supplements the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disease. An advantage over clinical neurophysiological investigations is that it is operator independent and painless. It can identify axonal damage and may thus help to identify a lesion site precisely, where fractionated nerve conduction studies are not applicable. Novel contrast media may potentially be used to detect pathophysiologically relevant mechanisms such as infiltration of the nerve by macrophages. Magnetic resonance imaging also has the advantage of providing a lasting detailed topographical picture of regional variations and avoids localization errors of muscles in electromyography.

  13. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  14. DNA lesions: A thermodynamic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, G.E.; Breslauer, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    The studies described in this paper are part of an overall program project entitled {open_quotes}The Chemistry and Biology of Exocyclic DNA Adducts and Oxidative DNA Damage.{close_quotes}. Initially, all the project leaders discuss and agree on biologically interesting lesions to target for study. Then begins the process of developing the chemistry required to synthesize modified nucleosides that either correspond to or model the damage sites of interest. Such modified nucleotides then are incorporated into oligonucleotides that are hybridized to their complements, thereby forming lesion-containing duplex structures. In any given duplex, the identity of the lesion-opposing nucleoside on the complementary strand is systematically altered, thereby allowing us to evaluate the impact on duplex properties of the identity of the base opposite the lesion. For comparative purposes, the undamaged parent Watson-Crick duplex also is synthesized. Such families of DNA duplexes are then sent for independent physiochemical characterizations. Armed with an extensive body of biophysical data, one then searches for correlations between the physiochemical influences of the lesions on duplex properties and the biological consequences of each lesion. At this stage, our approach is highly empirical. Ultimately, we hope that our studies will reveal correlations between physiochemical properties and biological consequences such that we will develop predictive powers and gain insight into the mechanisms of recognition, repair, and mutagenesis.

  15. Nodular lesions and mesangiolysis in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takashi; Shimizu, Miho; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Yoshio; Kaneko, Shuichi; Furuichi, Kengo

    2013-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure all over the world. Advanced human diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the presence of specific lesions including nodular lesions, doughnut lesions, and exudative lesions. Thus far, animal models precisely mimicking advanced human diabetic nephropathy, especially nodular lesions, remain to be fully established. Animal models with spontaneous diabetic kidney diseases or with inducible kidney lesions may be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Based on pathological features, we previously reported that diabetic glomerular nodular-like lesions were formed during the reconstruction process of mesangiolysis. Recently, we established nodular-like lesions resembling those seen in advanced human diabetic nephropathy through vascular endothelial injury and mesangiolysis by administration of monocrotaline. Here, in this review, we discuss diabetic nodular lesions and its animal models resembling human diabetic kidney lesions, with our hypothesis that endothelial cell injury and mesangiolysis might be required for nodular lesions.

  16. Microorganisms in closed periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Abou-Rass, M; Bogen, G

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the microorganisms of strictly selected closed periapical lesions associated with both refractory endodontic therapy and pulpal calcification. Definitive criteria were established that assured complete clinical isolation of the periapical lesion from the oral and periodontal environment. A total of 13 criteria-referenced lesions were selected from 70 patients with endodontic surgical indications. A well controlled culturing method was used in all cases and samples were taken by one clinician at three separate sites during each surgery. Samples taken at the surgical window and within the body of the lesion served as controls, whilst a third sample was taken at the apex. In all 13 cases, samples taken from the apex yielded microorganisms comprising 63.6% obligate anaerobes and 36.4% facultative anaerobes. Prevalence of the isolated species was 31.8% for Actinomyces sp., 22.7% Propionibacterium sp., 18.2% Streptococcus sp., 13.6% Staphlyococcus sp., 4.6% Porphyromonas gingivalis, 4.6% Peptostreptococcus micros and 4.6% Gram-negative enterics. The results of this investigation indicate that closed periapical lesions associated with calcified teeth or those resistant to root canal treatment harbour bacteria. The inability to eradicate all root canal microorganisms during root canal treatment, along with anatomical factors, may allow further bacterial colonization of the root apex and surrounding periapical tissues, and consequently prevent healing.

  17. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  18. [Bone lesion in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Ise, Mikiko; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2007-12-01

    Bone destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma(MM). Almost all MM patients develop osteolytic bone lesions that can cause pathologic fractures and severe bone pain. Osteolytic lesions result from increased bone resorption due to osteoclast stimulation and decreased bone formation due to osteoblast inhibition. Plain radiography, CT, and MRI are established imaging techniques in MM. FDG-PET imaging is promising newer scanning technique under current evaluation. The aggressive features of MM bone lesions have significantly contributed to poor prognosis. Therefore, a systemic approach to analgesia, which includes radiotherapy and orthopedic intervention, must be applied as a part of the comprehensive care plan of MM patient. Bisphosphonates have been shown to reduce vertebral fractures and bone pain.

  19. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population.

  20. Can Small Lesions Induce Language Reorganization as Large Lesions Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestu, Fernando; Saldana, Cristobal; Amo, Carlos; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Fernandez, Alberto; Fernandez, Santiago; Mata, Pedro; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Ortiz, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Shift of the cortical mechanisms of language from the usually dominant left to the non-dominant right hemisphere has been demonstrated in the presence of large brain lesions. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in a patient with a cavernoma over the anterolateral superior temporal gyrus associated with epilepsy. Language mapping was performed by…

  1. Can Small Lesions Induce Language Reorganization as Large Lesions Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestu, Fernando; Saldana, Cristobal; Amo, Carlos; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Fernandez, Alberto; Fernandez, Santiago; Mata, Pedro; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Ortiz, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Shift of the cortical mechanisms of language from the usually dominant left to the non-dominant right hemisphere has been demonstrated in the presence of large brain lesions. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in a patient with a cavernoma over the anterolateral superior temporal gyrus associated with epilepsy. Language mapping was performed by…

  2. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  3. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where surgery or laser therapy is considered a possible treatment option or that can be surgically evaluated. PMID:20525327

  4. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  5. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  6. [Galeazzi lesion in children and adults: the undiagnosed lesion].

    PubMed

    Maman, Eran; Dekel, Shmuel; Steinberg, Ely

    2002-07-01

    Unrecognized Galeazzi fracture dislocation of the wrist (distal radius fracture with radioulnar joint disruption) may lead to a high incidence of permanent functional disability and chronic pain. A high index of suspicion, early recognition, and acute treatment of distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability will avoid chronic problems. This review examines the clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, management and prognosis in children and in adults for this type of lesion.

  7. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    PubMed

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.

  8. Local lesions and induced resistance.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, G

    2009-01-01

    The local lesion phenomenon is one of the most notable resistance mechanisms where virus after multiplying in several hundred cells around the point of entry, does not continue to spread and remains in a local infection. Several types of local lesions are known, inter alia, necrotic, chlorotic, and starch lesions. Cells inside the lesion generally contain much less virus than cells in a systemic infection. Cytopathic changes accompany the local lesion development. Proteases that may have properties similar to caspases, which promote programmed cell death (PCD) in animals, seem to participate in PCD during the hypersensitive response. Salicylic acid seems to be associated with the HR and may play a role in localizing the virus. The functions and properties of the N gene of Nicotiana, which was the first plant virus resistance gene to be isolated by transposon tagging, are discussed and compared with other plant genes for disease resistance. The Inhibitor of Virus Replication (IVR) associated with the local lesion response is mainly a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) protein. TPR motifs are also present in inducible interferons found in animal cells. Transformation of N. tabacum cv. Samsun nn, in which Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) spreads systemically, with the NC330 gene sequence, encoding an IVR-like protein, resulted in a number of transgenic plant lines, expressing variable resistance to TMV and the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Transformation of tomato plants with the IVR gene became also partially resistant to B. cinerea (Loebenstein et al., in press). IVR-like compounds were found in the interspecific hybrid of N. glutinosa x N. debneyi that is highly resistant to TMV, and in the "green island" tissue of tobacco, cv. Xanthi-nc, infected with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Infection in one part of the plant often induces resistance in other non-invaded tissues. Local (LAR) or systemic (SAR) acquired resistance can be activated by viruses, bacterial, and fungal

  9. [Prevalence of silent cerebrovascular lesions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Colla-Machado, Pedro E; Luzzi, Ariel A; Balian, Natalia R; Pigretti, Santiago G; Zurrú-Ganen, M Cristina; Cristiano, Edgardo; Valiensi, Stella M

    2016-02-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) confiere mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, dada su asociacion con otros factores de riesgo vascular. Tanto el SAHOS como otros factores de riesgo vascular se asocian con lesiones cerebrales silentes. Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de lesiones cerebrales silentes en pacientes con SAHOS. Pacientes y metodos. Se evaluo retrospectivamente una cohorte de 137 pacientes con SAHOS, con una edad media de 65 ± 12 años, el 45% mujeres. Las lesiones cerebrales silentes en resonancia magnetica se evaluaron con la escala visual de Fazekas, y se consigno la presencia de infartos corticales, lacunares y microsangrados. Resultados. La prevalencia de factores de riesgo vascular fue: hipertension, 64%; dislipidemia, 58%; diabetes, 18%; tabaquismo, 34%; ateromatosis carotidea, 26%; enfermedad coronaria, 13%; y fibrilacion auricular, 4%. El SAHOS fue leve en el 47%, moderado en el 31% y grave en el 22% de los casos. El 91% de los pacientes tenia hiperintensidades periventriculares y el 66% presentaba lesiones en la sustancia blanca subcortical. El valor medio del indice de apnea/hipopnea fue mayor en los pacientes con mayor carga de lesiones, aunque sin significacion estadistica. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con SAHOS presentan una elevada prevalencia de lesiones cerebrales silentes, fundamentalmente con un patron microangiopatico. Posiblemente esto se explique por la asociacion entre el SAHOS, la hipertension arterial y otros factores de riesgo vascular.

  10. Covalently linked tandem lesions in DNA.

    PubMed

    Patrzyc, Helen B; Dawidzik, Jean B; Budzinski, Edwin E; Freund, Harold G; Wilton, John H; Box, Harold C

    2012-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generate a type of DNA damage called tandem lesions, two adjacent nucleotides both modified. A subcategory of tandem lesions consists of adjacent nucleotides linked by a covalent bond. Covalently linked tandem lesions generate highly characteristic liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) elution profiles. We have used this property to comprehensively survey X-irradiated DNA for covalently linked tandem lesions. A total of 15 tandem lesions were detected in DNA irradiated in deoxygenated aqueous solution, five tandem lesions were detected in DNA that was irradiated in oxygenated solution.

  11. Covalently Linked Tandem Lesions in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Patrzyc, Helen B.; Dawidzik, Jean B.; Budzinski, Edwin E.; Freund, Harold G.; Wilton, John H.; Box, Harold C.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generate a type of DNA damage called tandem lesions, two adjacent nucleotides both modified. A subcategory of tandem lesions consists of adjacent nucleotides linked by a covalent bond. Covalently linked tandem lesions generate highly characteristic liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) elution profiles. We have used this property to comprehensively survey X-irradiated DNA for covalently linked tandem lesions. A total of 15 tandem lesions were detected in DNA irradiated in deoxygenated aqueous solution, five tandem lesions were detected in DNA that was irradiated in oxygenated solution. PMID:23106212

  12. Cerebral Microinfarcts: The Invisible Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric E.; Schneider, Julie A.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Greenberg, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The association between small but still visible lacunar infarcts and cognitive decline has been established by multiple population-based radiological and pathological studies. Microscopic examination of brain sections reveals even smaller but substantially more numerous microinfarcts, the focus of the current review. These lesions often result from small vessel pathologies such as arteriolosclerosis or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. They typically go undetected in clinical-radiological correlation studies that rely on conventional structural MRI, though the largest acute microinfarcts may be detectable by diffusion-weighted imaging. Given their high numbers and widespread distribution, microinfarcts may directly disrupt important cognitive networks and thus account for some of the neurologic dysfunction seen in association with lesions visible on conventional MRI such as lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities. Standardized neuropathological assessment criteria and development of non-invasive means of detection during life would be major steps towards understanding the causes and consequences of the otherwise macroscopically invisible microinfarct. PMID:22341035

  13. Dieulafoy's lesion of the rectum.

    PubMed

    Gul, Y A; Jabbar, M F; Karim, F A; Moissinac, K

    2002-06-01

    Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. It may present with massive and life threatening bleed and although more common in the upper gastrointestinal tract, it is being increasingly reported as affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is usually achieved during proctoscopic and endoscopic visualization. In cases where there is profuse and torrential hemorrhage, angiography may help to confirm the diagnosis. There are a few treatment options available, all of which have a varying degree of success. More commonly than not, a combination of treatment is warranted as illustrated by our case. Recurrent bleeding may occur just as in cases of Dieulafoy's lesion affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract. Even though endoscopic visualization of the lower gastrointestinal tract in the presence of profuse lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage may not be possible, this important procedure should not be omitted as the bleeding source may be lying in a low and accessible location for prompt interventional haemorrhage control.

  14. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  15. Vascular lesions in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Grishman, E; Venkataseshan, V S

    1988-05-01

    Three groups of kidney specimens from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were examined for histologic evidence of vascular lesions in small arteries and arterioles. Group 1 consisted of 24 autopsy kidneys from patients who died before the advent of steroid therapy, and Group 2, of 26 more recent autopsy specimens from patients treated with steroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs. Group 3 comprised 276 renal biopsies. Group 1 showed characteristic subendothelial eosinophilic deposits in small arteries and arterioles of 8 cases; Group 2 showed similar lesions in 5 specimens, while 3 others revealed evidence of resorption of deposits. Deposits were characterized by clumping and were delimited toward the media by a thick basement membrane. Only one case showed necrotizing arteritis resembling polyarteritis nodosa. Group 3 presented vascular deposits in 19 cases and thrombotic microangiopathy in 2. Electron microscopic appearance of some of the deposits is described. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a mixture of IgG, IgA, and IgM in 7 cases, a finding that was not seen in a group of non-lupus patients with various vascular lesions. Vascular deposits are generally rare in systemic lupus erythematosus, although in autopsies widely scattered involvement of arteries and arterioles was seen in nearly 1/3 of the cases. The deposits were more common in male patients. The evolution of the lesions could be followed through various stages to eventual sclerosis, particularly in patients treated with steroids or immunosuppressants. Some deposits appeared to resolve after treatment. Patients with vascular deposits had more severe glomerular disease and a more serious clinical course. Thrombotic microangiopathy appears to be a secondary phenomenon whose pathogenesis is unknown.

  16. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  17. Fibronectin in multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, R. A.; Mitchell, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    Cryostat sections of central nervous system (CNS) tissues of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other CNS diseases were stained with antibodies to fibronectin, a macrophage fibronectin receptor component, fibrin/fibrinogen, and albumin using immunoperoxidase. In active, but not inactive, MS plaques vessel fibronectin was increased (to approximately 57% of Factor VIII+ vessels) over uninvolved MS and normal control white matter (P less than 0.001 for both). Fibronectin was primarily localized to vessel walls and amount of staining correlated with degree of inflammation. Active plaques and necrotic lesions also had extracellular fibronectin and fibrin/ogen. These molecules and the fibronectin receptor were found on macrophages. Albumin was more widely and diffusely distributed in lesions than fibronectin. Thus, in addition to extravasation from damaged vessels, fibronectin may be deposited on or synthesized by endothelial cells and macrophages in the CNS. Fibronectin could facilitate monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell luminal surfaces, promote migration of mononuclear cells, and enhance myelin phagocytosis in MS lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2528301

  18. Imaging of skull base lesions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Hillary R; Curtin, Hugh D

    2016-01-01

    Skull base imaging requires a thorough knowledge of the complex anatomy of this region, including the numerous fissures and foramina and the major neurovascular structures that traverse them. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play complementary roles in imaging of the skull base. MR is the preferred modality for evaluation of the soft tissues, the cranial nerves, and the medullary spaces of bone, while CT is preferred for demonstrating thin cortical bone structure. The anatomic location and origin of a lesion as well as the specific CT and MR findings can often narrow the differential diagnosis to a short list of possibilities. However, the primary role of the imaging specialist in evaluating the skull base is usually to define the extent of the lesion and determine its relationship to vital neurovascular structures. Technologic advances in imaging and radiation therapy, as well as surgical technique, have allowed for more aggressive approaches and improved outcomes, further emphasizing the importance of precise preoperative mapping of skull base lesions via imaging. Tumors arising from and affecting the cranial nerves at the skull base are considered here. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lesions of the biceps pulley.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sepp; Horan, Marilee P; Elser, Florian; Millett, Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Lesions of the biceps pulley and instability of the long head of the biceps tendon are common diagnoses in patients with anterior shoulder pain. To analyze the pathoanatomy of the biceps reflection pulley ("pulley") in consecutive patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. Prospective data were collected on 229 shoulders in consecutive patients (155 male,74 female) who underwent shoulder arthroscopy (121 rotator cuff pathology, 50 instability, 43 osteoarthritis, 15 miscellaneous). The average age was 48.5 years (range, 18-76 years). Sixty-eight shoulders had underwent a previous surgery. The long head of the biceps tendon was absent in 21 shoulders (9.2%); 1 was excluded for incomplete data. In 207 shoulders, the mean width of the long head of the biceps tendon was 6.0 mm (range, 3-10 mm), and the pulley complex, 7.2 mm (range, 4-15 mm). Sixty-seven patients (32.4%) had a pulley tear: 48 shoulders had anteromedial pulley tears, 32 posterolateral, with 13 combined anteromedial-posterolateral lesions. Patients with pulley tears were significantly older than those without (57 vs 44 years, P < .001). For anteromedial pulley tears, the mean width of the long head of the biceps tendon was significantly larger in the torn group (6.4 vs 5.8 mm, P = .012). The anteromedial or posterolateral pulley tears were significantly associated with subluxation or dislocation of the long head of the biceps tendon (P = .001), with a pulley torn in all 27 cases of biceps dislocation. In 173 shoulders with a centered long head of the biceps tendon, the pulley was torn in 36 (23 anteromedial, 18 posterolateral [with 5 being combined]). Pulley tears and rotator cuff injury showed a significant association (P < .001). Superior labral anterior posterior lesions were significantly associated with anteromedial (P < .008) and posterolateral pulley tears (P < .021). Pulley lesions are fairly common in patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery and

  20. Menstrual bleeding from an endometriotic lesion.

    PubMed

    Burney, Richard O; Lathi, Ruth B

    2009-05-01

    We present a case in which endometriotic lesions were observed to be focally hemorrhagic at laparoscopy performed during menstruation. Red vesicular lesions likely represent early disease with intact capacity for hormonally induced menstrual bleeding.

  1. Basal ganglia lesions following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ramona O; Fearing, Michael A; Weaver, Lindell K; Foley, John F

    2006-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most common cause of poisoning and may result in basal ganglia lesions. This study reviewed the literature of carbon monoxide poisoning and basal ganglia lesions and prospectively assessed the prevalence of basal ganglia lesions in a cohort of patients with CO poisoning. Literature review and prospective cohort study. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the literature and assessed 73 CO-poisoned patients for basal ganglia lesions on sequential MR scans. Magnetic resonance scans were obtained on day 1, 2 weeks and 6 months post-CO poisoning. The literature review found basal ganglia lesions occur in 4-88% of subjects. Only one patient was found with globus pallidus lesions at 2 weeks and 6 months following CO poisoning, that were not present on the initial day 1 MR scan. Basal ganglia lesions, including lesions of the globus pallidus, may be less common than previously reported.

  2. Classification of melanocytic skin lesions from non-melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Norton, Kerri-Ann; Celebi, M; Schaefer, Gerald; Tanaka, Masaru; Ogawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a classification method of dermoscopy images between melanocytic skin lesions (MSLs) and non-melanocytic skin lesions (NoMSLs). The motivation of this research is to develop a pre-processor of an automated melanoma screening system. Since NoMSLs have a wide variety of shapes and their border is often ambiguous, we developed a new tumor area extraction algorithm to account for these difficulties. We confirmed that this algorithm is capable of handling different dermoscopy images not only those of NoMSLs but also MSLs as well. We determined the tumor area from the image using this new algorithm, calculated a total 428 features from each image, and built a linear classifier. We found only two image features, "the skewness of bright region in the tumor along its major axis" and "the difference between the average intensity in the peripheral part of the tumor and that in the normal skin area using the blue channel" were very efficient at classifying NoMSLs and MSLs. The detection accuracy of MSLs by our classifier using only the above mentioned image feature has a sensitivity of 98.0% and a specificity of 86.6% in a set of 107 non-melanocytic and 548 melanocytic dermoscopy images using a cross-validation test.

  3. [Association of oral lesions with HIV serological status].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Amador, Velia; Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Irigoyen-Camacho, Esther; Anaya-Saavedra, Gabriela; González-Ramírez, Imelda

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of oral lesions and its association with HIV serological status. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between 1998 and 1999 in Mexico City, among 512 subjects attending two information centers of Centro Nacional para la Prevención del VIH/SIDA e ITS (CONASIDA, National Center for Prevention of HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections) for HIV serologic testing. The oral examination was performed without knowledge of the HIV status. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student's t test, Fisher's exact test and the chi 2 test; odds ratios and 95% CI were also calculated. A total of 512 individuals were examined, 68 of whom were HIV-positive. HIV-related oral lesions (OL), were evident in 65% (44/68) of the HIV-positive individuals; 95% of them consisted in oral candidosis (OC) and hairy leukoplakia (HL). OC and HL were strongly associated with seropositivity to HIV. OC and HL were the oral lesions most strongly associated to HIV seropositivity. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  4. Achilles tendon lesions in sport.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1993-09-01

    Achillodynia (Achilles tendon pain) is a significant source of disability to many people taking part in sports. Papers in the English language published since 1986 are reviewed here, grouped into specific subject areas including biomechanics, pathology, general clinical presentations, experimental treatments, steroids, podiatry and surgery. While there has been no dramatic breakthrough in the field, there have been various interesting advances with particular reference to imaging and conservative management, which will hopefully stimulate further studies. Many problems of Achilles tendon lesions in athletes remain unsolved, however, and much is yet to be done to provide adequate and generally effective methods of prevention and conservative treatment.

  5. Multiple lesion track structure model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Shinn, Judy L.

    1992-01-01

    A multilesion cell kinetic model is derived, and radiation kinetic coefficients are related to the Katz track structure model. The repair-related coefficients are determined from the delayed plating experiments of Yang et al. for the C3H10T1/2 cell system. The model agrees well with the x ray and heavy ion experiments of Yang et al. for the immediate plating, delaying plating, and fractionated exposure protocols employed by Yang. A study is made of the effects of target fragments in energetic proton exposures and of the repair-deficient target-fragment-induced lesions.

  6. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  7. Computer-aided tracking of MS lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Deborah; Gurwitz Kletenik, Devorah; Koshy, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions are known to change over time. The location, size and shape characteristics of lesions are often used to diagnose and to track disease progression. We have improved our lesion-browsing tool that allows users to automatically locate successive significant lesions in a MRI stack. In addition, an automatic alignment feature was implemented to facilitate comparisons across stacks. A lesion stack is formed that can be browsed independently or in tandem with the image windows. Lesions of interest can then be measured, rendered and rotated. Multiple windows allow the viewer to compare the size and shape of lesions from the MRI images of the same patient taken at different time intervals.

  8. Ocular lesions in free-living raptors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C J; Kern, T J; McKeever, K; McKeever, L; MacCoy, D

    1982-12-01

    In a retrospective study, records of 931 raptors admitted to the Avian Clinic at the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine and to the Owl Rehabilitation Research Foundation were evaluated to determine the prevalence, cause, and distribution of ocular lesions. Some form of ocular lesion was identified in 135 (14.5%) birds. Of these, 90% were the result of physical injury. Collisions accounted for 33% of ocular lesions; gunshot wounds accounted for 11%. Unilateral lesions were more common than bilateral lesions, with the anterior segment being most frequently involved. Hyphema was the most common clinical finding. In a prospective study involving raptors admitted to the Avian Clinic from 1980-1982, it was found that 17 of 61 birds (28%) had some form of ocular lesion. The higher prevalence in this study was attributed to a lower proportion of juvenile cases and to increased detection of subtle lesions, especially those involving the posterior segment.

  9. Ossicular chain lesions in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Albera, R; Canale, A; Piumetto, E; Lacilla, M; Dagna, F

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to describe ossicle resorption in chronic otitis with cholesteatoma and correlate it with clinical parameters such as age, contralateral ear condition, tympanic membrane aspect, cholesteatoma pathogenesis and extension, associated lesions and hearing threshold. Preoperative clinical data were collected for 140 patients with chronic otitis with cholesteatoma, whose ossicles were evaluated during surgery. 82% of patients showed ossicle resorption, with incus damage in 78% of cases. Multiple involvement was found in 45% of cases and the incus-stapes association was the most frequent. In 13 patients (11%) with ossicle damage, the ossicular chain was in continuity with a hearing threshold similar to patients without ossicular resorption. Ossicles were always damaged in congenital cholesteatoma and in case of associated lesions. Cholesteatoma extension was related to the incidence of ossicle resorption (p < 0.0001). Air and bone conduction worsened as the number of involved ossicles increased, while the air-bone gap remained stable. In conclusion, the origin and location of cholesteatoma are related to the site of ossicular damage, which is subsequent to the contact between bone and cholesteatoma. Pure-tone audiometry and air-bone gap do not reflect actual ossicular chain status. None of the other preoperative clinical parameters considered were reliable predictors of the condition of the ossicular chain.

  10. Effect of fluoride, lesion baseline severity and mineral distribution on lesion progression.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F; Butler, A; Lynch, R J M; Hara, A T

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of fluoride (F) concentration, lesion baseline severity (ΔZ(base)) and mineral distribution on lesion progression. Artificial caries lesions were created using three protocols [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC), hydroxyethylcellulose acid gel (HEC), carboxymethylcellulose acid solution (CMC)] and with low and high ΔZ(base) groups by varying demineralization times within protocols. Subsequently, lesions were immersed in a demineralizing solution for 24 h in the presence of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ppm F. Changes in mineral distribution characteristics of caries lesions were studied using transverse microradiography. At baseline, the protocols yielded lesions with three distinctly different mineral distributions. Secondary demineralization revealed differences in F response between and within lesion types. In general, lowΔZ lesions were more responsive to F than highΔZ lesions. LowΔZ MeC lesions showed the greatest range of response among all lesions, whereas highΔZ HEC lesions were almost unaffected by F. Laminations were observed in the presence of F in all but highΔZ HEC and CMC lesions. Changes in mineral distribution effected by F were most pronounced in MeC lesions, with remineralization/mineral redeposition in the original lesion body at the expense of sound enamel beyond the original lesion in a dose-response manner. Both ΔZ(base) and lesion mineral distribution directly impact the F response and the extent of secondary demineralization of caries lesions. Further studies - in situ and on natural white spot lesions - are required to better mimic in vivo caries under laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Nora's lesion, a distinct radiological entity?

    PubMed

    Dhondt, E; Oudenhoven, L; Khan, S; Kroon, H M; Hogendoorn, P C; Nieborg, A; Bloem, J L; De Schepper, A

    2006-07-01

    To describe the radiological findings of "Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation"(BPOP)-otherwise known as Nora's lesion, to describe the natural evolution of BPOP and to assess radiologically if BPOP is indeed part of a spectrum of reactive lesions including florid reactive periostitis and turret exostosis. Four experienced musculoskeletal radiologists studied plain radiographs and other imaging documents of histologically-proven Nora's lesions, looking for soft-tissue changes, periosteal reaction/calcification and calcified/ossified pseudotumours, and compared those findings with findings on pathology reviewed by a peer group of pathologists. Twenty-four Nora's lesions originating from a series of 200 consecutive, histologically-verified bone (pseudo)tumours of the hand, seen by the "Netherlands Committee on Bone Tumours" for review and second opinion. Nora's lesions have a recognised presentation on radiographs without specific MR characteristics. Natural evolution could be assessed retrospectively in four cases. Recurrent lesions were seen in seven cases and are difficult to differentiate from primary lesions. Nora's lesion, defined as a "well-marginated mass of heterotopic mineralization arising from the periosteal aspect of an intact cortex, without medullary changes" has a distinct radiological presentation and is part of a spectrum of reactive lesions which includes florid reactive periostitis and turret exostosis. As it has a distinct radiological appearance, differential diagnosis of malignant lesions such as osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma should be clear. It does not require immediate biopsy unless the natural evolution is unspecific.

  12. Parylene scaffold for cartilage lesion.

    PubMed

    Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Vangsness, Carleton Thomas; Tibone, James Eugene; Martinez, Juan Carlos; Rodger, Damien; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Tai, Yu-Chong; Brant, Rodrigo; Wu, Ling; Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Han, Bo; Evseenko, Denis; Humayun, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Evaluate parylene scaffold feasibility in cartilage lesion treatment, introducing a novel paradigm combining a reparative and superficial reconstructive procedure. Fifteen rabbits were used. All animals had both knees operated and the same osteochondral lesion model was created bilaterally. The parylene scaffold was implanted in the right knee, and the left knee of the same animal was used as control. The animals were euthanized at different time points after surgery: four animals at three weeks, three animals at six weeks, four animals at nine weeks, and four animals at 12 weeks. Specimens were analyzed by International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) macroscopic evaluation, modified Pineda histologic evaluation of cartilage repair, and collagen II immunostaining. Parylene knees were compared to its matched contra-lateral control knees of the same animal using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank. ICRS mean ± SD values for parylene versus control, three, six, nine and twelve weeks, respectively: 7.83 ± 1.85 versus 4.42 ± 1.08, p = 0.0005; 10.17 ± 1.17 versus 6.83 ± 1.17, p = 0.03; 10.89 ± 0.60 versus 7.33 ± 2.18, p = 0.007; 10.67 ± 0.78 versus 7.83 ± 3.40, p = 0.03. Modified Pineda mean ± SD values for parylene versus control, six, nine and twelve weeks, respectively: 3.37 ± 0.87 versus 6.94 ± 1.7, p < 0.0001; 5.73 ± 2.05 versus 6.41 ± 1.7, p = 0.007; 3.06 ± 1.61 versus 6.52 ± 1.51, p < 0.0001. No inflammation was seen. Parylene implanted knees demonstrated higher collagen II expression via immunostaining in comparison to the control knees. Parylene scaffolds are a feasible option for cartilage lesion treatment and the combination of a reparative to a superficial reconstructive procedure using parylene scaffolds led to better results than the reparative procedure alone.

  13. FISH and SNP-A karyotyping in myelodysplastic syndromes: improving cytogenetic detection of del(5q), monosomy 7, del(7q), trisomy 8, and del(20q)

    PubMed Central

    Makishima, Hideki; Rataul, Manjot; Gondek, Lukasz P.; Huh, Jungwon; Cook, James R.; Theil, Karl S.; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Kuczkowski, Elizabeth; O’Keefe, Christine; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2009-01-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations identified by metaphase cytogenetics (MC) have important diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic roles in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) complements MC by the ability to evaluate large numbers of both interphase and metaphase nuclei. However, clinically practical FISH strategies are limited to detection of known lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping can reveal unbalanced defects with superior resolution over MC and FISH and identify segmental uniparental disomy (UPD) undetectable by either method. Using a standardized approach, we focused our investigation on detection of -5/del(5q), -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and del(20q) in patients with MDS (N=52), MDS/myeloproliferative overlap syndromes (N=7) and acute myeloid leukemia (N=15) using MC, FISH and SNP-A karyotyping. The detection rate for del(5q) was 30%, 32% and 32% by MC, FISH, and SNP-A, respectively. No single method detected all defects, and detection rates improved when all methods were used. The rate for detection of del(5q) increased incrementally to 35% (MC+FISH), 38% (MC+SNP-A), 38% (FISH+SNP-A) and 39% (all 3 methods). Similar findings were observed for -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and -20/del(20q). We conclude that MC, FISH and SNP-A are complementary techniques that, when applied and interpreted together, can improve the diagnostic yield for identifying genetic lesions in MDS and contribute to the better description of abnormal karyotypes. PMID:19758696

  14. Congenital lung lesions: Postnatal management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Dakshesh H; Rasiah, Shree Vishna

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of lung lesion has become more accurate resulting in dilemma and controversies of its antenatal and postnatal management. Majority of antenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions are asymptomatic in the neonatal age group. Large lung lesions cause respiratory compromise and inevitably require urgent investigations and surgery. The congenital lung lesion presenting with hydrops requires careful postnatal management of lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Preoperative stabilization with gentle ventilation with permissive hypercapnia and delayed surgery similar to congenital diaphragmatic hernia management has been shown to result in good outcome. The diagnostic investigations and surgical management of the asymptomatic lung lesions remain controversial. Postnatal management and outcome of congenital cystic lung lesions are discussed.

  15. Radiologic aspects of the Galeazzi lesion.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, A; Møller, J T; Vestergård-Andersen, T

    1984-08-01

    In lesions of the forearm that included a fracture of the distal two thirds of the radial shaft, a concomitant disruption of the distal radio-ulnar joint was found in 20 out of 38 cases. In 15 cases a typical Galeazzi lesion was present. Dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint frequently goes unrecognized. The clinical significance of a lesion in the distal radio-ulnar joint is related to its prognostic value.

  16. Benign breast lesions that mimic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Torous, Vanda F; Schnitt, Stuart J; Collins, Laura C

    2017-02-01

    Many benign and reactive lesions of the breast show morphological overlap with malignant lesions. These benign mimics of malignancy often present diagnostic challenges to even the most experienced pathologists. This review focuses on several benign lesions of the breast that mimic malignant entities. For each of these lesions, we describe the key morphological and immunohistochemical features, potential diagnostic pitfalls, and our approach to arriving at the correct diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comet Lesions in Patients with Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    PubMed Central

    Tatlıpınar, Sinan; Şahan, Berna; Altunsoy, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a genetic multisystemic disorder affecting the skin, eyes and cardiovascular system. Basic fundoscopic findings in PXE result from Bruch’s membrane involvement. The most important fundoscopic findings are angioid streaks. Other significant ocular findings are peau d’orange appearance, optic disc drusen, pattern dystrophy-like macular appearance, comet lesions, and choroidal neovascularization. Comet lesions are a pathognomonic ocular finding for PXE. The presence of both angioid streaks in the fundus and typical skin lesions should alert clinicians to PXE. Herein, we present two PXE cases with comet lesions. PMID:27800246

  18. Human papillomavirus DNA in oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Lucia; Campisi, Giuseppina; Lama, Anna; Giambalvo, Ornella; Osborn, John; Margiotta, Valerio; Ammatuna, Pietro

    2002-03-15

    This study determined the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oral mucosa cells from 121 patients with different types of oral mucosal lesions (13 squamous cell carcinomas, 59 potentially malignant lesions, 49 benign erosive ulcerative lesions) and from 90 control subjects. HPV DNA was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction, and genotype was determined by DNA sequencing. HPV prevalence was 61.5% in carcinomas, 27.1% in potentially malignant lesions, 26.5% in erosive ulcerative lesions, and 5.5% in control subjects. The risk of malignant or potentially malignant lesions was associated with HPV and was statistically significant. HPV-18 was found in 86.5% of HPV-positive lesions but was not associated with a particular type of lesion and was found in 80% of the HPV-positive control subjects. HPV infection was related to older age but not to sex, smoking, or alcohol use; the presence of lesions in the oral cavity increased the risk of HPV infection.

  19. Measuring Cutaneous Lesions: Trends in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shali; Blalock, Travis W

    2017-08-30

    Knowing the size of a cutaneous lesion can be important for tracking its progression over time, selecting the proper treatment modality, surgical planning, determining prognosis, and accurate billing. However, providers vary in their consistency, accuracy, and methods of measuring cutaneous lesions. To investigate the clinical practices of US dermatologists and dermatologic surgeons regarding how they determine the size of cutaneous lesions. A survey was electronically distributed to members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. Four hundred twenty-six dermatologists completed the online survey. When a lesion is suspected to be malignant, 85% of respondents obtained exact measurements most, if not all, of the time; however, only 8% did for benign lesions. Most providers determined lesion sizes themselves rather than delegating to staff. When performing visual estimation, approximately three-quarters believed that they were accurate to within 1 to 2 mm. The top reasons for obtaining exact measurements were for tracking atypical pigmented lesions, determining treatment pathways, and accurate billing. The majority of respondents believed that lesion size affected management decisions; however, the need for exact measurement remains controversial, particularly for benign lesions. Future studies may investigate whether taking exact versus estimated measurements has an effect on outcomes.

  20. Histopathological characterization of a Cameron lesion.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jordan; Brar, Sonia; Sidhu, Jagmohan S

    2012-10-01

    Cameron lesions are linear erosions located at the neck of a hiatal hernia (HH) in patients with a large HH. The prevalence has been seen in up to 5% of patients with HH who undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and they can be associated with overt gastrointestinal bleeding or anemia. These lesions occur due to vascular compression by the diaphragm in a large sliding HH. Histopathologic changes seen in the biopsy tissue of a Cameron lesion are due to ischemia, but this ischemia is reversible with treatment of HH. The existence of this entity and the histopathologic picture of a Cameron lesion is not well known to pathologists, and therefore, a microscopic picture of a Cameron lesion can be easily confused with ischemic gastritis. Ischemic gastritis is the result of atherosclerosis, usually seen in older people, unrelated to HH, and is not easily reversible. The authors received a gastric biopsy of a hiatal hernia without any associated clinical diagnosis of a Cameron lesion conveyed to the pathologist. This biopsy tissue showed ischemic changes in the gastric mucosa on microscopic examination. Diagnosis of ischemic gastritis was considered but ruled out after the case was discussed with the gastroenterologist. The correct diagnosis was made once the clinical diagnosis of HH with Cameron lesion (ie, a vertical red erosion) was made known to the pathologist. By reporting this case, the authors aim to increase awareness of Cameron lesion among pathologists so that they ask about the presence of a Cameron lesion before making the diagnosis of ischemic gastritis.

  1. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jacob C; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a 10- to 20-fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 mm × 4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12-48 hours exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths >500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two-dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion contrast in the visible does not accurately reflect the

  2. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: Variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a ten to twenty fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Materials and Methods Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12–48 hr exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Results Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion

  3. Ibotenic acid lesions of the lateral hypothalamus: comparison with the electrolytic lesion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winn, P; Tarbuck, A; Dunnett, S B

    1984-05-01

    Rats received either ibotenic acid, electrolytic or sham lesions of the lateral hypothalamic area. Compared to sham operated rats, both lesion groups showed aphagia and adipsia following the lesion; this was less severe in the ibotenic acid lesioned rats. Once recovered, the ibotenic acid lesioned rats showed residual regulatory impairments in their compensatory responses to glucoprivation and to extracellular and intracellular dehydration. However, unlike the electrolytic lesioned rats, those with ibotenic acid lesions did not show akinesia and exhibited normal responses to both d-amphetamine and apomorphine. Ibotenic acid lesions resulted in extensive loss of cell bodies within the lateral hypothalamic area while sparing ascending dopamine neurones. The results are interpreted as suggesting that the lateral hypothalamic area and ascending dopamine neurones are components of a single system involved in the regulation of food and water intake.

  4. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected.

  5. Children's cranial lesions from Neolithic.

    PubMed

    Shbat, A; Smrcka, V

    2009-01-01

    In skeletal material from the neolithic settlement at Makotrasy, county Kladno, were analysed two children's craniums (identification numbers Ao 8218 and Ao 4184) with pathological cases. Case 1 (Object 127, Ao 8218) is the individual about 4 to 5 years old. There is oval aperture with the diameter 25 x 20 mm in the area of anthropometrical point bregma, with vertical, multiple knurled edges. Bevelled and rounded segment in the left frontal part of the aperture with diameter 10 mm is imitating healing process. We suggest this case is the trephination with the marks of the healing process in the period of 1 to 2 weeks after the surgery took over. Case 2 (Pit 25, Ao 4184) is child with age determined about 4 years old. Cranium was found buried separately. There is oval defect located at os occipitale and os parietale sin and goes through sutura lambdoidea. Caudal part of defect is missing. The edge of the defect is sharp and inward bevelled with exposed diploe. Traces of any vital reaction were not identified. Diameter is around 50 mm. Perimortal trephination leading to death, or postmortal taking of the trephinational amulet must be considered. There were several pathological lesions on the same skull. Defect of oval shape sized 8 x 12 mm is located at the os parietale dex. Defect interferes mostly with lamina externa and less with lamina interna. Exposed diploe is without any vital reaction.

  6. Iatrogenic lesions of peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Löscher, W N; Wanschitz, J; Iglseder, S; Vass, A; Grinzinger, S; Pöschl, P; Grisold, W; Ninkovic, M; Antoniadis, G; Pedro, M T; König, R; Quasthoff, S; Oder, W; Finsterer, J

    2015-11-01

    Iatrogenic nerve lesions (INLs) are an integral part of peripheral neurology and require dedicated neurologists to manage them. INLs of peripheral nerves are most frequently caused by surgery, immobilization, injections, radiation, or drugs. Early recognition and diagnosis is important not to delay appropriate therapeutic measures and to improve the outcome. Treatment can be causative or symptomatic, conservative, or surgical. Rehabilitative measures play a key role in the conservative treatment, but the point at which an INL requires surgical intervention should not be missed or delayed. This is why INLs require close multiprofessional monitoring and continuous re-evaluation of the therapeutic effect. With increasing number of surgical interventions and increasing number of drugs applied, it is quite likely that the prevalence of INLs will further increase. To provide an optimal management, more studies about the frequency of the various INLs and studies evaluating therapies need to be conducted. Management of INLs can be particularly improved if those confronted with INLs get state-of-the-art education and advanced training about INLs. Management and outcome of INLs can be further improved if the multiprofessional interplay is optimized and adapted to the needs of the patient, the healthcare system, and those responsible for sustaining medical infrastructure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  8. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  9. [Oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus vs. lichenoid lesions. Case report].

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el desarrollo de carcinoma escamocelular a partir del liquen plano bucal es controversial. Describimos un caso con carcinoma escamocelular intrabucal, que cursa con lesiones de liquen plano bucal y se analizan las dificultades para distinguir los cambios incipientes del carcinoma escamocelular de las lesiones por liquen plano intrabucales que lleven a establecer un diagnóstico certero de ambas entidades. Caso clínico: hombre de 57 años, con antecedente de tabaquismo y hábito alcohólico crónico, que presenta lesión tumoral ulcerada en borde lateral izquierdo de lengua y placas blancas reticulares bilaterales en mucosa yugal, bordes laterales y vientre de lengua. El reporte histopatológico fue de carcinoma escamocelular invasor moderadamente diferenciado y liquen plano respectivamente. Conclusiones: la naturaleza premaligna del liquen plano bucal es controvertida, esto por inconsistencia en los criterios diagnóstico clínicos e histológicos que permitan diferenciar los casos de liquen plano bucal de otras lesiones como las reacciones liquenoides o displasias intraepiteliales con alto potencial de malignización. Posiblemente las reacciones liquenoides bucales tienen un mayor riesgo de transformación maligna al compararse con el clásico liquen plano bucal.

  10. Qualitative thermograhic analysis of psoriatic skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, A; Wiecek, B; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, A; Gralewicz, G; Owczarek, G

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris affects about 2% of the human population all over the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate usefulness of thermography in estimation of psoriatic lesion activity. A series of patients with plaque type psoriasis vulgaris were included. ThermaCam INFRAMETRICS 290E thermocamera with temperature resolution of 0.1 degrees C was employed. Both visual and thermal images of the patients were taken. Clinical severity of the lesions was evaluated by Plaque Severity Score (PSS, scale 0-4). We discovered higher temperature over psoriatic plaques and further vastly expanding beyond the visually documented borders of the lesions thus not corresponding to the individual shapes of the lesions, suggested that those lesions presented an active phase of the disease (developing over the last 2-3 weeks). To the contrary, areas of the increased temperature over chronic psoriatic plaques (already developed at least 8 weeks before without signs of visible progression) corresponded quite well to the shapes of clinically visible lesions i.e. single lesions could be differentiated within the area of the increased temperature. The above observations would allow to introduce more aggressive local treatment only to the selected lesions thus as much as possible sparing the rest of them from probable side-effects.

  11. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion.

    PubMed

    Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M

    1983-01-01

    It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

  12. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review.

    PubMed

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology.

  13. Osteochondral Lesions of the Talar Dome.

    PubMed

    Stone

    1996-03-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talar dome are relatively common causes of ankle pain and disability. Trauma is the most common cause, but ischemic necrosis, en-docrine disorders, and genetic factors may have etiologic significance. Medial lesions are usually located posteriorly on the dome of the talus, whereas lateral lesions are most frequently located anteriorly. Although the staging system described by Berndt and Harty remains popular, it may not accurately reflect the integrity of the articular cartilage. Small lesions of the talar dome may be present despite a normal appearance on plain radiography. Bone scintigraphy may show increased radionuclide uptake in the talar dome. Magnetic resonance imaging is also sensitive for identifying intraosseous abnormalities in the talus and has the added benefit of revealing other types of soft-tissue lesions not visible on routine radiographic studies. Computed tomography remains the imaging technique of choice when delineation of a bone fragment is desired. Nonoperative management of osteochondral lesions, including restricted weight-bearing and/or immobilization, is recommended unless a loose fragment is clearly present. Surgical options include drilling (usually reserved for intact lesions), debridement of the lesion with curettage or abrasion of the bone bed, internal fixation of the fragment, and bone grafting. Recent technical advances allow these procedures to be performed arthroscopically, with potential reduction of surgical trauma, length of hospital stay, and complication rates.

  14. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  15. Galeazzi-equivalent lesions in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kamano, Masayuki; Honda, Yoshinobu

    2002-07-01

    Two cases of a Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in adolescence are described. Accurate diagnosis of the epiphyseal injury of the distal ulna, rigid fixation of the distal radius, and stabilization of the distal radioulnar joint are keys in obtaining a good result in the treatment of Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in adolescence.

  16. Missed Lesions at CT Colonography: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Perry J.

    2017-01-01

    Misinterpretation at CT colonography (CTC) can result in either a colorectal lesion being missed (false negative) or a false-positive diagnosis. This review will largely focus on potential missed lesions – and ways to avoid such misses. The general causes of false-negative interpretation at CTC can be broadly characterized and grouped into discrete categories related to suboptimal study technique, specific lesion characteristics, anatomic location, and imaging artifacts. Overlapping causes further increase the likelihood of missing a clinically relevant lesion. In the end, if the technical factors of bowel preparation, colonic distention, and robust CTC software are adequately addressed on a consistent basis, and the reader is aware of all the potential pitfalls at CTC, important lesions will seldom be missed. PMID:22539045

  17. Pediatric Awake Craniotomy for Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Akay, Ali; Rükşen, Mete; Çetin, H Yurday; Seval, H Özer; İşlekel, Sertaç

    2016-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is a special method to prevent motor deficits during the resection of lesions that are located in, or close to, functional areas. Although it is more commonly performed in adult patients, reports of pediatric cases undergoing awake craniotomy are limited in the literature. In our clinic, where we frequently use awake craniotomy in adult patients, we performed this method in 2 selected pediatric cases for lesion surgery. At an early age, these 2 cases diagnosed with epilepsy presented cerebral lesions, but since the lesions enclosed functional areas, surgical resection was not regarded as a treatment option at this time. In these 2 pediatric cases, we successfully completed lesion surgery with awake craniotomy. The method and the techniques employed during surgery are presented concomitant with other reports in the literature.

  18. Detection of lesions in mammographic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Arthur E.; Jacobson, Francine L.; Judy, Philip F.

    1999-05-01

    This paper is a report on very surprising results from recent work on detection of real lesions in digitized mammograms. The experiments were done using a novel experimental procedure with hybrid images. The lesions (signals) were real tumor masses extracted from breast tissue specimen radiographs. In the detection experiments, the tumors were added to digitized normal mammographic backgrounds. The results of this new work have been both novel and very surprising. Contrast thresholds increased with increasing lesion size for lesions larger than approximately 1 mm in diameter. Earlier work with white noise, radiographic image noise, computed tomography (CT) noise and some types of patient structure have accustomed us to a particular relationship between lesion size and contrast for constant detectability. All previous contrast/detail (CD) diagrams have been similar, the contrast threshold decreases as lesion size increases and flattens at large lesion sizes. The CD diagram for lesion detection in mammographic structure is completely different. It will be shown that this is a consequence of the power-law dependence of the projected breast tissue structure spectral density on spatial frequency. Mammographic tissue structure power spectra have the form P(f) equals B/f(beta ), with an average exponent of approximately 3 (range from 2 to 4), and are approximately isotropic (small angular dependence). Results for two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) signal detection experiments using 4 tumor lesions and one mathematically generated signal will be presented. These results are for an unbiased selection of mammographic backgrounds. It is possible that an additional understanding of the effects of breast structure on lesion detectability can be obtained by investigating detectability in various classes of mammographic backgrounds. This will be the subject of future research.

  19. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    PubMed

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  20. Laser eradication of pigmented lesions: a review.

    PubMed

    Polder, Kristel D; Landau, Jennifer M; Vergilis-Kalner, Irene J; Goldberg, Leonard H; Friedman, Paul M; Bruce, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, seborrheic keratoses, dermatosis papulosa nigra, ephelides, café-au-lait macules, nevus spilus, Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, nevocellular nevi, congenital nevi, junctional and compound melanocytic nevi, nevus of Ota and Ito, Hori's nevus, and blue nevi. Advances in laser technology have resulted in the ability to treat pigmented lesions with greater safety and efficacy. To review the literature on the use of cutaneous laser treatments for pigmented lesions using Medline. The literature cited the use of various lasers to treat pigmented lesions, including argon, carbon dioxide, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, Q-switched, long-pulsed ruby, alexandrite, diode, and fractional lasers. For each lesion, we describe the efficacy of laser treatments, treatment intervals, and settings used for a variety of diagnoses. The treatment of pigmented lesions continues to evolve as new laser technology emerges and improvements in existing devices are made. The ability to treat pigmented lesions with greater efficacy and safety has resulted from recent advances in laser technology. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  1. Colon Preneoplastic Lesions in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions. PMID:24526805

  2. Polypoidal Lesions in the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kumari M.K., Kalpana; K.C., Mahadeva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising from mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinuses. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and nontender. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study the histopathologic spectrum of polypoidal lesions of the nasal cavity. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 100 consecutive cases of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity, received in the department of pathology. The age and sex of the patients were recorded. The tissues were routinely processed for histopathologic sections and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stains. Special stains like Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) was done wherever applicable. The cases were classified into neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. The neoplastic lesions were further classified according to WHO classification on histopathologic examination. Results: Analysis of 100 polypoidal lesions in the nose and paranasal sinuses with clinical diagnosis of nasal polyps, revealed 66 cases were nonneoplastic and 34 were neoplastic;17 (50%)were benign and 17(50%) were malignant. True nasal polyps both inflammatory and allergic together comprised 44 cases of the 100 polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity. Angiofibroma and inverted papilloma were the most frequent benign tumour accounting for 12/17(0.7%). The most common malignant tumour was anaplastic carcinoma 7/17(0.4%). Nonneoplastic and benign tumours were common in younger age groups whereas malignant tumours were most common in older males. Conclusion: The majority of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity are nonneoplastic. PMID:23905098

  3. Diagnostic Concordance Characteristics of Oral Cavity Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Tatli, Ufuk; Erdoğan, Özgür; Uğuz, Aysun; Üstün, Yakup; Sertdemır, Yaşar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic concordance characteristics of oral cavity lesions by comparing the clinical diagnosis of the lesions with the histopathologic diagnosis. Material and Method. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the patients, who were admitted with oral cavity pathology and underwent biopsy procedure between 2007 and 2011. The oral cavity lesions were classified into 6 different groups as odontogenic cysts, nonodontogenic cysts, odontogenic tumors, nonodontogenic tumors, malignant tumors, and precancerous lesions in accordance with the 2005 WHO classification. The diagnoses were also recategorized into 3 groups expressing prognostic implications as benign, precancerous, and malignant. The initial clinical diagnoses were compared with the histopathologic diagnoses. Data were analyzed statistically. Results. A total of 2718 cases were included. Histopathologic diagnosis did not match the clinical diagnosis in 6.7% of the cases. Nonodontogenic tumors and malignant tumors had the highest misdiagnosis rates (11.5% and 9%, resp.), followed by odontogenic tumors (7.7%), precancerous lesions (6.9%), and odontogenic cysts (4.4%). Clinicians were excelled in diagnosis of benign and precancerous lesions in clinical setting. Conclusion. The detailed discordance characteristics for each specific lesion should be considered during oral pathology practice to provide early detection without delay. PMID:24453906

  4. Hepatic lesions segmentation in ultrasound nonlinear imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissi, Adelaide A.; Cormier, Stephane; Pourcelot, Leandre; Tranquart, Francois

    2005-04-01

    Doppler has been used for many years for cardiovascular exploration in order to visualize the vessels walls and anatomical or functional diseases. The use of ultrasound contrast agents makes it possible to improve ultrasonic information. Nonlinear ultrasound imaging highlights the detection of these agents within an organ and hence is a powerful technique to image perfusion of an organ in real-time. The visualization of flow and perfusion provides important information for the diagnosis of various diseases as well as for the detection of tumors. However, the images are buried in noise, the speckle, inherent in the image formation. Furthermore at portal phase, there is often an absence of clear contrast between lesions and surrounding tissues because the organ is filled with agents. In this context, we propose a new method of automatic liver lesions segmentation in nonlinear imaging sequences for the quantification of perfusion. Our method of segmentation is divided into two stages. Initially, we developed an anisotropic diffusion step which raised the structural characteristics to eliminate the speckle. Then, a fuzzy competitive clustering process allowed us to delineate liver lesions. This method has been used to detect focal hepatic lesions (metastasis, nodular hyperplasia, adenoma). Compared to medical expert"s report obtained on 15 varied lesions, the automatic segmentation allows us to identify and delineate focal liver lesions during the portal phase which high accuracy. Our results show that this method improves markedly the recognition of focal hepatic lesions and opens the way for future precise quantification of contrast enhancement.

  5. Association of Malassezia species with psoriatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Honnavar, Prasanna; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Dogra, Sunil; Singh, Pankaj; Handa, Sanjeev

    2014-08-01

    The aetiology of psoriasis remains elusive. Among multiple factors hypothesised, association of Malassezia spp. is supported by response to topical antifungals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of Malassezia spp. with psoriatic lesion. The subjects included 50 consecutive patients with psoriasis, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Samples were collected using scotch tape over one square inch area from the lesional and non-lesional sites. The isolated Malassezia spp. were identified by phenotypic methods and confirmed by ITS2 PCR-RFLP and sequencing of D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Psoriatic lesions were seen commonly on scalp (28%, 14), chest (22%, 11) and arms (16%, 8). Majority of cases presented with chronic plaque form (76%, 38; P < 0.05). From psoriatic lesions, most frequently isolated Malassezia species was M. furfur (70.6%, 24), followed by M. japonica (11.8%, 4) and M. globosa (8.8%, 3). From healthy individuals M. furfur, M. sympodialis, mixture of M. furfur and M. globosa was isolated in 73.3%, 10% and 16.7% (22, 3 and 5) of cases respectively. The average number of colonies isolated from scalp lesions of the patients was significantly higher (P = 0.03) than healthy areas. Although no strong association of Malassezia species was formed with psoriatic lesion in general, the fungi may play a role in exacerbation of scalp psoriasis.

  6. Characterizing lesions in corals from American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of coral disease has suffered from an absence of systematic approaches that are commonly used to determine causes of diseases in animals. There is a critical need to develop a standardized and portable nomenclature for coral lesions in the field and to incorporate more commonly available biomedical tools in coral disease surveys to determine the potential causes of lesions in corals. We characterized lesions in corals from American Samoa based on gross and microscopic morphology and classified them as discoloration, growth anomalies, or tissue loss. The most common microscopic finding in corals manifesting discoloration was the depletion of zooxanthellae, followed by necrosis, sometimes associated with invasive algae or fungi. The most common microscopic lesion in corals manifesting tissue loss was cell necrosis often associated with algae, fungi, or protozoa. Corals with growth anomaly had microscopic evidence of hyperplasia of gastrovascular canals, followed by necrosis associated with algae or metazoa (polychaete worms). Several species of apparently normal corals also had microscopic changes, including the presence of bacterial aggregates or crustacea in tissues. A single type of gross lesion (e.g., discoloration) could have different microscopic manifestations. This phenomenon underlines the importance of using microscopy to provide a more systematic description of coral lesions and to detect potential pathogens associated with these lesions.

  7. Sampling probability distributions of lesions in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, P.; Warren, L. M.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2015-03-01

    One approach to image perception studies in mammography using virtual clinical trials involves the insertion of simulated lesions into normal mammograms. To facilitate this, a method has been developed that allows for sampling of lesion positions across the cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographic projections in accordance with measured distributions of real lesion locations. 6825 mammograms from our mammography image database were segmented to find the breast outline. The outlines were averaged and smoothed to produce an average outline for each laterality and radiographic projection. Lesions in 3304 mammograms with malignant findings were mapped on to a standardised breast image corresponding to the average breast outline using piecewise affine transforms. A four dimensional probability distribution function was found from the lesion locations in the cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographic projections for calcification and noncalcification lesions. Lesion locations sampled from this probability distribution function were mapped on to individual mammograms using a piecewise affine transform which transforms the average outline to the outline of the breast in the mammogram. The four dimensional probability distribution function was validated by comparing it to the two dimensional distributions found by considering each radiographic projection and laterality independently. The correlation of the location of the lesions sampled from the four dimensional probability distribution function across radiographic projections was shown to match the correlation of the locations of the original mapped lesion locations. The current system has been implemented as a web-service on a server using the Python Django framework. The server performs the sampling, performs the mapping and returns the results in a javascript object notation format.

  8. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Ashouri, Anousheh; Kaufman, Galen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17) received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Group 2 (n = 12) only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested. PMID:27096015

  9. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.

  10. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions. PMID:19570281

  11. The Horizon for Treating Cutaneous Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Amit M.; Chou, Elizabeth L.; Findeiss, Laura; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Dermatologists encounter a wide range of cutaneous vascular lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, port-wine stain birthmarks, arteriovenous malformations, venous malformations, Kaposi sarcomas, angiosarcomas, and angiofibromas. Current treatment modalities to reduce these lesions include topical and/or intralesional steroids, laser therapy, surgical resection, and endovascular therapy. However, each method has limitations owing to recurrence, comorbidities, toxicity, or lesion location. Photodynamic therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and evolving methods of sclerotherapy are promising areas of development that may mitigate limitations of current treatments and offer exciting options for patients and their physicians. PMID:22640429

  12. [Precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach].

    PubMed

    Falt, P; Hanousek, M; Kundrátová, E; Urban, O

    2013-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is a common malignant disease associated with an unfavorable prognosis in the case of late dia-gnosis. The most significant precancerous condition is chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. These longlasting changes may lead to formation of dysplastic precancerous lesions. Upper endoscopy and histologic examination of forceps bio-psy specimens play a key role in the dia-gnosis of gastric precancerous conditions and lesions. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and endoscopic surveillance are main therapeutic modalities of gastric precancerous conditions. Localized precancerous lesions and early gastric neoplasia without the risk of lymphatic spread could be cured by means of endoscopic resection techniques.

  13. The horizon for treating cutaneous vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amit M; Chou, Elizabeth L; Findeiss, Laura; Kelly, Kristen M

    2012-06-01

    Dermatologists encounter a wide range of cutaneous vascular lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, port-wine stain birthmarks, arteriovenous malformations, venous malformations, Kaposi sarcomas, angiosarcomas, and angiofibromas. Current treatment modalities to reduce these lesions include topical and/or intralesional steroids, laser therapy, surgical resection, and endovascular therapy. However, each method has limitations owing to recurrence, comorbidities, toxicity, or lesion location. Photodynamic therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and evolving methods of sclerotherapy are promising areas of development that may mitigate limitations of current treatments and offer exciting options for patients and their physicians.

  14. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed.

  15. [Bile duct lesions repaired with peritoneal tube grafts].

    PubMed

    Lorenzana-Bautista, Ileana; Flores-Plascencia, Aníbal; Barrios-Pineda, Francisco Javier; Alderete-Vázquez, Georgia; Sánchez-Valdivieso, Enrique Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: un número significativo de individuos sufrirá daño por iatrogenia del colédoco durante colecistectomías laparoscópicas. Las derivaciones bilio-digestivas pueden complicarse con estenosis y sepsis biliar y afectar la calidad y expectativa de vida. Para evitar la derivación se utilizan injertos sintéticos. Objetivo: evaluar el implante autólogo de peritoneo en la reparación de colédoco. Material y métodos: estudio experimental efectuado en 10 conejos Nueva Zelanda adultos a los que se les resecó un segmento del colédoco y para la reparación término-terminal de la vía biliar se construyó un neo-conducto con peritoneo parietal como auto-injerto. Se vigilaron con ontroles semanales de bilirrubinas y transaminasas. A la necropsia programada se estudió el segmento injertado, se realizó biopsia epática durante el procedimiento y la autopsia. Resultados: los animales no mostraron alteraciones en sus hábitos normales, la herida quirúrgica no tuvo complicaciones, no cursaron con ictericia y a la necropsia el segmento injertado se apreció totalmente integrado. En dos animales hubo como complicación un bilioma y un absceso hepático. El daño hepático observado inicialmente fue disminuyendo a lo largo del seguimiento. Discusión: nuestros resultados se equiparan con ventaja con los métodos conocidos de reparación de vías biliares, especialmente en lesiones severas (Bismuth-Strasberg E1-3). Adolece de las complicaciones de las derivaciones bilio-digestivas, no es caro como los injertos intéticos y es de mucho más fácil construcción que el injerto de amnios humano. Conclusiones: el auto-injerto de peritoneo es un procedimiento adecuado como alternativa para tratar lesiones circunferenciales de colédoco.

  16. [Lesions of the oral mucosa. Epidemiological study of 7,297 patients].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Guzmán, L; Castellanos, J L

    1991-01-01

    To our Knowledge, this is the first work in a number population (higher than 500 sample WHO) that is carried out in our country about lesions in the Oral Mucosa. The advantages in this Kind of studies are recognized particularly in the fields of academic, research and services. This work presents the first view of a permanent research project of Oral Mucosa Lesions at the admission clinic, School of Dentistry, Universidad del Bajío. The findings are from the evaluation of 7,297 patients, 15 years or older, that seek dental services between January 1982 and June 1989 (7.5 years). The lack of national data and the oldest population samples in other countries studies stopped wider evaluations, even though the study purpose was not affected, it was possible to offer qualitative data in the respect of prevalecence, variety and etiopathogenesis of those type of pathosis in the Oral Mucosa. The general prevalecence in the group was approximately 13%, identifying lesions more frequently in males, but higher variety in females. Report on 40 different entities, presented in general according to a descent order of prevalencece and reagrouped by sex and pathology. In half the lesions was possible to identify as the cause, acute and cronic traumatic agents; The infectious associations were also very frequent. Those last observations are of high relevance concerning the prevention of Oral Mucosa lesions.

  17. Is the morphology and activity of the occlusal carious lesion related to the lesion progression stage?

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline Almeida; Vargas, Daniel Otero Amaral; Santos, Thais Maria Pires; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between degree of dentin demineralization with both lesion activity and morphology of the occlusal carious cavity. Occlusal sites (n=138) were identified by visual examination (Nyvad's scores 0-6) in 67 extracted teeth which were scanned in a high energy micro-CT. After 3D reconstruction, each stack was resliced in the mesio-distal direction and tooth mineral density (MD) was measured along a path from enamel to the deepest part of dentin in the slice showing the most severe carious involvement. Each site was classified in "open" or "closed" (if cavitated) depending on the morphology of the surrounding enamel walls as measured using micro-CT and as active or inactive in enamel or dentin by a clinical scoring system. Lesions showing dentin cavitation presented higher demineralization degree compared to non-cavitated, or enamel cavitated lesions. Inactive lesions presented lower demineralization degree compared to active lesions, although with a low effect size. According to the morphological aspect of the carious cavity, open enamel lesions showed lower dentin demineralization degree than closed lesion environments. Active lesions showed higher dentin demineralization degree than inactive ones, while lesions showing closed cavitation resulted in higher dentin demineralization degree only for enamel lesions. Including those parameters in treatment decisions may help to improve prognosis and increase effectiveness of the caries diagnostic systems in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural course of keratoacanthoma and related lesions after partial biopsy: clinical analysis of 66 lesions.

    PubMed

    Takai, Toshihiro; Misago, Noriyuki; Murata, Yozo

    2015-04-01

    There is some confusion regarding the classification of keratoacanthoma (KA) and related lesions that have crateriform architecture. We examined the clinical courses of 66 KA lesions and related lesions after a partial biopsy to clarify the nosological concept of KA. We histopathologically classified these lesions into five types: (i) KA at various stages (53 lesions); (ii) KA-like squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (3 lesions); (iii) KA with malignant transformation (3 lesions); (iv) infundibular SCC (5 lesions); and (v) crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis (2 lesions). We analyzed the clinical course in each group. The regression rate of KA was 98.1% and that of KA-like SCC/KA with malignant transformation was 33.3%. No regression was observed in either infundibular SCC or crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis. Thus, KA is a distinct entity that should be distinguished from other types of SCC with crateriform architecture based on the high frequency of regression. The regression rate of 33.3% in KA-like SCC/KA with malignant transformation indicated that KA lesions with an SCC component still have the potential for regression. However, this result also indicated that KA is biologically unstable, and some KA tend to evolve into conventional SCC with a gradual loss of the capacity for the spontaneous regression. Infundibular SCC and crateriform SCC arising from solar keratosis are fundamentally different from KA, not only according to the histopathological findings but also based on the biological properties. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Endoscopic management of adenomatous ampullary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the ampulla of Vater represent an uncommon group of gastrointestinal malignancies. The majority of lesions of the ampulla of Vater are either adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Ampullary lesions are often incidental findings. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging of ampullary tumors is imperative for predicting prognosis and determining the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Endoscopic ampullectomy is a safe and efficacious therapeutic procedure that can obviate the need for potentially major surgical intervention. This review will provide the framework for the diagnosis and management of ampullary lesions from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist. Strategies for safe and successful endoscopic ampullectomy with a focus on accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging, resection technique, and management of complications are presented. PMID:26413485

  20. Placental hypoxia: the lesions of maternal malperfusion.

    PubMed

    Parks, W Tony

    2015-02-01

    The placental lesions classically ascribed to placental hypoxia, here denoted maternal malperfusion (MMP), are among the more significant that a placental pathologist may encounter. Yet the appearance of these lesions may be subtle, and the clinical implication of their diagnosis is frequently unclear. The aim of this review is to provide a more nuanced perspective on the clinical utility of placental pathology for the detection of MMP. The review will first detail MMP lesions in the placenta and discuss their associations with pregnancy complications. The review will then delve into the diagnostic and interpretive difficulties of these lesions. Finally, recent research findings that may aid in the development of better diagnostic tools will be briefly discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute bony bankart lesion and surgical fixation.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Michael D; Provencher, Matthew T

    2009-10-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a traumatic left anterior shoulder dislocation. After self-reducing the first time, as well as in subsequent repeated dislocations over the following 2-day period, the patient reported his injury to the medical staff, who sent him to the physical therapist for evaluation. Anterior-posterior, scapular outlet, and axillary radiographic views demonstrated a bony glenoid lesion consistent with a bony Bankart lesion, which was best seen on the scapular outlet view. A 3-dimensional computed tomography scan was performed to assess the size and displacement of the bony Bankart lesion. Six days following injury, the patient underwent operative fixation of the bony Bankart lesion. Following surgery, the patient completed 5 months of physical therapy and subsequently returned to high-demand upper body activities. At 3 years following surgery, the patient reported full functional ability without shoulder instability or pain.

  2. Fractal analysis of tumoral lesions in brain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Landrove, Miguel; Pereira, Demian; Caldeira, María E; Itriago, Salvador; Juliac, María

    2007-01-01

    In this work, it is proposed a method for supervised characterization and classification of tumoral lesions in brain, based on the analysis of irregularities at the lesion contour on T2-weighted MR images. After the choice of a specific image, a segmentation procedure with a threshold selected from the histogram of intensity levels is applied to isolate the lesion, the contour is detected through the application of a gradient operator followed by a conversion to a "time series" using a chain code procedure. The correlation dimension is calculated and analyzed to discriminate between normal or malignant structures. The results found showed that it is possible to detect a differentiation between benign (cysts) and malignant (gliomas) lesions suggesting the potential of this method as a diagnostic tool.

  3. Oral mucosa lesions in Mazahua Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Banderas, J A; Toshikasu, O; González, M

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiologic data on oral lesions in native Indians remain unknown in many countries around the world. This paper reports the prevalence and distribution of oral congenital anomalies and pathologic lesions found in a survey of 107 schoolchildren (ages 12 to 17), from two isolated communities in the ethnographic Mazahua area in the State of Mexico. The main entities identified were: pigmented lesions (47.6%), lingual anomalies (17.4%) and developmental tooth alterations (6.9%). The remaining 24.4% of the lesions were gingival inflammatory hyperplasia, partial ankilosis of the tongue, lichen planus, focal epithelial hyperplasia and the double lip. The most frequent localization was lips and tongue. These findings suggest the high prevalence of oral anomalies in this Indian population. Therefore, we suggest that health programs should emphasize the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these pathologies in Indians groups.

  4. Polypoid uterine lesions mimicking endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    McCluggage, W G; Alderdice, J M; Walsh, M Y

    1999-01-01

    Two polypoid submucosal uterine lesions were examined histologically and immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies to desmin and alpha smooth muscle actin. One case comprised a leiomyoma and the other a polypoid form of adenomyosis. Both polyps had prolapsed through the external cervical os. The lesions had an ulcerated surface with focal areas of marked increased cellularity and pronounced vascularity throughout, such that they mimicked a low grade endometrial stromal sarcoma infiltrating the myometrium. The cellular areas showed diffuse positivity for desmin and alpha smooth muscle actin, confirming them to be of smooth muscle origin. The changes of marked hypercellularity and pronounced vascularity within polypoid submucosal uterine lesions have not been emphasised in published reports up to now. Pathologists should be aware of these morphological features in order to avoid misdiagnosis of such cases as endometrial stromal sarcomas. The changes described here are likely to be secondary to trauma associated with a polypoid lesion prolapsing through the external cervical os. Images PMID:10605413

  5. Atherectomy in complex infrainguinal lesions: a review.

    PubMed

    Engelberger, S; van den Berg, J C

    2015-02-01

    In the femoropopliteal segment, endovascular revascularization techniques have gained the role as a first line treatment strategy. Nitinol stent placement has improved the short- and mid-term primary patency rates in most lesion types and is therefore widely applied. Stenting has several shortcomings as in-stent restenosis, stent fractures and foreign material being left behind in the vessel. The concept of atherectomy is plaque debulking. This results in a potential reduction of inflation pressure requirements in angioplasty. Stent placement and consecutive in-stent restenosis may be avoided. In this non systematic literature review, the performance of different atherectomy techniques, such as direct atherectomy, orbital atherectomy, laser debulking and rotational atherectomy in the treatment of complex femoropopliteal lesions, including long lesions, moderately to heavily calcified lesions as well as occlusions and in-stent restenosis, has been analyzed.

  6. Longitudinal multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation data resource.

    PubMed

    Carass, Aaron; Roy, Snehashis; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Magrath, Elizabeth; Gherman, Adrian; Button, Julia; Nguyen, James; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Calabresi, Peter A; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Ellingsen, Lotta M; Reich, Daniel S; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L

    2017-06-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled "Longitudinal multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation: Resource and challenge" (Carass et al., 2017) [1]. In conjunction with the 2015 International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, we organized a longitudinal multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation challenge providing training and test data to registered participants. The training data consists of five subjects with a mean of 4.4 (±0.55) time-points, and test data of fourteen subjects with a mean of 4.4 (±0.67) time-points. All 82 data sets had the white matter lesions associated with multiple sclerosis delineated by two human expert raters. The training data including multi-modal scans and manually delineated lesion masks is available for download. In addition, the testing data is also being made available in conjunction with a website for evaluating the automated analysis of the testing data.

  7. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology. PMID:27828637

  8. Medial septal lesion enhances general anesthesia response.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Stan; Ma, Jingyi; Shen, Bixia; Nachim, Ilan; Luo, Tao

    2013-09-01

    Electrolytic lesion of the medial septum, a basal forebrain nucleus that projects to the hippocampus, prolonged the emergence from general anesthesia in rats. Septal lesioned rats required a longer time to recover from a loss of righting reflex (LORR) and a loss of tail-pinch response after injectable (20 mg/kg i.p. pentobarbital, 5mg/kg i.v. propofol) or volatile (1.5% halothane, 2% isoflurane) anesthetic. When incremental doses of propofol were given i.p., septal lesioned rats as compared to control rats showed LORR at a lower dose of propofol. Similarly, when the rats were exposed to increasing concentrations of isoflurane, the percent of rats showing LORR was leftward shifted for lesioned rats as compared to control rats. Septal lesioned rats as compared to control rats showed decreased locomotor activity when exposed to 1.5% halothane. Lesion of the medial septum was confirmed by thionin-stained histological sections as well as loss of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) staining in the hippocampus, indicating a depletion of septohippocampal cholinergic afferents. Medial septal lesion resulted in a near complete loss of hippocampal theta rhythm during walking and a general decrease in power of the hippocampal EEG at all frequencies (0-100 Hz), during walking or immobility. It is concluded that lesion of medial septum, in part through a loss of septohippocampal cholinergic afferents, increased the anesthesia response to volatile and injectable general anesthetics, during both induction and emergence. It is suggested that the septohippocampal system participates in many components of general anesthesia including hypnosis, immobility, and analgesia.

  9. [Osteoporosis associated with spinal cord lesion].

    PubMed

    Miladinović, Ksenija; Vavra-Hadziahmetović, Narcisa; Muftić, Mirsad; Sakota, Slavica

    2007-01-01

    One of the complications caused by spinal lesion is osteoporosis which development is induced by lesion itself, and its mechanism is not explained enough. Risk factor of this kind of osteoporosis is fracture which management is difficult and is cause of further complications which aggravate already damaged quality of life of patients with spinal cord injury, and demand additional health insurance expenses. Importance of prevention and treatment of spinal cord injury induced osteoporosis is enlightened by case report.

  10. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Pelayes, David; Diaz, María L; Lago, Nestor R; Fariña, Silvia L; Monserrat, Alberto J; Zarate, Jorge O

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001, CI 95%: 0.48-0.86); ocular lesion and creatinine (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001, Cl 95%: 0.72-0.93) and ocular lesion and urea (r = 0.70, p < 0.0001, Cl 95%: 0.44-0.85) were positive. Choline-deficiency induces ocular haemorrhagic lesions after the development of renal necrosis. The ocular pathology could be due to the immaturity of the ocular vasculature at this age. The hyaloid, choroid and retinal system are involved.

  11. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted. PMID:25114392

  12. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  13. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  14. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  15. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  18. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  19. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  20. Texture feature based liver lesion classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doron, Yeela; Mayer-Wolf, Nitzan; Diamant, Idit; Greenspan, Hayit

    2014-03-01

    Liver lesion classification is a difficult clinical task. Computerized analysis can support clinical workflow by enabling more objective and reproducible evaluation. In this paper, we evaluate the contribution of several types of texture features for a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system which automatically classifies liver lesions from CT images. Based on the assumption that liver lesions of various classes differ in their texture characteristics, a variety of texture features were examined as lesion descriptors. Although texture features are often used for this task, there is currently a lack of detailed research focusing on the comparison across different texture features, or their combinations, on a given dataset. In this work we investigated the performance of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Local Binary Patterns (LBP), Gabor, gray level intensity values and Gabor-based LBP (GLBP), where the features are obtained from a given lesion`s region of interest (ROI). For the classification module, SVM and KNN classifiers were examined. Using a single type of texture feature, best result of 91% accuracy, was obtained with Gabor filtering and SVM classification. Combination of Gabor, LBP and Intensity features improved the results to a final accuracy of 97%.

  1. Renal lesions in cetaceans from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Ruoppolo, V; Marigo, J; Carvalho, V L; Groch, K R; Bertozzi, C P; Takakura, C; Namiyama, G; Vanstreels, R E T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of Brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. The animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. Kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. Due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 animals, of which 82 (64.1%) had kidney lesions. Cystic renal disease was the most common lesion observed in 34 cases (26.6%) and these were classified as simple cysts in eight cases (6.3%), polycystic kidney disease in one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), secondary glomerulocystic disease in 16 cases (12.5%) and primary glomerulocystic disease in nine cases (7%). Other lesions included membranous glomerulonephritis (28 cases; 21.9%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (20 cases; 15.6%), lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis (21 cases; 16.4%), lipidosis (19 cases; 14.8%), glomerulosclerosis (8 cases; 6.3%) and pyogranulomatous nephritis(five cases; 3.9%); two of the later were associated with the migration of nematode larvae. Additionally, tubular adenoma was identified in a Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei). The pathological implications of these lesions are discussed according the cause of death, age or sex of the animals. Furthermore, the lesions were compared with those of other marine and terrestrial mammals, including man.

  2. Reduplicative paramnesia after a right frontal lesion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Koomi; Shinbo, Michiko; Kanai, Hinako; Nagumo, Yumi

    2011-03-01

    To report a case of reduplicative paramnesia after a focal lesion localized in the right frontal subcortical region. It is suggested that a right frontal subcortical lesion alone may be sufficient to cause cognitive disturbance that can develop into reduplicative paramnesia. Clinical data have been scarce. We describe the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroradiologic findings of a 69-year-old man with reduplicative paramnesia after a right frontal subcortical lesion. Observation and neuropsychological study showed visuospatial impairment, visual-dominant memory disturbance, anosognosia for cognitive disturbance, and mild frontal dysfunction with paranoid personality. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study showed a lesion localized in the right inferior posterior frontal subcortical area, and we could define 5 neural pathways involved with the lesion. We supposed that 4 of these were potentially related to reduplicative paramnesia: the medial inferior component of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the fronto-occipital fasciculus, which are related to visuospatial processing; the anterior thalamic radiation, which is concerned with memory processes; and the uncinate fasciculus, which may be related to abnormal feelings of hyperfamiliarity. A localized lesion in the right inferior posterior frontal subcortical area can cause cognitive dysfunction that may develop into reduplicative paramnesia. Paranoid personality and the change of the patient's hospital room might have triggered the reduplicative delusion in this case.

  3. Inter-algorithm lesion volumetry comparison of real and 3D simulated lung lesions in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Hoye, Jocelyn; Smith, Taylor; Ebner, Lukas; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish volumetric exchangeability between real and computational lung lesions in CT. We compared the overall relative volume estimation performance of segmentation tools when used to measure real lesions in actual patient CT images and computational lesions virtually inserted into the same patient images (i.e., hybrid datasets). Pathologically confirmed malignancies from 30 thoracic patient cases from Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) were modeled and used as the basis for the comparison. Lesions included isolated nodules as well as those attached to the pleura or other lung structures. Patient images were acquired using a 16 detector row or 64 detector row CT scanner (Lightspeed 16 or VCT; GE Healthcare). Scans were acquired using standard chest protocols during a single breath-hold. Virtual 3D lesion models based on real lesions were developed in Duke Lesion Tool (Duke University), and inserted using a validated image-domain insertion program. Nodule volumes were estimated using multiple commercial segmentation tools (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc., Syngo.via, Siemens Healthcare, and IntelliSpace, Philips Healthcare). Consensus based volume comparison showed consistent trends in volume measurement between real and virtual lesions across all software. The average percent bias (+/- standard error) shows -9.2+/-3.2% for real lesions versus -6.7+/-1.2% for virtual lesions with tool A, 3.9+/-2.5% and 5.0+/-0.9% for tool B, and 5.3+/-2.3% and 1.8+/-0.8% for tool C, respectively. Virtual lesion volumes were statistically similar to those of real lesions (< 4% difference) with p >.05 in most cases. Results suggest that hybrid datasets had similar inter-algorithm variability compared to real datasets.

  4. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    PubMed

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  5. Max brödel: illustrating healed valve ring abscesses.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Thomas, Caroline Bedell; Hutchins, Grover M

    2005-09-01

    A 14-year-old adolescent girl presented with severe congestive heart failure, progressive throughout 3 months. A precordial thrill, machinery-like murmur, and right bundle branch block were noted. Death occurred despite digitalis and diuretic therapy and removal of pleural and ascitic fluid. The autopsy revealed 2 multilocular cystic structures in the interventricular septum consistent with being spontaneously drained valve ring abscesses. One of these lesions formed a fistulous communication that penetrated through the interventricular septum between the right aortic sinus of Valsalva and the crista supraventricularis that connected to the right ventricle. Another lesion, an adjacent separate but similar cystlike structure, communicated only with the left ventricular cavity. Although the cause of these lesions is uncertain, it seems probable that they are the residue of spontaneously drained and healed valve ring abscesses. Max Brödel, a medical illustrator and the first director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at The Johns Hopkins University, drew previously unpublished figures of this patient's cardiac lesions. These illustrations exhibit Brödel's superb command of both art and medicine essential to his ability to make complex anatomic relationships demonstrable. We discuss Brödel's career and his influence on both the art and science of medicine.

  6. Abfraction lesions: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Dilbone, Deborah A; Pereira, Patricia NR; Duarte, Wagner R; Geraldeli, Saulo; Delgado, Alex J

    2016-01-01

    Abfraction is a type of noncarious cervical lesion (NCCL) characterized by loss of tooth tissues with different clinical appearances. Evidence supports that abfraction lesions, as any NCCLs, have a multifactorial etiology. Particularly, the cervical wear of abfraction can occur as a result of normal and abnormal tooth function and may also be accompanied by pathological wear, such as abrasion and erosion. The interaction between chemical, biological, and behavioral factors is critical and helps to explain why some individuals exhibit more than one type of cervical wear mechanism than others. In an era of personalized dentistry, patient risk factors for NCCLs must be identified and addressed before any treatment is performed. Marked variations exist in dental practice concerning the diagnosis and management of these lesions. The lack of understanding about the prognosis of these lesions with or without intervention may be a major contributor to variations in dentists’ management decisions. This review focuses on the current knowledge and available treatment strategies for abfraction lesions. By recognizing that progressive changes in the cervical area of the tooth are part of a physiologically dynamic process that occurs with aging, premature and unnecessary intervention can be avoided. In cases of asymptomatic teeth, where tooth vitality and function are not compromised, abfraction lesions should be monitored for at least 6 months before any invasive procedure is planned. In cases of abfraction associated with gingival recession, a combined restorative-surgical approach may be performed. Restorative intervention and occlusal adjustment are not indicated as treatment options to prevent further tooth loss or progression of abfraction. The clinical decision to restore abfraction lesions may be based on the need to replace form and function or to relieve hypersensitivity of severely compromised teeth or for esthetic reasons. PMID:27217799

  7. Abfraction lesions: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Dilbone, Deborah A; Pereira, Patricia Nr; Duarte, Wagner R; Geraldeli, Saulo; Delgado, Alex J

    2016-01-01

    Abfraction is a type of noncarious cervical lesion (NCCL) characterized by loss of tooth tissues with different clinical appearances. Evidence supports that abfraction lesions, as any NCCLs, have a multifactorial etiology. Particularly, the cervical wear of abfraction can occur as a result of normal and abnormal tooth function and may also be accompanied by pathological wear, such as abrasion and erosion. The interaction between chemical, biological, and behavioral factors is critical and helps to explain why some individuals exhibit more than one type of cervical wear mechanism than others. In an era of personalized dentistry, patient risk factors for NCCLs must be identified and addressed before any treatment is performed. Marked variations exist in dental practice concerning the diagnosis and management of these lesions. The lack of understanding about the prognosis of these lesions with or without intervention may be a major contributor to variations in dentists' management decisions. This review focuses on the current knowledge and available treatment strategies for abfraction lesions. By recognizing that progressive changes in the cervical area of the tooth are part of a physiologically dynamic process that occurs with aging, premature and unnecessary intervention can be avoided. In cases of asymptomatic teeth, where tooth vitality and function are not compromised, abfraction lesions should be monitored for at least 6 months before any invasive procedure is planned. In cases of abfraction associated with gingival recession, a combined restorative-surgical approach may be performed. Restorative intervention and occlusal adjustment are not indicated as treatment options to prevent further tooth loss or progression of abfraction. The clinical decision to restore abfraction lesions may be based on the need to replace form and function or to relieve hypersensitivity of severely compromised teeth or for esthetic reasons.

  8. Renal vascular lesions in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Descombes, E; Droz, D; Drouet, L; Grünfeld, J P; Lesavre, P

    1997-09-01

    We retrospectively studied the prevalence, histologic features, clinical correlations, and long-term outcome of the intrarenal vascular lesions of lupus nephritis (LN) in a series of 169 renal biopsies performed between 1980 and 1994 in 132 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The most common vascular lesions were nonspecific sclerotic changes, found in 37% of the biopsies (24% if only the cases with moderate to severe changes are considered). The other common vascular lesions were "immunoglobulin microvascular casts," found in 24% of the biopsies. Vasculitis and thrombotic microangiopathy were rare lesions and were seen in only 4 (2.4%) and 1 (0.6%) cases, respectively. Isolated sclerotic vascular changes were present in biopsies from older patients with a longer duration of LN, compared with the group with no vascular lesions, and were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension. Overall, however, the long-term renal and patient survival of this group did not differ significantly from that of the patients without vascular changes. Immunoglobulin microvascular casts (IMCs) ("lupus vasculopathy") were characterized by the presence of immunoglobulin deposition within the glomerular capillaries and small arterioles. In the present study we extensively investigated the morphologic and immunologic features of this lesion. The lesions were notable for the absence of endothelial or parietal vascular lesions and of fibrin, platelets, and leukocytes, which indicates that thrombosis is not involved in the vascular obstruction. According to our data immunoglobulin precipitation in the microvasculature seems to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this lesion, which is why we propose the term "immunoglobulin microvascular casts." In general, IMCs were associated with the most severe and active forms of diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (World Health Organization [WHO] class IV). However our data show that, in contrast to previous studies

  9. Search field size and lesion detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipnis, Sameer; Huda, Walter; Hardie, Andrew; Ogden, Kent

    2010-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the ability of an observer to identify abnormal foci on CT and how that ability is affected by changing the search field size from a whole abdomen to the liver region alone. A 2-Alternate Forced Choice (2 AFC) experimental paradigm was used to quantify observer detection performance. Each AFC experiment yielded the intensity needed to achieve 92% accuracy in lesion detection (I92%). Abdominal images were obtained at an x-ray tube voltage of 120 kV with a CTDIvol of 20 mGy. Circular lesions were generated by projecting spheres onto the image plane, followed by blurring function. Five lesion sizes (5 mm, 7 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 15 mm), and four readers who were extensively trained in AFC methodology, were used in the 2AFC experiments. Each experiment was repeated 4 times to improve the experimental precision, as well as to provide an estimate of experimental uncertainty. For each observer, the experimental order of the 40 experiments was randomized to eliminate learning curve and/or observer fatigue. We measured contrast detail slopes for both Abdomen and Liver search field size, and determined ratio of I92% value for Abdomen search field to the corresponding I92% for the Liver search field (i.e., Rabd:liv). Values of Rabd:liv provides quantitative indicator of the relative difficulty of detection lesions in the whole Abdomen relative to lesion detection restricted to the Liver. The slope of the contrast detail curve for the Abdomen search field was -0.03, whereas the corresponding slope for the Liver search field was -0.18. Rabd:liv ranged between 1.3 and 1.6, with an average of 1.4 +/- 0.1. The value of Rabd:liv monotonically increased from 1.35 for 5 mm lesions to nearly 1.6 for the largest 15 mm lesion. The results of our study indicate that limiting the area of search to the liver on a CT of the abdomen improves the detection of mass lesions. This finding is almost certainly related to the fact that the liver provides a relatively

  10. Classification of structural lesions in magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical implications in drug-resistant epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Torres, C V; Pastor, J; Garcia-Navarrete, E; Pulido-Rivas, P; Sola, R G

    2015-09-16

    Introduccion. En la seleccion quirurgica del paciente con epilepsia farmacorresistente, el papel de la resonancia magnetica (RM) no se ha cuantificado hasta el momento. Presentamos la experiencia en nuestra Unidad de Cirugia de la Epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los pacientes intervenidos por epilepsia farmacorresistente. Distinguimos dos periodos: 1990-2000 (RM de 0,5 T) y 2001-2008 (RM de 1,5 T). La RM preoperatoria se clasifico en tres grupos: RM con lesion quirurgica (LQ), RM orientativa (LO) y RM normal (NL). Tambien se efectuo una clasificacion anatomopatologica similar. Se correlacionaron las distintas clasificaciones y los resultados quirurgicos. Resultados. Periodo 1990-2000: 151 pacientes. El 70% quedo en las clases de Engel I o II. Segun la RM, los resultados fueron: LQ, 87%; LO, 65%; y NL, 57%. Las diferencias fueron estadisticamente significativas. Periodo 2001-2008: 114 pacientes. El 89% quedo en las clases de Engel I o II. Segun la RM: LQ, 100%; LO, 90%; y NL, 81%. Las diferencias fueron estadisticamente significativas. Los pacientes con epilepsia del lobulo temporal y extratemporal con LQ tuvieron un 100% de control; con LO, el 95% con epilepsia del lobulo temporal y el 43% con estado epileptico; en aquellos pacientes sin lesion (NL), el 88% con epilepsia del lobulo temporal se controlo frente al 50% con estado epileptico. Conclusiones. La RM es una herramienta eficaz en la seleccion de candidatos quirurgicos en la epilepsia. La LQ asocia muy buen pronostico. En la epilepsia del lobulo temporal se pueden obtener muy buenos resultados (80-90% de control) a pesar de una RM normal. En el estado epileptico, las LO pueden tener peor resultado que la NL en la RM.

  11. Mitochondrial defects in acute multiple sclerosis lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mahad, Don; Ziabreva, Iryna; Turnbull, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to focal plaques of demyelination and tissue injury in the CNS. The structural and immunopathological patterns of demyelination suggest that different immune mechanisms may be involved in tissue damage. In a subtype of lesions, which are mainly found in patients with acute fulminant multiple sclerosis with Balo's type concentric sclerosis and in a subset of early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, the initial myelin changes closely resemble those seen in white matter stroke (WMS), suggesting a hypoxia-like tissue injury. Since mitochondrial injury may be involved in the pathogenesis of such lesions, we analysed a number of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins in active lesions from acute multiple sclerosis and from WMS using immunohistochemistry. Functionally important defects of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] including its catalytic component (COX-I) are present in Pattern III but not in Pattern II multiple sclerosis lesions. The lack of immunohistochemically detected COX-I is apparent in oligodendrocytes, hypertrophied astrocytes and axons, but not in microglia. The profile of immunohistochemically detected mitochondrial respiratory chain complex subunits differs between multiple sclerosis and WMS. The findings suggest that hypoxia-like tissue injury in Pattern III multiple sclerosis lesions may be due to mitochondrial impairment. PMID:18515320

  12. Computer detection of stellate lesions in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The three primary signs for which radiologists search when screening mammograms for breast cancer are stellate lesions, microcalcifications, and circumscribed lesions. Stellate lesions are of particular importance, as they are almost always associated with a malignancy. Further, they are often indicated only by subtle architectural distortions and so are in general easier to miss than the other signs. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of stellate lesions in digitized mammograms, and have tested them on image data where the presence or absence of malignancies is known. We extract image features from the known images, use them to grow binary decision trees, and use those trees to label each pixel of new mammograms with its probability of being located on an abnormality. The primary feature for the detection of stellate lesions is ALOE, analysis of local oriented edges, which is derived from an analysis of the histogram of edge orientations in local windows. Other features, based on the Laws texture energy measures, have been developed to respond to normal tissue, and so improve the false alarm performance of the entire system.

  13. Systematically describing gross lesions in corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.; Aeby, G.

    2006-01-01

    Many coral diseases are characterized based on gross descriptions and, given the lack or difficulty of applying existing laboratory tools to understanding causes of coral diseases, most new diseases will continued to be described based on appearance in the field. Unfortunately, many existing descriptions of coral disease are ambiguous or open to subjective interpretation, making comparisons between oceans problematic. One reason for this is that the process of describing lesions is often confused with that of assigning causality for the lesion. However, causality is usually something not obtained in the field and requires additional laboratory tests. Because a concise and objective morphologic description provides the foundation for a case definition of any disease, there is a need for a consistent and standardized process to describe lesions of corals that focuses on morphology. We provide a framework to systematically describe and name diseases in corals involving 4 steps: (1) naming the disease, (2) describing the lesion, (3) formulating a morphologic diagnosis and (4) formulating an etiologic diagnosis. This process focuses field investigators on describing what they see and separates the process of describing a lesion from that of inferring causality, the latter being more appropriately done using laboratory techniques.

  14. Alcoholism and the Armanni-Ebstein lesion.

    PubMed

    Parai, Jacqueline L; Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Milroy, Christopher M; Pollanen, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    The Armanni-Ebstein lesion is a histological change in the kidney consisting of sub-nuclear vacuolation of the proximal tubules. It has been most associated with diabetic ketoacidosis. The vacuoles have been reported to contain glycogen. More recent studies show them to contain fat. Recent papers have associated the Armanni-Ebstein lesion with non-diabetic ketoacidosis. We present 11 cases of alcoholic ketoacidosis where the Armanni-Ebstein lesion was identified. None had a history of diabetes mellitus and none showed any changes of diabetic nephropathy. All 11 cases had raised acetone levels (3-67 mg/100 mL (mean 17.9 mg/100 mL and median value of 16 mg/100 mL). In addition a case of isopropanol poisoning was found to have the Armanni-Ebstein lesion. Isopropanol is converted to acetone but is not associated with acidosis. These results indicate that the Armanni-Ebstein lesion is not specific to diabetes mellitus.

  15. Occipital lesions: a possible cost of cradleboards.

    PubMed

    Holliday, D Y

    1993-03-01

    This examination of a Mimbres-Mogollon pueblo skeletal sample reveals a surprising percentage of individuals with occipital lesions. Each lesion is located in the approximate center of the squama immediately superior to the external occipital protuberance. Notably, no child over the age of 1 year exhibits a lesion that would have been active at the time of death, but a number of older children and adults exhibit evidence of healed lesions in this same area on the occipital. The restricted nature of these lesions, in terms of both their locations and ages of those actively affected, suggests that the use of cradleboards may have been at least a contributing, if not initiatory, factor in their creation. Specifically, this study suggests that the pressure and friction of an infant's head against a cradleboard may have 1) produced ischemic ulcers, 2) produced the conditions favorable for bacterial infections such as impetigo or carbuncles, or 3) complicated the treatment of other infections appearing on the back of the scalp.

  16. Osteochondral lesions of the talus: Current concept.

    PubMed

    Laffenêtre, O

    2010-09-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OTL) are among those injuries that we should not fail to recognize, especially following any type of hindfoot injury. They were thoroughly described 15 years ago in a round table session organized by Doré and Rosset for the Société orthopédique de l'Ouest. Their physiopathology has not yet been definitely determined, even though some of the pathogenic mechanisms are known. They are best characterized using the fractures, osteonecroses, geodes (FOG) radiological classification. Both their diagnosis and their surgical treatment remain a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon: some basic surgical principles apply to all of the lesions, such as cartilage debridement and shaving of necrotic tissues, while others will be used depending on the location and size of the lesions as well as the surgeon's experience. Finally, no specific technique appears to be superior to the others. Arthroscopy appears to be the most effective procedure for lesions smaller than 1 cm(2), whereas larger lesions should be filled, either with cancellous bone or with an osteochondral graft or using autogenous chondrocyte implantation. The data available in the literature should also incite orthopaedists to consider the results of surgical management with some modesty, and conservative management should remain among the therapeutic options. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  18. A novel prognostic model in myeloma based on co-segregating adverse FISH lesions and the ISS: analysis of patients treated in the MRC Myeloma IX trial.

    PubMed

    Boyd, K D; Ross, F M; Chiecchio, L; Dagrada, G P; Konn, Z J; Tapper, W J; Walker, B A; Wardell, C P; Gregory, W M; Szubert, A J; Bell, S E; Child, J A; Jackson, G H; Davies, F E; Morgan, G J

    2012-02-01

    The association of genetic lesions detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with survival was analyzed in 1069 patients with newly presenting myeloma treated in the Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial, with the aim of identifying patients associated with the worst prognosis. A comprehensive FISH panel was performed, and the lesions associated with short progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) in multivariate analysis were +1q21, del(17p13) and an adverse immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) translocation group incorporating t(4;14), t(14;16) and t(14;20). These lesions frequently co-segregated, and there was an association between the accumulation of these adverse FISH lesions and a progressive impairment of survival. This observation was used to define a series of risk groups based on number of adverse lesions. Taking this approach, we defined a favorable risk group by the absence of adverse genetic lesions, an intermediate group with one adverse lesion and a high-risk group defined by the co-segregation of >1 adverse lesion. This genetic grouping was independent of the International Staging System (ISS) and so was integrated with the ISS to identify an ultra-high-risk group defined by ISS II or III and >1 adverse lesion. This group constituted 13.8% of patients and was associated with a median OS of 19.4 months.

  19. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  20. Human lesion studies of ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Brett; Koenigs, Michael

    2017-09-28

    Studies of neurological patients with focal lesions involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) have demonstrated a critical role for this brain area in various aspects of cognition, emotion, and behavior. In this article, we review the key themes, methods, and findings from neuropsychological research on vmPFC lesion patients. Early case studies demonstrated profound disruptions in personality and behavior following vmPFC damage, including blunted affect, poor decision-making, and inappropriate social behavior. Subsequent laboratory investigations with groups of vmPFC lesion patients have revealed deficits in a host of interrelated functions, such as value-based decision-making, future and counterfactual thinking, physiological arousal to emotional stimuli, emotion recognition, empathy, moral judgment, and memory confabulation. The compendium of findings described here demonstrates that vmPFC is crucial for diverse aspects of adaptive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. High dietary carbohydrate and pancreatic lesion.

    PubMed

    Novelli, E L; Rodrigues, N L; França, E L; Gebra, L M; Ribas, B O

    1993-01-01

    The ability of high dietary carbohydrate to induce acute pancreatitis was investigated in groups of 16, 21-day and 15-month old rats fed different carbohydrate diets for 30 days. Significantly increased levels of serum amylase (2-fold), phospholipids (50%), phosphorus (2-fold), and lipoperoxides (8-fold) were observed in 15-month old rats fed a high-carbohydrate diet, compared to rats fed a diet with normal carbohydrate levels, indicating peroxidation of membrane lipids which caused final cell death and pancreatic lesion. Serum Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity was not altered. Daily administration of bovine Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase conjugated with polyethylene glycol prevented the serum level alterations and pancreatic lesions, indicating that the superoxide radical has a role in dietary carbohydrate-induced acute pancreatitis. No biochemical changes were observed in rats in which treatment was initiated on the 21st day of life indicating that this is an age-related lesion.

  2. [Cystic lesions--diagnosis and conservative treatment].

    PubMed

    Olas, Jacek; Bucka, Jolanta; Dworak, Agata; Golański, Bartłomiej

    2003-01-01

    Effective treatment of cystic lesions that we can apply in the outpatient clinic is the target for seeking a new solution in finding treatment that will produce a better percentage of recovered patients. At this moment non-surgical treatment of cystic lesions is compare with traditional methods of treatment i.e. cyst content aspiration and injection of steroids, with methods which lead to obliteration of cyst lumen and in this way closing the space being the reservoir for the cyst content. Local application of hialuronidase, aspiration, and then steroid injection is gaining more and more attention of clinicians. We also pay much more attention to local fibrinogen injection as a safe and effective method of treatment, which can be useful in the treatment of cystic lesions and topical treatment of bursitis.

  3. Surgical treatment for perirolandic lesional epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sandok, E K; Cascino, G D

    1998-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of surgical treatment for perirolandic lesional epilepsy. We analyzed the records of 14 consecutive patients who underwent a stereotactic lesionectomy for intractable partial epilepsy between 1985 and 1994. All patients had a neuroimaging-identified lesion in the perirolandic cortex. The mean duration of follow-up was 6 years (range 1-11 years). Thirteen patients (93%) had a significant improvement in seizure tendency. Eleven patients (78%) were rendered seizure-free. Morbidity occurred in only one patient, who experienced an increased monoparesis after surgery. Stereotactic lesionectomy is an effective surgical strategy in patients with perirolandic lesional epilepsy. The recent development of functional brain imaging using subtraction ictal single-photon emission computed tomography co-registered with volumetric magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to be a reliable indicator of epileptic brain tissue that may significantly alter the preoperative evaluation in patients with extratemporal seizures.

  4. Morphology of melanocytic lesions in situ

    PubMed Central

    Balois, Thibaut; Amar, Martine Ben

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a solid tumour with its own specificity from the biological and morphological viewpoint. On one hand, numerous mutations are already known affecting different pathways. They usually concern proliferation rate, apoptosis, cell senescence and cell behaviour. On the other hand, several visual criteria at the tissue level are used by physicians in order to diagnose skin lesions. Nevertheless, the mechanisms between the changes from the mutations at the cell level to the morphology exhibited at the tissue level are still not fully understood. Using physical tools, we develop a simple model. We demonstrate analytically that it contains the necessary ingredients to understand several specificities of melanoma such as the presence of microstructures inside a skin lesion or the absence of a necrotic core. We also explain the importance of senescence for growth arrest in benign skin lesions. Thanks to numerical simulations, we successfully compare this model to biological data. PMID:24406374

  5. Pigmented Skin Lesions Classification Using Dermatoscopic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdehourat, Germán; Corez, Andrés; Bazzano, Anabella; Musé, Pablo

    In this paper we propose a machine learning approach to classify melanocytic lesions in malignant and benign from dermatoscopic images. The image database is composed of 433 benign lesions and 80 malignant melanoma. After an image pre-processing stage that includes hair removal filtering, each image is automatically segmented using well known image segmentation algorithms. Then, each lesion is characterized by a feature vector that contains shape, color and texture information, as well as local and global parameters that try to reflect structures used in medical diagnosis. The learning and classification stage is performed using AdaBoost.M1 with C4.5 decision trees. For the automatically segmented database, classification delivered a false positive rate of 8.75% for a sensitivity of 95%. The same classification procedure applied to manually segmented images by an experienced dermatologist yielded a false positive rate of 4.62% for a sensitivity of 95%.

  6. [Operative management of trigono-atrial lesions].

    PubMed

    Hussein, S

    1998-01-01

    Trigono-atrial-Lesions are microsurgically serios accessible, the results of transcortical aproaches are difficult and frequently unsatisfactory. The microsurgical anatomy of the trigono-atrial region will be studied on 100 brain hemispheres (the posterior cerebral arteries were injected selective on 70 hemispheres). According to the anatomical findings, an interhemispheric microsurgical approach has been developed. The operative results of 25 patients with different atrial lesions are presented. There was no operative mortality, the postoperative morbidity was 12%, in 24% (n = 6) the preoperative state was still unchanged, in 12 cases (48%) we note a normal neurological and neuropsychological postoperative status. In 4 patients (16%) the neurological symptoms are postoperatively improved. According to these first results, the described transatrial approach seems to be a real alternative for careful selected meanly leftsided lesions of the trigone.

  7. Morgellons Disease Presenting As an Eyelid Lesion.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Rasanamar K; Steele, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease is characterized by complaints of uncomfortable skin sensations and fibers emanating from nonhealing skin lesions. Morgellons disease is well-known in the dermatology and psychiatry literature, where it is typically considered a subtype of delusional parasitosis, but it has not yet been described in the ophthalmology literature. A patient with self-reported Morgellons disease is presented, who was referred for evaluation of left lower eyelid ectropion. She reported that her skin was infested with fibers that were "trying to get down into the eyelid." On examination, she had ectropion of the left lower eyelid, broken cilia, and an ulcerated left upper eyelid lesion concerning for carcinoma. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with excoriation. Treatment of her ectropion was deferred out of concern for wound dehiscence, given the patient's aggressive excoriation behavior. This case is presented to make the ophthalmologist aware of this disorder and to highlight the appropriate clinical management.

  8. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan; Monsef Esfahani, Alireza; Bidari Zerehpoush, Farahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 biopsies diagnosed as oral ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral primary lymphoma were selected from the archives of the Pathology Department. Thirty-two samples that were diagnosed as being without any pathological changes were selected as the control group. All the paraffin blocks were cut for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm the diagnoses and then the samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining. Data were collected and analyzed. Results. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between the frequency of H. pylori positivity in normal tissue and the lesions were examined (P=0.000). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the lesions examined (P=0.042). Chi-squared test showed significant differences between H. pylori positivity and different tissue types except inside the muscle layer as follows: in epithelium and in lamina propria (P=0.000), inside the blood vessels (P=0.003), inside the salivary gland duct (P=0.036), and muscle layer (P=0.122). Conclusion. There might be a relation between the presence of H. pylori and oral lesions. Therefore, early detection and eradication of H. pylori in high-risk patients are suggested. PMID:24578822

  9. Laser applications for benign oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Frigerio, Alice; Tan, Oon T

    2015-10-01

    Different subspecialists treat benign intraoral lesions using various approaches including surgical excision, medical therapy, sclerotherapy, and laser photocoagulation. The goal of this study was to establish whether lasers could effectively target and destroy oral lesions containing endogenous chromophores, while minimizing injury to unaffected adjacent tissues and critical structures. This retrospective study involved 26 cases of benign oral lesions, both vascular and pigmented, which were addressed by means of selective laser treatment. Pathologies were port-wine stains, hereditary hemorragic teleangectasia, hemangiomas, venous and arteriovenous malformations, pyogenic granuloma, and hairy reconstructive flaps. Electronic medical records and photographic documentation were reviewed. Three blinded staff personnel not involved with patient care in this study evaluated photographs taken prior to the first and after the final laser treatments. Observers rated the percentage clearance of the lesions or the ablation of bleeding, and the assessed values were averaged for each patient. An average of 30-95% lightening was observed in the intraoral port-wine stains, 90% in the hemangiomas, 70% in arteriovenous malformations, 81% for venous malformations, 86% for venous lakes, and 100% for the pyogenic granuloma. Bleeding was ablated in all hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia lesions treated using the pulsed dye laser with or without the Alexandrite laser. Intraoral hair growing on the skin paddle of microvascular flaps was completely removed in one of the three cases treated using the Alexandrite laser. In the two remaining cases, some hair removal was achieved, but because the residual hairs were grey or white (absence of melanocytic chromophore), photocoagulation was less effective. Lasers are a safe and effective means to selectively destroy specific chromphores. Such specific targeting ensures complete destruction of pathological tissue, decreasing the possibility

  10. CERVICAL SPINE LESIONS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Luana-Andreea; Rezuş, Elena

    2016-01-01

    to gather clinical and laboratory data on rheumatoid arthritis patients with cervical spine damage (incidence and prevalence, correlation between duration of disease and the time of lesion onset, to assess signs and symptoms and the role of laboratory investigations). The spine is an axial organ with an important role in support and resistance. It is a pillar with a very complex morphological and functional structure. The vertebral column is crossed by many kinematic chains. The main problem of the cervical spine caused by rheumatoid arthritis is cervical instability which describes all cervical lesions that can lead to neurovascular damage or major disturbance of pain generating statics at movement. The evolving disease shows chronic inflammation of the synovium, which is a self-maintained process and an immunologically induced phenomenon. The chronic inflammation of the synovium forms granulation tissue that invades peripheral joints towards the center and causes ligament cartilage and bone damage. The present paper investigated cervical spine lesions in 107 rheumatoid arthritis patients who were admitted to the 1st Rheumatology Clinic of Iasi Rehabilitation Hospital between January 2013 and December 2014. Our study focused on assessing signs and symptoms seen in spine affected by rheumatic disease. the disease causes destructive lesions due to granulomatous infiltration of rachidian structures and medullary sheaths. These lesions lead to damaged discs and instability that produces subluxations and dislocations. The suboccipital region is most affected; in other regions of the spine, high lesions of C4-C5 prevail, where osteolysis damage of spinal apophyses are found. In atlas and axis joints, rheumatoid arthritis causes the inflammation of bursa, synovium and joint capsule and leads to synovial pannus formation. This causes the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone. Atlantoaxial dislocation is caused by erosive synovitis of atlanto-epistrophic joint

  11. Distinguishing torpedo maculopathy from similar lesions of the posterior segment.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Victor M; Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Capó, Hilda; Berrocal, Audina M; Murray, Timothy G; Harbour, J William

    2014-01-01

    Torpedo maculopathy is a congenital solitary, oval-shaped lesion typically located temporal to the center of the macula. Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE lesions of Gardner syndrome, and other lesions can present with similar characteristics. Because of its unique clinical and imaging features, torpedo maculopathy generally can be differentiated from other posterior segment lesions.

  12. 21 CFR 884.2990 - Breast lesion documentation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breast lesion documentation system. 884.2990... Devices § 884.2990 Breast lesion documentation system. (a) Identification. A breast lesion documentation... lesions identified during a clinical breast examination. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls...

  13. Classification and prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Adriana M W; Nielsen, Søren S; King, Catherine E; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2010-03-01

    Foot lesions can compromise the health and welfare of captive birds. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of foot lesions in captive flamingos (Phoenicopteridae). The study was based on photos of 1,495 pairs of foot soles from 854 flamingos in 18 European and two Texan (USA) zoological collections. Methodology for evaluating flamingo feet lesions was developed for this project because no suitable method had been reported in the literature. Four types of foot lesions were identified: hyperkeratoses, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths. Seven areas on each foot received a severity score from 0 to 2 for each type of lesion (0 = no lesion, 1 = mild to moderate lesion, 2 = severe lesion). The prevalence of birds with lesions (scores 1 or 2) were 100%, 87%, 17%, and 46% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Birds with severe lesions (score 2) constituted 67%, 46%, 4%, and 12% for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodular lesions, and papillomatous growths, respectively. Hyperkeratosis and nodular lesions were most prevalent on the base of the foot and the proximal portion of the digits, likely reflecting those areas bearing the most weight. The second and fourth digits were most affected with fissures and papillomatous lesions; these areas of the foot appear to be where the most flexion occurs during ambulation. The study demonstrates that foot lesions are highly prevalent and widely distributed in the study population, indicating that they are an extensive problem in captive flamingos.

  14. Decoding diffusivity in multiple sclerosis: analysis of optic radiation lesional and non-lesional white matter.

    PubMed

    Klistorner, Alexander; Vootakuru, Nikitha; Wang, Chenyu; Yiannikas, Con; Graham, Stuart L; Parratt, John; Garrick, Raymond; Levin, Netta; Masters, Lynette; Lagopoulos, Jim; Barnett, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been suggested as a new promising tool in MS that may provide greater pathological specificity than conventional MRI, helping, therefore, to elucidate disease pathogenesis and monitor therapeutic efficacy. However, the pathological substrates that underpin alterations in brain tissue diffusivity are not yet fully delineated. Tract-specific DTI analysis has previously been proposed in an attempt to alleviate this problem. Here, we extended this approach by segmenting a single tract into areas bound by seemingly similar pathological processes, which may better delineate the potential association between DTI metrics and underlying tissue damage. Several compartments were segmented in optic radiation (OR) of 50 relapsing-remitting MS patients including T2 lesions, proximal and distal parts of fibers transected by lesion and fibers with no discernable pathology throughout the entire length of the OR. Asymmetry analysis between lesional and non-lesional fibers demonstrated a marked increase in Radial Diffusivity (RD), which was topographically limited to focal T2 lesions and potentially relates to the lesional myelin loss. A relative elevation of Axial Diffusivity (AD) in the distal part of the lesional fibers was observed in a distribution consistent with Wallerian degeneration, while diffusivity in the proximal portion of transected axons remained normal. A moderate, but significant elevation of RD in OR non-lesional fibers was strongly associated with the global (but not local) T2 lesion burden and is probably related to microscopic demyelination undetected by conventional MRI. This study highlights the utility of the compartmentalization approach in elucidating the pathological substrates of diffusivity and demonstrates the presence of tissue-specific patterns of altered diffusivity in MS, providing further evidence that DTI is a sensitive marker of tissue damage in both lesions and NAWM. Our results suggest that, at least within

  15. Visual estimation versus different quantitative coronary angiography methods to assess lesion severity in bifurcation lesions.

    PubMed

    Grundeken, Maik J; Collet, Carlos; Ishibashi, Yuki; Généreux, Philippe; Muramatsu, Takashi; LaSalle, Laura; Kaplan, Aaron V; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Tijssen, Jan G; de Winter, Robbert J; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Leon, Martin B; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-08-24

    To compare visual estimation with different quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) methods (single-vessel versus bifurcation software) to assess coronary bifurcation lesions. QCA has been developed to overcome the limitations of visual estimation. Conventional QCA however, developed in "straight vessels," has proved to be inaccurate in bifurcation lesions. Therefore, bifurcation QCA was developed. However, the impact of these different modalities on bifurcation lesion severity classification is yet unknown METHODS: From a randomized controlled trial investigating a novel bifurcation stent (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01258972), patients with baseline assessment of lesion severity by means of visual estimation, single-vessel QCA, 2D bifurcation QCA and 3D bifurcation QCA were included. We included 113 bifurcations lesions in which all 5 modalities were assessed. The primary end-point was to evaluate how the different modalities affected the classification of bifurcation lesion severity and extent of disease. On visual estimation, 100% of lesions had side-branch diameter stenosis (%DS) >50%, whereas in 83% with single-vessel QCA, 27% with 2D bifurcation QCA and 26% with 3D bifurcation QCA a side-branch %DS >50% was found (P < 0.0001). With regard to the percentage of "true" bifurcation lesions, there was a significant difference between visual estimate (100%), single-vessel QCA (75%) and bifurcation QCA (17% with 2D bifurcation software and 13% with 3D bifurcation software, P < 0.0001). Our study showed that bifurcation lesion complexity was significantly affected when more advanced bifurcation QCA software were used. "True" bifurcation lesion rate was 100% on visual estimation, but as low as 13% when analyzed with dedicated bifurcation QCA software. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Decoding Diffusivity in Multiple Sclerosis: Analysis of Optic Radiation Lesional and Non-Lesional White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Klistorner, Alexander; Vootakuru, Nikitha; Wang, Chenyu; Yiannikas, Con; Graham, Stuart L.; Parratt, John; Garrick, Raymond; Levin, Netta; Masters, Lynette; Lagopoulos, Jim; Barnett, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been suggested as a new promising tool in MS that may provide greater pathological specificity than conventional MRI, helping, therefore, to elucidate disease pathogenesis and monitor therapeutic efficacy. However, the pathological substrates that underpin alterations in brain tissue diffusivity are not yet fully delineated. Tract-specific DTI analysis has previously been proposed in an attempt to alleviate this problem. Here, we extended this approach by segmenting a single tract into areas bound by seemingly similar pathological processes, which may better delineate the potential association between DTI metrics and underlying tissue damage. Method Several compartments were segmented in optic radiation (OR) of 50 relapsing-remitting MS patients including T2 lesions, proximal and distal parts of fibers transected by lesion and fibers with no discernable pathology throughout the entire length of the OR. Results Asymmetry analysis between lesional and non-lesional fibers demonstrated a marked increase in Radial Diffusivity (RD), which was topographically limited to focal T2 lesions and potentially relates to the lesional myelin loss. A relative elevation of Axial Diffusivity (AD) in the distal part of the lesional fibers was observed in a distribution consistent with Wallerian degeneration, while diffusivity in the proximal portion of transected axons remained normal. A moderate, but significant elevation of RD in OR non-lesional fibers was strongly associated with the global (but not local) T2 lesion burden and is probably related to microscopic demyelination undetected by conventional MRI. Conclusion This study highlights the utility of the compartmentalization approach in elucidating the pathological substrates of diffusivity and demonstrates the presence of tissue-specific patterns of altered diffusivity in MS, providing further evidence that DTI is a sensitive marker of tissue damage in both lesions and NAWM. Our

  17. [Lesiones de mucosa bucal. Factores asociados en población infantil].

    PubMed

    Linares-Vieyra, Celia; Meza-Sánchez, Julieta Del Carmen; González-Guevara, Martha Beatriz; Murrieta-Pruneda, José Francisco; Salgado-Rodríguez, Sandra Jessica; Morales-Jaimes, Rosalba

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la prevalencia de las lesiones de mucosa bucal en los niños varía de 4.1 a 52.6 %, debido a diferencias poblacionales y metodológicas. El objetivo fue identificar la prevalencia de dichas lesiones y su posible asociación con antecedentes patológicos y hábitos parafuncionales en una población infantil, atendida en la clínica dental San Lorenzo Atemoaya. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal de niños atendidos entre 2006 y 2009. Se obtuvieron las prevalencias de las lesiones y para la asociación entre variables se utilizó regresión logística no condicional. Resultados: de 1228 expedientes, 367 correspondieron a niños, 200 del sexo masculino (54.5 %). La mediana de edad fue de seis años. La prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa bucal fue de 66.2 %. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron la queilitis simple (41.1 %), la mácula melanótica (18.3 %), las petequias (16.9 %) y la úlcera traumática (12 %), sin diferencias entre sexos. La succión labial se asoció con queilitis simple (RM = 1.7, p = 0.013) y onicofagia con úlceras recurrentes (RM = 15.75, p = 0.026). Conclusiones: se observó alta prevalencia de lesiones de mucosa bucal en la población infantil estudiada y se confirma la asociación con hábitos parafuncionales.

  18. A liver lesion in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sujata; Rajoriya, Neil; Wang, Lai Mun; Collier, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma; appropriate surveillance should be undertaken for this. Our case illustrates an unexpected liver lesion in such a patient, which would not have been detected with imaging alone. In suspected cancer, if a patient is not a candidate for liver resection, liver biopsy should be considered in case there is a treatment option for an alternative cause of the liver lesion. This is a careful decision to be made due to the risk of tumour seeding compromising cure and needs to be discussed via the hepatobiliary multidisciplinary team. PMID:25827915

  19. Multimodal MRI segmentation of ischemic stroke lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Yacine; Dojat, Michel; Scherrer, Benoît; Forbes, Florence; Garbay, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is the automatic segmentation of stroke lesions on MR multi-sequences. Lesions enhance differently depending on the MR modality and there is an obvious gain in trying to account for various sources of information in a single procedure. To this aim, we propose a multimodal Markov random field model which includes all MR modalities simultaneously. The results of the multimodal method proposed are compared with those obtained with a mono-dimensional segmentation applied on each MRI sequence separately. We constructed an Atlas of blood supply territories to help clinicians in the determination of stroke subtypes and potential functional deficit. PMID:18002276

  20. Ameloblastoma: an aggressive lesion of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Suma, M S; Sundaresh, K J; Shruthy, R; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-10-09

    Ameloblastoma is a benign locally invasive epithelial odontogenic tumour comprising 1% of all tumours and cysts arising in the jaws. It is commonly found in the third and fourth decade in the molar ramus region of the mandible. Among all types of ameloblastoma, multicystic ameloblastoma is believed to be locally aggressive lesion that has the tendency for recurrence. In this report we present a large multicystic ameloblastoma in the left body-ramus region of the mandible in a 55-year-old woman. This large lesion was diagnosed with the help of CT and was successfully managed by hemimandibulectomy with simultaneous reconstruction using iliac crest bone.

  1. New developments in endocervical glandular lesions.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn

    2013-01-01

    McCluggage W G (2012) Histopathology New developments in endocervical glandular lesions There is evidence that the prevalence of premalignant and malignant endocervical glandular lesions is increasing in real as well as in apparent terms. In this review, new developments and selected controversial aspects of endocervical glandular lesions are covered, concentrating mainly on premalignant and malignant lesions. The terminology of premalignant endocervical glandular lesions is discussed with a comparison of the World Health Organization classification and the cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) system, which is in widespread use in the United Kingdom. Primary cervical adenocarcinomas comprise a heterogeneous group of different morphological types, and while it is known that the majority of these are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), it has become clear in recent years that most of the more uncommon morphological types are unassociated with HPV, although they may sometimes be p16-positive. A spectrum of benign, premalignant and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation is now recognized; these include type A tunnel clusters, typical and atypical lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia, adenoma malignum and gastric-type adenocarcinoma. The latter is a recently described variant of primary cervical adenocarcinoma which has a different morphological appearance to the usual endocervical type and which is probably associated with different patterns of spread and a worse prognosis. There is accumulating evidence that 'early invasive' cervical adenocarcinomas have an excellent prognosis and are suitable for conservative management. Immunohistochemical markers of value in the distinction between a primary cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma are discussed. While it is well known that a panel of markers comprising oestrogen receptor (ER), vimentin, p16 and monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is

  2. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  3. Bone lesions in early congenital syphilis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, E U; Solomon, A

    1976-01-31

    A radiological study of bone changes in 112 children with congenital syphilis was undertaken. A similar number of normal children acted as a control group. Radiological examination of 5 syphilitic children showed that their bones were normal. Combined metaphyseal and periosteal lesions were the commonest bone disorders seen and are thus the most convincing radiological evidence of congenital syphilis. Transverse metaphyseal lucencies occur early in the disease, and with Wimburger's sign they are the prime evidence of pathology in syphilitic bone. Other radiographic changes are probably owing to minimal trauma in fragile disorganized bone. The occurrence of periosteal lesions alone has also been evaluated.

  4. First International Consensus Conference on lesions of uncertain malignant potential in the breast (B3 lesions).

    PubMed

    Rageth, Christoph J; O'Flynn, Elizabeth Am; Comstock, Christopher; Kurtz, Claudia; Kubik, Rahel; Madjar, Helmut; Lepori, Domenico; Kampmann, Gert; Mundinger, Alexander; Baege, Astrid; Decker, Thomas; Hosch, Stefanie; Tausch, Christoph; Delaloye, Jean-François; Morris, Elisabeth; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain a consensus for the therapy of B3 lesions. The first International Consensus Conference on lesions of uncertain malignant potential in the breast (B3 lesions) including atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), classical lobular neoplasia (LN), papillary lesions (PL), benign phyllodes tumors (PT), and radial scars (RS) took place in January 2016 in Zurich, Switzerland organized by the International Breast Ultrasound School and the Swiss Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy group-a subgroup of the Swiss Society of Senology. Consensus recommendations for the management and follow-up surveillance of these B3 lesions were developed and areas of research priorities were identified. The consensus recommendation for FEA, LN, PL, and RS diagnosed on core needle biopsy or vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) is to therapeutically excise the lesion seen on imaging by VAB and no longer by open surgery, with follow-up surveillance imaging for 5 years. The consensus recommendation for ADH and PT is, with some exceptions, therapeutic first-line open surgical excision. Minimally invasive management of selected B3 lesions with therapeutic VAB is acceptable as an alternative to first-line surgical excision.

  5. Mapping architectural and transcriptional alterations in non-lesional and lesional epidermis in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Singh, Archana; Gotherwal, Vishvabandhu; Junni, Päivi; Vijayan, Vinaya; Tiwari, Manisha; Ganju, Parul; Kumar, Avinash; Sharma, Pankaj; Fatima, Tanveer; Gupta, Aayush; Holla, Ananthaprasad; Kar, Hemanta K; Khanna, Sangeeta; Thukral, Lipi; Malik, Garima; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy; Gadgil, Chetan J; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Natarajan, Vivek T; Rani, Rajni; Gokhale, Rajesh S

    2017-08-29

    In vitiligo, chronic loss of melanocytes and consequent absence of melanin from the epidermis presents a challenge for long-term tissue maintenance. The stable vitiligo patches are known to attain an irreversible depigmented state. However, the molecular and cellular processes resulting in this remodeled tissue homeostasis is unclear. To investigate the complex interplay of inductive signals and cell intrinsic factors that support the new acquired state, we compared the matched lesional and non-lesional epidermis obtained from stable non-segmental vitiligo subjects. Hierarchical clustering of genome-wide expression of transcripts surprisingly segregated lesional and non-lesional samples in two distinct clades, despite the apparent heterogeneity in the lesions of different vitiligo subjects. Pathway enrichment showed the expected downregulation of melanogenic pathway and a significant downregulation of cornification and keratinocyte differentiation processes. These perturbations could indeed be recapitulated in the lesional epidermal tissue, including blunting of rete-ridges, thickening of stratum corneum and increase in the size of corneocytes. In addition, we identify marked increase in the putrescine levels due to the elevated expression of spermine/spermidine acetyl transferase. Our study provides insights into the intrinsic self-renewing ability of damaged lesional tissue to restore epidermal functionality in vitiligo.

  6. Conservative restoration of proximal-cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Setien, Victor; Armstrong, Steven R; Vargas, Marcos A

    2003-01-01

    One of the authors has used this technique successfully for the past three years in various clinical situations that involve both difficult access anterior and posterior teeth. This is a tooth-structure conserving clinical procedure that can provide a simplified approach for restoring otherwise difficult clinical lesions.

  7. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in Oral Lesions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Vaidhehi Narayan; Uma, K; Girish, H C; Murgod, Sanjay; Shyamala, K; Naik, Ranajit B

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (PEH) is a histopathological reaction pattern to various stimuli, which includes trauma, infection, inflammation, neoplasia. It is seen as tongue like epithelial proliferation invading the connective tissue and should not be mistaken for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This review enlists oral lesions which exhibit PEH with a note on how to differentiate SCC from PEH. PMID:26435636

  8. Nonneoplastic nasal lesions in rats and mice.

    PubMed Central

    Monticello, T M; Morgan, K T; Uraih, L

    1990-01-01

    Rodents are commonly used for inhalation toxicology studies, but until recently the nasal passages have often been overlooked or only superficially examined. The rodent nose is a complex organ in which toxicant-induced lesions may vary, depending on the test compound. A working knowledge of rodent nasal anatomy and histology is essential for the proper evaluation of these responses. Lack of a systematic approach for examining rodent nasal tissue has led to a paucity of information regarding nonneoplastic lesions in the rodent nose. Therefore, slides from the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) were examined, and the literature was reviewed to assemble the spectrum of nonneoplastic rodent nasal pathology. Presented are lesions associated with the various types of epithelia lining the rodent nasal cavity plus lesions involving accessory nasal structures. Even though there are anatomic and physiologic differences between the rodent and human nose, both rats and mice provide valuable animal models for the study of nasal epithelial toxicity, following administration of chemical compounds. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PLATE 17. PLATE 18. PLATE 19. PLATE 20. PLATE 21. PLATE 22. PLATE 23. PLATE 24. PLATE 25. PLATE 26. PLATE 27. PLATE 28. PLATE 29. PLATE 30. PLATE 31. PLATE 32. PLATE 33. PLATE 34. PLATE 35. PLATE 36. PLATE 37. PLATE 38. PMID:2200665

  9. Cholesterol granuloma and other petrous apex lesions.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Brandon

    2015-04-01

    This article presents the latest information on the presentation, diagnosis, imaging characteristics, management, and outcomes for petrous apex cholesterol granulomas. An in-depth review of the pathophysiology and surgical approaches is presented along with a summary of other petrous apex lesions and their imaging characteristics.

  10. Calcified lesion modeling for excimer laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Holly A.; Archuleta, Andrew; Splinter, Robert

    2009-06-01

    Objective: Develop a representative calcium target model to evaluate penetration of calcified plaque lesions during atherectomy procedures using 308 nm Excimer laser ablation. Materials and Methods: An in-vitro model representing human calcified plaque was analyzed using Plaster-of-Paris and cement based composite materials as well as a fibrinogen model. The materials were tested for mechanical consistency. The most likely candidate(s) resulting from initial mechanical and chemical screening was submitted for ablation testing. The penetration rate of specific multi-fiber catheter designs and a single fiber probe was obtained and compared to that in human cadaver calcified plaque. The effects of lasing parameters and catheter tip design on penetration speed in a representative calcified model were verified against the results in human cadaver specimens. Results: In Plaster of Paris, the best penetration was obtained using the single fiber tip configuration operating at 100 Fluence, 120 Hz. Calcified human lesions are twice as hard, twice as elastic as and much more complex than Plaster of Paris. Penetration of human calcified specimens was highly inconsistent and varied significantly from specimen to specimen and within individual specimens. Conclusions: Although Plaster of Paris demonstrated predictable increases in penetration with higher energy density and repetition rate, it can not be considered a totally representative laser ablation model for calcified lesions. This is in part due to the more heterogeneous nature and higher density composition of cadaver intravascular human calcified occlusions. Further testing will require a more representative model of human calcified lesions.

  11. Endoscopic laser stereotaxis: management of brain lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Lucia J.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Moure, Federico; Diaz, Fernando

    1994-05-01

    Image-guided stereotaxis is an accurate and safe method of directing therapy to target volumes defined in 2D multi-planes or 3D perspectives using computer reconstruction of image data. The major limitations of stereotactic techniques are the lack of intraoperative visualization and the ability to directly monitor the procedures, and changes of intracranial coordinates after decompression of cystic lesions or aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid in the management of intraventricular lesions. Stereotactic neuroendoscopy involves integration of rigid-flexible endoscopy and the Nd-YAG laser in 2D/3D multiplanar image-guided stereotactic procedures. The major advantages of endoscopic laser surgery include being minimally invasive (burrhole or small craniotomy surgery), direct intraoperative visualization, hemostasis, evacuation or resection assessment, and wide exploration of intracranial cavities or ventricles. We used endoscopic laser surgery in the management of 202 patients undergoing biopsy, aspiration, resection, and internal decompression of deep and subcortical intracranial lesions, and for different types of fenestration procedures. Image-guidance combined with endoscopic techniques may offer a safe, accurate alternative to conventional neurosurgical procedures in treating small solid, cystic, intraventricular lesions, and in fenestration procedures.

  12. Simulating Clinical Carious Lesions in Composition Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, E. R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A step-by-step technique to alter stock composition teeth and create simulated carious conditions that are ideal or otherwise is presented. The procedures provide the student with life-like lesions, suitable in texture and location and similar to conditions found in the oral cavity. (MLW)

  13. Remineralization of caries lesions extending into dentin.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M

    2001-05-01

    Remineralization is one aspect of the overall process of tooth decay. However, it is primarily studied in shallow lesions. The aim of this study was to explore whether caries lesions in enamel and extending into the dentin can be remineralized. A single-section model was developed for the longitudinal and non-destructive monitoring of changes in enamel and dentin. Lesions at least 200 microm into dentin were formed in undersaturated acetate buffers. Next, the lesions were divided into groups (three treatment and one control) and remineralized. The treatments were: weekly immersion in 1,000 ppm fluoride, single treatment with methanehydroxybisphosphonate, and a constant level of 1 ppm fluoride. De- and remineralization was assessed by transverse microradiography. Remineralization was observed in enamel, but also in dentin, indicating that, deep into dentin, the pores become supersaturated to apatite formation. Treatments affected remineralization only in the outer part of enamel. Both findings are explained by a relatively fast diffusion of mineral ions, with precipitation being rate-limiting. The results suggest that dentin remineralization, underneath enamel, can be achieved and could possibly be used in clinical treatment strategies.

  14. [Meniscal repair in patients with chronic lesions].

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, José Clemente Ibarra; Sierra Suárez, Luis; Almazán Díaz, Arturo; Cruz López, Francisco; Pérez Jiménez, Francisco Xavier; Encalada Díaz, Iván; León Hernández, Saúl Renán; Angulo Gutiérrez, Maritza

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the subjective and objective outcome of arthroscopic meniscal repair in patients with chronic meniscal lesions. A group of patients that underwent arthroscopic meniscal repair of chronic tears with a minimum follow-up of six months was retrospectively evaluated. Physical examination oriented at finding persistent meniscal lesions was performed. IKDC, Lysholm and Tegner scores were applied, and a control magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. Twenty seven menisci in 25 patients were repaired. There were 21 male and 4 female patients with a mean age of 29.6 +/- 8.2 years (20-45). Mean time from lesion to surgery was 25.24 +/- 26 months (6-120). 27. There was significant improvement in all parameters evaluated in 21 patients. Four patients were found to have signs and symptoms of persistent meniscal tears. Abnormal increased signal intensity in the repaired menisci was observed by MRI in all patients, not correlating with clinical findings. Short-term success rate of 85% was obtained with arthroscopic repair of chronic meniscal lesions in this study, which supports the fact that a long period of time before surgery does not necessarily lead to failure. It is valid to perform a meniscal repair in patients with chronic tears as long as the proper surgical technique and an adequate rehabilitation protocol are used.

  15. Non carious cervical lesions. A review.

    PubMed

    Ceruti, P; Menicucci, G; Mariani, G D; Pittoni, D; Gassino, G

    2006-01-01

    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) are characterized by a loss of hard dental tissue near the cement-enamel-junction. Commonly, their shape is like a wedge with the apex pointing inwards. Other times, they appear as regular depressions, like a dome or a cup. Their main characteristic is the presence of hard-mineralized tissue. According to the literature, the prevalence of cervical lesions is 85%, while their incidence is about 18% among permanent teeth. NCCL are currently classified as erosion, abrasion, or abfraction. Their etiology seems to be related to different factors: hexogen and endogen acids, mechanical abrasive action, tooth flexion under axial and non-axial loads. Moreover, it seems that a fundamental role is ascribable to tooth bending phenomena due to the strength components parallel or oblique to the occlusal level, which occur during the normal function as well as during parafunctions. The frequent therapeutic failures are probably due to the same factors causing the onset of the original lesion. Several materials have been proposed to restore NCCL: amalgam (abandoned), glass-ionomer cements, compomers, and composite resins. Early failures of these restorations have often been reported in the literature, probably due to the same factors which originally caused the lesions. Further investigations are required to determine more reliable restorative therapies.

  16. Benign cranial mediastinal lesions in three cats.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Gabor, L; Hunt, G B; Church, D B; Barrs, V R; Churcher, R; Dixon, R T; Huxley, C; Canfield, P J

    1997-03-01

    Cranial mediastinal lesions were detected in three cats, associated with respiratory impairment (case one), spontaneous pneumothorax (case two) and myasthenia gravis (case three), respectively. On gross and histological examination, the first case was considered either a lymphangioma or a branchial cystic mass of the thymic region of the mediastinum; a cystic lesion was suggested by sonographic detection of multiple anechoic cavitations within a circumscribed mass, while fine needle aspiration cytology excluded lymphosarcoma. The second case was diagnosed histologically as a cystic thymoma, but the third case was not examined microscopically. The masses were amenable to surgical excision in the first two cats, while this proved unnecessary in the third case because of resolution following treatment with dexamethasone. Corticosteroid responsiveness was unhelpful in distinguishing between these benign lesions and lymphosarcoma, as in two cases there was a partial or complete response to dosing with prednisolone or dexamethasone. These cases are presented to emphasise that conditions other than lymphosarcoma can produce cranial mediastinal lesions in cats, and that the prognosis for surgical treatment of lymphangiomas, multilocular thymic cysts and cystic thymomas can be excellent.

  17. Pontine lesions mimicking acute peripheral vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Thomke, F.; Hopf, H. C.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Clinical signs of acute peripheral vestibulopathy (APV) were repeatedly reported with pontine lesions. The clinical relevance of such a mechanism is not known, as most studies were biased by patients with additional clinical signs of brainstem dysfunction.
METHODS—Masseter reflex (MassR), blink reflex (BlinkR), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), and DC electro-oculography (EOG) were tested in 232 consecutive patients with clinical signs of unilateral APV.
RESULTS—Forty five of the 232 patients (19.4%) had at least one electrophysiological abnormality suggesting pontine dysfunction mainly due to possible vertebrobasilar ischaemia (22 patients) and multiple sclerosis (eight patients). MassR abnormalities were seen in 24patients, and EOG abnormalities of saccades and following eye movements occurred in 22 patients. Three patients had BlinkR-R1 abnormalities, and one had delayed BAEP waves IV and V. Clinical improvement was almost always (32 of 34 re-examined patients) associated with improvement or normalisation of at least one electrophysiological abnormality. Brain MRI was done in 25 of the 44 patients and confirmed pontine lesions in six (two infarcts, three inflammations, one tumour).
CONCLUSIONS—Pontine dysfunction was suggested in 45 of 232 consecutive patients with clinical signs of APV on the basis of abnormal electrophysiological findings, and was mainly attributed to brainstem ischaemia and multiple sclerosis. The frequency of pontine lesions mimicking APV is underestimated if based on MRI established lesions only.

 PMID:10084533

  18. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    PubMed

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  19. Partial excision of residual burn lesions.

    PubMed

    Engrav, L H; Gottlieb, J R; Millard, S P; Walkinshaw, M D; Heimbach, D M; Marvin, J A

    1987-01-01

    Most burn victims have unattractive residual lesions, which may include hypertrophic donor sites, unsightly skin grafts, hypertrophic scars, and mature scars with altered pigmentation or texture. Some of these lesions can be treated by total excision in one or more stages or they can be reconstructed utilizing grafts, flaps, Z-plasties, or tissue expansion. But frequently these procedures are either not indicated or not elected by the patient. In such a situation, the only surgical option is partial excision, with the goal of making the lesion less conspicuous and more easily concealed by clothing. Whether or not such partial excisions are worthwhile is the obvious question. We could not find an answer in the literature and therefore decided to review our own experience. Between 6/30/81 and 3/12/86, 92 such procedures were performed and followed in 25 patients. Partial excision of hypertrophic donor sites, unsightly skin grafts, and hypertrophic scars did yield improved appearance in most patients. However, partial excision of mature scars, ie, areas of altered pigmentation or texture, did not have the same success. We continue to treat the first three types of lesions in this fashion but no longer include the latter.

  20. Endoscopic laser therapy for obstructing tracheobronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Beamis, J F; Vergos, K; Rebeiz, E E; Shapshay, S M

    1991-05-01

    The Lahey Clinic experience using laser bronchoscopy for relief of obstructive tracheobronchial lesions during a 7-year period from 1982 to 1989 involves 269 patients treated with 400 procedures. The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was used for tracheal stenosis and granulation tissue. The neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was used for all obstructing endobronchial neoplasms. Indications for therapy included severe dyspnea, hemoptysis, and postobstructive pneumonitis. All patients had relatively central lesions. A rigid bronchoscope was used to treat 88% of patients, and 12% of patients were treated with a flexible bronchoscope. One death occurred during the intraoperative period. Eleven deaths occurred within 1 week of therapy and were related to the presence of extensive malignant lesions or to coronary artery disease. Our experience indicates that bronchoscopic application of the CO2 or Nd:YAG laser affords effective palliation for patients with obstructive tracheobronchial lesions. The Nd:YAG laser is recommended for patients with bulky vascular endobronchial neoplasms, and the CO2 laser is best reserved for patients with benign tracheal stenosis and granulation tissue.

  1. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  2. Prostatic cavitary lesions containing urine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bokemeyer, J; Peppler, C; Thiel, C; Failing, K; Kramer, M; Gerwing, M

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the proportion of urine-containing prostatic cavitary lesions ("urinary cysts") in dogs and to describe their clinical management. The study included dogs with clinically relevant prostatic-retention cyst/abscess (n=87) treated initially by percutaneous ultrasound-guided drainage of the prostatic cavity. Based on a prostatic fluid:serum creatinine ratio, the study population was divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) with and group 2 (n=71) without evidence of urine within the lesion. Medical records of both the groups were reviewed. Cavitary lesions containing urine were observed in 16 of the 87 dogs (18·4%; group 1). In 10 (62·5%) of the group 1 dogs, abdominal surgery was recommended, because of recurrent filling during follow-up. In group 2, abdominal surgery was recommended in only 11 of 71 cases (15·5%). In dogs, 18·4% (95% confidence interval, 10·9 to 28·1%) of the prostatic cavitary lesions contain urine. Measurement of creatinine within the prostatic cavity fluid is a helpful tool in diagnosing a presurgical intra-prostatic urethral fistulation, and these dogs tend to require a more aggressive surgical therapy than percutaneous drainage alone. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Magnetic resonance sees lesions of multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ziporyn, T.

    1985-02-15

    The value of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and quantitation of the progression of multiple sclerosis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging generates images that reflect differential density and velocity of hydrogen nuclei between cerebral gray and white matter, as well as between white matter and pathological lesions of the disease.

  4. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  5. Results of arthroscopic capsulolabral repair: Bankart lesion versus anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion lesion.

    PubMed

    Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Elhassan, Bassem; Diller, David; Massimini, Daniel; Higgins, Laurence D; Warner, Jon J P

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of arthroscopic capsulolabral repair for traumatic anterior shoulder instability and to compare the outcome in patients who have Bankart lesions versus those with anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion (ALPSA) lesions. This study included 99 patients (93 shoulders), 72 male and 17 female, with a mean age of 32 years, who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair for traumatic, recurrent anterior shoulder instability, by use of suture anchors. In 67 shoulders (72%) a discrete Bankart lesion was repaired, and in 26 shoulders (28%) an ALPSA lesion was repaired. The 2 groups were analyzed with regard to the number of preoperative dislocations and number of postoperative recurrences. At a mean follow-up of 47 months (range, 24 to 98 months), recurrence of instability was documented in 10 shoulders (10.7%). Of the shoulders, 5 had Bankart lesions (7.4%) and 5 had ALPSA lesions (19.2%) (P = .0501). The mean number of dislocations or subluxations before the index surgery was significantly higher in the ALPSA group (mean, 12.3 [range, 2 to 57]) than in the Bankart group (mean, 4.9 [range, 2 to 24]) (P < .05). However, there were no significant differences in the number of anchors used, incidence of minor glenoid erosion, or incidence of bony Bankart lesions between the groups (P > .05 for all). Patients with ALPSA lesions present with a higher number of recurrent dislocations than those with discrete Bankart lesions. In addition, the failure rate after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair is higher in the ALPSA group than in the Bankart group. Level IV, therapeutic case series.

  6. Evaluating lesion segmentation on breast sonography as related to lesion type.

    PubMed

    Pons, Gerard; Martí, Joan; Martí, Robert; Ganau, Sergi; Vilanova, Joan Carles; Noble, J Alison

    2013-09-01

    Breast sonography currently provides a complementary diagnosis when other modalities are not conclusive. However, lesion segmentation on sonography is still a challenging problem due to the presence of artifacts. To solve these problems, Markov random fields and maximum a posteriori-based methods are used to estimate a distortion field while identifying regions of similar intensity inhomogeneity. In this study, different initialization approaches were exhaustively evaluated using a database of 212 B-mode breast sonograms and considering the lesion types. Finally, conclusions about the relationship between the segmentation results and lesions types are described.

  7. Nonrigid registration of multiple sclerosis brain images using lesion inpainting for morphometry or lesion mapping.

    PubMed

    Sdika, Michaël; Pelletier, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Morphometric studies of medical images often include a nonrigid registration step from a subject to a common reference. The presence of white matter multiple sclerosis lesions will distort and bias the output of the registration. In this article, we present a method to remove this bias by filling such lesions to make the brain look like a healthy brain before the registration. We finally propose a dedicated method to fill the lesions and present numerical results showing that our method outperforms current state of the art method. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The dimensionalities of lesion-deficit mapping.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianbo; Jha, Ashwani; Nachev, Parashkev

    2017-09-19

    Lesion-deficit mapping remains the most powerful method for localising function in the human brain. As the highest court of appeal where competing theories of cerebral function conflict, it ought to be held to the most stringent inferential standards. Though at first sight elegantly transferable, the mass-univariate statistical framework popularized by functional imaging is demonstrably ill-suited to the task, both theoretically and empirically. The critical difficulty lies with the handling of the data's intrinsically high dimensionality. Conceptual opacity and computational complexity lead lesion-deficit mappers to neglect two distinct sets of anatomical interactions: those between areas unified by function, and those between areas unified by the natural pattern of pathological damage. Though both are soluble through high-dimensional multivariate analysis, the consequences of ignoring them are radically different. The former will bleach and coarsen a picture of the functional anatomy that is nonetheless broadly faithful to reality; the latter may alter it beyond all recognition. That the field continues to cling to mass-univariate methods suggests the latter problem is misidentified with the former, and that their distinction is in need of elaboration. We further argue that the vicious effects of lesion-driven interactions are not limited to anatomical localisation but will inevitably degrade purely predictive models of function such as those conceived for clinical prognostic use. Finally, we suggest there is a great deal to be learnt about lesion-mapping by simulation-based modelling of lesion data, for the fundamental problems lie upstream of the experimental data themselves. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the Bankart lesion.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Katsumasa

    2004-01-01

    The Bankart lesion is an essential finding of traumatic anterior shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reliability of diagnosis by ultrasonography (US) of the Bankart lesion when using an axillary approach. Six cadaveric shoulders were examined by US from the axilla. The shoulders were then dissected along the plane of the ultrasonic beam. The labrum at the 4-o'clock position of all 6 cadavers was present along the ultrasonic plane; there were no obstacles from the skin to the glenoid rim, and all cases had a normal labrum at the 4-o'clock position. US images of the normal labrum showed that the labrum was continuously connected to the glenoid rim with no borderline (low-echo line) between them. Preoperative US from the axilla was performed in 75 patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery. Anteroinferior labra were classified preoperatively from the US images as normal, detached (low-echo line between glenoid rim and labrum), or displaced (labrum displaced from glenoid rim), with a diagnosis of a Bankart lesion being made for the latter two types. US findings were correlated with arthroscopic observations. This revealed that for the detection of Bankart lesions, US had a sensitivity of 88.6%, a specificity of 77.4%, an accuracy of 84.0%, a positive predictive value of 84.8%, and a negative predictive value of 82.8%. These results demonstrate that US with an axillary approach is useful in the diagnosis of Bankart lesions of the shoulder.

  10. Oxidative damage in multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Haider, Lukas; Fischer, Marie T; Frischer, Josa M; Bauer, Jan; Höftberger, Romana; Botond, Gergö; Esterbauer, Harald; Binder, Christoph J; Witztum, Joseph L; Lassmann, Hans

    2011-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, associated with demyelination and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms of tissue injury are currently poorly understood, but recent data suggest that mitochondrial injury may play an important role in this process. Since mitochondrial injury can be triggered by reactive oxygen and nitric oxide species, we analysed by immunocytochemistry the presence and cellular location of oxidized lipids and oxidized DNA in lesions and in normal-appearing white matter of 30 patients with multiple sclerosis and 24 control patients without neurological disease or brain lesions. As reported before in biochemical studies, oxidized lipids and DNA were highly enriched in active multiple sclerosis plaques, predominantly in areas that are defined as initial or 'prephagocytic' lesions. Oxidized DNA was mainly seen in oligodendrocyte nuclei, which in part showed signs of apoptosis. In addition, a small number of reactive astrocytes revealed nuclear expression of 8-hydroxy-d-guanosine. Similarly, lipid peroxidation-derived structures (malondialdehyde and oxidized phospholipid epitopes) were seen in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes and some astrocytes. In addition, oxidized phospholipids were massively accumulated in a fraction of axonal spheroids with disturbed fast axonal transport as well as in neurons within grey matter lesions. Neurons stained for oxidized phospholipids frequently revealed signs of degeneration with fragmentation of their dendritic processes. The extent of lipid and DNA oxidation correlated significantly with inflammation, determined by the number of CD3 positive T cells and human leucocyte antigen-D expressing macrophages and microglia in the lesions. Our data suggest profound oxidative injury of oligodendrocytes and neurons to be associated with active demyelination and axonal or neuronal injury in multiple sclerosis.

  11. Vascular lesions secondary to osteotomy by corticotomy.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Francesco; Spinelli, Renato; Stilo, Francesco; De Caridi, Giovanni; Mirenda, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Management of vascular traumas is frequently delayed. Vascular injuries after elective operation for bone lengthening or correction of a deformity are very'rare situations. We describe 3 cases. Case 1: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for bone lengthening; immediately presented acute limb ischaemia due to a partial lesion of the popliteal artery, documented by U.S. After 7 h, direct reconstruction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 2: male, aged 27, undergoing directional osteotomy for genu varus correction. For 30 days, constant increase in leg volume and decrease in function. US showed an important haematoma at the popliteal level; arteriography documented a partial lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and a voluminous false aneurysm. Direct correction of the artery and fasciotomies were performed. Case 3: male, aged 22, undergoing corticotomy for leg lengthening; immediately presented leg pain with decreased distal pulses. After 4h, there was an increase in leg volume, and arteriography showed a total lesion of the infra-genicular popliteal artery and an arteriovenous fistula. Popliteo-tibial bypass with the contralateral greater saphenous vein and fasciotomies were performed. After 1 month endovascular closure of the fistula was obtained. All patients had recovered after two months with only minor leg insufficiency. Patency of the bypass and absence of infections or delayed false aneurysms were achieved. Vascular injuries after elective orthopaedic procedures are very rare situations. Such lesions are caused by an osteotomy via corticotomy performed percutaneously. The variety of clinical presentations accounts for the difficulty in diagnosing such lesions and for the delays in implementing treatment. It is very important to obtain an early diagnosis complete with an arteriography.

  12. Spinal Tuberculosis Resembling Neoplastic Lesions on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculous spondylitis is one of the commonest forms of skeletal tuberculosis in developing countries like India causing significant morbidity due to compression of spinal cord and adjacent nerve roots. Diagnosis and intervention at early stage can prevent permanent damage such as spinal deformity and neurological deficits. Aim The purpose of this study was to demonstrate atypical MRI features in cases of tubercular spondylitis resembling neoplastic lesions and to stress that tuberculous spondylitis should be one of the differential diagnoses in any spinal pathology especially in developing countries. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study done in the patients diagnosed as tuberculous spondylitis on 0.2 T Siemens MRI between June 2011 and December 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in India. Total 529 cases of tubercular spinal lesions were diagnosed. Out of which only 59 patients showed atypical features on MR imaging which resembled neoplastic lesions were included in the study. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology, histopathology, serology and corroborative findings. Results Lumbo-sacral region involvement (30.5%) is the commonest in our study followed by dorsal and cervical region. Multiple level lesions are seen in 14 cases (23.7%). All the 59 (100%) cases show no involvement of intervetebral disc. Posterior appendage involvement seen in 32 cases (54.2%). Soft tissue component seen in Intraspinal (37.2%) and paraspinal (45.7%) compartments. Cord compression seen in 19 cases (32.2%), out which only 7 cases (11.8%) shows cord oedema. Conclusion On MRI, tubercular spondylitis may have variable pictures on imaging. For any spinal and paraspinal lesions, we should also consider the possibility of tubercular aetiology along with other. Since early diagnosis avoids unnecessary delay in the treatment thereby reducing morbidity and possible complications. PMID:26675162

  13. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  14. Yellowish lesions of the oral cavity. Suggestion for a classification.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Iria; Varela, Pablo; Romero, Amparo; García, María José; Suárez, María Mercedes; Seoane, Juan

    2007-08-01

    The colour of a lesion is due to its nature and to its histological substratum. In order to ease diagnosis, oral cavity lesions have been classified according to their colour in: white, red, white and red, bluish and/or purple, brown, grey and/or black lesions. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such a classification for yellow lesions. So, a suggestion for a classification of yellowish lesions according to their semiology is made with the following headings: diffuse macular lesions, papular, hypertrophic, or pustular lesions, together with cysts and nodes. This interpretation of the lesions by its colour is the first step to diagnosis. It should be taken into account that, as happens with any other classification, the yellowish group of lesions includes items with different prognosis as well as possible markers of systemic disorders.

  15. Brain lesion and memory functioning: short-term memory deficit is independent of lesion location.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Carmi; Caplan, Leslie J; Revell, Andrew J; Salazar, Andres M; Grafman, Jordan

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed the effects of patterns of brain lesions from penetrating head injuries on memory performance in participants of the Vietnam Head Injury Study (Grafman et al., 1988). Classes of lesion patterns were determined by mixture modeling (L. K. Muthén & B. O. Muthén, 1998-2004). Memory performance was assessed for short-term memory (STM), semantic memory, verbal episodic memory, and visual episodic memory. The striking finding was that large STM deficits were observed in all classes of brain-injured individuals, regardless of lesion location pattern. These effects persist despite frequent concomitant effects of depressive symptomatology and substance dependence. Smaller deficits in semantic memory, verbal episodic memory, and visual episodic memory depended on lesion location, in a manner roughly consistent with the existing neuropsychological literature. The theoretical and clinical implications of the striking, seemingly permanent STM deficits in individuals with penetrating head injuries are discussed.

  16. Effect of Lesion Baseline Severity and Mineral Distribution on Remineralization and Progression of Human and Bovine Dentin Caries Lesions.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Frank; Churchley, David; Lynch, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this laboratory study were to compare the effects of lesion baseline severity, mineral distribution and substrate on remineralization and progression of caries lesions created in root dentin. Lesions were formed in dentin specimens prepared from human and bovine dentin using three protocols, each utilizing three demineralization periods to create lesions of different mineral distributions (subsurface, moderate softening, extreme softening) and severity within each lesion type. Lesions were then either remineralized or demineralized further and analyzed using transverse microradiography. At lesion baseline, no differences were found between human and bovine dentin for integrated mineral loss (x0394;Z). Differences in mineral distribution between lesion types were apparent. Human dentin lesions were more prone to secondary demineralization (x0394;x0394;Z) than bovine dentin lesions, although there were no differences in x0394;L. Likewise, smaller lesions were more susceptible to secondary demineralization than larger ones. Subsurface lesions were more acid-resistant than moderately and extremely softened lesions. After remineralization, differences between human and bovine dentin lesions were not apparent for x0394;x0394;Z although bovine dentin lesions showed greater reduction in lesion depth L. For lesion types, responsiveness to remineralization (x0394;x0394;Z) was in the order extremely softened>moderately softened>subsurface. More demineralized lesions exhibited greater remineralization than shallower ones. In summary, some differences exist between human and bovine dentin and their relative responsiveness to de- and remineralization. These differences, however, were overshadowed by the effects of lesion baseline mineral distribution and severity. Thus, bovine dentin appears to be a suitable substitute for human dentin in mechanistic root caries studies.

  17. HLA Class I and II alleles, heterozygosity and HLA-KIR interactions are associated with rates of genital HSV shedding and lesions.

    PubMed

    Magaret, A; Dong, L; John, M; Mallal, S A; James, I; Warren, T; Gaudieri, S; Koelle, D M; Wald, A

    2016-12-01

    Variation at HLA and KIR loci is associated with the severity of viral infections. To assess associations of genital HSV-2 infection with human HLA and KIR genetic loci, we measured the frequencies of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection and of genital lesions in HSV-2 seropositive persons. We followed 267 HSV-2 seropositive persons who collected daily genital swabs and recorded lesions for ⩾30 days. All persons were laboratory-documented as HIV-seronegative, and all were Caucasian by self-report. HSV detection rate and lesion frequency were compared by genotype using Poisson regression. Overall, HSV was detected on 19.1% of days and lesions on 11.6% of days. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with HSV detection frequency, whereas the presence of HLA-C*12 was inversely associated with HSV detection frequency. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with lesion rate, while HLA-A*26, -C*01 and -DQB1*0106 were associated with decreased lesions. We observed an interaction between the absence of both 2DS4del and HLA-Bw4 and higher lesion rate. Heterozygosity of HLA was also associated with reduced lesion frequency. Immune control of genital HSV infection relies on multiple interacting immunogenetic elements, including epistatic interactions between HLA and KIR.

  18. Epidermal hydrogen peroxide is not increased in lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Zailaie, Mohammad Z

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that the loss of the epidermal melanocytes in vitiligo is basically due to excessive oxidative stress. Previous research work described abnormal elevation of the absolute concentration of the epidermal hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo. Based on this finding, our primary research objective was to use this feature as a screening marker in individuals at a great risk of developing vitiligo. Ninety-six patients of non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) of varying durations, skin phototypes, and treatment modalities (psoralen UVA-, narrow band UVB-treated) were recruited for this study. Raman spectroscopic measurements, using an external probehead, of the lesional and non-lesional skin were obtained, and the resulting spectra were analyzed using the Opus software package of the MultiRam spectrometer and the intensity of the peak at 875 cm(-1) that represents the absolute concentration of H2O2 was calculated. Contrary to previous reports, in patients of skin phototype IV, the absolute concentrations of H2O2 in non-lesional and lesional NSV of all groups were non-significantly decreased compared to normal control. In patients of NSV of skin phototype V, the decrease in the absolute concentrations of H2O2 was not significant in the untreated group, and a slight non-significant increase in the NBUVB-treated group was noted. However, in the PUVA-treated group, the non-lesional skin demonstrated significant increase in the absolute concentration of H2O2, whereas the lesional skin showed only a slight non-significant increase compared to normal control. In NSV patients of skin phototype VI who were previously treated with PUVA, the non-lesional skin showed a slight non-significant increase in the absolute concentration of H2O2; however, the lesional skin showed a marked significant decrease compared to normal control and the non-lesional skin. Thereof, one can conclude that the epidermal H2O2 is not increased in NSV as

  19. Histochemical identification of malignant and premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebow, Charles; Maloney, M. J.

    1991-06-01

    Malignant and transforming cells can be identified by biochemical parameters which can be used to localize lesions in situ for laser surgery. These cells express unique proteins, proteins in unusual quantities, or other biochemical alterations which can be utilized to image lesions of such cells. Several methods have been identified, both in vitro and in vivo, to identify such lesions. Several antibodies were examined for their properties of tissue identification, including CEA, F36/22, and AE1/AE3. F36/22, an antibody developed by M. T. Chu against human breast cancer cells, associated with two lines of oral cancer (KB and HCPC), and against two naturally occurring human oral squamous cell cancers. CEA, an antibody developed against human colon cancer, also reacted against both cell lines and both pathological samples. AE1/AE3, developed against normal fibrous components, also reacted against the samples, but in a much less regular manner. F36/22 associated with the histologically identifiably most dedifferentiated cells at the leading edge of the invading cancer. CEA, on the other hand, associated with more quiescent, older, established cancer cells. This demonstrates that antibodies developed against cancers of different organs can be used to identify a wide variety of cancers, and may have prognostic value. F36/22 coupled to fluorescein was used to identify oral cancer cells. Other properties of cancers and developing cancers can also be exploited to identify cancers, including their over-expression of tyrosine kinase and tyrosine kinase stimulating hormones such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF). A model of premalignant lesion produced in the hamster buccal cheek pouch with 6 week application of DMBA over-expresses constitutive tyrosine kinase which can be demonstrated biochemically. This initiated lesion can be promoted to frank cancer by growth factors released in response to laser surgery. Preliminary results suggest that these lesions can be identified by

  20. Diabetic foot lesions: etiologic and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Benotmane, A; Mohammedi, F; Ayad, F; Kadi, K; Azzouz, A

    2000-04-01

    The clinical characteristics of 132 diabetic patients referred for treatment of foot lesions were surveyed. One hundred and sixty three lesions (n=163) concerned 88 men and 44 women during a five-year period (from January 1989 to December 1993). Hospitalisation rate equalled 9.16%, i.e. 11.17% for men and 6.82% for women (p <0.001); the men/women ratio was 1.64. Eighty nine per cent (89%) of patients presented type 2 diabetes and 11% of patients type 1 diabetes. Mean age at the first foot lesion was 59.64 +/- 11.74 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 10.95 +/- 6.80 years. The patients had a high prevalence of diabetic complications, particularly peripheral neuropathy (84.85%) and obvious peripheral arteriopathy (78.78%). Infection was almost constant. There was no significant difference between men and women as far as the prevalence of complications was concerned. Smoking habits were noticed only in men. Inadequate footwear was considered as the major exogenous risk factor leading to a foot lesion. The definitive results 6 months after hospitalisation were as follows: the death rate was 9.09% (n=2; 11 men and 1 women, NS); 15.90% of patients (n=12) underwent a major amputation (4 at the level of the thigh, 17 at the level of the leg), 14.39% of patients (n=19) underwent a minor amputation; in 59.09% of patients (n=78) there was no amputation. Two patients (1.51%) underwent two consecutive amputations, left hospital against medical advice during their second hospitalisation, and then were lost sight. The prevalence of foot lesions was more important in men. Moreover, seriousness of the lesions and consequently the rate of amputations were important in men; this was probably due to smoking habits. The factors that influence the outcome seem to be: male gender, delay of management, quality of medical treatment, surgical attitude, inadequate level of amputation and finally lack of structured prevention. Prevention then should be based on the patient's education

  1. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    PubMed

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  2. [LCT (lipocolloid technology) in lesions of venous etiology].

    PubMed

    López, Justo Rueda; Bueno, Ana Maria Muñoz; Perejamo, Montserrat Arboix; Fornells, Manuel Gago; González, R Fernando García; Gómez, Teresa Segovia; Palmero, Albert Guerrero; Sauvadet, Anne

    2005-02-01

    This article reports on a spanish study to evaluate the effectiveness of dressings using a Technology Lipido-Colloid to treat skin lesions with "Urgotul". Has been included 18 of this 60 lesions were leg ulcers. We have decided to focus our analysis in these difficult to treat chronic wounds. This study noted better results in relation to the evolution of these lesions and in the quality of life for these patients who suffered these lesions in terms of pain control, skin deterioration or lesions in the same spot related to changing dressings, and an improvement in the skin nearby the lesion.

  3. Simulated capsulolabral lesion in cadavers: dislocation does not result from a bankart lesion only.

    PubMed

    Pouliart, Nicole; Marmor, Simon; Gagey, Olivier

    2006-07-01

    Although an anteroinferior capsulolabral detachment (typical Bankart lesion) has been evaluated in other experimental studies, it has not yet been tested with an apprehension test in an intact shoulder model. Adjacent combinations of 4 zones of the capsuloligamentous complex were sequentially detached from the glenoid neck in 50 cadaveric shoulders. Stability was tested before and after each resection step: inferior stability with a sulcus test and anterior stability with an anterior drawer test and with a load-and-shift test in the apprehension position. A metastable anteroinferior dislocation occurred in 18 specimens after section of 3 zones and in 14 only after section of 4 zones. A locked dislocation occurred after section of all 4 zones in 33 specimens and in the other 17 shoulders only after the posterior capsule was also cut. The humeral head cannot dislocate anteroinferiorly when there only is a Bankart lesion. In our study superior and posterior extension was necessary before the tensioning mechanism in external rotation and abduction failed enough for dislocation to occur. Because the Bankart lesion is most likely not the only lesion present in patients with recurrent dislocation, a careful search for other lesions needs to be done when one is attempting surgical treatment. These lesions would need to be treated as well if one wants to avoid the risk of residual instability.

  4. HYPERVASCULAR LIVER LESIONS IN RADIOLOGICALLY NORMAL LIVER.

    PubMed

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, José Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; João, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araújo Lima

    2017-01-01

    The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Eighty-eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine aminotransaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. As lesões hepáticas hipervasculares representam um desafio diagnóstico. Identificar fatores de risco para câncer em pacientes portadores de lesão hepática hipervascular não-hemangiomatosa em fígado radiologicamente normal. Estudo prospectivo que incluiu pacientes com lesões hepáticas hipervasculares em que o diagnóstico final foi obtido por exame anatomopatológico ou, presumido a partir de seguimento mínimo de um ano. Diagnóstico prévio de cirrose ou radiológico de hemangioma foram considerados critérios de exclusão. Oitenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos. A relação mulher/homem foi de 5,3/1. A idade média foi de 42,4 anos. Na

  5. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Herr, Keith; Muglia, Valdair F; Koff, Walter José; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  6. Gastric vascular lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Solej, Mario; Bertoldo, Ugo; Enrico, Stefano; Marci, Valerio; Raggio, Eleonora; Nano, Mario; Gasparri, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformations of the gastrointestinal tract are a known but rare cause of bleeding. Those of the stomach are the rarest if compared with other causes of gastric bleeding. The aetiology is still unknown, but senile age is considered an important cause, as are the degenerative processes connected with old age. These lesions are diagnosed by endoscopy which, with a haematostatic intent, often is not sufficient to stop the bleeding. Angiography is necessary for patients with massive bleeding whose endoscopy results are negative. The surgical treatment of gastric arteriovenous malformations requires excision of the lesion and part or all of the stomach. We report the case of a 57-year-old patient admitted to the Casualty Department with haematemesis and anaemia caused by acute gastric bleeding.

  7. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions*

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Keith; Muglia, Valdair F.; Koff, Walter José; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. PMID:25741090

  8. Lesion border detection in dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Celebi, M Emre; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V

    2009-03-01

    Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in sets of images with a variety of diagnoses.

  9. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, M. Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Stoecker, William V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in sets of images with a variety of diagnoses. PMID:19121917

  10. Spontaneous endometriosis in an umbilical skin lesion.

    PubMed

    Chatzikokkinou, Paraskevi; Thorfinn, Johan; Angelidis, Ioannis K; Papa, Giovanni; Trevisan, Giusto

    2009-09-01

    Cutaneous endometriosis of the umbilicus is an unusual condition with unclear pathogenetic mechanisms that might be mistaken for a malignant condition. A 46-year-old woman presented with a cutaneous black mass in the umbilicus. The lesion was removed surgically and histological analyses revealed that it consisted of endometrial tissue. There was no recurrence at 18-month follow-up. Endometriosis of the umbilicus is a rare condition and the pathogenesis is not completely elucidated. According to one theory, intraperitoneal endometrial tissue is translocated during endoscopic surgery or other surgical procedures that involve the umbilicus. However, in this case there was no history of abdominal wall surgery. We conclude that endometriosis is important to consider in cases of unclear skin lesions of the umbilicus, even in cases with no previous abdominal surgery. Moreover, umbilical endometriosis of the skin can have different appearances that resemble malignant tumors, and radical surgery with histology is therefore indicated.

  11. Support vector machines for prostate lesion classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchen, Andy; Seah, Jarrel

    2017-03-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) are applied to the problem of prostate lesion classification for the SPIE ProstateX Challenge 2016, achieving a score of 0.82 AUC on held-out test data. Square 5mm transverse image patches are extracted around each lesion center from aligned MRI scans. Three MRI modalities are simultaneously analyzed: T2-weighted, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and volume transfer constant (Ktrans). Extracted patches are used to train a binary classifier to predict clinical significance. The machine learning algorithm is trained on 76 positive cases and 254 negative cases (330 total) from the challenge. The method is conceptually simple, trains in a few seconds and yields competitive results.

  12. Lesion-specific laser catheters for angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy-Chutorian, Douglas

    1992-08-01

    Since no one laser catheter can treat all types of disease, a new family of `lesion-specific' devices was evaluated with a holmium laser source. Three-hundred-thirty-one patients (avg. 60 years) with symptomatic coronary disease were studied. Average lesion length was 1.2 cm. A 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, or 2.0 mm, tapered-tip or non-tapered, multifiber catheter (Eclipse, Palo Alto, Calif.) was advanced over the wire while emitting 250 - 600 mj/pulse at 5 Hz. Mean percent stenosis decreased from 89% to 57% after lasing with a mean of 140 pulses. Complications were infrequent. Overall procedural success was 95%. The conclusion is that specialized laser catheters delivering holmium laser energy are capable of reducing the severity of coronary stenoses including balloon angioplasty failures and bypass graft failures. Follow up studies are in progress to assess long term efficacy.

  13. US elastography of breast and prostate lesions.

    PubMed

    Ginat, Daniel T; Destounis, Stamatia V; Barr, Richard G; Castaneda, Benjamin; Strang, John G; Rubens, Deborah J

    2009-11-01

    Elastography is a technique that maps relative tissue stiffness. Ultrasonographic (US) elastography (sonoelastography) is a novel modality that is the subject of active research for clinical applications, primarily breast and prostate lesion imaging. Breast and prostate tumors generally have biomechanical properties different from those of normal tissues: Tumors are usually stiffer. This phenomenon is responsible for tissue contrast on elastograms. For the prostate gland and breast, the main image acquisition techniques are vibration sonoelastography and compression sonoelastography. The sonoelastographic appearances of several common breast lesions, including fibroadenomas, simple and complex cysts, ductal carcinomas, malignant lymph nodes, and hematomas, are reviewed. In addition, the US elastographic appearances of the normal prostate gland, prostate carcinomas, and benign prostate hyperplasia are illustrated. Potential pitfalls in the interpretation of elastograms, including false-positive and false-negative images, are illustrated. These imaging findings are derived from ongoing research because sonoelastography is not yet accepted for routine clinical use.

  14. [Differential diagnosis of ulcerated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    Llorens, P; Atlschiller, H; Pisano, R; Moya, P

    1986-01-01

    The semiological characteristics of the ulcerated gastric lesions, benign and malignant, are on study. Its frequency and location is analysed in 32,829 subjects of 40 or more years of age, apparently in good health, finding gastric ulcers in 2.98% been unique in 2.3% and multiple in 0.68%. A symptomatic group of 8,765 people of 40 or more years, showed gastric ulcer in 7.11% been unique in 5.18% and multiple in 1.93%. It is also reported the frequency of gastric cancer in both studied groups, which leads to permanently propose the differential diagnostic with benign lesions, underlying by its frequency those of ulcerated type. The value of the gastric biopsy in differential diagnosis represents finally an aid of major importance because its high yield.

  15. Problems in outpatients with laryngeal hyperplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Goldman, N C

    1997-01-01

    The care of outpatients with epithelial hyperplastic lesions of the larynx presents problems of classification, treatment, continued surveillance and prognosis. One hundred patients who underwent microlaryngoscopy and vocal cord stripping from 1990 through 1995 were studied retrospectively with a follow-up period of 8-156 months. Twenty-eight patients with biopsy proven epithelial hyperplastic lesions were given 21 different pathological diagnoses exclusive of invasive carcinoma following 52 operative microlaryngoscopies. Prognosis was inferred and treatment commenced primarily on the basis of the pathology report. Microlaryngoscopy and stripping with and without the carbon dioxide laser, "watchful waiting," radiation therapy, and partial laryngectomy were all used as treatment modalities. Controversy remains as of choice of treatment. Encouraging the patient to discontinue smoking is an integral part of treatment; however, most patients continue to smoke. Recent changes in the United States health care delivery system present additional problems in surveillance of the patient.

  16. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  17. Blunt diaphragmatic lesions: Imaging findings and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Bonatti, Matteo; Lombardo, Fabio; Vezzali, Norberto; Zamboni, Giulia A; Bonatti, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Blunt diaphragmatic lesions (BDL) are uncommon in trauma patients, but they should be promptly recognized as a delayed diagnosis increases morbidity and mortality. It is well known that BDL are often overlooked at initial imaging, mainly because of distracting injuries to other organs. Sonography may directly depict BDL only in a minor number of cases. Chest X-ray has low sensitivity in detecting BDL and lesions can be reliably suspected only in case of intra-thoracic herniation of abdominal viscera. Thanks to its wide availability, time-effectiveness and spatial resolution, multi-detector computed tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing BDL; several direct and indirect CT signs are associated with BDL. Given its high tissue contrast resolution, magnetic resonance imaging can accurately depict BDL, but its use in an emergency setting is limited because of longer acquisition times and need for patient’s collaboration. PMID:27843541

  18. The reconstruction of "complex" ureteral lesions.

    PubMed

    Graziotti, Pierpaolo; Piccinelli, Alessandro; Giusti, Guido; Taverna, Mauro Seveso Gianluigi; Benetti, Alessio; Pasini, Luisa; Zandegiacomo, Silvia

    2005-06-01

    A total of 13 patients with ureteral lesions wider than 12 cm in length and/or previous radiation treatment have been submitted to reconstructive treatment. Four patients with lesions after radiation therapy were treated with ileal ureter and contemporary bladder augmentation, one with ureteroneocystostomy combined with psoas hitch procedure and one combining psoas hitch and Boori Flap technique. The association of psoas hitch with Boari Flap technique were also used to treat two patients with the undesired outcome of vascular procedure. A patient after complete ureteral stripping following ureteroscopy was submitted to ileal bladder substitution. Two renal autotransplantations were performed in a patient with extensive stricture of the ureter following multiple endourological procedure and in a patient with negative outcome of previous attempt of open ureteral defect reconstruction following abdominal trauma.

  19. [Vascular dementia: big effects of small lesions].

    PubMed

    Gold, G; Kövari, E

    2011-11-09

    Vascular dementia due to multiple large strokes (multi-infarct dementia) is a well known entity. However, new clinicopathologic and neuroimaging data have highlighted the common occurrence of small vessel and microscopic vascular pathology in aging brains and recognized that vascular dementia due to small lesions is probably the most common form. In such cases, cortical microinfarcts are the strongest correlate of global cognitive function followed by basal ganglia and thalamic lacunes. Demyelination is only weekly associated with cognition and this relation is no longer significant after adjustement for the presence of lacunes. Awareness of the importance of small vascular lesions in brain aging, can improve diagnostic accuracy and help identify new targets, that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches in old age dementia.

  20. Radiologic-pathologic correlation of musculoskeletal lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas correlates the pathologic and radiologic features of a wide variety of lesions of the bone and soft tissue. Multiple imaging techniques are illustrated with an emphasis on plain radiographs. The author stresses the interpretation of radiographic images in terms of underlying pathology rather than as isolated images. Illustrations of plain radiographs and other radiographic imaging techniques are correlated with numerous micro- and macroscopic pathologic illustrations showing typical histologic and gross pathologic features.

  1. Pemphigus vulgaris presenting with multiple lesion morphologies.

    PubMed

    Song, Philip In; Divito, Sherrie J; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2014-12-14

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an uncommon intraepidermal blistering disorder that typically presents with flaccid bullae or erosions. We report a patient with pemphigus vulgaris who presented with several unusual clinical features: tense bullae with dependently layered pus, true target lesions coalescing into annular configurations, and diffuse desquamation that initially raised concern for toxic epidermal necrolysis. We discuss the differential diagnosis and implications of these morphological findings.

  2. Vestibular Perception following Acute Unilateral Vestibular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Sian; Kaski, Diego; Cutfield, Nicholas; Seemungal, Barry; Golding, John F.; Gresty, Michael; Glasauer, Stefan; Bronstein, Adolfo M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP) system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO) and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN) acutely (2 days after onset) and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks). Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s2). We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any ‘perceptual noise’ added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced – asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  3. [Skin vessel lesions in aluminum potroom workers].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A; Nikanov, A N; Shilov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The features of development of the skin vessels lesions in 550 aluminum production workers have been investigated. The high prevalence of these disorders have been revealed in anode-operators and cell-operators, 49, 3 and 26.0% of workers, respectively. The regularity and staging of the development of this abnormity have been established, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical significance of those remain unknown.

  4. Hypothalamic and myocardial lesions after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, R.; Neil-Dwyer, G.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothalamus and myocardium of 12 patients who had died after a subarachnoid haemorrhage, and of six patients who had died from other intracranial pathology were examined. Only in the patients who had died from subarachnoid haemorrhage were histological lesions found in both the hypothalamus and myocardium. The possible significance of these findings is discussed with particular reference to the sympathetic nervous system. Images PMID:925706

  5. Diode Laser Excision of Oral Benign Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Ena; Sareen, Mohit; Dhaka, Payal; Baghla, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lasers have made tremendous progress in the field of dentistry and have turned out to be crucial in oral surgery as collateral approach for soft tissue surgery. This rapid progress can be attributed to the fact that lasers allow efficient execution of soft tissue procedures with excellent hemostasis and field visibility. When matched to scalpel, electrocautery or high frequency devices, lasers offer maximum postoperative patient comfort. Methods: Four patients agreed to undergo surgical removal of benign lesions of the oral cavity. 810 nm diode lasers were used in continuous wave mode for excisional biopsy. The specimens were sent for histopathological examination and patients were assessed on intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results: Diode laser surgery was rapid, bloodless and well accepted by patients and led to complete resolution of the lesions. The excised specimen proved adequate for histopathological examination. Hemostasis was achieved immediately after the procedure with minimal postoperative problems, discomfort and scarring. Conclusion: We conclude that diode lasers are rapidly becoming the standard of care in contemporary dental practice and can be employed in procedures requiring excisional biopsy of oral soft tissue lesions with minimal problems in histopathological diagnosis. PMID:26464781

  6. Cystic lesion around the hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Nakai, Sho; Goto, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Yuichi; Shimaoka, Yasunori; Yamanaka, Issei; Sairyo, Koichi; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a narrative review of cystic lesions around the hip and primarily consists of 5 sections: Radiological examination, prevalence, pathogenesis, symptoms, and treatment. Cystic lesions around the hip are usually asymptomatic but may be observed incidentally on imaging examinations, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Some cysts may enlarge because of various pathological factors, such as trauma, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or total hip arthroplasty (THA), and may become symptomatic because of compression of surrounding structures, including the femoral, obturator, or sciatic nerves, external iliac or common femoral artery, femoral or external iliac vein, sigmoid colon, cecum, small bowel, ureters, and bladder. Treatment for symptomatic cystic lesions around the hip joint includes rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration, needle aspiration, and surgical excision. Furthermore, when these cysts are associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and THA, primary or revision THA surgery will be necessary concurrent with cyst excision. Knowledge of the characteristic clinical appearance of cystic masses around the hip will be useful for determining specific diagnoses and treatments. PMID:26495246

  7. Factors Associated with Nipple Lesions in Puerperae

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Luana Caroline; Peixoto, Érika Freitas; Lopes, Leonardo Motta Costa; de Andrade, Luiza Barroso; Frois, Marcelo Cançado; Santiago, Michelle Amanda; Bouzada, Maria Cândida Ferrarez

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with nipple lesion development in puerperae. Analyses were performed using the Poisson regression with robust variance. The level of significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). We evaluated 1270 puerperae, among whom 193 (15.4%) presented with nipple lesions. The condition was more prevalent among the mothers who did not receive information about breastfeeding [PR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19–2.42], those who underwent cesarean delivery (PR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.02–2.16), those who used a pacifier (prevalence ratios (PR), 2.04; 95% CI, 1.05–3.95), those who used baby formula only (PR, 1.61; 95% CI, 4.82–5.36) and those who used baby formula combined with breastfeeding (PR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06–2.45). A lower incidence of nipple lesions was observed among those who did not receive information on hand expression of breast milk (PR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46–0.93) and those who did not breastfeed in the first hour of life (PR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38–0.97). PMID:26330461

  8. Multiple intracerebral lesions in a young male.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Madi; Basavaprabhu, Achappa; Soundarya, Mahalingam

    2015-09-01

    As the incidence of HIV infection has increased its neurological complications are being encountered in our clinical practice. Toxoplasmosis is a common cerebral opportunistic infection seen in HIV-infected patients, even though the incidence has declined with the use of antiretroviral therapy. Establishing a definitive diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis is difficult in resource limited settings. A 20 year old gentleman was referred to our institute as a case of stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his brain showed multiple ill-defined and nodular enhancing lesions in bilateral supratentorial and infratentorial neuroparenchyma. Test for HIV-1 was reactive. Toxoplasma serology revealed raised IgG antibody levels. Based on the MRI features and positive toxoplasma serology a diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. He was treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and pyrimethamine/ Sulfadoxine for 3 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, repeat MRI of brain was done which showed significant resolution of the lesions. We are presenting this case to highlight the fact that cerebral toxoplasmosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of multiple neuroparenchymal lesions in young individuals who present with neurological deficits.

  9. [Ultrasonographic elastography in alimentary tract lesions diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Dyrla, Przemysław; Wojtuńi, Stanisław; Gil, Jerzy; Jałocha, Łukasz; Krzysztof, Kosik; Błaszak, Antoni; Wojtkowiak, Marek

    2009-05-01

    Technology development in data processing in ultrasonography let new imaging method feasible. New method of imaging is elastography (elastosonography, ultrasonographic elastography). It relays on the presumption that pathologically changed tissues have different elasticity and change their shape in different way than health tissue. Elastography is used in lesions in alimentary tract diagnostics. Sensitivity and specificity in malignant lesions differentiation is 85% and 90%. In elastography there is used conventional ultrasonography device that is equipped with additional transformator that is located in probe. Examination is performed with multiple pressing the organ. Imaging is acquired in real-time regime they are colour-coded and they are created during compression. As a result of computer analysis images are generated in two colours. On the basis of character of normal and increased rigidity images were classified in five point scale from one to five. Indication to elastography is suspicion of malignant lesions in traditional ultrasonography and monitoring of liver cirrhosis and fibrosis. More trials are required to evaluate this method more reliably. Then it could be recommended for everyday clinical use.

  10. Implant periapical lesion: Diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David

    2012-01-01

    The implant periapical lesion is the infectious-inflammatory process of the tissues surrounding the implant apex. It may be caused by different factors: contamination of the implant surface, overheating of bone during drilling, preparation of a longer implant bed than the implant itself, and pre-existing bone disease. Diagnosis is achieved by studying the presence of symptoms and signs such us pain, swelling, suppuration or fistula; in the radiograph an implant periapical radiolucency may appear. A diagnostic classification is proposed to establish the stage of the lesion, and determine the best treatment option accordingly. The following stages are distinguished: acute apical periimplantitis (non-suppurated and suppurated) and subcacute (or suppurated-fistulized) apical periimplantitis. The most adequate treatment of this pathology in the acute stage and in the subacute stage if there is no loss of implant stability is apical surgery. In the subacute stage, if there is implant mobility, the extraction of the implant is necessary. Key words:Implant periapical lesion, apical periimplantitis, retrograde periimplantitis. PMID:22926472

  11. Image segmentation applied to atherosclerotic lesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, R. Rodríguez; Martínez, T. E. Alarcón; Cuello, L. Sánchez; Fernández-Britto, J. E.; Taylor, Charles

    2000-10-01

    The results obtained using two techniques: a supervised method and other unsupervised for image segmentation of atherosclerotic lesions of the thoracic aorta, are presented. Segmentation was used both with and without pre-processing. In this paper, the advantages of pre-processing prior to are shown for discriminating among the different atherosclerotic lesions (fatty streaks, fibrous plaque, complicated plaques and calcified plaques) and identifying them. The results using a supervised method were poor when searching vector consisted of two components, the mean and the variance. This digital image processing was done in order to use the automated atherometric system. This methodology has been considered to be suitable for the characterization of the atherosclerotic lesions in any artery and its organ-related damage in any vascular sector or group of patients. Final results were compared with manual segmentation realized by an expert, where difference errors less than 3% were observed. It is demonstrated by extensive experimentation, using real image data, that proposed strategy is fast and robust in the environment of a personal computer.

  12. Precursor lesions of invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schreer, Ingrid; Lüttges, Jutta

    2005-04-01

    The increasing application of mammography, mainly in screening programs for the early detection of breast cancer, and the high technical standard of imaging has resulted in the detection of clinically occult breast tumors. Considering that only diagnosis at an early stage will be able to change the prognosis of breast cancer, this diagnostic challenge appears to be the most exciting field in both breast imaging and breast pathology. Especially the precursor lesions need to be diagnosed and defined precisely to understand their prognostic significance. In imaging, the morphologic appearance of precursor lesions is usually neither typical nor pathognomonic. They have to be assessed histologically using percutaneous interventions. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated various genetic alterations in the ductal epithelium, with the earliest onset in atypical ductal hyperplasia. The recent WHO classification, which is based on molecular data and histopathological features, attempts to define in particular the precursor lesions and low grade intraductal carcinomas. The clinical importance of the various grades has to be assessed. Intimate cooperation between diagnostic radiologist and pathologist is essential.

  13. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:26973405

  14. Lesions associated with drowning in bycaught penguins.

    PubMed

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric; Hurtado, Renata; Ewbank, Ana Carolina; Bertozzi, Carolina Pacheco; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-10-27

    Fisheries bycatch, the incidental mortality that occurs as a result of entanglement in fishing gear, is an important conservation threat to penguins and other seabirds. Identification of entanglement and drowning in beach-cast carcasses of seabirds remains a challenge, as it is still unclear what lesions are to be expected in a bycaught seabird. We necropsied 2 Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus that were entangled and drowned in gillnets. Marked distension of the lungs with foamy red fluid and marked oedema of the dorsal visceral pleura were prominent lesions consistent with those described in cases of 'wet drowning' in humans. On the other hand, the air sacs contained very small quantities of liquid, suggesting that absence of water in the air sacs might not be a reliable sign to exclude drowning. Other relevant findings included cutaneous lacerations and bruising in one bird and cervical and pectoral rhabdomyolysis in both birds. While cutaneous or subcutaneous hematomas may be an indication of bycatch, especially if linear or cross-linear patterns consistent with fishing nets are present, these lesions might not always be discernible and their absence does not suffice to exclude the possibility of entanglement in fishing nets. Additionally, our findings suggest that the histological examination of skeletal muscles, particularly of the neck, may provide additional clues to corroborate the diagnosis of drowning in penguins.

  15. Endoscopic and histologic characteristics of serrated lesions

    PubMed Central

    Moussata, Driffa; Boschetti, Gilles; Chauvenet, Marion; Stroeymeyt, Karine; Nancey, Stéphane; Berger, Françoise; Lecomte, Thierry; Flourié, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a second pathway for colonic carcinogenesis, distinct from the adenomatous pathway, has been explored. This is referred to as serrated pathway and includes three types of polyp, characterised by a serrated appearance of the crypts: hyperplastic polyps (HP), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) or lesions, and traditional serrated adenomas. Each lesion has its own genetic, as well as macroscopic and microscopic morphological features. Because of their flat aspect, their detection is easier with chromoendoscopy (carmin indigo or narrow-band imaging). However, as we show in this review, the distinction between SSA and HP is quite difficult. It is now recommended to resect in one piece as it is possible the serrated polyps with a control in a delay depending on the presence or not of dysplasia. These different types of lesion are described in detail in the present review in general population, in polyposis and in inflammatory bowel diseases patients. This review highlights the need to improve characterization and understanding of this way of colorectal cancerogenesis. PMID:25780286

  16. Differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions in fish.

    PubMed Central

    Law, M

    2001-01-01

    Tissues such as skin and muscle have a limited repertoire of morphological response to injury. The two most important phenomena that determine the outcome of cell injury appear to be a) critical cell membrane damage, with associated fluid and ionic imbalances; and b) inability of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, to restart ATP synthesis. In fish, skin ulcers can have many different etiologies, including infectious agents, toxins, physical causes, immunologic causes, and nutritional and metabolic perturbations. This article is concerned primarily with the possible pathways of disease involved in ulcerative lesions of fish. In particular, the high prevalence of ulcerative lesions in Atlantic menhaden found along the mid-Atlantic coast, especially in North Carolina estuarine waters, has received much recent attention. These ulcerative lesions are likely to be initiated by a series of factors that lead ultimately to a breach of the normal barrier function of the skin. Bioassays that attempt to define the role of individual etiologic agents such as fungi (oomycetes) or putative Pfiesteria toxin(s) should recognize this multiplicity of factors and should include appropriate quality control measures for water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrogenous wastes, etc.) as well as bacterial and other contaminants that may confound bioassay results and their interpretation. Consideration of these factors along with the whole animal in the context of its environment can only advance the science, perhaps provide clues to the causative pathways of skin ulcers in fish, and give us keener insight into the health of the aquatic environment. PMID:11677175

  17. Differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions in fish.

    PubMed

    Law, M

    2001-10-01

    Tissues such as skin and muscle have a limited repertoire of morphological response to injury. The two most important phenomena that determine the outcome of cell injury appear to be a) critical cell membrane damage, with associated fluid and ionic imbalances; and b) inability of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, to restart ATP synthesis. In fish, skin ulcers can have many different etiologies, including infectious agents, toxins, physical causes, immunologic causes, and nutritional and metabolic perturbations. This article is concerned primarily with the possible pathways of disease involved in ulcerative lesions of fish. In particular, the high prevalence of ulcerative lesions in Atlantic menhaden found along the mid-Atlantic coast, especially in North Carolina estuarine waters, has received much recent attention. These ulcerative lesions are likely to be initiated by a series of factors that lead ultimately to a breach of the normal barrier function of the skin. Bioassays that attempt to define the role of individual etiologic agents such as fungi (oomycetes) or putative Pfiesteria toxin(s) should recognize this multiplicity of factors and should include appropriate quality control measures for water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrogenous wastes, etc.) as well as bacterial and other contaminants that may confound bioassay results and their interpretation. Consideration of these factors along with the whole animal in the context of its environment can only advance the science, perhaps provide clues to the causative pathways of skin ulcers in fish, and give us keener insight into the health of the aquatic environment.

  18. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-03-07

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses.

  19. Tumefactive Fibroinflammatory Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Sharma, Nisha; Bhargava, Shilpi; Singh, Virender

    2017-01-01

    Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesions (TFLs) are rare idiopathic benign fibrosclerosing lesions that clinically simulate a malignancy. TFLs are seen more frequently in males between 10 and 74 years of age. The usual site of involvement is the head and neck region, but rarely the extremities may be involved. Coexisting fibrosclerotic processes have been reported including retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing mediastinal fibrosis, and orbital pseudotumors. The etiology of this poorly understood entity remains unknown. Possible suggestions include exaggerated responses or autoimmune reactions to any chronic infection. The clinical and radiological appearance of TFLs is that of malignancy, but histopathology reveals them to be a benign process broadly classified under non-neoplastic, fibroinflammatory proliferations. The treatment strategies for these lesions are not well defined and variable and include steroids, surgery, and radiotherapy either alone or in combination. TFLs, albeit not fatal, have a high recurrence rate; patients should, therefore, be kept on long-term follow-up. We describe a young female patient presenting with a rapidly developing cheek swelling, which was diagnosed histopathologically as a TFLs. PMID:28360448

  20. Pulmonary lesions in cats with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mexas, Angela M; Hess, Rebecka S; Hawkins, Eleanor C; Martin, Linda D

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy of cats and humans. Although few studies have examined the effects of DM on the pulmonary system, changes in pulmonary function and immunology in humans with type I and II diabetes, and pulmonary lesions in a murine diabetic model have been documented. Our objective was to determine whether pulmonary lesions occurred in cats with DM. Medical records and necropsy evaluations of 42 cats with DM were compared with those of 45 age-matched, nondiabetic cats for the presence of clinical evidence of respiratory disease and pulmonary histopathological findings at the time of necropsy. No statistical difference was noted in the presence of clinical evidence of respiratory disease between cats with diabetes and control cats. Nevertheless, there was a significant association between the presence of abnormal pulmonary histopathology and DM (P = .018, odds ratio = 3 inclusive of all cats; P = .005, odds ratio = 5 when non-DM cats with overt clinical evidence of respiratory disease were excluded). Pulmonary abnormalities detected by histopathological examination in cats with diabetes included congestion and edema, histiocytosis, pneumonia, smooth muscle hypertrophy, fibrosis, mineralization, neoplasia, and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. The observed association between DM and pulmonary lesions in cats, independent of clinical evidence of respiratory disease, emphasizes the need for careful assessment of the respiratory tract in sick cats with diabetes.

  1. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Terminology.

    PubMed

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A; Schwendicke, F

    2016-05-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current words used in the literature for caries removal techniques, and 2) agreed terms and definitions, explaining how these were decided.Dental cariesis the name of the disease, and thecarious lesionis the consequence and manifestation of the disease-the signs or symptoms of the disease. The termdental caries managementshould be limited to situations involving control of the disease through preventive and noninvasive means at a patient level, whereascarious lesion managementcontrols the disease symptoms at the tooth level. While it is not possible to directly relate the visual appearance of carious lesions' clinical manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm dentine; 2)stepwise removal-including stage 1,selective removal to soft dentine, and stage 2,selective removal to firm dentine6 to 12 mo later; and 3)nonselective removal to hard dentine-formerly known ascomplete caries removal(technique no longer recommended). Adoption of these terms, around managing dental caries and its sequelae, will facilitate improved understanding and communication among researchers and within dental educators and the wider clinical dentistry community.

  2. Vibration sonoelastography and the detectability of lesions.

    PubMed

    Parker, K J; Fu, D; Graceswki, S M; Yeung, F; Levinson, S F

    1998-11-01

    Vibration sonoelastography has been developed for the detection of hard lesions in relatively soft tissue. The basic concept is to propagate low-amplitude and low-frequency shear waves (with displacements below 0.1 mm and frequencies typically below 1000 Hz) through deep organs, and displaying the vibration response in real-time using advanced color Doppler imaging techniques. A hard inhomogeneity, such as a tumor, will produce a localized disturbance in the vibration pattern, forming the basis for detection even when the tumor is isoechoic on B-scan images. This paper focuses on the important quantitative issues concerning the detectability or inherent contrast of lesions. The specific factors of lesion size, relative stiffness and vibration frequency are studied using theoretical models, finite element methods and experimental measurements on tissue-mimicking materials. The results indicate that detectability increases with vibration (shear wave) frequency; however, loss mechanisms ultimately limit the penetration of higher vibration frequencies (in the kHz range).

  3. [Symptoms and lesion localization in visual agnosia].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2004-11-01

    There are two cortical visual processing streams, the ventral and dorsal stream. The ventral visual stream plays the major role in constructing our perceptual representation of the visual world and the objects within it. Disturbance of visual processing at any stage of the ventral stream could result in impairment of visual recognition. Thus we need systematic investigations to diagnose visual agnosia and its type. Two types of category-selective visual agnosia, prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia, are different from others in that patients could recognize a face as a face and buildings as buildings, but could not identify an individual person or building. Neuronal bases of prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia are distinct. Importance of the right fusiform gyrus for face recognition was confirmed by both clinical and neuroimaging studies. Landmark agnosia is related to lesions in the right parahippocampal gyrus. Enlarged lesions including both the right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri can result in prosopagnosia and landmark agnosia at the same time. Category non-selective visual agnosia is related to bilateral occipito-temporal lesions, which is in agreement with the results of neuroimaging studies that revealed activation of the bilateral occipito-temporal during object recognition tasks.

  4. Multiple arterial phase MRI of arterial hypervascular hepatic lesions: improved arterial phase capture and lesion enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Nabia S; Yee, Judy; Weinstein, Stefanie; Yeh, Benjamin M; Corvera, Carlos U; Monto, Alexander; Hope, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    To establish if triple-phase arterial imaging improves the detection of arterial phase hyperintense lesions based on arterial phase capture, motion artifact degradation, and lesion enhancement when compared to single-phase imaging. Patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma were imaged at 3.0T. Seventy-three consecutive patients with a standard single-phase MRI and eighty-five consecutive patients were imaged using extracellular contrast with triple arterial phase MRI using three sequential accelerated acquisitions of 8 s. Arterial phase capture and image quality were qualitatively categorized. Forty single-phase and forty-four triple-phase studies contained arterially enhancing lesions > 1 cm with washout appearance. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the lesions was calculated. We compared the differences in means with Student t-tests and those in arterial phase capture with a Chi squared test with Yates correction. The triple-phase acquisitions captured the early or late arterial phases more frequently than did the single-phase acquisition (99% vs 86%; P value = 0.006). Triple-phase also provided greater number of patients with early or late arterial phase imaging without motion artifact (92% vs 79%, P-value = 0.05). The lesion analysis revealed increased maximum CNR in the triple-phase imaging (704.4) vs. single-phase imaging (517.2), P-value < 0.001. Triple-phase acquisition provides more robust arterial phase imaging for hepatic lesions, with increased lesion CNR, compared to standard single-phase arterial phase imaging.

  5. Diverse imaging characteristics of a mandibular intraosseous vascular lesion.

    PubMed

    Handa, Hina; Naidu, Giridhar S; Dara, Balaji Gandhi Babu; Deshpande, Ashwini; Raghavendra, Raju

    2014-03-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region are rare, and the differential diagnosis of intraosseous vascular malformations from other jaw lesions can be challenging. In the present case, magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) was used for diagnosis, and the lesion was treated wih surgical excision. Diverse characteristics such as the "honeycomb" and "sunburst" radiographic appearances and the absence of major peripheral feeder vessels in the CTA were noted. Intraosseous vascular malformations have a varied radiographic appearance, and the nomenclature of these lesions is equally diverse, with several overlapping terms. Pathologists do not generally differentiate among intraosseous vascular lesions on the basis of histopathology, although these lesions may present with contrasting immunohistochemical and clinical behaviors requiring varied treatment strategies. This case report highlights the need for multiple imaging modalities to differentiate among vascular lesions, as well as to better understand the behaviors of these unique lesions.

  6. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: clinical presentation with varied forms of lesions.

    PubMed

    Sá, Naiana Bittencourt de; Guerini, Marina Besen; Barbato, Mariana Tremel; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

    2011-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare inherited skin disorder spread by HPV, with cases linked to chromosome X. It is characterized by hypo- or hyper-pigmented macular lesions, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and an early tendency to develop skin malignancies. We present a case of epidermodysplasia verruciformis with a variety of lesions such as multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma on the face.

  7. Pigmented Skin Lesion Biopsies After Computer-Aided Multispectral Digital Skin Lesion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Richard R; Tucker, Natalie; White, Richard; Rigel, Darrell S

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been rising over the past century. With 37% of patients presenting to their primary care physician with at least 1 skin problem, primary care physicians and other nondermatologist practitioners have substantial opportunity to make an impact at the forefront of the disease process. New diagnostic aids have been developed to augment physician analysis of suspicious pigmented skin lesions (PSLs). To determine the effects of computer-aided multispectral digital skin lesion analysis (MSDSLA) on dermatologists' and nondermatologist clinicians' decisions to biopsy suspicious PSLs after clinical and dermatoscopic evaluation. Participants were shown 6 images of PSLs. For each PSL, participants were asked 3 times if they would biopsy the lesion: first after reviewing a clinical image of the PSL, again after reviewing a high-resolution dermatoscopic image, and again after reviewing MSDSLA probability findings. An answer was right if a melanoma or high-risk lesion was selected for biopsy or a low-risk lesion was not selected for biopsy. An answer was wrong if a melanoma or high-risk lesion was not selected for biopsy or a low-risk lesion was selected for biopsy. Clinicians' decisions to biopsy were evaluated using χ² analysis for proportions. Data were analyzed from a total of 212 participants, 177 of whom were dermatologists. Overall, sensitivity of clinical image review was 63%; dermatoscopic image review, 5%; and MSDSLA, 83%. Specificity of clinical image review was 59%; dermatoscopic image review, 40%; and MSDSLA, 76%. Biopsy decision accuracy was 61% after review of clinical images, 52% after review of dermatoscopic images, and 80% after review of MSDSLA findings. The number of lesions participants indicated that they would biopsy increased significantly, from 52% after reviewing clinical images to 63% after reviewing dermatoscopic images (P<.001). However, the overall number of specimens that participants indicated they would biopsy did

  8. 21 CFR 882.4400 - Radiofrequency lesion generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiofrequency lesion generator. 882.4400 Section 882.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lesion generator. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion generator is a device used to produce...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4400 - Radiofrequency lesion generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiofrequency lesion generator. 882.4400 Section 882.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lesion generator. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion generator is a device used to produce...

  10. 21 CFR 882.4400 - Radiofrequency lesion generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiofrequency lesion generator. 882.4400 Section 882.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lesion generator. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion generator is a device used to produce...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4400 - Radiofrequency lesion generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiofrequency lesion generator. 882.4400 Section 882.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lesion generator. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion generator is a device used to produce...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4400 - Radiofrequency lesion generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiofrequency lesion generator. 882.4400 Section 882.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... lesion generator. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion generator is a device used to produce...

  13. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but diagnostic terminology and criteria for these lesions are inconsistent in the literature. The diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions is especially challenging in fish due to the fact that the thyroid is not a ...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5500 - Lesion temperature monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lesion temperature monitor. 882.5500 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5500 Lesion temperature monitor. (a) Identification. A lesion temperature monitor is a device used to monitor the tissue...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5500 - Lesion temperature monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lesion temperature monitor. 882.5500 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5500 Lesion temperature monitor. (a) Identification. A lesion temperature monitor is a device used to monitor the tissue...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5500 - Lesion temperature monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lesion temperature monitor. 882.5500 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5500 Lesion temperature monitor. (a) Identification. A lesion temperature monitor is a device used to monitor the tissue...

  17. 21 CFR 882.5500 - Lesion temperature monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lesion temperature monitor. 882.5500 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5500 Lesion temperature monitor. (a) Identification. A lesion temperature monitor is a device used to monitor the tissue...

  18. 21 CFR 882.5500 - Lesion temperature monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lesion temperature monitor. 882.5500 Section 882...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5500 Lesion temperature monitor. (a) Identification. A lesion temperature monitor is a device used to monitor the tissue...

  19. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but diagnostic terminology and criteria for these lesions are inconsistent in the literature. The diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions is especially challenging in fish due to the fact that the thyroid is not a ...

  20. Oral Lesions in Elderly Patients in Referral Centers for Oral Lesions of Bahia

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Sarah; Alves, Técia; Santos, Jean; Oliveira, Márcio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aging population phenomenon is occurring on a global scale; aging affects all of the structures of organisms, including the oral cavity. Objective To estimate the frequency of oral lesions, according to the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses, and to describe the sociodemographic profile of the elderly treated at the referral centers of oral lesions of public universities in Bahia, Brazil. Methods A descriptive epidemiologic study with transverse characteristics was conducted with elderly patients between August 2010 and January 2012. A form was used to collect data. The descriptive analysis consisted of calculating the simple and relative frequencies of sociodemographic variables and oral lesions. Results The population was predominantly black women, and the minority of elderly people were retired. Fibroid (13%) and squamous cell carcinoma (145%) were more prevalent clinical diagnoses, with squamous cell carcinoma (30.7%) and fibrous hyperplasia more prevalent histopathologic diagnoses. Conclusion A prevention policy needs to be implemented to reduce new cases of oral lesions in Bahia, Brazil and to aid in early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of oral lesions. PMID:26491471

  1. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation.

  2. [Cytologic-colposcopic-histopathologic correlations in preinvasive cervical lesions and cervical Human Papillomavirus infections].

    PubMed

    von der Meden Alarcón, J W; Ruiz Moreno, J A; García León, J F; Kably Ambe, A

    1995-09-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer is the most frequent gynecological neoplasia in Mexico and cervico-vaginal cytology is the most practical and dependable resource in lesions detection. During the last years precursory lesions detection (NIC and HPV infection) has increased. So, every patient presenting with an abnormal cytology should be included in an evaluation program, that includes a colposcopic study with biopsy of suspicious lesions, in order to know cellular abnormality degree, as these studies combination increases diagnosis certainty. Ninety three patients were evaluated by colposcopy, as the Papanicolaou showed abnormality ICN type in any degree or HPV infection data, during the first three years of the Unidad de Colposcopia de la Beneficiencia del Hospital ABC. In 49 patients histopathological study, was done. A correlation of all studies was carried out. There was a correlation cytology-histopathology of 59.18%; and colposcopy-histopathology of 89.79%. It was concluded that evaluation by cytology is insufficient to establish a final diagnosis and treatment, and that colposcopic study is fundamental in the evaluation of the patient with abnormal exfoliative cytology.

  3. Palliation of Ulcerative Breast Lesions with Radiation.

    PubMed

    Vempati, Prashant; Knoll, Miriam A; Dharmarajan, Kavita; Green, Sheryl; Tiersten, Amy; Bakst, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    Patients with advanced breast cancer may experience ulcerative breast lesions. Breast cancer with ulcerative lesions has been shown to severely affect a patient's quality of life (QoL). The role of palliative radiation therapy (RT) in the management of ulcerative breast lesions needs to be further explored. We retrospectively reviewed the RT records for all patients who underwent palliative RT for breast cancer at our urban academic medical center. A total of 13 patients were identified, and we herein report their demographics, treatment characteristics, and clinical outcomes. The mean age of the patients receiving palliative RT for ulcerative breast cancer was 64 years. All patients had stage IV disease when they were evaluated for RT. The mean radiation dose received for palliative RT was 27.54 Gy in 11 fractions, with a median dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions. Six (46%) patients had received prior RT to the same breast, with a median dose of 59.5 Gy in 31 fractions. Among these six patients, the average interval between initial RT and ulceration was 69.5 months. The median overall survival for the whole patient cohort since ulceration was 5 months and the mean survival did not differ between patients with previous history of RT and RT-naïve patients (4.50 vs. 4.57; p=0.95). Six out of the nine (69%) patients who received 30 Gy or more reported clinical improvement, whereas none of the four patients who received less than 30 Gy reported any benefit. There were no radiation-associated toxicities reported by patients. These data suggest that palliative RT (≥30 Gy) is an efficacious treatment for ulcerative breast cancer with minimal toxicity. Prior RT should not be a contraindication, as patients with previous history of RT have similar low toxicity rates compared to RT-naïve patients. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Widespread telomere instability in prostatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Tu, LiRen; Huda, Nazmul; Grimes, Brenda R; Slee, Roger B; Bates, Alison M; Cheng, Liang; Gilley, David

    2016-05-01

    A critical function of the telomere is to disguise chromosome ends from cellular recognition as double strand breaks, thereby preventing aberrant chromosome fusion events. Such chromosome end-to-end fusions are known to initiate genomic instability via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Telomere dysfunction and other forms of genomic assault likely result in misregulation of genes involved in growth control, cell death, and senescence pathways, lowering the threshold to malignancy and likely drive disease progression. Shortened telomeres and anaphase bridges have been reported in a wide variety of early precursor and malignant cancer lesions including those of the prostate. These findings are being extended using methods for the analysis of telomere fusions (decisive genetic markers for telomere dysfunction) specifically within human tissue DNA. Here we report that benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and prostate cancer (PCa) prostate lesions all contain similarly high frequencies of telomere fusions and anaphase bridges. Tumor-adjacent, histologically normal prostate tissue generally did not contain telomere fusions or anaphase bridges as compared to matched PCa tissues. However, we found relatively high levels of telomerase activity in this histologically normal tumor-adjacent tissue that was reduced but closely correlated with telomerase levels in corresponding PCa samples. Thus, we present evidence of high levels of telomere dysfunction in BPH, an established early precursor (PIN) and prostate cancer lesions but not generally in tumor adjacent normal tissue. Our results suggest that telomere dysfunction may be a common gateway event leading to genomic instability in prostate tumorigenesis. . © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved

  6. Effects of occlusal load on cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Litonjua, L A; Bush, P J; Andreana, S; Tobias, T S; Cohen, R E

    2004-03-01

    Toothbrush abrasion has been considered to cause cervical lesions. However, some investigators have proposed that occlusal loading factors direct tensile stresses at the cervical area, resulting in wedge-shaped abfraction defects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of axial and non-axial load on the development of cervical lesions. Matched paired premolars, extracted for orthodontic purposes, were used in a custom-fabricated toothbrushing apparatus. A periodontal sulcus width of 0b1 mm with 1 mm gingival recession was simulated with denture base resin. In phase 1, eight matched premolar pairs were subjected to 80 h (1b4 million strokes) of brushing and 300 g of toothbrush force. Toothpaste slurry was applied continuously through the toothbrush. One specimen in each pair was subjected to 250 h and 45 kg of continuous axial load, while the other unloaded tooth served as a negative control. In phase 2, 10 matched premolar pairs were subjected to the same conditions; however, the experimental teeth were subjected to 250 h and 45 kg of intermittent non-axial load, directed at a 45 degrees angle to the buccal cusp. Rubber impressions were made of the cervical lesions, then trimmed, weighed, and compared to determine the amount of tooth material lost. When teeth were loaded axially, there was significantly less tooth material loss (P < 0b02); however, when teeth were loaded non-axially, there was no significant difference (P =0b80) when compared with controls. Optical and scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any significant differences in the morphology between pairs. Our data suggest that the application of occlusal load may not necessarily play a significant role in the progression of cervical tooth wear commonly referred to as abfraction.

  7. BG-12 reduces evolution of new enhancing lesions to T1-hypointense lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    MacManus, D G; Miller, D H; Kappos, L; Gold, R; Havrdova, E; Limmroth, V; Polman, C H; Schmierer, K; Yousry, T A; Eraksoy, M; Meluzinova, E; Dufek, M; Yang, M; O'Neill, G N; Dawson, K

    2011-03-01

    BG-12, an immunomodulatory agent, reduces frequency of new gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). This study reports the effect of 240 mg BG-12 orally three times daily (tid) for 24 weeks on the evolution of new Gd+ lesions to T1-hypointense lesions. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from patients in placebo and 240 mg BG-12 tid arms of a phase 2b study were examined retrospectively. Included patients had at least one new Gd+ lesion from weeks 4 to 12. Week 24 scans were analyzed for number and proportion of new Gd+ lesions that evolved to T1-hypointense lesions. Eighteen patients receiving BG-12 and 38 patients receiving placebo were included in the analysis. The analysis tracked 147 new Gd+ lesions in patients from the BG-12 group and 221 Gd+ lesions in patients from the placebo group. The percentage of Gd+ lesions that evolved to T1-hypointense lesions was 34% lower with BG-12 treatment versus placebo (29%, BG-12; 44%, placebo; odds ratio 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.61; p < 0.0001). In addition to reducing frequency of new Gd+ lesions, BG-12 significantly reduced probability of their evolution to T1-hypointense lesions in patients with MS compared with placebo.

  8. Automated segmentation of chronic stroke lesions using LINDA: Lesion Identification with Neighborhood Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pustina, Dorian; Coslett, H. Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Tustison, Nicholas; Schwartz, Myrna F.; Avants, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for identifying stroke lesions is manual tracing, a method that is known to be observer dependent and time consuming, thus impractical for big data studies. We propose LINDA (Lesion Identification with Neighborhood Data Analysis), an automated segmentation algorithm capable of learning the relationship between existing manual segmentations and a single T1-weighted MRI. A dataset of 60 left hemispheric chronic stroke patients is used to build the method and test it with k-fold and leave-one-out procedures. With respect to manual tracings, predicted lesion maps showed a mean dice overlap of 0.696±0.16, Hausdorff distance of 17.9±9.8mm, and average displacement of 2.54±1.38mm. The manual and predicted lesion volumes correlated at r=0.961. An additional dataset of 45 patients was utilized to test LINDA with independent data, achieving high accuracy rates and confirming its cross-institutional applicability. To investigate the cost of moving from manual tracings to automated segmentation, we performed comparative lesion-to-symptom mapping (LSM) on five behavioral scores. Predicted and manual lesions produced similar neuro-cognitive maps, albeit with some discussed discrepancies. Of note, region-wise LSM was more robust to the prediction error than voxel-wise LSM. Our results show that, while several limitations exist, our current results compete with or exceed the state-of-the-art, producing consistent predictions, very low failure rates, and transferable knowledge between labs. This work also establishes a new viewpoint on evaluating automated methods not only with segmentation accuracy but also with brain-behavior relationships. LINDA is made available online with trained models from over 100 patients. PMID:26756101

  9. Automated segmentation of chronic stroke lesions using LINDA: Lesion identification with neighborhood data analysis.

    PubMed

    Pustina, Dorian; Coslett, H Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E; Tustison, Nicholas; Schwartz, Myrna F; Avants, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The gold standard for identifying stroke lesions is manual tracing, a method that is known to be observer dependent and time consuming, thus impractical for big data studies. We propose LINDA (Lesion Identification with Neighborhood Data Analysis), an automated segmentation algorithm capable of learning the relationship between existing manual segmentations and a single T1-weighted MRI. A dataset of 60 left hemispheric chronic stroke patients is used to build the method and test it with k-fold and leave-one-out procedures. With respect to manual tracings, predicted lesion maps showed a mean dice overlap of 0.696 ± 0.16, Hausdorff distance of 17.9 ± 9.8 mm, and average displacement of 2.54 ± 1.38 mm. The manual and predicted lesion volumes correlated at r = 0.961. An additional dataset of 45 patients was utilized to test LINDA with independent data, achieving high accuracy rates and confirming its cross-institutional applicability. To investigate the cost of moving from manual tracings to automated segmentation, we performed comparative lesion-to-symptom mapping (LSM) on five behavioral scores. Predicted and manual lesions produced similar neuro-cognitive maps, albeit with some discussed discrepancies. Of note, region-wise LSM was more robust to the prediction error than voxel-wise LSM. Our results show that, while several limitations exist, our current results compete with or exceed the state-of-the-art, producing consistent predictions, very low failure rates, and transferable knowledge between labs. This work also establishes a new viewpoint on evaluating automated methods not only with segmentation accuracy but also with brain-behavior relationships. LINDA is made available online with trained models from over 100 patients.

  10. Localization of Neurologic Lesions in Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kevin E

    2017-03-01

    As stated many times throughout this issue, localization of the origin of neurologic deficits in ruminants is paramount to successful diagnosis and prognosis. This article serves as a guide to answer 2 questions that should be asked when presented with a ruminant with neurologic dysfunction: is the lesion rostral or caudal to the foramen magnum, and does the animal have primary neurologic disease? The answers to these 2 broad questions begin the thought processes to more specifically describe the location and nature of the dysfunction. Challenges often facing the diagnostician include economic constraints, size of the animal, and unruly behavior.

  11. Periungual Lesion due to Secondary Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro; Gioia Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Cury Rezende, Flávia; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2017-01-01

    Several countries experience a new epidemic of syphilis, mainly due to the changes in risk behaviors. Dermatologists play an important role in the diagnosis, since cutaneous manifestations are frequent during disease progression. We report a rare case of secondary syphilis with periungual involvement. Syphilis, especially in the secondary form, may present with different clinical features, affecting different organs, and mimicking many diseases. Although nail apparatus lesions are more common in the primary form of the disease, they may also be present in the secondary and tertiary forms. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the diverse forms of syphilis presentation is important for an early diagnosis and timely treatment. PMID:28232918

  12. Periungual Lesion due to Secondary Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro; Gioia Di Chiacchio, Nilton; Cury Rezende, Flávia; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2017-01-01

    Several countries experience a new epidemic of syphilis, mainly due to the changes in risk behaviors. Dermatologists play an important role in the diagnosis, since cutaneous manifestations are frequent during disease progression. We report a rare case of secondary syphilis with periungual involvement. Syphilis, especially in the secondary form, may present with different clinical features, affecting different organs, and mimicking many diseases. Although nail apparatus lesions are more common in the primary form of the disease, they may also be present in the secondary and tertiary forms. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the diverse forms of syphilis presentation is important for an early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  13. [Ultrasound criteria of a meniscus lesion].

    PubMed

    Sohn, C; Casser, H R; Swobodnik, W

    1990-04-01

    The tear in the meniscus interrupts the outline at which the sound-wave energy is reflected. This means that the sonogram shows an echo-rich, light reflection pattern. Degeneration also shows up as an echo-rich area, reflecting greater density of the tissue in the meniscus. This has been confirmed by experimental examination of knees of corpses, and also by clinical experience based on more than 2000 sonograms of the meniscus. A quota of more than 90% correct diagnoses can be obtained if the proper criteria are observed in case of a lesion of the meniscus, and if the technical equipment is adequate and the examiner has acquired sufficient skill.

  14. Monte Carlo modeling of pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James

    2014-03-01

    Colors observed in clinical dermoscopy are critical to diagnosis but the mechanisms that lead to the spectral components of diffuse reflectance are more than meets the eye: combinations of the absorption and scattering spectra of the biomolecules as well as the "structural color" effect of skin anatomy. We modeled diffuse remittance from skin based on histopathology. The optical properties of the tissue types were based on the relevant chromophores and scatterers. The resulting spectral images mimic the appearance of pigmented lesions quite well when the morphology is mathematically derived but limited when based on histopathology, raising interesting questions about the interaction between various wavelengths with various pathological anatomical features.

  15. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  16. Aorta Atherosclerosis Lesion Analysis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Sarajo; Yin, Changjun; Weber, Christian; Hu, Desheng; Habenicht, Andreas JR

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice are used as experimental models to study human atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice are constitutively hyperlipidemic and develop intima plaques that resemble human plaques. Various issues including experimental design for lesion analysis, dietary conditions, isolation of the aorta, staining methods, morphometry, group size, age, the location within the arterial tree, and statistical analyses are important parameters that need to be addressed to obtain robust data. Here, we provide detailed methods to quantify aorta atherosclerosis. PMID:27366759

  17. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1983-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  18. Vestibular-induced vomiting after vestibulocerebellar lesions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Vestibular stimulation, by sinusoidal electrical polarization of the labyrinths of decerebrate cats which can produce vomiting and related activity which resembles motion sickness was examined. The symptoms include panting, salivation, swallowing, and retching as well as vomiting. These symptoms can be produced in cats with lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. It is suggested that a transcerebellar pathway from the vestibular apparatus through the nodulus and uvula to the vomiting center is not essential for vestibular induced vomiting and the occurrence of many symptoms of motion.

  19. Physiologic evaluation of bifurcation lesions using fractional flow reserve.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bon-Kwon

    2009-04-01

    Functional evaluation of bifurcation lesions is more difficult than usual lesions due to their complex anatomy. Angiographic and intravascular ultrasound criteria for main branch intervention cannot be directly applied to side branch lesions due to the difference in underlying lesion characteristics, geometric changes during intervention, and the size of myocardial territory. Fractional flow reserve is a physiologic parameter which reflects both the degree of stenosis and the area of perfusion supplied by a specific coronary artery. The present review will focus on using fractional flow reserve in bifurcation lesions.

  20. Relationship between tail lesions and lung health in slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Vale, Ana P; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Teixeira, Dayane L; Leonard, Finola C; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Tail lesions are associated with poor health either because they serve as a point of entry for pathogens or because of shared risk factors. This study investigated the relationship between carcass tail lesion and lung lesion severity scores in slaughter pigs. Carcasses were scored after scalding/dehairing for tail lesion severity (0-4). Lungs were scored according to an adapted version of the BPEX pig health scheme. Severity of enzootic pneumonia (EP-like lesions) was recorded on a scale of 0-50. Severity of pleurisy was scored on a 0-2 scale with score 2 equating to severe pleurisy or those lungs that remained attached to the chest wall ('lungs in chest'). The database for assessing pleurisy lesions contained all pleurisy scores (n=5628). Lungs with a score of 2 for pleurisy were excluded from the analysis of all other lung lesions as such lungs could not be assessed for other lesions (n=4491). Associations between tail lesions and different lung lesion outcomes were analysed using generalized linear mixed models (PROC GLIMMIX) with random effect for batch. Males were more affected by moderate (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.51-2.34) and severe (OR=5.8, 95% CI 3.45-9.70) tail lesions than females. EP-like lesions and pleurisy were most commonly observed. Pigs with severe tail lesions tended to have more 'lungs in chest' than pigs with moderate tail lesions (P=0.1). No other associations between tail lesions and lung lesions were found. Males had higher odds of having EP-like lesions (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.05-1.36) than females. Tail lesions on the carcass may not be an accurate predictor of lung health. However, tail lesions are important welfare indicators and respiratory disease is a significant infectious condition affecting pigs. Thus, recording of tail and lung lesions at meat inspection provides valuable information regarding on-farm health and welfare of pigs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adrenal imaging (Part 1): Imaging techniques and primary cortical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ananya; Das, Chandan J.; Dhamija, Ekta; Kumar, Rakesh; Gupta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal glands can be affected by a variety of lesions. Adrenal lesions can either be primary, of adrenal origin, or secondary to other pathologies. Primary adrenal lesions can further be either of cortical or medullary origin. Functioning adrenal lesions can also give clues to the histologic diagnosis and direct workup. Over the years, various imaging techniques have been developed that have increased diagnostic accuracy and helped in better characterization of adrenal lesions non-invasively. In the first part of the two part series, we review adrenal imaging techniques and adrenal cortical tumors such as adenomas, adrenocortical tumors, adrenal hyperplasia and oncocytomas. PMID:25593820

  2. Bleeding Scrotal Vascular Lesions: Interventional Management with Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jaganathan, Sriram; Gamanagatti, Shivanand Mukund, Amar; Dhar, Anita

    2011-02-15

    Vascular lesions of the scrotum are uncommon; the most common among them are varicocele lesions. The other vascular lesions that may involve the scrotum are hemangioma, lymphangioma, and arteriovenous malformations, which are exceedingly rare. The imaging modalities useful in the diagnosis and management of scrotal vascular lesions are grayscale sonography, color Doppler sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. We present two cases of scrotal vascular lesions involving the extratesticular scrotal soft tissues. Patients presented with bleeding and were treated by radiological interventional technique. We emphasize the importance of superselective catheterization and distal embolization.

  3. Large radiopaque lesion in the posterior mandible: A challenging case

    PubMed Central

    Sasirekha, B.; Mathew, Philips; Ganeshkumar, M.; Austin, Ravi David; Prabhu, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Radiopaque lesions of the jawbones are frequently encountered in dental radiographs. A variety of conditions such as chronic inflammation, soft tissue calcifications, fibrosseous lesions, odontogenic tumors, and bone neoplasms can manifest as radiopaque lesions on the jawbones. These radiopaque lesions are often difficult to distinguish from each other, hence making the formulation of differential diagnosis challenging. A thorough patient's history and clinical examination supplemented by appropriate investigations will enable the clinician in narrowing down the differential diagnosis and to identify the condition accurately. Presented here is a case of the large radiopaque lesion on posterior mandible surrounded by lytic areas in a 20-year-old male patient. PMID:27829771

  4. Proposal for clinical classification of multifactorial noncarious cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Kapil; Bains, Rhythm; Bains, Vivek Kumar; Loomba, Anju

    2014-01-01

    Noncarious cervical lesions often present with overlapping symptoms and have a multifactorial etiology. The dimensions of the lesion axially (depth) and occlusogingivally (width), along with the orientation of the walls of the lesion to each other (angle), are the 3 factors that can be quantified to classify the lesion and assess its progress over time. This article analyzes these factors and proposes a simple classification system based upon the clinical appearance of the lesion in order to derive simple, therapeutic, treatment-based classifications.

  5. [Lesion localization of non-aphasic alexia and agraphia].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2011-08-01

    The author reviews the lesion localization of non-aphasic alexia and agraphia and proposes a new classification of alexia and agraphia on this basis. The newly proposed alexia and agraphia are pure alexia for kana (Japanese phonograms), or more generally pure alexia for letters, caused by a lesion in the posterior occipital area (posterior fusiform/inferior occipital gyri), and pure agraphia for kanji (Japanese morphograms) caused by a lesion in the posterior middle temporal gyrus and also a lesion restricted to the angular gyrus. In addition, the anatomical lesions presumably responsible for the parietal apraxic agraphia, frontal pure agraphia and thalamic agraphia are discussed.

  6. Fine needle aspiration cytology: a diagnostic aid for oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumir; Lata, Jeevan; Gandhi, Nitasha

    2011-06-01

    Oral lesions usually lead to a diagnostic dilemma. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important diagnostic aid for making a preoperative diagnosis of oral lesions. It does not supplant histopathology but augments it. FNAC of oral lesions was undertaken in 45 patients, and all the lesions were subjected to histopathologic examination. Aspiration was performed with 23- to 25-gauge needles held in a Cameco syringe holder (Amar Udyog, Chandigarh, India). We diagnosed benign lesions in 22 cases, malignant lesions in 15, and inflammatory lesions in 7 by FNAC, whereas in 1 case the specimen was insufficient for diagnosis. One result was false negative, but there was no false-positive result. Specificity and sensitivity of FNAC were 95.45% and 93.75%, respectively. FNAC gave a diagnostic accuracy of 90.0% for benign lesions, 94.0% for malignant lesions, and 100% for inflammatory lesions. The procedure does not have any side effects or complications. Hence FNAC can be used as a reliable diagnostic aid for oral lesions because it is safe, accurate, convenient, and cost-effective. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2006-08-01

    Detecting cancerous lesions is one major application in emission tomography. In this paper, we study penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for this important clinical task. Compared to analytical reconstruction methods, statistical approaches can improve the image quality by accurately modelling the photon detection process and measurement noise in imaging systems. To explore the full potential of penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection, we derived simplified theoretical expressions that allow fast evaluation of the detectability of a random lesion. The theoretical results are used to design the regularization parameters to improve lesion detectability. We conducted computer-based Monte Carlo simulations to compare the proposed penalty function, conventional penalty function, and a penalty function for isotropic point spread function. The lesion detectability is measured by a channelized Hotelling observer. The results show that the proposed penalty function outperforms the other penalty functions for lesion detection. The relative improvement is dependent on the size of the lesion. However, we found that the penalty function optimized for a 5 mm lesion still outperforms the other two penalty functions for detecting a 14 mm lesion. Therefore, it is feasible to use the penalty function designed for small lesions in image reconstruction, because detection of large lesions is relatively easy.

  8. Clinical parameters predictive of enlargement of melanocytic choroidal lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Augsburger, J J; Schroeder, R P; Territo, C; Gamel, J W; Shields, J A

    1989-01-01

    The authors followed up 197 melanotic choroidal lesions (62 categorised as benign naevi, 76 classified as suspicious naevi, 41 diagnosed as dormant melanomas, and 18 categorised as active melanomas) left untreated after their initial clinical documentation. Thirty-nine of these lesions enlarged during a five-year follow-up interval (cumulative proportion of lesions that enlarged = 26.2% by Kaplan-Meier method). Individual clinical parameters predictive of lesion enlargement (p less than 0.01) included larger size of the lesion, especially lesion thickness, presence of retinal detachment, location of the lesion's posterior margin within 2 disc diameters of the optic disc, presence of symptoms, and presence of orange pigment clumps on the lesion's surface. The best combination of these parameters for prediction of lesion enlargement, as identified by multivariate Cox regression analysis, consisted of thickness of the lesion, retinal detachment, and symptoms. The five-year incidence of lesion enlargement for patients with none of these prognostic parameters was 5.8%, while that for patients with all three unfavourable parameters simultaneously was 90.6%. Images PMID:2605146

  9. Optical discrimination between malignant and benign breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarto, Giovanna; Pifferi, Antonio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria; Abbate, Francesca; Cassano, Enrico; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was performed on 82 subjects with breast lesions (45 malignant and 38 benign lesions). A perturbative approach based on the high-order calculation of the pathlength of photons inside the lesion was applied to estimate differences between lesion and average healthy tissue of the same breast in terms of: i) absorption properties, and ii) concentration of the major tissue constituents (oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin, water, lipid and collagen). The absorption difference Δμa between lesion and healthy tissue is significantly different for malignant vs. benign lesions at all wavelengths. Logistic regression fitted to the absorption data identifies 975 nm as the key wavelength to discriminate malignant from benign lesions. When the difference in tissue composition between lesion and healthy tissue is considered, malignant lesions are characterized by significantly higher collagen content than benign lesions. Also the best model for the discrimination of malignant lesions obtained applying regression logistic to tissue composition is based only on collagen. Including demographic information into the model improves its specificity.

  10. Indications and limitations of endoscopic endonasal orbitotomy for orbital lesion.

    PubMed

    Karaki, Masayuki; Akiyama, Kosuke; Kagawa, Masahiro; Tamiya, Takashi; Mori, Nozomu

    2012-07-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgical techniques have developed tremendously in the last 20 years. Endoscopic techniques have been applied to the treatment of cranial base lesions, pituitary tumors, orbital lesions, pterygopalatine fossa lesions, infratemporal fossa lesions, posterior cranial fossa lesions, and clival lesions. In some reports, endoscopic endonasal transparanasal orbitotomies have been indicated for lesions localized to the medial and inferomedial parts of the orbit. The aim of this article was to present the technique of endoscopic endonasal orbitotomy (EEO) for orbital extraperiosteal and intraperiosteal lesions, as well as its indications and limitations. We present cases of 4 patients who underwent EEO for typical extraperiosteal and intraperiosteal orbital lesions. We examined the indications and limitations in each case. All 4 orbital lesions were completely removed by EEO with no major complications. The EEO procedure, which does not require a skin incision, is a minimally invasive surgery used for treating orbital retrobulbar lesions. It leads to excellent cosmetic results with little bleeding. In the future, we need to determine its operative indications, safety, and dangers. It is necessary for us to further improve this surgical technique to allow for the generalization of the procedure.

  11. Detection of endometrial lesions by degree of linear polarization maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2010-02-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility and is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. A novel laparoscopic polarization imaging system was designed to detect endometriosis by imaging endometrial lesions. Linearly polarized light with varying incident polarization angles illuminated endometrial lesions. Degree of linear polarization image maps of endometrial lesions were constructed by using remitted polarized light. The image maps were compared with regular laparoscopy image. The degree of linear polarization map contributed to the detection of endometriosis by revealing structures inside the lesion. The utilization of rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides extended understanding of endometrial lesions. The developed polarization system with varying IPA and the collected image maps could provide improved characterization of endometrial lesions via higher visibility of the structure of the lesions and thereby improve diagnosis of endometriosis.

  12. Specific (granulomatous) oral lesions of sarcoidosis: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Marcoval, Joaquim; Mañá, Joan

    2010-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology that usually presents with bilateral hiliar adenopathies, pulmonary infiltrations, and ocular and cutaneous lesions. The specific cutaneous lesions, or granulomatous, are produced in from 9% to 37% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Nevertheless, few patients have been described having specific lesions from sarcoidosis in the oral mucous membrane. We present 2 patients with systemic sarcoidosis who developed specific sarcoidosis lesions in the oral mucous membrane. The first patient presented a plaque on the tongue of a chronic nature associated with facial lupus pernio. The second patient presented a rapidly growing nodular lesion on the lower lip that was in fact the presentation sign of the disease. Although infrequent, oral lesions may constitute the first sign of systemic sarcoidosis. For this reason the oral mucous membrane needs to be explored when there is suspicion of sarcoidosis, and systemic sarcoidosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of oral granulomatous lesions.

  13. Mandibular destructive radiolucent lesion: The first sign of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fregnani, Eduardo-Rodrigues; Leite, Amanda-Almeida; Parahyba, Claudia-Joffily; Nesrallah, Ana-Cristina-Alo; Ramos-Perez, Flávia-Maria-de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a mandibular lesion as the first sign of multiple myeloma (MM) is uncommon. This report describes a case of MM diagnosed because of a mandibular lesion. A 62-year-old woman presented a destructive radiolucent lesion in the right mandibular ramus. The lesion caused rupture of the anterior cortical bone and extended from the retromolar area to the coronoid process. An incisional biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed numerous pleomorphic plasma cells, some with binucleated nuclei. The tumor cells showed kappa light-chain restriction. Bone marrow biopsy showed findings of massive infiltration of neoplastic plasma cells, besides lesions in the vertebrae. The diagnosis of MM was established. The patient underwent autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Currently, the patient is under regular follow up after 40 months of initial treatment. In conclusion, MM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of destructive mandibular lesions. Key words:Mandible, multiple myeloma, radiolucent lesion. PMID:27703618

  14. Proliferative Lesions of Parathyroid Glands: An Update for Practicing Pathologists.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Shaheera; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Pathological lesions of parathyroid glands encompass a wide range of lesions ranging from developmental anomalies to inflammatory disorders to neoplastic processes. Proliferative lesions of parathyroid glands represent the commonest causes of hyperparathyroidism in clinical practice. However, the parathyroid specimens represent only a tiny fraction of the workload received in a non-specialist histopathology laboratory. As a result, the familiarity of the pathologists with the spectrum of parathyroid lesions is generally limited. An accurate diagnosis of the parathyroid lesions is challenging and a daunting task for both the clinicians and the pathologists. The traditional morphological approaches have limitations. Ancillary techniques of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology are being increasingly employed to resolve the diagnostic dilemmas. This review briefly describes the proliferative pathological lesions affecting the parathyroid glands and provides some useful tips on accurately diagnosing these lesions.

  15. Ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Christo Naveen; Annapurna, Chandrakala Shekarappa; Sivaraj, S.; Ali, I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To assess the diagnostic capability of real-time ultrasound imaging, together with the application of color power Doppler in the identification and differential diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with periapical lesions of pulpal origin, diagnosed with clinical and conventional radiographic examination, were examined further using ultrasonography. The results from the biopsies of the lesions were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: The differential diagnosis between periapical granulomas and cystic lesions, which were based on the ultrasonographic findings, were confirmed by the results of the histopathologic examination in 13 (86.7%) of 15 cases, one being granuloma and 14 being cystic lesion. Interpretation and Conclusion: Ultrasound real-time imaging is a technique that may help make a differential diagnosis between cysts and granulomas by revealing the nature of the content of a bony lesion. This technique may have further applications in the study of other lesions of the jaws. PMID:23066292

  16. Ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Prince, Christo Naveen; Annapurna, Chandrakala Shekarappa; Sivaraj, S; Ali, I M

    2012-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic capability of real-time ultrasound imaging, together with the application of color power Doppler in the identification and differential diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Fifteen patients with periapical lesions of pulpal origin, diagnosed with clinical and conventional radiographic examination, were examined further using ultrasonography. The results from the biopsies of the lesions were compared and statistically analyzed. The differential diagnosis between periapical granulomas and cystic lesions, which were based on the ultrasonographic findings, were confirmed by the results of the histopathologic examination in 13 (86.7%) of 15 cases, one being granuloma and 14 being cystic lesion. Ultrasound real-time imaging is a technique that may help make a differential diagnosis between cysts and granulomas by revealing the nature of the content of a bony lesion. This technique may have further applications in the study of other lesions of the jaws.

  17. Detecting circumscribed lesions with the Hough transform

    SciTech Connect

    Groshong, B.R; Kegelmeyer, W.P., Jr

    1996-01-11

    We have designed and implemented a circumscribed lesion detection algorithm, based on the Hough Transform, which will detect zero or more approximately circular structures in a mammogram over a range of radii from a few pixels to nearly the size of the breast. We address the geometrical behavior of peaks in Hough parameter space (x,y,r) for both the true radius of a circular structure in the image (r = r{sub o}), and for the parameter r as it passes through this radius. In addition, we evaluate peaks in Hough parameter space by re-analyzing the underlying mammogram in the vicinity of the circular disk indicated by the peak. Discs suggested by the resulting peaks are accumulated in a feature image, scaled by a measure of their quality. These results are then rectified with respect to image contrast extremes and average value. The result is a feature with a continuously scaled pixel level output which suggests the likelihood that a pixel is located inside a circular structure, irrespective of the radius of the structure and overall mammogram contrast. These features are evaluated fast qualitative and quantitative performance metrics which permit circumscribed lesion detection features to be initially evaluated without a full end-to-end classification experiment.

  18. Draining skin lesion from a desert poodle.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Sylvie; Rich, Lon J; Meinkoth, James H; Cowell, Rick L

    2005-01-01

    A 16-month-old intact female Poodle in Arizona had a history of intermittent coughing of a few weeks duration. Coccidiomycosis antibody screening test results were negative for immunoglobulin (Ig) M, but were positive (1:64) for IgG. Fine needle aspiration specimens of a draining lesion on the right palmar front foot contained large numbers of neutrophils, many of which contained bacteria, and lower numbers of macrophages. A few small structures also were observed, 2-5 microm in diameter with thin, nonstaining capsules and small, round to oval densely aggregated, eccentric nuclei. Cytologic findings were consistent with septic pyogranulomatous inflammation with Coccidiodes immitis endospores. Fungal culture of a sample from the draining lesion yielded white growth with barrel-shaped arthroconidia. Identification of the organism as C immitis was confirmed by a commercial DNA probe test. Although coccidioidomycosis often is diagnosed by microscopic identification of C immitis spherules in cytologic specimens, in this case only endospores, which are released from mature spherules, were observed. In cases of suspected coccidiodomycosis, the unique morphology of endospores may be useful in making a cytologic diagnosis.

  19. Malignancy risk models for oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Ana-María; Brezzo, María-Magdalena; Secchi, Dante-Gustavo; Barra, José-Luis; Brunotto, Mabel

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant. Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and morphometric-morphological features were studied, and multivariate models were applied. Three groups were estabished: a) oral cancer (OC) group (n=10), b) oral potentially malignant disorders group (n=10), and c) control group (n=8). An average of 50% of patients with malignancy were found to have smoking and drinking habits. A high percentage of TP53 mutations were observed in OC (30%) and OPMD (average 20%) lesions (p=0.000). The majority of these mutations were GC TA transversion mutations (60%). However, patients with OC presented mutations in all the exons and introns studied. Highest diagnostic accuracy (p=0.0001) was observed when incorporating alcohol and tobacco habits variables with TP3 mutations. Our results prove to be statistically reliable, with parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. Models 2 and 3 were the most accurate for assessing the risk of an OPMD becoming cancerous. However, in a public health context, model 3 is the most recommended because the characteristics considered are easier and less costly to evaluate.

  20. Current management of talar osteochondral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gianakos, Arianna L; Yasui, Youichi; Hannon, Charles P; Kennedy, John G

    2017-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) occur in up to 70% of acute ankle sprains and fractures. OLT have become increasingly recognized with the advancements in cartilage-sensitive diagnostic imaging modalities. Although OLT may be treated nonoperatively, a number of surgical techniques have been described for patients whom surgery is indicated. Traditionally, treatment of symptomatic OLT have included either reparative procedures, such as bone marrow stimulation (BMS), or replacement procedures, such as autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT). Reparative procedures are generally indicated for OLT < 150 mm2 in area. Replacement strategies are used for large lesions or after failed primary repair procedures. Although short- and medium-term results have been reported, long-term studies on OLT treatment strategies are lacking. Biological augmentation including platelet-rich plasma and concentrated bone marrow aspirate is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of OLT to enhance the biological environment during healing. In this review, we describe the most up-to-date clinical evidence of surgical outcomes, as well as both the mechanical and biological concerns associated with BMS and AOT. In addition, we will review the recent evidence for biological adjunct therapies that aim to improve outcomes and longevity of both BMS and AOT procedures. PMID:28144574

  1. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: diversity of FTLD lesions.

    PubMed

    Seilhean, D; Bielle, F; Plu, I; Duyckaerts, C

    2013-10-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a heterogeneous group including both sporadic and familial diseases, characterized by a macroscopic alteration. It may correspond to various cognitive syndromes: behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), progressive nonfluent aphasia, and semantic dementia. The neuropathologic classification is now based on identification of the protein that accumulates in neurons and glia: Tau, TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43), and FUsed in Sarcoma (FUS). The disorders in which the corresponding proteins accumulate have been named FTLD-Tau, FTLD-TDP, and FTLD-FUS. FTLD-Tau includes sporadic cases (e.g. Pick's disease) and Tau mutations. FTLD-TDP are subdivided within four types (A, B, C, D) according to the shape and distribution of TDP-43 positive lesions within the associative frontal cortex. The FTLD-FUS group includes atypical FTLD with ubiquitinated lesions (FTLD-U), Neuronal Intermediate Filament Inclusion Disease (NIFID) and Basophilic Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD). Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Midline thalamic reuniens lesions improve executive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Prasad, J A; Abela, A R; Chudasama, Y

    2017-03-14

    The role of the thalamus in complex cognitive behavior is a topic of increasing interest. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the nucleus reuniens (NRe), a midline thalamic nucleus interconnected with both hippocampal and prefrontal circuitry, lead to enhancement of executive behaviors typically associated with the prefrontal cortex. Rats were tested on four behavioral tasks: (1) the combined attention-memory (CAM) task, which simultaneously assessed attention to a visual target and memory for that target over a variable delay; (2) spatial memory using a radial arm maze, (3) discrimination and reversal learning using a touchscreen operant platform, and (4) decision-making with delayed outcomes. Following NRe lesions, the animals became more efficient in their performance, responding with shorter reaction times but also less impulsively than controls. This change, combined with a decrease in perseverative responses, led to focused attention in the CAM task and accelerated learning in the visual discrimination task. There were no observed changes in tasks involving either spatial memory or value-based decision making. These data complement ongoing efforts to understand the role of midline thalamic structures in human cognition, including the development of thalamic stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for acquired cognitive disabilities (Schiff, 2008; Mair et al., 2011), and point to the NRe as a potential target for clinical intervention.

  3. White spot lesions: Does etching really matter?

    PubMed

    Abufarwa, Moufida; Voorhees, Robert D; Varanasi, Venu G; Campbell, Phillip M; Buschang, Peter H

    2017-08-01

    The clinical significance of acid etching prior to orthodontic bonding is controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 15 seconds of acid etching on enamel demineralization. Twenty-seven human molars were sectioned and assigned to two groups. Under standardized conditions, the enamel surfaces were imaged using FluoreCam to obtain baseline data. Group 1 was etched using 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, rinsed with water, and then imaged again; group 2 was only rinsed with water. Water rinse was collected for calcium chemical analysis using inductively-coupled plasma auger electron spectrometry. Both groups were subjected to 9 days of pH cycling, after which final FluoreCam images were obtained. Group 1 showed a significant increase in lesion area (P=.012), decrease in light intensity (P=.009), and decrease in impact (P=.007) after acid etching. The amount of calcium that leached out over the 15 seconds was 14 ppm ±2.4 (0.35 mmol/L±0.06). Following pH cycling, there was no statistically-significant between-group difference in overall enamel demineralization. Initial demineralization caused by 15 seconds of acid etching does not increase enamel susceptibility to further demineralization. This suggests that acid etching does not increase the risk of developing white spot lesions during orthodontics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  5. Histopathological observations of human periimplantitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Berglundh, Tord; Gislason, Orn; Lekholm, Ulf; Sennerby, Lars; Lindhe, Jan

    2004-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze some characteristics of advanced and progressive periimplantitis lesions in man. Soft tissue biopsies were obtained from 12 implants in six patients. The implants had been in function between 4 and 21 years and were, with one exception, located in the maxilla. The radiographic examination performed prior to biopsy revealed that all sites exhibited advanced bone loss. Further, clinical signs of severe inflammation, such as suppuration, swelling and/or fistula formation were detected in the majority of sites and seven of the 12 implants were found to be mobile at biopsy. Each biopsy was following fixation embedded in epoxy resin and sections were prepared for histometric and morphometric analysis. It was demonstrated (i). that all soft tissue units harbored large inflammatory cell infiltrates (ICT) that extended to a position apical of a pocket epithelium and (ii). that about 60% of the lesions were occupied by inflammatory cells, among which plasma cells dominated. Numerous amounts of PMN cells occurred not only in the pocket epithelium and adjacent connective tissue areas, but were also present in peri-vascular compartments in more central areas of the ICT.

  6. Cardiac lesions in rats fed rapeseed oils.

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, K M; Corner, A H; Davey, K; Kramer, J K; Mahadevan, S; Sauer, F D

    1975-01-01

    Fully refined rapeseed oils containing different amounts of erucic acid (1.6%, 4.3% and 22.3%) were fed, at 20% by weight of diet, to weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats for periods up to 112 days. Transient myocardial lipidosis characterized by accumulation of fat droplets in myocardial fibers was marked in male and female rats fed oxidized and unoxidized rapeseed oil containing 22.3% erucic acid, moderate with rapeseed oil containing 4.3% erucic acid and very slight in rats fed rapeseed oil containing 1.6% erucic acid. Peak intensity of myocardial lipidosis occurred at three to seven days and regressed thereafter. Focal myocardial necrosis and fibrosis occurred in male rats fed rapeseed oils containing different levels of erucic acid for 112 days. The incidence of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis was markedly lower in female rats, and the incidence of these lesions in either sex was not affected by the state of oxidation of these oils. In a second experiment, male rats were fed diets containing crude, partially refined or fully refined rapeseed oils. There was no correlation between the number of foci of myocardial necrosis and fibrosis and the state of refinement of the oils, but there were generally fewer lesions in rats fed those oils having the lowest levels of erucic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:1170010

  7. A massive lesion detection algorithm in mammography.

    PubMed

    Fauci, Francesco; Raso, Giuseppe; Magro, Rosario; Forni, Giustina; Lauria, Adele; Bagnasco, Stefano; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cheran, Sorin C; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Bellotti, Robero; Carlo, Francesco De; Gargano, Gianfranco; Tangaro, Sonia; Mitri, Ivan De; Nunzio, Giorgio De; Cataldo, Rossella

    A new algorithm for massive lesion detection in mammography is presented. The algorithm consists in three main steps: 1) reduction of the dimension of the image to be processed through the identification of regions of interest (roi) as candidates for massive lesions; 2) characterization of the RoI by means of suitable feature extraction; 3) pattern classification through supervised neural networks. Suspect regions are detected by searching for local maxima of the pixel grey level intensity. A ring of increasing radius, centered on a maximum, is considered until the mean intensity in the ring decreases to a defined fraction of the maximum. The ROIS thus obtained are described by average, variance, skewness and kurtosis of the intensity distributions at different fractions of the radius. A neural network approach is adopted to classify suspect pathological and healthy pattern. The software has been designed in the framework of the INFN (Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare) research project GPCALMA (Grid Platform for Calma) which recruits physicists and radiologists from different Italian Research Institutions and hospitals to develop software for breast cancer detection.

  8. Immunoscintigraphic localization of inflammatory lesions: clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Seybold, K; Locher, J T; Coosemans, C; Andres, R Y; Schubiger, P A; Bläuenstein, P

    1988-01-01

    This clinical study was based on the experimental results reported in the two preceding papers, showing that the highly selective affinity of the 123I-anti-CEA monoclonal antibody 47 (123I-Mabgc) for human granulocytes makes this compound suitable for the immunoscintigraphic detection of inflammatory lesions. Forty five patients with suspected infections have been studied after infusion of 4 mCi (148 MBq) 123I-Mabgc corresponding to 120 micrograms labeled protein. No adverse reactions have been seen. Because of the high number of labeled cells, the quality of the images was excellent. SPECT was performed in 15 cases in order to define the extent of the lesion. Infectious foci were usually seen 3-5 h postinjection, but the unimpaired function of the granulocytes guarantees diagnostically relevant examinations over a much longer period of time. Scans were read as being negative if no pathological accumulation of activity was detected after 24 h. The new scanning method is technically easy to perform and provides distinct advantages over other techniques necessitating in vitro labeling of the white blood cells. Therefore, recommended indications are acute infections of unknown origin or extent, especially recurrent episodes of osteomyelitis and infections of joint prostheses.

  9. Tongue lesions in psoriasis: a controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Moslehi, Homayoon; Akhyani, Maryam; Etesami, Marjan

    2004-01-01

    Background Our objective was to study tongue lesions and their significance in psoriatic patients. Methods The oral mucosa was examined in 200 psoriatic patients presenting to Razi Hospital in Tehran, Iran, and 200 matched controls. Results Fissured tongue (FT) and benign migratory glossitis (BMG) were the two most frequent findings. FT was seen more frequently in psoriatic patients (n = 66, 33%) than the control group (n = 19, 9.5%) [odds ratio (OR): 4.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.61–8.52] (p-value < 0.0001). BMG, too, was significantly more frequent in psoriatic patients (28 cases, 14%) than the control group (12 cases, 6%) (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.20–5.50) (p-value < 0.012). In 11 patients (5.5%), FT and BMG coexisted. FT was more frequent in pustular psoriasis (7 cases, 53.8%) than erythemato-squamous types (56 cases, 30.4%). On the other hand, the frequency of BMG increased with the severity of psoriasis in plaque-type psoriasis assessed by psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score. Conclusions Nonspecific tongue lesions are frequently observed in psoriasis. Further studies are recommended to substantiate the clinical significance of these seemingly nonspecific findings in suspected psoriatic cases. PMID:15527508

  10. Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Hartley, W J; Dubey, J P

    1990-08-01

    This report describes toxoplasmosis lesions in Australian marsupials. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histopathological changes are summarized for 43 macropods, two common wombats, two koalas, six possums, 15 dasyurids, two numbats, eight bandicoots and one bilby. Animals either died suddenly without clinical signs or exhibited signs associated with respiratory, neurological or enteric disease. At necropsy, many marsupials had no visible lesions. Where present, common necropsy findings included pulmonary congestion, oedema and consolidation, adrenal enlargement and reddening, haemorrhage and ulceration of stomach and small intestine, and lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly. Microscopically, affected lungs showed interstitial pneumonia and macrophage accumulation. Myocardial, skeletal and smooth muscle necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation were common. Organs had focal necrosis and/or fibrosis and lymphoid infiltrates. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts were common in muscle and nervous tissue. Free tachyzoites were commonly present in areas of necrosis. Selected sections from four macropods, two koalas, two dasyurids, one wombat and one possum stained specifically with avidin-biotin complex and anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum.

  11. Proteomic patterns of preinvasive bronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S M Jamshedur; Shyr, Yu; Yildiz, Pinar B; Gonzalez, Adriana L; Li, Huiming; Zhang, Xueqiong; Chaurand, Pierre; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Slovis, Bonnie S; Miller, Robert F; Ninan, Mathew; Miller, York E; Franklin, Wilbur A; Caprioli, Richard M; Carbone, David P; Massion, Pierre P

    2005-12-15

    A proteomics approach is warranted to further elucidate the molecular steps involved in lung tumor development. We asked whether we could classify preinvasive lesions of airway epithelium according to their proteomic profile. We obtained matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiles from 10-microm sections of fresh-frozen tissue samples: 25 normal lung, 29 normal bronchial epithelium, and 20 preinvasive and 36 invasive lung tumor tissue samples from 53 patients. Proteomic profiles were calibrated, binned, and normalized before analysis. We performed class comparison, class prediction, and supervised hierarchic cluster analysis. We tested a set of discriminatory features obtained in a previously published dataset to classify this independent set of normal, preinvasive, and invasive lung tissues. We found a specific proteomic profile that allows an overall predictive accuracy of over 90% of normal, preinvasive, and invasive lung tissues. The proteomic profiles of these tissues were distinct from each other within a disease continuum. We trained our prediction model in a previously published dataset and tested it in a new blinded test set to reach an overall 74% accuracy in classifying tumors from normal tissues. We found specific patterns of protein expression of the airway epithelium that accurately classify bronchial and alveolar tissue with normal histology from preinvasive bronchial lesions and from invasive lung cancer. Although further study is needed to validate this approach and to identify biomarkers of tumor development, this is a first step toward a new proteomic characterization of the human model of lung cancer tumorigenesis.

  12. Lesion mapping of social problem solving

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511

  13. Metabolomic profiling of neoplastic lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaojie; Ji, Li-Juan; Chen, Jin-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Most cancers develop upon the accumulation of genetic alterations that provoke and sustain the transformed phenotype. Several metabolomic approaches now allow for the global assessment of intermediate metabolites, generating profound insights into the metabolic rewiring associated with malignant transformation. The metabolomic profiling of neoplastic lesions growing in mice, irrespective of their origin, can provide invaluable information on the mechanisms underlying oncogenesis, tumor progression, and response to therapy. Moreover, the metabolomic profiling of tumors growing in mice may result in the identification of novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, which is of great clinical significance. Several methods can be applied to the metabolomic profiling of neoplastic lesions in mice, including mass spectrometry-based techniques (e.g., gas chromatography-, capillary electrophoresis-, or liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance. Here, we compare and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of all these techniques to provide a concise and reliable guide for readers interested in this active area of investigation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IMP-3 expression in melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Limin; Xu, Haodong; Wasco, Matthew J; Bourne, Patricia A; Ma, Linglei

    2010-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3 ), a member of the insulin-like growth factor mRNA-binding protein family, is expressed in several human malignancies, including melanomas. However, the expression of IMP-3 has not been explored in melanoma in situ, various histologic subtypes of invasive melanomas and atypical Spitz tumors. IMP-3 immunostain was performed in 157 melanocytic lesions. Nearly all benign (8/8), dysplastic (8/8) and Spitz nevi (8/9) were negative for IMP-3. Focal IMP-3 positivity was observed in 5/12 melanoma in situ and 4/15 superficial melanomas (Breslow depth 1 mm) and 25/52 metastatic melanomas demonstrated strong IMP-3 staining. IMP-3 expression differs significantly between non-desmoplastic melanomas (superficial and deep) and benign or dysplastic or Spitz nevi (p = 0.0427, respectively). Four of 23 desmoplastic melanomas expressed IMP-3 , which was significantly different from deep melanomas (p = 0.0109). IMP-3 stained 7 of 10 atypical Spitz tumors. The difference between atypical Spitz tumors and Spitz nevi was statistically significant (p = 0.0256). A malignant circumstance, such as non-desmoplastic melanoma or atypical Spitz tumor, can be inferred when IMP-3 is expressed, suggesting potential diagnostic value of IMP-3 in melanocytic lesions.

  15. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olaofe, Olaejirinde Olaniyi; Akinyemi, Hezekiah Adebola Morakinyo; Suleiman, Oreoluwa Adeola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the prevalence of some of skin malignancies in our environment and to provide a data base for creating awareness for prevention and early detection of the diseases in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these skin lesions in our environment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed malignant skin lesions which presented at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Osogbo Osun State between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 (61.2%)were males and 38 (38.8%) were females. Malignant melanoma ranked highest followed by squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma in that order. Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower limbs. Conclusion Skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country. Efforts should be directed toward prevention, early diagnosis and management in order to abolish or reduce morbidity, as well as mortality associated with late presentation of people in the developing countries. PMID:26161176

  16. Echographic Evaluation of a Subconjunctival Cystic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    De Bernardo, Maddalena; Iaccarino, Gennarfrancesco; Russo, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Migration of intraocular silicone oil, used in the treatment of complicated retinal detachment, has been rarely described, but when it happens it can arise with a differential diagnosis with scleral buckling extrusion, tumor, dermoid, ocular cysticercosis, and abscess. The presence of silicone oil in the eye gives very ugly echographic pictures, but these kinds of pictures can be very useful in making a differential diagnosis in the above-mentioned cases. A 39-year-old white female complained of the presence of conjunctival hyperemia and tearing in the right eye (RE); her visual acuity was hand motion, and the intraocular pressure was 14 mmHg. In the upper nasal quadrant a dome shaped lesion was detected. Due to the lens opacities, the patient underwent an echographic examination, which revealed the presence of silicon oil both in the vitreous chamber and in a large subconjunctival space, corresponding to the lesion. This article in addition provides a possible explanation of such cystic formation and discusses the risk factors and the role of the echographic examination in such cases. PMID:28487797

  17. Spinal cord lesions - The rehabilitation perspective.

    PubMed

    Faria, Filipa

    2006-02-01

    The present study provides an overview of the spinal cord injury focusing mainly on aspects related to rehabilitation. Spinal cord injury affects young people in an active phase of life, determining severe handicaps. Most of the lesions are traumatic, caused by car accidents. Until fifty years ago, the survival of individuals with spinal cord injury was very reduced and the leading cause of death was renal failure. Due to developments in medical knowledge and technical advances, the survival rates have significantly improved. The causes of death have also changed being respiratory complications, particularly pneumonia, the leading causes. Immediately after a spinal cord lesion there is a phase of spinal shock which is characterized by flaccid paralysis and bladder and bowel retention. Progressively there is a return of the spinal cord automatism with the beginning of some reflex activities. Based on neurological evaluation it is pos-sible to predict motor and functional recovery and establish the rehabilitation program. We can consider three phases on the rehabilitation program: the first while the patient is still in bed, directed to prevent or treat complications due to immobility and begin sphincters reeducation; the second phase is intended to achieve wheelchair autonomy; the last phase is training in ortostatism. The rehabilitation program also comprises sports and recreational activities, psychological and social support in order to achieve an integral of the individual with a spinal cord injury.

  18. Osteopontin expression in reactive lesions of gingiva.

    PubMed

    Elanagai, Rathinam; Veeravarmal, Veeran; Nirmal, Ramdas Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Reactive proliferations of the gingiva comprise lesions such as pyogenic granuloma (PG), inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia (IFH), peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF), and peripheral giant cell lesion. Osteopontin (OPN) has a dual role, it promotes mineralization when it is bound to solid substrate, and on the other hand, it inhibits mineralization when it is seen in association with solution. Objectives The study aimed to evaluate the expression of osteopontin in normal gingival tissue and different types of focal reactive proliferations of gingival tissue, and its role in the development of calcification within it. Material and Methods The presence and distribution of osteopontin was assessed using immunohistochemistry in five cases of normal gingival tissue and 30 cases of focal reactive proliferations of gingiva. Results There was no expression of osteopontin in normal subjects. Few cases of pyogenic granuloma, inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia, and all the cases of peripheral ossifying fibroma showed positivity for osteopontin in the inflammatory cells, stromal cells, extracellular matrix, and in the calcifications. Conclusion The expression of osteopontin in all the cases of peripheral ossifying fibroma speculates that the majority of the cases of peripheral ossifying fibroma originate from the periodontal ligament cells. The treatment modalities for peripheral ossifying fibroma should differ from other focal reactive proliferations of gingiva.

  19. Cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis and periodontitis lesions.

    PubMed

    Thorbert-Mros, S; Larsson, L; Berglundh, T

    2015-08-01

    Insufficient information on the cellular composition of long-standing gingivitis lesions without signs of attachment loss makes an understanding of differences in cellular composition between "destructive" and "nondestructive" periodontal lesions difficult. The aim of the current study was to analyze differences in cell characteristics between lesions representing long-standing gingivitis and severe periodontitis. Two groups of patients were recruited. One group consisted of 36 patients, 33-67 years of age, with severe generalized periodontitis (periodontitis group). The second group consisted of 28 patients, 41-70 years of age, with overt signs of gingival inflammation but no attachment loss (gingivitis group). From each patient a gingival biopsy was obtained from one selected diseased site and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. Periodontitis lesions were twice as large and contained significantly larger proportions, numbers and densities of cells positive for CD138 (plasma cells) and CD68 (macrophages) than did gingivitis lesions. The proportion of B cells that expressed the additional CD5 marker (B-1a cells) was significantly larger in periodontitis lesions than in gingivitis lesions. The densities of T cells and B cells did not differ between periodontitis lesions and gingivitis lesions. T cells were not the dominating cell type in gingivitis lesions, as B cells together with their subset plasma cells comprised a larger number and proportion than T cells. Periodontitis lesions at teeth with advanced attachment and bone loss exhibit quantitative and qualitative differences in relation to gingivitis lesions at teeth with no attachment and bone loss. It is suggested that the large number and high density of plasma cells are the hallmarks of advanced periodontitis lesions and the most conspicuous difference in relation to long-standing gingivitis lesions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Treatment of genital lesions with diode laser vaporization.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Mário Maciel; de Lima, Mário Maciel; Granja, Fabiana

    2015-05-08

    Genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are the most common sexually transmitted disease leading to anogential lesions. Although the laser therapy has been shown to be effective in a number of conditions, the use of laser diode vaporization in urological applications and the understanding on its effectiveness as a treatment for various urological conditions is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of diode laser vaporization as a treatment for genital lesions. Patients presenting with genital lesions at the urology outpatient clinic at Coronel Mota Hospital, between March 2008 and October 2014, were enrolled into the study. Data collected included age, gender, duration of the lesion, site of the lesion and numbers of the lesions, length of follow-up, recurrence of lesions after treatment and whether there were any complications. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study; 92.4% (n = 85) male; mean age (± SD) 27.92 ± 8.272 years. The patients presented with a total of 296 lesions, with a median of 3 lesions each, including penis (n = 78), urethra (n = 4) lesions, and scrotum (n = 2) lesions. Lesions ranged in size from 0.1 to 0.5 cm(2), most commonly 0.3 cm(2) (n = 38; 41.3%), 0.4 cm(2) (n = 21; 22.8%) or 0.5 cm(2) (n = 20; 21.7%). Patients most commonly reported that they had their lesions for a duration of 12 (n = 29; 31.5%) or 6 months (n = 23; 25.0%). Eighteen patients (19.6%) had a recurrence after their 1(st)/conventional treatment. There were no incidences of post-operative infection or complications from the laser diode vaporization. Laser diode vaporization can be considered as an alternative method for treating genital lesions in urology, with satisfactory results in terms of pain, aesthetic and minimal recurrence.

  1. An updated histological classification system for multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Tanja; Ludwin, Samuel; Prat, Alexandre; Antel, Jack; Brück, Wolfgang; Lassmann, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex and heterogeneous, most likely autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although a number of histological classification systems for CNS lesions have been used by different groups in recent years, no uniform classification exists. In this paper, we propose a simple and unifying classification of MS lesions incorporating many elements of earlier histological systems that aims to provide guidelines for neuropathologists and researchers studying MS lesions to allow for better comparison of different studies performed with MS tissue, and to aid in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. Based on the presence/absence and distribution of macrophages/microglia (inflammatory activity) and the presence/absence of ongoing demyelination (demyelinating activity), we suggest differentiating between active, mixed active/inactive, and inactive lesions with or without ongoing demyelination. Active lesions are characterized by macrophages/microglia throughout the lesion area, whereas mixed active/inactive lesions have a hypocellular lesion center with macrophages/microglia limited to the lesion border. Inactive lesions are almost completely lacking macrophages/microglia. Active and mixed active/inactive lesions can be further subdivided into lesions with ongoing myelin destruction (demyelinating lesions) and lesions in which the destruction of myelin has ceased, but macrophages are still present (post-demyelinating lesions). This distinction is based on the presence or absence of myelin degradation products within the cytoplasm of macrophages/microglia. For this classification of MS lesions, identification of myelin with histological stains [such as luxol fast blue-PAS] or by immunohistochemistry using antibodies against myelin basic-protein (MBP) or proteolipid-protein (PLP), as well as, detection of macrophages/microglia by, e.g., anti-CD68 is sufficient. Active and demyelinating lesions may be further

  2. Diagnostic Performance of Filter Paper Lesion Impression PCR for Secondarily Infected Ulcers and Nonulcerative Lesions Caused by Cutaneous Leishmaniasis▿

    PubMed Central

    Boggild, Andrea K.; Ramos, Ana Pilar; Valencia, Braulio Mark; Veland, Nicolas; Calderon, Flor; Arevalo, Jorge; Low, Donald E.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    We compared traditional cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnostic methods to filter paper lesion impression (FPLI) PCR for secondarily infected ulcers and nonulcerative lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of FPLI PCR for secondarily infected lesions (n = 8) were 100%. In primarily nonulcerative lesions (n = 15), the sensitivity of FPLI PCR was inferior to that of pooled-invasive-specimen PCR (72.7% versus 100%) (P = 0.10). FPLI PCR is sensitive, specific, and unlike invasive procedures, can be used in secondarily infected ulcers. Invasive specimen collection is superior in nonulcerative lesions. PMID:21177908

  3. Lesion removal and lesion addition algorithms in lung volumetric data sets for perception studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Mark T.; Berbaum, Kevin S.; Ellingson, Andrew; Thompson, Brad H.; Mullan, Brian F.

    2006-03-01

    Image perception studies of medical images provide important information about how radiologists interpret images and insights for reducing reading errors. In the past, perception studies have been difficult to perform using clinical imaging studies because of the problems associated with obtaining images demonstrating proven abnormalities and appropriate normal control images. We developed and evaluated interactive software that allows the seamless removal of abnormal areas from CT lung image sets. We have also developed interactive software for capturing lung lesions in a database where they can be added to lung CT studies. The efficacy of the software to remove abnormal areas of lung CT studies was evaluated psychophysically by having radiologists select the one altered image from a display of four. The software for adding lesions was evaluated by having radiologists classify displayed CT slices with lesions as real or artificial scaled to 3 levels of confidence. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the radiologist had difficulty in distinguishing the raw clinical images from those that had been altered. We conclude that this software can be used to create experimental normal control and "proven" lesion data sets for volumetric CT of the lung fields. We also note that this software can be easily adapted to work with other tissue besides lung and that it can be adapted to other digital imaging modalities.

  4. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  5. [CLIPPERS syndrome with atypical distribution of lesions in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain].

    PubMed

    Canneti, Beatrice; Mosqueira, Antonio J; Gilo, Francisco; Carreras, Teresa; Barbosa, Antonio; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Vivancos, José

    2013-10-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome CLIPPERS (chronic lymphocytic in?ammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids) es un proceso inflamatorio del sistema nervioso central cuyo rasgo distintivo son las lesiones puntiformes en el troncoencefalo captantes en los estudios de resonancia magnetica. Clinicamente, cursa con disartria, ataxia y diplopia, y suele responder a corticoides. Anatomopatologicamente, aparecen infiltrados de linfocitos T en los espacios perivasculares troncoencefalicos. Caso clinico. Mujer de 40 años con cuadro de instauracion subaguda de diplopia binocular, ataxia y disartria. En la resonancia magnetica cerebral presento lesiones puntiformes hipertintensas en secuencia T2 en el tronco, cerebelo, diencefalo y areas cortico-subcorticales bihemisfericas, que realzaron con contraste. Se realizo un estudio etiologico para descartar un origen infeccioso, neoplasico o inflamatorio subyacente, que resulto negativo. La paciente recibio tratamiento en dos ocasiones con metilprednisolona, con descenso progresivo de la dosis, con buena respuesta. Conclusiones. La diplopia y la ataxia, como en nuestro caso, estan presentes practicamente siempre. Los hallazgos en la RM consisten en lesiones captantes puntiformes localizadas en la protuberancia con extension hacia el cerebelo, ganglios basales y cuerpo calloso, con gradiente de captacion menor conforme se alejan rostralmente hacia la corteza, y caudalmente hacia la medula. En el caso de nuestra paciente, este gradiente no se respeta, encontrandose una densidad similar de las lesiones a nivel supratentorial. El diagnostico diferencial es amplio y justifica un estudio diagnostico extenso, y en casos seleccionados la biopsia cerebral. El curso de la enfermedad es remitente-recurrente, y el pronostico mejora cuanto mas precoz y prolongado es el tiempo de corticoterapia.

  6. Randomized controlled clinical trial comparing radioguided occult lesion localization with wire-guided lesion localization to evaluate their efficacy and accuracy in the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Carlos; Bastidas, Faustino; de los Reyes, Amelia; Martínez, María Cristina; Hurtado, Gloria; Gómez, María Constanza; Sánchez, Ricardo; Manrique, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) technique with the wire-guided lesion localization (WGLL) technique to assess their efficacy and accuracy in the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions in patients at a unique reference medical center. These patients' reports were negative for malignancy but included highly suspicious imaging findings. A controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the WGLL and ROLL techniques in women presenting with breast lesions diagnosed by mammography or ultrasonography at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Bogotá, Colombia, from March 2006 to June 2011. This study examined 129 patients; 64 (49.6%) patients were treated with ROLL, and 65 (51.4%) were treated with WGLL. The ROLL technique achieved better median lesion centricity (ROLL = 11.7 and WGLL = 15.4; P = .038). No significant differences were found regarding demographic variables, operative specimen characteristics, the need to extend margins, operative complications, the degree of difficulty, or patient or surgeon satisfaction. The ROLL technique is as effective as WGLL for the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions. In our study, ROLL achieved better lesion centricity. Therefore, we propose that this technique could be used as a standard procedure in the detection of nonpalpable breast lesions at experienced centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  8. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S.; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  9. Incidental Breast Lesions Detected on Computed Thorax Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Poyraz, Necdet; Emlik, Ganime Dilek; Keskin, Suat; Kalkan, Havva

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although mammography is the primary imaging method of the breast, incidental benign and malignant breast lesions are increasingly being detected on computed tomographies (CTs) performed to detect different pathologies. Therefore, the detection and accurate identification of these lesions is important. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency, morphological features, and results of incidental breast lesions on CTs performed for the detection of extramammarian pathologies. Materials and Methods Incidental breast lesions on CTs performed in our department between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated. Patients who had previously diagnosed breast lesions were excluded from the study. The inclusion criteria were histopathologic diagnose and being followed-up for at least 2 years. Results The study population consisted of 33 women whose mean age was 55±1.38 (37–78) years. Of the 33 women, 12 (36%) had malignant and 21 (64%) had benign or normal findings. The most common malignant lesion was invasive ductal carcinoma, and the most common benign lesion was fibroadenoma. Ill-defined contour and lymphadenopathy in malignant lesions and well-defined contour in benign lesions were the most important CT findings. Conclusion Breast must be carefully evaluated if it is included in the scans. An accurate report of breast lesions gives an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Laser therapy of pigmented lesions: pro and contra.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Lipozenčić, Jasna; Ceović, Romana; Stulhofer Buzina, Daška; Kostović, Krešimir

    2010-01-01

    Although frequently performed, laser removal of pigmented lesions still contains certain controversial issues. Epidermal pigmented lesions include solar lentigines, ephelides, café au lait macules and seborrheic keratoses. Dermal lesions include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi, drug induced hyperpigmentation and nevus of Ota and Ito. Some lesions exhibit both an epidermal and dermal component like Becker's nevus, postinflammatory hyperpigmentations, melasma and nevus spilus. Due to the wide absorption spectrum of melanin (500-1100 nm), several laser systems are effective in removal of pigmented lesions. These lasers include the pigmented lesion pulsed dye laser (510 nm), the Q-switched ruby laser (694 nm), the Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) and the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), which can be frequency-doubled to produce visible green light with a wavelength of 532 nm. The results of laser therapy are usually successful. However, there are still many controversies regarding the use of lasers in treating certain pigmented lesions. Actually, the essential question in removing pigmented lesions with lasers is whether the lesion has atypical features or has a malignant potential. Dermoscopy, used as a routine first-level diagnostic technique, is helpful in most cases. If there is any doubt whether the lesion is benign, then a biopsy for histologic evaluation is obligatory.

  11. Lesion conspicuity and AFROC performance in pulmonary nodule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, David; Ethell, Susan C.

    2002-04-01

    A test bank of verified chest radiographs was compiled for visual search experiments. The purpose was to investigate human performance in the detection of significant pulmonary nodules. Synthesized nodules supplemented native lesions. The distribution of all the lesions in the lung fields was consistent with the naturally occurring locations of these features. A measure of the physical characteristics of the lesions was derived in order to approximate the conspicuity of the synthetic to the natural nodules. The measure of conspicuity was given as (chi) =Tan(theta-1)S/N where (theta) is the maximum slope angle to the edge of the lesion profile, S is the mean pixel value of the lesion profile taken in four orientations, and N is the mean background pixel value taken in four orientations over one lesion dimension adjacent to the lesion. The variation in (chi) for each of the 81 lesions (46 natural and 35 synthetic) was plotted against SNR and edge angle. The influence of edge angle on the resulting (chi) values was more powerful than SNR for all the lesions in this experiment. Although there was an overall significant difference in (chi) values (p=0.015), observers were unable to distinguish synthetic from native lesions. Observer performance in nodule detection was measured by AFROC and supplemented with visual search recording. Correlation of AFROC scores and the (chi) values has shown no overall relationship (R2=0.0452) and this surprising result may be partly explained through inspection of the visual search recordings.

  12. Digital Chromoendoscopy for Diagnosis of Diminutive Colorectal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Carlos Eduardo Oliveira; Malaman, Daniele; Lopes, César Vivian; Pereira-Lima, Júlio Carlos; Parada, Artur Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. To compare the accuracy of digital and real-time chromoendoscopy for the differential diagnosis of diminutive (<5 mm) neoplastic and nonneoplastic colorectal lesions. Materials and Methods. This is a prospective randomized study comparing the Fujinon intelligent color enhancement (FICE) system (65 patients/95 lesions) and indigo carmine (69 patients/120 lesions) in the analysis of capillary meshwork and pit pattern, respectively. All lesions were less than 5 mm in diameter, and magnification was used in both groups. Histopathology was the gold standard examination. Results. Of 215 colorectal lesions, 153 (71.2%) were adenomas, and 62 were hyperplastic polyps (28.8%). Morphological analysis revealed 132 (61.4%) superficial lesions, with 7 (3.3%) depressed lesions, and 83 (38.6%) protruding lesions. Vascular meshwork analysis using FICE and magnification resulted in 91.7% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity, and 92.6% accuracy in differentiating neoplastic from nonneoplastic lesions. Pit pattern analysis with indigo carmine and magnification showed 96.5% sensitivity, 88.2% specificity, and 94.2% accuracy for the same purpose. Conclusion. Both magnifying virtual chromoendoscopy and indigo carmine chromoendoscopy showed high accuracy in the histopathological diagnosis of colorectal lesions less than 5 mm in diameter. PMID:23082070

  13. Prevalence of tongue lesions in the Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan; Doni, Bharati

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tongue lesions are a health concern for the dental practitioners and the patients as they constitute a significant proportion of oral mucosal lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of various tongue lesions in the Indian population. Material and methods: 4926 patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were examined for the presence of various tongue lesions during the period from October, 2010 to September, 2012. The age of the patients ranged from 12-80 years with a mean age of 36.51 years. Results: The prevalence of tongue lesions was 12.07%. The most common lesion diagnosed was coated tongue affecting 28.0% of the subjects, followed by geographic tongue (16.4%), fissured tongue (14.9%) and depapillated tongue (11.5%). Males were more frequently affected than females. The most common systemic condition observed in the patients with tongue lesions was anaemia (189), followed by hypertension (47) and diabetes mellitus (38). Conclusion: The high prevalence necessitates adequate awareness of the various tongue lesions in the general population. The dental clinicians should also be knowledgeable about the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these lesions. Key words:Tongue lesions, prevalence, Indian population, coated tongue. PMID:24455067

  14. Electric impedance spectroscopy of human atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Streitner, Ines; Goldhofer, Markus; Cho, Sungbo; Thielecke, Hagen; Kinscherf, Ralf; Streitner, Florian; Metz, Jürgen; Haase, Karl K; Borggrefe, Martin; Suselbeck, Tim

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the feasibility of a new highly flexible microelectrode on human tissue and its potential of differentiating atherosclerotic lesions by electric impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electric impedance measurements (EIM) were performed on 148 spots of 7 aortic and 6 femoral human arteries at 1kHz, 10kHz and 100kHz. According to the AHA classification 33 (25%) grade I lesions (PI), 34 (26%) grade II (PII), 21 (16%) grade III (PIII), 21 (16%) grade IV (PIV), 13 (10%) grade Va (PVa) and 10 (8%) grade Vb (PVb) could be identified by histology. At 1kHz, 10kHz and 100kHz the mean electric impedance (MEI) of PI, PII, PIII and PIV was statistically not different. At 100kHz the MEI of PVa showed significantly higher values compared to the MEI of PI (455+/-66Omega vs. 375+/-47Omega, p=0.05), PII (455+/-66Omega vs. 358+/-63Omega, p=0.007), PIII (455+/-66Omega vs. 342+/-52Omega, p=0.003), PIV (455+/-66Omega vs. 356+/-41Omegap=0.013) and the MEI of PVb was significantly increased compared to the MEI of PI (698+/-239Omega vs. 375+/-47Omega, p<0.001), PII (698+/-239Omega vs. 358+/-63Omegap<0.001), PIII (698+/-239Omega vs. 342+/-52Omegap<0.001), PIV (698+/-239Omega vs. 356+/-41Omegap<0.001), PVa (698+/-239Omega vs. 455+/-66Omega, p<0.001). Performing ROC analyses for the detection of grouped PVa/PVb lesions, the largest AUC was found at 100kHz with a cut-off value of 441Omega presenting a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 94%. EIM could be performed on human aortic and femoral tissue. The results show that EIS has the potential to distinguish between different plaque types.

  15. Auto-classification of acne lesions using multimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Sachin V; Kaczvinsky, Joseph R; Joa, James F; Canfield, Douglas

    2013-07-01

    Differentiating inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions and obtaining lesion counts is pivotal part of acne evaluation. Manual lesion counting has reliably demonstrated the clinical efficacy of anti-acne products for decades. However, maintaining assessment consistency within and across acne trials is an important consideration since lesion counting can be subjective to the individual evaluators, and the technique has not been rigorously standardized. VISIA-CR is a multi-spectral and multi-modal facial imaging system. It captures fluorescence images of Horn and Porphyrin, absorption images of Hemoglobin and Melanin, and skin texture and topography characterizing broad-spectrum polarized and non-polarized images. These images are analyzed for auto-classification of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesion, measurement of erythema, and post-acne pigmentation changes. In this work the accuracy of this acne lesion auto-classification technique is demonstrated by comparing the auto-detected lesions counts with those counted by expert physicians. The accuracy is further substantiated by comparing and confirming the facial location and type of every auto-identified acne lesion with those identified by the physicians. Our results indicate a strong correlation between manual and auto-classified lesion counts (correlation coefficient >0.9) for both inflammatory and non inflammatory lesions This technology has the potential to eliminate the tedium of manual lesion counting, and provide an accurate, reproducible, and clinically relevant evaluation of acne lesions. As an aid to physicians it will allow development of a standardized technique for evaluating acne in clinical research, as well as accurately choosing treatment options for their patients according to the severity of a specific lesion type in clinical practice

  16. Sonographic-pathologic correlation of complex cystic breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pongrattanaman, Saravech; Prueksadee, Jenjeera

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the pathologic basis for sonographic features of complex cystic lesions. Methods From 2 646 female patients underwent breast sonography at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from January 2005 through December 2010, 103 cystic lesions were included. Pathologic confirmation was performed by fine-needle aspiration (n=42), core needle biopsy (n=6), excision (n=54) and mastectomy (n=1). Complex cystic breast masses were classified into 3 types as followings; thick outer wall and/or thick internal septa (type I); thick septation and thick wall were defined as equal or more than 0.5 cm, masses containing mixed cystic and solid components (at least 50% of cystic component) (type II), predominantly solid with eccentric cystic foci (at least 50% of solid component) (type III). Results In 103 complex cystic masses, there are 27 lesions (26%) classified as type I cystic breast masses, 37 lesions (36%) as type II cystic breast masses and 39 lesions (38%) type III cystic breast masses, 26 lesions (25.2%) are proved to be malignant. All of type I cystic breast masses in our study are benign, and 14 (38%) of type II cystic breast masses and 12 lesions (31%) of type III cystic breast lesions are proved to be malignant. Conclusions Type II and III lesions should suggest possibility of malignancy and biopsy should be performed in all lesions. All type I lesion in this study are benign. None of other parameters we included in this study (size or margin) can effectively differentiate between benign or malignant cystic breast lesions. Also, grading of the malignant lesions by using type of cystic breast mass cannot be applied.

  17. Chemical and Radiation Associated Jaw Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Omolehinwa, Temitope T.; Akintoye, Sunday O.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Osteonecrosis of the jaw, at one time considered to be infrequent has now become a major public health concern not only in the United States, but throughout the world. The wide-spread use of radiotherapy for head and neck cancer as well as bone antiresorptives and antiangiogenic agents have increased the incidence of osteonecrosis. While the exact pathophysiological process of osteonecrosis is yet to be clearly defined, there has been a much higher incidence of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw relative to the other types of osteonecrosis. The traditional osteoradionecrosis still occurs despite better treatment planning and shielding to minimize collateral damage to bone. There are other related necrotic lesions secondary to usage of recreation drugs and the use of steroids. This chapter will give comprehensive information about these different types of bone necrosis; provide the readers with radiographic diagnostic criteria and updates on current theories on pathophysiology of osteonecrosis. PMID:26614957

  18. Framing effect following bilateral amygdala lesion.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Deborah; Hurlemann, René; Patin, Alexandra; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-05-01

    A paradigmatic example of an emotional bias in decision making is the framing effect, where the manner in which a choice is posed--as a potential loss or a potential gain--systematically biases an ensuing decision. Two fMRI studies have shown that the activation in the amygdala is modulated by the framing effect. Here, contrary to an expectation based on these studies, we show that two patients with Urbach-Wiethe (UW) disease, a rare condition associated with congenital, complete bilateral amygdala degeneration, exhibit an intact framing effect. However, choice preference in these patients did show a qualitatively distinct pattern compared to controls evident in an increased propensity to gamble, indicating that loss of amygdala function does exert an overall influence on risk-taking. These findings suggest either that amygdala does contribute to decision making but does not play a causal role in framing, or that UW is not a pure lesion model of amygdala function.

  19. Varicose vein therapy and nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    Treating varicose veins using endovenous thermal techniques - especially laser and radio frequency ablation - has emerged as an effective alternative to open surgery with stripping and high ligation. Even though these methods are very gentle and patient-friendly, they are nevertheless accompanied by risks and side effects. Compared to open surgical therapy, the risk of damage to peripheral and motor nerves is reduced; however, it still exists as a result of heat exposure and tumescent anaesthesia. Non-thermal methods that can be applied without tumescent anaesthesia have been introduced to the market. They pose a considerably lower risk of nerve lesions while proving to be much more effective. This paper investigates data on postoperative nerve damage and paraesthesia using internet research (PubMed). It analyses the current state of knowledge regarding non-thermal treatment methods and takes into account the latest developments in the use of cyanoacrylate to close insufficient saphenous veins.

  20. Imaging lesions of the lateral hip.

    PubMed

    Pan, Judong; Bredella, Miriam A

    2013-07-01

    The lateral aspect of the hip is composed of a complex array of osseous and soft tissue structures. Both common and uncommon clinical entities are encountered in the lateral hip. This article briefly introduces fundamental imaging anatomy and the functional roles of different osseous and soft tissue structures in the lateral aspect of the hip, followed by a discussion of relevant imaging findings of lateral hip pathology. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is frequently encountered in patients with lateral hip pain and encompasses a spectrum of soft tissue abnormalities including trochanteric and subgluteal bursitis, and tendinopathy or tears of the gluteal tendons. In addition, different types of injuries to the gluteal myotendinous unit and injuries to the indirect head of the rectus femoris, proximal iliotibial band, and the lateral joint capsular ligaments can present with lateral hip pain. Some of the less common soft tissue abnormalities of the lateral hip include Morel-Lavallée lesion and meralgia paresthetica.

  1. Diaphragm paralysis from cervical disc lesions.

    PubMed

    Cloward, R B

    1988-01-01

    An opera singer, who "made her living with her diaphragm", developed a post-traumatic unilateral radiculopathy due to cervical disc lesions, C3 to C6. During one year of severe neck and left arm pain she gradually lost the ability to sing difficult operatic passages which brought an end to her music career. Following a three level anterior cervical decompression and fusion, the neck and arm pain was immediately relieved. One week later her voice and singing ability returned to its full strength and power permitting her to resume her activities as a vocalist. The diagnosis of paresis of the left hemi-diaphragm as part of the cervical disc syndrome was implied by postoperative retrospective inference.

  2. MR CONTRAST SYNTHESIS FOR LESION SEGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Shiee, Navid; Pham, Dzung L.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic resonance contrast of a neuroimaging data set has strong impact on the utility of the data in image analysis tasks, such as registration and segmentation. Lengthy acquisition times often prevent routine acquisition of multiple MR contrast images, and opportunities for detailed analysis using these data would seem to be irrevocably lost. This paper describes an example based approach which uses patch matching from a multiple contrast atlas with the intended goal of generating an alternate MR contrast image, thus effectively simulating alternative pulse sequences from one another. In this paper, we deal specifically with Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) sequence generation from T1 and T2 pulse sequences. The applicability of this synthetic FLAIR for estimating white matter lesions segmentation is demonstrated. PMID:21132059

  3. Image-Guided Ablation of Adrenal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yamakado, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy has remained the standard of care for the treatment for adrenal tumors, percutaneous image-guided ablation therapy, such as chemical ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation, has been shown to be clinically useful in many nonsurgical candidates. Ablation therapy has been used to treat both functioning adenomas and malignant tumors, including primary adrenal carcinoma and metastasis. For patients with functioning adenomas, biochemical and symptomatic improvement is achieved in 96 to 100% after ablation; for patients with malignant adrenal neoplasms, however, the survival benefit from ablation therapy remains unclear, though good initial results have been reported. This article outlines the current role of ablation therapy for adrenal lesions, as well as identifying some of the technical considerations for this procedure. PMID:25049444

  4. Gastroduodenal lesions of ingested acids: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Muhletaler, C A; Gerlock, A J; de Soto, L; Halter, S A

    1980-12-01

    Abdominal radiographs and barium studies of the stomach and duodenum of 27 patients after ingestion of muriatic acid (27% HCl) in suicidal attempts were reviewed. Eleven patients were studied in the acute phase (1-10 days), nine in the subacute phase (11-20 days), and 15 in the chronic phase (21 days or more). Extensive gastric and duodenal mucosal and submucosal damage was radiographically demonstrated in all patients studied in the acute and subacute phase. Four patients had gastric perforation. The radiographic findings in the chronic phase were characterized by marked contraction of the lesser curvature, antral stenosis, irregular gastric contours, and deformed duodenal bulb. Esophageal mucosal and submucosal lesions were radiographically demonstrated in all these patients.

  5. [Examination procedure and description of skin lesions].

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, Falk; Meister, Laura

    2017-02-09

    The dermatologic examination follows a clear structure. After a short history is taken, the whole skin is inspected. The description, which is ideally provided in writing, forces one to look at the skin more closely. The description should include an accurate description of the location, the distribution, the form, and the type of lesion. The article contains tables with internationally approved definitions to describe skin changes. The analysis of these findings allows one to deduce pathophysiologic mechanisms occurring in the skin and to deduce hypotheses, i. e., suspected and differential diagnoses. These are confirmed or excluded by further diagnostic measures. The expert comes to a diagnosis very quickly by a pattern-recognition process, whereby novices must still develop this kind of thinking. Experts can minimize cognitive bias by reflective analytical reasoning and reorganization of knowledge.

  6. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  7. Elastofibroma dorsi. Our experience with 11 lesions.

    PubMed

    Novati, Federico Cesare; Franchi, Alberto; Papa, Giovanni; Arnež, Zoran Marij

    2014-12-29

    Elastofibroma is a rare benign lesion that typically arises on the posterior chest wall beneath the scapula. The etiopathogenesis is still unclear and the knowledge about its diagnosis and management mainly comes from small case series. We collected all the data related to 11 Elastofibroma Dorsi treated at our institution between January 2003 and July 2014. The definitive diagnosis was made by histological examination of the mass. We analyzed the characteristic of the patients, (i.e. age, sex, dominant hand, and occupation), the presenting symptoms and signs, the preoperative investigations, surgical management and complications comparing our findings with the current medical literature on the subject. We found that preoperative investigations are of limited value and when clinical presentation is typical the diagnosis could be made presumptively. Surgery should be performed under general anaesthesia since local anaesthetic infiltration and sedation are often inadequate to reduce intraoperative discomfort.

  8. Storage Lesion. Role of Red Cell Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Lee, Janet; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    As stored blood ages intraerythrocytic energy sources are depleted resulting in reduced structural integrity of the membrane. Thus, stored red cells become less deformable and more fragile as they age. This fragility leads to release of cell-free hemoglobin and formation of microparticles, sub-micron hemoglobin-containing vesicles. Upon transfusion, it is likely that additional hemolysis and microparticle formation occurs due to breakdown of fragile red blood cells. Release of cell-free hemoglobin and microparticles leads to increased consumption of nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that modulates blood flow, and may promote inflammation. Stored blood may also be deficient in recently discovered blood nitric oxide synthase activity. We hypothesize that these factors play a potential role in the blood storage lesion. PMID:21496045

  9. Treatment of arterial lesions after radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergqvist, D.; Jonsson, K.; Nilsson, M.; Takolander, R.

    1987-08-01

    Of 1,724 patients who underwent peripheral vascular operation, 12 (0.7 per cent) underwent radiation therapy of the areas including the relevant arteries one and one-half to 28 years (a mean of 15 years) previously; one patient had carcinoma of the breast, three had tumors of the neck and eight patients had malignant gynecologic disease. One patient with an occluded carotid artery was not actively treated, two underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and the remaining patients underwent different types of vascular reconstructions. These patients frequently have other radiation lesions as well with involvement of the skin, bladder or intestine, which may make them problematic from a surgical point of view. Extra-anatomic reconstructions or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty can be recommended. One patient died of malignant disease three years after arterial operation. Otherwise, the results of follow-up study for these patients did not differ from other patients who underwent arterial reconstruction.

  10. Sclerosing Lesions of the Orbit: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lokdarshi, Gautam; Pushker, Neelam; Bajaj, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Orbital sclerosing inflammation is a distinct group of pathologies characterized by indolent growth with minimal or no signs of inflammation. However, contrary to earlier classifications, it should not be considered a chronic stage of acute inflammation. Although rare, orbital IgG4-related disease has been associated with systemic sclerosing pseudotumor-like lesions. Possible mechanisms include autoimmune and IgG4 related defective clonal proliferation. Currently, there is no specific treatment protocol for IgG4-related disease although the response to low dose steroid provides a good response as compared to non-IgG4 sclerosing pseudotumor. Specific sclerosing inflammations (e.g. Wegener's disease, sarcoidosis, Sjogren's syndrome) and neoplasms (lymphoma, metastatic breast carcinoma) should be ruled out before considering idiopathic sclerosing inflammation as a diagnosis.

  11. Telangiectasias: Small lesions referring to serious disorders.

    PubMed

    Schieving, J H; Schoenaker, M H D; Weemaes, C M; van Deuren, M; van der Flier, M; Seyger, M M; Willemsen, M A A P

    2017-07-29

    Telangiectasias are prominent small vessels (venules, capillaries or arterioles) that are visible as small red-purple focal lesions in the skin and mucous membranes. They can serve as a cutaneous marker for a number of primary (mostly hereditary) disorders and they can be secondary to other (systemic) diseases. Patients with telangiectasias are seen by general health practitioners, pediatricians, (pediatric) neurologists, dermatologists, and ophthalmologists. In this article we give an overview of the different disorders in which telangiectasias are a prominent feature, focusing on neurocutaneous disorders in which they serve as a marker for establishing the right diagnosis. The pattern of distribution of the telangiectasias, their age of onset and associated features are helpful to distinguish between the different disorders. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  13. Olanzapine-Induced Reversible Pellagroid Skin Lesion.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lokesh K; Sahu, Manoj; Praharaj, Samir K

    2015-01-01

    Adverse cutaneous reactions are frequently reported to occur with the use of psychotropic medications, which may lead to poor drug compliance. As compared to other groups of psychotropic medication, antipsychotics, both typical and atypical, are less likely to cause adverse cutaneous reactions. The most frequent cutaneous adverse reactions associated with antipsychotics include fixed drug eruptions, exanthematous eruptions, photosensitivity reactions and altered skin pigmentation. Most of these commonly seen cutaneous adverse reactions are benign and easily treatable. Rarely, severe cutaneous adverse reactions such as erythema multiforme, Steven-Johnson syndrome are toxic epidermal necrolysis and have also been associated with antipsychotics. Olanzapine is one of the most commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotic with metabolic complications as most common adverse effects. Dermatological reactions are rarely observed with olanzapine. We report occurrence of pellagroid skin lesions over exposed areas of upper limbs with olanzapine that resolved completely after its discontinuation.

  14. Diversity of human papillomaviruses in skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Johanna; Mühr, Laila Sara Arroyo; Bzhalava, Davit; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Hultin, Emilie; Nordin, Peter; Stenquist, Bo; Paoli, John; Forslund, Ola; Dillner, Joakim

    2013-12-01

    Pools of frozen biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=29) actinic keratosis (AK) (n=31), keratoacanthoma (n=91) and swab samples from 84 SCCs and 91 AKs were analysed with an extended HPV general primer PCR and high-throughput sequencing of amplimers. We found 273 different HPV isolates (87 known HPV types, 139 previously known HPV sequences (putative types) and 47 sequences from novel putative HPV types). Among the new sequences, five clustered in genus Betapapillomavirus and 42 in genus Gammapapillomavirus. Resequencing of the three pools between 21 to 70 times resulted in the detection of 283 different known or putative HPV types, with 156 different sequences found in only one of the pools. Type-specific PCRs for 37 putative types from an additional 296 patients found only two of these putative types. In conclusion, skin lesions contain a large diversity of HPV types, but most appeared to be rare infections. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors and preneoplasic lesions].

    PubMed

    Rouquette Lassalle, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In the recently published 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the lungs, all neuroendocrine tumors of the lungs are presented for the first time in one single chapter. In this classification, high-grade small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are differentiated from intermediate grade atypical carcinoids (AC) and low-grade typical carcinoids as well as from preinvasive lesion diffuse neuroendocrine hyperplasia DIPNECH. In the 2004 WHO classification, SCLC and carcinoids each had a separate chapter and LCNEC was listed in the chapter on large cell carcinoma of the lungs. The new WHO classification also gives some recommendations for the diagnosis on small biopsies. This review describes morphological, immunohistochemical, and genomic characteristic of these tumors according to the new classification.

  16. Multimodality imaging of renal inflammatory lesions

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandan J; Ahmad, Zohra; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum of acute renal infections includes acute pyelonephritis, renal and perirenal abscesses, pyonephrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous cystitis. The chronic renal infections that we routinely encounter encompass chronic pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and eosinophilic cystitis. Patients with diabetes, malignancy and leukaemia are frequently immunocompromised and more prone to fungal infections viz. angioinvasive aspergillus, candida and mucor. Tuberculosis and parasitic infestation of the kidney is common in tropical countries. Imaging is not routinely indicated in uncomplicated renal infections as clinical findings and laboratory data are generally sufficient for making a diagnosis. However, imaging plays a crucial role under specific situations like immunocompromised patients, treatment non-responders, equivocal clinical diagnosis, congenital anomaly evaluation, transplant imaging and for evaluating extent of disease. We aim to review in this article the varied imaging spectrum of renal inflammatory lesions. PMID:25431641

  17. Multimodality imaging of renal inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Das, Chandan J; Ahmad, Zohra; Sharma, Sanjay; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-11-28

    Spectrum of acute renal infections includes acute pyelonephritis, renal and perirenal abscesses, pyonephrosis, emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous cystitis. The chronic renal infections that we routinely encounter encompass chronic pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, and eosinophilic cystitis. Patients with diabetes, malignancy and leukaemia are frequently immunocompromised and more prone to fungal infections viz. angioinvasive aspergillus, candida and mucor. Tuberculosis and parasitic infestation of the kidney is common in tropical countries. Imaging is not routinely indicated in uncomplicated renal infections as clinical findings and laboratory data are generally sufficient for making a diagnosis. However, imaging plays a crucial role under specific situations like immunocompromised patients, treatment non-responders, equivocal clinical diagnosis, congenital anomaly evaluation, transplant imaging and for evaluating extent of disease. We aim to review in this article the varied imaging spectrum of renal inflammatory lesions.

  18. Malignancy Risk Models for Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Ana M.; Brezzo, María M.; Secchi, Dante G.; Barra, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant. Study Design: Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and morphometric-morphological features were studied, and multivariate models were applied. Three groups were estabished: a) oral cancer (OC) group (n=10), b) OPMD group (n=10), and c) control group (n=8). Results: An average of 50% of patients with malignancy were found to have smoking and drinking habits. A high percentage of TP53 mutations were observed in OC (30%) and OPMD (average 20%) lesions (p=0.000). The majority of these mutations were GC ? TA transversion mutations (60%). However, patients with OC presented mutations in all the exons and introns studied. Highest diagnostic accuracy (p=0.0001) was observed when incorporating alcohol and tobacco habits variables with TP53 mutations. Conclusions: Our results prove to be statistically reliable, with parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. Models 2 and 3 were the most accurate for assessing the risk of an OPMD becoming cancerous. However, in a public health context, model 3 is the most recommended because the characteristics considered are easier and less costly to evaluate. Key words:TP53, oral potentially malignant disorders, risk factors, genotype, phenotype. PMID:23722122

  19. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Jammula, Sruti; Panda, Sandip; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14%) had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis. PMID:23226643

  20. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Jammula, Sruti; Panda, Sandip; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2012-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14%) had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  1. Optimized lesion detection in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Amarpreet S.; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2009-02-01

    While diagnostic improvement via breast tomosynthesis has been notable, the full potential of tomosynthesis has not yet been realized. This is because of the complex task of optimizing multiple parameters that constitute image acquisition and thus affect tomosynthesis performance. Those parameters include dose, number of angular projections, and the total angular span of those projections. In this study, we investigated the effects of acquisition parameters, independent of each other, on the overall diagnostic image quality of tomosynthesis. Five mastectomy specimens were imaged using a prototype tomosynthesis system. 25 angular projections of each specimen were acquired at 6.2 times typical single-view mammographic dose level. Images at lower dose levels were then simulated using a noise modification routine. Each projection image was supplemented with 84 simulated 3 mm 3D lesions embedded at the center of 84 non-overlapping ROIs. The projection images were then reconstructed using a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm at 224 different combinations of acquisition parameters to investigate which one of the many possible combinations maximized performance. Performance was evaluated in terms of a Laguerre-Gauss channelized Hotelling observer model-based measure of lesion detectability. Results showed that performance improved with an increase in the total acquisition dose level and the angular span. At a constant dose level and angular span, the performance rolled-off beyond a certain number of projections, indicating that simply increasing the number of projections in tomosynthesis may not necessarily improve its performance. The best performance was obtained with 15-17 projections spanning an angular arc of ~45° - the maximum tested in our study, and for an acquisition dose equal to single-view mammography. The optimization framework developed in this framework is applicable to other reconstruction techniques and other multi-projection systems.

  2. Biceps Lesion Associated With Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ho Yeon; Kim, Jung Youn; Cho, Nam Su; Rhee, Yong Girl

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various tenodesis methods are being used for long head of the biceps tendon lesions. However, there is no consensus on the most appropriate surgical method. Hypothesis: There are significant differences in incidence of cosmetic deformity and persistent bicipital pain between open subpectoral and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis groups. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This study included 72 patients who underwent biceps tenodesis and rotator cuff repair between January 2009 and May 2014 and who were followed for at least 1 year. Open subpectoral tenodesis was performed in 39 patients (group A), and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis was performed in 33 patients (group B). Results: In group A, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain during motion and mean University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Constant scores significantly improved from 4.6, 18.6, and 64.5 preoperatively to 1.9, 30.5, and 86.5 at last follow-up, respectively (P < .001 for all). In group B, these scores significantly improved from 5.1, 17.6, and 62.9 preoperatively to 1.8, 31.5, and 85.9 at last follow-up, respectively (P < .001 for all). Popeye deformity was noted in 2 (5.2%) patients from group A and 5 (15.6%) patients from group B (P = .231). Additionally, persistent bicipital tenderness was noted in 1 (2.6%) patient from group A and 8 (24.2%) patients from group B (P = .012). Conclusion: Both open subpectoral tenodesis and arthroscopic intracuff tenodesis show good clinical outcomes for long head of the biceps tendon lesions. However, open subpectoral tenodesis may be more appropriate, considering the low incidence of Popeye deformity and tenderness. PMID:27231699

  3. Acne image analysis: lesion localization and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Fazly Salleh; Kaffenberger, Benjamin; Bikowski, Joseph; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2016-03-01

    Acne is a common skin condition present predominantly in the adolescent population, but may continue into adulthood. Scarring occurs commonly as a sequel to severe inflammatory acne. The presence of acne and resultant scars are more than cosmetic, with a significant potential to alter quality of life and even job prospects. The psychosocial effects of acne and scars can be disturbing and may be a risk factor for serious psychological concerns. Treatment efficacy is generally determined based on an invalidated gestalt by the physician and patient. However, the validated assessment of acne can be challenging and time consuming. Acne can be classified into several morphologies including closed comedones (whiteheads), open comedones (blackheads), papules, pustules, cysts (nodules) and scars. For a validated assessment, the different morphologies need to be counted independently, a method that is far too time consuming considering the limited time available for a consultation. However, it is practical to record and analyze images since dermatologists can validate the severity of acne within seconds after uploading an image. This paper covers the processes of region-ofinterest determination using entropy-based filtering and thresholding as well acne lesion feature extraction. Feature extraction methods using discrete wavelet frames and gray-level co-occurence matrix were presented and their effectiveness in separating the six major acne lesion classes were discussed. Several classifiers were used to test the extracted features. Correct classification accuracy as high as 85.5% was achieved using the binary classification tree with fourteen principle components used as descriptors. Further studies are underway to further improve the algorithm performance and validate it on a larger database.

  4. Treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Veitz-Keenan, Analia; Barna, Julie Ann; Strober, Brad; Matthews, Abigail G.; Collie, Damon; Vena, Donald; Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network conducted a three-armed randomized clinical study to determine the comparative effectiveness of three treatments for hypersensitive noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs): use of a potassium nitrate dentifrice for treatment of hypersensitivity, placement of a resin-based composite restoration and placement of a sealant. Methods Seventeen trained practitioner-investigators (P-Is) in the PEARL Network enrolled participants (N = 304) with hypersensitive posterior NCCLs who met enrollment criteria. Participants were assigned to treatments randomly. Evaluations were conducted at baseline and at one, three and six months thereafter. Primary outcomes were the reduction or elimination of hypersensitivity as measured clinically and by means of patient-reported outcomes. Results Lesion depth and pretreatment sensitivity (mean, 5.3 on a 0- to 10-point scale) were balanced across treatments, as was sleep bruxism (present in 42.2 percent of participants). The six-month participant recall rate was 99 percent. Treatments significantly reduced mean sensitivity (P < .01), with the sealant and restoration groups displaying a significantly higher reduction (P < .01) than did the dentifrice group. The dentifrice group’s mean (standard deviation) sensitivity at six months was 2.1 (2.1); those of the sealant and restoration groups were 1.0 (1.6) and 0.8 (1.4), respectively. Patient-reported sensitivity (to cold being most pronounced) paralleled clinical measurements at each evaluation. Conclusions Sealing and restoration treatments were effective overall in reducing NCCL hypersensitivity. The potassium nitrate dentifrice reduced sensitivity with increasing effectiveness through six months but not to the degree offered by the other treatments. Practical Implications Sealant or restoration placement is an effective method of immediately reducing NCCL sensitivity. Although a potassium nitrate dentifrice

  5. Detecting and Treating Occlusal Caries Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Stolpe, M.; Meyer-Lueckel, H.; Paris, S.

    2015-01-01

    The health gains and costs resulting from using different caries detection strategies might not only depend on the accuracy of the used method but also the treatment emanating from its use in different populations. We compared combinations of visual-tactile, radiographic, or laser-fluorescence–based detection methods with 1 of 3 treatments (non-, micro-, and invasive treatment) initiated at different cutoffs (treating all or only dentinal lesions) in populations with low or high caries prevalence. A Markov model was constructed to follow an occlusal surface in a permanent molar in an initially 12-y-old male German patient over his lifetime. Prevalence data and transition probabilities were extracted from the literature, while validity parameters of different methods were synthesized or obtained from systematic reviews. Microsimulations were performed to analyze the model, assuming a German health care setting and a mixed public-private payer perspective. Radiographic and fluorescence-based methods led to more overtreatments, especially in populations with low prevalence. For the latter, combining visual-tactile or radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment retained teeth longest (mean 66 y) at lowest costs (329 and 332 Euro, respectively), while combining radiographic or fluorescence-based detections with invasive treatment was the least cost-effective (<60 y, >700 Euro). In populations with high prevalence, combining radiographic detection with microinvasive treatment was most cost-effective (63 y, 528 Euro), while sensitive detection methods combined with invasive treatments were again the least cost-effective (<59 y, >690 Euro). The suitability of detection methods differed significantly between populations, and the cost-effectiveness was greatly influenced by the treatment initiated after lesion detection. The accuracy of a detection method relative to a “gold standard” did not automatically convey into better health or reduced costs. Detection

  6. Network localization of neurological symptoms from focal brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sashank; Liu, Hesheng; Liu, Qi; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Caviness, Verne S.; Fox, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    A traditional and widely used approach for linking neurological symptoms to specific brain regions involves identifying overlap in lesion location across patients with similar symptoms, termed lesion mapping. This approach is powerful and broadly applicable, but has limitations when symptoms do not localize to a single region or stem from dysfunction in regions connected to the lesion site rather than the site itself. A newer approach sensitive to such network effects involves functional neuroimaging of patients, but this requires specialized brain scans beyond routine clinical data, making it less versatile and difficult to apply when symptoms are rare or transient. In this article we show that the traditional approach to lesion mapping can be expanded to incorporate network effects into symptom localization without the need for specialized neuroimaging of patients. Our approach involves three steps: (i) transferring the three-dimensional volume of a brain lesion onto a reference brain; (ii) assessing the intrinsic functional connectivity of the lesion volume with the rest of the brain using normative connectome data; and (iii) overlapping lesion-associated networks to identify regions common to a clinical syndrome. We first tested our approach in peduncular hallucinosis, a syndrome of visual hallucinations following subcortical lesions long hypothesized to be due to network effects on extrastriate visual cortex. While the lesions themselves were heterogeneously distributed with little overlap in lesion location, 22 of 23 lesions were negatively correlated with extrastriate visual cortex. This network overlap was specific compared to other subcortical lesions (P < 10−5) and relative to other cortical regions (P < 0.01). Next, we tested for generalizability of our technique by applying it to three additional lesion syndromes: central post-stroke pain, auditory hallucinosis, and subcortical aphasia. In each syndrome, heterogeneous lesions that themselves had

  7. Network localization of neurological symptoms from focal brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Boes, Aaron D; Prasad, Sashank; Liu, Hesheng; Liu, Qi; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Caviness, Verne S; Fox, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    A traditional and widely used approach for linking neurological symptoms to specific brain regions involves identifying overlap in lesion location across patients with similar symptoms, termed lesion mapping. This approach is powerful and broadly applicable, but has limitations when symptoms do not localize to a single region or stem from dysfunction in regions connected to the lesion site rather than the site itself. A newer approach sensitive to such network effects involves functional neuroimaging of patients, but this requires specialized brain scans beyond routine clinical data, making it less versatile and difficult to apply when symptoms are rare or transient. In this article we show that the traditional approach to lesion mapping can be expanded to incorporate network effects into symptom localization without the need for specialized neuroimaging of patients. Our approach involves three steps: (i) transferring the three-dimensional volume of a brain lesion onto a reference brain; (ii) assessing the intrinsic functional connectivity of the lesion volume with the rest of the brain using normative connectome data; and (iii) overlapping lesion-associated networks to identify regions common to a clinical syndrome. We first tested our approach in peduncular hallucinosis, a syndrome of visual hallucinations following subcortical lesions long hypothesized to be due to network effects on extrastriate visual cortex. While the lesions themselves were heterogeneously distributed with little overlap in lesion location, 22 of 23 lesions were negatively correlated with extrastriate visual cortex. This network overlap was specific compared to other subcortical lesions (P < 10(-5)) and relative to other cortical regions (P < 0.01). Next, we tested for generalizability of our technique by applying it to three additional lesion syndromes: central post-stroke pain, auditory hallucinosis, and subcortical aphasia. In each syndrome, heterogeneous lesions that themselves had

  8. Cavitary pulmonary lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus: an unusual manifestation.

    PubMed

    Dalili, Amir Reza; Lotfi, Reza; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis. The frequency of SLE with cavitary lesion manifestation is very rare and is thought to be due to infection or pulmonary embolism. A 19-year-old female diagnosed with SLE complicated by lupus nephritis and cavitary pulmonary lesion is presented in this case report. Other diseases that can lead to such lesions were ruled out in the patient. The patient improved briefly after the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy, but was unresponsive to supportive treatment due to pneumothorax. Pneumothorax is caused by cavitary lesions and possibly bronchopleural fistulas - these later caused respiratory distress and death. The patient did not show any improvement in the lesions after the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. This case report suggests that the differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions should include SLE.

  9. Cavitary pulmonary lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus: an unusual manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Dalili, Amir Reza; Lotfi, Reza; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown pathogenesis. The frequency of SLE with cavitary lesion manifestation is very rare and is thought to be due to infection or pulmonary embolism. A 19-year-old female diagnosed with SLE complicated by lupus nephritis and cavitary pulmonary lesion is presented in this case report. Other diseases that can lead to such lesions were ruled out in the patient. The patient improved briefly after the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy, but was unresponsive to supportive treatment due to pneumothorax. Pneumothorax is caused by cavitary lesions and possibly bronchopleural fistulas – these later caused respiratory distress and death. The patient did not show any improvement in the lesions after the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. This case report suggests that the differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions should include SLE. PMID:25763160

  10. Evaluation of scintillation cameras by spherical lesion detectability.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, H; Koga, Y

    1980-12-01

    The lesion detectability with a scintillation camera as a function of count density was determined for the four spherical cold lesions with diameter 0.9-2.5 cm (in square root 2 step) within a uniform background activity. It can be seen from the curves that the lesion detectability increases with an increase in count density until 2 kcounts/cm2, however it does not appreciably improve for count densities above 2 kcounts/cm2. The curves also show that, for a giving count density, the lesion detectability decreases as the lesion size or object contrast decreases. From these curves minimum count density required for recognition of each cold lesion is deduced. This value is applied to the evaluation of scintillation camera system.

  11. [Guidance of volume transmission theory on treatment of "bipolar lesions"].

    PubMed

    Shao, Xuanming; Han, Jie; Sun, Dayong; Ji, Xiaofei

    2015-10-01

    As the key organ of human, the brain has projection area corresponding to every part of the body, indicating that the damage on human body will locate a corresponding projection area in the brain. The primary injury on the distal end will produce secondary lesion in the projection area of brain, featuring as "bipolar lesions". The volume transmission (VT) theory and propagated sensation along meridians (PSAM) in TCM provide core guidance for the treatment of "bipolar lesions". The tendency to lesion of PSAM is achieved through volume transmission, which is also called "propagated sensation tendency to lesion of VT". From three aspects, VT can treat bipolar lesions, formatting a ring closed path. With VT as main treatment and wiring transmission as supplemented treatment, it has a more comprehensive guidance for treatment, and this theory may play an essential guiding role in the future treatment development for diseases.

  12. Spectrum of Salivary Gland Lesions in a Tertiary Level Hospital.

    PubMed

    Begum, A; Baten, M A; Alam, M M; Huq, M H; Ahsan, M M; Khan, M K; Saleh, F M; Talukder, S I

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively infrequent and account for less than 2% of all human tumors. This study was conducted to see the prevalence of patterns of non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of salivary glands in greater Mymensingh. It was a retrospective study carried out in the department of Pathology, Community Based Medical College Bangladesh from January 2010 to December 2012. Heamatoxylin and eosin stained sections were studied in all cases. Total 98 cases of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Out of them 55 cases were female and 43 were male. Mean age of the cases were 42 years. Among the salivary gland lesions non-neoplastic lesions 24.48% and neoplastic lesions 75.51%. Among neoplastic lesions benign tumor comprises 91.89% and malignant tumor comprises 8.10%.

  13. Retrospective analysis of nonendodontic periapical lesions misdiagnosed as endodontic apical periodontitis lesions in a population of Taiwanese patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsun-Yu; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Ko, Edward Cheng-Chuan; Chuang, Fu-Hsiung; Chen, Ping-Ho; Chen, Ching-Yi; Wang, Wen-Chen

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate nonendodontic periapical lesions clinically misdiagnosed as endodontic periapical pathoses in a population of Taiwanese patients. Cases (2000-2014) of histopathological diagnoses of nonendodontic periapical lesions were retrieved from all cases with a clinical diagnosis of radicular cyst, apical granuloma, or apical periodontitis in the institution. These cases were regarded as misdiagnosed nonendodontic periapical lesions, of which the types and frequencies, in addition to the demographic data, were determined. Four thousand and four specimens were clinically diagnosed as endodontically associated pathoses, of which 118 cases (2.95%) received a histopathological diagnosis of a nonendodontic pathologic entity, the most frequent lesion being keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT, n = 38, 32.20%), followed by fibro-osseous lesion (n = 18, 15.25%), and dentigerous cyst (n = 13, 11.02%). Nine malignant lesions in the periapical area [squamous cell carcinoma (n = 7, 5.93%), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 1, 0.85%), and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (n = 1, 0.85%)] were also noted. A wide variety of histopathological diagnoses, including benign odontogenic and non-odontogenic cystic and tumorous lesions and infectious diseases, as well as malignant lesions, was noted in these 118 cases of nonendodontic periapical lesions. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most predominant malignancy of nonendodontic periapical lesions misdiagnosed as apical periodontitis lesions from imaging examination overlooking the clinical findings. The current data form a useful basis for clinicopathological investigation and educational teaching regarding nonendodontic periapical lesions misdiagnosed as endodontic apical periodontitis lesions.

  14. Bohn's nodules: peculiar neonatal intraoral lesions mistaken for natal teeth.

    PubMed

    Cizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Kanburoglu, Mehmet Kenan; Kara, Semra; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2014-03-01

    Inclusion cysts of transient nature during the neonatal period are developmental lesions, which are seen in the oral cavity of the newborn infant. These lesions are classified into three subtypes according to their localizations. When noticed by the anxious parents on the gingival surfaces, they are often mistaken for natal teeth, which lead to seeking medical attention. Herein, we describe a newborn infant with Bohn's nodules to increase the awareness of the physicians to this benign, self-limiting lesion.

  15. Computerized Analysis of MR and Ultrasound Images of Breast Lesions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Yearbook of Radiology) 3. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Huo Z, Vyborny CJ; Computer-aided diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound. Proceedings...International Workshop on Digital Mammography. Toronto, Canada, June, 2000. 4. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Automatic segmentation of breast...lesions on ultrasound. Medical Physics (in press). 5. Horsch K, Giger ML, Venta LA, Vyborny CJ: Computerized diagnosis of breast lesions on ultrasound

  16. Case Series: Cyclops lesion - extension loss after ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Dhanda, Sunita; Sanghvi, Darshana; Pardiwala, Dinshaw

    2010-01-01

    Localized anterior arthrofibrosis (cyclops lesion) is the second most common cause of extension loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. We present and discuss two patients with prior ACL reconstructions, who presented with pain and loss of extension following surgery. MRI and arthroscopy of the knee revealed typical features of a cyclops lesion. The patients showed significant symptomatic improvement following arthroscopic resection of these lesions. PMID:21042447

  17. [The attitude before subclinical breast lesions on mammography].

    PubMed

    Blidaru, A; Sebeni, M; Bordea, C; Viişoreanu, C; Bălănescu, I

    2000-01-01

    Mammographic screening and improvement of mammography resolution have resulted in the increasingly frequent identification of small-size mammary lesions that have no clinical expression. If in Western countries, approximately one quarter of breast cancers are discovered when clinically occult, in Romania such cases are rare and, most of the times, discovered merely by chance. Infraclinical mammary lesions identified by mammography pose problems concerning the appropriate response. The paper assesses the various diagnosis and therapy choices as well as the localization techniques to be employed in order to establish the best approach. We describe twelve cases of infraclinical mammary lesions identified by mammography. In two of this cases fine needle aspiration biopsy with cytological examination was used, and in one case we performed core biopsy and histological examination. In those cases, lesion localization has been performed using stereotactic X-ray devices. In nine cases, we performed excisional biopsy with histologic assessment. In four of those cases, the lesions proved to be malignant. Preoperative localization was performed with hookwires placed in the proximity of the lesion under mammographic control. In five of those cases, lesion coordinates have been determined by stereotaxy. Using this technique, we removed, in all cases, the clinical lesions identified by mammography. We believe surgical excision to be the best approach in such lesions. Total removal of the lesion enables a thorough histopathological examination resulting in more accurate diagnosis. Curative surgery is also possible within the same surgical procedure. Unless preoperative localization is performed the surgeon is in the position to excise an image that has no clinical expression. Under this circumstances surgical removal is performed blind, as the lesion is hard to be found even intraoperatory. Preoperative localization provides guidance to the surgeon, ensures removal of the lesion

  18. Enlightening the Pink: Use of Confocal Microscopy in Pink Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Melissa; González, Salvador

    2016-10-01

    Solitary pink lesions can pose a particular challenge to dermatologists because they may be almost or completely featureless clinically and dermoscopically, previously requiring biopsy to exclude malignancy. However, these lesions usually are not particularly challenging histopathologically. Thus, the incorporation of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy into the clinical practice, which allows for noninvasive examination of the skin at the cellular level revealing features previously seen only on histopathology, is particularly useful for this subset of clinically difficult lesions.

  19. Annular Lesions and Catenary Forms in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Dansingani, Kunal K; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Mrejen, Sarah; Inoue, Maiko; Freund, K Bailey; Klancnik, James M; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

    2016-06-01

    To describe a series of patients exhibiting annular retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) lesions in the context of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Retrospective comparative case series. Consecutive patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were identified from the clinical practices of 3 retina specialists. A subset of patients exhibiting annular RPE lesions on fundus autofluorescence was included for chart review and examination of multimodal imaging (study group). Patients with alternative etiologies for neurosensory detachment or pigment epitheliopathy were excluded. A second consecutive cohort of patients, with acute central serous chorioretinopathy, was also examined for the presence of annular lesions (comparative group). Sixty-seven patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were identified. Fourteen eyes of 12 patients exhibited annular lesions (study eyes). Mean visual acuity of study eyes was 20/27 (logMAR 0.13, SD 0.11). Annular lesions were composed of hyperautofluorescent stellate lesions arranged in an open or closed ring with intervening foci of punctate hypoautofluorescence. Optical coherence tomography showed RPE hyperplasia at the perimeters of annular lesions with loss of ellipsoid reflectivity and preserved RPE at the lesion center. Annular lesions were confined to the posterior poles and appeared to have developed at the margins of chronic neurosensory detachment. Forty-three eyes of 30 patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy comprised the comparative group and none of these eyes exhibited annular lesions. Annular lesions occur in up to a fifth of patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy but carry a relatively good visual prognosis. Curvilinear RPE figures and demarcation lines are seen in various retinal conditions but the characteristics of annular lesions described here suggest that they are specific to chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Surbhi; Kotru, Mrinalini; Gupta, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Background FNAC of intraosseous jaw lesions has not been widely utilized for diagnosis due to rarity and diversity of these lesions, limited experience and lack of well established cytological features. Aim of the study was to determine the role of FNAC in the diagnosis of intraosseous jaw swellings. Material and Methods 42 patients underwent FNAC over a period of 7 years (2007-2013), of which 37 (88.1%) aspirates were diagnostic. Histopathology correlation was available in 33 cases and diagnostic accuracy of FNAC was calculated. Results Lesions were categorized into inflammatory 3, cysts/hamartomas 15 and neoplasms 19. Mandibular and maxillary involvement was seen in 21 and 16 patients respectively. Of these, benign cysts and malignant lesions were commonest, accounting for 27% lesions (10 cases) each. One case of cystic ameloblastoma was misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst on cytology. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of FNAC were 94.7% and 100% respectively with a diagnostic accuracy of 97.3%. Definitive categorization of giant cell lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, odontogenic tumors and cystic lesions was not feasible on FNAC. Conclusions FNAC is a simple, safe and minimally invasive first line investigation which can render an accurate preoperative diagnosis of intraosseous jaw lesions, especially the malignant ones in the light of clinic-radiological correlation. Key words: Jaw swellings, intraosseous, FNAC. PMID:25662547

  1. Computer aided detection of oral lesions on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galib, S.; Islam, F.; Abir, M.; Lee, H. K.

    2015-12-01

    Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography (CT) images. In this study, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions in mandibular region from dental CT images is proposed. Two methods were developed to recognize two types of lesions namely (1) Close border (CB) lesions and (2) Open border (OB) lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. For the detection of CB lesions, fifteen features were extracted from each initial lesion candidates and multi layer perceptron (MLP) neural network was used to classify suspicious regions. Moreover, OB lesions were detected using a rule based image processing method, where no feature extraction or classification algorithm were used. The results were validated using a CT dataset of 52 patients, where 22 patients had abnormalities and 30 patients were normal. Using non-training dataset, CB detection algorithm yielded 71% sensitivity with 0.31 false positives per patient. Furthermore, OB detection algorithm achieved 100% sensitivity with 0.13 false positives per patient. Results suggest that, the proposed framework, which consists of two methods, has the potential to be used in clinical context, and assist radiologists for better diagnosis.

  2. Advanced precancerous lesions (APL) in the colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Naini, Bita V; Odze, Robert D

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most colorectal cancers are preventable. Surveillance colonoscopy is used to detect and remove precancerous lesions. Although the majority of precancerous lesions develop sporadically, some have an inherited component. In this review, we summarize the clinical, pathologic, and molecular features of advanced precancerous lesions of the colon. The most common and clinically important intestinal polyposis syndromes, and their genetics, are also discussed. Finally, current recommendations regarding the treatment and surveillance of precancerous lesions, both in the sporadic and in inherited setting, are reviewed.

  3. Object and spatial memory after neonatal perirhinal lesions in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Alison R; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the perirhinal cortex (PRh) to recognition memory is well characterized in adults, yet the same lesions have limited effect on recognition of spatial locations. Here, we assessed whether the same outcomes will follow when perirhinal lesions are performed in infancy. Monkeys with neonatal perirhinal (Neo-PRh) lesions and control animals were tested in three operant recognition tasks as they reached adulthood: Delayed Nonmatching-to-Sample (DNMS) and Object Memory Span (OMS), measuring object recognition, and Spatial Memory Span (SMS), measuring recognition of spatial locations. Although Neo-PRh lesions did not impact acquisition of the DNMS rule, they did impair performance when the delays were extended from 30s to 600s. In contrast, the same neonatal lesions had no impact on either the object or spatial memory span tasks, suggesting that the lesions impacted the maintenance of information across longer delays and not memory capacity. Finally, the magnitude of recognition memory impairment after the Neo-PRh lesions was similar to that previously observed after adult-onset perirhinal lesions, indicating minimal, or no, functional compensation after the early PRh lesions. Overall, the results indicate that the PRh is a cortical structure that is important for the normal development of mechanisms supporting object recognition memory. Its contribution may be relevant to the memory impairment observed with human cases of temporal lobe epilepsy without hippocampal sclerosis, but not to the memory impairment found in developmental amnesia cases. PMID:26593109

  4. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  5. Vascular lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Van Beers, B E; Danse, E M

    2002-01-01

    In the liver, imaging can show lesions of large and medium-sized vessels, perfusion disorders related to vascular lesions, and parenchymal lesions including infarcts, regenerative nodules, and focal nodular hyperplasia. In the gastrointestinal tract, vascular lesions often result in bowel ischemia. Imaging can be used to show the vascular lesions and bowel wall abnormalities, including mural thickening, lack of perfusion, and pneumatosis. Doppler sonography, multislice helical computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and angiography are useful to demonstrate vascular lesions. Doppler sonography offers high spatial and temporal resolution. Information about blood flow and velocity can be obtained. However, the visualization of retroperitoneal vessels is often limited because of intestinal gas. A global view of the abdominal vasculature can be observed by using helical CT. High spatial and temporal resolution are obtained, especially when new multislice CT scanners are used. MR imaging has a better contrast resolution than CT, but its spatial resolution is lower. MR imaging can also be used to measure flow with phase contrast methods. The role of arteriography in the diagnosis of vascular lesions is decreasing. However, its role remains important to definitively demonstrate obstruction of the hepatic artery and to show arterial lesions in acute mesenteric ischemia. In addition, it is used as a problem-solving method to detect lesions in medium-sized vessels and to guide intravascular treatment.

  6. Effect of the Spiroiminodihydantoin Lesion on Nucleosome Stability and Positioning.

    PubMed

    Norabuena, Erika M; Barnes Williams, Sara; Klureza, Margaret A; Goehring, Liana J; Gruessner, Brian; Radhakrishnan, Mala L; Jamieson, Elizabeth R; Núñez, Megan E

    2016-04-26

    DNA is constantly under attack by oxidants, generating a variety of potentially mutagenic covalently modified species, including oxidized guanine base products. One such product is spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp), a chiral, propeller-shaped lesion that strongly destabilizes the DNA helix in its vicinity. Despite its unusual shape and thermodynamic effect on double-stranded DNA structure, DNA duplexes containing the Sp lesion form stable nucleosomes upon being incubated with histone octamers. Indeed, among six different combinations of lesion location and stereochemistry, only two duplexes display a diminished ability to form nucleosomes, and these only by ∼25%; the other four are statistically indistinguishable from the control. Nonetheless, kinetic factors also play a role: when the histone proteins have less time during assembly of the core particle to sample both lesion-containing and normal DNA strands, they are more likely to bind the Sp lesion DNA than during slower assembly processes that better approximate thermodynamic equilibrium. Using DNase I footprinting and molecular modeling, we discovered that the Sp lesion causes only a small perturbation (±1-2 bp) on the translational position of the DNA within the nucleosome. Each diastereomeric pair of lesions has the same effect on nucleosome positioning, but lesions placed at different locations behave differently, illustrating that the location of the lesion and not its shape serves as the primary determinant of the most stable DNA orientation.

  7. [Rare mesenchymal lesions in siblings. Two case reports].

    PubMed

    Guschmann, M; Frege, J; Lübbert, E; Golla, S; Rudolph, B; Haake, K; Stöver, B

    2003-05-01

    We report on a 15-month-old boy presenting a juvenile active ossifying fibroma in the right nasal cavity and the sibling, a 9-month-old girl with a mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall. The two lesions showed many similarities. Both lesions are present at the time of birth or in early life with local obstructive or compressive effects. The lesions have a similar mixture of mature and immature mesenchymal tissue with areas of ossification. The entities present a tumor-like development with an abnormal mixture of tissue indigenous to the specific area of the body without notable atypical cytologic features. These features are typical criteria for hamartoma lesions.

  8. Breast papillary lesions: an analysis of 70 cases

    PubMed Central

    Boin, Dahiana Pulgar; Baez, Jaime Jans; Guajardo, Militza Petric; Benavides, David Oddo; Ortega, Maria Elena Navarro; Valdés, Dravna Razmilic; Apphun, Mauricio Camus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Papillary breast lesions are rare and constitute less than 10% of benign breast lesions and less than 1% of breast carcinomas. Objective To analyse the clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, and surgical and anatomopathological characteristics of the patients operated on for papillary breast lesions. Material and Methods Retrospective descriptive and analytical study. We analysed the database of patients with definitive histopathological diagnosis of papillary breast lesions operated on at our institution from January 2004 to May 2013. Results During the period described, 70 patients with histopathological diagnosis of papillary breast lesions were operated upon. The median age was 50 years (19–86 years). Thirty-seven patients (52.8%) were symptomatic at diagnosis. Preoperative ultrasound was reported to be altered in all patients. A mammography showed pathologic findings in only 50% of cases. All patients underwent partial mastectomy, after needle localisation under ultrasound, if the lesion was not palpable on physical examination. The final pathological diagnosis was: benign papillary lesion in 55 patients (78.6%) and malignant in 15 patients (21.4%). Adjuvant treatment was performed in all malignant cases. Median follow-up was 46 months (3–115 months). Conclusions Patients with papillary breast lesions presented with symptoms in half of all cases. There was a high frequency of malignancy (21.4%), therefore surgical resection was recommended for papillary breast lesions. PMID:25228917

  9. Pathologic High-risk Lesions, Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Murray, Melissa

    2016-12-01

    Percutaneous imaging-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) is a less invasive and less expensive alternative to surgical biopsy for the evaluation of breast lesions. After a CNB the radiologist determine if there is concordance between the pathology, imaging, and clinical findings. Patient management after CNB diagnosis of high-risk breast lesion varies. Surgical excision is warranted for lesions yielding a CNB diagnosis of ADH; however controversy exists regarding the need for surgical excision after CNB diagnosis of radial scar, papillary lesion, atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), or lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Repeat CNB or surgical excision is warranted if histologic findings and imaging findings are discordant.

  10. Resecting without detecting the lesion in extratemporal lobe epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Henry, Thomas R

    2014-03-18

    Nonlesional extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE) often persists following resection of the site of ictal onset, localized with definitive intracranial EEG recordings.(1,2) In lesional ETLE, however, lesionectomy with resection of a single electrophysiologically defined ictal onset (ictogenic) zone often stops seizures immediately and permanently.(1,2) In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a single ictogenic site can be resected, either with an accompanying lesion or in the absence of an MRI-detected lesion, and is a highly efficacious epilepsy therapy.(2) Efforts to increase surgical efficacy in nonlesional ETLE have focused on localization by functional imaging to substitute for lesion localization by structural imaging.

  11. Silent New Brain Lesions: Innocent Bystander or Guilty Party?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jae; Kang, Dong-Wha; Warach, Steven

    2016-01-01

    With the advances in magnetic resonance imaging, previously unrecognized small brain lesions, which are mostly asymptomatic, have been increasingly detected. Diffusion-weighted imaging can identify small ischemic strokes, while gradient echo T2* imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging can reveal tiny hemorrhagic strokes (microbleeds). In this article, we review silent brain lesions appearing soon after acute stroke events, including silent new ischemic lesions and microbleeds appearing 1) after acute ischemic stroke and 2) after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Moreover, we briefly discuss the clinical implications of these silent new brain lesions. PMID:26467195

  12. Multisegmental pneumatocysts of the lumbar spine mimic osteolytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Steingruber, I E; Bach, C M; Wimmer, C; Nogler, M; Buchberger, W

    2001-01-01

    Circumscribed radiolucencies within the vertebral bones can be due to a variety of changes including benign and malignant tumours or tumour-like lesions. Radiolucencies due to degenerative intraosseous pneumatocyst are very uncommon but have to be taken into the differential diagnosis in well-circumscribed lytic lesions of the vertebral bodies. We describe the first case of multisegmental pneumatocysts in the lumbar spine mimicking osteolytic lesions. On computed tomography, the air-equivalent attenuation values of the lesions and the close vicinity to the degenerated vertebral endplates with vacuum phenomenon led to the correct diagnosis.

  13. Magnetic-resonance-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ethan A; Grove, Jason J; Van Der Spek, Abraham F L; Jarboe, Marcus D

    2017-03-03

    Image-guided biopsy techniques are widely used in clinical practice. Commonly used methods employ either ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) for image guidance. In certain patients, US or CT guidance may be suboptimal, or even impossible, because of artifacts, suboptimal lesion visualization, or both. We recently began performing magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions in select pediatric patients with lesions that are not well visualized by US or CT. This report describes our experience performing MR-guided biopsy of focal liver lesions, with case examples to illustrate innovative techniques and novel aspects of these procedures.

  14. Lesions in the ocular posterior segment of raptors.

    PubMed

    Buyukmihci, N C

    1985-12-01

    Thirty-eight free-living raptors, including various hawks, owls, and an eagle, had lesions of the ocular posterior segment believed to be the result of trauma. Although lesions of the anterior ocular segment and of the rest of the body often were seen, the lesions of the posterior segment of the eye were disproportionately more severe and usually were not suspected by rehabilitation personnel. The tightly encased raptor eye, with its anteriorly placed scleral ossicles, may have rendered the eye more susceptible to contrecoup damage. In the birds that were treated, ocular lesions were resolved and some vision was restored.

  15. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  16. Psychological distress surrounding diagnosis of malignant and nonmalignant skin lesions at a pigmented lesion clinic.

    PubMed

    Al-Shakhli, H; Harcourt, D; Kenealy, J

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed prospectively to investigate psychological distress throughout the diagnostic process in an outpatient pigmented lesion clinic (PLC). Psychological distress was measured at pre clinical diagnosis, post clinical diagnosis, pre histological diagnosis (including a benign follow-up) and post histological diagnosis stages using standard anxiety measurement scales and a study specific measure of satisfaction with care. In total 324 patients undergoing investigation of a suspicious skin lesion consented to take part out of a cohort of 463 patients who attended the PLC in a 6 month period. Using recognised cut-off scores, 27% of women on clinic arrival reported clinically high levels of anxiety, in comparison with 10% of men (p < 0.0001). Patients given an immediate benign post clinical diagnosis reported a reduction in anxiety (p < 0.0001) but patients requiring a biopsy reported elevated levels of anxiety. Approximately, 30% of these biopsy patients reported clinically high levels of anxiety both before and after diagnosis. Patients who received a post histological diagnosis of malignant melanoma also reported the pre histological stage at the clinic as more distressing than waiting for and receiving results (p < 0.01). Patient's quality of life prior to diagnosis was excellent, but emotional functioning (p < 0.05), insomnia (pLesion Clinics in UK. The diagnostic process of a suspicious lesion is evidently a 'critical' stage requiring appropriate provision of care to meet patients' psychosocial and information needs

  17. Recurrent acute thermal lesion induces esophageal hyperproliferative premalignant lesions in mice esophagus.

    PubMed

    Rapozo, D C M; Blanco, T C M; Reis, B B; Gonzaga, I M; Valverde, P; Canetti, C; Barja-Fidalgo, C; Simao, T A; Albano, R M; Kruel, C D P; Pinto, L F Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Hot beverage consumption is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We developed an experimental mouse model to understand the mechanism of thermal lesion to esophageal carcinogenesis. Female BALB/c mice were treated by gavage with water at different temperatures three times a week and nitrosamines in the drinking water. Water at 70°C, but not at lower temperatures, initially induced an esophageal necrosis that healed and became resistant to necrosis after further administrations. However, when 70°C water was associated with N-nitrosodiethylamine at doses above 1 ppm, there was interference in epithelial regeneration, allowing recurrent thermal injury and inflammation. Recurrent thermal injury resulted in hyper proliferative premalignant lesions being induced earlier (at 4 weeks) and at a higher frequency (4-fold increase at 16 weeks) when compared to mice treated with NDEA only. Ki-67 immunostaining revealed that recurrent thermal injury induced basal cell proliferation resulting in the expansion of epithelial basal cells, confirmed by the increase in cytokeratin 14 positive cells with concomitant reduction of differentiated cytokeratin 5 positive cells. We conclude that recurrent thermal lesion may act as a tumor promoter though a strong proliferation stimulus of esophageal epithelial basal cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Endodontic procedures for retreatment of periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Del Fabbro, Massimo; Corbella, Stefano; Sequeira-Byron, Patrick; Tsesis, Igor; Rosen, Eyal; Lolato, Alessandra; Taschieri, Silvio

    2016-10-19

    When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal. This review updates one published in 2008. To assess effects of surgical and non-surgical therapy for retreatment of teeth with apical periodontitis.To assess effects of surgical root-end resection under various conditions, for example, when different materials, devices or techniques are used. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Trials Register (to 10 February 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 10 February 2016) and Embase Ovid (1980 to 10 February 2016). We searched the US National Registry of Clinical Trials (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials (to 10 February 2016). We placed no restrictions regarding language and publication date. We handsearched the reference lists of the studies retrieved and key journals in the field of endodontics. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving people with periapical pathosis. Studies could compare surgery versus non-surgical treatment or could compare different types of surgery. Outcome measures were healing of the periapical lesion assessed after one-year follow-up or longer; postoperative pain and discomfort; and adverse effects such as tooth loss, mobility, soft tissue recession, abscess, infection, neurological damage or loss of root sealing material

  19. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  20. Treatment of lesions of the rotator cuff.

    PubMed

    Saggini, R; Cavezza, T; Di Pancrazio, L; Pisciella, V; Saladino, G; Zuccaro, M C; Bellomo, R G

    2010-01-01

    The impingement syndrome and tendinopathy of the rotator cuff are the most common causes (complaints) of pain and disability of the shoulder. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a specific rehabilitative protocol, integrated with the administration of a nutritional supplement, in the conservative rehabilitative treatment, as well as in post-surgery, of patients with lesions of the rotator cuff. Two groups with syndrome of the rotator cuff were formed to follow different therapeutic courses, in relation to the choice of each subject to undergo the conservative treatment (Arm A) or the surgical one (Arm B). In Arm A the study included the association of therapy with ESWT (shock waves) with the proprioceptive Multi Joint System, for rehabilitating joint movement and muscle strength of the shoulder, and a specific nutritional supplement to reduce the pain and conserve the cartilage tissue. Between February 2009 and June 2009, we enrolled 30 subjects (randomized into three homogenous groups A1, A2, A3), average age 45±10 years, with rotator cuff syndrome with calcification of the shoulder, diagnosed through clinical examination and investigative instruments (X-ray, echography or NMR). In Arm B, from September 2009 to January 2010, we enrolled 50 patients (randomized into two groups, B1 and B2), 24 male (average age 58.4: min 28 and max 78) and 26 females (average age 59.5: min 30 and max 80), who had undergone rotator cuff operations and acromionplasty for non-massive lesions without important gleno-humeral instability, with either open or arthroscopic procedures. The analysis of the results of Arm A highlights that in terms of reducing pain the main benefits were found in Group A1 where the supplement was given. From the analysis of the data of Arm B, in both groups an improvement of the first 4 items evaluated was evident. In Group B1, 84 percent of the patients declared to be satisfied and improved and 16 percent were dissatisfied; in Group B2

  1. Elbow and Shoulder Lesions of Baseball Players*

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    plays a part in the disability and should be the first thought in the mind of the examiner” [2]. Dr. George Bennett is shown. Photograph is reproduced with permission and ©American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Fifty Years of Progress, 1983. References Bennett GE. Shoulder and elbow lesions of the professional baseball player. JAMA. 1941;117:510–514. Bennett GE. Elbow and shoulder lesions of baseball players. Am J Surg. 1959;98:484–492. George Eli Bennett. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1962;44:1711–1713. Scorecard. Mender of immortals. Sports Illustrated. July 30,1962:7. PMID:18196375

  2. 3-D volume reconstruction of skin lesions for melanin and blood volume estimation and lesion severity analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Brian; Dhawan, Atam P

    2012-11-01

    Subsurface information about skin lesions, such as the blood volume beneath the lesion, is important for the analysis of lesion severity towards early detection of skin cancer such as malignant melanoma. Depth information can be obtained from diffuse reflectance based multispectral transillumination images of the skin. An inverse volume reconstruction method is presented which uses a genetic algorithm optimization procedure with a novel population initialization routine and nudge operator based on the multispectral images to reconstruct the melanin and blood layer volume components. Forward model evaluation for fitness calculation is performed using a parallel processing voxel-based Monte Carlo simulation of light in skin. Reconstruction results for simulated lesions show excellent volume accuracy. Preliminary validation is also done using a set of 14 clinical lesions, categorized into lesion severity by an expert dermatologist. Using two features, the average blood layer thickness and the ratio of blood volume to total lesion volume, the lesions can be classified into mild and moderate/severe classes with 100% accuracy. The method therefore has excellent potential for detection and analysis of pre-malignant lesions.

  3. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely. PMID:25355744

  4. Finding the imposter: brain connectivity of lesions causing delusional misidentifications.

    PubMed

    Darby, R Ryan; Laganiere, Simon; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Prasad, Sashank; Fox, Michael D

    2017-02-01

    SEE MCKAY AND FURL DOI101093/AWW323 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Focal brain injury can sometimes lead to bizarre symptoms, such as the delusion that a family member has been replaced by an imposter (Capgras syndrome). How a single brain lesion could cause such a complex disorder is unclear, leading many to speculate that concurrent delirium, psychiatric disease, dementia, or a second lesion is required. Here we instead propose that Capgras and other delusional misidentification syndromes arise from single lesions at unique locations within the human brain connectome. This hypothesis is motivated by evidence that symptoms emerge from sites functionally connected to a lesion location, not just the lesion location itself. First, 17 cases of lesion-induced delusional misidentifications were identified and lesion locations were mapped to a common brain atlas. Second, lesion network mapping was used to identify brain regions functionally connected to the lesion locations. Third, regions involved in familiarity perception and belief evaluation, two processes thought to be abnormal in delusional misidentifications, were identified using meta-analyses of previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. We found that all 17 lesion locations were functionally connected to the left retrosplenial cortex, the region most activated in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of familiarity. Similarly, 16 of 17 lesion locations were functionally connected to the right frontal cortex, the region most activated in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of expectation violation, a component of belief evaluation. This connectivity pattern was highly specific for delusional misidentifications compared to four other lesion-induced neurological syndromes (P < 0.0001). Finally, 15 lesions causing other types of delusions were connected to expectation violation (P < 0.0001) but not familiarity regions, demonstrating specificity for delusion content. Our

  5. Large neurotoxic amygdala lesion impairs reinforcement omission effects.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Tatiane F; Judice-Daher, Danielle M; Bueno, José Lino O

    2014-06-01

    The amygdala has been implicated in a variety of motivational and attentional functions related to appetitive learning. Some studies showed that electrolytic lesions of the amygdaloid complex disrupted reinforcement omission effects (ROEs). However, recent studies that investigated ROEs employing neurotoxic lesions in specific amygdala areas - the central nucleus (CeA) or basolateral complex (BLA) of the amygdala - showed that CeA lesions or BLA lesions can interfere with, but do not eliminate ROEs. Although the effects of neurotoxic lesions in particular areas of the amygdala differed from those of a large gross lesion, these studies have indicated that it is possible that the amygdala is involved in ROE modulation. Furthermore, the effect that a neurotoxic lesion involving both areas (CeA and BLA) has on ROEs remains unexplored. Thus, the present study aimed to clarify whether the functional impairment related to large amygdala activation affects ROEs, in a neurotoxic lesion procedure. If this is the case, the underlying process may contribute to a better understanding of the involvement of the amygdala in ROEs modulation. After acquisition of stable performance during pre-lesion training in which rats were trained to respond on a fixed-interval 6 s with limited hold 6 s schedules (FI 6 s LH 6 s), lesions were made including both the CeA and BLA areas. In test sessions, the partial omission of reinforcement was introduced. The results showed that bilateral lesion of both CeA and BLA impaired ROEs, suggesting that amygdala is part of ROEs' modulation circuitry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of acetabular chondral lesions with microfracture technique

    PubMed Central

    Mella, Claudio; Nuñez, Alvaro; Villalón, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Acetabular cartilage lesions are frequently found during hip arthroscopy. In the hip joint they mostly occur secondary to a mechanical overload resulting from a pre-existing deformity as hip dysplasia or femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Lesions identified during arthroscopy can vary greatly from the earliest stages to the most advanced (full-thickness lesions). These lesions occur in the acetabulum in the early stages of joint damage. Microfractures are indicated in full-thickness chondral defects. Ideally, these lesions must be focal and contained. Methods: The procedure begins debriding all the unstable chondral tissue of the lesion. The edges should have a net cut towards stable and healthy cartilage. It is recommended to make as many perforations as possible using arthroscopic awls. They should be ideally 4 mm deep and must have a vertical orientation to the surface. The suggested distance between perforations is of 3–4 mm. Once the treatment of the chondral lesion with the microfractures is complete, the labrum must be repaired. The repair of the labrum transforms in most of the cases the defect in a contained lesion containing better the clot in the lesion after the microfractures have been performed. It is also important to correct the bone deformity that has caused this lesion, which mostly corresponds to a “cam” deformity. Conclusion: Clinical studies confirm good short- and medium-term results in full-thickness chondral lesions treated with microfractures in the absence of osteoarthritis. However, it is difficult to determine if these results are only due to the microfractures, as this treatment is always complemented with several other factors and surgical procedures, such as labrum repair, correction of underlying bone deformity or change in postoperative activity of operated patients. PMID:28612705

  7. Multimodal imaging of white and dark without pressure fundus lesions.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Amani A; Nielsen, Jared S; Mateo-Montoya, Aranzazu; Somkijrungroj, Thanapong; Li, Helen K; Gonzales, John; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine; Jampol, Lee M

    2014-12-01

    To describe multimodal imaging findings in patients with dark or white without pressure lesions of the fundus. Retrospective observational case series of 10 patients with white or dark without pressure lesions. We analyzed multimodal imaging using spectral domain optical coherence tomography, color and near-infrared fundus photography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging to explore the findings associated with these lesions. All patients had geographic dark or white lesions on clinical examination and color photography, which were either hyporeflective or hyperreflective on near-infrared reflectance imaging, respectively. On optical coherence tomography, these lesions correlated with an abrupt change of the photoreceptor reflectivity, with relative hyporeflectivity of photoreceptor zones (ellipsoid and interdigitation zones, as well as outer segments) within the dark, and relative hyperreflectivity within white lesions. Ten patients underwent fundus autofluorescence, which showed well-defined zones of relative hypo-autofluorescence within the lesion, compared with neighboring uninvolved regions, whether dark or white without pressure. In two patients who had a lesion combining white and dark without pressure, we observed the transition in photoreceptor reflectivity from the dark lesion (hyporeflective) to the white lesion (hyperreflective), relative to the surrounding retina. Both white and dark without pressure lesions are associated with changes in outer retinal reflectivity on optical coherence tomography, which occur in opposite directions compared with the surrounding unaffected areas. In the face of normal visual field testing to date, the clinical significance of this finding remains uncertain. Recognition of the optical coherence tomography appearance will help clinicians avoid unnecessary workup of these patients for outer retinal dystrophy or degeneration.

  8. Acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guarana, Mariana; Nucci, Marcio

    2017-08-25

    Neutropenic patients developing acute disseminated candidiasis may present with skin lesions. To evaluate the epidemiology of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients, taking into consideration changes caused by different prophylactic strategies. A systematic review of English articles using PubMed (1963-2016) was performed. We asked the following questions: (1) What Candida species are more frequently involved in this syndrome? (2) Has antifungal prophylaxis changed the species causing skin lesions? (3) What are the typical patterns of skin lesions? (4) What is the frequency of skin lesions in neutropenic patients with candidemia or acute disseminated candidiasis? (5) Has antifungal prophylaxis decreased the incidence of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions? Among 183 studies, 33 were selected, reporting 100 cases of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients. It occurred more frequently in the setting of induction therapy for de novo or relapsed acute leukemia, and the most frequent species were C. tropicalis (68%) and C. krusei (15%). Diffuse maculopapular lesions predominated in cases caused by C. tropicalis and nodular and papular lesions in cases caused by C. krusei. Prophylaxis with fluconazole was reported in six cases; C. krusei in five, and C. ciferri in one. The death rate was 46.3%. Two patterns were recognized: disseminated maculopapular lesions caused by C. tropicalis in patients not receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring in 39-44% of neutropenic patients with acute disseminated candidiasis, and nodular lesions caused by C. krusei in patients on fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring less frequently. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. One virus, one lesion--individual components of CIN lesions contain a specific HPV type.

    PubMed

    Quint, Wim; Jenkins, David; Molijn, Anco; Struijk, Linda; van de Sandt, Miekel; Doorbar, John; Mols, Johann; Van Hoof, Christine; Hardt, Karin; Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte

    2012-05-01

    In 20-40% of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in 4-8% of cervical carcinoma tissue specimens, multiple HPV genotypes have been detected. Whole tissue section (WTS) PCR does not determine how the individual types relate causally to complex and multiple CIN. Our objective was to determine whether laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) with HPV PCR genotyping (LCM-PCR) could accurately recover type-specific HPV DNA from epithelial cells in individual areas of CIN and normal epithelium, and whether one or more viruses are present in one lesion. For that, histologically selected samples of CIN and normal epithelium were isolated by LCM and analysed by the SPF(10) PCR/LiPA(25) (version 1) HPV genotyping system for 25 HPV genotypes. HPV genotypes detected in 756 areas of CIN (grade 1, 2 or 3) by LCM-PCR were compared with results obtained by WTS-PCR in 60 cases (74 biopsies). We showed that when a single HPV type is detected by WTS-PCR, that type was almost always (94%; 29/31) recovered by LCM-PCR from CIN. When multiple HPV types were present by WTS-PCR, their distribution within histological sections could be mapped by LCM-PCR. Association of a single HPV type with a discrete area of CIN was found for 93% (372/399) of LCM fragments analysed by PCR. We found colliding CIN lesions associated with separate HPV types and only 62% (61/99) of HPV types detected by WTS-PCR were found in CIN by LCM-PCR. Therefore, the LCM-PCR technique was found very accurate for high-resolution HPV genotyping and for assigning an individual HPV type to an area of CIN. At LCM level, in cervical biopsy sections with multiple HPV infections, the relation between HPV types and CIN lesions is often complex. Almost every HPV type found in CIN by LCM-PCR is associated with a biological separate independent CIN lesion-one virus, one lesion.

  10. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.

  11. Does Needle Rotation Improve Lesion Targeting?

    PubMed Central

    Badaan, Shadi; Petrisor, Doru; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Mazilu, Dumitru; Gruionu, Lucian; Patriciu, Alex; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Background Image-guided robots are manipulators that operate based on medical images. Perhaps the most common class of image-guided robots are robots for needle interventions. Typically, these robots actively position and/or orient a needle guide, but needle insertion is still done by the physician. While this arrangement may have safety advantages and keep the physician in control of needle insertion, actuated needle drivers can incorporate other useful features. Methods We first present a new needle driver that can actively insert and rotate a needle. With this device we investigate the use of needle rotation in controlled in-vitro experiments performed with a specially developed revolving needle driver. Results These experiments show that needle rotation can improve targeting and may reduce errors by as much as 70%. Conclusion The new needle driver provides a unique kinematic architecture that enables insertion with a compact mechanism. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion of the study is that lesions of soft tissue organs may not be perfectly targeted with a needle without using special techniques, either manually or with a robotic device. The results of this study show that needle rotation may be an effective method of reducing targeting errors. PMID:21360796

  12. Chromatin texture from hematoxylin stained thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Roca, O; Pérez Gómez, J A; Estévez, M

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative aspects of cytology and histology should be considered in diagnostic standardisation processes. The present paper summarises the cytological differences detected in 75 thyroid lesions using a computerized textural analysis. Cells stained with progressive hematoxylin and taken from paraffin blocks were overlaid with the extracted texture. This technique was based on the lineal detection of a grey level gradient of the common logarithm of the integrated optical density (IOD) of each nucleus. Diffuse and nodular goiters (36 cases) were demonstrated to be composed of small cells containing high density texture that, on microscopical visual inspection, gave a "salt and pepper" appearance. The adenomatous goiters (2 cases) and adenomas (26 cases) were composed of low texture cells with a visual "blurry or smudgy" chromatin, while the atypical adenomas with capsular invasion (4 cases) were characterised by a "woodworm" nuclear appearance that produced the highest texture of the series. Finally, encapsulated folliculo-papillary carcinomas (3 cases) were composed of large clear nuclei with high IOD, low texture, and scattered lines that resulted in an "empty grape skin" aspect. Our findings seam to confirm the suitability of computerized textural techniques that aid in recognizing cell microscopic features objectively. The one used in the present work, based on a mathematical function of the DNA content of each individual nucleus (IOD), fulfills all microscopy detection criteria.

  13. Chromatin Texture from Hematoxylin Stained Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Roca, Olga; Pérez Gómez, José A.; Estévez, Maritza

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative aspects of cytology and histology should be considered in diagnostic standardisation processes. The present paper summarises the cytological differences detected in 75 thyroid lesions using a computerized textural analysis. Cells stained with progressive hematoxylin and taken from paraffin blocks were overlaid with the extracted texture. This technique was based on the lineal detection of a grey level gradient of the common logarithm of the integrated optical density (IOD) of each nucleus. Diffuse and nodular goiters (36 cases) were demonstrated to be composed of small cells containing high density texture that, on microscopical visual inspection, gave a “salt and pepper” appearance. The adenomatous goiters (2 cases) and adenomas (26 cases) were composed of low texture cells with a visual “blurry or smudgy” chromatin, while the atypical adenomas with capsular invasion (4 cases) were characterised by a “woodworm” nuclear appearance that produced the highest texture of the series. Finally, encapsulated folliculo-papillary carcinomas (3 cases) were composed of large clear nuclei with high IOD, low texture, and scattered lines that resulted in an “empty grape skin” aspect. Our findings seam to confirm the suitability of computerized textural techniques that aid in recognizing cell microscopic features objectively. The one used in the present work, based on a mathematical function of the DNA content of each individual nucleus (IOD), fulfills all microscopy detection criteria. PMID:10391373

  14. Quantitative pathology of laryngeal epithelial hyperplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Cör, A; Gale, N; Kambic, V

    1997-01-01

    We studied 40 laryngeal biopsies samples in order to ascertain the reliability of light microscopical criteria for subdividing laryngeal epithelial hyperplastic lesions (EHL) and carcinoma in situ as well as to determine the relationship between proliferative activity of their epithelial cells and the histological grade. The biopsies were divided into four groups in accordance with the Kambic-Lenart classification: simple, abnormal and atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ. 10 cases in each group were included. The morphometrical analysis was carried out by a semiautomatic image analysis system. The proliferative activity was determined by the high percentage of cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 positive epithelial cells and with counting nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs) per nucleus. Our results suggest that measuring the nuclear area of the basal cells. augmented with basaloid cells and carcinomatous cells, is the most useful morphometrical method of differentiating three types of laryngeal EHL and carcinoma in situ, while the proliferative activity progressively increased with the degree of epithelial hyperplasia. Morphometrical methods and proliferative activity should be regarded as useful in conjunction with the traditional histopathological methods allowing more of objective grading of EHL.

  15. Does needle rotation improve lesion targeting?

    PubMed

    Badaan, Shadi; Petrisor, Doru; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Mazilu, Dumitru; Gruionu, Lucian; Patriciu, Alex; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-06-01

    Image-guided robots are manipulators that operate based on medical images. Perhaps the most common class of image-guided robots are robots for needle interventions. Typically, these robots actively position and/or orient a needle guide, but needle insertion is still done by the physician. While this arrangement may have safety advantages and keep the physician in control of needle insertion, actuated needle drivers can incorporate other useful features. We first present a new needle driver that can actively insert and rotate a needle. With this device we investigate the use of needle rotation in controlled in-vitro experiments performed with a specially developed revolving needle driver. These experiments show that needle rotation can improve targeting and may reduce errors by as much as 70%. The new needle driver provides a unique kinematic architecture that enables insertion with a compact mechanism. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion of the study is that lesions of soft tissue organs may not be perfectly targeted with a needle without using special techniques, either manually or with a robotic device. The results of this study show that needle rotation may be an effective method of reducing targeting errors. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Armanni-Ebstein Lesions in Terminal Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chong; Yool, Andrea J; Byard, Roger W

    2016-12-16

    Armanni-Ebstein lesions (AEL) occur in deaths related to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. To investigate the relationship between AEL and terminal hyperglycemia, we retrospectively reviewed 71 cases with vitreous glucose levels ≥11.1 mmol/L; 27 (38%) cases had AEL (vitreous glucose 14.0-77.3 mmol/L); and 44 cases (62%) did not (vitreous glucose 11.1-91.9 mmol/L). There was no significant difference (p = 0.271) in vitreous glucose levels between the cases with AEL (mean 39.2, SD 16.7 mmol/L) and those without (mean 34.2, SD 19.8 mmol/L). Similarly, there was no difference in the degree of dehydration, renal failure, or osmolality. However, there was a significantly higher level of β-hydroxybutyrate among the cases with AEL compared to those without (p = 0.007), suggesting that ketoacidosis may facilitate the development of AEL. Given the possible synergistic role of β-hydroxybutyrate, the correlation between AEL and terminal hyperglycemia in animal studies may not be applicable to humans. AEL may also possibly occur with sublethal elevations in glucose.

  17. Functional MT + lesion impairs contralateral motion processing.

    PubMed

    Moo, Lauren R; Emerton, Britt C; Slotnick, Scott D

    2008-07-01

    Human motion processing region MT + is retinotopically organized with perception of and attention to motion in the right visual field preferentially associated with left MT + activity and vice versa. However, the degree to which MT + is crucial for motion processing is uncertain. We report an epilepsy patient with visual symptoms early in his seizure evolution and a left temporal-occipital seizure onset electrographically in whom we hypothesized a functional left MT + lesion. The patient was impaired in his right but not left visual field on a hemifield motion attention task and demonstrated worse performance on a hemifield picture identification task when pictures implying motion were presented in the right as opposed to the left visual field. Functional MRI (fMRI) during a full-field motion detection task activated right MT + but failed to activate left MT + despite activating both left and right MT + in each of 10 controls. Furthermore, fMRI during a hemifield motion attention task also showed a lack of left MT + attention effects in the patient. Together these results suggest that MT + is necessary for normal motion processing.

  18. [Bilateral wrist drop - central or peripheral lesion?].

    PubMed

    Dafotakis, M; Schiefer, J; Wiesmann, M; Mühlenbruch, G

    2011-05-01

    The wrist drop, also called carpoptosis or drop hand, is a common clinical presentation in case of peripheral damage to the radial nerve. But what about the picture of a bilateral finger/wrist drop?! We report the case of a 61-year-old female patient who was admitted to the hospital for myocardial infarction. Subsequently she developed a right dominant bilateral wrist drop. Further neurological examination revealed a positive Wartenberg sign pointing towards a central motoric dysfunction. The following native cerebral CT scan demonstrated bilateral hypodense lesions in both hand knobs in the precentral gyri. Subsequent MRI confirmed acute cerebral infarction in these two but also several other, clinically silent, locations. Further diagnostic work-up revealed a hypokinetic cardiac apex suggesting cardiac embolism to be the cause for cerebral thrombembolism and the clinically leading symptom of right-dominant bilateral finger/wrist drop. Besides the case presentation also the differential diagnosis and clinical test for diagnostic work-up of wrist drops are presented and discussed.

  19. Visual discrimination modeling of lesion detectability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey P.; Lubin, Jeffrey; Nafziger, John S.; Chakraborty, Dev P.

    2002-04-01

    The Sarnoff JNDmetrix visual discrimination model (VDM) was applied to predict human psychophysical performance in the detection of simulated mammographic lesions. Contrast thresholds for the detection of synthetic Gaussian masses on mean backgrounds and simulated mammographic backgrounds were measured in two-alternative, forced-choice (2AFC) trials. Experimental thresholds for 2-D Gaussian signal detection decreased with increasing signal size on mean backgrounds and on 1/f3 filtered noise images presented with identical (paired) backgrounds. For 2AFC presentations of different (unpaired) filtered noise backgrounds, detection thresholds increased with increasing signal diameter, consistent with a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio. Thresholds for mean and paired filtered noise backgrounds were used to calibrate a new low-pass, spatial-frequency channel in the VDM. The calibrated VDM was able to predict accurate detection thresholds for Gaussian signals on mean and paired 1/f3 filtered noise backgrounds. To simulate noise-limited detection thresholds for unpaired backgrounds, an approach is outlined for the development of a VDM-based model observer based on statistical decision theory.

  20. Phytotoxic lesions of chromium in maize.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D C; Sharma, C P; Tripathi, R D

    2003-04-01

    Chromium (Cr) is fairly abundant in the earth's crust and ranks fourth among the 29 elements of biological importance. Besides natural sources, Cr enters biotic components of the ecosystem in various ways. Of other major industrial sources, tanning and chrome-plating industries are prominent sources. Cr(VI) form of chromium is highly reactive and influences both plants and animals. Due to Mn present in soil, Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) which remains in soil for a long time and can affect plant growth and development. Since maize is an important food and fodder plant for human beings and cattle, a study was conducted to investigate the effects of Cr on some metabolic activities of maize (Zea mays L. cv. Ganga 5). Chromium caused visible lesions of interveinal chlorosis. Young leaves showed vein clearing. Also, a papery appearance was observed in leaves. Margins of leaves were curled and the leaves appeared pale at greater Cr exposure. Concentrations of both chlorophyll a and b were reduced by exposure to Cr, the activities of ribonuclease and phenyl phosphatase were greater while the activity of iron-porphyrin enzyme catalase was less and the activity of amylase was also much less in plants exposed to Cr. Chromium also caused retardation of soluble protein. Accumulation of Cr in roots was much at all the levels of chromium supply. Exposure to Cr resulted in reduction in grain production and quality.

  1. Rare Lesions of the Internal Auditory Canal.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Cobb, Mary In-Ping Huang; Zomorodi, Ali R; Cunningham, Calhoun D; Nonaka, Yoichi; Satoh, Shunsuke; Friedman, Allan H; Fukushima, Takanori

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 95% of tumors occurring within the internal auditory canal (IAC) are vestibular schwannomas. Many undergo stereotactic radiation without definitive tissue diagnosis. Rare IAC tumors are not all radiosensitive and are poorly described. Between 1992 and 2015, 289 consecutive patients with IAC lesions operated on were reviewed retrospectively. Fifteen patients (5.2%) (16 operations) had unusual histologic findings, including nonvestibular schwannomas (2 facial schwannomas, 2 cochlear schwannomas, 2 intermedius schwannomas), 3 meningiomas, 3 cavernous hemangiomas, a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, an arachnoid cyst, and a lipochoristoma. None of these rare tumors could be identified before surgery. Three operative approaches were used: the retrosigmoid approach, middle fossa subtemporal approach, or translabyrinthine approach. Few complications occurred, including facial nerve palsy, loss of hearing, and vestibular function. Five-year average follow-up revealed one patient with recurrence. Clinical examination and imaging alone were insufficient to correctly identify these tumors. Definitive pathologicdiagnosis should be strongly considered to help tailor treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytokine expression in feline osteoclastic resorptive lesions.

    PubMed

    DeLaurier, A; Allen, S; deFlandre, C; Horton, M A; Price, J S

    2002-01-01

    Feline osteoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL) of the teeth are common in cats, and lead to pain, destruction of the periodontal ligament, and tooth loss. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6 mRNA was higher in teeth with FORL than in normal teeth (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), but no such differences were found between pathological and normal gingival tissue samples. There were no differences between teeth affected with FORL and normal teeth in respect of the expression of receptor activator of NF kappa B ligand (RANKL) mRNA or osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA. However, OPG mRNA expression was higher in gingival tissue associated with teeth affected with FORL than in normal gingival tissue (P<0.05), whereas the reverse was true of RANKL mRNA expression (P<0.05). OPG mRNA expression was significantly higher in teeth than in femoral and alveolar bone (P<0.001). RANKL and OPG mRNAs were detected in all tissues examined. The data suggest that the elevated expression of IL-l beta and IL-6 mRNA plays a role in the mediation of osteoclast activity in advanced FORL. In contrast, OPG and RANKL do not appear to regulate osteoclasts in advanced disease. The results also suggest that OPG and RANKL mRNA play a role in mediating inflammatory responses in gingival cells, and that OPG has an inhibiting effect on tooth resorption.

  3. Endoscopic ultrasonography for gastric submucosal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Kourikou, Anastasia; Rösch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) are a rather frequent finding, occurring in about 0.36% of routine upper GI-endoscopies. EUS has emerged as a reliable investigative procedure for evaluation of these lesions. Diagnostic Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has the ability to differentiate intramural tumors from extraluminal compressions and can also show the layer of origin of gastric SMTs. Tumors can be further characterized by their layer of origin, echo pattern and margin. EUS-risk criteria of their malignant potential are presented, although the emergence of EUS-guided fne needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has opened new indications for transmural tissue diagnosis and expanded the possibilities of EUS in SMTs of the stomach. Tissue diagnosis should address whether the SMT is a Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) or another tumor type and evaluate the malignant potential of a given GIST. However, there seems to be a lack of data on the optimal strategy in SMTs suspected to be GISTs with a negative EUS-FNA tissue diagnosis. The current management strategies, as well as open questions regarding their treatment are also presented. PMID:21772939

  4. [Squamous intraepithlelial lesions in women's lupus].

    PubMed

    Mercado, Ulises

    2009-09-01

    previous studies have suggested an association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), abnormal cervical smears and squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL), but the underlying cause of this association is not well defined. To review Pap smear and biopsy results in SLE women compared with healthy controls and to identify traditional risk factors associated with abnormal smears. Retrospective cohort study. Sixty-two SLE patients and 1719 controls were included. Women with abnormal Pap smear results were referred to colposcopic biopsy histology. Information on traditional risk factors was obtained. Among SLE patients, activity score (Mex-SLEDAI) and immunosuppressive drugs exposure also were determined. Fourteen (22%) out of 62 patients had abnormal Pap smear results, compared with 120 (7%) out of 1719 controls. Thirteen (92%) out of 14 patients showed SIL by histological examination, compared with 27 (22%) out of 120 controls. Two SLE women had condylomata. There were no significant differences in the use of immunosuppressive agents among SLE patients with and without SIL. Abnormal Pap smears, SIL by biopsy and changes in the sexual behavioral were more common among SLE patients than in controls. The immunosuppressive drug exposure was not associated with abnormal Pap smears.

  5. DENTAL LESIONS IN THE LOWLAND TAPIR (TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS).

    PubMed

    Tjørnelund, Karen B; Jonsson, Lena M; Kortegaard, Hanne; Arnbjerg, Jens; Nielsen, Søren S; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-06-01

    Dental ailments, mandibular swelling, and dentoalveolar abscesses are common in tapirs, but knowledge about prevalence or etiology of these lesions in the Tapiridae family in general, and in lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in particular, is scarce. A recent study identified resorptive lesions of unknown etiology as a common problem in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). In order to investigate the type and prevalence of dental lesions occurring in lowland tapirs, and to compare these with findings with the Malayan tapir, skulls and teeth from 46 deceased lowland tapirs were visually and radiographically examined. The specimens were divided into subpopulations according to age (juveniles, young adults, adults) and origin (free-range or captive). Dental lesions were identified in 24% (11/46) of the study population. The most common pathologic findings were complicated dental fractures with associated periapical reaction (15%) and periapical reactions of various degrees without associated detectable dental pathology (13%). All these lesions likely originated from dental trauma. As in Malayan tapirs, juveniles had significantly fewer lesions than adults. This study shows that dental lesions present frequent problems for lowland tapirs, occurring both in captive and in free-ranging individuals, and indicates that increasing age should be considered a risk factor for the development of these lesions. Notably, the predominant dental problems in lowland tapirs and Malayan tapirs are not the same.

  6. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus.

  7. Evaluation of vernier acuity near healed retinal laser lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1997-05-01

    Seven Cynomolgus fasciculata who had graded laser lesions placed in own eye 6 years previously were evaluated for their vernier acuity by electrophysiologic recording techniques. In these experiments, 95 percent contrast vernier acuity targets were presented at high luminance levels to anesthetized primates. Visual evoked potentials were recorded by conventional means form scalp electrodes through hospital grade amplifiers. All animal testing was performed under IACUC approved protocols. The single q-switched pulses form a neodymium-YAG laser had produced lesions of 4 types: no visible change, minimal visible lesions, 'white dot' lesions and 'red dot' lesions in the eye at the time of placement. Single exposures had been made in four locations: 5 degrees superior, inferior and temporal to the fovea, and one foveally. Vernier recording proved somewhat successful in smaller animals with less than contained retinal hemorrhage lesions in the fovea. Initial analyses demonstrated a significant decrease of the pattern response signal/noise in the experimental eye overall, and an apparent relative loss of vernier signal in some lesioned eyes. Animals with the more severe lesions have somewhat degraded small patten responses and no recordable vernier response. Apparent lesser losses produced less effect.

  8. Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

  9. Lateral and Anterior Thalamic Lesions Impair Independent Memory Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anna S.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Damage to the medial region of the thalamus, both in clinical cases (e.g., patients with infarcts or the Korsakoff's syndrome) and animal lesion models, is associated with variable amnesic deficits. Some studies suggest that many of these memory deficits rely on the presence of lateral thalamic lesions (LT) that include the intralaminar nuclei,…

  10. Sparing of Spatial Mental Imagery in Patients with Hippocampal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soyun; Borst, Grégoire; Thompson, William L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    In four experiments, we explored the capacity for spatial mental imagery in patients with hippocampal lesions, using tasks that minimized the role of learning and memory. On all four tasks, patients with hippocampal lesions performed as well as controls. Nonetheless, in separate tests, the patients were impaired at remembering the materials that…

  11. Evaluation and Management of Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus

    PubMed Central

    Looze, Christopher A.; Capo, Jason; Ryan, Michael K.; Begly, John P.; Chapman, Cary; Swanson, David; Singh, Brian C.; Strauss, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries that affect a wide variety of active patients. The majority of these lesions are associated with ankle sprains and fractures though several nontraumatic etiologies have also been recognized. Patients normally present with a history of prior ankle injury and/or instability. In addition to standard ankle radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are used to characterize the extent of the lesion and involvement of the subchondral bone. Symptomatic nondisplaced lesions can often be treated conservatively within the pediatric population though this treatment is less successful in adults. Bone marrow stimulation techniques such as microfracture have yielded favorable results for the treatment of small (<15 mm) lesions. Osteochondral autograft can be harvested most commonly from the ipsilateral knee and carries the benefit of repairing defects with native hyaline cartilage. Osteochondral allograft transplant is reserved for large cystic lesions that lack subchondral bone integrity. Cell-based repair techniques such as autologous chondrocyte implantation and matrix-associated chondrocyte implantation have been increasingly used in an attempt to repair the lesion with hyaline cartilage though these techniques require adequate subchondral bone. Biological agents such as platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate have been more recently studied as an adjunct to operative treatment but their use remains theoretical. The present article reviews the current concepts in the evaluation and management of osteochondral lesions of the talus, with a focus on the available surgical treatment options. PMID:27994717

  12. Imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast and to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer. Methods: From March 2008 to May 2012, seven lesions were confirmed as complex sclerosing lesions by ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy. Final results by either surgical excision or follow-up imaging studies were reviewed to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer. Two radiologists retrospectively analyzed the imaging findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System classification. Results: Five lesions underwent subsequent surgical excision and two of them revealed ductal carcinoma in situ (n=1) and invasive ductal carcinoma (n=1). Our study showed a breast cancer upgrade rate of 28.6% (2 of 7 lesions). Two lesions were stable on imaging follow-up beyond 1 year. The mammographic features included masses (n=4, 57.1%), architectural distortion (n=2, 28.6%), and focal asymmetry (n=1, 14.3%). Common B-mode ultrasonographic features were irregular shape (n=6, 85.7%), spiculated margin (n=5, 71.4 %), and hypoechogenicity (n=7, 100%). The final assessment categories were category 4 (n=6, 85.7%) and category 5 (n=1, 14.3%). Conclusion: The complex sclerosing lesions were commonly mass-like on mammography and showed the suspicious ultrasonographic features of category 4. Due to a high underestimation rate, all complex sclerosing lesions by core needle biopsy should be excised. PMID:24936496

  13. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for the treatment of uncommon rectal lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Rubio-Gil, Francisco; Ortega-Ruiz, Sofía; Blesa-Sierra, Isabel; Álvarez-García, Antonio; Jorge-Cerrudo, Jaime; Vidaña-Márquez, Elisabet; Belda-Lozano, Ricardo; Reina-Duarte, Ángel

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was developed as a less aggressive alternative treatment for rectal lesions (mainly adenomas and adenocarcinomas). However, its use for other rectal lesions has become more frequent, trying to reduce the morbidity associated with more invasive techniques. The aim of this study is to describe our experience in the use of TEM in other rectal lesions. Retrospective and descriptive study including patients operated with TEM (from June 2008 to December 2016) for the treatment of rectal lesions different from adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Among the 138 patients treated by TEM in our department, 10 patients were operated on for rectal lesions other than adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Rectal lesions were 3neuroendocrine tumours, a neuroendocrine tumour metastasis, a rectal stenosis, a cloacogenic polyp, an endometrioma, a retrorrectal tumour, a presacral abscess and a lesion in the rectovaginal septum. Mean operative time was 72min and postoperative stay was 4.2 days. Only one patient needed a reoperation, due to rectal bleeding. TEM could be a useful tool for the treatment of rectal lesions different from adenomas or adenocarcinomas, potentially decreasing the morbidity associated with more aggressive surgical techniques. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow Cytometric Ploidy Determination of Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    aneuploid superficially invasive carcinoma from case 8B . . . . . . . . . 54 FIGURE 14 Light microscopic appearance of the aneuploid verrucous carcinoma...from case 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 FIGURE 15 Light microscopic appearance of the verrucous carcinoma exhibiting a high S phase...presence of erythroplakia as a component of the lesion, a clinical verrucous -papillary pattern, and long duration of the lesion. In other longitudinal

  15. Lesion Characteristics of Individuals With Upper Limb Spasticity After Stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Daniel K; Climans, Seth A; Black, Sandra E; Gao, Fuqiang; Szilagyi, Gregory M; Mochizuki, George

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between lesion location and volume and upper limb spasticity after stroke. Ninety-seven stroke patients (51 with spasticity) were included in the analysis (age = 67.5 ± 13.3 years, 57 males). Lesions were traced from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images and coregistered to a symmetrical brain template. Lesion overlays from the nonspastic group were subtracted from the spastic group to determine the regions of the brain more commonly lesioned in spastic patients. Similar analysis was performed across groups of participants whose upper limb (elbow or wrist) Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score ranged from 1 (mild) to 4 (severe). Following subtraction analysis and Fisher's exact test, the putamen was identified as the area most frequently lesioned in individuals with spasticity. More severe spasticity was associated with a higher lesion volume. This study establishes the neuroanatomical correlates of poststroke spasticity and describes the relationship between lesion characteristics and the severity of spasticity using mixed brain imaging modalities, including computed tomography imaging, which is more readily available to clinicians. Understanding the association between lesion location and volume with the development and severity of spasticity is an important first step toward predicting the development of spasticity after stroke. Such information could inform the implementation of intervention strategies during the recovery process to minimize the extent of impairment.

  16. Giant-cell lesions of the facial bones

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.M.; Lawson, W.; Cohen, B.A.

    1983-04-01

    Giant-cell lesions of the paranasal sinuses, including the giant-cell reparative granuloma, the brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism, the true giant-cell tumor, cherubism, and the aneurysmal bone cyst, are uncommon entities. Plain radiographic and computed-tomographic studies of these lesions are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed.

  17. A general approach to liver lesion segmentation in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Li; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Huang, Lidong; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-03-01

    Lesion segmentation has remained a challenge in different body regions. Generalizability is lacking in published methods as variability in results is common, even for a given organ and modality, such that it becomes difficult to establish standardized methods of disease quantification and reporting. This paper makes an attempt at a generalizable method based on classifying lesions along with their background into groups using clinically used visual attributes. Using an Iterative Relative Fuzzy Connectedness (IRFC) delineation engine, the ideas are implemented for the task of liver lesion segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images. For lesion groups with the same background properties, a few subjects are chosen as the training set to obtain the optimal IRFC parameters for the background tissue components. For lesion groups with similar foreground properties, optimal foreground parameters for IRFC are set as the median intensity value of the training lesion subset. To segment liver lesions belonging to a certain group, the devised method requires manual loading of the corresponding parameters, and correct setting of the foreground and background seeds. The segmentation is then completed in seconds. Segmentation accuracy and repeatability with respect to seed specification are evaluated. Accuracy is assessed by the assignment of a delineation quality score (DQS) to each case. Inter-operator repeatability is assessed by the difference between segmentations carried out independently by two operators. Experiments on 80 liver lesion cases show that the proposed method achieves a mean DQS score of 4.03 and inter-operator repeatability of 92.3%.

  18. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J M; Newkirk, K M; McRee, A E; Whittemore, J C; Ramsay, E C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic lesions in nondomestic felids are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic lesions in 90 captive, nondomestic felids including tigers, cougars, and lions. Hepatic lesions were histologically characterized as vacuolar change (lipidosis or glycogenosis), biliary cysts, biliary hyperplasia, hepatitis, necrosis, neoplasia, fibrosis, veno-occlusive disease, cholestasis, hematoma, congestion, or hemorrhage. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed for vacuolar change, benign biliary lesions, hepatitis, lipogranulomas, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with species as the outcome variable. Ninety cats met the inclusion criteria. Seventy livers (78%) contained 1 or more lesions. Hepatocellular vacuolar change (41/90 [46%]) was the most common lesion overall. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, lipogranulomas, and hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia were also common. One snow leopard had veno-occlusive disease. Tigers were more likely than other felids to have no significant hepatic histologic lesions (odds ratio [OR], 12.687; P = .002), and lions were more likely to have biliary cysts (OR, 5.97; P = .021). Six animals (7%) died of hepatic disease: cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 2) and 1 each of hepatic lipidosis, hepatocellular necrosis, pyogranulomatous hepatitis, and suppurative cholecystitis. Hepatocellular iron and copper accumulations were present in 72 of 90 (80%) and 10 of 90 (11%) sections, respectively. Sinusoidal fibrosis was common (74/90 [82%]) and primarily centrilobular (65/74 [88%]). Hepatocellular iron, copper, and fibrosis were not significantly associated with hepatic lesions. Primary hepatic disease was not a common cause of death in nondomestic felids in this study.

  19. Sparing of Spatial Mental Imagery in Patients with Hippocampal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soyun; Borst, Grégoire; Thompson, William L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    In four experiments, we explored the capacity for spatial mental imagery in patients with hippocampal lesions, using tasks that minimized the role of learning and memory. On all four tasks, patients with hippocampal lesions performed as well as controls. Nonetheless, in separate tests, the patients were impaired at remembering the materials that…

  20. PROPOSED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinguishing hyperplastic lesions from neoplasia in the thyroid of bony fishes has been debated by scientists for about one hundred years. As early as the first decade of the last century, the histological interpretation of some of the striking proliferative lesions observed in...

  1. Notch signaling controls sprouting angiogenesis of endometriotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Körbel, Christina; Gerstner, Miriam D; Menger, Michael D; Laschke, Matthias W

    2017-10-09

    Angiogenesis is essential for the engraftment and growth of endometriotic lesions. In this study, we analyzed whether this process is regulated by Notch signaling. Endometriotic lesions were induced by endometrial tissue transplantation into dorsal skinfold chambers of C57BL/6 mice, which were treated with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT or vehicle. Vascularization, morphology, and proliferation of the newly developing lesions were analyzed using intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology, and immunohistochemistry over 14 days. Inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT significantly increased the number of angiogenic sprouts within the endometrial grafts during the first days after transplantation when compared to vehicle-treated controls. This was associated with an accelerated vascularization, as indicated by a higher functional microvessel density of DAPT-treated lesions on day 6. However, inhibition of Notch signaling did not affect the morphology and proliferating activity of the lesions, as previously described for tumors. Both DAPT- and vehicle-treated lesions finally consisted of cyst-like dilated glands, which were surrounded by a well-vascularized stroma and contained comparable numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells. These findings demonstrate that sprouting angiogenesis in endometriotic lesions is controlled by Notch signaling. However, inhibition of Notch signaling does not have beneficial therapeutic effects on lesion development.

  2. Rare cystic liver lesions: A diagnostic and managing challenge

    PubMed Central

    Bakoyiannis, Andreas; Delis, Spiros; Triantopoulou, Charina; Dervenis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Cystic formations within the liver are a frequent finding among populations. Besides the common cystic lesions, like simple liver cysts, rare cystic liver lesions like cystadenocarcinoma should also be considered in the differential diagnosis. Thorough knowledge of each entity’s nature and course are key elements to successful treatment. Detailed search in PubMed, Cochrane Database, and international published literature regarding rare cystic liver lesions was carried out. In our research are included not only primary rare lesions like cystadenoma, hydatid cyst, and polycystic liver disease, but also secondary ones like metastasis from gastrointestinal stromal tumors lesions. Up-to date knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of rare cystic liver lesions is provided. A diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is also proposed. The need for a multidisciplinary approach by a team including radiologists and surgeons familiar with liver cystic entities, diagnostic tools, and treatment modalities is stressed. Patients with cystic liver lesions must be carefully evaluated by a multidisciplinary team, in order to receive the most appropriate treatment, since many cystic liver lesions have a malignant potential and evolution. PMID:24282350

  3. Shearwave Elastography Increases Diagnostic Accuracy in Characterization of Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wei Lin; Rahmat, Kartini; Fadzli, Farhana; Rozalli, Faizatul Izza; Mohd-Shah, Mohammad Nazri; Chandran, Patricia Ann; Westerhout, Caroline Judy; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of shearwave elastography (SWE) in differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions. One hundred and fifty-nine lesions were assessed using B-mode ultrasound (US) and SWE parameters were recorded (Emax, Emean, Emin, Eratio, SD). SWE measurements were then correlated with histopathological diagnosis. The final sample contained 85 benign and 74 malignant lesions. The maximum stiffness (Emax) with a cutoff point of ≥ 56.0 kPa (based on ROC curves) provided sensitivity of 100.0%, specificity of 97.6%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 97.4%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% in detecting malignant lesions. A cutoff of ≥80 kPa managed to downgrade 95.5% of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4a lesions to BI-RADS 3, negating the need for biopsy. Using a combination of BI-RADS and SWE, the authors managed to improve the PPV from 2.3% to 50% in BI-RADS 4a lesions. SWE of the breast provides highly specific and sensitive quantitative values that are beneficial in the characterization of breast lesions. Our results showed that Emax is the most accurate value for differentiating benign from malignant lesions. PMID:27015196

  4. [Caring for perilesional skin or skin having a lesion risk].

    PubMed

    Segovia, Gómez T; Javares, Curto T; Barahona, M; Verdú, Soriano J

    2007-10-01

    In order to increase the clinical and scientific evidence of the Hyperoxygenated Fatty Acids (HFA) in emulsion preparation for skin care, this study considers to evaluate prospectively how it influences in the state of the periwound skin (when there are active lesions) or in which it presents a high risk of lesion production.

  5. PROPOSED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinguishing hyperplastic lesions from neoplasia in the thyroid of bony fishes has been debated by scientists for about one hundred years. As early as the first decade of the last century, the histological interpretation of some of the striking proliferative lesions observed in...

  6. Restoration of sinus rhythm and atrial transport function after the maze procedure: U lesion set versus box lesion set.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Takashi; Ishii, Yosuke; Fujii, Masahiro; Miyagi, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Shun-Ichiro; Hiromoto, Atsushi; Imura, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    In a U lesion set, the left atrium (LA) roof between the right and left superior pulmonary veins is not ablated, to allow activation to propagate across the posterior LA and to recruit this segment as a contractile atrial component. In contrast, the box lesion set isolates the entire posterior LA. To compare the two lesion sets, postoperative freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) and LA transport function were examined in 402 patients who underwent surgery for AF with a U lesion (n = 329) or box lesion (n = 73) set. Patients who underwent pulmonary vein isolation alone or other simplified procedures were excluded from the study. LA transport function was quantified at 20 ± 33 months postoperatively by the ratio of peak velocity of the A wave to the E wave (peak A/E) of the transmitral Doppler flow. In patients with long-standing persistent AF, freedom from AF was 85% with the U lesion set and 77% with the box lesion set at 5 years after the maze procedure, and 82% and 77%, respectively, at 10 years after the procedure. There was no significant difference between the U lesion set and box lesion set in patients with long-standing persistent AF (P = .30) and those with paroxysmal or persistent AF (P = .90). Proportional hazards analysis identified increased LA diameter (P = .003) and long-standing persistent AF (P = .03), but not the type of lesion set (P = .51), as predictive of postoperative AF recurrence. The postoperative peak A/E was significantly greater after the U lesion set than after the box lesion set (0.42 ± 0.22 vs 0.23 ± 0.17), and multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the type of lesion set and preoperative LA diameter significantly affected postoperative A/E. The U lesion set restores sinus rhythm frequently as the box lesion set and provides better LA transport function. A dilated LA is a risk factor for postoperative recurrence of AF and poor postoperative LA transport function. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic

  7. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Markers of Aberrantly Activated Innate Immunity in Vitiligo Lesional and Non-Lesional Skin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanshen; Wang, Yang; Yu, Jie; Gao, Min; Levings, Megan; Wei, Shencai; Zhang, Shengquan; Xu, Aie; Su, Mingwan; Dutz, Jan; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhou, Youwen

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitiligo is characterized by the death of melanocytes in the skin. This is associated with the presence of T cell infiltrates in the lesional borders. However, at present, there is no detailed and systematic characterization on whether additional cellular or molecular changes are present inside vitiligo lesions. Further, it is unknown if the normal appearing non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients is in fact normal. The purpose of this study is to systematically characterize the molecular and cellular characteristics of the lesional and non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Methods and Materials Paired lesional and non-lesional skin biopsies from twenty-three vitiligo patients and normal skin biopsies from sixteen healthy volunteers were obtained with informed consent. The following aspects were analyzed: (1) transcriptome changes present in vitiligo skin using DNA microarrays and qRT-PCR; (2) abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin explant cultures using flow cytometry; and (3) distribution of the abnormal cellular infiltrates in vitiligo skin using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results Compared with normal skin, vitiligo lesional skin contained 17 genes (mostly melanocyte-specific genes) whose expression was decreased or absent. In contrast, the relative expression of 13 genes was up-regulated. The up-regulated genes point to aberrant activity of the innate immune system, especially natural killer cells in vitiligo. Strikingly, the markers of heightened innate immune responses were also found to be up-regulated in the non-lesional skin of vitiligo patients. Conclusions and Clinical Implications As the first systematic transcriptome characterization of the skin in vitiligo patients, this study revealed previously unknown molecular markers that strongly suggest aberrant innate immune activation in the microenvironment of vitiligo skin. Since these changes involve both lesional and non-lesional skin, our results suggest that therapies targeting

  8. Factors associated with gastric lesions in thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Schusser, G F; Pipers, F S; Gross, S J

    1996-09-01

    Gastroscopic examinations were performed on 67 Thoroughbred horses in training at a race track and repeat examinations performed in 35 horses, 2 to 3 months later. Horses were age 2-9 years and included 16 two-year-olds, 32 three-year-olds and 19 horses > or = 4-years-old. Forty-two of the 67 horses had raced within the 2 months before the initial examination and the remaining 25 horses were in training. Sixty-two of the 67 horses (93%) had one or more lesions present in the gastric mucosa and lesions were present in all of the 42 horses that had raced. Thirty-two of the 35 horses, examined twice (91%), had gastric lesions on the first examination and all had lesions on the second examination. Four sites of the gastric squamous epithelium were graded for lesion severity on a scale of 0 to 10 and the mean maximum squamous mucosal lesion score was significantly (P < 0.01) greater for the second examination (4.89) than for the first examination (3.63). Maximum lesion scores were greater in 24 horses, no different in 5 horses and less in 6 horses on the second examination. The difference in mean maximum lesion scores between examinations was greatest in horses age 2 years, increasing from 1.75 to 4.00 (P = 0.014). Lesions in the gastric glandular mucosa also were scored on a scale of 0 to 10 and there was no difference in mean lesion scores in the glandular mucosa between the first and second examinations (1.89 vs. 1.90). Lesion scores were compared for gender, racing history and medication with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic corticosteroid or ACTH, or frusemide within the previous 2 months. Except for racing history, there were no significant differences in mean lesion scores for squamous or glandular mucosa based on these comparisons, indicating that there was no effect of gender or medication history on ulcer severity in the horses of our study. Mean maximum gastric squamous mucosal lesion score was significantly (P < 0.01) greater in horses that had

  9. Optical Assessment of Caries Lesion Structure and Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert Chulsung

    New, more sophisticated diagnostic tools are needed for the detection and characterization of caries lesions in the early stages of development. It is not sufficient to simply detect caries lesions, methods are needed to assess the activity of the lesion and determine if chemical or surgical intervention is needed. Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to nondestructively image the subsurface lesion structure and measure the thickness of the highly mineralized surface zone. Other studies have demonstrated that the rate of dehydration can be correlated with the lesion activity and that the rate can be measured using optical methods. The main objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that optical methods can be used to assess lesion activity on tooth coronal and root surfaces. Simulated caries models were used to develop and validate an algorithm for detecting and measuring the highly mineralized surface layer using PS-OCT. This work confirmed that the algorithm was capable of estimating the thickness of the highly mineralized surface layer with high accuracy. Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and thermal imaging methods were used to assess activity of caries lesions by measuring the state of lesion hydration. NIR reflectance imaging performed the best for artificial enamel and natural coronal caries lesion samples, particularly at wavelengths coincident with the water absorption band at 1460-nm. However, thermal imaging performed the best for artificial dentin and natural root caries lesion samples. These novel optical methods outperformed the conventional methods (ICDAS II) in accurately assessing lesion activity of natural coronal and root caries lesions. Infrared-based imaging methods have shown potential for in-vivo applications to objectively assess caries lesion activity in a single examination. It is likely that if future clinical trials are a success, this novel imaging

  10. Diffusivity in multiple sclerosis lesions: At the cutting edge?

    PubMed

    Klistorner, Alexander; Wang, Chenyu; Fofanova, Vera; Barnett, Michael H; Yiannikas, Con; Parratt, John; You, Yuyi; Graham, Stuart L

    2016-01-01

    Radial Diffusivity (RD) has been suggested as a promising biomarker associated with the level of myelination in MS lesions. However, the level of RD within the lesion is affected not only by loss of myelin sheaths, but also by the degree of tissue destruction. This may lead to exaggeration of diffusivity measures, potentially masking the effect of remyelination. To test the hypothesis that the T2 hyperintense lesion edge that extends beyond the T1 hypointense lesion core is less affected by tissue loss, and therefore a more appropriate target for imaging biomarker development targeting de- and re-myelination. Pre- and post-gadolinium (Gd) enhanced T1, T2 and DTI images were acquired from 75 consecutive RRMS patients. The optic radiation (OR) was identified in individual patients using a template-based method. T2 lesions were segmented into T1-hypointense and T1-isointense areas and lesion masks intersected with the OR. Average Radial, Axial and Mean diffusivity (RD, AD and MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were calculated for lesions of the entire brain and the OR. In addition, Gd enhancing lesions were excluded from the analysis. 86% of chronic T2 lesions demonstrated hypointense areas on T1-weighted images, which typically occupied the central part of each T2 lesion, taking about 40% of lesional volume. The T1-isointense component of the T2 lesion was most commonly seen as a peripheral ring of relatively constant thickness ("T2-rim"). While changes of diffusivity between adjacent normal appearing white matter and the "T2-rim" demonstrated a disproportionally high elevation of RD compare to AD, the increase of water diffusion was largely isointense between the "T2-rim" and T1-hypointense parts of the lesion. Distinct patterns of diffusivity within the central and peripheral components of MS lesions suggest that axonal loss dominates in the T1 hypointense core. The effects of de/remyelination may be more readily detected in the "T2-rim", where there is relative

  11. Frequent hemorrhagic lesions in cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Bhagavati, Satyakam; Choi, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a frequent complication in immunosuppressed patients such as AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Frequently, lesions are located deep in the brain which are inaccessible for biopsy making rapid diagnosis dependent on accurate interpretation of neuroimaging findings. The commonest cranial CT findings reported in toxoplasmosis are ring enhancing hypodense lesions in basal ganglia or cortical gray matter. Hemorrhage has only rarely been described and is usually seen following antitoxoplasma treatment. We reviewed the records of 11 AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis and found multiple hemorrhagic cerebral, cerebellar, or brain stem lesions in 7 of 11 patients. Six patients had hemorrhage at the time of initial clinical presentation and one developed hemorrhage following 2 weeks of antitoxoplasma treatment. We conclude that hemorrhagic lesions are frequently found on cranial MRI scans in cerebral toxoplasmosis. AIDS patients presenting with hemorrhagic cerebral lesions should be considered for a trial of presumptive antitoxoplasma treatment.

  12. Correlation between clinical and histopathological diagnoses in periapical inflammatory lesions.

    PubMed

    Diegues, Liliane Lopes; Colombo Robazza, Carlos Roberto; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Costa Pereira, Alessandro Antônio; Silva, Cléverson O

    2011-08-01

      The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between clinical and histopathological diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions, focusing mainly on cystic conditions.   Files dating from 1998 to 2006 at the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Alfenas Federal University, Brazil, were reviewed to identify cases with histopathological diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions. A total of 1788 files were analyzed, and 255 cases were identified with clinical diagnoses of periapical inflammatory lesions.   The most prevalent clinical diagnosis was apical periodontal cyst (59%), followed by periapical granuloma (20%), and dentoalveolar abscess (2%). After histopathological analysis, 53% of the cases represented apical periodontal cyst, 42% periapical granuloma, and 5% dentoalveolar abscess.   The outcomes of the present study show a high prevalence of periapical cysts among periapical inflammatory lesions. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of histopathological evaluation for the correct diagnosis of periapical inflammatory lesions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. [Ramp lesions : Tips and tricks in diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Seil, R; Hoffmann, A; Scheffler, S; Theisen, D; Mouton, C; Pape, D

    2017-09-14

    There is an increasing biomechanical and anatomical understanding of the different types of meniscal lesions. Lesions of the posterior part of the medial meniscus in the meniscosynovial area have recently received increased attention. They generally occur in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. They are often missed ("hidden lesions") due to the fact that they cannot be seen by routine anterior arthroscopic inspection. Furthermore, meniscosynovial lesions play a role in anteroposterior knee laxity and, as such, they may be a cause of failure of ACL reconstruction or of postoperative persistent laxity. Little information is available regarding their cause with respect to injury mechanism, natural history, biomechanical implications, healing potential and treatment options. This article presents an overview of the currently available knowledge of these ramp lesions, their possible pathomechanism, classification, biomechanical relevance as well as repair techniques.

  14. Development and resolution of radiographic lesions in canine heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, C A; Losonsky, J M; Lewis, R E; McCall, J W

    1981-06-01

    Thoracic radiography of 7 Beagles was performed before heartworm infection, during a 1-year heartworm infection, and for 1 year following appropriate treatment. Cardiac and vascular lesions on thoracic radiographs were compared with angiographic changes. Within 3 months of obstructed blood flow in the caudal lobar arteries, associated increased focal parenchymal densities were detected. These lesions were regarded as characteristic of heartworm disease. Although the most severe arteriographic changes were in the caudal lobar arteries, lobar arterial changes on a lateral view were best detected in the right cranial lobar artery. These arteries increased in size during infection and decreased in size after treatment. It was concluded that the dorsoventral view is best for evaluation of the caudal lobar arteries. The most marked parenchymal lesions were detected during the first 6 months following adulticide treatment. These lesions and the other radiographic alterations then decreased in severity. Persistence of the parenchymal lesions were related to persistence of heartworm infection.

  15. Comparison of methods for measurement of hypoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Elcock, Claire; Smith, Richard N; Simpson, Joanne; Abdellatif, Abeer; Bäckman, Birgitta; Brook, Alan H

    2006-05-01

    Enamel hypoplasia is a quantitative defect of enamel thickness. Methods previously used for its measurement have limitations in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to investigate new methods of measurement using image analysis. Lesions on 8 teeth affected by enamel hypoplasia were quantified from study models and impression surfaces using an image-analysis system. The measurements made included lesion area and tooth surface area; from these the proportion of tooth surface area affected was calculated. For comparison, manual measurement was performed on impression surfaces and study models, using digital callipers. Images were also acquired of lesions on 12 exfoliated teeth, and the lesion area and total tooth area were calculated. For assessment of intra-operator reliability, the +/-repeatability coefficient was calculated. Measurement of the surface of lesions direct from the exfoliated teeth gave the best results overall, followed by direct image analysis of the silicone impression.

  16. Multi-scale classification based lesion segmentation for dermoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Mani; Codella, Noel; Chakravorty, Rajib; Garnavi, Rahil; Gutman, David; Helba, Brian; Smith, John R

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a robust segmentation method based on multi-scale classification to identify the lesion boundary in dermoscopic images. Our proposed method leverages a collection of classifiers which are trained at various resolutions to categorize each pixel as "lesion" or "surrounding skin". In detection phase, trained classifiers are applied on new images. The classifier outputs are fused at pixel level to build probability maps which represent lesion saliency maps. In the next step, Otsu thresholding is applied to convert the saliency maps to binary masks, which determine the border of the lesions. We compared our proposed method with existing lesion segmentation methods proposed in the literature using two dermoscopy data sets (International Skin Imaging Collaboration and Pedro Hispano Hospital) which demonstrates the superiority of our method with Dice Coefficient of 0.91 and accuracy of 94%.

  17. Fatty lesions in and around the heart: a pictorial review

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, C S; Ocazionez, D; Suby-Long, T; Vargas, D

    2015-01-01

    A wide variety of fat-containing entities occur in and near the heart. These findings are often encountered by radiologists and may be incidental or the reason for the patient's clinical presentation. Cross-sectional imaging helps to characterize the extent of these lesions and to formulate a differential diagnosis, which varies by lesion location, imaging features and patient demographics. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to familiarize radiologists with these fat-containing lesions and to help avoid misdiagnosis and errors in management. This pictorial review will discuss the normal fatty structures in and around the heart. A range of common and uncommon fat-containing lesions will then be reviewed based upon lesion location. PMID:25950727

  18. Noncarious dental "abfraction" lesions in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Owens, B M; Gallien, G S

    1995-06-01

    A new classification for noncarious dental lesions has evolved from the dental literature. The name given to these lesions, dental "abfractions," is a theory propounding tooth fatigue, flexure, and deformation through biomechanical loading of tooth structure, primarily at the cervical regions of the dentition. These lesions are typically wedge shaped with sharp line angles, but occlusal abfractions have been observed as circular invaginations. Dental abfractions can occur alone and are sometimes associated with toothbrush abrasion and erosion from endogenous or exogenous acids. Treatment consists of the application of composite resin or glass-ionomer cement restorations and/or the discontinuance of the etiology of these lesions. If esthetics are not a primary concern of the patient and the tooth is not structurally compromised, many of these lesions can be observed, provided that the patient is informed that bruxism or malocclusion problems exist.

  19. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gastric Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions. PMID:27744661

  20. Proposed Clinico-Pathological Classification for Oral Exophytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Doryck; Laxminarayana, Kumaraswamy Kikeri

    2015-01-01

    Oral exophytic lesions often have proven to be diagnostically challenging due to the varied clinical presentation. The exophytic growth of the oral lesions is due to the type of pathology and histological changes. Careful clinical interpretation with a better histological understanding of exophytic lesions may ease the diagnosis from the differential diagnosis panel. The purpose of proposing classification system is to categorize the exophytic lesions of interest under specific clinical and/or histological explanation; and this will eventually lead to better understanding of the pathological condition that is described. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such classification system available for oral exophytic lesions and hence proposal of classification system is attempted in this study. Further, proposing a new classification system is not just to influence the academic contribution, but also to assist at greatest extent for diagnosis during clinical practice. PMID:26501030