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Sample records for lethal factor mutant

  1. Anthrax lethal factor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shoop, W L; Xiong, Y; Wiltsie, J; Woods, A; Guo, J; Pivnichny, J V; Felcetto, T; Michael, B F; Bansal, A; Cummings, R T; Cunningham, B R; Friedlander, A M; Douglas, C M; Patel, S B; Wisniewski, D; Scapin, G; Salowe, S P; Zaller, D M; Chapman, K T; Scolnick, E M; Schmatz, D M; Bartizal, K; MacCoss, M; Hermes, J D

    2005-05-31

    The primary virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis is a secreted zinc-dependent metalloprotease toxin known as lethal factor (LF) that is lethal to the host through disruption of signaling pathways, cell destruction, and circulatory shock. Inhibition of this proteolytic-based LF toxemia could be expected to provide therapeutic value in combination with an antibiotic during and immediately after an active anthrax infection. Herein is shown the crystal structure of an intimate complex between a hydroxamate, (2R)-2-[(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)sulfonylamino]-N-hydroxy-2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)acetamide, and LF at the LF-active site. Most importantly, this molecular interaction between the hydroxamate and the LF active site resulted in (i) inhibited LF protease activity in an enzyme assay and protected macrophages against recombinant LF and protective antigen in a cell-based assay, (ii) 100% protection in a lethal mouse toxemia model against recombinant LF and protective antigen, (iii) approximately 50% survival advantage to mice given a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Sterne vegetative cells and to rabbits given a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Ames spores and doubled the mean time to death in those that died in both species, and (iv) 100% protection against B. anthracis spore challenge when used in combination therapy with ciprofloxacin in a rabbit "point of no return" model for which ciprofloxacin alone provided 50% protection. These results indicate that a small molecule, hydroxamate LF inhibitor, as revealed herein, can ameliorate the toxemia characteristic of an active B. anthracis infection and could be a vital adjunct to our ability to combat anthrax.

  2. Reversion of lethality and growth defects in Fatiga oxygen-sensor mutant flies by loss of hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha/Sima.

    PubMed

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Wappner, Pablo

    2005-11-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domains (PHDs) have been proposed to act as sensors that have an important role in oxygen homeostasis. In the presence of oxygen, they hydroxylate two specific prolyl residues in HIF-alpha polypeptides, thereby promoting their proteasomal degradation. So far, however, the developmental consequences of the inactivation of PHDs in higher metazoans have not been reported. Here, we describe novel loss-of-function mutants of fatiga, the gene encoding the Drosophila PHD oxygen sensor, which manifest growth defects and lethality. We also report a null mutation in dHIF-alpha/sima, which is unable to adapt to hypoxia but is fully viable in normoxic conditions. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations of sima rescued the developmental defects observed in fatiga mutants and enabled survival to adulthood. These results indicate that the main functions of Fatiga in development, including control of cell size, involve the regulation of dHIF/Sima.

  3. Reversion of lethality and growth defects in Fatiga oxygen-sensor mutant flies by loss of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-α/Sima

    PubMed Central

    Centanin, Lázaro; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Wappner, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domains (PHDs) have been proposed to act as sensors that have an important role in oxygen homeostasis. In the presence of oxygen, they hydroxylate two specific prolyl residues in HIF-α polypeptides, thereby promoting their proteasomal degradation. So far, however, the developmental consequences of the inactivation of PHDs in higher metazoans have not been reported. Here, we describe novel loss-of-function mutants of fatiga, the gene encoding the Drosophila PHD oxygen sensor, which manifest growth defects and lethality. We also report a null mutation in dHIF-α/sima, which is unable to adapt to hypoxia but is fully viable in normoxic conditions. Strikingly, loss-of-function mutations of sima rescued the developmental defects observed in fatiga mutants and enabled survival to adulthood. These results indicate that the main functions of Fatiga in development, including control of cell size, involve the regulation of dHIF/Sima. PMID:16179946

  4. Impaired stretch modulation in potentially lethal cardiac sodium channel mutants.

    PubMed

    Banderali, Umberto; Juranka, Peter F; Clark, Robert B; Giles, Wayne R; Morris, Catherine E

    2010-01-01

    The presence of two slowly inactivating mutants of the cardiac sodium channel (hNa(V)1.5), R1623Q and R1626P, associate with sporadic Long-QT3 (LQT3) syndrome, and may contribute to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and/or lethal ventricular disturbances. Cardiac mechanoelectric feedback is considered a factor in such sporadic arrhythmias. Since stretch and shear forces modulate hNa(V)1.5 gating, detailed electrophysiological study of LQT-Na(V)1.5 mutant channel alpha subunit(s) might provide insights. We compared recombinant R1623Q and WT currents in control vs. stretched membrane of cell-attached patches of Xenopus oocytes. Macroscopic current was monitored before, during, and after stretch induced by pipette suction. In either mutant Na(+) channel, peak current at small depolarizations could be more than doubled by stretch. As in WT, R1623Q showed reversible and stretch intensity dependent acceleration of current onset and decay at all voltages, with kinetic coupling between these two processes retained during stretch. These two Na(V)1.5 channel alpha subunits differed in the absolute extent of kinetic acceleration for a given stretch intensity; over a range of intensities, R1623Q inactivation speed increased significantly less than did WT. The LQT3 mutant R1626P also retained its kinetic coupling during stretch. Whereas WT stretch-difference currents (I(Na)(V,t) without stretch minus I(Na)(V,t) with stretch) were mostly inhibitory (equivalent to outward current), they were substantially (R1623Q) or entirely (R1626P) excitatory for the LQT3 mutants. If stretch-modulated Na(V)1.5 current (i.e., brief excitation followed by accelerated current decay) routinely contributes to cardiac mechanoelectric feedback, then during hemodynamic load variations, the abnormal stretch-modulated components of R1623Q and R1626P current could be pro-arrhythmic.

  5. Defective Kernel Mutants of Maize. I. Genetic and Lethality Studies

    PubMed Central

    Neuffer, M. G.; Sheridan, William F.

    1980-01-01

    A planting of 3,919 M1 kernels from normal ears crossed by EMS-treated pollen produced 3,461 M1 plants and 3,172 selfed ears. These plants yielded 2,477 (72%) total heritable changes; the selfed ears yielded 2,457 (78%) recessive mutants, including 855 (27%) recessive kernel mutants and 8 (0.23%) viable dominant mutants. The ratio of recessive to dominant mutants was 201:1. The average mutation frequency for four known loci was three per 3,172 genomes analyzed. The estimated total number of loci mutated was 535 and the estimated number of kernel mutant loci mutated was 285. Among the 855 kernel mutants, 432 had a nonviable embryo, and 59 germinated but had a lethal seedling. A sample of 194 of the latter two types was tested for heritability, lethality, chromosome arm location and endosperm-embryo interaction between mutant and nonmutant tissues in special hyper-hypoploid combinations produced by manipulation of B-A translocations. The selected 194 mutants were characterized and catalogued according to endosperm phenotype and investigated to determine their effects on the morphology and development of the associated embryo. The possibility of rescuing some of the lethal mutants by covering the mutant embryo with a normal endosperm was investigated. Ninety of these 194 mutants were located on 17 of the 18 chromosome arms tested. Nineteen of the located mutants were examined to determine the effect of having a normal embryo in the same kernel with a mutant endosperm, and vice versa, as compared to the expression observed in kernels with both embryo and endosperm in a mutant condition. In the first situation, for three of the 19 mutants, the mutant endosperm was less extreme (the embryo helped); for seven cases, the mutant endosperm was more extreme (the embryo hindered); and for nine cases, there was no change. In the reverse situation, for four cases the normal endosperm helped the mutant embryo; for 14 cases there was no change and one case was inconclusive. PMID

  6. Defective kernel mutants of maize. I. Genetic and lethality studies.

    PubMed

    Neuffer, M G; Sheridan, W F

    1980-08-01

    A planting of 3,919 M(1) kernels from normal ears crossed by EMS-treated pollen produced 3,461 M(1) plants and 3,172 selfed ears. These plants yielded 2,477 (72%) total heritable changes; the selfed ears yielded 2,457 (78%) recessive mutants, including 855 (27%) recessive kernel mutants and 8 (0.23%) viable dominant mutants. The ratio of recessive to dominant mutants was 201:1. The average mutation frequency for four known loci was three per 3,172 genomes analyzed. The estimated total number of loci mutated was 535 and the estimated number of kernel mutant loci mutated was 285. Among the 855 kernel mutants, 432 had a nonviable embryo, and 59 germinated but had a lethal seedling. A sample of 194 of the latter two types was tested for heritability, lethality, chromosome arm location and endosperm-embryo interaction between mutant and nonmutant tissues in special hyper-hypoploid combinations produced by manipulation of B-A translocations. The selected 194 mutants were characterized and catalogued according to endosperm phenotype and investigated to determine their effects on the morphology and development of the associated embryo. The possibility of rescuing some of the lethal mutants by covering the mutant embryo with a normal endosperm was investigated. Ninety of these 194 mutants were located on 17 of the 18 chromosome arms tested. Nineteen of the located mutants were examined to determine the effect of having a normal embryo in the same kernel with a mutant endosperm, and vice versa, as compared to the expression observed in kernels with both embryo and endosperm in a mutant condition. In the first situation, for three of the 19 mutants, the mutant endosperm was less extreme (the embryo helped); for seven cases, the mutant endosperm was more extreme (the embryo hindered); and for nine cases, there was no change. In the reverse situation, for four cases the normal endosperm helped the mutant embryo; for 14 cases there was no change and one case was inconclusive.

  7. Lethal action of quinolones against a temperature-sensitive dnaB replication mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xilin; Malik, Muhammad; Chan, Nymph; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Wang, Jian-Ying; Li, Xinying; Drlica, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA replication in an Escherichia coli dnaB-22 mutant failed to block quinolone-mediated lethality. Inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol inhibited nalidixic acid lethality and, to a lesser extent, ciprofloxacin lethality in both dnaB-22 and wild-type cells. Thus, major features of quinolone-mediated lethality do not depend on ongoing replication.

  8. High-Throughput Robotically Assisted Isolation of Temperature-sensitive Lethal Mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Breker, Michal; Lieberman, Kristi; Tulin, Frej; Cross, Frederick R.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic identification and characterization of genetic perturbations have proven useful to decipher gene function and cellular pathways. However, the conventional approaches of permanent gene deletion cannot be applied to essential genes. We have pioneered a unique collection of ~70 temperature-sensitive (ts) lethal mutants for studying cell cycle regulation in the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1. These mutations identify essential genes, and the ts alleles can be conditionally inactivated by temperature shift, providing valuable tools to identify and analyze essential functions. Mutant collections are much more valuable if they are close to comprehensive, since scattershot collections can miss important components. However, this requires the efficient collection of a large number of mutants, especially in a wide-target screen. Here, we describe a robotics-based pipeline for generating ts lethal mutants and analyzing their phenotype in Chlamydomonas. This technique can be applied to any microorganism that grows on agar. We have collected over 3000 ts mutants, probably including mutations in most or all cell-essential pathways, including about 200 new candidate cell cycle mutations. Subsequent molecular and cellular characterization of these mutants should provide new insights in plant cell biology; a comprehensive mutant collection is an essential prerequisite to ensure coverage of a broad range of biological pathways. These methods are integrated with downstream genetics and bioinformatics procedures for efficient mapping and identification of the causative mutations that are beyond the scope of this manuscript. PMID:28060315

  9. A combination therapy for KRAS-mutant lung cancer by targeting synthetic lethal partners of mutant KRAS.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiufeng; Liu, Mingyao

    2016-10-28

    The KRAS gene is frequently mutated in multiple cancer types, but it fell off the drug discovery radar for many years because of its inherent "undruggable" structure and undefined biological properties. As reported in the paper entitled "Suppression of KRas-mutant cancer through the combined inhibition of KRAS with PLK1 and ROCK" in Nature Communications, we performed a synthetic lethal screening with a combinatorial strategy on a panel of clinical drugs; we found that combined inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 and RhoA/Rho kinase markedly suppressed tumor growth in mice. An increase in the expression of the tumor suppressor P21(WAF1/CIP1) contributed to the synergistic mechanism of the combination therapy. These findings open a novel avenue for the treatment of KRAS-mutant lung cancer.

  10. Inhibitors of the Metalloproteinase Anthrax Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Allison B.; Turk, Benjamin E.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, a rod shaped, spore forming, gram positive bacteria, is the etiological agent of anthrax. B. anthracis virulence is partly attributable to two secreted bipartite protein toxins, which act inside host cells to disrupt signaling pathways important for host defense against infection. These toxins may also directly contribute to mortality in late stage infection. The zinc-dependent metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical component of one of these protein toxins and a prime target for inhibitor development to produce anthrax therapeutics. Here, we describe recent efforts to identify specific and potent LF inhibitors. Derivatization of peptide substrate analogs bearing zinc-binding groups has produced potent and specific LF inhibitors, and X-ray crystallography of LF-inhibitor complexes has provided insight into features required for high affinity binding. Novel inhibitor scaffolds have been identified through several approaches, including fragment-based drug discovery, virtual screening, and high-throughput screening of diverse compound libraries. Lastly, efforts to discover LF inhibitors have led to the development of new screening strategies, such as the use of full-length proteins as substrates, that may prove useful for other proteases as well. Overall, these efforts have led to a collection of chemically and mechanistically diverse molecules capable of inhibiting LF activity in vitro and in cells, as well as in animal models of anthrax infection. PMID:27072692

  11. Inhibitors of the Metalloproteinase Anthrax Lethal Factor.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allison B; Turk, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, a rod shaped, spore forming, gram positive bacteria, is the etiological agent of anthrax. B. anthracis virulence is partly attributable to two secreted bipartite protein toxins, which act inside host cells to disrupt signaling pathways important for host defense against infection. These toxins may also directly contribute to mortality in late stage infection. The zinc-dependent metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical component of one of these protein toxins and a prime target for inhibitor development to produce anthrax therapeutics. Here, we describe recent efforts to identify specific and potent LF inhibitors. Derivatization of peptide substrate analogs bearing zinc-binding groups has produced potent and specific LF inhibitors, and X-ray crystallography of LFinhibitor complexes has provided insight into features required for high affinity binding. Novel inhibitor scaffolds have been identified through several approaches, including fragment-based drug discovery, virtual screening, and highthroughput screening of diverse compound libraries. Lastly, efforts to discover LF inhibitors have led to the development of new screening strategies, such as the use of full-length proteins as substrates, that may prove useful for other proteases as well. Overall, these efforts have led to a collection of chemically and mechanistically diverse molecules capable of inhibiting LF activity in vitro and in cells, as well as in animal models of anthrax infection.

  12. CDK1 Is a Synthetic Lethal Target for KRAS Mutant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Cabral, Sara; Brough, Rachel; Konde, Asha; Aarts, Marieke; Campbell, James; Marinari, Eliana; Riffell, Jenna; Bardelli, Alberto; Torrance, Christopher; Lord, Christopher J.; Ashworth, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Activating KRAS mutations are found in approximately 20% of human cancers but no RAS-directed therapies are currently available. Here we describe a novel, robust, KRAS synthetic lethal interaction with the cyclin dependent kinase, CDK1. This was discovered using parallel siRNA screens in KRAS mutant and wild type colorectal isogenic tumour cells and subsequently validated in a genetically diverse panel of 26 colorectal and pancreatic tumour cell models. This established that the KRAS/CDK1 synthetic lethality applies in tumour cells with either amino acid position 12 (p.G12V, pG12D, p.G12S) or amino acid position 13 (p.G13D) KRAS mutations and can also be replicated in vivo in a xenograft model using a small molecule CDK1 inhibitor. Mechanistically, CDK1 inhibition caused a reduction in the S-phase fraction of KRAS mutant cells, an effect also characterised by modulation of Rb, a master control of the G1/S checkpoint. Taken together, these observations suggest that the KRAS/CDK1 interaction is a robust synthetic lethal effect worthy of further investigation. PMID:26881434

  13. Anthrax lethal factor inhibitors as potential countermeasure of the infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B V S Suneel; Malik, Siddharth; Grandhi, Pradeep; Dayam, Raveendra; Sarma, J A R P

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent metalloprotease, one of the virulence factor of anthrax infection. Three forms of the anthrax infection have been identified: cutaneous (through skin), gastrointestinal (through alimentary tract), and pulmonary (by inhalation of spores). Anthrax toxin is composed of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). Protective antigen mediates the entry of Lethal Factor/Edema Factor into the cytosol of host cells. Lethal factor (LF) inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inducing cell death, and EF is an adenylyl cyclase impairing host defenses. In the past few years, extensive studies are undertaken to design inhibitors targeting LF. The current review focuses on the small molecule inhibitors targeting LF activity and its structure activity relationships (SAR).

  14. A Coccidioides posadasii CPS1 Deletion Mutant Is Avirulent and Protects Mice from Lethal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Narra, Hema P.; Shubitz, Lisa F.; Mandel, M. Alejandra; Trinh, Hien T.; Griffin, Kurt; Buntzman, Adam S.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Galgiani, John N.

    2016-01-01

    The CPS1 gene was identified as a virulence factor in the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus. Hypothesizing that the homologous gene in Coccidioides posadasii could be important for virulence, we created a Δcps1 deletion mutant which was unable to cause disease in three strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c, or the severely immunodeficient NOD-scid,γcnull [NSG]). Only a single colony was recovered from 1 of 60 C57BL/6 mice following intranasal infections of up to 4,400 spores. Following administration of very high doses (10,000 to 2.5 × 107 spores) to NSG and BALB/c mice, spherules were observed in lung sections at time points from day 3 to day 10 postinfection, but nearly all appeared degraded with infrequent endosporulation. Although the role of CPS1 in virulence is not understood, phenotypic alterations and transcription differences of at least 33 genes in the Δcps1 strain versus C. posadasii is consistent with both metabolic and regulatory functions for the gene. The in vitro phenotype of the Δcps1 strain showed slower growth of mycelia with delayed and lower spore production than C. posadasii, and in vitro spherules were smaller. Vaccination of C57BL/6 or BALB/c mice with live Δcps1 spores either intranasally, intraperitoneally, or subcutaneously resulted in over 95% survival with mean residual lung fungal burdens of <1,000 CFU from an otherwise lethal C. posadasii intranasal infection. Considering its apparently complete attenuation of virulence and the high degree of resistance to C. posadasii infection when used as a vaccine, the Δcps1 strain is a promising vaccine candidate for preventing coccidioidomycosis in humans or other animals. PMID:27481239

  15. Antidotes to anthrax lethal factor intoxication. Part 1: Discovery of potent lethal factor inhibitors with in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Moayeri, Mahtab; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; Margosiak, Stephen A; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2010-11-15

    Sub-nanomolar small molecule inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor have been identified using SAR and Merck L915 (4) as a model compound. One of these compounds (16) provided 100% protection in a rat lethal toxin model of anthrax disease.

  16. Synthetic Lethal Targeting of ARID1A-Mutant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumors with Dasatinib.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rowan E; Brough, Rachel; Bajrami, Ilirjana; Williamson, Chris T; McDade, Simon; Campbell, James; Kigozi, Asha; Rafiq, Rumana; Pemberton, Helen; Natrajan, Rachel; Joel, Josephine; Astley, Holly; Mahoney, Claire; Moore, Jonathan D; Torrance, Chris; Gordan, John D; Webber, James T; Levin, Rebecca S; Shokat, Kevan M; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan

    2016-07-01

    New targeted approaches to ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC) are needed, given the limited treatment options in this disease and the poor response to standard chemotherapy. Using a series of high-throughput cell-based drug screens in OCCC tumor cell models, we have identified a synthetic lethal (SL) interaction between the kinase inhibitor dasatinib and a key driver in OCCC, ARID1A mutation. Imposing ARID1A deficiency upon a variety of human or mouse cells induced dasatinib sensitivity, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this is a robust synthetic lethal interaction. The sensitivity of ARID1A-deficient cells to dasatinib was associated with G1-S cell-cycle arrest and was dependent upon both p21 and Rb. Using focused siRNA screens and kinase profiling, we showed that ARID1A-mutant OCCC tumor cells are addicted to the dasatinib target YES1. This suggests that dasatinib merits investigation for the treatment of patients with ARID1A-mutant OCCC. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1472-84. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Lethal Factor, but Not Edema Factor, Is Required to Cause Fatal Anthrax in Cynomolgus Macaques after Pulmonary Spore Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Hutt, Julie A.; Lovchik, Julie A.; Drysdale, Melissa; Sherwood, Robert L.; Brasel, Trevor; Lipscomb, Mary F.; Lyons, C. Rick

    2015-01-01

    Inhalational anthrax is caused by inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ability of B. anthracis to cause anthrax is attributed to the plasmid-encoded A/B-type toxins, edema toxin (edema factor and protective antigen) and lethal toxin (lethal factor and protective antigen), and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule. To better understand the contribution of these toxins to the disease pathophysiology in vivo, we used B. anthracis Ames strain and isogenic toxin deletion mutants derived from the Ames strain to examine the role of lethal toxin and edema toxin after pulmonary spore challenge of cynomolgus macaques. Lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, was required to induce sustained bacteremia and death after pulmonary challenge with spores delivered via bronchoscopy. After intravenous challenge with bacilli to model the systemic phase of infection, lethal toxin contributed to bacterial proliferation and subsequent host death to a greater extent than edema toxin. Deletion of protective antigen resulted in greater loss of virulence after intravenous challenge with bacilli than deletion of lethal toxin or edema toxin alone. These findings are consistent with the ability of anti–protective antigen antibodies to prevent anthrax and suggest that lethal factor is the dominant toxin that contributes to the escape of significant numbers of bacilli from the thoracic cavity to cause anthrax after inhalation challenge with spores. PMID:25285720

  18. Lethal factor, but not edema factor, is required to cause fatal anthrax in cynomolgus macaques after pulmonary spore challenge.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Drysdale, Melissa; Sherwood, Robert L; Brasel, Trevor; Lipscomb, Mary F; Lyons, C Rick

    2014-12-01

    Inhalational anthrax is caused by inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ability of B. anthracis to cause anthrax is attributed to the plasmid-encoded A/B-type toxins, edema toxin (edema factor and protective antigen) and lethal toxin (lethal factor and protective antigen), and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule. To better understand the contribution of these toxins to the disease pathophysiology in vivo, we used B. anthracis Ames strain and isogenic toxin deletion mutants derived from the Ames strain to examine the role of lethal toxin and edema toxin after pulmonary spore challenge of cynomolgus macaques. Lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, was required to induce sustained bacteremia and death after pulmonary challenge with spores delivered via bronchoscopy. After intravenous challenge with bacilli to model the systemic phase of infection, lethal toxin contributed to bacterial proliferation and subsequent host death to a greater extent than edema toxin. Deletion of protective antigen resulted in greater loss of virulence after intravenous challenge with bacilli than deletion of lethal toxin or edema toxin alone. These findings are consistent with the ability of anti-protective antigen antibodies to prevent anthrax and suggest that lethal factor is the dominant toxin that contributes to the escape of significant numbers of bacilli from the thoracic cavity to cause anthrax after inhalation challenge with spores.

  19. Lethal Mutants and Truncated Selection Together Solve a Paradox of the Origin of Life

    PubMed Central

    Saakian, David B.; Biebricher, Christof K.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Background Many attempts have been made to describe the origin of life, one of which is Eigen's cycle of autocatalytic reactions [Eigen M (1971) Naturwissenschaften 58, 465–523], in which primordial life molecules are replicated with limited accuracy through autocatalytic reactions. For successful evolution, the information carrier (either RNA or DNA or their precursor) must be transmitted to the next generation with a minimal number of misprints. In Eigen's theory, the maximum chain length that could be maintained is restricted to nucleotides, while for the most primitive genome the length is around . This is the famous error catastrophe paradox. How to solve this puzzle is an interesting and important problem in the theory of the origin of life. Methodology/Principal Findings We use methods of statistical physics to solve this paradox by carefully analyzing the implications of neutral and lethal mutants, and truncated selection (i.e., when fitness is zero after a certain Hamming distance from the master sequence) for the critical chain length. While neutral mutants play an important role in evolution, they do not provide a solution to the paradox. We have found that lethal mutants and truncated selection together can solve the error catastrophe paradox. There is a principal difference between prebiotic molecule self-replication and proto-cell self-replication stages in the origin of life. Conclusions/Significance We have applied methods of statistical physics to make an important breakthrough in the molecular theory of the origin of life. Our results will inspire further studies on the molecular theory of the origin of life and biological evolution. PMID:21814563

  20. Lethal mutants and truncated selection together solve a paradox of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Saakian, David B; Biebricher, Christof K; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to describe the origin of life, one of which is Eigen's cycle of autocatalytic reactions [Eigen M (1971) Naturwissenschaften 58, 465-523], in which primordial life molecules are replicated with limited accuracy through autocatalytic reactions. For successful evolution, the information carrier (either RNA or DNA or their precursor) must be transmitted to the next generation with a minimal number of misprints. In Eigen's theory, the maximum chain length that could be maintained is restricted to 100-1000 nucleotides, while for the most primitive genome the length is around 7000-20,000. This is the famous error catastrophe paradox. How to solve this puzzle is an interesting and important problem in the theory of the origin of life. We use methods of statistical physics to solve this paradox by carefully analyzing the implications of neutral and lethal mutants, and truncated selection (i.e., when fitness is zero after a certain Hamming distance from the master sequence) for the critical chain length. While neutral mutants play an important role in evolution, they do not provide a solution to the paradox. We have found that lethal mutants and truncated selection together can solve the error catastrophe paradox. There is a principal difference between prebiotic molecule self-replication and proto-cell self-replication stages in the origin of life. We have applied methods of statistical physics to make an important breakthrough in the molecular theory of the origin of life. Our results will inspire further studies on the molecular theory of the origin of life and biological evolution.

  1. Correlation between In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Lethal Activity in Mice of Epsilon Toxin Mutants from Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Dorca-Arévalo, Jonatan; Pauillac, Serge; Díaz-Hidalgo, Laura; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Popoff, Michel R.; Blasi, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) from Clostridium perfringens is a pore-forming protein with a lethal effect on livestock, producing severe enterotoxemia characterized by general edema and neurological alterations. Site-specific mutations of the toxin are valuable tools to study the cellular and molecular mechanism of the toxin activity. In particular, mutants with paired cysteine substitutions that affect the membrane insertion domain behaved as dominant-negative inhibitors of toxin activity in MDCK cells. We produced similar mutants, together with a well-known non-toxic mutant (Etx-H106P), as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins to perform in vivo studies in an acutely intoxicated mouse model. The mutant (GFP-Etx-I51C/A114C) had a lethal effect with generalized edema, and accumulated in the brain parenchyma due to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the renal system, this mutant had a cytotoxic effect on distal tubule epithelial cells. The other mutants studied (GFP-Etx-V56C/F118C and GFP-Etx-H106P) did not have a lethal effect or cross the BBB, and failed to induce a cytotoxic effect on renal epithelial cells. These data suggest a direct correlation between the lethal effect of the toxin, with its cytotoxic effect on the kidney distal tubule cells, and the ability to cross the BBB. PMID:25013927

  2. The maternally expressed WRKY transcription factor TTG2 controls lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dilkes, Brian P; Spielman, Melissa; Weizbauer, Renate; Watson, Brian; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Scott, Rod J; Comai, Luca

    2008-12-09

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1), was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring.

  3. Histopathological effects of anthrax lethal factor on rat liver.

    PubMed

    Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Ozbek, Elvan

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has become an increasingly important scientific topic due to its potential role in bioterrorism. The lethal toxin (LT) of B. anthracis consists of lethal factor (LF) and a protective antigen (PA). This study investigated whether only lethal factor was efficient as a hepatotoxin in the absence of the PA. To achieve this aim, LF (100 µg/kg body weight, dissolved in sterile distilled water) or distilled water vehicle were intraperitoneally injected once into adult rats. At 24 h post-injection, the hosts were euthanized and their livers removed and tissue samples examined under light and electron microscopes. As a result of LF application, hepatic injury - including cytoplasmic and nuclear damage in hepatocytes, sinusoidal dilatation, and hepatocellular lysis - became apparent. Further, light microscopic analyses of liver sections from the LF-injected rats revealed ballooning degeneration and cytoplasmic loss within hepatocytes, as well as peri-sinusoidal inflammation. Additionally, an increase in the numbers of Kupffer cells was evident. Common vascular injuries were also found in the liver samples; these injuries caused hypoxia and pathological changes. In addition, some cytoplasmic and nuclear changes were detected within the liver ultrastructure. The results of these studies allow one to suggest that LF could be an effective toxicant alone and that PA might act in situ to modify the effect of this agent (or the reverse situation wherein LF modifies effects of PA) such that lethality results.

  4. Redox crisis underlies conditional light-dark lethality in cyanobacterial mutants that lack the circadian regulator, RpaA.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Spencer; Rubin, Benjamin E; Shultzaberger, Ryan K; Chen, You; Barber, Chase D; Golden, Susan S

    2017-01-24

    Cyanobacteria evolved a robust circadian clock, which has a profound influence on fitness and metabolism under daily light-dark (LD) cycles. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a functional clock is not required for diurnal growth, but mutants defective for the response regulator that mediates transcriptional rhythms in the wild-type, regulator of phycobilisome association A (RpaA), cannot be cultured under LD conditions. We found that rpaA-null mutants are inviable after several hours in the dark and compared the metabolomes of wild-type and rpaA-null strains to identify the source of lethality. Here, we show that the wild-type metabolome is very stable throughout the night, and this stability is lost in the absence of RpaA. Additionally, an rpaA mutant accumulates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the day and is unable to clear it during the night. The rpaA-null metabolome indicates that these cells are reductant-starved in the dark, likely because enzymes of the primary nighttime NADPH-producing pathway are direct targets of RpaA. Because NADPH is required for processes that detoxify ROS, conditional LD lethality likely results from inability of the mutant to activate reductant-requiring pathways that detoxify ROS when photosynthesis is not active. We identified second-site mutations and growth conditions that suppress LD lethality in the mutant background that support these conclusions. These results provide a mechanistic explanation as to why rpaA-null mutants die in the dark, further connect the clock to metabolism under diurnal growth, and indicate that RpaA likely has important unidentified functions during the day.

  5. Synthetic Lethal Therapy for KRAS Mutant Non-small-cell Lung Carcinoma with Nanoparticle-mediated CDK4 siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Cheng-Qiong; Xiong, Meng-Hua; Liu, Yang; Shen, Song; Du, Xiao-Jiao; Yang, Xian-Zhu; Dou, Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Zhuo; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The KRAS mutation is present in ~20% of lung cancers and has not yet been effectively targeted for therapy. This mutation is associated with a poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and confers resistance to standard anticancer treatment drugs, including epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this study, we exploited a new therapeutic strategy based on the synthetic lethal interaction between cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) downregulation and the KRAS mutation to deliver micellar nanoparticles (MNPs) containing small interfering RNA targeting CDK4 (MNPsiCDK4) for treatment in NSCLCs harboring the oncogenic KRAS mutation. Following MNPsiCDK4 administration, CDK4 expression was decreased, accompanied by inhibited cell proliferation, specifically in KRAS mutant NSCLCs. However, this intervention was harmless to normal KRAS wild-type cells, confirming the proposed mechanism of synthetic lethality. Moreover, systemic delivery of MNPsiCDK4 significantly inhibited tumor growth in an A549 NSCLC xenograft murine model, with depressed expression of CDK4 and mutational KRAS status, suggesting the therapeutic promise of MNPsiCDK4 delivery in KRAS mutant NSCLCs via a synthetic lethal interaction between KRAS and CDK4. PMID:24496383

  6. Lethal mitochondrial cardiomyopathy in a hypomorphic Med30 mouse mutant is ameliorated by ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Philippe; Fan, Weiwei; Chen, Yen-Hui; Tobita, Kimimasa; Downes, Michael R; Wood, Malcolm R; Sun, Lei; Li, Xiaohong; Xia, Yu; Ding, Ning; Spaeth, Jason M; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Boyer, Thomas G; Lo, Cecilia Wen Ya; Yen, Jeffrey; Evans, Ronald M; Beutler, Bruce

    2011-12-06

    Deficiencies of subunits of the transcriptional regulatory complex Mediator generally result in embryonic lethality, precluding study of its physiological function. Here we describe a missense mutation in Med30 causing progressive cardiomyopathy in homozygous mice that, although viable during lactation, show precipitous lethality 2-3 wk after weaning. Expression profiling reveals pleiotropic changes in transcription of cardiac genes required for oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial integrity. Weaning mice to a ketogenic diet extends viability to 8.5 wk. Thus, we establish a mechanistic connection between Mediator and induction of a metabolic program for oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, in which lethal cardiomyopathy is mitigated by dietary intervention.

  7. Lethal factor antibodies contribute to lethal toxin neutralization in recipients of anthrax vaccine precipitated.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Eric K; Garman, Lori; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Charlton, Sue; Hallis, Bassam; Engler, Renata J M; Choudhari, Shyamal; Picking, William D; James, Judith A; Farris, A Darise

    2017-06-08

    A major difference between two currently licensed anthrax vaccines is presence (United Kingdom Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated, AVP) or absence (United States Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) of quantifiable amounts of the Lethal Toxin (LT) component Lethal Factor (LF). The primary immunogen in both vaccine formulations is Protective Antigen (PA), and LT-neutralizing antibodies directed to PA are an accepted correlate of vaccine efficacy; however, vaccination studies in animal models have demonstrated that LF antibodies can be protective. In this report we compared humoral immune responses in cohorts of AVP (n=39) and AVA recipients (n=78) matched 1:2 for number of vaccinations and time post-vaccination, and evaluated whether the LF response contributes to LT neutralization in human recipients of AVP. PA response rates (≥95%) and PA IgG concentrations were similar in both groups; however, AVP recipients exhibited higher LT neutralization ED50 values (AVP: 1464.0±214.7, AVA: 544.9±83.2, p<0.0001) and had higher rates of LF IgG positivity (95%) compared to matched AVA vaccinees (1%). Multiple regression analysis revealed that LF IgG makes an independent and additive contribution to the LT neutralization response in the AVP group. Affinity purified LF antibodies from two independent AVP recipients neutralized LT and bound to LF Domain 1, confirming contribution of LF antibodies to LT neutralization. This study documents the benefit of including an LF component to PA-based anthrax vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Differentially expressed genes in the ovary of the sixth day of pupal "Ming" lethal egg mutant of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Chen, An-Li; Zhao, Qiao-Ling; Shen, Xing-Jia; Qiu, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Ding-Guo; Tang, Shun-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Zheng

    2013-09-15

    The "Ming" lethal egg mutant (l-em) is a vitelline membrane mutant in silkworm, Bombyx mori. The eggs laid by the l-em mutant lose water, ultimately causing death within an hour. Previous studies have shown that the deletion of BmEP80 is responsible for the l-em mutation in silkworm, B. mori. In the current study, digital gene expression (DGE) was performed to investigate the difference of gene expression in ovaries between wild type and l-em mutant on the sixth day of the pupal stage to obtain a global view of gene expression profiles using the ovaries of three l-em mutants and three wild types. The results showed a total of 3,463,495 and 3,607,936 clean tags in the wild type and the l-em mutant libraries, respectively. Compared with those of wild type, 239 differentially expressed genes were detected in the l-em mutant, wherein 181 genes are up-regulated and 58 genes are down-regulated in the mutant strain. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis results showed that no pathway was significantly enriched and three pathways are tightly related to protein synthesis among the five leading pathways. Moreover, the expression profiles of eight important differentially expressed genes related to oogenesis changed. These results provide a comprehensive gene expression analysis of oogenesis and vitellogenesis in B. mori which facilitates understanding of both the specific molecular mechanism of the 1-em mutant and Lepidopteran oogenesis in general.

  9. Construction of a conditional lethal Salmonella mutant via genetic recombination using the ara system and asd gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sam Woong; Kang, Ho Young; Hur, Jin; Gal, Sang Wan; Bang, Woo Young; Cho, Kwang-Keun; Kim, Chul Wook; Bahk, Jeong Dong; Lee, John Hwa

    2011-11-01

    In order to construct a conditional lethal Salmonella mutant, an arabinose-regulated recombinant genetic system was used. The Salmonella aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) gene was localized under the control of araC P(araBAD) in a plasmid to create the araC P(araBAD)::asd cassette. The cassette was cloned into a plasmid carrying a p15A replication origin to create the recombinant plasmid pMMP55. The growth of Salmonella MMP10 harboring pMMP55 was dependent on the presence of arabinose. In the presence of arabinose, the Asd deficiency due to chromosomal deletion of asd in the Salmonella host was complemented by the asd gene transcribed and translated under the P(araBAD) promoter and araBAD Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence in pMMP55. Growth inhibition of the strain was demonstrated by arabinose depletion in M9 minimal medium, indicating that the strain were unable to grow in an arabinose-limited environment. In addition, the analysis of a 50% lethal dose (LD50) using mice revealed that the strain MMP10 exhibited attenuation by approximately 100-fold relative to that of the unmodified strain. In conclusion, these data suggest that the araC P(araBAD)::asd system developed in this study can be used to construct conditional lethal Salmonella mutants for application as safe, live-attenuated Salmonella vaccines.

  10. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Saebel, Crystal E.; Carbone, Ryan; Dabous, John R.; Lo, Suet Y.; Siemann, Stefan

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl{sub 2}, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl{sub 2}. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co{sup 2+} per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co{sup 2+} ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co{sup 2+}-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co{sup 2+}:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF's active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme's mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  11. [Prognostic factors about morbidity and lethality in head injury].

    PubMed

    Melo, José Roberto Tude; Oliveira Filho, Jamary; da Silva, Ricardo Araújo; Moreira Júnior, Edson Duarte

    2005-12-01

    To define the prognostic factors in head injury victims. Assessment and notification of 555 medical files from victims with head injury assisted at the General Hospital of Bahia during 2001. We verified morbidity rates of 19.6% and lethality rates of 22.9%, with most deaths occurring in men after the third decade of life; the injuries involved traffic accidents that were responsible for 64 (50.4%) deaths. Older age, traffic accidents and fever were predictors of death in the multivariable analysis. Fever was the only significant predictor of morbidity. Fever is an independent and modifiable predictor of death and morbidity in patients with traumatic brain injury.

  12. [Comparing high- and low-lethality factors regarding attempted suicide-associated risk factors].

    PubMed

    García-Rábago, Horacio; Sahagún-Flores, José E; Ruiz-Gómez, Alfonso; Sánchez-Ureña, Gustavo M; Tirado-Vargas, Juan C; González-Gámez, Jaime G

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the most common risk factors associated with suicide attempts to determine differences between risk factors present in patients regarding their low-lethality and high-fatality suicide attempts. 106 patients from both sexes who had been hospitalised in a psychiatric unit following their attempts at suicide were interviewed; they were divided into two groups: low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempt patients. 58.5 % of the 106 patients were placed in the low-lethality group and 41.5 % in the high-lethality group. The highest rates occurred in the high-lethality group but only two factors had significant statistical difference: "living alone" and "prior alcohol poisoning". 77.4 % of the sample were aged under 39, 7 % were female and 31 % male. Having a family background of alcoholism, previously attempted suicide, generalised anxiety and dysthymia had the highest percentages as risk factors associated with attempted suicide in both groups. The risk factors having the highest percentages were consistent with those reported in the literature. The fact of living alone and having previously suffered alcohol poisoning had statistically significant differences in this study. No significant differences were found in the rest of the factors studied here.

  13. Synthetic Lethality of a Novel Small Molecule Against Mutant KRAS-Expressing Cancer Cells Involves AKT-Dependent ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Yadav, Sanjiv Kumar; Foo, Chuan Han Jonathan; Sethi, Gautam; Qiang, Yu; Bellot, Gregory L; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2016-05-10

    We recently reported the death-inducing activity of a small-molecule compound, C1, which triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent autophagy-associated apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cell lines. In this study, we examine the ability of the compound to specifically target cancer cells harboring mutant KRAS with minimal activity against wild-type (WT) RAS-expressing cells. HCT116 cells expressing mutated KRAS are susceptible, while the WT-expressing HT29 cells are resistant. Interestingly, C1 triggers activation of mutant RAS, which results in the downstream phosphorylation and activation of AKT/PKB. Gene knockdown of KRAS or AKT or their pharmacological inhibition resulted in the abrogation of C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony-forming ability. We also made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout (KO) cells, which express only a single WT KRAS allele. Exposure of KO cells to C1 failed to increase mitochondrial ROS and cell death, unlike the parental cells harboring mutant KRAS. Similarly, mutant KRAS-transformed prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1-RAS) were more sensitive to the ROS-producing and death-inducing effects of C1 than the vector only expressing RWPE-1 cells. An in vivo model of xenograft tumors generated with HCT116 KRAS(WT/MUT) or KRAS(WT/-) cells showed the efficacy of C1 treatment and its ability to affect the relative mitotic index in tumors harboring KRAS mutant. These data indicate a synthetic lethal effect against cells carrying mutant KRAS, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of KRAS-specific chemotherapeutic strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 781-794.

  14. Enterobacterial Common Antigen Mutants of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Establish a Persistent Infection and Provide Protection against Subsequent Lethal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Colvocoresses Dodds, Jennifer; Rick, Paul D.; Soloski, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella spp. is a significant source of disease globally. A substantial proportion of these infections are caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Here, we characterize the role of the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA), a surface glycolipid ubiquitous among enteric bacteria, in S. Typhimurium pathogenesis. Construction of a defined mutation in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase gene, wecA, in two clinically relevant strains of S. Typhimurium, TML and SL1344, resulted in strains that were unable to produce ECA. Loss of ECA did not affect the gross cell surface ultrastructure, production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagella, or motility. However, the wecA mutant strains were attenuated in both oral and intraperitoneal mouse models of infection (P < 0.001 for both routes of infection; log rank test), and virulence could be restored by complementation of the wecA gene in trans. Despite the avirulence of the ECA-deficient strains, the wecA mutant strains were able to persistently colonize systemic sites (spleen and liver) at moderate levels for up to 70 days postinfection. Moreover, immunization with the wecA mutant strains provided protection against a subsequent lethal oral or intraperitoneal challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium. Thus, wecA mutant (ECA-negative) strains of Salmonella may be useful as live attenuated vaccine strains or as vehicles for heterologous antigen expression. PMID:22025511

  15. Synthetic lethal interaction of cetuximab with MEK1/2 inhibition in NRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Massaguer, Anna; de Llorens, Rafael; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Brunet, Joan; Salazar, Ramon; Menendez, Javier A.

    2016-01-01

    KRAS mutations are an established predictor of lack of response to EGFR-targeted therapies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, little is known about the role of the rarer NRAS mutations as a mechanism of primary resistance to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab in wild-type KRAS mCRC. Using isogenic mCRC cells with a heterozygous knock-in of the NRAS activating mutation Q61K, we aimed to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which mutant NRAS blocks cetuximab from inhibiting mCRC growth. NRASQ61K/+ cells were refractory to cetuximab-induced growth inhibition. Pathway-oriented proteome profiling revealed that cetuximab-unresponsive ERK1/2 phosphorylation was the sole biomarker distinguishing cetuximab-refractory NRASQ61K/+ from cetuximab-sensitive NRAS+/+ cells. We therefore employed four representative MEK1/2 inhibitors (binimetinib, trametinib, selumetinib, and pimasertib) to evaluate the therapeutic value of MEK/ERK signaling in cetuximab-refractory NRAS mutation-induced mCRC. Co-treatment with an ineffective dose of cetuximab augmented, up to more than 1,300-fold, the cytotoxic effects of pimasertib against NRASQ61K/+ cells. Simultaneous combination of MEK1/2 inhibitors with cetuximab resulted in extremely high and dose-dependent synthetic lethal effects, which were executed, at least in part, by exacerbated apoptotic cell death. Dynamic monitoring of real-time cell growth rates confirmed that cetuximab synergistically sensitized NRASQ61K/+ cellsto MEK1/2 inhibition. Our discovery of a synthetic lethal interaction of cetuximab in combination with MEK1/2 inhibition for the NRAS mutant subgroup of mCRC underscores the importance of therapeutic intervention both in the MEK-ERK and EGFR pathways to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy against NRAS-mutant mCRC tumors. PMID:27636997

  16. Contribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus virulence factors to cytotoxicity, enterotoxicity, and lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Hirotaka; Kodama, Toshio; Iida, Tetsuya; Honda, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one of the human-pathogenic vibrios, causes three major types of clinical illness: gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) secreted by this bacterium has been considered a major virulence factor of gastroenteritis because it has biological activities, including cytotoxic and enterotoxic activities. Previous reports revealed that V. parahaemolyticus strain RIMD2210633, which contains tdh, has two sets of type III secretion system (T3SS) genes on chromosomes 1 and 2 (T3SS1 and T3SS2, respectively) and that T3SS1 is responsible for cytotoxicity and T3SS2 is involved in enterotoxicity, as well as in cytotoxic activity. However, the relative importance and contributions of TDH and the two T3SSs to V. parahaemolyticus pathogenicity are not well understood. In this study, we constructed mutant strains with nonfunctional T3SSs from the V. parahaemolyticus strain containing tdh, and then the pathogenicities of the wild-type and mutant strains were evaluated by assessing their cytotoxic activities against HeLa, Caco-2, and RAW 264 cells, their enterotoxic activities in rabbit ileal loops, and their lethality in a murine infection model. We demonstrated that T3SS1 was involved in cytotoxic activities against all cell lines used in this study, while T3SS2 and TDH had cytotoxic effects on a limited number of cell lines. T3SS2 was the major contributor to V. parahaemolyticus-induced enterotoxicity. Interestingly, we found that both T3SS1 and TDH played a significant role in lethal activity in a murine infection model. Our findings provide new indications that these virulence factors contribute to and orchestrate each distinct aspect of the pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus.

  17. Transgenic expression of the N525S-tuberin variant in Tsc2 mutant (Eker) rats causes dominant embryonic lethality

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Riichi; Ueda, Masatsugu; Ishioka, Chikashi; Hino, Okio

    2014-01-01

    The Tsc2 product, tuberin, negatively regulates the mTOR pathway. We have exploited the Eker (Tsc2-mutant) rat system to analyse various Tsc2 mutations. Here, we focus on the N525S-Tsc2 variant (NSM), which is known to cause distinct symptoms in patients even though normal suppression of mTOR is observed. Unexpectedly, we were repeatedly unable to generate viable rats carrying the NSM transgene. Genotypic analysis revealed that most of the embryos carrying the transgene died around embryonic day after 14.5—similar to the stage of lethality observed for Eker homozygotes. Thus, the NSM transgene appeared to have a dominant lethal effect in our rat model. Further, no significant differences were observed for various signal transduction molecules in transiently expressed NSM cells compared to WT. These results indicate that a non-mTOR pathway, critical for embryogenesis, is being regulated by tuberin, providing a link between tuberin expression and the severity of Tsc2 mutation-related pathogenesis. PMID:25088526

  18. Natural and glucosyl flavonoids inhibit poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and induce synthetic lethality in BRCA mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Junko; Roybal, Erica J; Brents, Colleen A; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Aizawa, Yasushi; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2014-02-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have been proven to represent superior clinical agents targeting DNA repair mechanisms in cancer therapy. We investigated PARP inhibitory effects of the natural and synthetic flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, monoglucosyl rutin and maltooligosyl rutin) and tested the synthetic lethality in BRCA2 mutated cells. In vitro ELISA assay suggested that the flavonoids have inhibitory effects on PARP activity, but glucosyl modifications reduced the inhibitory effect. Cytotoxicity tests of Chinese hamster cells defective in BRCA2 gene (V-C8) and its parental V79 cells showed BRCA2-dependent synthetic lethality when treated with the flavonoids. BRCA2 mutated cells were three times more sensitive to the flavonoids than the wild-type and gene complemented cells. Reduced toxicity was observed in a glucosyl modification-dependent manner. The present study provides support for the clinical use of new treatment drugs, and is the beginning of the potential application of flavonoids in cancer prevention and the periodic consumption of appropriate flavonoids to reduce cancer risk in individuals carrying a mutant allele of the BRCA2 gene.

  19. Characteristics of Plant Essential Genes Allow for within- and between-Species Prediction of Lethal Mutant Phenotypes[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John P.; Seddon, Alexander E.; Moghe, Gaurav D.; Simenc, Matthew C.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes represent critical cellular components whose disruption results in lethality. Characteristics shared among essential genes have been uncovered in fungal and metazoan model systems. However, features associated with plant essential genes are largely unknown and the full set of essential genes remains to be discovered in any plant species. Here, we show that essential genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have distinct features useful for constructing within- and cross-species prediction models. Essential genes in A. thaliana are often single copy or derived from older duplications, highly and broadly expressed, slow evolving, and highly connected within molecular networks compared with genes with nonlethal mutant phenotypes. These gene features allowed the application of machine learning methods that predicted known lethal genes as well as an additional 1970 likely essential genes without documented phenotypes. Prediction models from A. thaliana could also be applied to predict Oryza sativa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae essential genes. Importantly, successful predictions drew upon many features, while any single feature was not sufficient. Our findings show that essential genes can be distinguished from genes with nonlethal phenotypes using features that are similar across kingdoms and indicate the possibility for translational application of our approach to species without extensive functional genomic and phenomic resources. PMID:26286535

  20. Discovery and development of anthrax lethal factor metalloproteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Turk, Benjamin E

    2008-02-01

    Anthrax is caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis, a spore forming, rod-shaped, encapsulated gram positive bacteria. The disease manifests itself in distinct ways depending on the route of entry of infective bacterial spores: cutaneous, inhalational, and gastrointestinal. Though rare in humans, inhalational anthrax has become a major concern due to the capacity for spores to be weaponized. The limited success of antibiotic therapy has motivated investigation of complementary therapeutic strategies that target the bacteria's secreted toxin. The zinc-dependent metalloproteinase lethal factor (LF) is a critical component of anthrax toxin and an important potential target for small molecule drugs. In the past few years, a number of approaches have been taken to identify LF inhibitors, from generating conventional metal chelating substrate analogs to random screening of diverse compound libraries. These efforts have produced several different classes of specific nanomolar range inhibitors. Some compounds have fared well in animal models for anthrax toxemia and infection, and these inhibitors and their derivatives may form the basis for future therapies to treat the disease in humans.

  1. The Structural Variation Is Associated with the Embryonic Lethality of a Novel Red Egg Mutant Fuyin-lre of Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anli; Liao, Pengfei; Li, Qiongyan; Zhao, Qiaoling; Yang, Weike; Zhu, Shuifen; Wu, Fang; He, Rongfan; Dong, Zhanpeng; Huang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Bombyx mori presents several types of egg color mutations, all of which have been extensively discussed in sericulture. While the red egg mutation has been previously observed, lethal red-egg mutants have not been reported. In the present work, the red egg mutant Fuyin-lre (Fuyin-lethal red egg) was discovered from the Fuyin germplasm resource of B. mori. This mutant features red-colored eggs and embryonic lethality. Genetic analysis showed that Fuyin-lre follows recessive inheritance, with the red egg gene re governing the egg color, and the embryonic lethality of Fuyin-lre may be caused by mutations of other genes closely linked to re. Digital gene expression (DGE) was employed to compare the transcription profiles of Fuyin and Fuyin-lre eggs after 24 and 48 h of incubation. A total of 48 differentially expressed genes followed the same expression patterns in both groups at both time points (FDR < 0.01 and log 2 Ratio ≥ 1). Further analyses indicated that 8 out of the 48 genes (including re) were closely linked to re. These 8 genes were highly expressed in wild-type Fuyin and the red egg mutant re but showed nearly absent expression in Fuyin-lre. Sequencing of the re gene confirmed that the re gene itself does not induce embryonic lethality, and structure analysis showed that the structural variation of the region where the 8 genes were located may be associated with the embryonic lethality of Fuyin-lre. The present work provides a good foundation for future studies on the mechanism of embryonic lethality and embryonic development in Fuyin-lre.

  2. Lethality in PARP-1/Ku80 double mutant mice reveals physiologicalsynergy during early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Henrie, Melinda S.; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Menissier-de Murcia, Josiane; de Murcia, Gilbert; Li, Gloria C.; Chen,David J.

    2002-09-24

    Ku is an abundant heterodimeric nuclear protein, consisting of 70-kDa and 86-kDa tightly associated subunits that comprise the DNA binding component of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Poly(ADP)ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a 113-kDa protein that catalyzes the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) on target proteins. Both Ku and PARP-1 recognize and bind to DNA ends. Ku functions in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway whereas PARP-1 functions in the single strand break repair and base excision repair (BER) pathways. Recent studies have revealed that PARP-1 and Ku80 interact in vitro. To determine whether the association of PARP-1 and Ku80 has any physiological significance or synergistic function in vivo, mice lacking both PARP-1 and Ku80 were generated. The resulting offspring died during embryonic development displaying abnormalities around the gastrulation stage. In addition, PARP-1-/-Ku80-/- cultured blastocysts had an increased level of apoptosis. These data suggest that the functions of both Ku80 and PARP-1 are essential for normal embryogenesis and that a loss of genomic integrity leading to cell death through apoptosis is likely the cause of the embryonic lethality observed in these mice.

  3. Pathogenesis of Lethal Cardiac Arrhythmias in Mecp2 Mutant Mice: Implication for Therapy in Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Mark D.; Wang, Tiannan; Mike, Elise; Herrera, Jose; Beavers, David L.; Huang, Teng-Wei; Ward, Christopher S.; Skinner, Steven; Percy, Alan K.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2 (MECP2) in which 26% of deaths are sudden and of unknown cause. To explore the hypothesis that these deaths may be due to cardiac dysfunction, we characterized the electrocardiograms (ECGs) in 379 people with Rett syndrome and found that 18.5% show prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc), indicating a repolarization abnormality that can predispose to the development of an unstable fatal cardiac rhythm. Male mice lacking MeCP2 function, Mecp2Null/Y, also have prolonged QTc and show increased susceptibility to induced ventricular tachycardia. Female heterozygous null mice, Mecp2Null/+, show an age-dependent prolongation of QTc associated with ventricular tachycardia and cardiac-related death. Genetic deletion of MeCP2 function in only the nervous system was sufficient to cause long QTc and ventricular tachycardia, implicating neuronally-mediated changes to cardiac electrical conduction as a potential cause of ventricular tachycardia in Rett syndrome. The standard therapy for prolonged QTc in Rett syndrome, β-adrenergic receptor blockers, did not prevent ventricular tachycardia in Mecp2Null/Y mice. To determine whether an alternative therapy would be more appropriate, we characterized cardiomyocytes from Mecp2Null/Y mice and found increased persistent sodium current, which was normalized when cells were treated with the sodium channel-blocking anti-seizure drug phenytoin. Treatment with phenytoin reduced both QTc and sustained ventricular tachycardia in Mecp2Null/Y mice. These results demonstrate that cardiac abnormalities in Rett syndrome are secondary to abnormal nervous system control, which leads to increased persistent sodium current. Our findings suggest that treatment in people with Rett syndrome would be more effective if it targeted the increased persistent sodium current in order to prevent lethal cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:22174313

  4. Effects of metallothionein on zinc metabolism in lethal-milk mutant mice

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The lethal-milk mice (C57BL/6J-Im) exhibit various pleiotropic effects, including a congenital otolith defect, production of zinc-deficient milk, and clinical signs of a systemic Zn deficiency by one year of age. The clinical signs include alopecia, dermatitis, and skin lesions. The systemic zinc deficiency may be due to increased levels of metallothionein (MT) in the intestine and/or liver of Im mice. The untreated Im mice contain twice as much intestinal MT as do C57BL/6J-(+/sup im//+ /sup Im/) (B6) controls. This was determined by a sulfhydryl assay, by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method, and by the /sup 65/Zn-binding assay. Various concentrations of Cd or Zn were added to the drinking water three days before assaying for MT. Compared to B6 mice, the Im mice exhibited more MT in their liver by the /sup 65/Zn-MT binding assay (3-fold) and by the /sup 109/Cd-saturation/hemolysate method (18-fold). The effects of the two zinc treatments did not differ significantly between Im and B6 mice. The retention and excretion of /sup 65/Zn (administered intraperitoneally) were determined over a 14-day period, but the results did not different between the Im and B6 mice. The increased concentrations of MT within the Im mice was not significantly different for the intestine and liver. Based on these data and other studies, the Im mice may exhibit alterations in zinc homeostasis due to some deregulation of MT metabolism, including the inner ear of the fetus, the lactating mammary gland, and the intestine and liver of adults by one year of age.

  5. Pathogenesis of lethal cardiac arrhythmias in Mecp2 mutant mice: implication for therapy in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Mark D; Wang, Tiannan; Mike, Elise; Herrera, Jose; Beavers, David L; Huang, Teng-Wei; Ward, Christopher S; Skinner, Steven; Percy, Alan K; Glaze, Daniel G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-14

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder typically caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) in which 26% of deaths are sudden and of unknown cause. To explore the hypothesis that these deaths may be due to cardiac dysfunction, we characterized the electrocardiograms in 379 people with Rett syndrome and found that 18.5% show prolongation of the corrected QT interval (QTc), an indication of a repolarization abnormality that can predispose to the development of an unstable fatal cardiac rhythm. Male mice lacking MeCP2 function, Mecp2(Null/Y), also have prolonged QTc and show increased susceptibility to induced ventricular tachycardia. Female heterozygous null mice, Mecp2(Null/+), show an age-dependent prolongation of QTc associated with ventricular tachycardia and cardiac-related death. Genetic deletion of MeCP2 function in only the nervous system was sufficient to cause long QTc and ventricular tachycardia, implicating neuronally mediated changes to cardiac electrical conduction as a potential cause of ventricular tachycardia in Rett syndrome. The standard therapy for prolonged QTc in Rett syndrome, β-adrenergic receptor blockers, did not prevent ventricular tachycardia in Mecp2(Null/Y) mice. To determine whether an alternative therapy would be more appropriate, we characterized cardiomyocytes from Mecp2(Null/Y) mice and found increased persistent sodium current, which was normalized when cells were treated with the sodium channel-blocking anti-seizure drug phenytoin. Treatment with phenytoin reduced both QTc and sustained ventricular tachycardia in Mecp2(Null/Y) mice. These results demonstrate that cardiac abnormalities in Rett syndrome are secondary to abnormal nervous system control, which leads to increased persistent sodium current. Our findings suggest that treatment in people with Rett syndrome would be more effective if it targeted the increased persistent sodium current to prevent lethal cardiac arrhythmias.

  6. Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Transcription Factor Nfatp Controls Superantigen-Induced Lethal Shock

    PubMed Central

    Tsytsykova, Alla V.; Goldfeld, Anne E.

    2000-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is the key mediator of superantigen-induced T cell lethal shock. Here, we show that nuclear factor of activated T cells transcription factor, NFATp, controls susceptibility to superantigen-induced lethal shock in mice through its activation of TNF-α gene transcription. In NFATp-deficient mice, T cell stimulation leads to delayed induction and attenuation of TNF-α mRNA levels, decreased TNF-α serum levels, and resistance to superantigen-induced lethal shock. By contrast, after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, serum levels of TNF-α and susceptibility to shock are unaffected. These results demonstrate that NFATp is an essential activator of immediate early TNF-α gene expression in T cells and they present in vivo evidence of the inducer- and cell type–specific regulation of TNF-α gene expression. Furthermore, they suggest NFATp as a potential selective target in the treatment of superantigen-induced lethal shock. PMID:10952728

  7. Cancer susceptibility and embryonic lethality in Mob1a/1b double-mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Miki; Hamada, Koichi; Kawahara, Kohichi; Sasaki, Masato; Noguchi, Fumihito; Chiba, Shuhei; Mizuno, Kensaku; Suzuki, Satoshi O.; Dong, Youyi; Tokuda, Masaaki; Morikawa, Takumi; Hikasa, Hiroki; Eggenschwiler, Jonathan; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Kentaro; Hata, Yutaka; Nishina, Hiroshi; Mimori, Koshi; Mori, Masaki; Sasaki, Takehiko; Mak, Tak W.; Nakano, Toru; Itami, Satoshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Mps one binder 1a (MOB1A) and MOB1B are key components of the Hippo signaling pathway and are mutated or inactivated in many human cancers. Here we show that intact Mob1a or Mob1b is essential for murine embryogenesis and that loss of the remaining WT Mob1 allele in Mob1aΔ/Δ1btr/+ or Mob1aΔ/+1btr/tr mice results in tumor development. Because most of these cancers resembled trichilemmal carcinomas, we generated double-mutant mice bearing tamoxifen-inducible, keratinocyte-specific homozygous-null mutations of Mob1a and Mob1b (kDKO mice). kDKO mice showed hyperplastic keratinocyte progenitors and defective keratinocyte terminal differentiation and soon died of malnutrition. kDKO keratinocytes exhibited hyperproliferation, apoptotic resistance, impaired contact inhibition, enhanced progenitor self renewal, and increased centrosomes. Examination of Hippo pathway signaling in kDKO keratinocytes revealed that loss of Mob1a/b altered the activities of the downstream Hippo mediators LATS and YAP1. Similarly, YAP1 was activated in some human trichilemmal carcinomas, and some of these also exhibited MOB1A/1B inactivation. Our results clearly demonstrate that MOB1A and MOB1B have overlapping functions in skin homeostasis, and exert their roles as tumor suppressors by regulating downstream elements of the Hippo pathway. PMID:23143302

  8. Antidotes to anthrax lethal factor intoxication. Part 2: structural modifications leading to improved in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongjin; Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Moayeri, Mahtab; Crown, Devorah; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; Margosiak, Stephen A; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2011-04-01

    New anthrax lethal factor inhibitors (LFIs) were designed based upon previously identified potent inhibitors 1a and 2. Combining the new core structures with modifications to the C2-side chain yielded analogs with improved efficacy in the rat lethal toxin model.

  9. Defective cranial skeletal development, larval lethality and haploinsufficiency in Myod mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hinits, Yaniv; Williams, Victoria C.; Sweetman, Dylan; Donn, Thomas M.; Ma, Taylur P.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Hughes, Simon M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Myogenic regulatory factors of the myod family (MRFs) are transcription factors essential for mammalian skeletal myogenesis. Here we show that a mutation in the zebrafish myod gene delays and reduces early somitic and pectoral fin myogenesis, reduces miR-206 expression, and leads to a persistent reduction in somite size until at least the independent feeding stage. A mutation in myog, encoding a second MRF, has little obvious phenotype at early stages, but exacerbates the loss of somitic muscle caused by lack of Myod. Mutation of both myod and myf5 ablates all skeletal muscle. Haploinsufficiency of myod leads to reduced embryonic somite muscle bulk. Lack of Myod causes a severe reduction in cranial musculature, ablating most muscles including the protractor pectoralis, a putative cucullaris homologue. This phenotype is accompanied by a severe dysmorphology of the cartilaginous skeleton and failure of maturation of several cranial bones, including the opercle. As myod expression is restricted to myogenic cells, the data show that myogenesis is essential for proper skeletogenesis in the head. PMID:21798255

  10. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Giovannucci, Edward L; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer. We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors: obesity and weight change, physical activity, smoking, antioxidant intake, vitamin D and calcium, and coffee intake. PMID:22504869

  11. Small-molecule inhibitors of lethal factor protease activity protect against anthrax infection.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Crown, Devorah; Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Johnson, Alan; Leysath, Clinton; Leppla, Stephen H

    2013-09-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, manifests its pathogenesis through the action of two secreted toxins. The bipartite lethal and edema toxins, a combination of lethal factor or edema factor with the protein protective antigen, are important virulence factors for this bacterium. We previously developed small-molecule inhibitors of lethal factor proteolytic activity (LFIs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy in a rat lethal toxin challenge model. In this work, we show that these LFIs protect against lethality caused by anthrax infection in mice when combined with subprotective doses of either antibiotics or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that target edema factor. Significantly, these inhibitors provided protection against lethal infection when administered as a monotherapy. As little as two doses (10 mg/kg) administered at 2 h and 8 h after spore infection was sufficient to provide a significant survival benefit in infected mice. Administration of LFIs early in the infection was found to inhibit dissemination of vegetative bacteria to the organs in the first 32 h following infection. In addition, neutralizing antibodies against edema factor also inhibited bacterial dissemination with similar efficacy. Together, our findings confirm the important roles that both anthrax toxins play in establishing anthrax infection and demonstrate the potential for small-molecule therapeutics targeting these proteins.

  12. Passive Immunization against Cachectin/Tumor Necrosis Factor Protects Mice from Lethal Effect of Endotoxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, B.; Milsark, I. W.; Cerami, A. C.

    1985-08-01

    A highly specific polyclonal rabbit antiserum directed against murine cachectin/tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was prepared. When BALB/c mice were passively immunized with the antiserum or with purified immune globulin, they were protected against the lethal effect of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide produced by Escherichia coli. The prophylactic effect was dose-dependent and was most effective when the antiserum was administered prior to the injection of the endotoxin. Antiserum to cachectin/TNF did not mitigate the febrile response of endotoxin-treated animals, and very high doses of endotoxin could overcome the protective effect. The median lethal dose of endotoxin in mice pretreated with 50 microliters of the specific antiserum was approximately 2.5 times greater the median lethal dose for controls given nonimmune serum. The data suggest that cachectin/TNF is one of the principal mediators of the lethal effect of endotoxin.

  13. [Visceral leishmaniasis: retrospective study on factors associated with lethality].

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Daniel Gomes de; Escalda, Patrícia Maria Fonseca; Costa, Alexandre Sylvio Vieira da; Monreal, Maria Tereza Ferreira Duenhas

    2010-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem, with lethality reaching 10%. The recommended drug treatment is methylglucamine antimoniate. This study aimed to evaluate drug use for cases of visceral leishmaniasis treated at the Infectology Clinic of the Campo Grande University Hospital Center, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. To collect data, we examined the medical records of 76 patients with a diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis treated at this Infectology Clinic. The medical files of 76 patients (56 men and 20 women; 28.9%) showed comorbidities. The first choice drug for 88.2% of the patients was N-methylglucamine antimoniate, with a fatal outcome for 18.4%. Survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between patients with and without comorbidities (p <0.0001) and with comorbidities who used Glucantime (p < 0.0009). The fatality rate of 18.4% indicates the low efficiency of the healthcare measures used. The results suggest that the prognosis becomes poor when associated with the presence of comorbidities, and that the treatment needs to be carefully administered to minimize mortality.

  14. Production of viable seeds from the seedling lethal mutant ppi2-2 lacking the atToc159 chloroplast protein import receptor using plastic containers, and characterization of the homozygous mutant progeny.

    PubMed

    Tada, Akari; Adachi, Fumi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Inaba, Takehito

    2014-01-01

    Biogenesis of chloroplasts is essential for plant growth and development. A number of homozygous mutants lacking a chloroplast protein exhibit an albino phenotype. In general, it is challenging to grow albino Arabidopsis plants on soil until they set seeds. Homozygous albino mutants are usually obtained as progenies of heterozygous parents. Here, we describe a method of recovering seeds from the seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutant ppi2-2, which lacks the atToc159 protein import receptor at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplast. Using plastic containers, we were able to grow homozygous ppi2-2 plants until these set seed. Although the germination rate of the harvested seeds was relatively low, it was still sufficient to allow us to further analyze the ppi2-2 progeny. Using ppi2-2 homozygous seeds, we were able to analyze the role of plastid protein import in the light-regulated induction of nuclear genes. We propose that this method be applied to other seedling lethal Arabidopsis mutants to obtain homozygous seeds, helping us further investigate the roles of plastid proteins in plant growth and development.

  15. Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions: Application of the XPairIT to Anthrax Lethal Factor and Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions: Application of the XPairIt API to Anthrax Lethal Factor and Substrates by Margaret M. Hurley and...Peptide Interactions: Application of the XPairIt API to Anthrax Lethal Factor and Substrates Margaret M. Hurley and Michael S. Sellers Weapons and...Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions: Application of the XPairIt API to Anthrax Lethal Factor and Substrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ORAUW911QX-04-C

  16. Study of radiosensitive Drosophila lines. XI. Induction of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in females of the mutant line rad(2)201/sup G1/

    SciTech Connect

    Varentsova, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have studied the frequency of occurrence of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) after treatment of the females with ..gamma..-rays as a function of the dose (from 5 to 20 Gy) and oogenesis stage. They have shown that within the dose range used the oocytes of the 14th and 7th development stage are more sensitive in females of the mutant line than in those of the control. They detected significant differences in the frequency of occurrence of RSLLM between the 14th and 7th stages of development of oocytes for both Drosophila lines investigated.

  17. Integrated microfluidic enzyme reactor mass spectrometry platform for detection of anthrax lethal factor.

    PubMed

    Aravamudhan, Shyam; Joseph, Paul J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Boyer, Anne E; Barr, John R

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a coupled microfluidic enzyme reactor mass spectrometry platform for the detection of protein toxins such as anthrax lethal factor. The lethal toxin produced during Bacillus anthracis infection is a complex protective antigen, which localizes the toxin to the cell receptor and lethal factor (LF). We have demonstrated, in this work, the applicability of a microfluidic reactor for the capture and concentration of enzyme reaction solid-phase. The reaction solid-phase consists of anti-LF monoclonal antibodies immobilized on magnetic protein G beads for the capture of LF. The captured LF, on exposure to optimized peptide substrate, hydrolyzes into two smaller peptide products. These cleavage products were then analyzed by mass spectrometer coupled to the microfluidic reactor. This resulted in efficient sample preparation, high sensitivity, larger reaction sites, less reagents consumption and shorter analysis time. We have showed here reproducible detection of anthrax lethal factor in concentration range of 40 to 0.5 ng/mL with a detection limit of 1 ng/mL. The enzymatic reaction and the analysis were performed in less than 15 minutes, indicating a rapid diagnostic tool for early anthrax prognosis.

  18. Lethality by pneumonia and factors associated to death.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sidnei; Sant'anna, Clemax C; March, Maria de Fátima B P; Santos, Marilene Augusta R C; Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo A

    2014-01-01

    To describe the case-fatality rate (CFR) and risk factors of death in children with community-acquired acute pneumonia (CAP) in a pediatric university hospital. A longitudinal study was developed with prospective data collected from 1996 to 2011. Patients aged 1 month to 12 years were included in the study. Those who left the hospital against medical orders and those transferred to ICU or other units were excluded. Demographic and clinical-etiological characteristics and the initial treatment were studied. Variables associated to death were determined by bivariate and multivariate analysis using logistic regression. A total of 871 patients were selected, of whom 11 were excluded; thus 860 children were included in the study. There were 26 deaths, with a CFR of 3%; in 58.7% of these, penicillin G was the initial treatment. Pneumococcus was the most common pathogen (50.4%). From 1996 to 2000, there were 24 deaths (93%), with a CFR of 5.8% (24/413). From 2001 to 2011, the age group of hospitalized patients was older (p = 0.03), and the number of deaths (p = 0.02) and the percentage of disease severity were lower (p = 0.06). Only disease severity remained associated to death in the multivariate analysis (OR = 3.2; 95%CI: 1.2-8.9; p = 0.02). When the 1996-2000 and 2001-2011 periods were compared, a significant reduction in CFR was observed in the latter, as well as a change in the clinical profile of the pediatric inpatients at the institute. These findings may be related to the improvement in the socio-economical status of the population. Penicillin use did not influence CFR. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. A new simple method for isolating multistress-tolerant semidominant mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by one-step selection under lethal hydrogen peroxide stress condition.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Youji; Seita, Junya; Komiyama, Shohei; Yamamura, Hideki; Hayakawa, Masayuki; Iimura, Yuzuru

    2013-01-01

    Tolerance of microorganisms to diverse stresses (i.e., multistress tolerance) is a very useful property with industrial applications. We have developed a simple method for isolating multistress-tolerant semidominant mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by one-step selection under lethal hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) stress condition, which we named the lethal concentration of H(2)O(2) (LCH) method. This method involves simply isolating colonies after plating of mutagenized S. cerevisiae cells, which are cultivated overnight in liquid media, on agar plates containing a lethal concentration of H(2)O(2) for the wild-type strain. Phenotypic and genetic analyses of the ten strains isolated by this method revealed that two strains exhibiting stress tolerance to H(2)O(2), ethanol, heat shock, salt, organic solvent, freeze-thaw, chronological aging, and high concentrations of glucose possess semidominant and distinct single-gene mutations designated as MLT1-1 (multistress tolerance) and MLT2-1, which are responsible for multistress tolerance. From these results, we expect this method to confer multistress tolerance on industrial yeasts.

  20. New Infestin-4 Mutants with Increased Selectivity against Factor XIIa

    PubMed Central

    Vuimo, Tatiana A.; Surov, Stepan S.; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A.; Korneeva, Vera A.; Vorobiev, Ivan I.; Orlova, Nadezhda A.; Minakhin, Leonid; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Severinov, Konstantin V.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIIa (fXIIa) is a serine protease that triggers the coagulation contact pathway and plays a role in thrombosis. Because it interferes with coagulation testing, the need to inhibit fXIIa exists in many cases. Infestin-4 (Inf4) is a Kazal-type inhibitor of fXIIa. Its specificity for fXIIa can be enhanced by point mutations in the protease-binding loop. We attempted to adapt Inf4 for the selective repression of the contact pathway under various in vitro conditions, e.g., during blood collection and in ‘global’ assays of tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation. First, we designed a set of new Inf4 mutants that, in contrast to wt-Inf4, had stabilized canonical conformations during molecular dynamics simulation. Off-target activities against factor Xa (fXa), plasmin, and other coagulation proteases were either reduced or eliminated in these recombinant mutants, as demonstrated by chromogenic assays. Interactions with fXIIa and fXa were also analyzed using protein-protein docking. Next, Mutant B, one of the most potent mutants (its Ki for fXIIa is 0.7 nM) was tested in plasma. At concentrations 5–20 μM, this mutant delayed the contact-activated generation of thrombin, as well as clotting in thromboelastography and thrombodynamics assays. In these assays, Mutant B did not affect coagulation initiated by TF, thus demonstrating sufficient selectivity and its potential practical significance as a reagent for coagulation diagnostics. PMID:26670620

  1. Embryo-lethal phenotypes in early abp1 mutants are due to disruption of the neighboring BSM gene

    PubMed Central

    Michalko, Jaroslav; Dravecká, Marta; Bollenbach, Tobias; Friml, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin Binding Protein1 (ABP1) has been identified based on its ability to bind auxin with high affinity and studied for a long time as a prime candidate for the extracellular auxin receptor responsible for mediating in particular the fast non-transcriptional auxin responses. However, the contradiction between the embryo-lethal phenotypes of the originally described Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional knock-out alleles ( abp1-1 and abp1-1s) and the wild type-like phenotypes of other recently described loss-of-function alleles ( abp1-c1 and abp1-TD1) questions the biological importance of ABP1 and relevance of the previous genetic studies. Here we show that there is no hidden copy of the ABP1 gene in the Arabidopsis genome but the embryo-lethal phenotypes of abp1-1 and abp1-1s alleles are very similar to the knock-out phenotypes of the neighboring gene, BELAYA SMERT ( BSM). Furthermore, the allelic complementation test between bsm and abp1 alleles shows that the embryo-lethality in the abp1-1 and abp1-1s alleles is caused by the off-target disruption of the BSM locus by the T-DNA insertions. This clarifies the controversy of different phenotypes among published abp1 knock-out alleles and asks for reflections on the developmental role of ABP1. PMID:26629335

  2. Thioamide Hydroxypyrothiones Supersede Amide Hydroxypyrothiones in Potency Against Anthrax Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpita; de Oliveira, César Augusto F.; Cheng, Yuhui; Jacobsen, Jennifer A.; McCammon, J. Andrew; Cohen, Seth M.

    2009-01-01

    Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical virulence factor in the pathogenesis of anthrax. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) of potential lethal factor inhibitors (LFi) is presented in which the zinc-binding group (ZBG), linker, and backbone moieties for a series of hydroxypyrone-based compounds were systematically varied. It was found that hydroxypyrothione ZBGs generate more potent inhibitors than hydroxypyrone ZBGs. Furthermore, coupling the hydroxypyrothione to a backbone group via a thioamide bond improves potency when compared to an amide linker. QM/MM studies show that the thioamide bond in these inhibitors allows for the formation of two additional hydrogen bonds with the protein active site. In both types of hydroxypyrothione compounds, ligand efficiencies of 0.29-0.54 kcal mol-1 per heavy atom were achieved. The results highlight the need for a better understanding to optimize the interplay between the ZBG, linker, and backbone to get improved LFi. PMID:19170530

  3. Myxoma virus M130R is a novel virulence factor required for lethal myxomatosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Barrett, John W; Werden, Steven J; Wang, Fuan; McKillop, William M; Jimenez, June; Villeneuve, Danielle; McFadden, Grant; Dekaban, Gregory A

    2009-09-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a highly lethal, rabbit-specific poxvirus that induces a disease called myxomatosis in European rabbits. In an effort to understand the function of predicted immunomodulatory genes we have deleted various viral genes from MV and tested the ability of these knockout viruses to induce lethal myxomatosis. MV encodes a unique 15 kD cytoplasmic protein (M130R) that is expressed late (12h post infection) during infection. M130R is a non-essential gene for MV replication in rabbit, monkey or human cell lines. Construction of a targeted gene knockout virus (vMyx130KO) and infection of susceptible rabbits demonstrate that the M130R knockout virus is attenuated and that loss of M130R expression allows the rabbit host immune system to effectively respond to and control the lethal effects of MV. M130R expression is a bona fide poxviral virulence factor necessary for full and lethal development of myxomatosis.

  4. Host immunity to Bacillus anthracis lethal factor and other immunogens: implications for vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Daniel M

    2015-03-01

    Infections of humans with Bacillus anthracis are an issue with respect to the biothreat both to civilians and military personnel, infections of individuals by infected livestock in endemic regions and, recently, infections of intravenous drug users injecting anthrax-contaminated heroin. Existing vaccination regimens are reliant on protective antigen neutralization induced by repeated boosts with the AVA or AVP vaccines. However, there is ongoing interest in updated approaches in light of the intensive booster regime and extent of reactogenicity inherent in the current protocols. Several other immunogens from the B. anthracis proteome have been characterized in recent years, including lethal factor. Lethal factor induces strong CD4 T-cell immunity and encompasses immunodominant epitopes of relevance across diverse HLA polymorphisms. Taken together, recent studies emphasize the potential benefits of vaccines able to confer synergistic immunity to protective antigen and to other immunogens, targeting both B-cell and T-cell repertoires.

  5. Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Lethal Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191

  6. Conditionally lethal ribosomal protein mutants: characterization of a locus required for modification of 50S subunit proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, S R; Maples, V F; Champney, W S

    1977-01-01

    Mutagenized P1 bacteriophage were used to transduce a marker (aroE) adjacent to the cluster or ribosomal protein genes located at 72 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome. Linked temperature-sensitive transductants were isolated and characterized. A mutant unable to grow at 44 degrees was found to be defective in protein synthesis both in vivo and in vitro. At the restrictive temperature mutant cells lost all polyribosomes. Analysis of the ribosomal proteins revealed alterations in at least four 50S subunit proteins. The mutation (called rimE1, ribosomal protein modification) mapped between rpsE and aroE. It is suggested that the rimE locus is the structural gene for an activity that modifies a selected number of ribosomal proteins. Images PMID:322127

  7. Improved solubility of replication factor C (RFC) Walker A mutants.

    PubMed

    Marzahn, Melissa R; Bloom, Linda B

    2012-06-01

    Protein insolubility often poses a significant problem during purification protocols and in enzyme assays, especially for eukaryotic proteins expressed in a recombinant bacterial system. The limited solubility of replication factor C (RFC), the clamp loader complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been previously documented. We found that mutant forms of RFC harboring a single point mutation in the Walker A motif were even less soluble than the wild-type complex. The addition of maltose at 0.75 M to the storage and assay buffers greatly increases protein solubility and prevents the complex from falling apart. Our analysis of the clamp loading reaction is dependent on fluorescence-based assays, which are environmentally sensitive. Using wt RFC as a control, we show that the addition of maltose to the reaction buffers does not affect fluorophore responses in the assays or the enzyme activity, indicating that maltose can be used as a buffer additive for further downstream analysis of these mutants.

  8. Seven of eight species in Nicotiana section Suaveolentes have common factors leading to hybrid lethality in crosses with Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Takahiro; Kuboyama, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Marubashi, Wataru

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive isolation is a mechanism that separates species, and is classified into two types: prezygotic and postzygotic. Inviability of hybrids, or hybrid lethality, is a type of postzygotic isolation and is observed in some plant species, including Nicotiana species. Previous work has shown that the Q chromosome, which belongs to the S subgenome of N. tabacum, encodes one or more genes leading to hybrid lethality in some crosses. Interspecific crosses of eight wild species were conducted in section Suaveolentes (which consists of species restricted to Australasia and Africa) with the cultivated species Nicotiana tabacum. Hybrid seedlings were cultivated at 28, 34 or 36 degrees C, and PCR and chromosome analysis were performed. Seven of eight wild species produced inviable hybrids after crossing. Hybrid lethality, which was observed in all crosses at 28 degrees C, was Type II lethality, with the characteristic symptoms of browning of hypocotyl and roots; lethality was suppressed at elevated temperatures (34 or 36 degrees C). Furthermore, one or more genes on the Q chromosome of N. tabacum were absolutely responsible for hybrid lethality, suggesting that many species of section Suaveolentes share the same factor that triggers hybrid lethality by interaction with the genes on the Q chromosome. Exceptionally, only one wild species, N. fragrans, produced 100 % viable hybrids after crossing with N. tabacum, suggesting that N. fragrans has no factor triggering hybrid lethality.

  9. Seven of eight species in Nicotiana section Suaveolentes have common factors leading to hybrid lethality in crosses with Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    Tezuka, Takahiro; Kuboyama, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Marubashi, Wataru

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Reproductive isolation is a mechanism that separates species, and is classified into two types: prezygotic and postzygotic. Inviability of hybrids, or hybrid lethality, is a type of postzygotic isolation and is observed in some plant species, including Nicotiana species. Previous work has shown that the Q chromosome, which belongs to the S subgenome of N. tabacum, encodes one or more genes leading to hybrid lethality in some crosses. Methods Interspecific crosses of eight wild species were conducted in section Suaveolentes (which consists of species restricted to Australasia and Africa) with the cultivated species Nicotiana tabacum. Hybrid seedlings were cultivated at 28, 34 or 36 °C, and PCR and chromosome analysis were performed. Results and Conclusions Seven of eight wild species produced inviable hybrids after crossing. Hybrid lethality, which was observed in all crosses at 28 °C, was Type II lethality, with the characteristic symptoms of browning of hypocotyl and roots; lethality was suppressed at elevated temperatures (34 or 36 °C). Furthermore, one or more genes on the Q chromosome of N. tabacum were absolutely responsible for hybrid lethality, suggesting that many species of section Suaveolentes share the same factor that triggers hybrid lethality by interaction with the genes on the Q chromosome. Exceptionally, only one wild species, N. fragrans, produced 100 % viable hybrids after crossing with N. tabacum, suggesting that N. fragrans has no factor triggering hybrid lethality. PMID:20519236

  10. Synthetic Lethality of Retinoblastoma Mutant Cells in the Drosophila Eye by Mutation of a Novel Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Kyle A.; Belvin, Marcia; Parks, Annette L.; Whittaker, Kellie; Mahoney, Matt B.; Nicoll, Monique; Park, Christopher C.; Winter, Christopher G.; Chen, Feng; Lickteig, Kim; Ahmad, Ferhad; Esengil, Hanife; Lorenzi, Matthew V.; Norton, Amanda; Rupnow, Brent A.; Shayesteh, Laleh; Tabios, Mariano; Young, Lynn M.; Carroll, Pamela M.; Kopczynski, Casey; Plowman, Gregory D.; Friedman, Lori S.; Francis-Lang, Helen L.

    2005-01-01

    Mutations that inactivate the retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway are common in human tumors. Such mutations promote tumor growth by deregulating the G1 cell cycle checkpoint. However, uncontrolled cell cycle progression can also produce new liabilities for cell survival. To uncover such liabilities in Rb mutant cells, we performed a clonal screen in the Drosophila eye to identify second-site mutations that eliminate Rbf− cells, but allow Rbf+ cells to survive. Here we report the identification of a mutation in a novel highly conserved peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase) that selectively eliminates Rbf− cells from the Drosophila eye. PMID:15744054

  11. Differentiation factor/leukemia inhibitory factor protection against lethal endotoxemia in mice: synergistic effect with interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Differentiation factor (D factor), also called leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), is a glycoprotein that has been increasingly recognized to possess a wide range of physiological activities. We examined the possibility that the administration of D factor may confer beneficial effects and enhance host resistance against lethal endotoxemia. A single intravenous dose of recombinant human D factor completely protected C57/Bl6 mice from the lethal effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]). The protective effects were dose dependent and observed when administered 2-24 h before LPS. Previous work has shown that interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) also protect against a subsequent LPS challenge in a dose- dependent manner. When human D factor was combined with sub-protective doses of IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha, there was dramatic synergistic protection against a subsequent lethal LPS challenge. PMID:1552284

  12. Enhanced non-homologous end joining contributes toward synthetic lethality of pathological RAD51C mutants with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase.

    PubMed

    Somyajit, Kumar; Mishra, Anup; Jameei, Aida; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors are actively under clinical trials for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers that arise due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The RAD51 paralog RAD51C has been identified as a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. The pathological RAD51C mutants that were identified in cancer patients are hypomorphic with partial repair function. However, targeting cancer cells that express hypomorphic mutants of RAD51C is highly challenging. Here, we report that RAD51C-deficient cells can be targeted by a 'synthetic lethal' approach using PARP inhibitor and this sensitivity was attributed to accumulation of cells in the G2/M and chromosomal aberrations. In addition, spontaneous hyperactivation of PARP1 was evident in RAD51C-deficient cells. Interestingly, RAD51C-negative cells exhibited enhanced recruitment of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) proteins onto chromatin and this accumulation correlated with increased activity of error-prone NHEJ as well as genome instability leading to cell death. Notably, inhibition of DNA-PKcs or depletion of KU70 or Ligase IV rescued this phenotype. Strikingly, stimulation of NHEJ by low dose of ionizing radiation (IR) in the PARP inhibitor-treated RAD51C-deficient cells and cells expressing pathological RAD51C mutants induced enhanced toxicity 'synergistically'. These results demonstrate that cancer cells arising due to hypomorphic mutations in RAD51C can be specifically targeted by a 'synergistic approach' and imply that this strategy can be potentially applied to cancers with hypomorphic mutations in other homologous recombination pathway genes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Ligand-induced expansion of the S1' site in the anthrax toxin lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, Kimberly M.; Kurbanov, Elbek K.; Johnson, Rodney L.; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Finzel, Barry C.

    2016-07-05

    The Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LF) is one component of a tripartite exotoxin partly responsible for persistent anthrax cytotoxicity after initial bacterial infection. Inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents, but LF is a challenging target because inhibitors lack sufficient selectivity or possess poor pharmaceutical properties. These structural studies reveal an alternate conformation of the enzyme, induced upon binding of specific inhibitors, that opens a previously unobserved deep pocket termed S1'* which might afford new opportunities to design selective inhibitors that target this subsite.

  14. In vivo dynamics of active edema and lethal factors during anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Rougeaux, Clémence; Becher, François; Ezan, Eric; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Goossens, Pierre L.

    2016-01-01

    Lethal and edema toxins are critical virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. However, little is known about their in vivo dynamics of production during anthrax. In this study, we unraveled for the first time the in vivo kinetics of production of the toxin components EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor) during cutaneous infection with a wild-type toxinogenic encapsulated strain in immuno-competent mice. We stratified the asynchronous infection process into defined stages through bioluminescence imaging (BLI), while exploiting sensitive quantitative methods by measuring the enzymatic activity of LF and EF. LF was produced in high amounts, while EF amounts steadily increased during the infectious process. This led to high LF/EF ratios throughout the infection, with variations between 50 to a few thousands. In the bloodstream, the early detection of active LF and EF despite the absence of bacteria suggests that they may exert long distance effects. Infection with a strain deficient in the protective antigen toxin component enabled to address its role in the diffusion of LF and EF within the host. Our data provide a picture of the in vivo complexity of the infectious process. PMID:26996161

  15. In vivo dynamics of active edema and lethal factors during anthrax.

    PubMed

    Rougeaux, Clémence; Becher, François; Ezan, Eric; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Goossens, Pierre L

    2016-03-21

    Lethal and edema toxins are critical virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. However, little is known about their in vivo dynamics of production during anthrax. In this study, we unraveled for the first time the in vivo kinetics of production of the toxin components EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor) during cutaneous infection with a wild-type toxinogenic encapsulated strain in immuno-competent mice. We stratified the asynchronous infection process into defined stages through bioluminescence imaging (BLI), while exploiting sensitive quantitative methods by measuring the enzymatic activity of LF and EF. LF was produced in high amounts, while EF amounts steadily increased during the infectious process. This led to high LF/EF ratios throughout the infection, with variations between 50 to a few thousands. In the bloodstream, the early detection of active LF and EF despite the absence of bacteria suggests that they may exert long distance effects. Infection with a strain deficient in the protective antigen toxin component enabled to address its role in the diffusion of LF and EF within the host. Our data provide a picture of the in vivo complexity of the infectious process.

  16. Purification and biophysical characterization of the core protease domain of anthrax lethal factor

    SciTech Connect

    Gkazonis, Petros V.; Dalkas, Georgios A.; Chasapis, Christos T.; Vlamis-Gardikas, Alexios; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A.

    2010-06-04

    Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) stands for the major virulence factor of the anthrax disease. It comprises a 90 kDa highly specific metalloprotease, the anthrax lethal factor (LF). LF possesses a catalytic Zn{sup 2+} binding site and is highly specific against MAPK kinases, thus representing the most potent native biomolecule to alter and inactivate MKK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinases] signalling pathways. Given the importance of the interaction between LF and substrate for the development of anti-anthrax agents as well as the potential treatment of nascent tumours, the analysis of the structure and dynamic properties of the LF catalytic site are essential to elucidate its enzymatic properties. Here we report the recombinant expression and purification of a C-terminal part of LF (LF{sub 672-776}) that harbours the enzyme's core protease domain. The biophysical characterization and backbone assignments ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) of the polypeptide revealed a stable, well folded structure even in the absence of Zn{sup 2+}, suitable for high resolution structural analysis by NMR.

  17. Yeast-hybrid based high-throughput assay for identification of anthrax lethal factor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joungmok; Park, Hae-Chul; Gedi, Vinayakumar; Park, Hye-Yeon; Roberts, Arthur G; Atkins, William M; Yoon, Moon-Young

    2011-01-07

    Inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor (LF) are currently being sought as effective therapeutics for the treatment of anthrax. Here we report a novel screening approach for inhibitors of LF, a yeast-hybrid-based assay system in which the expression of reporter genes from a Gal4 promoter is repressed by LF proteolytic activity. Yeast cells were co-transformed with LF and a chimeric transcription factor that contains an LF substrate sequence inserted between the DNA-binding and activation domains of Gal4. In the resulting yeast cells, LF cleaves the substrate, thus inactivating the chimeric Gal4 and resulting in lack of expression of reporter genes. Compounds that inhibit LF cleavage of its substrate are identified by changes in reporter gene activity. Relative to in vitro screens for inhibitors of LF proteolytic activity, this screen has the advantage of excluding compounds that are toxic or non-permeable to eukaryotic cells. Additionally, the screen has the advantage of being fast, easy and cheap because exogenous LF and substrate are not needed. An initial chemical library screen with this system has identified four candidate inhibitors which were confirmed to inhibit LF protease activity in an in vitro assay. Furthermore, FBS-00831, one of the compounds identified, protects Raw 264.7 macrophages from anthrax lethal toxin and the possible binding site on LF was also evaluated by molecular docking.

  18. Local delivery of Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor protects mice from lethal pneumococcal pneumonia1

    PubMed Central

    Steinwede, Kathrin; Tempelhof, Ole; Bolte, Kristine; Maus, Regina; Bohling, Jennifer; Ueberberg, Bianca; Länger, Florian; Christman, John W.; Paton, James C.; Ask, Kjetil; Maharaj, Shyam; Kolb, Martin; Gauldie, Jack; Welte, Tobias; Maus, Ulrich A.

    2013-01-01

    The growth factor granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has an important role in pulmonary surfactant metabolism and the regulation of antibacterial activities of lung sentinel cells. However, the potential of intra-alveolar GM-CSF to augment lung protective immunity against inhaled bacterial pathogens has not been defined in preclinical infection models. We hypothesized that transient overexpression of GM-CSF in the lungs of mice by adenoviral gene transfer (Ad-GM-CSF) would protect mice from subsequent lethal pneumococcal pneumonia. Our data show that intra-alveolar delivery of Ad-GM-CSF led to sustained increased pSTAT5 expression and PU.1 protein expression in alveolar macrophages during a 28 day observation period. Pulmonary Ad-GM-CSF delivery two or four weeks prior to infection of mice with S. pneumoniae significantly reduced mortality rates relative to control vector treated mice. This increased survival was accompanied by increased iNOS expression, antibacterial activity and a significant reduction in caspase 3 dependent apoptosis and secondary necrosis of lung sentinel cells. Importantly, therapeutic treatment of mice with recombinant GM-CSF improved lung protective immunity and accelerated bacterial clearance after pneumococcal challenge. We conclude that prophylactic delivery of GM-CSF triggers long-lasting immunostimulatory effects in the lung in vivo and rescues mice from lethal pneumococcal pneumonia by improving antibacterial immunity. These data support use of novel antibiotic-independent immunostimulatory therapies to protect patients against bacterial pneumonias. PMID:22003204

  19. A Systems Biology Approach to Link Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation with Lethal Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    progression of prostate cancer to a lethal disease . We aim to identify patients with lethal prostate cancer using a systems biology approach focused on...activation which are associated with lethal disease . (Months 1 to 18) Task 1A: Perform gene profiling of tumors and determine whether a set of genes and...panel to be assessed for correlation with lethal disease . (Month 1 to 18) Accomplishments: In the first 12 months of the grant we have (i

  20. A Systems Biology Approach to Link Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation with Lethal Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    independent data sets for association with lethal disease; ii) inform and increase power for identification of new SNPs in GWAS datasets associated with...for association with lethal disease; ii) inform and increase power for identification of new SNPs in GWAS datasets associated with lethal outcome...low risk/non-lethal prostate cancer cohort. We initially planned to use EDRN samples, but due to the samples being committed to a GWAS analysis, it

  1. Lethal Factor Active-Site Mutations Affect Catalytic Activity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, S. E.; Hanna, P. C.

    1998-01-01

    The lethal factor (LF) protein of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin contains the thermolysin-like active-site and zinc-binding consensus motif HEXXH (K. R. Klimpel, N. Arora, and S. H. Leppla, Mol. Microbiol. 13:1093–1100, 1994). LF is hypothesized to act as a Zn2+ metalloprotease in the cytoplasm of macrophages, but no proteolytic activities have been previously shown on any target substrate. Here, synthetic peptides are hydrolyzed by LF in vitro. Mass spectroscopy and peptide sequencing of isolated cleavage products separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography indicate that LF seems to prefer proline-containing substrates. Substitution mutations within the consensus active-site residues completely abolish all in vitro catalytic functions, as does addition of 1,10-phenanthroline, EDTA, and certain amino acid hydroxamates, including the novel zinc metalloprotease inhibitor ZINCOV. In contrast, the protease inhibitors bestatin and lysine CMK, previously shown to block LF activity on macrophages, did not block LF activity in vitro. These data provide the first direct evidence that LF may act as an endopeptidase. PMID:9573135

  2. Inhibition of anthrax lethal factor by curcumin and chemically modified curcumin derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Golub, Lorne M.; Johnson, Francis; Simon, Sanford R.

    2014-01-01

    Curcuma longa Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the active ingredient in the eastern spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been shown to inhibit the activities of numerous enzymes and signaling molecules involved in cancer, bacterial and viral infections and inflammatory diseases. We have investigated the inhibitory activities of curcumin and chemically modified curcumin (CMC) derivatives toward lethal factor (LF), the proteolytic component of anthrax toxin produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Curcumin (Compound 1) appears to inhibit the catalytic activity of LF through a mixture of inhibitory mechanisms, without significant compromise to the binding of oligopeptide substrates, and one CMC derivative in particular, Compound 3 (4-phenylaminocarbonylbis-demethoxycurcumin), is capable of inhibiting LF with potency comparable with the parent compound, while also showing improved solubility and stability. The quantitative reduction in catalytic activity achieved by the different CMC derivatives appears to be a function of the proportion of the multiple mechanisms through which they inhibit the enzyme. PMID:24102525

  3. Genomic factors controlling the lethality exhibited in the hybrid between Nicotiana suaveolens Lehm. and N. tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Inoue, E; Marubashi, W; Niwa, M

    1996-08-01

    Interspecific hybrid plants between Nicotiana suaveolens and N. tabacum exhibit lethal symptoms at the seedling stage and cannot grow to maturity. In this investigation, an attempt was made to clarify the genomic factors responsible for this lethality. N. suaveolens was crossed to N. sylvestris (genomic constitution: SS) and N. tomentosiformis (TT), these latter two species being the progenitors of N. tabacum (SSTT). From the cross N. suaveolens x N. tomentosiformis, many seedlings were obtained through ovule culture, and these subsequently grew to maturity without exhibiting any lethality. In the reciprocal crossing between N. sauvelons and N. sylvestris, only a few hybrid seedlings were obtained through ovlue culture and all died after unfolding their cotyledons when cultured at 28 °C. This lethality could be avoided by culturing the ovules at 36 °C. These features of hybrid lethality resembled those observed in the interspecific hybrid between N. suaveolens and N. tabacum. These findings suggest that the S genome in N. tabacum is responsible for the lethality exhibited in the hybrid between N. suaveolens and N. tabacum.

  4. Characterization of the Native Form of Anthrax Lethal Factor for Use in the Toxin Neutralization Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hang; Catania, Jason; Baranji, Katalin; Feng, Jie; Gu, Mili; Lathey, Janet; Sweeny, Diane; Sanford, Hannah; Sapru, Kavita; Patamawenu, Terry; Chen, June-Home; Ng, Alan; Fesseha, Zenbework; Kluepfel-Stahl, Stefanie; Minang, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The cell-based anthrax toxin neutralization assay (TNA) is used to determine functional antibody titers of sera from animals and humans immunized with anthrax vaccines. The anthrax lethal toxin is a critical reagent of the TNA composed of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF), which are neutralization targets of serum antibodies. Cytotoxic potency of recombinant LF (rLF) lots can vary substantially, causing a challenge in producing a renewable supply of this reagent for validated TNAs. To address this issue, we characterized a more potent rLF variant (rLF-A) with the exact native LF amino acid sequence that lacks the additional N-terminal histidine and methionine residues present on the commonly used form of rLF (rLF-HMA) as a consequence of the expression vector. rLF-A can be used at 4 to 6 ng/ml (in contrast to 40 ng/ml rLF-HMA) with 50 ng/ml recombinant PA (rPA) to achieve 95 to 99% cytotoxicity. In the presence of 50 ng/ml rPA, both rLF-A and rLF-HMA allowed for similar potencies (50% effective dilution) among immune sera in the TNA. rPA, but not rLF, was the dominant factor in determining potency of serum samples containing anti-PA antibodies only or an excess of anti-PA relative to anti-rLF antibodies. Such anti-PA content is reflected in immune sera derived from most anthrax vaccines in development. These results support that 7- to 10-fold less rLF-A can be used in place of rLF-HMA without changing TNA serum dilution curve parameters, thus extending the use of a single rLF lot and a consistent, renewable supply. PMID:23637044

  5. Diminished but Not Abolished Effect of Two His351 Mutants of Anthrax Edema Factor in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Taoran; Zhao, Xinghui; Liu, Ju; Meng, Yingying; Feng, Yingying; Fang, Ting; Zhang, Jinlong; Yang, Xiuxu; Li, Jianmin; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Edema toxin (ET), which is composed of a potent adenylate cyclase (AC), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA), is one of the major toxicity factors of Bacillus anthracis. In this study, we introduced mutations in full-length EF to generate alanine EF(H351A) and arginine EF(H351R) variants. In vitro activity analysis displayed that the adenylyl cyclase activity of both the mutants was significantly diminished compared with the wild-type EF. When the native and mutant toxins were administered subcutaneously in a mouse footpad edema model, severe acute swelling was evoked by wild-type ET, while the symptoms induced by mutant toxins were very minor. Systemic administration of these EF variants caused non-lethal hepatotoxicity. In addition, EF(H351R) exhibited slightly higher activity in causing more severe edema than EF(H351A). Our findings demonstrate that the toxicity of ET is not abolished by substitution of EF residue His351 by alanine or arginine. These results also indicate the potential of the mouse footpad edema model as a sensitive method for evaluating both ET toxicity and the efficacy of candidate therapeutic agents. PMID:26848687

  6. Highly predictive support vector machine (SVM) models for anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal, acute infectious disease caused by the rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF), a zinc metalloprotease secreted by the bacilli, plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis and is chiefly responsible for anthrax-related toxemia and host death, partly via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) enzymes and consequent disruption of key cellular signaling pathways. Antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones are capable of clearing the bacilli but have no effect on LF-mediated toxemia; LF itself therefore remains the preferred target for toxin inactivation. However, currently no LF inhibitor is available on the market as a therapeutic, partly due to the insufficiency of existing LF inhibitor scaffolds in terms of efficacy, selectivity, and toxicity. In the current work, we present novel support vector machine (SVM) models with high prediction accuracy that are designed to rapidly identify potential novel, structurally diverse LF inhibitor chemical matter from compound libraries. These SVM models were trained and validated using 508 compounds with published LF biological activity data and 847 inactive compounds deposited in the Pub Chem BioAssay database. One model, M1, demonstrated particularly favorable selectivity toward highly active compounds by correctly predicting 39 (95.12%) out of 41 nanomolar-level LF inhibitors, 46 (93.88%) out of 49 inactives, and 844 (99.65%) out of 847 Pub Chem inactives in external, unbiased test sets. These models are expected to facilitate the prediction of LF inhibitory activity for existing molecules, as well as identification of novel potential LF inhibitors from large datasets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  8. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity after Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for five consecutive days starting within one hour post exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied using an in vitro culture system. Results IGF-1 protected 8 out of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation while only 2 out of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for five days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed up to six hours post irradiation. Compared with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers as well as hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 post-irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of non-irradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitors. Conclusions IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:23021438

  9. A "petite obligate" mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: functional mtDNA is lethal in cells lacking the delta subunit of mitochondrial F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Duvezin-Caubet, Stéphane; Rak, Malgorzata; Lefebvre-Legendre, Linnka; Tetaud, Emmanuel; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; di Rago, Jean-Paul

    2006-06-16

    Within the mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase, the nucleus-encoded delta-F(1) subunit plays a critical role in coupling the enzyme proton translocating and ATP synthesis activities. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of the delta subunit gene (Deltadelta) was shown to result in a massive destabilization of the mitochondrial genome (mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) in the form of 100% rho(-)/rho degrees petites (i.e. cells missing a large portion (>50%) of the mtDNA (rho(-)) or totally devoid of mtDNA (rho degrees )). Previous work has suggested that the absence of complete mtDNA (rho(+)) in Deltadelta yeast is a consequence of an uncoupling of the ATP synthase in the form of a passive proton transport through the enzyme (i.e. not coupled to ATP synthesis). However, it was unclear why or how this ATP synthase defect destabilized the mtDNA. We investigated this question using a nonrespiratory gene (ARG8(m)) inserted into the mtDNA. We first show that retention of functional mtDNA is lethal to Deltadelta yeast. We further show that combined with a nuclear mutation (Deltaatp4) preventing the ATP synthase proton channel assembly, a lack of delta subunit fails to destabilize the mtDNA, and rho(+) Deltadelta cells become viable. We conclude that Deltadelta yeast cannot survive when it has the ability to synthesize the ATP synthase proton channel. Accordingly, the rho(-)/rho degrees mutation can be viewed as a rescuing event, because this mutation prevents the synthesis of the two mtDNA-encoded subunits (Atp6p and Atp9p) forming the core of this channel. This is the first report of what we have called a "petite obligate" mutant of S. cerevisiae.

  10. Anthrax toxin lethal factor domain 3 is highly mobile and responsive to ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Maize, Kimberly M; Kurbanov, Elbek K; De La Mora-Rey, Teresa; Geders, Todd W; Hwang, Dong Jin; Walters, Michael A; Johnson, Rodney L; Amin, Elizabeth A; Finzel, Barry C

    2014-11-01

    The secreted anthrax toxin consists of three components: the protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). LF, a zinc metalloproteinase, compromises the host immune system primarily by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases in macrophages. Peptide substrates and small-molecule inhibitors bind LF in the space between domains 3 and 4 of the hydrolase. Domain 3 is attached on a hinge to domain 2 via residues Ile300 and Pro385, and can move through an angular arc of greater than 35° in response to the binding of different ligands. Here, multiple LF structures including five new complexes with co-crystallized inhibitors are compared and three frequently populated LF conformational states termed `bioactive', `open' and `tight' are identified. The bioactive position is observed with large substrate peptides and leaves all peptide-recognition subsites open and accessible. The tight state is seen in unliganded and small-molecule complex structures. In this state, domain 3 is clamped over certain substrate subsites, blocking access. The open position appears to be an intermediate state between these extremes and is observed owing to steric constraints imposed by specific bound ligands. The tight conformation may be the lowest-energy conformation among the reported structures, as it is the position observed with no bound ligand, while the open and bioactive conformations are likely to be ligand-induced.

  11. [Detection of the functionally active domains in the molecule of the lethal factor of the anthrax exotoxin].

    PubMed

    Noskov, A N; Kravchenko, T B; Noskova, V P

    1996-01-01

    Three functional domains were revealed in the molecule of the lethal factor of B. anthracis. They are located in the linear structure of the molecula as follows: the associative domain occupies the area from Lys39 to Met242, the stabilizing domain from Leu517 to Lys614, and the effector domain still further to the COOH-terminal Lys mino acid.

  12. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) mediates lethal redox stress induced by menadione

    PubMed Central

    Wiraswati, Hesti Lina; Hangen, Emilie; Sanz, Ana Belén; Lam, Ngoc-Vy; Reinhardt, Camille; Sauvat, Allan; Mogha, Ariane; Ortiz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is a redox-active enzyme that participates to the biogenesis/maintenance of complex I of the respiratory chain, yet also contributes to catabolic reactions in the context of regulated cell death when AIF translocates to the cytosol and to the nucleus. Here we explore the contribution of AIF to cell death induced by menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphtoquinone; also called vitamin K3) in conditions in which this pro-oxidant does not cause the mitochondrial release of AIF, yet causes caspase-independent cell killing. Depletion of AIF from human cancer cells reduced the cytotoxicity of menadione. This cytoprotective effect was accompanied by the maintenance of high levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), which are normally depleted by menadione. In addition, AIF depletion reduced the arylation of cellular proteins induced by menadione. This menadione-triggered arylation, which can be measured by a fluorescence assay, is completely suppressed by addition of exogenous glutathione or N-acetyl cysteine. Complex I inhibition by Rotenone did not mimic the cytoprotective action of AIF depletion. Altogether, these results are compatible with the hypothesis that mitochondrion-sessile AIF facilitates lethal redox cycling of menadione, thereby precipitating protein arylation and glutathione depletion. PMID:27738311

  13. Deficiency of the myogenic factor MyoD causes a perinatally lethal fetal akinesia

    PubMed Central

    Crinnion, Laura A; Murphy, Helen; Newbould, Melanie; Harrison, Sally M; Lascelles, Carolina; Antanaviciute, Agne; Carr, Ian M; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bonthron, David T; Smith, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Lethal fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) describes a clinically and genetically heterogeneous phenotype that includes fetal akinesia, intrauterine growth retardation, arthrogryposis and developmental anomalies. Affected babies die as a result of pulmonary hypoplasia. We aimed to identify the underlying genetic cause of this disorder in a family in which there were three affected individuals from two sibships. Methods Autosomal-recessive inheritance was suggested by a family history of consanguinity and by recurrence of the phenotype between the two sibships. We performed exome sequencing of the affected individuals and their unaffected mother, followed by autozygosity mapping and variant filtering to identify the causative gene. Results Five autozygous regions were identified, spanning 31.7 Mb of genomic sequence and including 211 genes. Using standard variant filtering criteria, we excluded all variants as being the likely pathogenic cause, apart from a single novel nonsense mutation, c.188C>A p.(Ser63*) (NM_002478.4), in MYOD1. This gene encodes an extensively studied transcription factor involved in muscle development, which has nonetheless not hitherto been associated with a hereditary human disease phenotype. Conclusions We provide the first description of a human phenotype that appears to result from MYOD1 mutation. The presentation with FADS is consistent with a large body of data demonstrating that in the mouse, MyoD is a major controller of precursor cell commitment to the myogenic differentiation programme. PMID:26733463

  14. Abrogation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor decreases West Nile virus lethality by limiting viral neuroinvasion

    PubMed Central

    Arjona, Alvaro; Foellmer, Harald G.; Town, Terrence; Leng, Lin; McDonald, Courtney; Wang, Tian; Wong, Susan J.; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Fikrig, Erol; Bucala, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging pathogen that causes life-threatening encephalitis in susceptible individuals. We investigated the role of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is an upstream mediator of innate immunity, in WNV immunopathogenesis. We found that patients suffering from acute WNV infection presented with increased MIF levels in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. MIF expression also was induced in WNV-infected mice. Remarkably, abrogation of MIF action by 3 distinct approaches (antibody blockade, small molecule pharmacologic inhibition, and genetic deletion) rendered mice more resistant to WNV lethality. Mif–/– mice showed a reduced viral load and inflammatory response in the brain when compared with wild-type mice. Our results also indicate that MIF favors viral neuroinvasion by compromising the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. In conclusion, the data obtained from this study provide direct evidence for the involvement of MIF in viral pathogenesis and suggest that pharmacotherapeutic approaches targeting MIF may hold promise for the treatment of WNV encephalitis. PMID:17909632

  15. Studies of muscle proteins in embryonic myocardial cells of cardiac lethal mutant mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) by use of heavy meromyosin binding and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    identical, confirming that gene c affects only heart muscle differentiation and not skeletal muscle. The results of the study suggest that the precardiac mesoderm in cardiac lethal mutant axolotl embryos initiates but then fails to complete its differentiation into functional muscle tissue. It appears that this single gene mutation, by way of abnormal inductive processes, affects the accumulation and organization of several different muscle proteins, including actin, myosin, and tropomyosin. PMID:1107335

  16. Mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2 with temperature-sensitive lesions affecting virion thermostability and DNase activity: identification of the lethal mutation and physical mapping of the nuc-lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Chartrand, P; Timbury, M C; Hay, J; Moss, H

    1979-01-01

    We had previously shown that a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of herpes simplex virus type 2 strain HG52, ts13, induced a heat-labile DNase activity in infected cells (B. Francke, H. Moss, M. C. Timbury, and J. Hay, J. Virol. 26:209-213, 1978). Earlier work indicated that the mutant also possessed temperature-sensitive infectivity (I. W. Halliburton and M. C. Timbury, J. Gen. Virol. 30:207-221, 1976). In this study temperature-stable revertants of ts13 have been isolated; examination of them revealed that ts13 is a double mutant, with genetically distinct temperature-sensitive lesions affecting nuclease activity and particle stability. The lethal mutation, in the cell system studied, is the latter. Revertants, which all maintain the nuclease lesion, grew well at a high temperature. Physical mapping of the nuclease lesion placed it between 0.12 and 0.21 (fractional length) on the virus genome, quite distant from the lethal mutation at 0.64 to 0.70. PMID:232166

  17. Protected graft copolymer-formulated fibroblast growth factors mitigate the lethality of partial body irradiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Gerardo M.; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Jones, Cynthia C.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the mitigating effects of fibroblast growth factor 4 and 7 (FGF4 and FGF7, respectively) in comparison with long acting protected graft copolymer (PGC)-formulated FGF4 and 7 (PF4 and PF7, respectively) administered to C57BL/6J mice a day after exposure to LD50/30 (15.7 Gy) partial body irradiation (PBI) which targeted the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The PGC that we developed increased the bioavailability of FGF4 and FGF7 by 5- and 250-fold compared to without PGC, respectively, and also sustained a 24 hr presence in the blood after a single subcutaneous administration. The dose levels tested for mitigating effects on radiation injury were 3 mg/kg for the PF4 and PF7 and 1.5 mg each for their combination (PF4/7). Amifostine administered prior to PBI was used as a positive control. The PF4, PF7, or PF4/7 mitigated the radiation lethality in mice. The mitigating effect of PF4 and PF7 was similar to the positive control and PF7 was better than other mitigators tested. The plasma citrulline levels and hematology parameters were early markers of recovery and survival. GI permeability function appeared to be a late or full recovery indicator. The villus length and crypt number correlated with plasma citrulline level, indicating that it can act as a surrogate marker for these histology evaluations. The IL-18 concentrations in jejunum as early as day 4 and TPO levels in colon on day 10 following PBI showed statistically significant changes in irradiated versus non-irradiated mice which makes them potential biomarkers of radiation exposure. Other colon and jejunum cytokine levels are potentially useful but require larger numbers of samples than in the present study before their full utility can be realized. PMID:28207794

  18. Protected graft copolymer-formulated fibroblast growth factors mitigate the lethality of partial body irradiation injury.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Gerardo M; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Jones, Cynthia C; Kabirov, Kasim K; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the mitigating effects of fibroblast growth factor 4 and 7 (FGF4 and FGF7, respectively) in comparison with long acting protected graft copolymer (PGC)-formulated FGF4 and 7 (PF4 and PF7, respectively) administered to C57BL/6J mice a day after exposure to LD50/30 (15.7 Gy) partial body irradiation (PBI) which targeted the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The PGC that we developed increased the bioavailability of FGF4 and FGF7 by 5- and 250-fold compared to without PGC, respectively, and also sustained a 24 hr presence in the blood after a single subcutaneous administration. The dose levels tested for mitigating effects on radiation injury were 3 mg/kg for the PF4 and PF7 and 1.5 mg each for their combination (PF4/7). Amifostine administered prior to PBI was used as a positive control. The PF4, PF7, or PF4/7 mitigated the radiation lethality in mice. The mitigating effect of PF4 and PF7 was similar to the positive control and PF7 was better than other mitigators tested. The plasma citrulline levels and hematology parameters were early markers of recovery and survival. GI permeability function appeared to be a late or full recovery indicator. The villus length and crypt number correlated with plasma citrulline level, indicating that it can act as a surrogate marker for these histology evaluations. The IL-18 concentrations in jejunum as early as day 4 and TPO levels in colon on day 10 following PBI showed statistically significant changes in irradiated versus non-irradiated mice which makes them potential biomarkers of radiation exposure. Other colon and jejunum cytokine levels are potentially useful but require larger numbers of samples than in the present study before their full utility can be realized.

  19. Identification of a Substrate-selective Exosite within the Metalloproteinase Anthrax Lethal Factor.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allison B; Cho, Eunice; Miller, Chad J; Lou, Hua Jane; Turk, Benjamin E

    2017-01-20

    The metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is secreted by Bacillus anthracis to promote disease virulence through disruption of host signaling pathways. LF is a highly specific protease, exclusively cleaving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and rodent NLRP1B (NACHT leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 1B). How LF achieves such restricted substrate specificity is not understood. Previous studies have suggested the existence of an exosite interaction between LF and MKKs that promotes cleavage efficiency and specificity. Through a combination of in silico prediction and site-directed mutagenesis, we have mapped an exosite to a non-catalytic region of LF. Mutations within this site selectively impair proteolysis of full-length MKKs yet have no impact on cleavage of short peptide substrates. Although this region appears important for cleaving all LF protein substrates, we found that mutation of specific residues within the exosite differentially affects MKK and NLRP1B cleavage in vitro and in cultured cells. One residue in particular, Trp-271, is essential for cleavage of MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6 but dispensable for targeting of MEK1, MEK2, and NLRP1B. Analysis of chimeric substrates suggests that this residue interacts with the MKK catalytic domain. We found that LF-W271A blocked ERK phosphorylation and growth in a melanoma cell line, suggesting that it may provide a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2 for use as a cancer therapeutic. These findings provide insight into how a bacterial toxin functions to specifically impair host signaling pathways and suggest a general strategy for mapping protease exosite interactions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Characterization of the Two Maize Embryo-Lethal Defective Kernel Mutants Rgh*-1210 and Fl*-1253b: Effects on Embryo and Gametophyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J. K.; Sheridan, W. F.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined the effects on embryonic and gametophytic development of two nonallelic defective-kernel mutants of maize. Earlier studies indicated that both mutants are abnormal in embryonic morphogenesis as well as in the formation of their endosperm. Mutant rgh*-1210 embryos depart from the normal embryogenic pathway at the proembryo and transition stage, by developing meristematic lobes and losing bilateral symmetry. They continue growth as irregular cell masses that enlarge and become necrotic. Somatic embryos arising in rgh*-1210 callus cultures display the rgh*-1210 mutant phenotype. Mutant fl*-1253B embryos are variably blocked from the coleoptilar stage through stage 2. Following formation of the shoot apex in the mutant embryos the leaf primordia and tissues surrounding the embryonic axis continue growth and cell division, while the scutellum ceases development and becomes hypertrophied. Mutant fl*-1253B embryos are unable to germinate, either in mutant kernels or as immature embryos in culture, and the mutant scutellar tissue does not produce regenerable callus. Expression of the fl*-1253B locus during male gametophytic development is revealed by a marked reduction in pollen transmission as a result of mutant expression during the interval between meiosis and the initiation of pollen tube growth. In both mutants, there is considerable proliferation of the aleurone cells of the endosperm. Mutant expression of rgh*-1210 in the female gametophyte is revealed by the abnormal antipodal cells of the embryo sac. These results show that these two gene loci play unique and crucial roles in normal morphogenesis of the embryo. In addition, it is evident that both mutants are pleiotropic in affecting the development of the endosperm and gametophyte as well as the embryo. These pleiotropisms suggest some commonality in the gene regulation of development in these three tissues. PMID:17246478

  1. CD4+ T Cells Targeting Dominant and Cryptic Epitopes from Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Chu, Karen K. Y.; Musson, Julie A.; Moore, Stephen J.; Gallagher, Theresa; Baillie, Les; Williamson, Ethel D.; Robinson, John H.; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J.; Altmann, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is an endemic infection in many countries, particularly in the developing world. The causative agent, Bacillus anthracis, mediates disease through the secretion of binary exotoxins. Until recently, research into adaptive immunity targeting this bacterial pathogen has largely focused on the humoral response to these toxins. There is, however, growing recognition that cellular immune responses involving IFNγ producing CD4+ T cells also contribute significantly to a protective memory response. An established concept in adaptive immunity to infection is that during infection of host cells, new microbial epitopes may be revealed, leading to immune recognition of so called ‘cryptic’ or ‘subdominant’ epitopes. We analyzed the response to both cryptic and immunodominant T cell epitopes derived from the toxin component lethal factor and presented by a range of HLA-DR alleles. Using IFNγ-ELISpot assays we characterized epitopes that elicited a response following immunization with synthetic peptide and the whole protein and tested their capacities to bind purified HLA-DR molecules in vitro. We found that DR1 transgenics demonstrated T cell responses to a greater number of domain III cryptic epitopes than other HLA-DR transgenics, and that this pattern was repeated with the immunodominant epitopes, as a greater proportion of these epitopes induced a T cell response when presented within the context of the whole protein. Immunodominant epitopes LF457-476 and LF467-487 were found to induce a T cell response to the peptide, as well as to the whole native LF protein in DR1 and DR15, but not in DR4 transgenics. The analysis of Domain I revealed the presence of several unique cryptic epitopes all of which showed a strong to moderate relative binding affinity to HLA-DR4 molecules. However, none of the cryptic epitopes from either domain III or I displayed notably high binding affinities across all HLA-DR alleles assayed. These responses were influenced by the

  2. Involvement of platelet activating factor, histamine and serotonin in acute lethal shock induced by Candida albicans water-soluble extracellular polysaccharide fraction (CAWS) in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagi-Miura, Noriko; Shingo, Yuko; Kurihara, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuo; Ohno, Naohito

    2007-07-01

    CAWS (Candida albicans water-soluble extracellular polysaccharide fraction) is a water-soluble extracellular mannoprotein-beta-glucan complex obtained from the culture supernatant following the culture of pathogenic Candida albicans in a completely synthetic medium. CAWS administered intraperitoneally induces vasculitis in mice, however, administered intravenously, it causes lethal shock. The acute lethal reaction to CAWS occurs within 1 h of intravenous administration, with the mice demonstrating anaphylactic shock-like symptoms including convulsion, diarrhea, and collapse. In this study, we analyzed the factors involved in this lethal effect. We examined physiologically active substances believed to be involved in anaphylactic shock, and found that the lethal effect of CAWS could be inhibited by blocking histamine, serotonin, and platelet activating factor (PAF) simultaneously, but by blocking only one. This finding strongly suggests that the acute lethal reaction to CAWS is a result of the simultaneous production of several physiologically active substances.

  3. GUY1 confers complete female lethality and is a strong candidate for a male-determining factor in Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Criscione, Frank; Qi, Yumin; Tu, Zhijian

    2016-09-20

    Despite their importance in sexual differentiation and reproduction, Y chromosome genes are rarely described because they reside in repeat-rich regions that are difficult to study. Here, we show that Guy1, a unique Y chromosome gene of a major urban malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi, confers 100% female lethality when placed on the autosomes. We show that the small GUY1 protein (56 amino acids in length) causes female lethality and that males carrying the transgene are reproductively more competitive than their non-transgenic siblings under laboratory conditions. The GUY1 protein is a primary signal from the Y chromosome that affects embryonic development in a sex-specific manner. Our results have demonstrated, for the first time in mosquitoes, the feasibility of stable transgenic manipulation of sex ratios using an endogenous gene from the male-determining chromosome. These results provide insights into the elusive M factor and suggest exciting opportunities to reduce mosquito populations and disease transmission.

  4. Asymmetric Cryo-EM Structure of Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen Pore with Lethal Factor N-Terminal Domain.

    PubMed

    Machen, Alexandra J; Akkaladevi, Narahari; Trecazzi, Caleb; O'Neil, Pierce T; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Qi, Yifei; Dillard, Rebecca; Im, Wonpil; Gogol, Edward P; White, Tommi A; Fisher, Mark T

    2017-09-22

    The anthrax lethal toxin consists of protective antigen (PA) and lethal factor (LF). Understanding both the PA pore formation and LF translocation through the PA pore is crucial to mitigating and perhaps preventing anthrax disease. To better understand the interactions of the LF-PA engagement complex, the structure of the LFN-bound PA pore solubilized by a lipid nanodisc was examined using cryo-EM. CryoSPARC was used to rapidly sort particle populations of a heterogeneous sample preparation without imposing symmetry, resulting in a refined 17 Å PA pore structure with 3 LFN bound. At pH 7.5, the contributions from the three unstructured LFN lysine-rich tail regions do not occlude the Phe clamp opening. The open Phe clamp suggests that, in this translocation-compromised pH environment, the lysine-rich tails remain flexible and do not interact with the pore lumen region.

  5. Molecular foundations of reproductive lethality in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Muralla, Rosanna; Lloyd, Johnny; Meinke, David

    2011-01-01

    The SeedGenes database (www.seedgenes.org) contains information on more than 400 genes required for embryo development in Arabidopsis. Many of these EMBRYO-DEFECTIVE (EMB) genes encode proteins with an essential function required throughout the life cycle. This raises a fundamental question. Why does elimination of an essential gene in Arabidopsis often result in embryo lethality rather than gametophyte lethality? In other words, how do mutant (emb) gametophytes survive and participate in fertilization when an essential cellular function is disrupted? Furthermore, why do some mutant embryos proceed further in development than others? To address these questions, we first established a curated dataset of genes required for gametophyte development in Arabidopsis based on information extracted from the literature. This provided a basis for comparison with EMB genes obtained from the SeedGenes dataset. We also identified genes that exhibited both embryo and gametophyte defects when disrupted by a loss-of-function mutation. We then evaluated the relationship between mutant phenotype, gene redundancy, mutant allele strength, gene expression pattern, protein function, and intracellular protein localization to determine what factors influence the phenotypes of lethal mutants in Arabidopsis. After removing cases where continued development potentially resulted from gene redundancy or residual function of a weak mutant allele, we identified numerous examples of viable mutant (emb) gametophytes that required further explanation. We propose that the presence of gene products derived from transcription in diploid (heterozygous) sporocytes often enables mutant gametophytes to survive the loss of an essential gene in Arabidopsis. Whether gene disruption results in embryo or gametophyte lethality therefore depends in part on the ability of residual, parental gene products to support gametophyte development. We also highlight here 70 preglobular embryo mutants with a zygotic pattern

  6. The live attenuated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae triple-deletion mutant ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1 strain, SLW05, Immunizes pigs against lethal challenge with Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng

    2013-02-01

    Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine.

  7. The Live Attenuated Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Triple-Deletion Mutant ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1 Strain, SLW05, Immunizes Pigs against Lethal Challenge with Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shulin; Ou, Jiwen; Zhang, Minmin; Xu, Juan; Liu, Huazhen; Liu, Jinlin; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae both belong to the family Pasteurellaceae and are major respiratory pathogens that cause large economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. We previously constructed an attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 live vaccine prototype, SLW05 (ΔapxIC ΔapxIIC ΔapxIV-ORF1), which is able to produce nontoxic but immunogenic ApxIA, ApxIIA, and ApxIVA. This triple-deletion mutant strain was shown to elicit protective immunity against virulent A. pleuropneumoniae. In the present study, we investigated whether immunization with SLW05 could also protect against lethal challenge with virulent H. parasuis SH0165 (serovar 5) or MD0322 (serovar 4). The SLW05 strain was found to elicit a strong humoral antibody response in pigs and to confer significant protection against challenge with a lethal dose of H. parasuis SH0165 or MD0322. IgG subtype analysis revealed that SLW05 induces a bias toward a Th1-type immune response and stimulates interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production. Moreover, antisera from SLW05-vaccinated pigs efficiently inhibited both A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis growth in a whole-blood assay. This is the first report that a live attenuated A. pleuropneumoniae vaccine with SLW05 can protect against lethal H. parasuis infection, which provides a novel approach for developing an attenuated H. parasuis vaccine. PMID:23220998

  8. Membrane insertion of anthrax protective antigen and cytoplasmic delivery of lethal factor occur at different stages of the endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Abrami, Laurence; Lindsay, Margaret; Parton, Robert G; Leppla, Stephen H; van der Goot, F Gisou

    2004-08-30

    The protective antigen (PA) of anthrax toxin binds to a cell surface receptor, undergoes heptamerization, and binds the enzymatic subunits, the lethal factor (LF) and the edema factor (EF). The resulting complex is then endocytosed. Via mechanisms that depend on the vacuolar ATPase and require membrane insertion of PA, LF and EF are ultimately delivered to the cytoplasm where their targets reside. Here, we show that membrane insertion of PA already occurs in early endosomes, possibly only in the multivesicular regions, but that subsequent delivery of LF to the cytoplasm occurs preferentially later in the endocytic pathway and relies on the dynamics of internal vesicles of multivesicular late endosomes.

  9. Chromosome condensation may enhance X-ray-related cell lethality in a temperature-sensitive mutant (tsBN2) of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21).

    PubMed

    Sasaki, H; Nishimoto, T

    1987-03-01

    In the tsBN2 cell line, which has a temperature-sensitive defect in the regulatory mechanism for chromosome condensation, the lethal effect of X rays was enhanced by incubating the cells at a nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C) following X irradiation. This enhancement was suppressed in the presence of cycloheximide, which inhibits induction of premature chromosome condensation. The findings obtained in the case of delayed incubation at 40 degrees C and in synchronized cells indicate that X-ray-related potentially lethal damage, which can be expressed by chromosome condensation, is produced in the cells at any stage of the cell cycle, but it is repairable for all cells except those at around the late G2-M phase, where chromosome condensation occurs at a permissive temperature (33.5 degrees C). These observations suggest that the high sensitivity of late G2-M cells to X rays is caused by the events associated with chromosome condensation.

  10. Biochip for the Detection of Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Therapeutic Agents against Anthrax Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Silin, Vitalii; Kasianowicz, John J.; Michelman-Ribeiro, Ariel; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Robertson, Joseph W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Tethered lipid bilayer membranes (tBLMs) have been used in many applications, including biosensing and membrane protein structure studies. This report describes a biosensor for anthrax toxins that was fabricated through the self-assembly of a tBLM with B. anthracis protective antigen ion channels that are both the recognition element and electrochemical transducer. We characterize the sensor and its properties with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. The sensor shows a sensitivity similar to ELISA and can also be used to rapidly screen for molecules that bind to the toxins and potentially inhibit their lethal effects. PMID:27348008

  11. Examining the virulence of Candida albicans transcription factor mutants using Galleria mellonella and mouse infection models.

    PubMed

    Amorim-Vaz, Sara; Delarze, Eric; Ischer, Françoise; Sanglard, Dominique; Coste, Alix T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify Candida albicans transcription factors (TFs) involved in virulence. Although mice are considered the gold-standard model to study fungal virulence, mini-host infection models have been increasingly used. Here, barcoded TF mutants were first screened in mice by pools of strains and fungal burdens (FBs) quantified in kidneys. Mutants of unannotated genes which generated a kidney FB significantly different from that of wild-type were selected and individually examined in Galleria mellonella. In addition, mutants that could not be detected in mice were also tested in G. mellonella. Only 25% of these mutants displayed matching phenotypes in both hosts, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the two models. To address the basis of this difference (pool or host effects), a set of 19 mutants tested in G. mellonella were also injected individually into mice. Matching FB phenotypes were observed in 50% of the cases, highlighting the bias due to host effects. In contrast, 33.4% concordance was observed between pool and single strain infections in mice, thereby highlighting the bias introduced by the "pool effect." After filtering the results obtained from the two infection models, mutants for MBF1 and ZCF6 were selected. Independent marker-free mutants were subsequently tested in both hosts to validate previous results. The MBF1 mutant showed impaired infection in both models, while the ZCF6 mutant was only significant in mice infections. The two mutants showed no obvious in vitro phenotypes compared with the wild-type, indicating that these genes might be specifically involved in in vivo adapt.

  12. Examining the virulence of Candida albicans transcription factor mutants using Galleria mellonella and mouse infection models

    PubMed Central

    Amorim-Vaz, Sara; Delarze, Eric; Ischer, Françoise; Sanglard, Dominique; Coste, Alix T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify Candida albicans transcription factors (TFs) involved in virulence. Although mice are considered the gold-standard model to study fungal virulence, mini-host infection models have been increasingly used. Here, barcoded TF mutants were first screened in mice by pools of strains and fungal burdens (FBs) quantified in kidneys. Mutants of unannotated genes which generated a kidney FB significantly different from that of wild-type were selected and individually examined in Galleria mellonella. In addition, mutants that could not be detected in mice were also tested in G. mellonella. Only 25% of these mutants displayed matching phenotypes in both hosts, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the two models. To address the basis of this difference (pool or host effects), a set of 19 mutants tested in G. mellonella were also injected individually into mice. Matching FB phenotypes were observed in 50% of the cases, highlighting the bias due to host effects. In contrast, 33.4% concordance was observed between pool and single strain infections in mice, thereby highlighting the bias introduced by the “pool effect.” After filtering the results obtained from the two infection models, mutants for MBF1 and ZCF6 were selected. Independent marker-free mutants were subsequently tested in both hosts to validate previous results. The MBF1 mutant showed impaired infection in both models, while the ZCF6 mutant was only significant in mice infections. The two mutants showed no obvious in vitro phenotypes compared with the wild-type, indicating that these genes might be specifically involved in in vivo adapt PMID:25999923

  13. Aberrant growth and lethality of Arabidopsis deficient in nonsense-mediated RNA decay factors is caused by autoimmune-like response.

    PubMed

    Riehs-Kearnan, Nina; Gloggnitzer, Jiradet; Dekrout, Bettina; Jonak, Claudia; Riha, Karel

    2012-07-01

    Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is an evolutionarily conserved RNA quality control mechanism that eliminates transcripts containing nonsense mutations. NMD has also been shown to affect the expression of numerous genes, and inactivation of this pathway is lethal in higher eukaryotes. However, despite relatively detailed knowledge of the molecular basis of NMD, our understanding of its physiological functions is still limited and the underlying causes of lethality are unknown. In this study, we examined the importance of NMD in plants by analyzing an allelic series of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in the core NMD components SMG7 and UPF1. We found that impaired NMD elicits a pathogen defense response which appears to be proportional to the extent of NMD deficiency. We also demonstrate that developmental aberrations and lethality of the strong smg7 and upf1 alleles are caused by constitutive pathogen response upregulation. Disruption of pathogen signaling suppresses the lethality of the upf1-3 null allele and growth defects associated with SMG7 dysfunction. Interestingly, infertility and abortive meiosis observed in smg7 mutants is not coupled with impaired NMD suggesting a broader function of SMG7 in cellular metabolism. Taken together, our results uncover a major physiological consequence of NMD deficiency in Arabidopsis and revealed multifaceted roles of SMG7 in plant growth and development.

  14. A Mutant Library Approach to Identify Improved Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Monica; Rossi, Raffaella; Walter, Helen; Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Factor H binding protein (FHbp) is a virulence factor used by meningococci to evade the host complement system. FHbp elicits bactericidal antibodies in humans and is part of two recently licensed vaccines. Using human complement Factor H (FH) transgenic mice, we previously showed that binding of FH decreased the protective antibody responses to FHbp vaccination. Therefore, in the present study we devised a library-based method to identify mutant FHbp antigens with very low binding of FH. Using an FHbp sequence variant in one of the two licensed vaccines, we displayed an error-prone PCR mutant FHbp library on the surface of Escherichia coli. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate FHbp mutants with very low binding of human FH and preserved binding of control anti-FHbp monoclonal antibodies. We sequenced the gene encoding FHbp from selected clones and introduced the mutations into a soluble FHbp construct. Using this approach, we identified several new mutant FHbp vaccine antigens that had very low binding of FH as measured by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. The new mutant FHbp antigens elicited protective antibody responses in human FH transgenic mice that were up to 20-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type FHbp antigen. This approach offers the potential to discover mutant antigens that might not be predictable even with protein structural information and potentially can be applied to other microbial vaccine antigens that bind host proteins. PMID:26057742

  15. Apoptosis and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells induced by anthrax lethal factor inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Han-Mo; Vanbrocklin, Matt; McWilliams, Mary Jane; Leppla, Stephan H.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.; Vande Woude, George F.

    2002-03-01

    Lethal factor, the principal virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by proteolytically cleaving MAPK kinases. Edema factor, another component of anthrax toxin, is an adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP. Inhibition of MAPK signaling with either anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) or small molecule MAPK kinase inhibitors triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Normal melanocytes do not undergo apoptosis in response to MAPK inhibition but arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Importantly, in vivo treatment of human melanoma xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice with LeTx results in significant or complete tumor regression without apparent side effects, suggesting that inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for treating melanoma. Additionally, interrupting MAPK signaling with LeTx and elevating cAMP with anthrax edema toxin in both melanoma cells and melanocytes lead to dramatic melanin production, perhaps explaining the formation of blackened eschars in cutaneous anthrax.

  16. CHEMOSENSITIZATION BY A NON-APOPTOGENIC HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70-BINDING APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR MUTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemosensitization by a non-apoptogenic heat shock protein 70-binding apoptosis inducing factor mutant

    Abstract
    HSP70 inhibits apoptosis by neutralizing the caspase activator Apaf-1 and by interacting with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a mitochondrial flavoprotein wh...

  17. CHEMOSENSITIZATION BY A NON-APOPTOGENIC HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70-BINDING APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR MUTANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemosensitization by a non-apoptogenic heat shock protein 70-binding apoptosis inducing factor mutant

    Abstract
    HSP70 inhibits apoptosis by neutralizing the caspase activator Apaf-1 and by interacting with apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a mitochondrial flavoprotein wh...

  18. Structures of the DfsB Protein Family Suggest a Cationic, Helical Sibling Lethal Factor Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jonathan D.; Taylor, Gabrielle; Hare, Stephen A.; Matthews, Steve J.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have developed a variety of mechanisms for surviving harsh environmental conditions, nutrient stress and overpopulation. Paenibacillus dendritiformis produces a lethal protein (Slf) that is able to induce cell death in neighbouring colonies and a phenotypic switch in more distant ones. Slf is derived from the secreted precursor protein, DfsB, after proteolytic processing. Here, we present new crystal structures of DfsB homologues from a variety of bacterial species and a surprising version present in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Adopting a four-helix bundle decorated with a further three short helices within intervening loops, DfsB belongs to a non-enzymatic class of the DinB fold. The structure suggests that the biologically active Slf fragment may possess a C-terminal helix rich in basic and aromatic residues that suggest a functional mechanism akin to that for cationic antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26804569

  19. Development of synthetic lethality anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bingliang

    2014-10-09

    The concept of synthetic lethality (the creation of a lethal phenotype from the combined effects of mutations in two or more genes) has recently been exploited in various efforts to develop new genotype-selective anticancer therapeutics. These efforts include screening for novel anticancer agents, identifying novel therapeutic targets, characterizing mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapy, and improving efficacies through the rational design of combination therapy. This review discusses recent developments in synthetic lethality anticancer therapeutics, including poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors for BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutant cancers, checkpoint inhibitors for p53 mutant cancers, and small molecule agents targeting RAS gene mutant cancers. Because cancers are caused by mutations in multiple genes and abnormalities in multiple signaling pathways, synthetic lethality for a specific tumor suppressor gene or oncogene is likely cell context-dependent. Delineation of the mechanisms underlying synthetic lethality and identification of treatment response biomarkers will be critical for the success of synthetic lethality anticancer therapy.

  20. ATP utilization by yeast replication factor C. IV. RFC ATP-binding mutants show defects in DNA replication, DNA repair, and checkpoint regulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S L; Pautz, A L; Burgers, P M

    2001-09-14

    Replication factor C is required to load proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto primer-template junctions, using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Four of the five RFC genes have consensus ATP-binding motifs. To determine the relative importance of these sites for proper DNA metabolism in the cell, the conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, or RFC4 was mutated to either arginine or glutamic acid. Arginine mutations in all RFC genes tested permitted cell growth, although poor growth was observed for rfc2-K71R. A glutamic acid substitution resulted in lethality in RFC2 and RFC3 but not in RFC1 or RFC4. Most double mutants combining mutations in two RFC genes were inviable. Except for the rfc1-K359R and rfc4-K55E mutants, which were phenotypically similar to wild type in every assay, the mutants were sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. The rfc2-K71R and rfc4-K55R mutants show checkpoint defects, most likely in the intra-S phase checkpoint. Regulation of the damage-inducible RNR3 promoter was impaired in these mutants, and phosphorylation of Rad53p in response to DNA damage was specifically defective when cells were in S phase. No dramatic defects in telomere length regulation were detected in the mutants. These data demonstrate that the ATP binding function of RFC2 is important for both DNA replication and checkpoint function and, for the first time, that RFC4 also plays a role in checkpoint regulation.

  1. Physiological characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants supersensitive to G1 arrest by a factor and. cap alpha. factor pheromones

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, R.K.; Otte, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae MATa cells carrying mutations in either sst1 or sst2 are supersensitive to the G1 arrest induced by ..cap alpha.. factor pheromone. When sst1 mutants were mixed with normal SST/sup +/ cells, the entire population recovered together from ..cap alpha.. factor arrest, suggesting that SST/sup +/ cells helped sst1 mutants to recover. Complementation tests and linkage analysis showed that sst1 and bar1, a mutation which eliminates the ability of MATa cells to act as a ''barrier'' to the diffusion of ..cap alpha.. factor, were lesions in the same genes. These findings suggest that sst1 mutants are defective in recovery from ..cap alpha.. factor arrest because they are unable to degrade the pheromone. In contrast, recovery of sst2 mutants was not potentiated by the presence of SST/sup +/ cells in mixing experiments. When either normal MATa cells or mutant cells carrying defects in sst1 or sst2 were exposed to ..cap alpha.. factor for 1 h and then washed free of the pheromone, the sst2 cells subsequently remained arrested in the absence of ..cap alpha.. factor for a much longer time than SST/sup +/ or sst1 cells. These observations suggest that the defect in sst2 mutants is intrinsic to the cell and is involved in the mechanism of ..cap alpha.. factor action at some step after the initial interaction of the pheromone with the cell. The presence of an sst2 mutation appears to cause a growth debility, since repeated serial subculture of haploid sst2-1 strains led to the accumulation of faster-growing revertants that were pheromone resistant and were mating defective (''sterile'').

  2. GUY1 confers complete female lethality and is a strong candidate for a male-determining factor in Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Criscione, Frank; Qi, Yumin; Tu, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Despite their importance in sexual differentiation and reproduction, Y chromosome genes are rarely described because they reside in repeat-rich regions that are difficult to study. Here, we show that Guy1, a unique Y chromosome gene of a major urban malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi, confers 100% female lethality when placed on the autosomes. We show that the small GUY1 protein (56 amino acids in length) causes female lethality and that males carrying the transgene are reproductively more competitive than their non-transgenic siblings under laboratory conditions. The GUY1 protein is a primary signal from the Y chromosome that affects embryonic development in a sex-specific manner. Our results have demonstrated, for the first time in mosquitoes, the feasibility of stable transgenic manipulation of sex ratios using an endogenous gene from the male-determining chromosome. These results provide insights into the elusive M factor and suggest exciting opportunities to reduce mosquito populations and disease transmission. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19281.001 PMID:27644420

  3. Species origin of genomic factors in Nicotiana nudicaulis Watson controlling hybrid lethality in interspecific hybrids between N. nudicaulis Watson and N. tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongshuo; Marubashi, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid lethality is expressed at 28°C in the cross Nicotiana nudicaulis × N. tabacum. The S subgenome of N. tabacum has been identified as controlling this hybrid lethality. To clarify the responsible genomic factor(s) of N. nudicaulis, we crossed N. trigonophylla (paternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis) with N. tabacum, because hybrids between N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis) and N. tabacum are viable when grown in a greenhouse. In the cross N. trigonophylla×N. tabacum, approximately 50% of hybrids were vitrified, 20% were viable, and 20% were nonviable at 28°C. To reveal which subgenome of N. tabacum was responsible for these phenotypes, we crossed N. trigonophylla with two progenitors of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris (SS) and N. tomentosiformis (TT). In the cross N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we confirmed that over half of hybrids of N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla were vitrified, and none of the hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tomentosiformis were. The results imply that the S subgenome, encoding a gene or genes inducing hybrid lethality in the cross between N. nudicaulis and N. tabacum, has one or more genomic factors that induce vitrification. Furthermore, in vitrified hybrids of N. trigonophylla × N. tabacum and N. sylvestris × N. trigonophylla, we found that nuclear fragmentation, which progresses during expression of hybrid lethality, was accompanied by vitrification. This observation suggests that vitrification has a relationship to hybrid lethality. Based on these results, we speculate that when N. nudicaulis was formed approximately 5 million years ago, several causative genomic factors determining phenotypes of hybrid seedlings were inherited from N. trigonophylla. Subsequently, genome downsizing and various recombination-based processes took place. Some of the causative genomic factors were lost and some became genomic factor(s) controlling hybrid lethality in extant N. nudicaulis.

  4. Species Origin of Genomic Factors in Nicotiana nudicaulis Watson Controlling Hybrid Lethality in Interspecific Hybrids between N. nudicaulis Watson and N. tabacum L

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongshuo; Marubashi, Wataru

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid lethality is expressed at 28°C in the cross Nicotiana nudicaulis×N. tabacum. The S subgenome of N. tabacum has been identified as controlling this hybrid lethality. To clarify the responsible genomic factor(s) of N. nudicaulis, we crossed N. trigonophylla (paternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis) with N. tabacum, because hybrids between N. sylvestris (maternal progenitor of N. nudicaulis) and N. tabacum are viable when grown in a greenhouse. In the cross N. trigonophylla×N. tabacum, approximately 50% of hybrids were vitrified, 20% were viable, and 20% were nonviable at 28°C. To reveal which subgenome of N. tabacum was responsible for these phenotypes, we crossed N. trigonophylla with two progenitors of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris (SS) and N. tomentosiformis (TT). In the cross N. sylvestris×N. trigonophylla, we confirmed that over half of hybrids of N. sylvestris×N. trigonophylla were vitrified, and none of the hybrids of N. trigonophylla×N. tomentosiformis were. The results imply that the S subgenome, encoding a gene or genes inducing hybrid lethality in the cross between N. nudicaulis and N. tabacum, has one or more genomic factors that induce vitrification. Furthermore, in vitrified hybrids of N. trigonophylla×N. tabacum and N. sylvestris×N. trigonophylla, we found that nuclear fragmentation, which progresses during expression of hybrid lethality, was accompanied by vitrification. This observation suggests that vitrification has a relationship to hybrid lethality. Based on these results, we speculate that when N. nudicaulis was formed approximately 5 million years ago, several causative genomic factors determining phenotypes of hybrid seedlings were inherited from N. trigonophylla. Subsequently, genome downsizing and various recombination-based processes took place. Some of the causative genomic factors were lost and some became genomic factor(s) controlling hybrid lethality in extant N. nudicaulis. PMID:24806486

  5. Judged Lethality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    as automobile accidents and heart attacks . Approach In two experiments, estimates of lethality were elicited in four ways: (1) direct estimates of...31 6,813 2,500 Strokes 11,011 4,648 181 24,758 11,765 Heart Attacks 13,011 3,666 131 27,477 16,250 Cancer 10,889 10,475 160 21,749 37,500 Coefficient...Each Group Experiment 1 Rank of Statistical Cause of Death Lethality Rate Always Underestimated Cancer 20 Heart Attack 19 Stroke 18 Pregnancy 12

  6. Prediction of protein-peptide interactions: application of the XPairIt API to anthrax lethal factor and substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Margaret M.; Sellers, Michael S.

    2013-05-01

    As software and methodology develop, key aspects of molecular interactions such as detailed energetics and flexibility are continuously better represented in docking simulations. In the latest iteration of the XPairIt API and Docking Protocol, we perform a blind dock of a peptide into the cleavage site of the Anthrax lethal factor (LF) metalloprotein. Molecular structures are prepared from RCSB:1JKY and we demonstrate a reasonably accurate docked peptide through analysis of protein motion and, using NCI Plot, visualize and characterize the forces leading to binding. We compare our docked structure to the 1JKY crystal structure and the more recent 1PWV structure, and discuss both captured and overlooked interactions. Our results offer a more detailed look at secondary contact and show that both van der Waals and electrostatic interactions from peptide residues further from the enzyme's catalytic site are significant.

  7. Probing the S2' Subsite of the Anthrax Toxin Lethal Factor Using Novel N-Alkylated Hydroxamates.

    PubMed

    Kurbanov, Elbek K; Chiu, Ting-Lan; Solberg, Jonathan; Francis, Subhashree; Maize, Kimberly M; Fernandez, Jenna; Johnson, Rodney L; Hawkinson, Jon E; Walters, Michael A; Finzel, Barry C; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

    2015-11-12

    The lethal factor (LF) enzyme secreted by Bacillus anthracis is a zinc hydrolase that is chiefly responsible for anthrax-related cell death. Although many studies of the design of small molecule LF inhibitors have been conducted, no LF inhibitor is yet available as a therapeutic agent. Inhibitors with considerable chemical diversity have been developed and investigated; however, the LF S2' subsite has not yet been systematically explored as a potential target for lead optimization. Here we present synthesis, experimental evaluation, modeling, and structural biology for a novel series of sulfonamide hydroxamate LF inhibitor analogues specifically designed to extend into, and probe chemical preferences of, this S2' subsite. We discovered that this region accommodates a wide variety of chemical functionalities and that a broad selection of ligand structural modifications directed to this area can be incorporated without significant deleterious alterations in biological activity. We also identified key residues in this subsite that can potentially be targeted to improve inhibitor binding.

  8. Mutant p53 amplifies Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor family signaling to promote mammary tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yallowitz, Alisha; Li, Dun; Lobko, Antony; Nemajerova, Alice; Marchenko, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB2/Her2 and EGFR/ErbB1/Her1) often modulates the transcriptional program involved in promoting mammary tumorigenesis. In humans, more than 70% of ErbB2-positive sporadic breast cancers harbor p53 mutations, which correlate with poor prognosis. Also, the extremely high incidence of ErbB2-positive breast cancer in women with p53 germ-line mutations (Li-Fraumeni Syndrome) suggests the key role of mutant p53 specifically in ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. To examine the role of mutant p53 during ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis we introduced a mutant p53 R172H allele into a (MMTV)-ErbB2/Neu mouse model. We show in heterozygous p53 mice that mutp53 R172H is a more potent activator of ErbB2-mediated mammary tumorigenesis than simple loss of p53. The more aggressive disease in mutant p53 animals was reflected by earlier tumor onset, increased mammary tumor multiplicity, and shorter survival. We provide molecular evidence that mutant p53 amplifies ErbB2 and EGFR signaling to promote the expansion of mammary stem cells and induce cancer cell proliferation. This study therefore identifies mutant p53 as an essential player in ErbB2 and EGFR-mediated breast cancer and indicates the potential translational importance of targeting mutant p53 in this subset of breast cancer patients. PMID:25573952

  9. Giant peroxisomes in a moss (Physcomitrella patens) peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kamisugi, Yasuko; Mitsuya, Shiro; El-Shami, Mahmoud; Knight, Celia D; Cuming, Andrew C; Baker, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 (PEX11) proteins are found in yeasts, mammals and plants, and play a role in peroxisome morphology and regulation of peroxisome division. The moss Physcomitrella patens has six PEX11 isoforms which fall into two subfamilies, similar to those found in monocots and dicots. We carried out targeted gene disruption of the Phypa_PEX11-1 gene and compared the morphological and cellular phenotypes of the wild-type and mutant strains. The mutant grew more slowly and the development of gametophores was retarded. Mutant chloronemal filaments contained large cellular structures which excluded all other cellular organelles. Expression of fluorescent reporter proteins revealed that the mutant strain had greatly enlarged peroxisomes up to 10 μm in diameter. Expression of a vacuolar membrane marker confirmed that the enlarged structures were not vacuoles, or peroxisomes sequestered within vacuoles as a result of pexophagy. Phypa_PEX11 targeted to peroxisome membranes could rescue the knock out phenotype and interacted with Fission1 on the peroxisome membrane. Moss PEX11 functions in peroxisome division similar to PEX11 in other organisms but the mutant phenotype is more extreme and environmentally determined, making P. patens a powerful system in which to address mechanisms of peroxisome proliferation and division. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Synthetic Lethality Screen Identifies RPS6KA2 as Modifier of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Milosevic, Nada; Kühnemuth, Benjamin; Mühlberg, Leonie; Ripka, Stefanie; Griesmann, Heidi; Lölkes, Carolin; Buchholz, Malte; Aust, Daniela; Pilarsky, Christian; Krug, Sebastian; Gress, Thomas; Michl, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a high degree of resistance to chemotherapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition using the small-molecule inhibitor erlotinib was shown to provide a small survival benefit in a subgroup of patients. To identify kinases whose inhibition acts synergistically with erlotinib, we employed a kinome-wide small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based loss-of-function screen in the presence of erlotinib. Of 779 tested kinases, we identified several targets whose inhibition acted synergistically lethal with EGFR inhibition by erlotinib, among them the S6 kinase ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (RPS6KA2)/ribosomal S6 kinase 3. Activated RPS6KA2 was expressed in approximately 40% of 123 human pancreatic cancer tissues. RPS6KA2 was shown to act downstream of EGFR/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and was activated by EGF independently of the presence of KRAS mutations. Knockdown of RPS6KA2 by siRNA led to increased apoptosis only in the presence of erlotinib, whereas RPS6KA2 activation or overexpression rescued from erlotinib- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. This effect was at least in part mediated by downstream activation of ribosomal protein S6. Genetic as well as pharmacological inhibition of RPS6KA2 by the inhibitor BI-D1870 acted synergistically with erlotinib. By applying this synergistic lethality screen using a kinome-wide RNA interference-library approach, we identified RPS6KA2 as potential drug target whose inhibition synergistically enhanced the effect of erlotinib on tumor cell survival. This kinase therefore represents a promising drug candidate suitable for the development of novel inhibitors for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:24403857

  11. Exogenous transforming growth factor beta1 replacement and fertility in male Tgfb1 null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Leanne J; Ingman, Wendy V; Robker, Rebecca L; Robertson, Sarah A

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of Tgfb1 null mutant mice has demonstrated that the cytokine transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFB1) has essential non-redundant roles in fertility. The present study attempted to alleviate the infertility phenotype of Tgfb1 null mutant male mice by administration of exogenous TGFB1, either orally by colostrum feeding or subcutaneously by delivery of recombinant human latent TGFB1 (rhLTGFB1) via osmotic mini-pumps. Bovine colostrum and fresh unpasteurised bovine milk were found to be rich sources of TGFB1 and TGFB2; however, feeding Tgfb1 null mutant mice colostrum for 2 days failed to raise serum levels of TGFB1. Administration of rhLTGFB1 (approximately 150 microg in total) over 14 days to Tgfb1 null mutant mice resulted in detectable TGFB1 in serum; however, mean levels remained 10-fold less than in Tgfb1 heterozygous mice. After 7 days and 14 days of rhLTGFB1 administration, serum testosterone, spontaneous non-contact erections and mating behaviour were assessed. Despite the increased serum TGFB1, administration of rhLTGFB1 to Tgfb1 null mutant mice failed to improve these fertility parameters. It is concluded that sustained restoration of circulating latent TGFB1 to levels approaching the normal physiological range does not rescue the infertility phenotype caused by TGFB1 deficiency. Reproductive function in male Tgfb1 null mutant mice may not respond to systemic TGFB1 supplementation due to a requirement for local sources of TGFB1 at the site of action in the reproductive tract, or perturbed development during the neonatal period or puberty such that adult reproductive function is permanently impaired.

  12. Enhanced protective antibody to a mutant meningococcal factor H-binding protein with low-factor H binding

    PubMed Central

    Granoff, Dan M.; Giuntini, Serena; Gowans, Flor A.; Lujan, Eduardo; Sharkey, Kelsey; Beernink, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Meningococcal factor H-binding protein (FHbp) is an antigen in 2 serogroup B meningococcal vaccines. FHbp specifically binds human and some nonhuman primate complement FH. To investigate the effect of binding of FH to FHbp on protective antibody responses, we immunized infant rhesus macaques with either a control recombinant FHbp antigen that bound macaque FH or a mutant antigen with 2 amino acid substitutions and >250-fold lower affinity for FH. The mutant antigen elicited 3-fold higher serum IgG anti-FHbp titers and up to 15-fold higher serum bactericidal titers than the control FHbp vaccine. When comparing sera with similar IgG anti-FHbp titers, the antibodies elicited by the mutant antigen gave greater deposition of complement component C4b on live meningococci (classical complement pathway) and inhibited binding of FH, while the anti-FHbp antibodies elicited by the control vaccine enhanced FH binding. Thus, the mutant FHbp vaccine elicited an anti-FHbp antibody repertoire directed at FHbp epitopes within the FH binding site, which resulted in greater protective activity than the antibodies elicited by the control vaccine, which targeted FHbp epitopes outside of the FH combining site. Binding of a host protein to a vaccine antigen impairs protective antibody responses, which can be overcome with low-binding mutant antigens. PMID:27668287

  13. A non-Mendelian factor, [eta(+)], causes lethality of yeast omnipotent-suppressor strains.

    PubMed

    Liebman, S W; All-Robyn, J A

    1984-10-01

    Omnipotent suppressors cause translational ambiguity and have been associated with poor growth and inviability. We now report that a non-Mendelian element, [eta(+)], causes this inviability. In [eta(-)] strains the suppressors are not inviable. The [eta(+)] genetic element segregates to about 70% of the meiotic progeny, although almost all of the spores probably have the [eta(+)] phenotype for the first few divisions. Growth on 5 mM guanidine hydrochloride efficiently causes [eta(+)] strains to become [eta(-)]. The [eta(+)] factor has many similarities with the previously described [psi(+)] factor (Cox 1965, 1971). However, [eta(+)] and [psi(+)] differ in their patterns of inheritance, and by the fact that [psi(+)] affects ochre specific and not omnipotent suppressors, while the converse is true of [eta(+)].

  14. Antidotes to anthrax lethal factor intoxication. Part 3: Evaluation of core structures and further modifications to the C2-side chain.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Moayeri, Mahtab; Crown, Devorah; Thai, April; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; Sankaran, Banumathi; Lehrer, Axel; Wong, Teri; Johns, Lisa; Margosiak, Stephen A; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2012-03-15

    Four core structures capable of providing sub-nanomolar inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor (LF) were evaluated by comparing the potential for toxicity, physicochemical properties, in vitro ADME profiles, and relative efficacy in a rat lethal toxin (LT) model of LF intoxication. Poor efficacy in the rat LT model exhibited by the phenoxyacetic acid series (3) correlated with low rat microsome and plasma stability. Specific molecular interactions contributing to the high affinity of inhibitors with a secondary amine in the C2-side chain were revealed by X-ray crystallography.

  15. Protection with antibody to tumor necrosis factor differs with similarly lethal Escherichia coli versus Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in rats.

    PubMed

    Karzai, Waheedullah; Cui, Xizhong; Mehlhorn, Bjoern; Straube, Eberhard; Hartung, Thomas; Gerstenberger, Eric; Banks, Steven M; Natanson, Charles; Reinhart, Konrad; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2003-07-01

    Differing factors may alter the effects of antibody to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in infection and sepsis. The authors tested whether bacteria type or treatment route alters antibody to TNF in a rat model of bacterial pneumonia. Rats (n = 231) received similarly lethal doses of either intratracheal Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus followed by treatment with either intratracheal or intraperitoneal antibody to TNF or control serum. Animals received antibiotics (cefotiam daily dose, 100 mg/kg) starting 4 h after inoculation and were studied for up to 96 h. Compared with S. aureus, E. coli increased serum TNF and interleukin-6 concentrations, lung lavage TNF concentrations, neutrophil counts, and alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradients and decreased circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes (P > or = 0.05 for all). Compared with controls, with both bacteria, except for lung lavage TNF concentrations (which decreased with intratracheal but not with intraperitoneal antibody to TNF), treatment route did not alter the effects of antibody to TNF on any parameter (P = not significant for all). Antibody to TNF reduced mortality rates (relative risk of death +/- SEM) with both E. coli (-1.6 +/- 0.6; P = 0.006) and S. aureus (-0.5 +/- 0.04; P = 0.185), but these reductions were greater with E. coli than with S. aureus in a trend approaching statistical significance (P = 0.09). Compared with controls, similarly (P = not significant) with both bacteria, antibody to TNF decreased lung lavage and tissue bacteria concentrations (both P < 0.05) and serum TNF concentration (P < 0.09) and increased circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes (both P < or = 0.01). Compared with S. aureus, with E. coli antibody to TNF decreased alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradients (P = 0.04) and increased serum interleukin-6 concentrations (P = 0.003). Antibody to TNF improved host defense and survival rates with both lethal E. coli and S. aureus pneumonia, but protection was greater with E. coli

  16. Effect of recombinant canine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on hematopoietic recovery after otherwise lethal total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nash, R A; Schuening, F G; Seidel, K; Appelbaum, F R; Boone, T; Deeg, H J; Graham, T C; Hackman, R; Sullivan-Pepe, M; Storb, R

    1994-04-01

    Recombinant canine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF) was studied in normal dogs and in dogs receiving otherwise lethal total body irradiation (TBI) without marrow transplant. Five normal dogs receiving 25 micrograms/kg of rcGM-CSF by subcutaneous (SC) injection twice daily (BID) for 14 days showed increases in peripheral blood neutrophil counts of three to five times the baseline. Platelet counts decreased during administration of rcGM-CSF to a mean nadir of 52,800. Ten dogs received 400 cGy TBI at 10 cGy/min from two opposing 60Co sources and no marrow graft. Within 2 hours of TBI, rcGM-CSF was begun at a dose of 50 micrograms/kg SC BID for 5 doses and then continued at 25 micrograms/kg SC BID for 21 days. Only 1 of the 10 dogs receiving rcGM-CSF survived with complete and sustained recovery of hematopoiesis. One of 13 historical control dogs survived after 400 cGy with no hematopoietic growth factor or marrow infusion. Results with rcGM-CSF were compared with previous and concurrent data with G-CSF studied in the same model. Of 10 dogs receiving G-CSF, 8 survived with complete and sustained hematopoietic recovery, a significantly better survival than that seen with rcGM-CSF (P = .006). Neutrophil counts were sustained at higher levels after TBI for the first 18 days in the G-CSF group (P < .016) and the neutrophil nadirs were higher. No differences in neutrophil nadirs were noted between the rcGM-CSF and control groups. Dogs treated with rcGM-CSF experienced a more rapid decline of platelet counts than G-CSF-treated or control dogs over the first 18 days (P < .001). The nadir of the platelet count was higher in the control group than in either the G-CSF or rcGM-CSF group and no significant difference was observed between the G-CSF and rcGM-CSF groups. After otherwise lethal TBI (400 cGy) in dogs, rcGM-CSF was not effective in promoting hematopoietic recovery or improving survival.

  17. [THE RISK FACTORS OF LETHAL COMPLICATIONS IN EARLY POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD IN PATIENTS, SUFFERING GASTROESOPHAGEAL ZONE MALIGNANCIES].

    PubMed

    Dumanskiy, Yu V; Stepko, V A; Sinyachenko, O V

    2016-02-01

    Abstract The factors, determining possibility of early postoperative morbidity occurrence in patients, suffering gastro-esophageal zone cancer, were analyzed. After radical operation performance (gastrectomy, gastric and esophageal resection) 5.7% patients died. Insufficience of the anastomosis sutures with peritonitis occurrence, an acute hepato-renal insufficience, an acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary thromboembolism, pneumonia, the brain insult, pancreonecrosis and mesenterial thrombosis constituted the main morbidities. The complications occurrence depends upon the tumoral process course severity, morphological variant of cancer, presence of concomitant diaphragmatic hernia and the blood rheological properties. Initially high indices of the blood sera present a rheological properties of blood serum may serve as a prognostic criterion of the postoperative complications occurrence in the patients.

  18. Genetic defects in a His-Purkinje system transcription factor, IRX3, cause lethal cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akiko; Sasano, Tetsuo; Kimura, Wataru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Aiba, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Nogami, Akihiko; Fukamizu, Seiji; Sakurada, Harumizu; Takahashi, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ishikura, Tomoyuki; Koseki, Haruhiko; Arimura, Takuro; Kimura, Akinori; Hirao, Kenzo; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Shimizu, Wataru; Miura, Naoyuki; Furukawa, Tetsushi

    2016-05-07

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF), the main cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD), occurs most frequently in the acute phase of myocardial infarction: a certain fraction of VF, however, develops in an apparently healthy heart, referred as idiopathic VF. The contribution of perturbation in the fast conduction system in the ventricle, the His-Purkinje system, for idiopathic VF has been implicated, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Irx3/IRX3 encodes a transcription factor specifically expressed in the His-Purkinje system in the heart. Genetic deletion of Irx3 provides a mouse model of ventricular fast conduction disturbance without anatomical or contraction abnormalities. The aim of this study was to examine the link between perturbed His-Purkinje system and idiopathic VF in Irx3-null mice, and to search for IRX3 genetic defects in idiopathic VF patients in human. Telemetry electrocardiogram recording showed that Irx3-deleted mice developed frequent ventricular tachyarrhythmias mostly at night. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were enhanced by exercise and sympathetic nerve activation. In human, the sequence analysis of IRX3 exons in 130 probands of idiopathic VF without SCN5A mutations revealed two novel IRX3 mutations, 1262G>C (R421P) and 1453C>A (P485T). Ventricular fibrillation associated with physical activities in both probands with IRX3 mutations. In HL-1 cells and neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes, IRX3 transfection up-regulated SCN5A and connexin-40 mRNA, which was attenuated by IRX3 mutations. IRX3 genetic defects and resultant functional perturbation in the His-Purkinje system are novel genetic risk factors of idiopathic VF, and would improve risk stratification and preventive therapy for SCD in otherwise healthy hearts. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sensitivity of wild type and mutant ras alleles to Ras specific exchange factors: Identification of factor specific requirements.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K H; Gredsted, L; Broach, J R; Willumsen, B M

    2001-04-19

    We have investigated the productive interaction between the four mammalian Ras proteins (H-, N-, KA- and KB-Ras) and their activators, the mammalian exchange factors mSos1, GRF1 and GRP, by using a modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose growth is dependent on activation of a mammalian Ras protein by its activator. All four mammalian Ras proteins were activated with similar efficiencies by the individual exchange factors. The H-Ras mutant V103E, which is competent for membrane localization, nucleotide binding, intrinsic and stimulated GTPase activity as well as intrinsic exchange, was defective for activation by all factors tested, suggesting that the integrity of this residue is necessary for catalyzed exchange. However, when other H-Ras mutants were studied, some distinct sensitivities to the exchange factors were observed. GRP-mediated, but not mSos1-mediated, exchange was blocked in additional mutants, suggesting different structural requirements for GRP. Analysis of Ras-mediated gene activation in murine fibroblasts confirmed these results.

  20. Anti-oncogenic activity of signalling-defective epidermal growth factor receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Redemann, N; Holzmann, B; von Rüden, T; Wagner, E F; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression and autocrine activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) cause transformation of cultured cells and correlate with tumor progression in cancer patients. Dimerization and transphosphorylation are crucial events in the process by which receptors with tyrosine kinase activity generate normal and transforming cellular signals. Interruption of this process by inactive receptor mutants offers the potential to inhibit ligand-induced cellular responses. Using recombinant retroviruses, we have examined the effects of signalling-incompetent EGF-R mutants on the growth-promoting and transforming potential of ligand-activated, overexpressed wild-type EGF-R and the v-erbB oncogene product. Expression of a soluble extracellular EGF-R domain had little if any effect on the growth and transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by either tyrosine kinase. However, both a kinase-negative EGF-R point mutant (HERK721A) and an EGF-R lacking 533 C-terminal amino acids efficiently inhibited wild-type EGF-R-mediated, de novo DNA synthesis and cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, coexpression with the v-erbBES4 oncogene product in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in transphosphorylation of the HERK721A mutant receptor and reduced soft-agar colony growth but had no effect in a focus formation assay. These results demonstrate that signalling-defective receptor tyrosine kinase mutants differentially interfere with oncogenic signals generated by either overexpressed EGF-R or the retroviral v-erbBES4 oncogene product. Images PMID:1346334

  1. Differential Effects of Myopathy-Associated Caveolin-3 Mutants on Growth Factor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brauers, Eva; Dreier, Agnes; Roos, Andreas; Wormland, Berthold; Weis, Joachim; Krüttgen, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Caveolin-3 is an important scaffold protein of cholesterol-rich caveolae. Mutations of caveolin-3 cause hereditary myopathies that comprise remarkably different pathologies. Growth factor signaling plays an important role in muscle physiology; it is influenced by caveolins and cholesterol-rich rafts and might thus be affected by caveolin-3 dysfunction. Prompted by the observation of a marked chronic peripheral neuropathy in a patient suffering from rippling muscle disease due to the R26Q caveolin-3 mutation and because TrkA is expressed by neuronal cells and skeletal muscle fibers, we performed a detailed comparative study on the effect of pathogenic caveolin-3 mutants on the signaling and trafficking of the TrkA nerve growth factor receptor and, for comparison, of the epidermal growth factor receptor. We found that the R26Q mutant slightly and the P28L strongly reduced nerve growth factor signaling in TrkA-transfected cells. Surface biotinylation experiments revealed that the R26Q caveolin-3 mutation markedly reduced the internalization of TrkA, whereas the P28L did not. Moreover, P28L expression led to increased, whereas R26Q expression decreased, epidermal growth factor signaling. Taken together, we found differential effects of the R26Q and P28L caveolin-3 mutants on growth factor signaling. Our findings are of clinical interest because they might help explain the remarkable differences in the degree of muscle lesions caused by caveolin-3 mutations and also the co-occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in the R26Q caveolinopathy case presented. PMID:20472890

  2. Design of Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein Mutant Vaccines That Do Not Bind Human Complement Factor H

    PubMed Central

    Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T.

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a human species-specific ligand for the complement regulator, factor H (fH). In recent studies, fHbp vaccines in which arginine at position 41 was replaced by serine (R41S) had impaired fH binding. The mutant vaccines elicited bactericidal responses in human fH transgenic mice superior to those elicited by control fHbp vaccines that bound human fH. Based on sequence similarity, fHbp has been classified into three variant groups. Here we report that although R41 is present in fHbp from variant groups 1 and 2, the R41S substitution eliminated fH binding only in variant group 1 proteins. To identify mutants in variant group 2 with impaired fH binding, we generated fHbp structural models and predicted 63 residues influencing fH binding. From these, we created 11 mutants with one or two amino acid substitutions in a variant group 2 protein and identified six that decreased fH binding. Three of these six mutants retained conformational epitopes recognized by all six anti-fHbp monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) tested and elicited serum complement-mediated bactericidal antibody titers in wild-type mice that were not significantly different from those obtained with the control vaccine. Thus, fHbp amino acid residues that affect human fH binding differ across variant groups. This result suggests that fHbp sequence variation induced by immune selection also affects fH binding motifs via coevolution. The three new fHbp mutants from variant group 2, which do not bind human fH, retained important epitopes for eliciting bactericidal antibodies and may be promising vaccine candidates. PMID:22615247

  3. Design of meningococcal factor H binding protein mutant vaccines that do not bind human complement factor H.

    PubMed

    Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T; Granoff, Dan M

    2012-08-01

    Meningococcal factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a human species-specific ligand for the complement regulator, factor H (fH). In recent studies, fHbp vaccines in which arginine at position 41 was replaced by serine (R41S) had impaired fH binding. The mutant vaccines elicited bactericidal responses in human fH transgenic mice superior to those elicited by control fHbp vaccines that bound human fH. Based on sequence similarity, fHbp has been classified into three variant groups. Here we report that although R41 is present in fHbp from variant groups 1 and 2, the R41S substitution eliminated fH binding only in variant group 1 proteins. To identify mutants in variant group 2 with impaired fH binding, we generated fHbp structural models and predicted 63 residues influencing fH binding. From these, we created 11 mutants with one or two amino acid substitutions in a variant group 2 protein and identified six that decreased fH binding. Three of these six mutants retained conformational epitopes recognized by all six anti-fHbp monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) tested and elicited serum complement-mediated bactericidal antibody titers in wild-type mice that were not significantly different from those obtained with the control vaccine. Thus, fHbp amino acid residues that affect human fH binding differ across variant groups. This result suggests that fHbp sequence variation induced by immune selection also affects fH binding motifs via coevolution. The three new fHbp mutants from variant group 2, which do not bind human fH, retained important epitopes for eliciting bactericidal antibodies and may be promising vaccine candidates.

  4. Non-lethal assessment of freshwater mussel physiological response to changes in environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, Andrea K.; Peterson, James T.; Wisniewski, Jason M.; Bringolf, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective nonlethal biomonitoring techniques is imperative for the preservation of imperiled freshwater mussel populations. Changes in hemolymph chemistry profiles and tissue glycogen are potential biomarkers for nonlethally monitoring stress in mussels. We sampled three species in the Flint River Basin over 2 years to evaluate how these hemolymph and tissue biomarkers responded to environmental changes. We used hierarchical linear models to evaluate the relationships between variation in the biomarkers and environmental factors and found that the responses of the hemolymph and tissue parameters were strongly related to stream discharge. Shifts in alanine aminotransferase and glycogen showed the largest relations with discharge at the time of sampling, while magnesium levels were most explained by the discharge for 5 days prior to sampling. Aspartate aminotransferase, bicarbonate, and calcium showed the strongest relations with mean discharge for 15 days prior to sampling. The modeling results indicated that biomarker responses varied substantially among individuals of different size, sex, and species and illustrated the value of hierarchical modeling techniques to account for the inherent complexity of aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Elongation factor Tu mutants expand amino acid tolerance of protein biosynthesis system.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yoshio; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Takuya; Sisido, Masahiko

    2007-11-21

    Nonnatural amino acids have been introduced into proteins using expanded protein biosynthesis systems. However, some nonnatural amino acids, especially those containing large aromatic groups, are not efficiently incorporated into proteins. Reduced binding efficiency of aminoacylated tRNAs to elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is likely to limit incorporation of large amino acids. Our previous studies suggested that tRNAs carrying large nonnatural amino acids are bound less tightly to EF-Tu than natural amino acids. To expand the availability of nonnatural mutagenesis, EF-Tu from the E. coli translation system was improved to accept such large amino acids. We synthesized EF-Tu mutants, in which the binding pocket of the aminoacyl moiety of aminoacyl-tRNA was enlarged. L-1-Pyrenylalanine, L-2-pyrenylalanine, and DL-2-anthraquinonylalanine, which are hardly or only slightly incorporated with the wild-type EF-Tu, were successfully incorporated into a protein using these EF-Tu mutants.

  6. Mutations in the small subunit of the Drosophila U2AF splicing factor cause lethality and developmental defects.

    PubMed

    Rudner, D Z; Kanaar, R; Breger, K S; Rio, D C

    1996-09-17

    The essential eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF (U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein auxiliary factor) is required to specify the 3' splice at an early step in spliceosome assembly. U2AF binds site-specifically to the intron polypyrimidine tract and recruits U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein to the branch site. Human U2AF (hU2AF) is a heterodimer composed of a large (hU2AF65) and small (hU2AF35) subunit. Although these proteins associate in a tight complex, the biochemical requirement for U2AF activity can be satisfied solely by the large subunit. The requirement for the small subunit in splicing has remained enigmatic. No biochemical activity has been found for hU2AF35 and it has been implicated in splicing only indirectly by its interaction with known splicing factors. In the absence of a biochemical assay, we have taken a genetic approach to investigate the function of the small subunit in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. A cDNA clone encoding the small subunit of Drosophila U2AF (dU2AF38) has been isolated and sequenced. The dU2AF38 protein is highly homologous to hU2AF35 containing a conserved central arginine- and serine-rich (RS) domain. A recessive P-element insertion mutation affecting dU2AF38 causes a reduction in viability and fertility and morphological bristle defects. Consistent with a general role in splicing, a null allele of dU2AF38 is fully penetrant recessive lethal, like null alleles of the Drosophila U2AF large subunit.

  7. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A

    2007-03-22

    We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

  8. NMR conformational properties of an Anthrax Lethal Factor domain studied by multiple amino acid-selective labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Vourtsis, Dionysios J.; Chasapis, Christos T.; Pairas, George; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • A polypeptide, N-ALF{sub 233}, was overexpressed in E. coli and successfully isolated. • We produced {sup 2}H/{sup 15}N/{sup 13}C labeled protein samples. • Amino acid selective approaches were applied. • We acquired several heteronuclear NMR spectra, to complete the backbone assignment. • Prediction of the secondary structure was performed. - Abstract: NMR-based structural biology urgently needs cost- and time-effective methods to assist both in the process of acquiring high-resolution NMR spectra and their subsequent analysis. Especially for bigger proteins (>20 kDa) selective labeling is a frequently used means of sequence-specific assignment. In this work we present the successful overexpression of a polypeptide of 233 residues, corresponding to the structured part of the N-terminal domain of Anthrax Lethal Factor, using Escherichia coli expression system. The polypeptide was subsequently isolated in pure, soluble form and analyzed structurally by solution NMR spectroscopy. Due to the non-satisfying quality and resolution of the spectra of this 27 kDa protein, an almost complete backbone assignment became feasible only by the combination of uniform and novel amino acid-selective labeling schemes. Moreover, amino acid-type selective triple-resonance NMR experiments proved to be very helpful.

  9. Anthrax lethal factor (LF) mediated block of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) ion channel: effect of ionic strength and voltage.

    PubMed

    Neumeyer, Tobias; Tonello, Fiorella; Dal Molin, Federica; Schiffler, Bettina; Orlik, Frank; Benz, Roland

    2006-03-07

    The anthrax toxin complex consists of three different molecules, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF). The activated form of PA, PA(63), forms heptamers that insert at low pH in biological membranes forming ion channels and that are necessary to translocate EF and LF in the cell cytosol. LF and EF are intracellular active enzymes that inhibit the host immune system promoting bacterial outgrowth. Here, PA(63) was reconstituted into artificial lipid bilayer membranes and formed ion-permeable channels. The heptameric PA(63) channel contains a binding site for LF on the cis side of the channel. Full-size LF was found to block the PA(63) channel in a dose- and ionic-strength-dependent way with half-saturation constants in the nanomolar concentration range. The binding curves suggest a 1:1 relationship between (PA(63))(7) and bound LF that blocks the channel. The presence of a His(6) tag at the N-terminal end of LF strongly increases the affinity of LF toward the PA(63) channel, indicating that the interaction between LF and the PA(63) channel occurs at the N terminus of the enzyme. The LF-mediated block of the PA(63)-induced membrane conductance is highly asymmetric with respect to the sign of the applied transmembrane potential. The result suggested that the PA(63) heptamers contain a high-affinity binding site for LF inside domain 1 or the channel vestibule and that the binding is ionic-strength-dependent.

  10. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor and genetically engineered PAF receptor mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ishii, S; Shimizu, T

    2000-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a biologically active phospholipid mediator. Although PAF was initially recognized for its potential to induce platelet aggregation and secretion, intense investigations have elucidated potent biological actions of PAF in a broad range of cell types and tissues, many of which also produce the molecule. PAF acts by binding to a unique G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor. PAF receptor is linked to intracellular signal transduction pathways, including turnover of phosphatidylinositol, elevation in intracellular calcium concentration, and activation of kinases, resulting in versatile bioactions. On the basis of numerous pharmacological reports, PAF is thought to have many pathophysiological and physiological functions. Recently advanced molecular technics enable us not only to clone PAF receptor cDNAs and genes, but also generate PAF receptor mutant animals, i.e., PAF receptor-overexpressing mouse and PAF receptor-deficient mouse. These mutant mice gave us a novel and specific approach for identifying the pathophysiological and physiological functions of PAF. This review also describes the phenotypes of these mutant mice and discusses them by referring to previously reported pharmacological and genetical data.

  11. Fibroblast growth factor-23 mutants causing familial tumoral calcinosis are differentially processed.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Tobias; Davis, Siobhan I; Garringer, Holly J; Mooney, Sean D; Draman, Mohamad S; Cullen, Michael J; White, Kenneth E

    2005-09-01

    Familial tumoral calcinosis (TC, OMIM 211900) is a heritable disorder characterized by hyperphosphatemia, normal or elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and often severe ectopic calcifications. Two recessive mutations in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), serine 71/glycine (S71G) and serine 129/phenylalanine (S129F), were identified as causing TC. Herein, we undertook comprehensive biochemical analyses of an extended TC family carrying the S71G FGF23 mutation, which revealed that heterozygous (serine/glycine, S/G) individuals had elevated serum FGF23 C-terminal fragments compared with wild-type (serine/serine, S/S) family members (P < 0.025). To understand the differential processing of FGF23 in TC patients, we transiently expressed S71G as well as S129F FGF23. FGF23 ELISA in tandem with Western analyses revealed increased proteolytic cleavage of mutant FGF23 and a limited secretion of intact protein. Furthermore, S71G and S129F FGF23 carrying mutations that disrupt the furin-like protease RXXR motif in FGF23 rescued the secretion of the intact protein, and both TC mutant proteins harboring the R176Q mutation revealed no altered sensitivity to trypsin compared with the native (R176Q)FGF23. Finally, S71G, but not S129F mutant FGF23, is rescued by temperature. In summary, FGF23 mutations causing TC lead to increased intracellular proteolysis of FGF23, most likely by furin-like proteases, due to conformational changes of the mutant protein. The destabilizing nature of these mutations provides new insight into the pathophysiology of TC and exemplifies the physiological importance of FGF23 in phosphate and vitamin D metabolism.

  12. Sub-lethal oxidative stress induces lysosome biogenesis via a lysosomal membrane permeabilization-cathepsin-caspase 3-transcription factor EB-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Leow, San Min; Chua, Shu Xian Serene; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Shen, Liang; Luo, Le; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2016-12-18

    Here we provide evidence to link sub-lethal oxidative stress to lysosomal biogenesis. Exposure of cells to sub-lethal concentrations of exogenously added hydrogen peroxide resulted in cytosol to nuclear translocation of the Transcription Factor EB (TFEB), the master controller of lysosome biogenesis and function. Nuclear translocation of TFEB was dependent upon the activation of a cathepsin-caspase 3 signaling pathway, downstream of a lysosomal membrane permeabilization and accompanied by a significant increase in lysosome numbers as well as induction of TFEB dependent lysosome-associated genes expression such as Ctsl, Lamp2 and its spliced variant Lamp2a, Neu1and Ctsb and Sqstm1 and Atg9b. The effects of sub-lethal oxidative stress on lysosomal gene expression and biogenesis were rescued upon gene silencing of caspase 3 and TFEB. Notably, caspase 3 activation was not associated with phenotypic hallmarks of apoptosis, evidenced by the absence of caspase 3 substrate cleavage, such as PARP, Lamin A/C or gelsolin. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time an unexpected and non-canonical role of a cathepsin-caspase 3 axis in the nuclear translocation of TFEB leading to lysosomes biogenesis under conditions of sub-lethal oxidative stress.

  13. Anthrax lethal toxin inhibits translation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and causes decreased tolerance to hypoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Weiming; Torigoe, Chikako; Fang, Hui; Xie, Tao; Frucht, David M

    2014-02-14

    Hypoxia is considered to be a contributor to the pathology associated with administration of anthrax lethal toxin (LT). However, we report here that serum lactate levels in LT-treated mice are reduced, a finding inconsistent with the anaerobic metabolism expected to occur during hypoxia. Reduced lactate levels are also observed in the culture supernatants of LT-treated cells. LT inhibits the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a subunit of HIF-1, the master regulator directing cellular responses to hypoxia. The toxin has no effect on the transcription or protein turnover of HIF-1α, but instead it acts to inhibit HIF-1α translation. LT treatment diminishes phosphorylation of eIF4B, eIF4E, and rpS6, critical components of the intracellular machinery required for HIF-1α translation. Moreover, blockade of MKK1/2-ERK1/2, but not p38 or JNK signaling, lowers HIF-1α protein levels in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, consistent with a role for MKK1 and MKK2 as the major targets of LT responsible for the inhibition of HIF-1α translation. The physiological importance of the LT-induced translation blockade is demonstrated by the finding that LT treatment decreases the survival of hepatocyte cell lines grown in hypoxic conditions, an effect that is overcome by preinduction of HIF-1α. Taken together, these data support a role for LT in dysregulating HIF-1α and thereby disrupting homeostatic responses to hypoxia, an environmental characteristic of certain tissues at baseline and/or during disseminated infection with Bacillus anthracis.

  14. The activating transcription factor 3 protein suppresses the oncogenic function of mutant p53 proteins.

    PubMed

    Wei, Saisai; Wang, Hongbo; Lu, Chunwan; Malmut, Sarah; Zhang, Jianqiao; Ren, Shumei; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Wei; Tang, Dale D; Yan, Chunhong

    2014-03-28

    Mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) often acquire oncogenic activities, conferring drug resistance and/or promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Although it has been well established that such a gain of function is mainly achieved through interaction with transcriptional regulators, thereby modulating cancer-associated gene expression, how the mutp53 function is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) bound common mutp53 (e.g. R175H and R273H) and, subsequently, suppressed their oncogenic activities. ATF3 repressed mutp53-induced NFKB2 expression and sensitized R175H-expressing cancer cells to cisplatin and etoposide treatments. Moreover, ATF3 appeared to suppress R175H- and R273H-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion as a consequence of preventing the transcription factor p63 from inactivation by mutp53. Accordingly, ATF3 promoted the expression of the metastasis suppressor SHARP1 in mutp53-expressing cells. An ATF3 mutant devoid of the mutp53-binding domain failed to disrupt the mutp53-p63 binding and, thus, lost the activity to suppress mutp53-mediated migration, suggesting that ATF3 binds to mutp53 to suppress its oncogenic function. In line with these results, we found that down-regulation of ATF3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis in TP53-mutated human lung cancer. We conclude that ATF3 can suppress mutp53 oncogenic function, thereby contributing to tumor suppression in TP53-mutated cancer.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Formyl-Methionyl Transferase Mutants Demonstrate Reduced Virulence Factor Production and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; DeMarsh, Peter; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection. PMID:23571548

  16. Transcription-coupled DNA repair in yeast transcription factor IIE (TFIIE) mutants.

    PubMed

    Lommel, L; Gregory, S M; Becker, K I; Sweder, K S

    2000-02-01

    We examined the role of yeast transcription initiation factor IIE (TFIIE) in eukaryotic transcription-coupled repair (TCR), the preferential removal of DNA damage from the transcribed strands of genes over non-transcribed sequences. TFIIE can recruit the transcription initiation/repair factor TFIIH to the RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) initiation complex to facilitate promoter clearance. Following exposure to UV radiation, the RNA pol II elongation complex is blocked at sites of UV-induced DNA damage, and may be recognized by nucleotide excision repair proteins, thus enabling TCR. The TFA1 gene encodes the large subunit of TFIIE. We determined how DNA repair is affected by TFA1 conditional mutations. In particular, we find proficient TCR in a heat-sensitive tfa1 mutant at the non-permissive temperature during which growth is inhibited and overall RNA pol II transcription is reported to be inhibited. We demonstrate that transcription of the RPB2 gene was reduced, but readily detectable, in the heat-sensitive tfa1 mutant at the non-permissive temperature and thereby prove that TCR does occur in an expressed gene in the absence of TFIIE in vivo. We demonstrate that TCR occurs even at low levels of transcription.

  17. T cell-mediated lethal shock triggered in mice by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B: critical role of tumor necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Because mice are more resistant than humans to the pathogenic effects of bacterial toxins, we used D-Galactosamine- (D-Gal) sensitized mice as a model system to evaluate potential toxic shock symptoms triggered by the superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). We show that similar to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) [LPS], the exotoxin SEB causes lethal shock within 8 h in D-Gal-sensitized mice, inducing 100% and about 50% lethality with 20 and 2 micrograms SEB, respectively. The lethal shock triggered by the superantigen SEB is mediated by T cells, a conclusion based on the observation that T cell repopulation of SCID mice conferred sensitivity to SEB. Since CSA also conferred protection, the role of T cell-derived lymphokines in mediating lethal shock was evaluated. Within 30-60 min after SEB injection, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels peaked, followed immediately by interleukin-2 (IL- 2). Serum-borne lymphokines were detected well in advance of signs of T cell activation, as assessed by IL-2 receptor expression of SEB- reactive V beta 8+ T cells. Passive immunization with anti-TNF- alpha/beta-neutralizing monoclonal antibody also conferred protection, indicating that it is TNF which is critical for initiating toxic shock symptoms. Taken together, this study defines basic differences between endotoxin (LPS)- and exotoxin (SEB)-mediated lethal shock, in that the former is mediated by macrophages and the latter by T cells. Yet the pathogenesis distal to the lymphokine/cytokine-producing cells appears surprisingly similar in that TNF represents a key mediator in inducing shock. PMID:1730929

  18. Loss of Mig6 accelerates initiation and progression of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor-driven lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Tapan K.; Venugopalan, Abhilash; Linnoila, Ilona; Cultraro, Constance M.; Giannakou, Andreas; Nemati, Roxanne; Zhang, Xu; Webster, Joshua D.; Ritt, Daniel; Ghosal, Sarani; Hoschuetzky, Heinz; Simpson, R. Mark; Biswas, Romi; Politi, Katerina; Morrison, Deborah K.; Varmus, Harold E.; Guha, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain drive lung adenocarcinoma. We have previously identified MIG6, an inhibitor of ERBB signaling and a potential tumor suppressor, as a target for phosphorylation by mutant EGFRs. Here we demonstrate that Mig6 is a tumor suppressor for the initiation and progression of mutant EGFR-driven lung adenocarcinoma in mouse models. Mutant EGFR-induced lung tumor formation was accelerated in Mig6-deficient mice, even with Mig6 haploinsufficiency. We demonstrate that constitutive phosphorylation of MIG6 at Y394/395 in EGFR-mutant human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines is associated with an increased interaction of MIG6 with mutant EGFR, which may stabilize EGFR protein. MIG6 also fails to promote mutant EGFR degradation. We propose a model whereby increased tyrosine phosphorylation of MIG6 decreases its capacity to inhibit mutant EGFR. Nonetheless, the residual inhibition is sufficient for Mig6 to delay mutant EGFR-driven tumor initiation and progression in mouse models. PMID:25735773

  19. Mutant Huntingtin promotes autonomous microglia activation via myeloid lineage-determining factors

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, A.; Benner, C.; Kerman, B.; Gosselin, D.; Lagier-Tourenne, C.; Zuccato, C.; Cattaneo, E.; Gage, F.H.; Cleveland, D.W.; Glass, C.K.

    2014-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by an extended polyglutamine repeat in the N-terminus of the Huntingtin protein (HTT). Reactive microglia and elevated cytokine levels are observed in the brains of HD patients, but the extent to which neuroinflammation results from extrinsic or cell-autonomous mechanisms within microglia is unknown. Using genome-wide approaches, we show that expression of mutant Huntingtin (mHTT) in microglia promotes cell-autonomous pro-inflammatory transcriptional activation by increasing the expression and transcriptional activities of the myeloid lineage-determining factors PU.1 and C/EBPs. Elevated levels of PU.1 and its target genes are observed in the brains of mouse models and HD individuals. Moreover, mutant Huntingtin-expressing microglia exhibit an increased capacity to induce neuronal death ex vivo and in vivo in the presence of sterile inflammation. These findings suggest a cell autonomous basis for enhanced microglia reactivity that may influence non-cell autonomous HD pathogenesis. PMID:24584051

  20. Nucleotide-binding properties of kinase-deficient epidermal-growth-factor-receptor mutants.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1998-02-15

    The nucleotide-binding properties of wild-type epidermal- growth-factor (EGF)-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and EGF-receptor mutants with site-specific amino acid substitutions known to attenuate protein kinase activity were analysed by a fluorescence competition assay employing the nucleotide analogue 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Binding affinities for ATP and Mn.ATP complex were determined for the PTK domains of the wild-type and two mutant proteins. Surprisingly, mutation of the highly conserved Lys-721 residue in the nucleotide-binding site of the EGF- receptor PTK domain did not abolish ATP and Mn.ATP binding, although the binding affinity for the Mn.ATP complex was significantly reduced. A second kinase-inactivating mutation that targeted the highly conserved Asp-813 residue had little effect on the nucleotide-binding properties of the EGF-receptor PTK domain. These results indicated that the principle effect of these two kinase-inactivating amino acid substitutions is not to block nucleotide binding, but is instead an inhibition of the phospho-transfer reaction.

  1. Nucleotide-binding properties of kinase-deficient epidermal-growth-factor-receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, K; Koland, J G

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding properties of wild-type epidermal- growth-factor (EGF)-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and EGF-receptor mutants with site-specific amino acid substitutions known to attenuate protein kinase activity were analysed by a fluorescence competition assay employing the nucleotide analogue 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate.Binding affinities for ATP and Mn.ATP complex were determined for the PTK domains of the wild-type and two mutant proteins. Surprisingly, mutation of the highly conserved Lys-721 residue in the nucleotide-binding site of the EGF- receptor PTK domain did not abolish ATP and Mn.ATP binding, although the binding affinity for the Mn.ATP complex was significantly reduced. A second kinase-inactivating mutation that targeted the highly conserved Asp-813 residue had little effect on the nucleotide-binding properties of the EGF-receptor PTK domain. These results indicated that the principle effect of these two kinase-inactivating amino acid substitutions is not to block nucleotide binding, but is instead an inhibition of the phospho-transfer reaction. PMID:9461530

  2. Risk Factors Associated With Near-Lethal Suicide Attempts During Incarceration Among Men in the Spanish Prison System.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Francisco Caravaca; Fearn, Noelle; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Studies conducted worldwide indicate that near-lethal suicide attempts are common among incarcerated populations. However, little research attention has been focused on the Spanish prison population. To address this gap in the literature, data were drawn from a sample of men ( N = 2,270) incarcerated in seven prisons in Spain. We compared sociodemographic, criminal/offense, health and mental health, and life events in prison variables between inmates who reported making near-lethal suicide attempts ( n = 616) and those who did not ( n = 1,654) during their current incarceration term. A series of binary and multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that a variety of variables were associated ( p values < .001) with near-lethal suicide attempts, including prior-to-prison employment status, family members in prison, recidivist in prison, childhood trauma, work status in prison, and disciplinary infractions. Our study findings are discussed in light of developing more effective strategies and prevention interventions to reduce attempted suicide in the Spanish Prison System.

  3. Characterization of FNR* mutant proteins indicates two distinct mechanisms for altering oxygen regulation of the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, D M; Lazazzera, B A; Kiley, P J

    1995-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the mechanism by which the Escherichia coli transcription factor FNR* is activated in response to anaerobiosis, we have analyzed FNR mutant proteins which, unlike the wild-type protein, stimulate gene expression in the presence of oxygen in vivo. Cell extracts containing seven different FNR* mutant proteins were tested in vitro for the ability to bind to the FNR consensus DNA site in a gel retardation assay under aerobic conditions. At the concentration of protein tested, only extracts which contained FNR* mutant proteins with amino acid substitutions at position 154 showed significant DNA binding. The three position-154 FNR* mutant proteins could be further distinguished from the other mutant proteins by analysis of the in vivo phenotypes of FNR* proteins containing amino acid substitutions at either of two essential cysteine residues. In the presence of oxygen, FNR* mutant proteins with amino acid substitutions at position 154 were the least affected when either Cys-23 or Cys-122 was substituted for Ser. On the basis of these in vivo and in vitro analyses, FNR* mutant proteins appear to segregate into at least two classes. Thus, it appears that each class of FNR* substitutions alters the normal pathway of FNR activation in response to oxygen deprivation by a different mechanism. PMID:7608069

  4. Distinct deregulation of the hypoxia inducible factor by PHD2 mutants identified in germline DNA of patients with polycythemia

    PubMed Central

    Ladroue, Charline; Hoogewijs, David; Gad, Sophie; Carcenac, Romain; Storti, Federica; Barrois, Michel; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Leporrier, Michel; Casadevall, Nicole; Hermine, Olivier; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Baruchel, André; Fakhoury, Fadi; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Feunteun, Jean; Mazure, Nathalie; Pouysségur, Jacques; Wenger, Roland H.; Richard, Stéphane; Gardie, Betty

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital secondary erythrocytoses are due to deregulation of hypoxia inducible factor resulting in overproduction of erythropoietin. The most common germline mutation identified in the hypoxia signaling pathway is the Arginine 200-Tryptophan mutant of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene, resulting in Chuvash polycythemia. This mutant displays a weak deficiency in hypoxia inducible factor α regulation and does not promote tumorigenesis. Other von Hippel-Lindau mutants with more deleterious effects are responsible for von Hippel-Lindau disease, which is characterized by the development of multiple tumors. Recently, a few mutations in gene for the prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 protein (PHD2) have been reported in cases of congenital erythrocytosis not associated with tumor formation with the exception of one patient with a recurrent extra-adrenal paraganglioma. Design and Methods Five PHD2 variants, four of which were novel, were identified in patients with erythrocytosis. These PHD2 variants were functionally analyzed and compared with the PHD2 mutant previously identified in a patient with polycythemia and paraganglioma. The capacity of PHD2 to regulate the activity, stability and hydroxylation of hypoxia inducible factor α was assessed using hypoxia-inducible reporter gene, one-hybrid and in vitro hydroxylation assays, respectively. Results This functional comparative study showed that two categories of PHD2 mutants could be distinguished: one category with a weak deficiency in hypoxia inducible factor α regulation and a second one with a deleterious effect; the mutant implicated in tumor occurrence belongs to the second category. Conclusions As observed with germline von Hippel-Lindau mutations, there are functional differences between the PHD2 mutants with regards to hypoxia inducible factor regulation. PHD2 mutation carriers do, therefore, need careful medical follow-up, since some mutations must be considered as potential candidates for

  5. The Structure of Mlc Titration Factor A (MtfA/YeeI) Reveals a Prototypical Zinc Metallopeptidase Related to Anthrax Lethal Factor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingping; Göhler, Anna-Katharina; Kosfeld, Anne; Carlton, Dennis; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    MtfA of Escherichia coli (formerly YeeI) was previously identified as a regulator of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent:glucose phosphotransferase system. MtfA homolog proteins are highly conserved, especially among beta- and gammaproteobacteria. We determined the crystal structures of the full-length MtfA apoenzyme from Klebsiella pneumoniae and its complex with zinc (holoenzyme) at 2.2 and 1.95 Å, respectively. MtfA contains a conserved H149E150XXH153+E212+Y205 metallopeptidase motif. The presence of zinc in the active site induces significant conformational changes in the region around Tyr205 compared to the conformation of the apoenzyme. Additionally, the zinc-bound MtfA structure is in a self-inhibitory conformation where a region that was disordered in the unliganded structure is now observed in the active site and a nonproductive state of the enzyme is formed. MtfA is related to the catalytic domain of the anthrax lethal factor and the Mop protein involved in the virulence of Vibrio cholerae, with conservation in both overall structure and in the residues around the active site. These results clearly provide support for MtfA as a prototypical zinc metallopeptidase (gluzincin clan). PMID:22467785

  6. Enzymic degradation of plasma arginine using arginine deiminase inhibits nitric oxide production and protects mice from the lethal effects of tumour necrosis factor alpha and endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J Brandon; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Ensor, C Mark; Bomalaski, John S; Clark, Mike A

    2002-01-01

    Septic shock is mediated in part by nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). NO is synthesized primarily from extracellular arginine. We tested the ability of an arginine-degrading enzyme to inhibit NO production in mice and to protect mice from the hypotension and lethality that occur after the administration of TNFalpha or endotoxin. Treatment of BALB/c mice with arginine deiminase (ADI) formulated with succinimidyl succinimide polyethylene glycol of M(r) 20000 (ADI-SS PEG(20000)) eliminated all measurable plasma arginine (from normal levels of approximately 155 microM arginine to 2 microM). In addition, ADI-SS PEG(20000) also inhibited the production of NO, as quantified by plasma nitrate+nitrite. Treatment of mice with TNFalpha or endotoxin resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO production and lethality. Pretreatment of mice with ADI-SS PEG(20000) resulted in increased resistance to the lethal effects of TNFalpha and endotoxin. These observations are consistent with NO production resulting, to some extent, from the metabolism of extracellular arginine. The toxic effects of TNFalpha and endotoxin may be partially inhibited by enzymic degradation of plasma arginine by ADI-SS PEG(20000). Interestingly, pretreatment with ADI-SS PEG(20000) did not inhibit the anti-tumour activity of TNFalpha in vitro or in vivo. This treatment may allow greater amounts of TNFalpha, as well as other cytokines, to be administered while abrogating side effects such as hypotension and death. PMID:11964159

  7. Mutant SOD1-expressing astrocytes release toxic factors that trigger motoneuron death by inducing hyperexcitability

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Elsa; Izaurieta, Pamela; Weiss, Alexandra; Mir, Franco R.; Rojas, Patricio; Gonzalez, David; Rojas, Fabiola; Brown, Robert H.; Madrid, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating paralytic disorder caused by dysfunction and degeneration of motoneurons starting in adulthood. Recent studies using cell or animal models document that astrocytes expressing disease-causing mutations of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) contribute to the pathogenesis of ALS by releasing a neurotoxic factor(s). Neither the mechanism by which this neurotoxic factor induces motoneuron death nor its cellular site of action has been elucidated. Here we show that acute exposure of primary wild-type spinal cord cultures to conditioned medium derived from astrocytes expressing mutant SOD1 (ACM-hSOD1G93A) increases persistent sodium inward currents (PCNa), repetitive firing, and intracellular calcium transients, leading to specific motoneuron death days later. In contrast to TTX, which paradoxically increased twofold the amplitude of calcium transients and killed motoneurons, reduction of hyperexcitability by other specific (mexiletine) and nonspecific (spermidine and riluzole) blockers of voltage-sensitive sodium (Nav) channels restored basal calcium transients and prevented motoneuron death induced by ACM-hSOD1G93A. These findings suggest that riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug with known benefits for ALS patients, acts by inhibiting hyperexcitability. Together, our data document that a critical element mediating the non-cell-autonomous toxicity of ACM-hSOD1G93A on motoneurons is increased excitability, an observation with direct implications for therapy of ALS. PMID:23486205

  8. Stationary Phase-Specific Virulence Factor Overproduction by a lasR Mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Cabeen, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Secreted virulence factors of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are often under quorum sensing control. Cells lacking the quorum-sensing regulator LasR show reduced virulence factor production under typical laboratory conditions and are hypo-virulent in short-term animal infection models, yet lasR mutants are frequently associated with long-term infection in cystic fibrosis patients. Here, I show that in stationary-phase or slow-growth conditions, lasR cells continuously and strongly produce the important virulence factor pyocyanin while wild-type cells do not. Pyocyanin overproduction by lasR cells is permitted by loss of repression by RsaL, a LasR-dependent negative regulator. lasR cells also contribute pyocyanin in mixed cultures, even under “cheating” conditions where they depend on their wild-type neighbors for nutrients. Finally, some clinical P. aeruginosa isolates with lasR mutations can overproduce pyocyanin in the laboratory. These results imply that slow-growing clinical populations of lasR cells in chronic infections may contribute to virulence by producing pyocyanin under conditions where lasR+ cells do not. PMID:24533146

  9. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP selectively regulates mutant epidermal growth factor receptor by ubiquitination and degradation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chaeuk; Yoo, Geon; Kim, Tackhoon; Lee, Dahye; Lee, Choong-Sik; Cha, Hye Rim; Park, Yeon Hee; Moon, Jae Young; Jung, Sung Soo; Kim, Ju Ock; Lee, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Myoungrin; Park, Dong Il; Lim, Dae-Sik; Jang, Kang Won; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-10-14

    Somatic mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a decisive factor for the therapeutic response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in lung adenocarcinoma. The stability of mutant EGFR is maintained by various regulators, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). The C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a Hsp70/Hsp90 co-chaperone and exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The high-affinity Hsp90-CHIP complex recognizes and selectively regulates their client proteins. CHIP also works with its own E3 ligase activity independently of Hsp70/Hsp90. Here, we investigated the role of CHIP in regulating EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma and also evaluated the specificity of CHIP's effects on mutant EGFR. In HEK 293T cells transfected with either WT EGFR or EGFR mutants, the overexpression of CHIP selectively decreased the expression of certain EGFR mutants (G719S, L747_E749del A750P and L858R) but not WT EGFR. In a pull-down assay, CHIP selectively interacted with EGFR mutants and simultaneously induced their ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The expressions of mutant EGFR in PC9 and H1975 were diminished by CHIP, while the expression of WT EGFR in A549 was nearly not affected. In addition, CHIP overexpression inhibited cell proliferation and xenograft's tumor growth of EGFR mutant cell lines, but not WT EGFR cell lines. EGFR mutant specific ubiquitination by CHIP may provide a crucial regulating mechanism for EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that CHIP can be novel therapeutic target for overcoming the EGFR TKI resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comprehensive analysis of the importance of translation initiation factors for Haloferax volcanii applying deletion and conditional depletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Gäbel, Katrin; Schmitt, Jessica; Schulz, Sebastian; Näther, Daniela J; Soppa, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Translation is an important step in gene expression. The initiation of translation is phylogenetically diverse, since currently five different initiation mechanisms are known. For bacteria the three initiation factors IF1 - IF3 are described in contrast to archaea and eukaryotes, which contain a considerably higher number of initiation factor genes. As eukaryotes and archaea use a non-overlapping set of initiation mechanisms, orthologous proteins of both domains do not necessarily fulfill the same function. The genome of Haloferax volcanii contains 14 annotated genes that encode (subunits of) initiation factors. To gain a comprehensive overview of the importance of these genes, it was attempted to construct single gene deletion mutants of all genes. In 9 cases single deletion mutants were successfully constructed, showing that the respective genes are not essential. In contrast, the genes encoding initiation factors aIF1, aIF2γ, aIF5A, aIF5B, and aIF6 were found to be essential. Factors aIF1A and aIF2β are encoded by two orthologous genes in H. volcanii. Attempts to generate double mutants failed in both cases, indicating that also these factors are essential. A translatome analysis of one of the single aIF2β deletion mutants revealed that the translational efficiency of the second ortholog was enhanced tenfold and thus the two proteins can replace one another. The phenotypes of the single deletion mutants also revealed that the two aIF1As and aIF2βs have redundant but not identical functions. Remarkably, the gene encoding aIF2α, a subunit of aIF2 involved in initiator tRNA binding, could be deleted. However, the mutant had a severe growth defect under all tested conditions. Conditional depletion mutants were generated for the five essential genes. The phenotypes of deletion mutants and conditional depletion mutants were compared to that of the wild-type under various conditions, and growth characteristics are discussed.

  11. RAI1 transcription factor activity is impaired in mutants associated with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Canales, Cesar P; Cao, Lei; Perez, Irene C; Srivastava, Anand K; Young, Juan I; Walz, Katherina

    2012-01-01

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a complex genomic disorder mostly caused by the haploinsufficiency of the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 gene (RAI1), located in the chromosomal region 17p11.2. In a subset of SMS patients, heterozygous mutations in RAI1 are found. Here we investigate the molecular properties of these mutated forms and their relationship with the resulting phenotype. We compared the clinical phenotype of SMS patients carrying a mutation in RAI1 coding region either in the N-terminal or the C-terminal half of the protein and no significant differences were found. In order to study the molecular mechanism related to these two groups of RAI1 mutations first we analyzed those mutations that result in the truncated protein corresponding to the N-terminal half of RAI1 finding that they have cytoplasmic localization (in contrast to full length RAI1) and no ability to activate the transcription through an endogenous target: the BDNF enhancer. Similar results were found in lymphoblastoid cells derived from a SMS patient carrying RAI1 c.3103insC, where both mutant and wild type products of RAI1 were detected. The wild type form of RAI1 was found in the chromatin bound and nuclear matrix subcellular fractions while the mutant product was mainly cytoplasmic. In addition, missense mutations at the C-terminal half of RAI1 presented a correct nuclear localization but no activation of the endogenous target. Our results showed for the first time a correlation between RAI1 mutations and abnormal protein function plus they suggest that a reduction of total RAI1 transcription factor activity is at the heart of the SMS clinical presentation.

  12. Hypopigmentation and maternal-zygotic embryonic lethality caused by a hypomorphic mbtps1 mutation in mice.

    PubMed

    Rutschmann, Sophie; Crozat, Karine; Li, Xiaohong; Du, Xin; Hanselman, Jeffrey C; Shigeoka, Alana A; Brandl, Katharina; Popkin, Daniel L; McKay, Dianne B; Xia, Yu; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Beutler, Bruce

    2012-04-01

    The site 1 protease, encoded by Mbtps1, mediates the initial cleavage of site 2 protease substrates, including sterol regulatory element binding proteins and CREB/ATF transcription factors. We demonstrate that a hypomorphic mutation of Mbtps1 called woodrat (wrt) caused hypocholesterolemia, as well as progressive hypopigmentation of the coat, that appears to be mechanistically unrelated. Hypopigmentation was rescued by transgenic expression of wild-type Mbtps1, and reciprocal grafting studies showed that normal pigmentation depended upon both cell-intrinsic or paracrine factors, as well as factors that act systemically, both of which are lacking in wrt homozygotes. Mbtps1 exhibited a maternal-zygotic effect characterized by fully penetrant embryonic lethality of maternal-zygotic wrt mutant offspring and partial embryonic lethality (~40%) of zygotic wrt mutant offspring. Mbtps1 is one of two maternal-zygotic effect genes identified in mammals to date. It functions nonredundantly in pigmentation and embryogenesis.

  13. PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs from Physcomitrella patens are active in Arabidopsis and complement the pif quadruple mutant.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tengfei; Hiltbrunner, Andreas

    2017-10-06

    Phytochromes are red/far-red light receptors in plants involved in the regulation of growth and development in response to changes in the ambient environment. An important mode of action of plant phytochromes depends on their light-regulated relocation from the cytosol into the nucleus and control of gene expression; in addition, there is also evidence for a cytosolic or plasma membrane associated function of phytochromes in different species. The PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) form a subgroup of the bHLH transcription factors and it is well established that PIFs are key components of phytochrome downstream signalling in the nucleus of seed plants. Recent studies identified members of the PIF family also in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the moss Physcomitrella patens. Here, we show that all four potential PIF homologs from Physcomitrella have PIF function when expressed in the Arabidopsis pifQ mutant, which is deficient in multiple PIFs. We propose that PIFs are ancient components of nuclear phytochrome signalling that have emerged in the last common ancestor of today's land plants.

  14. Chemical Chaperones Improve Protein Secretion and Rescue Mutant Factor VIII in Mice with Hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Milanov, Peter; Abriss, Daniela; Ungerer, Christopher; Quade-Lyssy, Patricia; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Pepperkok, Rainer; Seifried, Erhard; Tonn, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Inefficient intracellular protein trafficking is a critical issue in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases and in recombinant protein production. Here we investigated the trafficking of factor VIII (FVIII), which is affected in the coagulation disorder hemophilia A. We hypothesized that chemical chaperones may be useful to enhance folding and processing of FVIII in recombinant protein production, and as a therapeutic approach in patients with impaired FVIII secretion. A tagged B-domain-deleted version of human FVIII was expressed in cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary cells to mimic the industrial production of this important protein. Of several chemical chaperones tested, the addition of betaine resulted in increased secretion of FVIII, by increasing solubility of intracellular FVIII aggregates and improving transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi. Similar results were obtained in experiments monitoring recombinant full-length FVIII. Oral betaine administration also increased FVIII and factor IX (FIX) plasma levels in FVIII or FIX knockout mice following gene transfer. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo applications of betaine were also able to rescue a trafficking-defective FVIII mutant (FVIIIQ305P). We conclude that chemical chaperones such as betaine might represent a useful treatment concept for hemophilia and other diseases caused by deficient intracellular protein trafficking. PMID:22973456

  15. Thiamine-Auxotrophic Mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 Are Defective in Cell-Cell Signaling and Biocontrol Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dubuis, Christophe; Rolli, Joëlle; Lutz, Matthias; Défago, Geneviève; Haas, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, the Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway positively controls the synthesis of antifungal secondary metabolites and exoenzymes. In this way, the GacS/GacA two-component system determines the expression of three small regulatory RNAs (RsmX, RsmY, and RsmZ) in a process activated by the strain's own signal molecules, which are not related to N-acyl-homoserine lactones. Transposon Tn5 was used to isolate P. fluorescens CHA0 insertion mutants that expressed an rsmZ-gfp fusion at reduced levels. Five of these mutants were gacS negative, and in them the gacS mutation could be complemented for exoproduct and signal synthesis by the gacS wild-type allele. Furthermore, two thiamine-auxotrophic (thiC) mutants that exhibited decreased signal synthesis in the presence of 5 × 10−8 M thiamine were found. Under these conditions, a thiC mutant grew normally but showed reduced expression of the three small RNAs, the exoprotease AprA, and the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. In a gnotobiotic system, a thiC mutant was impaired for biological control of Pythium ultimum on cress. Addition of excess exogenous thiamine restored all deficiencies of the mutant. Thus, thiamine appears to be an important factor in the expression of biological control by P. fluorescens. PMID:16597964

  16. Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and TGFβ3) Null-Mutant Phenotypes in Embryonic Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Mushtaq A.; Anway, Matthew D.; Covert, Trevor R.; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Skinner, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    The role transforming growth factor beta (TGFb) isoforms TGFb1, TGFb2 and TGFb3 have in the regulation of embryonic gonadal development was investigated with the use of null-mutant (i.e. knockout) mice for each of the TGFb isoforms. Late embryonic gonadal development was investigated because homozygote TGFb null-mutant mice generally die around birth, with some embryonic loss as well. In the testis, the TGFb1 null-mutant mice had a decrease in the number of germ cells at birth, postnatal day 0 (P0). In the testis, the TGFb2 null-mutant mice had a decrease in the number of seminiferous cords at embryonic day 15 (E15). In the ovary, the TGFb2 null-mutant mice had an increase in the number of germ cells at P0. TGFb isoforms appear to have a role in gonadal development, but interactions between the isoforms is speculated to compensate in the different TGFb isoform null-mutant mice. PMID:18790002

  17. Investigation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera against anthrax toxins resulted in identification of an anti-lethal factor antibody with disease-enhancing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Parul; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Priyanka; Joon, Shikha; Sinha, Subrata; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-12-01

    Hybridomas were created using spleen of mice that were actively immunized with rLFn (recombinant N-terminal domain of lethal factor). Later on, separate group of mice were immunized with rLFn to obtain a polyclonal control for passive immunization studies of monoclonal antibodies. This led to the identification of one cohort of rLFn-immnized mice that harboured disease-enhancing polyclonal antibodies. At the same time, the monoclonal antibodies secreted by all the hybridomas were being tested. Two hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies (H10 and H8) that were cross-reactive with EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor), while the other two hybridomas secreted LF-specific antibodies (H7 and H11). Single chain variable fragment (LETscFv) was derived from H10 hybridoma. H11 was found to have disease-enhancing property. Combination of H11 with protective monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) reduced its disease enhancing nature. This in vitro abrogation of disease-enhancement provides the proof of concept that in polyclonal sera the disease enhancing character of a fraction of antibodies is overshadowed by the protective nature of the rest of the antibodies generated on active immunization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A Dictyostelium mutant lacking an F-actin cross-linking protein, the 120-kD gelation factor

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Actin-binding proteins are known to regulate in vitro the assembly of actin into supramolecular structures, but evidence for their activities in living nonmuscle cells is scarce. Amebae of Dictyostelium discoideum are nonmuscle cells in which mutants defective in several actin-binding proteins have been described. Here we characterize a mutant deficient in the 120-kD gelation factor, one of the most abundant F-actin cross- linking proteins of D. discoideum cells. No F-actin cross-linking activity attributable to the 120-kD protein was detected in mutant cell extracts, and antibodies recognizing different epitopes on the polypeptide showed the entire protein was lacking. Under the conditions used, elimination of the gelation factor did not substantially alter growth, shape, motility, or chemotactic orientation of the cells towards a cAMP source. Aggregates of the mutant developed into fruiting bodies consisting of normally differentiated spores and stalk cells. In cytoskeleton preparations a dense network of actin filaments as typical of the cell cortex, and bundles as they extend along the axis of filopods, were recognized. A significant alteration found was an enhanced accumulation of actin in cytoskeletons of the mutant when cells were stimulated with cyclic AMP. Our results indicate that control of cell shape and motility does not require the fine-tuned interactions of all proteins that have been identified as actin-binding proteins by in vitro assays. PMID:1698791

  19. Low susceptibility of NC/Nga mice to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated lethality and hepatocellular damage with D-galactosamine sensitization.

    PubMed

    Koide, Naoki; Morikawa, Akiko; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Yokochi, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    The susceptibility of NC/Nga mice to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was examined by using sensitization with d-galactosamine (d-GalN). Administration of TNF-alpha and d-GalN killed none of the NC/Nga mice, whereas it killed all of the BALB/c mice. Treatment with TNF-alpha and d-GalN caused few hepatic lesions in NC/Nga mice but massive hepatocellular apoptosis in BALB/c mice. Unlike BALB/c mice, there was no elevation in caspase 3 and 8 activities in the livers of NC/Nga mice receiving TNF-alpha and d-GalN. On the other hand, administration of anti-Fas antibody definitely killed both NC/Nga and BALB/c mice via activation of caspases 3 and 8. Treatment with TNF-alpha and d-GalN led to translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB in NC/Nga and BALB/c mice. However, NF-kappaB translocation was sustained in NC/Nga mice, although it disappeared in BALB/c mice 7 h after the treatment. NF-kappaB inhibitors activated caspases 3 and 8, and enhanced TNF-alpha-mediated lethality in NC/Nga. Taken together, the low susceptibility of NC/Nga mice to TNF-alpha-mediated lethality was suggested to be responsible for the sustained NF-kappaB activation.

  20. GRP78(BiP) facilitates the cytosolic delivery of anthrax lethal factor (LF) in vivo and functions as an unfoldase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Alfred G; Slater, Louise; Taylor-Parker, Julian; Bharti, Ajit; Harrison, Robert; Hung, Deborah T; Murphy, John R

    2011-09-01

    Anthrax toxin is an A/B bacterial protein toxin which is composed of the enzymatically active Lethal Factor (LF) and/or Oedema Factor (EF) bound to Protective Antigen 63 (PA63) which functions as both the receptor binding and transmembrane domains. Once the toxin binds to its cell surface receptors it is internalized into the cell and traffics through Rab5- and Rab7-associated endosomal vesicles. Following acidification of the vesicle lumen, PA63 undergoes a dynamic change forming a beta-barrel that inserts into and forms a pore through the endosomal membrane. It is widely recognized that LF, and the related fusion protein LFnDTA, must be completely denatured in order to transit through the PA63 formed pore and enter the eukaryotic cell cytosol. We demonstrate by protease protection assays that the molecular chaperone GRP78 mediates the unfolding of LFnDTA and LF at neutral pH and thereby converts these proteins from a trypsin resistant to sensitive conformation. We have used immunoelectron microscopy and gold-labelled antibodies to demonstrate that both GRP78 and GRP94 chaperones are present in the lumen of endosomal vesicles. Finally, we have used siRNA to demonstrate that knock-down of GRP78 results in the emergence of resistance to anthrax lethal toxin and oedema toxin action.

  1. Large-Scale Screening of a Targeted Enterococcus faecalis Mutant Library Identifies Envelope Fitness Factors

    PubMed Central

    Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Alberti, Adriana; Houel, Armel; Taly, Jean-François; Palcy, Philippe; Manson, Janet; Pinto, Daniela; Matos, Renata C.; Carrilero, Laura; Montero, Natalia; Tariq, Muhammad; Karsens, Harma; Repp, Christian; Kropec, Andrea; Budin-Verneuil, Aurélie; Benachour, Abdellah; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Bizzini, Alain; Gilmore, Michael S.; Bessières, Philippe; Kok, Jan; Huebner, Johannes; Lopes, Fatima; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno; Hartke, Axel; Serror, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria responsible for nosocomial and community-acquired infections urges for novel therapeutic or prophylactic targets and for innovative pathogen-specific antibacterial compounds. Major challenges are posed by opportunistic pathogens belonging to the low GC% Gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Enterococcus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections associated with life-threatening issues and increased hospital costs. To better understand the molecular properties of enterococci that may be required for virulence, and that may explain the emergence of these bacteria in nosocomial infections, we performed the first large-scale functional analysis of E. faecalis V583, the first vancomycin-resistant isolate from a human bloodstream infection. E. faecalis V583 is within the high-risk clonal complex 2 group, which comprises mostly isolates derived from hospital infections worldwide. We conducted broad-range screenings of candidate genes likely involved in host adaptation (e.g., colonization and/or virulence). For this purpose, a library was constructed of targeted insertion mutations in 177 genes encoding putative surface or stress-response factors. Individual mutants were subsequently tested for their i) resistance to oxidative stress, ii) antibiotic resistance, iii) resistance to opsonophagocytosis, iv) adherence to the human colon carcinoma Caco-2 epithelial cells and v) virulence in a surrogate insect model. Our results identified a number of factors that are involved in the interaction between enterococci and their host environments. Their predicted functions highlight the importance of cell envelope glycopolymers in E. faecalis host adaptation. This study provides a valuable genetic database for understanding the steps leading E. faecalis to opportunistic virulence. PMID:22194979

  2. [Expression in E.coli and bioactivity assay of Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor domain and its mutants].

    PubMed

    Yue, Chen-Li; Shi, Jie-Ran; Shi, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Hai; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Ting-Fen; Zhao, Yong; Xi, Li

    2008-10-01

    To express Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) domain and its mutants in prokaryotic cells, and to investigate their bioactivity. The gene of Rpf domain and its mutants (E54K, E54A) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genome of Micrococcus luteus and cloned into pMD18-T vector. After sequenced, the Rpf domain and its mutant gene were subcloned into expression vector PGEX-4T-1, and transfected into E. coli DH5alpha. The expressed product was purified by affinity chromatography using GST Fusion Protein Purification bead. The aim proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE analysis and by Western blot with monoclonal antibodies against Rpf domain (mAb). The bioactivity of the proteins was analyzed by stimulating the resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The sequences of the PCR products were identical to those of the Rpf domain and its mutant gene in GenBank. The relative molecular mass identified by SDS-PAGE analysis was consistent with that had been reported, which was also confirmed by Western blot analysis that there were specific bindings at 32 000 with Rpf domain mAb. The purified GST-Rpf domain could stimulate resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Replacements E54A and especially E54K resulted in inhibition of Rpf resuscitation activity. Rpf domain and two kinds of its mutant protein were obtained, and its effects on the resuscitation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis were clarified.

  3. Melanization of a meristematic mutant of Fonsecaea monophora increases tolerance to stress factors while no effects on antifungal susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiufeng; Zhang, Junmin; Najafzadeh, M J; Badali, Hamid; Li, Xiqing; Xi, Liyan; de Hoog, G S

    2011-11-01

    Melanin is a complex polymer, which is widely distributed in nature, and is known as an important virulence factor in opportunistic and pathogenic fungi. In this study, three melanin mutants of Fonsecaea monophora from a case of chromoblastomycosis were generated from a parent strain that lacked hyphal morphology but was meristematic instead. Two albino mutants, one of which (CBS 125187) produced secreted melanin and another (CBS 125149) lacked melanin, grew faster than a mutant with cell-wall-associated and secreted melanin (CBS 125188) and than the meristematic parent strain (CBS 122845) (P < 0.05). The albino strains were also more sensitive to low pH, high UV radiation, and oxidative stress (P < 0.05). However, susceptibility testing against eight antifungal agents showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The discovery of three melanin mutants of a single meristematic mutant provided an alternative way to study the role of cell-wall-associated and secreted melanins in the pathogenesis of black fungi.

  4. Quorum sensing control of Type VI secretion factors restricts the proliferation of quorum-sensing mutants.

    PubMed

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Schneider, Emily; Greenberg, E Peter

    2016-05-16

    Burkholderia thailandensis uses acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing systems to regulate hundreds of genes. Here we show that cell-cell contact-dependent type VI secretion (T6S) toxin-immunity systems are among those activated by quorum sensing in B. thailandensis. We also demonstrate that T6S is required to constrain proliferation of quorum sensing mutants in colony cocultures of a BtaR1 quorum-sensing signal receptor mutant and its parent. However, the BtaR1 mutant is not constrained by and outcompetes its parent in broth coculture, presumably because no cell contact occurs and there is a metabolic cost associated with quorum sensing gene activation. The increased fitness of the wild type over the BtaR1 mutant during agar surface growth is dependent on an intact T6SS-1 apparatus. Thus, quorum sensing activates B. thailandensis T6SS-1 growth inhibition and this control serves to police and constrain quorum-sensing mutants. This work defines a novel role for T6SSs in intraspecies mutant control.

  5. Quorum sensing control of Type VI secretion factors restricts the proliferation of quorum-sensing mutants

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Schneider, Emily; Greenberg, E Peter

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis uses acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing systems to regulate hundreds of genes. Here we show that cell-cell contact-dependent type VI secretion (T6S) toxin-immunity systems are among those activated by quorum sensing in B. thailandensis. We also demonstrate that T6S is required to constrain proliferation of quorum sensing mutants in colony cocultures of a BtaR1 quorum-sensing signal receptor mutant and its parent. However, the BtaR1 mutant is not constrained by and outcompetes its parent in broth coculture, presumably because no cell contact occurs and there is a metabolic cost associated with quorum sensing gene activation. The increased fitness of the wild type over the BtaR1 mutant during agar surface growth is dependent on an intact T6SS-1 apparatus. Thus, quorum sensing activates B. thailandensis T6SS-1 growth inhibition and this control serves to police and constrain quorum-sensing mutants. This work defines a novel role for T6SSs in intraspecies mutant control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14712.001 PMID:27183270

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine cascade and lethality in LT alpha/TNF alpha-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Amiot, F.; Fitting, C.; Tracey, K. J.; Cavaillon, J. M.; Dautry, F.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is often considered the main proinflammatory cytokine induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and consequently the critical mediator of the lethality associated with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used mice carrying a deletion of both the lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) and TNF-alpha genes to assess the role of TNF in the cytokine cascade and lethality induced by LPS. RESULTS: Initial production of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-10 is comparable in wild-type and mutant mice. However, at later times, expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-10 is prolonged, whereas that of IL-6 decreases in mutant mice. Expression of IFN-gamma is almost completely abrogated in mutants, which is in agreement with a more significant alteration of the late phase of the cytokine cascade. We measured similar LD50 (600 micrograms) for the intravenous injection of LPS in mice of the three genotypes (+/+, +/-, -/-), demonstrating that the absence of TNF does not confer long-term protection from lethality. However, death occurred much more slowly in mutant mice, who were protected more efficiently from death by CNI 1493, an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine production, than were wild-type mice. DISCUSSION: Thus, while TNF-alpha is not required for the induction of these cytokines by LPS, it modulates the kinetics of their expression. The lethality studies simultaneously confirm a role for TNF as a mediator of early lethality and establish that, in the absence of these cytokines, other mediators take over, resulting in the absence of long-term protection from LPS toxicity. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:9440119

  7. Extinction of Hepatitis C Virus by Ribavirin in Hepatoma Cells Involves Lethal Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Prieto, Ana M.; Sheldon, Julie; Grande-Pérez, Ana; Tejero, Héctor; Gregori, Josep; Quer, Josep; Esteban, Juan I.; Domingo, Esteban; Perales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, or virus extinction produced by enhanced mutation rates, is under investigation as an antiviral strategy that aims at counteracting the adaptive capacity of viral quasispecies, and avoiding selection of antiviral-escape mutants. To explore lethal mutagenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV), it is important to establish whether ribavirin, the purine nucleoside analogue used in anti-HCV therapy, acts as a mutagenic agent during virus replication in cell culture. Here we report the effect of ribavirin during serial passages of HCV in human hepatoma Huh-7.5 cells, regarding viral progeny production and complexity of mutant spectra. Ribavirin produced an increase of mutant spectrum complexity and of the transition types associated with ribavirin mutagenesis, resulting in HCV extinction. Ribavirin-mediated depletion of intracellular GTP was not the major contributory factor to mutagenesis since mycophenolic acid evoked a similar decrease in GTP without an increase in mutant spectrum complexity. The intracellular concentration of the other nucleoside-triphosphates was elevated as a result of ribavirin treatment. Mycophenolic acid extinguished HCV without an intervening mutagenic activity. Ribavirin-mediated, but not mycophenolic acid-mediated, extinction of HCV occurred via a decrease of specific infectivity, a feature typical of lethal mutagenesis. We discuss some possibilities to explain disparate results on ribavirin mutagenesis of HCV. PMID:23976977

  8. Factors Altering Pyruvate Excretion in a Glycogen Storage Mutant of the Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Phoebe J.; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Hocart, Charles H.; Truong, Thy T.; James, Gabriel O.; Rourke, Loraine; Djordjevic, Michael A.; Blackburn, Susan I.; Price, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the production of carbon commodities from photosynthetically fixed CO2 has focused attention on cyanobacteria as a target for metabolic engineering and pathway investigation. We investigated the redirection of carbon flux in the model cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under nitrogen deprivation, for optimized production of the industrially desirable compound, pyruvate. Under nitrogen limited conditions, excess carbon is naturally stored as the multi-branched polysaccharide, glycogen, but a block in glycogen synthesis, via knockout mutation in the gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC), results in the accumulation of the organic acids, pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate, as overflow excretions into the extracellular media. The ΔglgC strain, under 48 h of N-deprivation was shown to excrete pyruvate for the first time in this strain. Additionally, by increasing culture pH, to pH 10, it was possible to substantially elevate excretion of pyruvate, suggesting the involvement of an unknown substrate/proton symporter for export. The ΔglgC mutant was also engineered to express foreign transporters for glucose and sucrose, and then grown photomixotrophically with exogenous organic carbon supply, as added 5 mM glucose or sucrose during N- deprivation. Under these conditions we observed a fourfold increase in extracellular pyruvate excretion when glucose was added, and a smaller increase with added sucrose. Although the magnitude of pyruvate excretion did not correlate with the capacity of the ΔglgC strain for bicarbonate-dependent photosynthetic O2 evolution, or with light intensity, there was, however, a positive correlation observed between the density of the starter culture prior to N-deprivation and the final extracellular pyruvate concentration. The factors that contribute to enhancement of pyruvate excretion are discussed, as well as consideration of whether the source of carbon for pyruvate excretion might be derived from

  9. Decreased levels of nerve growth factor in organs of mice as a consequence of sub-lethal injection of cobra venom.

    PubMed

    Lipps, B V

    2001-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is endogenously present in salivary glands of mice and sex organs of various animals. This research reports the presence of NGF in almost all major organs of mice at varying concentrations. The research further reports that intramuscular injection of a sub-lethal dose of Naja kaouthia venom lowered the levels of NGF in the organs of mice. Adult Balb/C male mice were injected with a half lethal dose of cobra venom. The mice were sacrificed for organs at 2, 8, and 24 hours post injection. Organs were homogenized, centrifuged, and the supernatants were assayed for NGF using anti-NGF by immunological tests enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The organs of the mice injected with PBS served as controls. Major decrease in the levels of NGF was observed 2 hours after venom injection, and tremendous decrease of NGF was observed in organs of mice 24 hours post injection. The most lowering for NGF was observed in brain, heart, liver, salivary gland, and testis. This is a first-hand investigation showing the pharmacokinetics of NGF in organs of mice as an effect of envenomation.

  10. Revisiting emergency anti-apoptotic cytokinotherapy: erythropoietin synergizes with stem cell factor, FLT-3 ligand, trombopoietin and interleukin-3 to rescue lethally-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Drouet, Michel; Grenier, Nancy; Hérodin, Francis

    2012-06-01

    We have re-evaluated the benefit of using erythropoietin (Epo) as a pleiotropic cytokine to counteract hematological and extra-hematological toxicity following lethal irradiation. B6D2F1 mice were exposed to a dose of 9 Gy gamma radiation resulting in 90% mortality at 30 days, and then injected with stem cell factor, FLT-3 ligand, thrombopoietin and interleukin-3 [i.e. SFT3] at two and 24 hours with or without Epo (1,000 IU/kg) at 2 hours and day 8. As controls, two groups of irradiated mice were given only Epo or Phosphate-buffered saline. Epo synergized with SFT3 to rescue lethally-irradiated mice from radiation-induced death (survival: 60%, 95% and 5% respectively for SFT3, SFT3+Epo and controls at 30 days, p<0.05), whereas Epo alone exhibited no protective effect. Hematopoietic parameters did not differ significantly between SFT3 and SFT3+Epo groups during the animal death period. Some beneficial effects on gastro-intestinal toxicity were noticed following administration of Epo, although lung, liver and kidney were not protected. Further studies are necessary to understand fully the mechanisms involved in these effects of Epo in order to optimize treatment with cytokines following high-dose irradiation.

  11. A c-Myb mutant causes deregulated differentiation due to impaired histone binding and abrogated pioneer factor function

    PubMed Central

    Fuglerud, Bettina M.; Lemma, Roza B.; Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Sundaram, Arvind Y. M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The transcription factor c-Myb is involved in early differentiation and proliferation of haematopoietic cells, where it operates as a regulator of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. Deregulated c-Myb plays critical roles in leukaemias and other human cancers. Due to its role as a master regulator, we hypothesized it might function as a pioneer transcription factor. Our approach to test this was to analyse a mutant of c-Myb, D152V, previously reported to cause haematopoietic defects in mice by an unknown mechanism. Our transcriptome data from K562 cells indicates that this mutation specifically affects c-Myb's ability to regulate genes involved in differentiation, causing failure in c-Myb's ability to block differentiation. Furthermore, we see a major effect of this mutation in assays where chromatin opening is involved. We show that each repeat in the minimal DNA-binding domain of c-Myb binds to histones and that D152V disrupts histone binding of the third repeat. ATAC-seq data indicates this mutation impairs the ability of c-Myb to cause chromatin opening at specific sites. Taken together, our findings support that c-Myb acts as a pioneer factor and show that D152V impairs this function. The D152V mutant is the first mutant of a transcription factor specifically destroying pioneer factor function. PMID:28472346

  12. Adverse drug interactions as a high-risk factor for lethal post-transplant complications in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Wu, Xue Mei; Qiu, Hong Qiang; Fu, Dan Hui; Hu, Jian Da; Li, Jian; Zheng, Xiao Yun; Luo, Xiao Feng; Yuan, Xiao Hong; Chen, Ru Ling; Chen, Zhi Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism of triazole antifungal agents is highly competitive to conventional post-transplant immunosuppressants like cyclosporine A (CsA) via the cytochrome P450-dependent pathway. We present the first report on lethal complications that may arise due to this type of drug interaction. A retrospective survey identified 10 of 104 cases (9.62%) that suffered life-threatening complications associated with the interaction between CsA and itraconazole or voriconazole following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at our center. According to the close drug monitoring, all 10 patients experienced supratherapeutic levels of CsA even with a preemptive CsA dosage reduction and prompt dose adjustment. Six patients developed grade I to III acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and eventually died from either idiopathic pneumonia syndrome or diffuse alveolar hemorrhage; another four patients died from CSA-associated neurological complications. Impaired hepatic and renal function was noted in only one of these 10 cases. The high frequency as well as the unpredictability of severe complications lead us to suggest that triazole should always be replaced by another antifungal medication (e.g., amphotericin B or Echincandins) while patients receive CsA after HSCT, especially in the Chinese population. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. A polymorphic form of steroidogenic factor 1 associated with ACTH receptor deficiency in mouse adrenal cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Bernard P; Cordova, Martha; Tsao, Jennivine; Frigeri, Claudia

    2003-06-01

    We have described a family of adrenocortical tumor cell mutants (including clones OS3, Y6, and 10r9) that are resistant to ACTH because they fail to express the gene encoding the ACTH receptor (MC2R). The MC2R deficiency results from a mutation that impairs the activity of the nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) at the MC2R promoter. In this report, we show that ACTH resistance in the mutant clones is associated with a Sf1 gene that has Ser at codon 172 instead of Ala. In two of the three mutant clones, this Sf1 allele is amplified together with flanking DNA from chromosome 2 that includes the genes encoding germ cell nuclear factor and the beta-type proteosome subunit Psmb7. SF1(A172) and SF1(S172) exhibit little or no difference in transcriptional activity in SF1-dependent reporter gene assays, suggesting that SF1(S172) per se is not directly responsible for the loss of MC2R expression. Instead, the Sf1(S172) allele appears to be a marker of ACTH resistance in this family of adrenocortical tumor cell mutants, possibly reflecting the activity of a neighboring gene.

  14. Exome sequencing deciphers a germline MET mutation in familial epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tode, Naoki; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Sakakibara, Tomohiro; Hirano, Taizou; Inoue, Akira; Ohkouchi, Shinya; Tamada, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Tatsuma; Koarai, Akira; Sugiura, Hisatoshi; Niihori, Tetsuya; Aoki, Yoko; Nakayama, Keiko; Matsumoto, Kunio; Matsubara, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Watanabe, Akira; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2017-03-13

    Lung cancer accompanied by somatic activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene, which is associated with a significant clinical response to the targeted therapy, is frequently found in never-smoking Asian women with adenocarcinoma. Although this implies genetic factors underlying the carcinogenesis, the etiology remains unclear. To gain insight into the pathogenic mechanisms, we sequenced the exomes in the peripheral-blood DNA from six siblings, four affected and two unaffected siblings, of a kindred with familial EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation in MET proto-oncogene, p.Asn375Lys, in all four affected siblings. Combined with somatic loss of heterozygosity for MET, the higher allele frequency in a Japanese sequencing database supports a causative role of the MET mutation in EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Functional assays showed that the mutation reduces the binding affinity of MET for its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, and damages the subsequent cellular processes including proliferation, clonogenicity, motility, and tumorigenicity. The MET mutation was further observed to abrogate the ERBB3-mediated AKT signal transduction, which is shared downstream by EGFR. These findings provide an etiological view that the MET mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of EGFR-mutant lung cancer because it generates oncogenic stress that induces compensatory EGFR activation. The identification of MET in a kindred with familial EGFR-mutant lung cancer is insightful to explore the pathogenic mechanism of not only familial, but also sporadic EGFR-mutant lung cancer by underscoring MET-related signaling molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes.

  16. Lethal Amanita species in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Cui, Yang-Yang; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-09-01

    Lethal amanitas (Amanita sect. Phalloideae) cause many casualties worldwide. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies revealed diverse lethal Amanita spp. in China. Here a 5-gene phylogeny (nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 with the 5.8S rDNA, the D1-D3 domains of nuc 28S rDNA, and partial RNA polymerase II second largest subunit, translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin genes) is used to investigate the phylogenetic lineages and species delimitation in this section. Thirteen species are recognized, including four new species, namely A. griseorosea, A. molliuscula, A. parviexitialis, and A. subfuliginea They are documented with morphological, multigene phylogenetic, and ecological evidence, line drawings, and photographs and compared with similar species. A key to the Chinese lethal Amanita species is provided.

  17. Variable content of von Willebrand factor mutant monomer drives the phenotypic variability in a family with von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junmei; Hinckley, Jesse D; Haberichter, Sandra; Jacobi, Paula; Montgomery, Robert; Flood, Veronica H; Wong, Randall; Interlandi, Gianluca; Chung, Dominic W; López, José A; Di Paola, Jorge

    2015-07-09

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. We evaluated a 24-member pedigree with VWD type 2 caused by a T>G mutation at position 3911 that predicts a methionine to arginine (M1304R) change in the platelet-binding A1 domain of von Willebrand factor (VWF). This mutation manifests as an autosomal-dominant trait, with clinical and biochemical phenotypic variability among affected individuals, including differences in bleeding tendency and VWF quantity, activity, and multimer pattern. Sequencing of all VWF coding regions in 3 affected individuals did not identify additional mutations. When expressed in heterologous cells, M1304R was secreted in lower quantities, failed to drive formation of storage granules, and was defective in multimerization and platelet binding. When cotransfected in equal quantities with the wild-type complementary DNA, the mutant complementary DNA depressed VWF secretion, although multimerization was only mildly affected. A llama nanobody (AU/VWFa-11) that detects the mutant A1 domain demonstrated highly variable binding to VWF from different affected members, indicating that the VWF contained different percentages of mutant monomers in different individuals. Thus, the observed variability in VWD phenotypes could in part be determined by the extent of mutant monomer incorporation in the final multimer structure of plasma VWF.

  18. Anthrax Lethal Factor as an Immune Target in Humans and Transgenic Mice and the Impact of HLA Polymorphism on CD4+ T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Chu, Karen K.; Reynolds, Catherine J.; Musson, Julie A.; Doganay, Mehmet; Metan, Gökhan; Ozkul, Yusuf; Baillie, Les; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Moore, Stephen J.; Gallagher, Theresa B.; Dyson, Hugh; Williamson, E. Diane; Robinson, John H.; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J.; Altmann, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a binary toxin composed of protective antigen (PA) and one of two subunits, lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF). Most studies have concentrated on induction of toxin-specific antibodies as the correlate of protective immunity, in contrast to which understanding of cellular immunity to these toxins and its impact on infection is limited. We characterized CD4+ T cell immunity to LF in a panel of humanized HLA-DR and DQ transgenic mice and in naturally exposed patients. As the variation in antigen presentation governed by HLA polymorphism has a major impact on protective immunity to specific epitopes, we examined relative binding affinities of LF peptides to purified HLA class II molecules, identifying those regions likely to be of broad applicability to human immune studies through their ability to bind multiple alleles. Transgenics differing only in their expression of human HLA class II alleles showed a marked hierarchy of immunity to LF. Immunogenicity in HLA transgenics was primarily restricted to epitopes from domains II and IV of LF and promiscuous, dominant epitopes, common to all HLA types, were identified in domain II. The relevance of this model was further demonstrated by the fact that a number of the immunodominant epitopes identified in mice were recognized by T cells from humans previously infected with cutaneous anthrax and from vaccinated individuals. The ability of the identified epitopes to confer protective immunity was demonstrated by lethal anthrax challenge of HLA transgenic mice immunized with a peptide subunit vaccine comprising the immunodominant epitopes that we identified. PMID:24788397

  19. Anthrax lethal factor as an immune target in humans and transgenic mice and the impact of HLA polymorphism on CD4+ T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J; Chu, Karen K; Reynolds, Catherine J; Musson, Julie A; Doganay, Mehmet; Metan, Gökhan; Ozkul, Yusuf; Baillie, Les; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Moore, Stephen J; Gallagher, Theresa B; Dyson, Hugh; Williamson, E Diane; Robinson, John H; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J; Altmann, Daniel M

    2014-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a binary toxin composed of protective antigen (PA) and one of two subunits, lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF). Most studies have concentrated on induction of toxin-specific antibodies as the correlate of protective immunity, in contrast to which understanding of cellular immunity to these toxins and its impact on infection is limited. We characterized CD4+ T cell immunity to LF in a panel of humanized HLA-DR and DQ transgenic mice and in naturally exposed patients. As the variation in antigen presentation governed by HLA polymorphism has a major impact on protective immunity to specific epitopes, we examined relative binding affinities of LF peptides to purified HLA class II molecules, identifying those regions likely to be of broad applicability to human immune studies through their ability to bind multiple alleles. Transgenics differing only in their expression of human HLA class II alleles showed a marked hierarchy of immunity to LF. Immunogenicity in HLA transgenics was primarily restricted to epitopes from domains II and IV of LF and promiscuous, dominant epitopes, common to all HLA types, were identified in domain II. The relevance of this model was further demonstrated by the fact that a number of the immunodominant epitopes identified in mice were recognized by T cells from humans previously infected with cutaneous anthrax and from vaccinated individuals. The ability of the identified epitopes to confer protective immunity was demonstrated by lethal anthrax challenge of HLA transgenic mice immunized with a peptide subunit vaccine comprising the immunodominant epitopes that we identified.

  20. Synthesis, purification, and characterization of an Arg sub 152 yields Glu site-directed mutant of recombinant human blood clotting factor VII

    SciTech Connect

    Wildgoose, P.; Kisiel, W. ); Berkner, K.L. )

    1990-04-03

    Coagulation factor VII circulates in blood as a single-chain zymogen of a serine protease and is converted to its activated two-chain form, factor VIIa, by cleavage of an internal peptide bond located at Arg{sub 152}-Ile{sub 153}. Previous studies using serine protease active-site inhibitors suggest that zymogen factor VII may possess sufficient proteolytic activity to initiate the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. In order to assess the putative intrinsic proteolytic activity of single-chain factor VII, the authors have constructed a site-specific mutant of recombinant human factor VII in which arginine-152 has been replaced with a glutamic acid residue. Mutant factor VII was purified in a single step from culture supernatants of baby hamster kidney cells transfected with a plasmid containing the sequence for Arg{sub 152} {yields} Glu factor VII using a calcium-dependent, murine anti-factor VII monoclonal antibody column. The clotting activity of mutant factor VII was completely inhibited following incubation with dansyl-Glu-Gly-Arg chloromethyl ketone, suggesting that the apparent clotting activity of mutant factor VII was due to a contaminating serine protease. Immunoblots of mutant factor VII with human factor IXa revealed no cleavage, whereas incubation of mutant factor VII with human factor Xa resulted in cleavage of mutant factor VII and the formation of a lower molecular weight degradation product migrating at M{sup r}{approx}40 000. The results are consistent with the proposal that zymogen factor VII possesses no intrinsic proteolytic activity toward factor X or factor IX.

  1. Establishing Genetic Interactions by a Synthetic Dosage Lethality Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, E. S.; Hyland, K. M.; Hieter, P.; Li, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have devised a genetic screen, termed synthetic dosage lethality, in which a cloned ``reference'' gene is inducibly overexpressed in a set of mutant strains carrying potential ``target'' mutations. To test the specificity of the method, two reference genes, CTF13, encoding a centromere binding protein, and ORC6, encoding a subunit of the origin of replication binding complex, were overexpressed in a large collection of mutants defective in either chromosome segregation or replication. CTF13 overexpression caused synthetic dosage lethality in combination with ctf14-42 (cbf2, ndc10), ctf17-61 (chl4), ctf19-58 and ctf19-26. ORC6 overexpression caused synthetic dosage lethality in combination with cdc2-1, cdc6-1, cdc14-1, cdc16-1 and cdc46-1. These relationships reflect specific interactions, as overexpression of CTF13 caused lethality in kinetochore mutants and overexpression of ORC6 caused lethality in replication mutants. In contrast, only one case of dosage suppression was observed. We suggest that synthetic dosage lethality identifies a broad spectrum of interacting mutations and is of general utility in detecting specific genetic interactions using a cloned wild-type gene as a starting point. Furthermore, synthetic dosage lethality is easily adapted to the study of cloned genes in other organisms. PMID:8722765

  2. Lethal Airpower and Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    of similar proportions in Bosnia might have fatally undermined the NATO policy there, bringing an ignominious end to OPERATION DELIBERATE FORCE...Progress Lethality COG Amenable to Bombing Too Lethal at Low End of Conflict Spectrum Global Reacli—Global Power Tempo 105 For a more complete...element of a winning strategy at the high end of the intervention spectrum—war-fighting. Humanitarian Interests and Lethal Airpower. Humanitarian

  3. Towards a vaccine for attaching/effacing Escherichia coli: a LEE encoded regulator (ler) mutant of rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is attenuated, immunogenic, and protects rabbits from lethal challenge with the wild-type virulent strain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengru; Feng, Shuzhang; Thate, Timothy E; Kaper, James B; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2006-05-01

    The ler (LEE encoded regulator) gene product is a central regulator for the genes encoded on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island of attaching/effacing (A/E) pathogens, including human enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) as well as animal isolates. Although an in vivo role for Ler in bacterial virulence has not been documented, we hypothesized that a Ler deletion mutant should be attenuated for virulence but might retain immunogenicity. The goals of this study were to genetically characterize ler of a rabbit EPEC (rEPEC) strain (O103:H2), to examine the effect of ler on in vivo virulence, and to determine if intragastric inoculation of an attenuated rEPEC ler mutant was immunogenic and could protect rabbits against subsequent challenge with the wild-type virulent parent strain. The predicted ler gene product of rEPEC strain O103:H2 shares high homology (over 95% amino acid identity) with the Lers of another rEPEC strain RDEC-1 (O15:H-) and human EPEC and EHEC. A defined internal ler deletion mutant of rEPEC O103:H2 showed reduced production of secreted proteins. Although orogastric inoculation of rabbits with the virulent parent O103:H2 strain induced severe diarrhea, significant weight loss and early mortality with adherent mucosal bacteria found at sacrifice, the isogeneic ler mutant strain was well tolerated. Animals gained weight and showed no clinical signs of disease. Examination of histological sections of intestinal segments revealed the absence of mucosal bacterial adherence. This result demonstrates an essential role for Ler in in vivo pathogenicity of A/E E. coli. Single dose orogastric immunization with the rEPEC ler mutant induced serum IgG antibody to whole bacteria (but not to intimin). Immunized animals were protected against enteric infection with the WT virulent parent strain exhibiting normal weight gain, absence of diarrhea and absence of mucosally adherent bacteria at sacrifice. Such

  4. Complementation of the embryo-lethal T-DNA insertion mutant of AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN 1 (ABP1) with abp1 point mutated versions reveals crosstalk of ABP1 and phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Effendi, Yunus; Ferro, Noel; Labusch, Corinna; Geisler, Markus; Scherer, Günther F E

    2015-01-01

    The function of the extracytoplasmic AUXIN-BINDING-PROTEIN1 (ABP1) is largely enigmatic. We complemented a homozygous T-DNA insertion null mutant of ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana Wassilewskia with three mutated and one wild-type (wt) ABP1 cDNA, all tagged C-terminally with a strepII-FLAG tag upstream the KDEL signal. Based on in silico modelling, the abp1 mutants were predicted to have altered geometries of the auxin binding pocket and calculated auxin binding energies lower than the wt. Phenotypes linked to auxin transport were compromised in these three complemented abp1 mutants. Red light effects, such as elongation of hypocotyls in constant red (R) and far-red (FR) light, in white light supplemented by FR light simulating shade, and inhibition of gravitropism by R or FR, were all compromised in the complemented lines. Using auxin- or light-induced expression of marker genes, we showed that auxin-induced expression was delayed already after 10 min, and light-induced expression within 60 min, even though TIR1/AFB or phyB are thought to act as receptors relevant for gene expression regulation. The expression of marker genes in seedlings responding to both auxin and shade showed that for both stimuli regulation of marker gene expression was altered after 10-20 min in the wild type and phyB mutant. The rapidity of expression responses provides a framework for the mechanics of functional interaction of ABP1 and phyB to trigger interwoven signalling pathways.

  5. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of the Dwarfism in Evc2/Limbin Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Honghao; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Takehito; Takeda, Haruko; Scott, Greg; Ray, Manas K.; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Lefebvre, Veronique; Hung, Irene H.; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia, characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, and dental abnormalities. EvC syndrome is also categorized as a ciliopathy because of ciliary localization of proteins encoded by the two causative genes, EVC and EVC2 (aka LIMBIN). While recent studies demonstrated important roles for EVC/EVC2 in Hedgehog signaling, there is still little known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the skeletal dysplasia features of EvC patients, and in particular why limb development is affected, but not other aspects of organogenesis that also require Hedgehog signaling. In this report, we comprehensively analyze limb skeletogenesis in Evc2 mutant mice and in cell and tissue cultures derived from these mice. Both in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in Evc2 mutant growth plates, in addition to compromised but not abrogated Hedgehog-PTHrP feedback loop. Elevation of FGF signaling, mainly due to increased Fgf18 expression upon inactivation of Evc2 in the perichondrium, critically contributes to the pathogenesis of limb dwarfism. The limb dwarfism phenotype is partially rescued by inactivation of one allele of Fgf18 in the Evc2 mutant mice. Taken together, our data uncover a novel pathogenic mechanism to understand limb dwarfism in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. PMID:28027321

  6. BIIB021, a synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor, induces mutant ataxin-1 degradation through the activation of heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ying; Adachi, Hiroaki; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sahashi, Kentaro; Kondo, Naohide; Iida, Madoka; Tohnai, Genki; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sobue, Gen

    2016-07-07

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in ataxin-1 (ATXN1). The pathological hallmarks of SCA1 are the loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurons in the brainstem and the presence of nuclear aggregates containing the polyQ-expanded ATXN1 protein. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors have been shown to reduce polyQ-induced toxicity. This study was designed to examine the therapeutic effects of BIIB021, a purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor, on the protein homeostasis of polyQ-expanded mutant ATXN1 in a cell culture model of SCA1. Our results demonstrated that BIIB021 activated heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and suppressed the abnormal accumulation of ATXN1 and its toxicity. The pharmacological degradation of mutant ATXN1 via activated HSF1 was dependent on both the proteasome and autophagy systems. These findings indicate that HSF1 is a key molecule in the regulation of the protein homeostasis of the polyQ-expanded mutant ATXN1 and that Hsp90 has potential as a novel therapeutic target in patients with SCA1. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Is Critical for the Pathogenesis of the Dwarfism in Evc2/Limbin Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghao; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Tsuji, Takehito; Takeda, Haruko; Scott, Greg; Rajderkar, Sudha; Ray, Manas K; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Allen, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Veronique; Hung, Irene H; Ornitz, David M; Kunieda, Tetsuo; Mishina, Yuji

    2016-12-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a skeletal dysplasia, characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, and dental abnormalities. EvC syndrome is also categorized as a ciliopathy because of ciliary localization of proteins encoded by the two causative genes, EVC and EVC2 (aka LIMBIN). While recent studies demonstrated important roles for EVC/EVC2 in Hedgehog signaling, there is still little known about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the skeletal dysplasia features of EvC patients, and in particular why limb development is affected, but not other aspects of organogenesis that also require Hedgehog signaling. In this report, we comprehensively analyze limb skeletogenesis in Evc2 mutant mice and in cell and tissue cultures derived from these mice. Both in vivo and in vitro data demonstrate elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling in Evc2 mutant growth plates, in addition to compromised but not abrogated Hedgehog-PTHrP feedback loop. Elevation of FGF signaling, mainly due to increased Fgf18 expression upon inactivation of Evc2 in the perichondrium, critically contributes to the pathogenesis of limb dwarfism. The limb dwarfism phenotype is partially rescued by inactivation of one allele of Fgf18 in the Evc2 mutant mice. Taken together, our data uncover a novel pathogenic mechanism to understand limb dwarfism in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.

  8. A polymorphic form of steroidogenic factor-1 is associated with adrenocorticotropin resistance in y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Frigeri, Claudia; Tsao, Jennivine; Cordova, Martha; Schimmer, Bernard P

    2002-10-01

    ACTH resistance in mutant derivatives of the Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cell line results from a defect that affects the activity of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1), thereby preventing the expression of the melanocortin-2 receptor. In this report, we show that the SF1 genes in ACTH-resistant mutants differ from the gene in ACTH-responsive Y1 cells by two base changes-one that changes an Ala to Ser at codon 172, and one in the third position of codon 3 that does not affect the protein sequence. Furthermore, several of the mutants contain multiple copies of this alternate SF1 gene (SF1(S172)) on acentric chromosome fragments. The SF1(S172) allele represents a polymorphism rather than a spontaneous mutation because the two SF1 alleles can be traced to the hybrid mouse strain (C57L/J x A/HeJ) from which the original adrenal tumor was derived. The SF1(A172) allele also is found in C57Bl/6J and C57Bl/10J mice, whereas the SF1(S172) allele also is found in C3H/HeJ and DBA/2J mice. The two forms of SF1 had only modest differences in activity suggesting that the SF1 polymorphism per se is not directly responsible for ACTH resistance. Our results indicate that the SF1(S172) allele is a marker of ACTH resistance in this family of adrenocortical tumor cells.

  9. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved.

  10. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model

    PubMed Central

    YUE, YINGYING; LI, PENG; SONG, NANNAN; LI, BINGQING; LI, ZHIHUI; GUO, YUQI; ZHANG, WEIDONG; WEI, MING Q.; GAI, ZHONGTAO; MENG, HONG; WANG, JIWEN; QIN, LIZENG

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post-inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection. PMID:27035332

  11. Genomic and immunologic factors associated with viral pathogenesis in a lethal EV71 infected neonatal mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yingying; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Li, Bingqing; Li, Zhihui; Guo, Yuqi; Zhang, Weidong; Wei, Ming Q; Gai, Zhongtao; Meng, Hong; Wang, Jiwen; Qin, Lizeng

    2016-05-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major health problem in China and worldwide. The present study aimed to understand the virological features of EV71 and host responses resulting from EV71 infection. Six different EV71 strains were isolated from HFMD patients with severe or mild clinical symptoms, and were analyzed for pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the six virus strains exhibited similar cytopathogenic effects on susceptible MA104 cells. However, marked differences in histological and immunopathological changes were observed when mice were inoculated with the different virus strains. Thus, the viruses studied were divided into two groups, highly or weakly pathogenic. Two representative virus strains, JN200804 and JN200803 (highly and weakly pathogenic, respectively) were studied further to investigate pathogenicity-associated factors, including genetic mutations and immunopathogenesis. The present study has demonstrated that highly pathogenic strains have stable genome and amino acid sequences. Notably, the present study demonstrated that a highly pathogenic strain induced a significant increase of the bulk CD4 T cell levels at 3 days post‑inoculation. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that genomic and immunologic factors may be responsible for the multiple tissue damage caused by highly pathogenic EV71 infection.

  12. Stable isotope signatures and trophic-step fractionation factors of fish tissues collected as non-lethal surrogates of dorsal muscle.

    PubMed

    Busst, Georgina M A; Bašić, Tea; Britton, J Robert

    2015-08-30

    Dorsal white muscle is the standard tissue analysed in fish trophic studies using stable isotope analyses. As muscle is usually collected destructively, fin tissues and scales are often used as non-lethal surrogates; we examined the utility of scales and fin tissue as muscle surrogates. The muscle, fin and scale δ(15) N and δ(13) C values from 10 cyprinid fish species determined with an elemental analyser coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer were compared. The fish comprised (1) samples from the wild, and (2) samples from tank aquaria, using six species held for 120 days and fed a single food resource. Relationships between muscle, fin and scale isotope ratios were examined for each species and for the entire dataset, with the efficacy of four methods of predicting muscle isotope ratios from fin and scale values being tested. The fractionation factors between the three tissues of the laboratory fishes and their food resource were then calculated and applied to Bayesian mixing models to assess their effect on fish diet predictions. The isotopic data of the three tissues per species were distinct, but were significantly related, enabling estimations of muscle values from the two surrogates. Species-specific equations provided the least erroneous corrections of scale and fin isotope ratios (errors < 0.6‰). The fractionation factors for δ(15) N values were in the range obtained for other species, but were often higher for δ(13) C values. Their application to data from two fish populations in the mixing models resulted in significant alterations in diet predictions. Scales and fin tissue are strong surrogates of dorsal muscle in food web studies as they can provide estimates of muscle values within an acceptable level of error when species-specific methods are used. Their derived fractionation factors can also be applied to models predicting fish diet composition from δ(15) N and δ(13) C values. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cloning, expression and purification of binding domains of lethal factor and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis in Escherichia coli and evaluation of their related murine antibody.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Honari, Hossein; Kooshk, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is common disease between human and animals caused by Bacillus anthracis. The cell binding domain of protective antigen (PAD4) and the binding domain of lethal factor (LFD1) have high immunogenicity potential and always were considered as a vaccine candidate against anthrax. The aims of this study are cloning and expressing of PAD4 and LFD1 in Escherichia coli, purification of the recombinant proteins and determination of their immunogenicity through evaluating of the relative produced polyclonal antibodies in mice. PAD4 and LFD1 genes were cloned in pET28a(+) vector and expressed in E. coli Bl21(DE3)PlysS. Expression and purification of the two recombinant proteins were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. The PAD4 and LFD1 were purified using Ni(+)-NTA affinity chromatography (95-98 %), yielding 37.5 and 45 mg/l of culture, respectively. The antigens were injected three times into mice and production of relative antibodies was evaluated by ELISA test. The results showed that both PAD4 and LFD1 are immunogenic, but LFD1 has higher potential to stimulate Murine immune system. With regard to the high level of LFD1 and PAD4 expression and also significant increment in produced polyclonal antibodies, these recombinant proteins can be considered as a recombinant vaccine candidate against anthrax.

  14. Estimating bioconcentration factors, lethal concentrations and critical body residues of metals in the mollusks Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis using ion characteristics.

    PubMed

    van Kolck, Maurits; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Veltman, Karin; Jan Hendriks, A

    2008-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for metal bioconcentration factors (BCF) and median acute lethal water concentrations (LC50) were developed for two species of mollusks, Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis. These endpoints were related to four metal ion characteristics, the covalent index (chi(2)(m)r) (r represents the ion radius in A), the softness index (sigma(p)), the hydrolysis constant (K(OH)) and the ionic index (Z(2)/r). The BCF and LC50 were significantly correlated to chi(m)(2)r. The coefficients of determination r(2) for the relationships with other metal descriptors were much lower. Critical body residue (CBR) QSARs were derived by multiplying the chi(2)(m)r-based BCF and LC50 regressions. The CBRs were independent of the covalent index chi(2)(m)r, as BCF and LC50 scaled to chi(2)(m)r with slope that had opposite signs. Comparison of the estimated CBRs with independent empirical values confirmed the predicted trends, but substantial deviations were noted too.

  15. Identification of Restriction Factors by Human Genome-Wide RNA Interference Screening of Viral Host Range Mutants Exemplified by Discovery of SAMD9 and WDR6 as Inhibitors of the Vaccinia Virus K1L−C7L− Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, Gilad; Ormanoglu, Pinar; Buehler, Eugen C.; Martin, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA interference (RNAi) screens intended to identify host factors that restrict virus replication may fail if the virus already counteracts host defense mechanisms. To overcome this limitation, we are investigating the use of viral host range mutants that exhibit impaired replication in nonpermissive cells. A vaccinia virus (VACV) mutant with a deletion of both the C7L and K1L genes, K1L−C7L−, which abrogates replication in human cells at a step prior to late gene expression, was chosen for this strategy. We carried out a human genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen in HeLa cells infected with a VACV K1L−C7L− mutant that expresses the green fluorescent protein regulated by a late promoter. This positive-selection screen had remarkably low background levels and resulted in the identification of a few cellular genes, notably SAMD9 and WDR6, from approximately 20,000 tested that dramatically enhanced green fluorescent protein expression. Replication of the mutant virus was enabled by multiple siRNAs to SAMD9 or WDR6. Moreover, SAMD9 and WDR6 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 knockout HeLa cell lines were permissive for replication of the K1L−C7L− mutant, in agreement with the siRNA data. Expression of exogenous SAMD9 or interferon regulatory factor 1 restricted replication of the K1L−C7L− mutant in the SAMD9−/− cells. Independent interactions of SAMD9 with the K1 and C7 proteins were suggested by immunoprecipitation. Knockout of WDR6 did not reduce the levels of SAMD9 and interactions of WDR6 with SAMD9, C7, and K1 proteins were not detected, suggesting that these restriction factors act independently but possibly in the same innate defense pathway. PMID:26242627

  16. Streptococcus pyogenes Sortase Mutants Are Highly Susceptible to Killing by Host Factors Due to Aberrant Envelope Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Assaf; Tanasescu, Ana-Maria; Zhao, Anna M.; Serrano, Anna; Alston, Tricia; Sol, Asaf; Bachrach, Gilad; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall anchored virulence factors are critical for infection and colonization of the host by Gram-positive bacteria. Such proteins have an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal sorting signal, composed of an LPXTG motif, a hydrophobic stretch, and a few positively charged amino acids. The sorting signal halts translocation across the membrane, allowing sortase to cleave the LPXTG motif, leading to surface anchoring. Deletion of sortase prevents the anchoring of virulence factors to the wall; the effects on bacterial physiology however, have not been thoroughly characterized. Here we show that deletion of Streptococcus pyogenes sortase A leads to accumulation of sorting intermediates, particularly at the septum, altering cellular morphology and physiology, and compromising membrane integrity. Such cells are highly sensitive to cathelicidin, and are rapidly killed in blood and plasma. These phenomena are not a loss-of-function effect caused by the absence of anchored surface proteins, but specifically result from the accumulation of sorting intermediates. Reduction in the level of sorting intermediates leads to a return of the sortase mutant to normal morphology, while expression of M protein with an altered LPXTG motif in wild type cells leads to toxicity in the host environment, similar to that observed in the sortase mutant. These unanticipated effects suggest that inhibition of sortase by small-molecule inhibitors could similarly lead to the rapid elimination of pathogens from an infected host, making such inhibitors much better anti-bacterial agents than previously believed. PMID:26484774

  17. Identification of Restriction Factors by Human Genome-Wide RNA Interference Screening of Viral Host Range Mutants Exemplified by Discovery of SAMD9 and WDR6 as Inhibitors of the Vaccinia Virus K1L-C7L- Mutant.

    PubMed

    Sivan, Gilad; Ormanoglu, Pinar; Buehler, Eugen C; Martin, Scott E; Moss, Bernard

    2015-08-04

    RNA interference (RNAi) screens intended to identify host factors that restrict virus replication may fail if the virus already counteracts host defense mechanisms. To overcome this limitation, we are investigating the use of viral host range mutants that exhibit impaired replication in nonpermissive cells. A vaccinia virus (VACV) mutant with a deletion of both the C7L and K1L genes, K1L(-)C7L(-), which abrogates replication in human cells at a step prior to late gene expression, was chosen for this strategy. We carried out a human genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen in HeLa cells infected with a VACV K1L(-)C7L(-) mutant that expresses the green fluorescent protein regulated by a late promoter. This positive-selection screen had remarkably low background levels and resulted in the identification of a few cellular genes, notably SAMD9 and WDR6, from approximately 20,000 tested that dramatically enhanced green fluorescent protein expression. Replication of the mutant virus was enabled by multiple siRNAs to SAMD9 or WDR6. Moreover, SAMD9 and WDR6 clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 knockout HeLa cell lines were permissive for replication of the K1L(-)C7L(-) mutant, in agreement with the siRNA data. Expression of exogenous SAMD9 or interferon regulatory factor 1 restricted replication of the K1L(-)C7L(-) mutant in the SAMD9(-/-) cells. Independent interactions of SAMD9 with the K1 and C7 proteins were suggested by immunoprecipitation. Knockout of WDR6 did not reduce the levels of SAMD9 and interactions of WDR6 with SAMD9, C7, and K1 proteins were not detected, suggesting that these restriction factors act independently but possibly in the same innate defense pathway. The coevolution of microbial pathogens with cells has led to an arms race in which the invader and host continuously struggle to gain the advantage. For this reason, traditional siRNA screens may fail to uncover important immune mechanisms if the pathogens

  18. In vivo chlorophyll fluorescence screening allows the isolation of a Chlamydomonas mutant defective for NDUFAF3, an assembly factor involved in mitochondrial complex I assembly.

    PubMed

    Massoz, S; Hanikenne, M; Bailleul, B; Coosemans, N; Radoux, M; Miranda-Astudillo, H; Cardol, P; Larosa, V; Remacle, C

    2017-08-30

    The qualitative screening method to select complex I mutants in the microalga Chlamydomonas, based on reduced growth under heterotrophic condition, is not suited for high throughput screening. In order to develop a fast screening method based on measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence, we first demonstrated that complex I mutants displayed decreased photosystem II efficiency in the genetic background of a photosynthetic mutation leading to reduced formation of the electrochemical proton gradient in the chloroplast (pgrl1 mutation). In contrast, single mutants (complex I and pgrl1 mutants) could not be distinguished from wild type by their photosystem II efficiency in the tested conditions. We next performed an insertional mutagenesis on the pgrl1 mutant. Out of ~3000 hygromycin-resistant insertional transformants, 46 had decreased photosystem II efficiency and three were complex I mutants. One of the mutants was tagged and whole genome sequencing identified the resistance cassette in NDUFAF3, a homolog of the human NDUFAF3 gene, encoding for an assembly factor involved in complex I assembly. Complemented strains showed restored complex I activity and assembly. Overall, we described here a screening method which is fast and particularly suited for identification of Chlamydomonas complex I mutants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Two splice-factor mutant leukemia subgroups uncovered at the boundaries of MDS and AML using combined gene expression and DNA-methylation profiling.

    PubMed

    Taskesen, Erdogan; Havermans, Marije; van Lom, Kirsten; Sanders, Mathijs A; van Norden, Yvette; Bindels, Eric; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Reinders, Marcel J T; Figueroa, Maria E; Valk, Peter J M; Löwenberg, Bob; Melnick, Ari; Delwel, Ruud

    2014-05-22

    Mutations in splice factor (SF) genes occur more frequently in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) than in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). We sequenced complementary DNA from bone marrow of 47 refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) patients, 29 AML cases with low marrow blast cell count, and 325 other AML patients and determined the presence of SF-hotspot mutations in SF3B1, U2AF35, and SRSF2. SF mutations were found in 10 RAEB, 12 AML cases with low marrow blast cell count, and 25 other AML cases. Our study provides evidence that SF-mutant RAEB and SF-mutant AML are clinically, cytologically, and molecularly highly similar. An integrated analysis of genomewide messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiling and DNA-methylation profiling data revealed 2 unique patient clusters highly enriched for SF-mutant RAEB/AML. The combined genomewide mRNA expression profiling/DNA-methylation profiling signatures revealed 1 SF-mutant patient cluster with an erythroid signature. The other SF-mutant patient cluster was enriched for NRAS/KRAS mutations and showed an inferior survival. We conclude that SF-mutant RAEB/AML constitutes a related disorder overriding the artificial separation between AML and MDS, and that SF-mutant RAEB/AML is composed of 2 molecularly and clinically distinct subgroups. We conclude that SF-mutant disorders should be considered as myeloid malignancies that transcend the boundaries of AML and MDS.

  20. Root hair-specific disruption of cellulose and xyloglucan in AtCSLD3 mutants, and factors affecting the post-rupture resumption of mutant root hair growth.

    PubMed

    Galway, Moira E; Eng, Ryan C; Schiefelbein, John W; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2011-05-01

    The glycosyl transferase encoded by the cellulose synthase-like gene CSLD3/KJK/RHD7 (At3g03050) is required for cell wall integrity during root hair formation in Arabidopsis thaliana but it remains unclear whether it contributes to the synthesis of cellulose or hemicellulose. We identified two new alleles, root hair-defective (rhd) 7-1 and rhd7-4, which affect the C-terminal end of the encoded protein. Like root hairs in the previously characterized kjk-2 putative null mutant, rhd7-1 and rhd7-4 hairs rupture before tip growth but, depending on the growth medium and temperature, hairs are able to survive rupture and initiate tip growth, indicating that these alleles retain some function. At 21°C, the rhd7 tip-growing root hairs continued to rupture but at 5ºC, rupture was inhibited, resulting in long, wild type-like root hairs. At both temperatures, the expression of another root hair-specific CSLD gene, CSLD2, was increased in the rhd7-4 mutant but reduced in the kjk-2 mutant, suggesting that CSLD2 expression is CSLD3-dependent, and that CSLD2 could partially compensate for CSLD3 defects to prevent rupture at 5°C. Using a fluorescent brightener (FB 28) to detect cell wall (1 → 4)-β-glucans (primarily cellulose) and CCRC-M1 antibody to detect fucosylated xyloglucans revealed a patchy distribution of both in the mutant root hair cell walls. Cell wall thickness varied, and immunogold electron microscopy indicated that xyloglucan distribution was altered throughout the root hair cell walls. These cell wall defects indicate that CSLD3 is required for the normal organization of both cellulose and xyloglucan in root hair cell walls.

  1. Protective and therapeutic effects of the resuscitation-promoting factor domain and its mutants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanmin; Song, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Yong; Qiu, Yi; Mao, Fengfeng; Zhang, Caiqin; Bai, Bing; Zhang, Hai; Wu, Shaoping; Shi, Changhong

    2015-04-01

    The resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf), a secretory protein first reported in Micrococcus luteus, plays a critical role in mycobacterial survival and infection. There are five functionally redundant Rpf-like proteins identified in M. tuberculosis (Mtb). All these Rpfs share a conserved Rpf domain (Rpfd) composed of approximately 70 amino acids, which possesses the same biological functions as the full-length Rpf protein. Glutamic acid at position 54 in Rpfd (E54) has been implicated in mediating multiple physiological processes, and a single amino acid substitution at residue E54 can affect the protein biological activity. In order to determine the effects of different amino acid substitutions of E54 in Rpfd on its immunogenic activity, we generated three recombinant Rpfd mutants, Rpfd1 (E54K), Rpfd2 (E54A) and Rpfd3 (E54K and D48A), based on T-cell epitope prediction and tested their potential protective/therapeutic effects against Mtb in mice. Our results demonstrated that replacement of E54 by different amino acids in Rpfd distinctively influenced its resuscitation-promoting activities and Th1-type immune responses induced in mice. Administration of Rpfd2 mutant enhanced Th1-type cellular responses (IFN-γ and IL-2) in mice (P < 0.05, Rpfd2 versus control) and provided effective protection against Mtb in mice by significantly inhibiting the growth of Mtb during the initial stage of infection. Four weeks after the challenge, the slightest pathological injury in lung was observed in the Rpfd2-immunized group among all three Rfpd mutant-immunized groups. Furthermore, Rpfd2 therapy significantly decreased the bacterial load in lung and alleviated histopathological damage in Mtb-infected mice. Together, our results suggest Rpfd2 as a novel effective vaccine candidate against Mtb. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Amphitrite ornata Dehaloperoxidase (DHP): Investigations of Structural Factors That Influence the Mechanism of Halophenol Dehalogenation Using ;Peroxidase-like; Myoglobin Mutants and ;Myoglobin-like; DHP Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Jing; Huang, Xiao; Sun, Shengfang; Wang, Chunxue; Lebioda, Lukasz; Dawson, John H.

    2012-05-14

    Dehaloperoxidase (DHP), discovered in the marine terebellid polychaete Amphitrite ornata, is the first heme-containing globin with a peroxidase activity. The sequence and crystal structure of DHP argue that it evolved from an ancient O{sub 2} transport and storage globin. Thus, DHP retains an oxygen carrier function but also has the ability to degrade halophenol toxicants in its living environment. Sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) in the ferric state has a peroxidase activity {approx}10 times lower than that of DHP. The catalytic activity enhancement observed in DHP appears to have been generated mainly by subtle changes in the positions of the proximal and distal histidine residues that appeared during DHP evolution. Herein, we report investigations into the mechanism of action of DHP derived from examination of 'peroxidase-like' Mb mutants and 'Mb-like' DHP mutants. The dehalogenation ability of wild-type Mb is augmented in the peroxidase-like Mb mutants (F43H/H64L, G65T, and G65I Mb) but attenuated in the Mb-like T56G DHP variant. X-ray crystallographic data show that the distal His residues in G65T Mb and G65I are positioned {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.8 {angstrom}, respectively, farther from the heme iron compared to that in the wild-type protein. The H93K/T95H double mutant Mb with the proximal His shifted to the 'DHP-like' position has an increased peroxidase activity. In addition, a better dehaloperoxidase (M86E DHP) was generated by introducing a negative charge near His89 to enhance the imidazolate character of the proximal His. Finally, only minimal differences in dehalogenation activities are seen among the exogenous ligand-free DHP, the acetate-bound DHP, and the distal site blocker L100F DHP mutant. Thus, we conclude that binding of halophenols in the internal binding site (i.e., distal cavity) is not essential for catalysis. This work provides a foundation for a new structure-function paradigm for peroxidases and for the molecular evolution of the dual

  3. Identification of new dominant-negative mutants of anthrax protective antigen using directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaobing; Feng, Chunfang; Cao, Sha; Guo, Aizhen; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-11-01

    The anthrax toxin is composed of three proteins: protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema toxin (EF). The PA moiety carries EF and LF into the cytosol of mammalian cells via a mechanism that depends on the oligomerization of PA and transmembrane pore formation by the PA oligomer. Certain mutants of PA, termed dominant-negative (DN) mutants, can co-oligomerize with wild-type PA and disrupt the translocation ability of the pore. Here, we constructed a PA mutant library by introducing random mutations into domain II of PA and screened three new DN mutants of PA: V377E, T380S, and I432C. All the mutants inhibited the anthrax toxin action against sensitive cells. V377E had the strongest inhibitory effect and was further confirmed to be able to protect mice against a challenge with anthrax lethal toxin. Furthermore, we functionally characterized these mutants. The result showed that these mutations did not impair proteolytic activation or oligomer formation of PA, but impeded the prepore-pore conversion of the oligomer. These DN mutants of PA identified in our study may provide valuable information for elucidating the structure-function relationship of PA and for designing therapeutics for anthrax treatment.

  4. Triple point-mutants of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α accelerate in vivo angiogenesis in bone defect regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Liu, Danping; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Guoxian; Xu, Na

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the functions of triple point-mutants of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) in angiogenesis in bone defect regions under normoxic conditions. 1. Triple point-mutations (in amino acids 402, 564, and 803) in the HIF1α coding sequence (CDS) were induced by polymerase chain reaction. The triple mutant HIF1α (402/564/803) was inserted into the adenovirus pAdEasy-1 system for complete viral packaging and titer measurements. 2. For the in vitro experiment, rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were divided into four experimental groups. The efficiency of infection was observed by the expression of human renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP). The HIF1α mRNA, protein and VEGF protein expression levels in infected cells in each experimental group were measured. 3. As in the in vivo experiment, the MSCs were divided into four groups and infected with the viral solutions from each complementary in vitro group and cultured under normoxic conditions. The MSCs were used as seed cells and transplanted into an apatite-wollastonite magnetic bioactive glass-ceramic (AW MGC) vector to construct artificial tissue-engineering scaffolds that were then implanted into the in vivo rabbit radial bone defect model. The animals from each group were killed 8 weeks after the surgery, and the tissues from the implantation region were harvested for the evaluation of the angiogenesis. 1. The 402,564, and 803 amino acids in CDS area were point mutated into alanine; three types of recombinant adenovirus were successfully constructed, packaged, and characterized. 2. The expression levels of HIF1α mRNA in A and B groups were significantly higher than those in the C and D groups (P < 0.05). The HIF1α and VEGF protein expression levels in A group were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P < 0.05). 3. There was prominent angiogenesis in bone defect regions in group A animals. 1. Triple point-mutants of HIF1α efficiently

  5. Sensitivity of epidermal growth factor receptor and ErbB2 exon 20 insertion mutants to Hsp90 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Xu, W; Soga, S; Beebe, K; Lee, M-J; Kim, Y S; Trepel, J; Neckers, L

    2007-09-17

    The mature epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) neither associates with nor requires the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Mutations in EGFR exons 18, 19, and 21 confer Hsp90 chaperone dependence. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), these mutations are associated with enhanced sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors in vitro and with clinical response in vivo. Although less prevalent, insertions in EGFR exon 20 have also been described in NSCLC. These mutations, however, confer resistance to EGFR inhibitors. In NSCLC, exon 20 insertions have also been identified in the EGFR family member ErbB2. Here, we examined the sensitivity of exon 20 insertion mutants to an Hsp90 inhibitor currently in the clinic. Our data demonstrate that both EGFR and ErbB2 exon 20 insertion mutants retain dependence on Hsp90 for stability and downstream-signalling capability, and remain highly sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition. Use of Hsp90 inhibitors should be considered in NSCLC harbouring exon 20 insertions in either EGFR or ErbB2.

  6. Oncogenic Activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Mutant Alleles Is Enhanced by the T790M Drug Resistance Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Godin-Heymann, Nadia; Bryant, Ianthe; Rivera, Miguel N.; Ulkus, Lindsey; Bell, Daphne W.; Riese, David J.; Settleman, Jeffrey; Haber, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) characterize a subset of non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with extraordinary sensitivity to targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). A single secondary EGFR mutation, T790M, arising in cis with the primary activating mutation, confers acquired resistance to these drugs. However, the T790M mutation is also detected in the absence of drug selection, suggesting that it may provide a growth advantage. We show here that although T790M alone has only a modest effect on EGFR function, when combined with the characteristic activating mutations L858R or del746–750, it results in a dramatic enhancement of EGFR activity. The double mutants show potent ligand-independent receptor autophosphorylation associated with altered cellular phenotypes, soft agar colony formation, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. The significant gain-of-function properties of these double mutants may explain their initial presence before drug selection and their rapid selection as the single drug resistance mutation during therapy with gefitinib/erlotinib, and suggests that they may contribute to the adverse clinical course of TKI-resistant NSCLC. PMID:17671201

  7. Serodiagnosis of Human Cutaneous Anthrax in India Using an Indirect Anti-Lethal Factor IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, N.; Tomar, I.; Lukka, H.

    2013-01-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is primarily a zoonotic disease. Being a public health problem also in several developing countries, its early diagnosis is very important in human cases. In this study, we describe the use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-lethal factor (anti-LF) IgG in human serum samples. A panel of 203 human serum samples consisting of 50 samples from patients with confirmed cutaneous anthrax, 93 samples from healthy controls from areas of India where anthrax is nonendemic, 44 samples from controls from an area of India where anthrax is endemic, and 16 patients with a disease confirmed not to be anthrax were evaluated with an anti-LF ELISA. The combined mean anti-LF ELISA titer for the three control groups was 0.136 ELISA unit (EU), with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.120 to 0.151 EU. The observed sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 100% (95% CI, 92.89 to 100%) and 97.39% (95% CI, 93.44 to 99.28%), respectively, at a cutoff value of 0.375 EU, as decided by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The likelihood ratio was found to be 49.98. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), efficiency, and Youden's index (J) for reliability of the assay were 92.5%, 100%, 98.02%, and 0.97, respectively. The false-positive predictive rate and false-negative predictive rate of the assay were 2.61% and 0%. The assay could be a very useful tool for early diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax cases, as antibodies against LF appear much earlier than those against other anthrax toxins in human serum samples. PMID:23269414

  8. Increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in multiple organs after exposure of non-human primates (NHP) to lethal doses of radiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Cui, Wanchang; Hankey, Kim G.; Gibbs, Allison M.; Smith, Cassandra P.; Taylor-Howell, Cheryl; Kearney, Sean R.; MacVittie, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to sufficiently high doses of ionizing radiation is known to cause fibrosis in many different organs and tissues. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a member of the CCN family of matricellular proteins, plays an important role in the development of fibrosis in multiple organs. The aim of the present study was to quantify the gene and protein expression of CTGF in a variety of organs from non-human primates (NHP) that were previously exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Tissues from non-irradiated NHP, and NHP exposed to whole thoracic lung irradiation (WTLI) or partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow sparing (PBI/BM5) were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Expression of CTGF was elevated in the lung tissues of NHP exposed to WTLI relative to the lung tissues of the non-irradiated NHP. Increased expression of CTGF was also observed in multiple organs from NHP exposed to PBI/BM5 compared to non-irradiated NHP; these included the lung, kidney, spleen, thymus and liver. These irradiated organs also exhibited histological evidence of increased collagen deposition compared to the control tissues. There was significant correlation of CTGF expression with collagen deposition in the lung and spleen of NHP exposed to PBI/BM5. Significant correlations were observed between spleen and multiple organs on CTGF expression and collagen deposition respectively, suggesting possible crosstalk between spleen and other organs. Our data suggest that CTGF levels are increased in multiple organs after radiation exposure and that inflammatory cell infiltration may contribute to the elevated levels of CTGF in multiple organs. PMID:26425899

  9. Increased Expression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Multiple Organs After Exposure of Non-Human Primates (NHP) to Lethal Doses of Radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Cui, Wanchang; Hankey, Kim G; Gibbs, Allison M; Smith, Cassandra P; Taylor-Howell, Cheryl; Kearney, Sean R; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to sufficiently high doses of ionizing radiation is known to cause fibrosis in many different organs and tissues. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), a member of the CCN family of matricellular proteins, plays an important role in the development of fibrosis in multiple organs. The aim of the present study was to quantify the gene and protein expression of CTGF in a variety of organs from non-human primates (NHP) that were previously exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Tissues from non-irradiated NHP and NHP exposed to whole thoracic lung irradiation (WTLI) or partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow sparing (PBI/BM5) were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Expression of CTGF was elevated in the lung tissues of NHP exposed to WTLI relative to the lung tissues of the non-irradiated NHP. Increased expression of CTGF was also observed in multiple organs from NHP exposed to PBI/BM5 compared to non-irradiated NHP; these included the lung, kidney, spleen, thymus, and liver. These irradiated organs also exhibited histological evidence of increased collagen deposition compared to the control tissues. There was significant correlation of CTGF expression with collagen deposition in the lung and spleen of NHP exposed to PBI/BM5. Significant correlations were observed between spleen and multiple organs on CTGF expression and collagen deposition, respectively, suggesting possible crosstalk between spleen and other organs. These data suggest that CTGF levels are increased in multiple organs after radiation exposure and that inflammatory cell infiltration may contribute to the elevated levels of CTGF in multiple organs.

  10. Genome-Wide Screen for Oxalate-Sensitive Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, V.; Stotz, H. U.; Hippchen, K.; Bakalinsky, A. T.

    2007-01-01

    Oxalic acid is an important virulence factor produced by phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. In order to discover yeast genes whose orthologs in the pathogen may confer self-tolerance and whose plant orthologs may protect the host, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library consisting of 4,827 haploid mutants harboring deletions in nonessential genes was screened for growth inhibition and survival in a rich medium containing 30 mM oxalic acid at pH 3. A total of 31 mutants were identified that had significantly lower cell yields in oxalate medium than in an oxalate-free medium. About 35% of these mutants had not previously been detected in published screens for sensitivity to sorbic or citric acid. Mutants impaired in endosomal transport, the rgp1Δ, ric1Δ, snf7Δ, vps16Δ, vps20Δ, and vps51Δ mutants, were significantly overrepresented relative to their frequency among all verified yeast open reading frames. Oxalate exposure to a subset of five mutants, the drs2Δ, vps16Δ, vps51Δ, ric1Δ, and rib4Δ mutants, was lethal. With the exception of the rib4Δ mutant, all of these mutants are impaired in vesicle-mediated transport. Indirect evidence is provided suggesting that the sensitivity of the rib4Δ mutant, a riboflavin auxotroph, is due to oxalate-mediated interference with riboflavin uptake by the putative monocarboxylate transporter Mch5. PMID:17644632

  11. Lethal factor VII deficiency due to novel mutations in the F7 promoter: functional analysis reveals disruption of HNF4 binding site.

    PubMed

    Giansily-Blaizot, Muriel; Lopez, Estelle; Viart, Victoria; Chafa, Ouerdia; Tapon-Bretaudière, Jacqueline; Claustres, Mireille; Taulan, Magali

    2012-08-01

    Hereditary factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Deleterious mutations that prevent the synthesis of any amount of functional FVII have been associated with life-threatening haemorrhage in neonates. Here we report two infants, of Maghrebian origin, who suffered a fatal spontaneous cerebral haemorrhage. Investigation of the molecular basis for their severe FVII deficiency revealed novel mutations in a homozygous state within the F7 gene promoter: a single nucleotide substitution (c.-65G>C) and a 2bp deletion (c.-60_-59delTT). To determine whether these promoter variants were responsible for the FVII deficiency, computer-assisted sequence analyses were performed. The data predicted a disrupted binding of both HNF4 and COUP-TF transcription factors with each variant. Concordantly, experimental results revealed an altered HNF4-induced transactivation in the promoter mutated variants. The execution of functional tests is critical to ensuring a complete understanding of the effect of any promoter mutant on FVII deficiency. Only then can an accurate molecular diagnosis be made and further genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis be offered.

  12. Biomass digestibility is predominantly affected by three factors of wall polymer features distinctive in wheat accessions and rice mutants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat and rice are important food crops with enormous biomass residues for biofuels. However, lignocellulosic recalcitrance becomes a crucial factor on biomass process. Plant cell walls greatly determine biomass recalcitrance, thus it is essential to identify their key factors on lignocellulose saccharification. Despite it has been reported about cell wall factors on biomass digestions, little is known in wheat and rice. In this study, we analyzed nine typical pairs of wheat and rice samples that exhibited distinct cell wall compositions, and identified three major factors of wall polymer features that affected biomass digestibility. Results Based on cell wall compositions, ten wheat accessions and three rice mutants were classified into three distinct groups each with three typical pairs. In terms of group I that displayed single wall polymer alternations in wheat, we found that three wall polymer levels (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin) each had a negative effect on biomass digestibility at similar rates under pretreatments of NaOH and H2SO4 with three concentrations. However, analysis of six pairs of wheat and rice samples in groups II and III that each exhibited a similar cell wall composition, indicated that three wall polymer levels were not the major factors on biomass saccharification. Furthermore, in-depth detection of the wall polymer features distinctive in rice mutants, demonstrated that biomass digestibility was remarkably affected either negatively by cellulose crystallinity (CrI) of raw biomass materials, or positively by both Ara substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses (reverse Xyl/Ara) and p-coumaryl alcohol relative proportion of KOH-extractable lignin (H/G). Correlation analysis indicated that Ara substitution degree and H/G ratio negatively affected cellulose crystallinity for high biomass enzymatic digestion. It was also suggested to determine whether Ara and H monomer have an interlinking with cellulose chains

  13. Enhanced reconstruction of long bone architecture by a growth factor mutant combining positive features of GDF-5 and BMP-2.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Kerstin; Ploeger, Frank; Nickel, Joachim; Glockenmeier, Julia; Kunz, Pierre; Richter, Wiltrud

    2013-08-01

    Non healing bone defects remain a worldwide health problem and still only few osteoinductive growth factors are available for clinical use in bone regeneration. By introducing BMP-2 residues into growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-5 we recently produced a mutant GDF-5 protein BB-1 which enhanced heterotopic bone formation in mice. Designed to combine positive features of GDF-5 and BMP-2, we suspected that this new growth factor variant may improve long bone healing compared to the parent molecules and intended to unravel functional mechanisms behind its action. BB-1 acquired an increased binding affinity to the BMP-IA receptor, mediated enhanced osteogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells versus GDF-5 and higher VEGF secretion than BMP-2 in vitro. Rabbit radius defects treated with a BB-1-coated collagen carrier healed earlier and with increased bone volume compared to BMP-2 and GDF-5 according to in vivo micro-CT follow-up. While BMP-2 callus often remained spongy, BB-1 supported earlier corticalis and marrow cavity formation, showing no pseudojoint persistence like with GDF-5. Thus, by combining positive angiogenic and osteogenic features of GDF-5 and BMP-2, only BB-1 restored a natural bone architecture within 12 weeks, rendering this promising growth factor variant especially promising for long bone regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Temperature Sensitivity Caused by Mutant Release Factor 1 Is Suppressed by Mutations That Affect 16S rRNA Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kaczanowska, Magdalena; Rydén-Aulin, Monica

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of slow termination on the protein synthesizing machinery, we isolated suppressors to a temperature-sensitive release factor 1 (RF1). Of 26 independent clones, five complementation groups have been identified, two of which are presented here. The first mutation disrupts a base pair in the transcription terminator stem for the rplM-rpsI operon, which encodes ribosomal proteins L13 and S9. We have found that this leads to readthrough of the terminator and that lower levels of transcript (compared to the results seen with the wild type) are found in the cell. This probably leads to decreased expression of the two proteins. The second mutation is a small deletion of the yrdC open reading frame start site, and it is not likely that the protein is expressed. Both mutant strains show an increased accumulation of 17S rRNA (immature 16S rRNA). Maturation of 16S rRNA is dependent on proper assembly of the ribosomal proteins, a process that is disturbed when proteins are missing. The function of the YrdC protein is not known, but it is able to bind to double-stranded RNA; therefore, we suggest that it is an assembly factor important for 30S subunit biogenesis. On the basis of our findings, we propose that lesser amounts of S9 or a lack of YrdC causes the maturation defect. We have shown that as a consequence of the maturation defect, fewer 70S ribosomes and polysomes are formed. This and other results suggest that it is the lowered concentration of functional ribosomes that suppresses the temperature sensitivity caused by the mutant RF1. PMID:15126466

  15. Internal Dynamics and Ionization States of the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: Comparison Between Wild-Type and Mutant Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, Thereza A.; Lins, Roberto D.; Straatsma, TP; Briggs, J. M.

    2002-11-15

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine which shares a common structural architecture and catalytic strategy with three isomerases: 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase, 5-carboxymethyl-2-hydroxymuconate isomerase and D-dopachrome tautomerase. A highly conserved N-terminal proline acts as a base\\acid during the proton transfer reaction catalyzed by these enzymes. Such unusual catalytic strategy appears to be possible only due to the N-terminal proline pKa be shifted to 5.0-6.0 units. Mutations of this residue result in a significant decrease of the catalytic activity of MIF. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the catalytic inefficiency of MIF: the lower basicity of primary amines with regard to secondary ones and the increased flexibility resulting from the replacement of a proline by residues like glycine. To investigate that, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of MIF-wt and its mutant P1G as well as calculated the protonation properties of several mutant forms. It has been found that the N-terminal glycine does not show larger fluctuations compared to proline, but the former residue is more exposed to the solvent throughout the simulations. The apparent pKa of these residues displays very little change (as expected from the structural rigidity of MIF) and is not significantly affected by the surrounding ionizable residues. Instead, the hydrophobic character of the active site seems to be the main factor in determining the pKa of the N-terminal residue and the catalytic efficiency of MIF.

  16. Wild-type and mutant p53 differentially regulate transcription of the insulin-like growth factor I receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, H; Karnieli, E; Rauscher, F J; LeRoith, D

    1996-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-I-R) plays a critical role in transformation events. It is highly overexpressed in most malignant tissues where it functions as an anti-apoptotic agent by enhancing cell survival. Tumor suppressor p53 is a nuclear transcription factor that blocks cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis. p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. Cotransfection of Saos-2 (os-teosarcoma-derived cells) and RD (rhabdomyosarcoma-derived cells) cells with IGF-I-R promoter constructs driving luciferase reporter genes and with wild-type p53 expression vectors suppressed promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of p53 is mediated at the level of transcription and it involves interaction with TBP, the TATA box-binding component of TFIID. On the other hand, three tumor-derived mutant forms of p53 (mut 143, mut 248, and mut 273) stimulated the activity of the IGF-I-R promoter and increased the levels of IGF-I-R/luciferase fusion mRNA. These results suggest that wild-type p53 has the potential to suppress the IGF-I-R promoter in the postmitotic, fully differentiated cell, thus resulting in low levels of receptor gene expression in adult tissues. Mutant versions of p53 protein, usually associated with malignant states, can derepress the IGF-I-R promoter, with ensuing mitogenic activation by locally produced or circulating IGFs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8710868

  17. Isolation and genetic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants supersensitive to G1 arrest by a factor and. cap alpha. factor pheromones

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, R.K.; Otte, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Eight independently isolated mutants which are supersensitive (Sst/sup -/) to the G1 arrest induced by the tridecapeptide pheromone ..cap alpha.. factor were identified by screening mutagenized Saccharomyces cerevisiae MATa cells on solid medium for increased growth inhibition by ..cap alpha.. factor. These mutants carries lesions in two complementation groups, sst1 and sst2. Mutations at the sst1 locus were mating type specific: MATa sst1 cells were supersensitive to ..cap alpha.. factor, but MAT..cap alpha.. sst1 cells were not supersensitive to a factor. In contrast, mutations at the sst2 locus conferred supersensitivity to the pheromones of the opposite mating type on both MATa and MAT..cap alpha.. cells. Even in the absence of added ..cap alpha.. pheromone, about 10% of the cells in exponentially growing cultures of MATa strains carrying any of three different alleles of sst2 (including the ochre mutation sst2-4) had the aberrant morphology (''shmoo'' shape) that normally develops only after MATa cells are exposed to ..cap alpha.. factor. This ''self-shmooing'' phenotype was genetically linked to the sst2 mutations, although the leakiest allele isolated (sst2-3) did not display this characteristic. Normal MATa/MAT..cap alpha.. diploids do not respond to pheromones; diploids homozygous for an sst2 mutation (MATa/MAT..cap alpha.. sst2-1/sst2-1) were still insensitive to ..cap alpha.. factor. The sst1 gene was mapped to within 6.9 centimorgans of his6 on chromosome IX. The sst2 gene was unlinked to sst1, was not centromere linked, and was shown to be neither linked nor centromere distal to MAT on the right arm of chromosome III.

  18. Lethality of Sortase Depletion in Actinomyces oris Caused by Excessive Membrane Accumulation of a Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harboring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalyzed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230351

  19. Anti-tumor necrosis factor VNAR single domains reduce lethality and regulate underlying inflammatory response in a murine model of endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In sepsis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is the key factor triggering respiratory burst, tissue injury and disseminated coagulation. Anti-TNF strategies based on monoclonal antibodies or F(ab’)2 fragments have been used in sepsis with contradictory results. Immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNAR) are a unique subset of antibodies consisting of five constant (CNAR) and one variable domains (VNAR). VNAR domains are the smallest, naturally occurring, antibody-based immune recognition units, having potential use as therapy. Our aim was to explore the impact of an anti-TNF VNAR on survival in an experimental model of endotoxic shock. Also, mRNA expression and serum protein of several inflammatory molecules were measured. Results Endotoxic shock was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in male Balb/c mice. Animals were treated with anti-TNF VNAR domains, F(ab’)2 antibody fragments, or saline solution 15 minutes before, 2 h and 24 h after lethal dose100 (LD100) LPS administration. TNF blockade with either VNAR domains or F(ab’)2 fragments were associated with lower mortality (60% and 75%, respectively) compared to LD100. Challenge with LPS induced significant production of serum TNF and interleukins -10 and -6 at 3 h. After that, significant reduction of IL-6 at 24 h (vs 3 h) was shown only in the VNAR group. Nitrites level also increased in response to LPS. In liver, TNF and IL-10 mRNA expression showed a pro-inflammatory imbalance in response to LPS. Blocking TNF was associated with a shift towards an anti-inflammatory status; however, polarization was more pronounced in animals receiving F(ab’)2 fragments than in those with VNAR therapy. With regard to IL-6, gene expression was increased at 3 h in all groups. TNF blockade was associated with rapid and sustained suppression of IL-6 expression, even more evident in the VNAR group. Finally, expression of inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) increased in response to LPS at 3 h, but this

  20. Anti-tumor necrosis factor VNAR single domains reduce lethality and regulate underlying inflammatory response in a murine model of endotoxic shock.

    PubMed

    Bojalil, Rafael; Mata-González, María Teresa; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Yee, Yepci; Argueta, Iván; Bolaños, Lucía; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis Manuel; Camacho-Villegas, Tanya Amanda; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; García-Ubbelohde, Walter Jakob; Licea-Navarro, Alexei Fedorovish; Márquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge Fernando

    2013-04-02

    In sepsis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is the key factor triggering respiratory burst, tissue injury and disseminated coagulation. Anti-TNF strategies based on monoclonal antibodies or F(ab')₂ fragments have been used in sepsis with contradictory results. Immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNAR) are a unique subset of antibodies consisting of five constant (CNAR) and one variable domains (VNAR). VNAR domains are the smallest, naturally occurring, antibody-based immune recognition units, having potential use as therapy. Our aim was to explore the impact of an anti-TNF VNAR on survival in an experimental model of endotoxic shock. Also, mRNA expression and serum protein of several inflammatory molecules were measured. Endotoxic shock was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in male Balb/c mice. Animals were treated with anti-TNF VNAR domains, F(ab')₂ antibody fragments, or saline solution 15 minutes before, 2 h and 24 h after lethal dose₁₀₀ (LD₁₀₀) LPS administration. TNF blockade with either VNAR domains or F(ab')₂ fragments were associated with lower mortality (60% and 75%, respectively) compared to LD₁₀₀. Challenge with LPS induced significant production of serum TNF and interleukins -10 and -6 at 3 h. After that, significant reduction of IL-6 at 24 h (vs 3 h) was shown only in the VNAR group. Nitrites level also increased in response to LPS. In liver, TNF and IL-10 mRNA expression showed a pro-inflammatory imbalance in response to LPS. Blocking TNF was associated with a shift towards an anti-inflammatory status; however, polarization was more pronounced in animals receiving F(ab')₂ fragments than in those with VNAR therapy. With regard to IL-6, gene expression was increased at 3 h in all groups. TNF blockade was associated with rapid and sustained suppression of IL-6 expression, even more evident in the VNAR group. Finally, expression of inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) increased in response to LPS at 3 h, but this was decreased

  1. Epidermal growth factor impairs palatal shelf adhesion and fusion in the Tgf-β 3 null mutant.

    PubMed

    Barrio, M Carmen; Del Río, Aurora; Murillo, Jorge; Maldonado, Estela; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Paradas-Lara, Irene; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Catón, Javier; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    The cleft palate presented by transforming growth factor-β3 (Tgf-β3) null mutant mice is caused by altered palatal shelf adhesion, cell proliferation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation and cell death. The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (Tgf-β1) and muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1) is modified in the palates of these knockout mice, and the cell proliferation defect is caused by the change in EGF expression. In this study, we aimed to determine whether this change in EGF expression has any effect on the other mechanisms altered in Tgf-β3 knockout mouse palates. We tested the effect of inhibiting EGF activity in vitro in the knockout palates via the addition of Tyrphostin AG 1478. We also investigated possible interactions between EGF, Tgf-β1 and Msx-1 in Tgf-β3 null mouse palate cultures. The results show that the inhibition of EGF activity in Tgf-β3 null mouse palate cultures improves palatal shelf adhesion and fusion, with a particular effect on cell death, and restores the normal distribution pattern of Msx-1 in the palatal mesenchyme. Inhibition of TGF-β1 does not affect either EGF or Msx-1 expression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Structural and functional influences of coagulation factor XIII subunit B heterozygous missense mutants

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anne; Biswas, Arijit; Ivaskevicius, Vytautas; Oldenburg, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The coagulation factor XIII(FXIII) is a plasma circulating heterotetrameric protransglutaminase that acts at the end of the coagulation cascade by covalently cross-linking preformed fibrin clots (to themselves and to fibrinolytic inhibitors) in order to stabilize them against fibrinolysis. It circulates in the plasma as a heterotetramer composed of two homomeric catalytic Factor XIIIA2 (FXIIIA2) and two homomeric protective/carrier Factor XIIIB2 subunit (FXIIIB2). Congenital deficiency of FXIII is of two types: severe homozygous/compound heterozygous FXIII deficiency which results in severe bleeding symptoms and mild heterozygous FXIII deficiency which is associated with mild bleeding (only upon trauma) or an asymptomatic phenotype. Defects in the F13B gene (Factor XIIIB subunit) occur more frequently in mild FXIII deficiency patients than in severe FXIII deficiency. We had recently reported secretion-related defects for seven previously reported F13B missense mutations. In the present study we further analyze the underlying molecular pathological mechanisms as well as the heterozygous expression phenotype for these mutations using a combination of in vitro heterologous expression (in HEK293T cells) and confocal microscopy. In combination with the in vitro work we have also performed an in silico solvated molecular dynamic simulation study on previously reported FXIIIB subunit sushi domain homology models in order to predict the putative structure-functional impact of these mutations. We were able to categorize the mutations into the following functional groups that: (1) affect antigenic stability as well as binding to FXIIIA subunit, that is, Cys5Arg, Cys316Phe, and Pro428Ser (2) affect binding to FXIIIA subunit with little or no influence on antigenic stability, that is, Ile81Asn and Val401Gln c) influence neither aspects and are most likely causality linked polymorphisms or functional polymorphisms, that is, Leu116Phe and Val217Ile. The Cys5Arg mutation was the

  3. Contribution of lethal toxin and edema toxin to the pathogenesis of anthrax meningitis.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Celia M; Sheen, Tamsin R; Renken, Christian W; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Doran, Kelly S

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax disease in humans and animals. Systemic infection is characterized by septicemia, toxemia, and meningitis, the main neurological complication associated with high mortality. We have shown previously that B. anthracis Sterne is capable of blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, establishing the classic signs of meningitis, and that infection is dependent on the expression of both major anthrax toxins, lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). Here we further investigate the contribution of the individual toxins to BBB disruption using isogenic toxin mutants deficient in lethal factor, ΔLF, and edema factor, ΔEF. Acute infection with B. anthracis Sterne and the ΔLF mutant resulted in disruption of human brain microvascular endothelial cell (hBMEC) monolayer integrity and tight junction protein zona occludens-1, while the result for cells infected with the ΔEF mutant was similar to that for the noninfected control. A significant decrease in bacterial invasion of BBB endothelium in vitro was observed during infection with the ΔLF strain, suggesting a prominent role for LT in promoting BBB interaction. Further, treatment of hBMECs with purified LT or chemicals that mimic LT action on host signaling pathways rescued the hypoinvasive phenotype of the ΔLF mutant and resulted in increased bacterial uptake. We also observed that toxin expression reduced bacterial intracellular survival by inducing the bulk degradative autophagy pathway in host cells. Finally, in a murine model of anthrax meningitis, mice infected with the ΔLF mutant exhibited no mortality, brain bacterial load, or evidence of meningitis compared to mice infected with the parental or ΔEF strains.

  4. Translation initiation factor 2gamma mutant alters start codon selection independent of Met-tRNA binding.

    PubMed

    Alone, Pankaj V; Cao, Chune; Dever, Thomas E

    2008-11-01

    Selection of the AUG start codon for translation in eukaryotes is governed by codon-anticodon interactions between the initiator Met-tRNA(i)(Met) and the mRNA. Translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) binds Met-tRNA(i)(Met) to the 40S ribosomal subunit, and previous studies identified Sui(-) mutations in eIF2 that enhanced initiation from a noncanonical UUG codon, presumably by impairing Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding. Consistently, an eIF2gamma-N135D GTP-binding domain mutation impairs Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding and causes a Sui(-) phenotype. Intragenic A208V and A382V suppressor mutations restore Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding affinity and cell growth; however, only A208V suppresses the Sui(-) phenotype associated with the eIF2gamma-N135D mutation. An eIF2gamma-A219T mutation impairs Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding but unexpectedly enhances the fidelity of initiation, suppressing the Sui(-) phenotype associated with the eIF2gamma-N135D,A382V mutant. Overexpression of eIF1, which is thought to monitor codon-anticodon interactions during translation initiation, likewise suppresses the Sui(-) phenotype of the eIF2gamma mutants. We propose that structural alterations in eIF2gamma subtly alter the conformation of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) on the 40S subunit and thereby affect the fidelity of start codon recognition independent of Met-tRNA(i)(Met) binding affinity.

  5. In vivo recruitment analysis and a mutant strain without any group 2 σ factor reveal roles of different σ factors in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Satu; Hakkila, Kaisa; Gunnelius, Liisa; Kurkela, Juha; Wada, Hajime; Tyystjärvi, Taina

    2016-01-01

    In eubacteria, replacement of one σ factor in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme by another one changes the transcription pattern. Cyanobacteria are eubacteria characterized by oxygenic photosynthesis, and they typically encode numerous group 2 σ factors that closely resemble the essential primary σ factor. A mutant strain of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 without functional group 2 σ factors (named as ΔsigBCDE) could not acclimate to heat, high salt or bright light stress, but in standard conditions ΔsigBCDE grew only 9% slower than the control strain. One-fifth of the genes in ΔsigBCDE was differently expressed compared with the control strain in standard growth conditions and several physiological changes in photosynthesis, and pigment and lipid compositions were detected. To directly analyze the σ factor content of RNAP holoenzyme in vivo, a His-tag was added to the γ subunit of RNAP in Synechocystis and RNAPs were collected. The results revealed that all group 2 σ factors were recruited by RNAP in standard conditions, but recruitment of SigB and SigC increased in heat stress, SigD in bright light, SigE in darkness and SigB, SigC and SigE in high salt, explaining the poor acclimation of ΔsigBCDE to these stress conditions.

  6. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Tulika; Noor, Nazia Nagori; Kural, Moolraj; Tripathi, Amita

    2016-01-01

    The multiple pterygium syndrome is consist of wide range of fetal malformations which have a genetic linkage. A defect in embryonic acetylcholine receptor which can be inherited as autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, or X-linked fashion is the cause of this syndrome. We present a sporadic case of lethal multiple pterygium syndrome. PMID:27843868

  7. Lethal mutagenesis of viruses.

    PubMed

    Perales, Celia; Martín, Verónica; Domingo, Esteban

    2011-11-01

    Lethal mutagenesis aims at extinguishing viruses by increased mutagenesis prompted by virus-specific mutagenic agents, mainly nucleoside analogues. It is derived from the error threshold relationship of quasispecies theory, and it is slowly finding its way towards a clinical application. We summarize the current situation of research in this field of antiviral therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enduring vulnerability to reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yijin; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Niwa, Minae; Nagai, Taku; Nitta, Atsumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2007-07-01

    Genetic factors are considered to play an important role in drug dependence/addiction including the development of drug dependence and relapse. With the use of a model of drug self-administration in mutant mice, several specific genes and proteins have been identified as potentially important in the development of drug dependence. In contrast, little is known about the role of specific genes in enduring vulnerability to relapse, a clinical hallmark of drug addiction. Using a mouse model of reinstatement, which models relapse of drug-seeking behavior in addicts, we provide evidence that a partial reduction in the expression of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) potentiates methamphetamine (METH) self-administration, enhances motivation to take METH, increases vulnerability to drug-primed reinstatement, and prolongs cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished METH-seeking behavior. In contrast, there was no significant difference in novelty responses, METH-stimulated hyperlocomotion and locomotor sensitization, food-reinforced operant behavior and motivation, or reinstatement of food-seeking behavior between GDNF heterozygous knockout mice and wild-type littermates. These findings suggest that GDNF may be associated with enduring vulnerability to reinstatement of METH-seeking behavior and a potential target in the development of therapies to control relapse.

  9. Targeted inactivation of the mouse locus encoding coagulation factor XIII-A: hemostatic abnormalities in mutant mice and characterization of the coagulation deficit.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Peter; Metzner, Hubert J; Zettlmeissl, Gerd; Li, Meng; Smith, Austin G; Lathe, Richard; Dickneite, Gerhard

    2002-12-01

    Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) promotes cross-linking of fibrin during blood coagulation; impaired clot stabilization in human genetic deficiency is associated with marked pathologies of major clinical impact, including bleeding symptoms and deficient wound healing. To investigate the role of FXIII we employed homologous recombination to generate a targeted deletion of the inferred exon 7 of the FXIII-A gene. FXIII transglutaminase activity in plasma was reduced to about 50% in mice heterozygous for the mutant allele, and was abolished in homozygous null mice. Plasma fibrin gamma-dimerization was also indetectable in the homozygous deficient animals, confirming the absence of activatable FXIII. Homozygous mutant mice were fertile, although reproduction was impaired. Bleeding episodes, hematothorax, hematoperitoneum and subcutaneous hemorrhage in mutant mice were associated with reduced survival. Arrest of tail-tip bleeding in FXIII-A deficient mice was markedly and significantly delayed; replacement of mutant mice with human plasma FXIII (Fibrogammin P) restored bleeding time to within the normal range. Thrombelastography (TEG) experiments demonstrated impaired clot stabilization in FXIII-A mutant mice, replacement with human FXIII led to dose-dependent TEG normalization. The mutant mice thus reiterate some key features of the human genetic disorder: they will be valuable in assessing the role of FXIII in other associated pathologies and the development of new therapies.

  10. Phenotypic Screens Identify Parasite Genetic Factors Associated with Malarial Fever Response in Plasmodium falciparum piggyBac Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Phaedra; Sedillo, Jennifer; Oberstaller, Jenna; Li, Suzanne; Zhang, Min; Singh, Naresh; Wang, Chengqi C. Q.; Udenze, Kenneth; Jiang, Rays H. Y.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malaria remains one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide, with 90% of the malaria deaths in Africa in 2013 attributable to Plasmodium falciparum. The clinical symptoms of malaria include cycles of fever, corresponding to parasite rupture from red blood cells every 48 h. Parasite pathways involved in the parasite’s ability to survive the host fever response, and indeed, the functions of ~40% of P. falciparum genes as a whole, are still largely unknown. Here, we evaluated the potential of scalable forward-genetic screening methods to identify genes involved in the host fever response. We performed a phenotypic screen for genes linked to the parasite response to febrile temperatures by utilizing a selection of single-disruption P. falciparum mutants generated via random piggyBac transposon mutagenesis in a previous study. We identified several mutants presenting significant phenotypes in febrile response screens compared to the wild type, indicating possible roles for the disrupted genes in this process. We present these initial studies as proof that forward genetics can be used to gain insight into critical factors associated with parasite biology. IMPORTANCE Though the P. falciparum genome sequence has been available for many years, ~40% of its genes do not have informative annotations, as they show no detectable homology to those of studied organisms. More still have not been evaluated via genetic methods. Scalable forward-genetic approaches that allow interrogation of gene function without any pre-existing knowledge are needed to hasten understanding of parasite biology, which will expedite the identification of drug targets and the development of future interventions in the face of spreading resistance to existing frontline drugs. In this work, we describe a new approach to pursue forward-genetic phenotypic screens for P. falciparum to identify factors associated with virulence. Future large-scale phenotypic screens developed to

  11. Nexus of signaling and endocytosis in oncogenesis driven by non-small cell lung cancer-associated epidermal growth factor receptor mutants

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Byung Min; Tom, Eric; Zutshi, Neha; Bielecki, Timothy Alan; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls a wide range of cellular processes, and aberrant EGFR signaling as a result of receptor overexpression and/or mutation occurs in many types of cancer. Tumor cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients that harbor EGFR kinase domain mutations exhibit oncogene addiction to mutant EGFR, which confers high sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). As patients invariably develop resistance to TKIs, it is important to delineate the cell biological basis of mutant EGFR-induced cellular transformation since components of these pathways can serve as alternate therapeutic targets to preempt or overcome resistance. NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants are constitutively-active and induce ligand-independent transformation in nonmalignant cell lines. Emerging data suggest that a number of factors are critical for the mutant EGFR-dependent tumorigenicity, and bypassing the effects of TKIs on these pathways promotes drug resistance. For example, activation of downstream pathways such as Akt, Erk, STAT3 and Src is critical for mutant EGFR-mediated biological processes. It is now well-established that the potency and spatiotemporal features of cellular signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, as well as the specific pathways activated, is determined by the nature of endocytic traffic pathways through which the active receptors traverse. Recent evidence indicates that NSCLC-associated mutant EGFRs exhibit altered endocytic trafficking and they exhibit reduced Cbl ubiquitin ligase-mediated lysosomal downregulation. More recent work has shown that mutant EGFRs undergo ligand-independent traffic into the endocytic recycling compartment, a behavior that plays a key role in Src pathway activation and oncogenesis. These studies are beginning to delineate the close nexus between signaling and endocytic traffic of EGFR mutants as a key driver of oncogenic processes. Therefore, in this review, we will discuss the links

  12. Conditional deletion of insulin-like growth factor-I in collagen type 1alpha2-expressing cells results in postnatal lethality and a dramatic reduction in bone accretion.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Kristen E; Wergedal, Jon E; Florin, Lore; Angel, Peter; Baylink, David J; Mohan, Subburaman

    2007-12-01

    IGF-I acts through endocrine and local, autocrine/paracrine routes. Disruption of both endocrine and local IGF-I action leads to neonatal lethality and impaired growth in various tissues including bone; however, the severity of growth and skeletal phenotype caused by disruption of endocrine IGF-I action is far less than with total IGF-I disruption. Based on these data and the fact that bone cells express IGF-I in high abundance, we and others predicted that locally produced IGF-I is also critical in regulating growth and bone accretion. To determine the role of local IGF-I, type 1alpha2 collagen-Cre mice were crossed with IGF-I loxP mice to generate Cre+ (conditional mutant) and Cre- (control) loxP homozygous mice. Surprisingly, approximately 40-50% of the conditional mutants died at birth, which is similar to total IGF-I disruption, but not observed in mice lacking circulating IGF-I. Expression of IGF-I in bone and muscle but not liver and brain was significantly decreased in the conditional mutant. Accordingly, circulating levels of serum IGF-I were also not affected. Disruption of local IGF-I dramatically reduced body weight 28-37%, femur areal bone mineral density 10-25%, and femur bone size 18-24% in growing mice. In addition, mineralization was reduced as early as during embryonic development. Consistently, histomorphometric analysis determined impaired osteoblast function as demonstrated by reduced mineral apposition rate (14-30%) and bone formation rate (35-57%). In conclusion, both local and endocrine IGF-I actions are involved in regulating growth of various tissues including bone, but they act via different mechanisms.

  13. Conditional Deletion of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in Collagen Type 1α2-Expressing Cells Results in Postnatal Lethality and a Dramatic Reduction in Bone Accretion

    PubMed Central

    Govoni, Kristen E.; Wergedal, Jon E.; Florin, Lore; Angel, Peter; Baylink, David J.; Mohan, Subburaman

    2010-01-01

    IGF-I acts through endocrine and local, autocrine/paracrine routes. Disruption of both endocrine and local IGF-I action leads to neonatal lethality and impaired growth in various tissues including bone; however, the severity of growth and skeletal phenotype caused by disruption of endocrine IGF-I action is far less than with total IGF-I disruption. Based on these data and the fact that bone cells express IGF-I in high abundance, we and others predicted that locally produced IGF-I is also critical in regulating growth and bone accretion. To determine the role of local IGF-I, type 1α2 collagen-Cre mice were crossed with IGF-I loxP mice to generate Cre+ (conditional mutant) and Cre− (control) loxP homozygous mice. Surprisingly, approximately 40–50% of the conditional mutants died at birth, which is similar to total IGF-I disruption, but not observed in mice lacking circulating IGF-I. Expression of IGF-I in bone and muscle but not liver and brain was significantly decreased in the conditional mutant. Accordingly, circulating levels of serum IGF-I were also not affected. Disruption of local IGF-I dramatically reduced body weight 28–37%, femur areal bone mineral density 10–25%, and femur bone size 18–24% in growing mice. In addition, mineralization was reduced as early as during embryonic development. Consistently, histomorphometric analysis determined impaired osteoblast function as demonstrated by reduced mineral apposition rate (14–30%) and bone formation rate (35–57%). In conclusion, both local and endocrine IGF-I actions are involved in regulating growth of various tissues including bone, but they act via different mechanisms. PMID:17717052

  14. Crystal structure of the 70S ribosome bound with the Q253P mutant form of release factor RF2.

    PubMed

    Santos, Natalia; Zhu, Jianyu; Donohue, John Paul; Korostelev, Andrei A; Noller, Harry F

    2013-07-02

    Bacterial translation termination is mediated by release factors RF1 and RF2, which recognize stop codons and catalyze hydrolysis of the peptidyl-tRNA ester bond. The catalytic mechanism has been debated. We proposed that the backbone amide NH group, rather than the side chain, of the glutamine of the universally conserved GGQ motif participates in catalysis by H-bonding to the tetrahedral transition-state intermediate and by product stabilization. This was supported by complete loss of RF1 catalytic activity when glutamine is replaced by proline, the only residue that lacks a backbone NH group. Here, we present the 3.4 Å crystal structure of the ribosome complex containing the RF2 Q253P mutant and find that its fold, including the GGP sequence, is virtually identical to that of wild-type RF2. This rules out proline-induced misfolding and further supports the proposal that catalytic activity requires interaction of the Gln-253 backbone amide with the 3' end of peptidyl-tRNA.

  15. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Splicing Factor Prp8 Carrying Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,L.; Shen, J.; Guarnieri, M.; Heroux, A.; Yang, K.; Zhao, R.

    2007-01-01

    Prp8 is a critical pre-mRNA splicing factor. Prp8 is proposed to help form and stabilize the spliceosome catalytic core and to be an important regulator of spliceosome activation. Mutations in human Prp8 (hPrp8) cause a severe form of the genetic disorder retinitis pigmentosa, RP13. Understanding the molecular mechanism of Prp8's function in pre-mRNA splicing and RP13 has been hindered by its large size (over 2000 amino acids) and remarkably low-sequence similarity with other proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (the last 273 residues) of Caenorhabditis elegans Prp8 (cPrp8). The core of the C-terminal domain is an / structure that forms the MPN (Mpr1, Pad1 N-terminal) fold but without Zn{sup 2+} coordination. We propose that the C-terminal domain is a protein interaction domain instead of a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent metalloenzyme as proposed for some MPN proteins. Mapping of RP13 mutants on the Prp8 structure suggests that these residues constitute a binding surface between Prp8 and other partner(s), and the disruption of this interaction provides a plausible molecular mechanism for RP13.

  16. A phase I clinical trial with monoclonal antibody ch806 targeting transitional state and mutant epidermal growth factor receptors

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Andrew M.; Lee, Fook-Thean; Tebbutt, Niall; Herbertson, Rebecca; Gill, Sanjeev S.; Liu, Zhanqi; Skrinos, Effie; Murone, Carmel; Saunder, Timothy H.; Chappell, Bridget; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Poon, Aurora M. T.; Hopkins, Wendie; Smyth, Fiona E.; MacGregor, Duncan; Cher, Lawrence M.; Jungbluth, Achim A.; Ritter, Gerd; Brechbiel, Martin W.; Murphy, Roger; Burgess, Antony W.; Hoffman, Eric W.; Johns, Terrance G.; Old, Lloyd J.

    2007-01-01

    An array of cell-surface antigens expressed by human cancers have been identified as targets for antibody-based therapies. The great majority of these antibodies do not have specificity for cancer but recognize antigens expressed on a range of normal cell types (differentiation antigens). Over the past two decades, our group has analyzed thousands of mouse monoclonal antibodies for cancer specificity and identified a battery of antibodies with limited representation on normal human cells. The most tumor-specific of these antibodies is 806, an antibody that detects a unique epitope on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that is exposed only on overexpressed, mutant, or ligand-activated forms of the receptor in cancer. In vitro immunohistochemical specificity analysis shows little or no detectable 806 reactivity with normal tissues, even those with high levels of wild-type (wt)EGFR expression. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that 806 specifically targets a subset of EGFR expressed on tumor cells, and has significant anti-tumor effects on human tumor xenografts, primarily through abrogation of signaling pathways. The present clinical study was designed to examine the in vivo specificity of a chimeric form of mAb 806 (ch806) in a tumor targeting/biodistribution/pharmacokinetic analysis in patients with diverse tumor types. ch806 showed excellent targeting of tumor sites in all patients, no evidence of normal tissue uptake, and no significant toxicity. These in vitro and in vivo characteristics of ch806 distinguish it from all other antibodies targeting EGFR. PMID:17360479

  17. The major acute-phase protein, serum amyloid P component, in mice is not involved in endogenous resistance against tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced lethal hepatitis, shock, and skin necrosis.

    PubMed

    Van Molle, W; Hochepied, T; Brouckaert, P; Libert, C

    2000-09-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induces lethal hepatitis when injected into D-(+)-galactosamine-sensitized mice on the one hand or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in normal mice on the other hand. We studied whether serum amyloid P component (SAP), the major acute-phase protein in mice, plays a protective role in both lethal models. For this purpose, we used SAP(0/0) mice generated by gene targeting. We studied the lethal response of SAP(0/0) or SAP(+/+) mice to both lethal triggers but found no differences in the sensitivity of both types of mice. We also investigated whether SAP is involved in establishing two types of endogenous protection: one using a single injection of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) for desensitization and clearly involving a liver protein, the other by tolerizing mice for 5 days using small doses of human TNF-alpha. Although after IL-1beta or after tolerization the SAP levels in the serum had risen fourfold in the control mice and not in the SAP(0/0) mice, the same extents of desensitization and tolerization were achieved. Finally, we observed that the induction of hemorrhagic necrosis in the skin of mice by two consecutive local injections with TNF-alpha was not altered in SAP(0/0) mice. We conclude that the presence or absence of SAP has no influence on the sensitivity of mice to TNF-alpha-induced hepatitis, SIRS, and hemorrhagic necrosis or on the endogenous protective mechanisms of desensitization or tolerization.

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta and mutant p53 conspire to induce metastasis by antagonizing p63: a (ternary) complex affair

    PubMed Central

    Marine, Jean-Christophe; Berx, Geert

    2009-01-01

    How and when a tumor acquires metastatic properties remain largely unknown. Recent work has uncovered an intricate new mechanism through which transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) acts in concert with oncogenic Ras to antagonize p63-metastasis protective function. p63 inhibition requires the combined action of Ras-activated mutant p53 and TGFβ-induced Smads. Mechanistically, it involves the formation of a p63-Smads-mutant p53 ternary complex. Remarkably, just two of the key downstream targets of p63 turn out to be sufficient as a prognostic tool for breast cancer metastasis. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of this inhibition points to novel therapeutic possibilities. PMID:19664188

  19. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.

    PubMed

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

    2012-12-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness.

  20. Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

  1. Suppression of the abnormal phenotype of Salmonella typhimurium rfaH mutants by mutations in the gene for transcription termination factor Rho.

    PubMed Central

    Farewell, A; Brazas, R; Davie, E; Mason, J; Rothfield, L I

    1991-01-01

    Mutations in the rfaH gene have previously been shown to cause premature termination of transcription of the traYZ operon of the F factor and also to prevent expression of the rfaGBIJ gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium. In the present study, mutants were selected for their ability to restore the normal pattern of rfaGBIJ function. On the basis of this initial section, several classes of extragenic suppressor mutants were isolated that completely or partially corrected the Tra- and Rfa- phenotypes of the prototype rfaH mutant. The suppressor mutations included mutations in rho and mutations that mapped in or close to rpoBC. Other suppressor mutations were located elsewhere on the chromosome, presumably identifying other genes that play a role in the RfaH-mediated transcriptional regulation. PMID:1860828

  2. Reanalysis of parabiosis of obesity mutants in the age of leptin

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenwen; Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Lee, Jonah; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we set out to explain the differing effects of parabiosis with genetically diabetic (db) mice versus administration of recombinant leptin. Parabiosis of db mutant, which overexpress leptin, to wildtype (WT) or genetically obese (ob) mice has been reported to cause death by starvation, whereas leptin infusions do not produce lethality at any dose or mode of delivery tested. Leptin is not posttranslationally modified other than a single disulphide bond, raising the possibility that it might require additional factor(s) to exert the maximal appetite-suppressing effect. We reconfirmed the lethal effect of parabiosis of db mutant on WT mice and further showed that this lethality could not be rescued by administration of ghrelin or growth hormone. We then initiated a biochemical fractionation of a high-molecular-weight leptin complex from human plasma and identified clusterin as a major component of this leptin-containing complex. However, in contrast to previous reports, we failed to observe a leptin-potentiating effect of either exogenous or endogenous clusterin, and parabiosis of db clusterin−/− double-mutant to WT mice still caused lethality. Intriguingly, in parabiotic pairs of two WT mice, leptin infusion into one of the mice led to an enhanced starvation response during calorie restriction as evidenced by increased plasma ghrelin and growth-hormone levels. Moreover, leptin treatment resulted in death of the parabiotic pairs. These data suggest that the appetite suppression in WT mice after parabiosis to db mutants is the result of induced hyperleptinemia combined with the stress or other aspect(s) of the parabiosis procedure. PMID:26150485

  3. Molecular characterization of mutant alleles of the DNA repair/basal transcription factor haywire/ERCC3 in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Mounkes, L C; Fuller, M T

    1999-01-01

    The haywire gene of Drosophila encodes a putative helicase essential for transcription and nucleotide excision repair. A haywire allele encoding a dominant acting poison product, lethal alleles, and viable but UV-sensitive alleles isolated as revertants of the dominant acting poison allele were molecularly characterized. Sequence analysis of lethal haywire alleles revealed the importance of the nucleotide-binding domain, suggesting an essential role for ATPase activity. The viable haync2 allele, which encodes a poison product, has a single amino acid change in conserved helicase domain VI. This mutation results in accumulation of a 68-kD polypeptide that is much more abundant than the wild-type haywire protein. PMID:10224261

  4. Medical Conditions and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Durant, Tonji M.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2002-01-01

    This population-based, case-control study examined physical illness as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. Case patients were more likely than controls to report having any serious medical conditions. Results suggest that young men with medical conditions are at increased risk for nearly lethal suicide attempts. (Contains 33 references and 3…

  5. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale…

  6. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale…

  7. Medical Conditions and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Robin M.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Simon, Thomas R.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Durant, Tonji M.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2002-01-01

    This population-based, case-control study examined physical illness as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. Case patients were more likely than controls to report having any serious medical conditions. Results suggest that young men with medical conditions are at increased risk for nearly lethal suicide attempts. (Contains 33 references and 3…

  8. Pigment epithelium-derived factor and its phosphomimetic mutant induce JNK-dependent apoptosis and p38-mediated migration arrest.

    PubMed

    Konson, Alexander; Pradeep, Sunila; D'Acunto, Cosimo Walter; Seger, Rony

    2011-02-04

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and a promising anticancer agent. We have previously shown that PEDF can be phosphorylated and that distinct phosphorylations differentially regulate its physiological functions. We also demonstrated that triple phosphomimetic mutant (EEE-PEDF), has significantly increased antiangiogenic activity and is much more efficient than WT-PEDF in inhibiting neovascularization and tumor growth. The enhanced antiangiogenic effect was associated with a direct ability to facilitate apoptosis of tumor-residing endothelial cells (ECs), and subsequently, disruption of intratumoral vascularization. In the present report, we elucidated the molecular mechanism by which EEE-PEDF exerts more profound effects at the cellular level. We found that EEE-PEDF suppresses EC proliferation due to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and also inhibits migration of the EC much better than WT-PEDF. Although WT-PEDF and EEE-PEDF did not affect proliferation and did not induce apoptosis of cancer cells, these agents efficiently inhibited cancer cell motility, with EEE-PEDF showing a stronger effect. The stronger activity of EEE-PEDF was correlated with a better binding to laminin receptors. Furthermore, the proapoptotic and antimigratory activities of WT-PEDF and EEE-PEDF were found regulated by differential activation of two distinct MAPK pathways, namely JNK and p38, respectively. We show that JNK and p38 phosphorylation is much higher in cells treated with EEE-PEDF. JNK leads to apoptosis of ECs, whereas p38 leads to anti-migratory effect in both EC and cancer cells. These results reveal the molecular signaling mechanism by which the phosphorylated PEDF exerts its stronger antiangiogenic, antitumor activities.

  9. The lethality test system

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Sims, J.R.; Parker, J.V.

    1986-11-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS), presently under construction at Los Alamos, is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/s. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun extending 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage light gas gun capable of 7 km/s. The railgun power supply utilized traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. The design of these traction motors, vacuum interrupters and pulse transformers are detailed.

  10. Mutant p53 can induce tumorigenic conversion of human bronchial epithelial cells and reduce their responsiveness to a negative growth factor, transforming growth factor beta 1.

    PubMed Central

    Gerwin, B I; Spillare, E; Forrester, K; Lehman, T A; Kispert, J; Welsh, J A; Pfeifer, A M; Lechner, J F; Baker, S J; Vogelstein, B

    1992-01-01

    Loss of normal functions and gain of oncogenic functions when the p53 tumor suppressor gene is mutated are considered critical events in the development of the majority of human cancers. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) provide an in vitro model system to study growth, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation of progenitor cells of lung carcinoma. When wild-type (WT) or mutant (MT; codon 143Val-Ala) human p53 cDNA was transfected into nontumorigenic BEAS-2B cells, we observed that (i) transfected WT p53 suppresses and MT p53 enhances the colony-forming efficiency of these cells, (ii) MT p53 increases resistance to transforming growth factor beta 1, and (iii) clones of MT p53 transfected BEAS-2B cells are tumorigenic when inoculated into athymic nude mice. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that certain mutations in p53 may function in multistage lung carcinogenesis by reducing the responsiveness of bronchial epithelial cells to negative growth factors. Images PMID:1557382

  11. A Diverse Set of Single-domain Antibodies (VHHs) against the Anthrax Toxin Lethal and Edema Factors Provides a Basis for Construction of a Bispecific Agent That Protects against Anthrax Infection.

    PubMed

    Vrentas, Catherine E; Moayeri, Mahtab; Keefer, Andrea B; Greaney, Allison J; Tremblay, Jacqueline; O'Mard, Danielle; Leppla, Stephen H; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2016-10-07

    Infection with Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, can lead to persistence of lethal secreted toxins in the bloodstream, even after antibiotic treatment. VHH single-domain antibodies have been demonstrated to neutralize diverse bacterial toxins both in vitro and in vivo, with protein properties such as small size and high stability that make them attractive therapeutic candidates. Recently, we reported on VHHs with in vivo activity against the protective antigen component of the anthrax toxins. Here, we characterized a new set of 15 VHHs against the anthrax toxins that act by binding to the edema factor (EF) and/or lethal factor (LF) components. Six of these VHHs are cross-reactive against both EF and LF and recognize the N-terminal domain (LFN, EFN) of their target(s) with subnanomolar affinity. The cross-reactive VHHs block binding of EF/LF to the protective antigen C-terminal binding interface, preventing toxin entry into the cell. Another VHH appears to recognize the LF C-terminal domain and exhibits a kinetic effect on substrate cleavage by LF. A subset of the VHHs neutralized against EF and/or LF in murine macrophage assays, and the neutralizing VHHs that were tested improved survival of mice in a spore model of anthrax infection. Finally, a bispecific VNA (VHH-based neutralizing agent) consisting of two linked toxin-neutralizing VHHs, JMN-D10 and JMO-G1, was fully protective against lethal anthrax spore infection in mice as a single dose. This set of VHHs should facilitate development of new therapeutic VNAs and/or diagnostic agents for anthrax. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. A Factor Linking Floral Organ Identity and Growth Revealed by Characterization of the Tomato Mutant unfinished flower development (ufd).

    PubMed

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Pons, Clara; Giménez, Estela; Angosto, Trinidad; Granell, Antonio; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd). Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signaling pathways.

  13. A Factor Linking Floral Organ Identity and Growth Revealed by Characterization of the Tomato Mutant unfinished flower development (ufd)

    PubMed Central

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J.; Pons, Clara; Giménez, Estela; Angosto, Trinidad; Granell, Antonio; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development (ufd). Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signaling pathways. PMID:27872633

  14. Characterization of the snowy cotyledon 1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: the impact of chloroplast elongation factor G on chloroplast development and plant vitality.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Verónica; Ingenfeld, Anke; Apel, Klaus

    2006-03-01

    During seedling development chloroplast formation marks the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth. The development and activity of chloroplasts may differ in cotyledons that initially serve as a storage organ and true leaves whose primary function is photosynthesis. A genetic screen was used for the identification of genes that affect selectively chloroplast function in cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana. Several mutants exhibiting pale cotyledons and green true leaves were isolated and dubbed snowy cotyledon (sco). One of the mutants, sco1, was characterized in more detail. The mutated gene was identified using map-based cloning. The mutant contains a point mutation in a gene encoding the chloroplast elongation factor G, leading to an amino acid exchange within the predicted 70S ribosome-binding domain. The mutation results in a delay in the onset of germination. At this early developmental stage embryos still contain undifferentiated proplastids, whose proper function seems necessary for seed germination. In light-grown sco1 seedlings the greening of cotyledons is severely impaired, whereas the following true leaves develop normally as in wild-type plants. Despite this apparent similarity of chloroplast development in true leaves of mutant and wild-type plants various aspects of mature plant development are also affected by the sco1 mutation such as the onset of flowering, the growth rate, and seed production. The onset of senescence in the mutant and the wild-type plants occurs, however, at the same time, suggesting that in the mutant this particular developmental step does not seem to suffer from reduced protein translation efficiency in chloroplasts.

  15. The Drosophila GAGA factor is required for dosage compensation in males and for the formation of the male-specific-lethal complex chromatin entry site at 12DE.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Anthony J; Yanowitz, Judith L; Schedl, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster males have one X chromosome, while females have two. To compensate for the resulting disparity in X-linked gene expression between the two sexes, most genes from the male X chromosome are hyperactivated by a special dosage compensation system. Dosage compensation is achieved by a complex of at least six proteins and two noncoding RNAs that specifically associate with the male X. A central question is how the X chromosome is recognized. According to a current model, complexes initially assemble at approximately 35 chromatin entry sites on the X and then spread bidirectionally along the chromosome where they occupy hundreds of sites. Here, we report that mutations in Trithorax-like (Trl) lead to the loss of a single chromatin entry site on the X, male lethality, and mislocalization of dosage compensation complexes. PMID:15020425

  16. Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors are effective therapeutic agents in lethal endotoxemia and function simultaneously as both TNF carriers and TNF antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mohler, K M; Torrance, D S; Smith, C A; Goodwin, R G; Stremler, K E; Fung, V P; Madani, H; Widmer, M B

    1993-08-01

    Two forms (monomeric or dimeric) of the extracellular, ligand-binding portion of the human p80 cell-surface receptor for TNF were used to antagonize TNF activity in vitro and in vivo. The dimeric sTNFR:Fc molecule was a more potent inhibitor of TNF than the monomeric sTNFR (50 to 1000x), as assessed in vitro by inhibition of TNF binding or bioactivity and in vivo by protection of mice from an otherwise lethal injection of LPS. Surprisingly, the dimeric sTNFR:Fc construct demonstrated a beneficial effect even when administered 3 h after a lethal LPS injection (i.e., after serum TNF levels had peaked and receded). To study the mechanism by which the soluble TNFR functions in vivo, serum TNF levels were examined in mice given LPS in the presence or absence of soluble receptor. Administration of a mortality-reducing dose of sTNFR:Fc ablated the rise in serum TNF bioactivity that normally occurs in response to LPS. However, TNF bioactivity was revealed in these "TNF-negative" serum samples when the L929 bioassay was modified by inclusion of a mAb that blocks the binding of murine TNF to the human soluble TNFReceptor. These results indicate that the absence of direct cytolytic activity in the L929 assay was caused by neutralization of TNF, rather than to an absence of TNF in the serum. Moreover, administration of either monomeric sTNFR or low doses of dimeric sTNFR:Fc actually resulted in increased serum TNF levels compared to mice given LPS but no soluble receptor. However, these "agonistic" doses of soluble receptor did not lead to increased mortality when an LD60 dose of LPS was given. Thus, dimeric sTNFR are effective inhibitors of TNF and under some circumstances function simultaneously as both TNF "carriers" and antagonists of TNF biologic activity.

  17. Selection of resistance at lethal and non-lethal antibiotic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diarmaid; Andersson, Dan I

    2012-10-01

    Much of what we currently know about the genetics and evolution of antibiotic-resistance is based on selections with lethal drug concentrations that allow the detection of rare mutants with strong phenotypes. These data may be misleading with regard to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in natural environments, because bacteria are frequently exposed to concentration gradients of antibiotics. A significant part of antibiotic-resistance evolution may occur when bacteria are exposed to non-lethal concentrations of drug. High-resolution competition assays show that resistance mutations are rapidly enriched, and selected de novo, at very low antibiotic concentrations. Genomic analysis is providing a better understanding of how frequent and small-effect mutations selected at very low antibiotic concentrations contribute to the step-wise development of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Deletion of Mutant Huntingtin in Steroidogenic Factor 1 Neurons on the Psychiatric and Metabolic Phenotype in the BACHD Mouse Model of Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petersén, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric and metabolic features appear several years before motor disturbances in the neurodegenerative Huntington’s disease (HD), caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Although the mechanisms leading to these aspects are unknown, dysfunction in the hypothalamus, a brain region controlling emotion and metabolism, has been suggested. A direct link between the expression of the disease causing protein, huntingtin (HTT), in the hypothalamus and the development of metabolic and psychiatric-like features have been shown in the BACHD mouse model of HD. However, precisely which circuitry in the hypothalamus is critical for these features is not known. We hypothesized that expression of mutant HTT in the ventromedial hypothalamus, an area involved in the regulation of metabolism and emotion would be important for the development of these non-motor aspects. Therefore, we inactivated mutant HTT in a specific neuronal population of the ventromedial hypothalamus expressing the transcription factor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) in the BACHD mouse using cross-breeding based on a Cre-loxP system. Effects on anxiety-like behavior were assessed using the elevated plus maze and novelty-induced suppressed feeding test. Depressive-like behavior was assessed using the Porsolt forced swim test. Effects on the metabolic phenotype were analyzed using measurements of body weight and body fat, as well as serum insulin and leptin levels. Interestingly, the inactivation of mutant HTT in SF1-expressing neurons exerted a partial positive effect on the depressive-like behavior in female BACHD mice at 4 months of age. In this cohort of mice, no anxiety-like behavior was detected. The deletion of mutant HTT in SF1 neurons did not have any effect on the development of metabolic features in BACHD mice. Taken together, our results indicate that mutant HTT regulates metabolic networks by affecting hypothalamic circuitries that do not involve the SF1 neurons of the

  19. Derivation of Human Lethal Doses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-19

    extrapolate to human lethal doses. In this effort, Ekwall et al. (1998) collected data on human lethal doses in acute poisonings from handbooks on...emergency medicine, pharmacology, forensic medicine, and industrial chemical toxicology, in addition to a poison information center. The authors presented...lethal doses would be dose-response data in people. Estimates of doses from case reports of fatal poisonings provide information on what doses can be

  20. Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    AU/ACSC/1636/2003-04 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY Non- Lethal Chemical Weapons LESTER A. WEILACHER...Non- Lethal Chemical Weapons 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...of the United States government. ii EL 664 (AY03) Issue Analysis, “Non- Lethal Chemical Weapons” Submitted by Major JR Weilacher, 03-1636E, 11

  1. Heat shock factor 1 over-expression protects against exposure of hydrophobic residues on mutant SOD1 and early mortality in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) are responsible for 20% of familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and mutant SOD1 has been shown to have increased surface hydrophobicity in vitro. Mutant SOD1 may adopt a complex array of conformations with varying toxicity in vivo. We have used a novel florescence-based proteomic assay using 4,4’-bis-1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (bisANS) to assess the surface hydrophobicity, and thereby distinguish between different conformations, of SOD1and other proteins in situ. Results Covalent bisANS labeling of spinal cord extracts revealed that alterations in surface hydrophobicity of H46R/H48Q mutations in SOD1 provoke formation of high molecular weight SOD1 species with lowered solubility, likely due to increased exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. BisANS was docked on the H46R/H48Q SOD1 structure at the disordered copper binding and electrostatic loops of mutant SOD1, but not non-mutant WT SOD1. 16 non-SOD1 proteins were also identified that exhibited altered surface hydrophobicity in the H46R/H48Q mutant mouse model of ALS, including proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, signaling, and protein quality control. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were also enriched in the detergent-insoluble fractions with SOD1. Given that chaperones recognize proteins with exposed hydrophobic surfaces as substrates and the importance of protein homeostasis in ALS, we crossed SOD1 H46R/H48Q mutant mice with mice over-expressing the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) transcription factor. Here we showed that HSF1 over-expression in H46R/H48Q ALS mice enhanced proteostasis as evidenced by increased expression of HSPs in motor neurons and astrocytes and increased solubility of mutant SOD1. HSF1 over-expression significantly reduced body weight loss, delayed ALS disease onset, decreases cases of early disease, and increased survival for the 25th percentile in an H46R/H48Q SOD1 background. HSF1

  2. Heat shock factor 1 over-expression protects against exposure of hydrophobic residues on mutant SOD1 and early mortality in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Simon, Sharotka M; Koh, Won Kyun; Folorunso, Oluwarotimi; Umbaugh, C Samuel; Pierce, Anson

    2013-11-21

    Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) are responsible for 20% of familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and mutant SOD1 has been shown to have increased surface hydrophobicity in vitro. Mutant SOD1 may adopt a complex array of conformations with varying toxicity in vivo. We have used a novel fluorescence-based proteomic assay using 4,4'-bis-1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (bisANS) to assess the surface hydrophobicity, and thereby distinguish between different conformations, of SOD1 and other proteins in situ. Covalent bisANS labeling of spinal cord extracts revealed that alterations in surface hydrophobicity of H46R/H48Q mutations in SOD1 provoke formation of high molecular weight SOD1 species with lowered solubility, likely due to increased exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. BisANS was docked on the H46R/H48Q SOD1 structure at the disordered copper binding and electrostatic loops of mutant SOD1, but not non-mutant WT SOD1. 16 non-SOD1 proteins were also identified that exhibited altered surface hydrophobicity in the H46R/H48Q mutant mouse model of ALS, including proteins involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, signaling, and protein quality control. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were also enriched in the detergent-insoluble fractions with SOD1. Given that chaperones recognize proteins with exposed hydrophobic surfaces as substrates and the importance of protein homeostasis in ALS, we crossed SOD1 H46R/H48Q mutant mice with mice over-expressing the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) transcription factor. Here we showed that HSF1 over-expression in H46R/H48Q ALS mice enhanced proteostasis as evidenced by increased expression of HSPs in motor neurons and astrocytes and increased solubility of mutant SOD1. HSF1 over-expression significantly reduced body weight loss, delayed ALS disease onset, decreases cases of early disease, and increased survival for the 25th percentile in an H46R/H48Q SOD1 background. HSF1 overexpression did not affect

  3. Toll-like receptor 2- and 6-mediated stimulation by macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 induces lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cross tolerance in mice, which results in protection from tumor necrosis factor alpha but in only partial protection from lethal LPS doses.

    PubMed

    Deiters, Ursula; Gumenscheimer, Marina; Galanos, Chris; Mühlradt, Peter F

    2003-08-01

    Patients or experimental animals previously exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) become tolerant to further LPS challenge. We investigated the potential of the macrophage-activating lipopeptide 2 (MALP-2) to induce in vivo cross tolerance to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and LPS. MALP-2-induced tolerance could be of practical interest, as MALP-2 proved much less pyrogenic in rabbits than LPS. Whereas LPS signals via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MALP-2 uses TLR2 and TLR6. LPS-mediated cytokine release was studied in mice pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of MALP-2. No biologically active TNF-alpha could be detected in the serum of MALP-2-treated animals when challenged with LPS 24 or 72 h later, whereas suppression of LPS-dependent interleukin (IL)-6 lasted for only 24 h. Protection from lethal TNF-alpha shock was studied in galactosamine-treated mice. Dose dependently, MALP-2 prevented death from lethal TNF-alpha doses in TLR4(-/-) but not in TLR2(-/-) mice, with protection lasting from 5 to 24 h. To assay protection from LPS, mice were pretreated with MALP-2 doses of up to 10 micro g. Five and 24 h later, the animals were simultaneously sensitized and challenged by intravenous coinjection of galactosamine and a lethal dose of 50 ng of LPS. There was only limited protection (four of seven mice survived) when mice were challenged 5 h after MALP-2 pretreatment, and no protection when mice were challenged at later times. The high effectiveness of MALP-2 in suppressing TNF-alpha, the known ways of biological inactivation, and low pyrogenicity make MALP-2 a potential candidate for clinical use.

  4. High-Throughput Sequencing of Campylobacter jejuni Insertion Mutant Libraries Reveals mapA as a Fitness Factor for Chicken Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeremiah G.; Livny, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of gastrointestinal infections worldwide, due primarily to its ability to asymptomatically colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of agriculturally relevant animals, including chickens. Infection often occurs following consumption of meat that was contaminated by C. jejuni during harvest. Because of this, much interest lies in understanding the mechanisms that allow C. jejuni to colonize the chicken gastrointestinal tract. To address this, we generated a C. jejuni transposon mutant library that is amenable to insertion sequencing and introduced this mutant pool into day-of-hatch chicks. Following deep sequencing of C. jejuni mutants in the cecal outputs, several novel factors required for efficient colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract were identified, including the predicted outer membrane protein MapA. A mutant strain lacking mapA was constructed and found to be significantly reduced for chicken colonization in both competitive infections and monoinfections. Further, we found that mapA is required for in vitro competition with wild-type C. jejuni but is dispensable for growth in monoculture. PMID:24633877

  5. High-throughput sequencing of Campylobacter jejuni insertion mutant libraries reveals mapA as a fitness factor for chicken colonization.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah G; Livny, Jonathan; Dirita, Victor J

    2014-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of gastrointestinal infections worldwide, due primarily to its ability to asymptomatically colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of agriculturally relevant animals, including chickens. Infection often occurs following consumption of meat that was contaminated by C. jejuni during harvest. Because of this, much interest lies in understanding the mechanisms that allow C. jejuni to colonize the chicken gastrointestinal tract. To address this, we generated a C. jejuni transposon mutant library that is amenable to insertion sequencing and introduced this mutant pool into day-of-hatch chicks. Following deep sequencing of C. jejuni mutants in the cecal outputs, several novel factors required for efficient colonization of the chicken gastrointestinal tract were identified, including the predicted outer membrane protein MapA. A mutant strain lacking mapA was constructed and found to be significantly reduced for chicken colonization in both competitive infections and monoinfections. Further, we found that mapA is required for in vitro competition with wild-type C. jejuni but is dispensable for growth in monoculture.

  6. pH Induced Conformational Transitions in the Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Protein (TGFβIp) Associated Corneal Dystrophy Mutants.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Elavazhagan; Venkatraman, Anandalakshmi; Lei, Zhou; Mouvet, Victoria; Rui Yi Lim, Rayne; Muruganantham, Nandhakumar; Goh, Eunice; Swee Lim Peh, Gary; Beuerman, Roger W; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2016-03-31

    Most stromal corneal dystrophies are associated with aggregation and deposition of the mutated transforming growth factor-β induced protein (TGFβIp). The 4(th)_FAS1 domain of TGFβIp harbors ~80% of the mutations that forms amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic aggregates. To understand the mechanism of aggregation and the differences between the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic phenotypes, we expressed the 4(th)_FAS1 domains of TGFβIp carrying the mutations R555W (non-amyloidogenic) and H572R (amyloidogenic) along with the wild-type (WT). R555W was more susceptible to acidic pH compared to H572R and displayed varying chemical stabilities with decreasing pH. Thermal denaturation studies at acidic pH showed that while WT did not undergo any conformational transition, the mutants exhibited a clear pH-dependent irreversible conversion from αβ conformation to β-sheet oligomers. The β-oligomers of both mutants were stable at physiological temperature and pH. Electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies showed that β-oligomers of H572R were larger compared to R555W. The β-oligomers of both mutants were cytotoxic to primary human corneal stromal fibroblast (pHCSF) cells. The β-oligomers of both mutants exhibit variations in their morphologies, sizes, thermal and chemical stabilities, aggregation patterns and cytotoxicities.

  7. pH Induced Conformational Transitions in the Transforming Growth Factor β-Induced Protein (TGFβIp) Associated Corneal Dystrophy Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Elavazhagan; Venkatraman, Anandalakshmi; Lei, Zhou; Mouvet, Victoria; Rui Yi Lim, Rayne; Muruganantham, Nandhakumar; Goh, Eunice; Swee Lim Peh, Gary; Beuerman, Roger W.; Chaurasia, Shyam S.; Rajamani, Lakshminarayanan; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2016-01-01

    Most stromal corneal dystrophies are associated with aggregation and deposition of the mutated transforming growth factor-β induced protein (TGFβIp). The 4th_FAS1 domain of TGFβIp harbors ~80% of the mutations that forms amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic aggregates. To understand the mechanism of aggregation and the differences between the amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic phenotypes, we expressed the 4th_FAS1 domains of TGFβIp carrying the mutations R555W (non-amyloidogenic) and H572R (amyloidogenic) along with the wild-type (WT). R555W was more susceptible to acidic pH compared to H572R and displayed varying chemical stabilities with decreasing pH. Thermal denaturation studies at acidic pH showed that while WT did not undergo any conformational transition, the mutants exhibited a clear pH-dependent irreversible conversion from αβ conformation to β-sheet oligomers. The β-oligomers of both mutants were stable at physiological temperature and pH. Electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies showed that β-oligomers of H572R were larger compared to R555W. The β-oligomers of both mutants were cytotoxic to primary human corneal stromal fibroblast (pHCSF) cells. The β-oligomers of both mutants exhibit variations in their morphologies, sizes, thermal and chemical stabilities, aggregation patterns and cytotoxicities. PMID:27030015

  8. The Lethality Test System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, W. M.; Sims, J. R.; Parker, J. V.

    1986-11-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS) under construction at Los Alamos is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/sec. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage light gas gun capable of 7 km/sec. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92 percent of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1-1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  9. Lethality test system

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Sims, J.R.; Parker, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS), presently under construction at Los Alamos, is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/s. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun extending 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage gas gun capable of 7 km/s. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92% of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  10. Heterogeneity of Lethals in a "Simple" Lethal Complementation Group

    PubMed Central

    Janca, Frank C.; Woloshyn, Effie P.; Nash, David

    1986-01-01

    Of 24 ethyl methanesulphonate-induced, recessive-lethal mutations in the region 9E1-9F13 of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster , eight fall into a typically homogeneous lethal complementation group associated with the raspberry (ras) locus. Mutations in this group have previously been shown to be pleiotropic, affecting not only ras but also two other genetic entities, gua1 and pur1, which yield auxotrophic mutations.—The eight new mutations have been characterized phenotypically in double heterozygotes with gua1, pur1 and ras mutations. Despite their homogeneity in lethal complementation tests, the mutations prove quite diverse. For example, two mutations have little or no effect on eye color in double heterozygotes with ras2 . The differences between the lethals are allele-specific and cannot be explained as a trivial outcome of a hypomorphic series.—Taken alone, the lethal complementation studies mask the complexity of the locus and the diversity of its recessive lethal alleles. By extension, we argue that the general use of lethal saturation studies provides an unduly simplified image of genetic organization. We suggest that the reason why recessive lethal mutations rarely present complex complementation patterns is that complex loci tend to produce mutations that affect several subfunctions. PMID:3080355

  11. PC12 cell mutants that possess low- but not high-affinity nerve growth factor receptors neither respond to nor internalize nerve growth factor

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Four mutant PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines that are nerve growth factor (NGF)-nonresponsive (PC12nnr) have been selected from chemically mutagenized cultures by a double selection procedure: failure both to grow neurites in the presence of NGF and to survive in NGF-supplemented serum-free medium. The PC12nnr cells were deficient in all additional NGF responses surveyed: abatement of cell proliferation, changes in glycoprotein composition, induction of ornithine decarboxylase, rapid changes in protein phosphorylation, and cell surface ruffling. However, PC12nnr cells closely resembled non-NGF-treated PC12 cells in most properties tested: cell size and shape; division rate; protein, phosphoprotein, and glycoprotein composition; and cell surface morphology. All four PC12nnr lines differed from PC12 cells in three ways in addition to failure of NGF response: PC12nnr cells failed to internalize bound NGF by the normal, saturable, high-affinity mechanism present in PC12 cells. The PC12nnr cells bound NGF but entirely, or nearly entirely, at low-affinity sites only, whereas PC12 cells possess both high- and low-affinity NGF binding sites. The responses to dibutyryl cyclic AMP that were tested appeared to be enhanced or altered in the PC12nnr cells compared to PC12 cells. Internalization of, and responses to, epidermal growth factor were normal in the PC12nnr cells ruling out a generalized defect in hormonal binding, uptake, or response mechanisms. These findings are consistent with a causal association between the presence of high-affinity NGF receptors and of NGF responsiveness and internalization. A possible relationship is also suggested between regulation of cAMP responses and regulation of NGF responses or NGF receptor affinity. PMID:3005338

  12. Analysis of transcription factors binding to the duplicated PEA1 and PEA3 sites that are required for polyomavirus mutant expression in PCC4 embryonic carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nothias, J Y; Weinmann, R; Blangy, D; Melin, F

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic carcinoma (EC) cell lines, representative of early embryonic undifferentiated cells, are nonpermissive for polyomavirus (PyV) infection as a result of a blockade of viral DNA early transcription and replication. All enhancers of PyV mutants (Py EC-PCC4), selected for the ability to grow on PCC4 EC cells, display a duplication of PEA1 and PEA3 binding sites (sites 1 and 3). However, the Py EC-PCC4 rearrangement is complex and results in variable mutant enhancer activities. We demonstrate here that duplication of sites 1 and 3 is absolutely required for a cooperative cis activation of early Py EC-PCC4 mutant transcription in PCC4 EC cells. In addition, we detect in PCC4 EC cells significant amounts of site 1- and 3-binding proteins, which we characterize as related to the Fos/Jun and Ets protein families, respectively. Wild-type PyV restriction in PCC4 EC cells may be relieved by a cooperation between site 2- and 3-binding proteins that would thereby be activated. Since site 1- or 3-binding factors could be derepressed, we improved the analysis of UV cross-linked DNA-protein complexes and were able to detect a novel factor, called PEA1/2 (for PyV enhancer A site 1- and 2-binding factor). Its DNA binding sequence overlaps sites 1 and 2 (PEA2 binding site) and is not duplicated in the M1 mutant, which exhibits the highest Py EC-PCC4 enhancer activity. he suggest that PEA1/2 is also involved in the regulation of PyV enhancer activity by repressing the site 1-binding activity. Images PMID:8388487

  13. A new mutant of Arabidopsis disturbed in its roots, right-handed slanting, and gravitropism defines a gene that encodes a heat-shock factor.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, A; Piconese, S; Tassone, P; Ferrari, S; Migliaccio, F

    2008-01-01

    A new mutant of Arabidopsis named rha1 is characterized and the gene involved cloned. In roots, the mutant shows minimal right-handed slanting, reduced gravitropic response, notable resistance to 2,4-D, but scarce resistance to IAA and NAA. The roots also show a clear resistance to the auxin transport inhibitors TIBA and NPA, and to ethylene. Other characteristics are a reduced number of lateral roots and reduced size of shoot and root in the seedlings. The gene, cloned through TAIL-PCR, was found to be a heat-shock factor that maps on chromosome 5, close to and above the RFLP marker m61. The rha1 structure, mRNA, and translation product are reported. Since, so far, no other gravitropic mutant has been described as mutated in a heat-shock factor, rha1 belongs to a new group of mutants disturbed in slanting, gravitropism, and auxin physiology. As shown through the RT-PCR analyses of its expression, the gene retains the function connected with heat shock. If the characteristics connected with auxin physiology are considered, however, it is also likely that the gene, as a transcription factor, could be involved in root circumnutation, gravitropic response, and hormonal control of differentiation. Since GUS staining under the gene promoter was localized mainly in the mature tissues, rha1 does not seem to be involved in the first steps of gravitropism, but is rather related to the general response to auxin. The alterations in slanting (mainly due to reduced chiral circumnutation) and gravitropism lead to the supposition that the two processes may have, at least in part, common origins.

  14. High-Throughput Parallel Sequencing to Measure Fitness of Leptospira interrogans Transposon Insertion Mutants during Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, James; Haake, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that causes mortality and morbidity worldwide. The understanding of the virulence mechanisms of Leptospira spp is still at an early stage due to the limited number of genetic tools available for this microorganism. The development of random transposon mutagenesis in pathogenic strains a decade ago has contributed to the identification of several virulence factors. In this study, we used the transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) technique, which combines transposon mutagenesis with massive parallel sequencing, to study the in vivo fitness of a pool of Leptospira interrogans mutants. We infected hamsters with a pool of 42 mutants (input pool), which included control mutants with insertions in four genes previously analyzed by virulence testing (loa22, ligB, flaA1, and lic20111) and 23 mutants with disrupted signal transduction genes. We quantified the mutants in different tissues (blood, kidney and liver) at 4 days post-challenge by high-throughput sequencing and compared the frequencies of mutants recovered from tissues to their frequencies in the input pool. Control mutants that were less fit in the Tn-Seq experiment were attenuated for virulence when tested separately in the hamster model of lethal leptospirosis. Control mutants with unaltered fitness were as virulent as the wild-type strain. We identified two mutants with the transposon inserted in the same putative adenylate/guanylate cyclase gene (lic12327) that had reduced in vivo fitness in blood, kidney and liver. Both lic12327 mutants were attenuated for virulence when tested individually in hamsters. Growth of the control mutants and lic12327 mutants in culture medium were similar to that of the wild-type strain. These results demonstrate the feasibility of screening large pools of L. interrogans transposon mutants for those with altered fitness, and potentially attenuated virulence, by transposon sequencing. PMID

  15. High-Throughput Parallel Sequencing to Measure Fitness of Leptospira interrogans Transposon Insertion Mutants during Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Lourdault, Kristel; Matsunaga, James; Haake, David A

    2016-11-01

    Pathogenic species of Leptospira are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease that causes mortality and morbidity worldwide. The understanding of the virulence mechanisms of Leptospira spp is still at an early stage due to the limited number of genetic tools available for this microorganism. The development of random transposon mutagenesis in pathogenic strains a decade ago has contributed to the identification of several virulence factors. In this study, we used the transposon sequencing (Tn-Seq) technique, which combines transposon mutagenesis with massive parallel sequencing, to study the in vivo fitness of a pool of Leptospira interrogans mutants. We infected hamsters with a pool of 42 mutants (input pool), which included control mutants with insertions in four genes previously analyzed by virulence testing (loa22, ligB, flaA1, and lic20111) and 23 mutants with disrupted signal transduction genes. We quantified the mutants in different tissues (blood, kidney and liver) at 4 days post-challenge by high-throughput sequencing and compared the frequencies of mutants recovered from tissues to their frequencies in the input pool. Control mutants that were less fit in the Tn-Seq experiment were attenuated for virulence when tested separately in the hamster model of lethal leptospirosis. Control mutants with unaltered fitness were as virulent as the wild-type strain. We identified two mutants with the transposon inserted in the same putative adenylate/guanylate cyclase gene (lic12327) that had reduced in vivo fitness in blood, kidney and liver. Both lic12327 mutants were attenuated for virulence when tested individually in hamsters. Growth of the control mutants and lic12327 mutants in culture medium were similar to that of the wild-type strain. These results demonstrate the feasibility of screening large pools of L. interrogans transposon mutants for those with altered fitness, and potentially attenuated virulence, by transposon sequencing.

  16. Recapitulation of the ovum mutant (Om) phenotype and loss of Om locus polarity in cloned mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shaorong; Wu, Guangming; Han, Zhiming; de la Casa-Esperón, Elena; Sapienza, Carmen; Latham, Keith E

    2005-02-01

    The ovum mutant (Om) locus in mice affects early interactions between sperm and egg that in turn affect viability of embryos beyond the morula stage. Crosses of DDK females to males of many other inbred strains are 95% lethal around the morula stage, whereas reciprocal crosses are fully viable. Available data indicate that the early lethality is the result of an interaction between a factor in the ooplasm and the paternal genome. In this study, we examined whether this lethal interaction would likewise occur in cloned embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. We find that the Om effect is recapitulated but that the parental origin effect at the Om locus is no longer evident in cloned embryos.

  17. Subfunctionalization of sigma factors during the evolution of land plants based on mutant analysis of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.) MpSIG1.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Minoru; Takami, Tsuneaki; Peng, Lianwei; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Sigma factor is a subunit of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase that regulates the transcription of plastid-encoded genes by recognizing a set of promoters. Sigma factors have increased in copy number and have diversified during the evolution of land plants, but details of this process remain unknown. Liverworts represent the basal group of embryophytes and are expected to retain the ancestral features of land plants. In liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.), we isolated and characterized a T-DNA-tagged mutant (Mpsig1) of sigma factor 1 (MpSIG1). The mutant did not show any visible phenotypes, implying that MpSIG1 function is redundant with that of other sigma factors. However, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA gel blot analysis revealed that genes related to photosynthesis were downregulated, resulting in the minor reduction of some protein complexes. The transcript levels of genes clustered in the petL, psaA, psbB, psbK, and psbE operons of liverwort were lower than those in the wild type, a result similar to that in the SIG1 defective mutant in rice (Oryza sativa). Overexpression analysis revealed primitive functional divergence between the SIG1 and SIG2 proteins in bryophytes, whereas these proteins still retain functional redundancy. We also discovered that the predominant sigma factor for ndhF mRNA expression has been diversified in liverwort, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice. Our study shows the ancestral function of SIG1 and the process of functional partitioning (subfunctionalization) of sigma factors during the evolution of land plants.

  18. Subfunctionalization of Sigma Factors during the Evolution of Land Plants Based on Mutant Analysis of Liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.) MpSIG1

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Minoru; Takami, Tsuneaki; Peng, Lianwei; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Sigma factor is a subunit of plastid-encoded RNA polymerase that regulates the transcription of plastid-encoded genes by recognizing a set of promoters. Sigma factors have increased in copy number and have diversified during the evolution of land plants, but details of this process remain unknown. Liverworts represent the basal group of embryophytes and are expected to retain the ancestral features of land plants. In liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.), we isolated and characterized a T-DNA-tagged mutant (Mpsig1) of sigma factor 1 (MpSIG1). The mutant did not show any visible phenotypes, implying that MpSIG1 function is redundant with that of other sigma factors. However, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and RNA gel blot analysis revealed that genes related to photosynthesis were downregulated, resulting in the minor reduction of some protein complexes. The transcript levels of genes clustered in the petL, psaA, psbB, psbK, and psbE operons of liverwort were lower than those in the wild type, a result similar to that in the SIG1 defective mutant in rice (Oryza sativa). Overexpression analysis revealed primitive functional divergence between the SIG1 and SIG2 proteins in bryophytes, whereas these proteins still retain functional redundancy. We also discovered that the predominant sigma factor for ndhF mRNA expression has been diversified in liverwort, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice. Our study shows the ancestral function of SIG1 and the process of functional partitioning (subfunctionalization) of sigma factors during the evolution of land plants. PMID:24025801

  19. New types of Escherichia coli recombination-deficient mutants.

    PubMed

    Freifelder, D

    1976-11-01

    A set of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in intramolecular recombination and different from those previously found is described. All have temperature-sensitive lethal mutations. The mutants have been characterized with respect to the following properties: the Pap phenotype, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, sensitivity to ultraviolet light, ability to support the growth of phage lambda, filament formation, and mutation frequency.

  20. New types of Escherichia coli recombination-deficient mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Freifelder, D

    1976-01-01

    A set of Escherichia coli mutants deficient in intramolecular recombination and different from those previously found is described. All have temperature-sensitive lethal mutations. The mutants have been characterized with respect to the following properties: the Pap phenotype, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, sensitivity to ultraviolet light, ability to support the growth of phage lambda, filament formation, and mutation frequency. PMID:789362

  1. Congestive Heart Failure During Osimertinib Treatment for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-mutant Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Ichihara, Eiki; Kano, Hirohisa; Ninomiya, Kiichiro; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2017-08-15

    We herein report a case of congestive heart failure which developed during osimertinib treatment. A 78-year-old woman presented with mild exertional dyspnea three weeks after starting osimertinib for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer. She was diagnosed with congestive heart failure caused by the osimertinib. In contrast to trastuzumab, a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody that often causes cardiac dysfunction, the causal relationship between osimertinib and cardiotoxicity has so far received little attention and thus remains unclear. However, it inhibits HER2 in addition to mutant EGFR, thereby potentially causing cardiotoxicity.

  2. Can we define the optimal sequence of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant nonsmall cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Sun, Jong-Mu; Park, Keunchil

    2017-03-01

    The most common mechanism of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is acquisition of the T790M gatekeeper mutation. Third-generation EGFR TKIs irreversibly inhibit EGFR mutants (EGFRm), especially T790M, while sparing wild-type EGFR. There are several third-generation EGFR TKIs under development, including osimertinib, CO-1686 (rociletinib), HM61713 (olmutinib), ASP8273, and EGF816. These third-generation EGFR TKIs have shown promising efficacy with favorable toxicity profiles in the management of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an acquired T790M mutation (EGFR). In the present review, we will discuss the evolving treatment landscape of EGFRm NSCLC. The LUX-Lung 7 study demonstrated superior progression-free survival, time-to-treatment failure, and objective response rate with afatinib versus gefitinib, but no significant overall survival improvement in TKI-naïve EGFRm NSCLC patients. In EGFRm NSCLC patients harboring T790M after treatment with first-generation or second-generation EGFR TKIs, third-generation EGFR TKIs showed robust efficacy with tolerable toxicity. The updated results of phase I studies have demonstrated encouraging activity of first-line osimertinib in patients with EGFRm NSCLC. Following progression with first-generation or second-generation EGFR TKIs, osimertinib was recently approved for the treatment of EGFR NSCLC. Encouraging early results with osimertinib have sparked interest in first-line treatment of EGFRm NSCLC, and head-to-head comparison studies of third-generation versus first-generation EGFR TKIs are being developed.

  3. Recombinant soluble human tissue factor secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and refolded from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies: glycosylation of mutants, activity and physical characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, M J; Ruf, W; Miles, D J; Edgington, T S; Wright, P E

    1995-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is the cell-surface transmembrane receptor that initiates both the extrinsic and intrinsic blood coagulation cascades. The abilities of TF to associate with Factor VIIa and Factor X in a ternary complex and to enable proteolytic activation of Factor X by Factor VIIa reside in the extracellular domain of TF. We describe the expression of the surface domain of TF (truncated TF, tTF) in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli and the biochemical and physical characterization of the recombinant proteins. Wild-type tTF and several glycosylation-site mutants were secreted efficiently by S. cerevisiae under the control of the yeast prepro-alpha-signal sequence; the T13A,N137D double mutant was the most homogeneous variant expressed in milligram quantities. Wild-type tTF was expressed in a non-native state in E. coli inclusion bodies as a fusion protein with a poly(His) leader. The fusion protein could be fully renatured and the leader removed by proteolysis with thrombin; the correct molecular mass (24,729 Da) of the purified protein was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Recombinant tTFs from yeast, E. coli and Chinese hamster ovary cells were identical in their abilities to bind Factor VIIa, to enhance the catalytic activity of Factor VIIa and to enhance the proteolytic activation of Factor X by Factor VIIa. Furthermore, CD, fluorescence emission and NMR spectra of the yeast and E. coli proteins indicated that these proteins are essentially identical structurally. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7654202

  4. Synergism between hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and nitric oxide (NO) in vasorelaxation induced by stonustoxin (SNTX), a lethal and hypotensive protein factor isolated from stonefish Synanceja horrida venom.

    PubMed

    Liew, H C; Khoo, H E; Moore, P K; Bhatia, M; Lu, J; Moochhala, S M

    2007-04-10

    Stonustoxin (SNTX) is a 148 kDa, dimeric, hypotensive and lethal protein factor isolated from the venom of the stonefish Synanceja horrida. SNTX (10-320 ng/ml) progressively causes relaxation of endothelium-intact, phenylephrine (PE)-precontracted rat thoracic aortic rings. The SNTX-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited by L-N(G)-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the SNTX-induced response. Interestingly, D, L-proparglyglycine (PAG) and beta-cyano-L-alanine (BCA), irreversible and competitive inhibitors of cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE) respectively, also inhibited SNTX-induced vasorelaxation, indicating that H(2)S may also play a part in the effect of SNTX. The combined use of L-NAME with PAG or BCA showed that H(2)S and NO act synergistically in effecting SNTX-induced vasorelaxation.

  5. Identification of a GCC transcription factor responding to fruit colour change events in citrus through the transcriptomic analyses of two mutants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background External ripening in Citrus fruits is morphologically characterized by a colour shift from green to orange due to the degradation of chlorophylls and the accumulation of carotenoid pigments. Although numerous genes coding for enzymes involved in such biochemical pathways have been identified, the molecular control of this process has been scarcely studied. In this work we used the Citrus clementina mutants 39B3 and 39E7, showing delayed colour break, to isolate genes potentially related to the regulation of peel ripening and its physiological or biochemical effects. Results Pigment analyses revealed different profiles of carotenoid and chlorophyll modification in 39B3 and 39E7 mutants. Flavedo from 39B3 fruits showed an overall delay in carotenoid accumulation and chlorophyll degradation, while the flavedo of 39E7 was devoid of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin among other carotenoid alterations. A Citrus microarray containing about 20,000 cDNA fragments was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed during colour change in the flavedo of 39B3 and 39E7 mutants respect to the parental variety. The results highlighted 73 and 90 genes that were respectively up- and down-regulated in both mutants. CcGCC1 gene, coding for a GCC type transcriptional factor, was found to be down-regulated. CcGCC1 expression was strongly induced at the onset of colour change in the flavedo of parental clementine fruit. Moreover, treatment of fruits with gibberellins, a retardant of external ripening, delayed both colour break and CcGCC1 overexpression. Conclusions In this work, the citrus fruit ripening mutants 39B3 and 39E7 have been characterized at the phenotypic, biochemical and transcriptomic level. A defective synthesis of the apocarotenoid β-citraurin has been proposed to cause the yellowish colour of fully ripe 39E7 flavedo. The analyses of the mutant transcriptomes revealed that colour change during peel ripening was strongly associated with a major

  6. Structure-Based Systematic Isolation of Conditional-Lethal Mutations in the Single Yeast Calmodulin Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ohya, Y.; Botstein, D.

    1994-01-01

    Conditional-lethal mutations of the single calmodulin gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been very difficult to isolate by random and systematic methods, despite the fact that deletions cause recessive lethality. We report here the isolation of numerous conditional-lethal mutants that were recovered by systematically altering phenylalanine residues. The phenylalanine residues of calmodulin were implicated in function both by structural studies of calmodulin bound to target peptides and by their extraordinary conservation in evolution. Seven single and 26 multiple Phe -> Ala mutations were constructed. Mutant phenotypes were examined in a haploid cmd1 disrupted strain under three conditions: single copy, low copy, and overexpressed. Whereas all but one of the single mutations caused no obvious phenotype, most of the multiple mutations caused obvious growth phenotypes. Five were lethal, 6 were lethal only in synthetic medium, 13 were temperature-sensitive lethal and 2 had no discernible phenotypic consequences. Overexpression of some of the mutant genes restored the phenotype to nearly wild type. Several temperature-sensitive calmodulin mutations were suppressed by elevated concentration of CaCl(2) in the medium. Mutant calmodulin protein was detected at normal levels in extracts of most of the lethal mutant cells, suggesting that the deleterious phenotypes were due to loss of the calmodulin function and not protein instability. Analysis of diploid strains heterozygous for all combinations of cmd1-ts alleles revealed four intragenic complementation groups. The contributions of individual phe->ala changes to mutant phenotypes support the idea of internal functional redundancy in the symmetrical calmodulin protein molecule. These results suggest that the several phenylalanine residues in calmodulin are required to different extents in different combinations in order to carry out each of the several essential tasks. PMID:7896089

  7. Analysis of toxicity of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A mutants.

    PubMed

    Roggiani, M; Stoehr, J A; Leonard, B A; Schlievert, P M

    1997-07-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SPE A) is secreted by some strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and is strongly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), a severe and often fatal illness. SPE A possesses a number of biological properties, some of which are shared with a group of exotoxins of streptococcal and staphylococcal origins, the pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs). SPE A's most extensively studied property is superantigenicity. Superantigenic activation of T cells and monocytes stimulates the release of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta, interleukin 1, and gamma interferon. These endogenous mediators are considered to be the primary cause of capillary leak, hypotension, and shock, the most severe manifestations of STSS. However, several studies have suggested that other properties of SPE A, such as ability to greatly enhance host susceptibility to endotoxin and ability to interact directly with endothelial cells, may play substantial roles in the syndrome. In this work we generated single- and double-site mutations of SPE A at residues K16, N20, C87, C90, C98, K157, S195, N20/C98, and N20/K157. The mutant SPE A's were analyzed in vivo for their lethal activity and in vitro for their superantigenic ability. Our results indicate that SPE A's ability to induce lethality and endotoxin enhancement does not require superantigenicity, and conversely superantigenicity does not necessarily lead to lethality. Thus, these properties and their relative contributions to the onset of hypotension and shock may be separable. Furthermore, evidence is presented that certain mutant toxins may be suitable for use as vaccine toxoids.

  8. Analysis of toxicity of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Roggiani, M; Stoehr, J A; Leonard, B A; Schlievert, P M

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SPE A) is secreted by some strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and is strongly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), a severe and often fatal illness. SPE A possesses a number of biological properties, some of which are shared with a group of exotoxins of streptococcal and staphylococcal origins, the pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs). SPE A's most extensively studied property is superantigenicity. Superantigenic activation of T cells and monocytes stimulates the release of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta, interleukin 1, and gamma interferon. These endogenous mediators are considered to be the primary cause of capillary leak, hypotension, and shock, the most severe manifestations of STSS. However, several studies have suggested that other properties of SPE A, such as ability to greatly enhance host susceptibility to endotoxin and ability to interact directly with endothelial cells, may play substantial roles in the syndrome. In this work we generated single- and double-site mutations of SPE A at residues K16, N20, C87, C90, C98, K157, S195, N20/C98, and N20/K157. The mutant SPE A's were analyzed in vivo for their lethal activity and in vitro for their superantigenic ability. Our results indicate that SPE A's ability to induce lethality and endotoxin enhancement does not require superantigenicity, and conversely superantigenicity does not necessarily lead to lethality. Thus, these properties and their relative contributions to the onset of hypotension and shock may be separable. Furthermore, evidence is presented that certain mutant toxins may be suitable for use as vaccine toxoids. PMID:9199461

  9. Thermosensitive mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 altered in the catalytic Subunit and in a Regulatory factor of the glutamy-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, J; Delcuve, G

    1975-05-01

    The glutamyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase (GluRS) of a partial revertants (ts plus or minus) of the thermosensitive (ts) mutant strain JP1449 (LOcus gltx) and of a ts mutant strain EM111-ts1 with a lesion in or near the locus gltx have been studied to find the relation between these two genetic loci known to influence the GluRS activity in vitro and the presence of a catalytic subunit and of a regulatory subunit in the GluRS purified from Escherichia coli K-12. The ts character of strain JP1449-18ts plus or minus is co-transduced with the marker dsdA at the same frequency as is the ts character of strain JP1449. Its purified GluRS is very thermolabile and its Km for glutamate is higher than that of a wild-type GluRS. These results indicate that the locus gltX is in the structural gene for the catalytic subunit of this enzyme. The location of the mutation causing the partial ts reversion in strain JP1449-18ts plus or minus is discussed. The GluRS purified from the ts mutant strain EM111-ts1 has the same stability as the wild-type enzyme, but its Km forglutamate increases with the temperature, suggesting that the locus gltE codes for a regulatory factor, possibly for the polypeptide chain that is co-purified with the catalytic subunit.

  10. Thermosensitive mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 altered in the catalytic Subunit and in a Regulatory factor of the glutamy-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Lapointe, J; Delcuve, G

    1975-01-01

    The glutamyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase (GluRS) of a partial revertants (ts plus or minus) of the thermosensitive (ts) mutant strain JP1449 (LOcus gltx) and of a ts mutant strain EM111-ts1 with a lesion in or near the locus gltx have been studied to find the relation between these two genetic loci known to influence the GluRS activity in vitro and the presence of a catalytic subunit and of a regulatory subunit in the GluRS purified from Escherichia coli K-12. The ts character of strain JP1449-18ts plus or minus is co-transduced with the marker dsdA at the same frequency as is the ts character of strain JP1449. Its purified GluRS is very thermolabile and its Km for glutamate is higher than that of a wild-type GluRS. These results indicate that the locus gltX is in the structural gene for the catalytic subunit of this enzyme. The location of the mutation causing the partial ts reversion in strain JP1449-18ts plus or minus is discussed. The GluRS purified from the ts mutant strain EM111-ts1 has the same stability as the wild-type enzyme, but its Km forglutamate increases with the temperature, suggesting that the locus gltE codes for a regulatory factor, possibly for the polypeptide chain that is co-purified with the catalytic subunit. PMID:1092645

  11. Mutant allele frequencies among domestic cats in some eastern areas of Canada: regional homogeneity of factors in Canadian Atlantic Provinces and the French colony of Saint Pierre.

    PubMed

    Todd, N B; Todd, L M

    1976-01-01

    Surveys to determine mutant allele frequencies in domestic cats of the Canadian Atlantic Provinces (Halifax, Nova Scotia; Fredericton, New Brunswick; Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island; St. John's Newfoundland) and the French colony of Saint Pierre, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, reveal a general regional homogeneity for most factors. Despite diverse historical patterns of settlement, a strong common component of origin is indicated. This is tentatively identified as late 18th and early 19th century British. One mutant, polydactyly, which is of New England origin appears to have been distributed largely by loyalist refugees from New England at the time of the American Rebellion. No elements of a specific Acadian (French) character have yet been identified. Siamese cats have been "introduced" to the region in recent years and are now so abundant that they will undoubtedly cause a significant change in some mutant allele frequencies over the next few decades. Interregional exchanges of cats no doubt are contributing to homogenizing the populations of the area, but the practice of sterilization of pets offsets this to some degree.

  12. 2005 Non-Lethal Defense VI Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-16

    Untitled Document 2005 Non Lethal Defense VI Symposium.html[8/22/2016 9:24:13 AM] Non- Lethal Defense "VI" Symposium “Non- Lethal Weapon Options in...Current and Desired Capabilities Forum Army Non- Lethal Requirements, Brigadier General Coker, USA, TRADOC Successful Non- Lethal Illegal Alien...Interdiction Case, Rear Admiral Kunkle, USCG, Non Lethal IPT Member Luncheon Keynote Speaker, by Lieutenant General Jan Huly, USMC, Deputy Commandant for Plans

  13. Meningococcal outer membrane vesicle vaccines derived from mutant strains engineered to express factor H binding proteins from antigenic variant groups 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Koeberling, Oliver; Giuntini, Serena; Seubert, Anja; Granoff, Dan M

    2009-02-01

    Meningococcal outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines, which are treated with detergents to decrease endotoxin activity, are safe and effective in humans. However, the vaccines elicit serum bactericidal antibody responses largely directed against PorA, which is antigenically variable. We previously prepared a native (non-detergent-treated) OMV vaccine from a mutant of group B strain H44/76 in which the lpxL1 gene was inactivated, which resulted in penta-acylated lipid A with attenuated endotoxin activity. To enhance protection, we overexpressed factor H binding protein (fHbp) from the antigenic variant 1 group. The vaccine elicited broad serum bactericidal antibody responses in mice against strains with fHbp variant 1 (approximately 70% of group B isolates) but not against strains with variant 2 or 3. In the present study, we constructed a mutant of group B strain NZ98/254 with attenuated endotoxin that expressed both endogenous variant 1 and heterologous fHbp variant 2. A mixture of the two native OMV vaccines from the H44/76 and NZ98/254 mutants stimulated proinflammatory cytokine responses by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells similar to those stimulated by control, detergent-treated OMV vaccines from the wild-type strains. In mice, the mixture of the two native OMV vaccines elicited broad serum bactericidal antibody responses against strains with heterologous PorA and fHbp in the variant 1, 2, or 3 group. By adsorption studies, the principal bactericidal antibody target was determined to be fHbp. Thus, native OMV vaccines from mutants expressing fHbp variants have the potential to be safe for humans and to confer broad protection against meningococcal disease from strains expressing fHbp from each of the antigenic variant groups.

  14. Loss-of-Function Mutations in HspR Rescue the Growth Defect of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasome Accessory Factor E (pafE) Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Samanovic, Marie I.; Copin, Richard; Shopsin, Bo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome to degrade proteins by both ATP-dependent and -independent pathways. While much has been learned about ATP-dependent degradation, relatively little is understood about the ATP-independent pathway, which is controlled by Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteasome accessory factor E (PafE). Recently, we found that a Mycobacterium tuberculosis pafE mutant has slowed growth in vitro and is sensitive to killing by heat stress. However, we did not know if these phenotypes were caused by an inability to degrade the PafE-proteasome substrate HspR (heat shock protein repressor), an inability to degrade any damaged or misfolded proteins, or a defect in another protein quality control pathway. To address this question, we characterized pafE suppressor mutants that grew similarly to pafE+ bacteria under normal culture conditions. All but one suppressor mutant analyzed contained mutations that inactivated HspR function, demonstrating that the slowed growth and heat shock sensitivity of a pafE mutant were caused primarily by the inability of the proteasome to degrade HspR. IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required for virulence. We recently discovered a proteasome cofactor, PafE, which is required for the normal growth, heat shock resistance, and full virulence of M. tuberculosis. In this study, we demonstrate that PafE influences this phenotype primarily by promoting the expression of protein chaperone genes that are necessary for surviving proteotoxic stress. PMID:28096448

  15. The contact system contributes to hypotension but not disseminated intravascular coagulation in lethal bacteremia. In vivo use of a monoclonal anti-factor XII antibody to block contact activation in baboons.

    PubMed Central

    Pixley, R A; De La Cadena, R; Page, J D; Kaufman, N; Wyshock, E G; Chang, A; Taylor, F B; Colman, R W

    1993-01-01

    The hypotension and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in bacteremia is thought to be mediated by the combined actions of cytokines, prostaglandins, and complement. The contact system, via the release of bradykinin and the activation of Factor XI, has been postulated to be contributing to the observed hypotension and DIC. Using a mAb to Factor XII (C6B7), we blocked the activation of the contact system in an established experimental baboon model in which Escherichia coli was infused to produce lethal bacteremia with hypotension. The untreated group (n = 5) displayed contact activation, manifested by a significant decrease in high molecular weight kininogen (HK) and a significant increase in alpha 2 macroglobulin-kallikrein complexes (alpha 2M-Kal). The C6B7-treated group (n = 5) showed an inactivation of Factor XII and the changes in HK and alpha 2M-Kal complexes were prevented. Both groups developed DIC manifested by a decrease in platelet, fibrinogen, and Factor V levels. The untreated group developed irreversible hypotension. The treated group experienced an initial hypotension that was reversed and extended the life of the animals. This study suggests that irreversible hypotension correlates with prolonged activation of the contact system, and specific antibody therapy can modulate both the pathophysiological and biochemical changes. Images PMID:7678610

  16. [Protective action of reactivating factor of Luteococcus japonicus subsp. casei toward cells of Escherichia coli reparation mutants inactivated with UV-light].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, L I; Fedotova, A V; Khodzhaev, E Iu

    2010-01-01

    Reactivating factor (RF) from Luteococcus japonicus subsp. casei had a protective action on UV-irradiated cells of Escherichia coli AB1157 with a native reparation system and on cells of isogenic reparation mutants of E. coli UvrA-, RecA-, and PolA-: the effect resulted in multifold increase of survivability. Defense action of L. casei exometabolite is not connected with stimulating reparation systems in E. coli, and, probably, it is mediated by involvement of the exometabolite in the mechanism of cell division. RF did not provoke the reactivation of E. coli cells inactivated by UV-light.

  17. Anti-synthetic peptide antibody reacting at the fusion junction of deletion-mutant epidermal growth factor receptors in human glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, P.A.; Zalutsky, M.R.; Fuller, G.N.; Archer, G.E.; Friedman, H.S.; Kwatra, M.M.; Bigner, S.H.; Bigner, D.D. ); Wong, A.J. ); Vogelstein, B. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors have investigated human gliomas that amplify and rearrange the epidermal growth factor receptor gene, with generation of an in-frame deletion mutation of 802 nucleotides in the external domain. This in-frame deletion mutation generates a local amino acid sequence at the fusion junction of what normally were distant polypeptide sequences in the intact epidermal growth factor receptor. This 14-amino acid peptide was chemically synthesized, coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and used as an immunogen in rabbits. The elicited antibody reacted specifically with the fusion peptide in ELISA. The anti-fusion junction peptide antibody was purified by passage of the antiserum over a peptide affinity column with acidic elution. The purified antibody selectively bound the glioma deletion mutant as compared to the intact epidermal growth factor receptor as assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation with gel electrophoresis, and binding experiments using radioiodinated antibody. These data indicate that it is feasible to generate site-specific anti-peptide antibodies that are highly selective for mutant proteins in human tumors. The anti-peptide antibody described here, and other mutation site-specific antibodies, should be ideal candidates for tumor immunoimaging and immunotherapy.

  18. Lethal post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P

    2003-12-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) seems to be a rare but unavoidable complication. Due to the frequency of performed tonsillectomies, it can be estimated that a certain amount may result in a lethal outcome. This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical features of these rare cases. Retrospective case series of five patients with lethal post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage are reported after they had undergone tonsillectomy by four different surgeons. The relevant literature was reviewed. The youngest patient was 42 months and the oldest almost 13 years old. All patients were male. Three patients had left the hospital against surgeon's recommendation 5 days following tonsillectomy. Preceding episodes of bleeding prior to the lethal bleeding occurred in two patients. Lethal PTH occurred in four patients within 5-9 days, the latest bleeding 39 days after surgery. In the literature, lethal PTH was described for eight patients since 1958. The youngest patient was 4 years, the oldest 18 years old (mean: 8.6 years; median: 6.5 years). In three patients, lethal PTH occurred on the day of surgery and the latest bleeding 54 days after surgery. Due to the paucity of reports, little reliable information can be obtained from the literature. It remains unclear, whether or not this reflects the true incidence of this complication. The experience with the five reported cases suggests, that immediate surgical treatment may have avoided lethal outcome in most cases. Therefore, a close postoperative follow-up is advisable to detect any episode of bleeding as soon as possible which should be referred to a specialist. Certainly, the collected data do not suffice to establish general guidelines, indicating that further collection of cases is required to assess characteristics of lethal PTH.

  19. Temperature-sensitive mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae induce protection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, W; Hooke, A M

    1997-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutants of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 4074, serotype 1, were isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and enrichment with penicillin and D-cycloserine. Of the four temperature-sensitive mutants evaluated in mice, one (A-1) had a tight phenotype (i.e., it ceased replication immediately after transfer to the nonpermissive temperature [37 degrees C]) and three (1-2, 4-1, and 12-1) were coasters that continued replication for up to three generations after transfer to 37 degrees C. The reversion frequencies ranged from 10(-6) to 10(-9), and cutoff temperatures ranged from 33 to 35 degrees C. No major changes were detected in the biochemical profiles; agglutination reactions; electrophoretic profiles of the lipopolysaccharides, outer membrane proteins, and hemolysin proteins; hemolytic titers; or CAMP factor reactions of the mutants and the wild-type bacteria. Groups of 3- to 5-week-old, female ICR mice were immunized intranasally with three doses of 3.5 x 10(6) CFU of the mutants over 3 weeks and subsequently challenged intranasally with 5 50% lethal doses of the parental wild-type. Protection was induced by both the tight and the coaster mutants, with the 4-1 and 12-1 coasters eliciting greater protection (67 and 82%, respectively) than that induced by the A-1 tight mutant (57%). Intranasal immunization with both phenotypes induced serum antibody responses against the surface antigens and the hemolysin protein. PMID:9169752

  20. New insights into Nod factor biosynthesis: Analyses of chitooligomers and lipo-chitooligomers of Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 mutants.

    PubMed

    Poinsot, Véréna; Crook, Matthew B; Erdn, Stéphanie; Maillet, Fabienne; Bascaules, Adeline; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2016-11-03

    Soil-dwelling, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia signal their presence to legume hosts by secreting lipo-chitooligomers (LCOs) that are decorated with a variety of chemical substituents. It has long been assumed, but never empirically shown, that the LCO backbone is synthesized first by NodC, NodB, and NodA, followed by addition of one or more substituents by other Nod proteins. By analyzing a collection of in-frame deletion mutants of key nod genes in the bacterium Rhizobium sp. IRBG74 by mass spectrometry, we were able to shed light on the possible substitution order of LCO decorations, and we discovered that the prevailing view is probably erroneous. We found that most substituents could be transferred to a short chitin backbone prior to acylation by NodA, which is probably one of the last steps in LCO biosynthesis. The existence of substituted, short chitin oligomers offers new insights into symbiotic plant-microbe signaling.

  1. Altered regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α gene-transcription in vitro by spina bifida-associated mutant Pax1 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Joosten, Paul H. L. J.; Hol, Frans A.; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Peters, Heiko; Hamel, Ben C. J.; Afink, Gijs B.; van Zoelen, Everardus J. J.; Mariman, Edwin C. M.

    1998-01-01

    Mouse models show that congenital neural tube defects (NTDs) can occur as a result of mutations in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α gene (PDGFRα). Mice heterozygous for the PDGFRα-mutation Patch, and at the same time homozygous for the undulated mutation in the Pax1 gene, exhibit a high incidence of lumbar spina bifida occulta, suggesting a functional relation between PDGFRα and Pax1. Using the human PDGFRα promoter linked to a luciferase reporter, we show in the present paper that Pax1 acts as a transcriptional activator of the PDGFRα gene in differentiated Tera-2 human embryonal carcinoma cells. Two mutant Pax1 proteins carrying either the undulated-mutation or the Gln → His mutation previously identified by us in the PAX1 gene of a patient with spina bifida, were not or less effective, respectively. Surprisingly, Pax1 mutant proteins appear to have opposing transcriptional activities in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells as well as in the U-2 OS osteosarcoma cell line. In these cells, the mutant Pax1 proteins enhance PDGFRα-promoter activity whereas the wild-type protein does not. The apparent up-regulation of PDGFRα expression in these cells clearly demonstrates a gain-of-function phenomenon associated with mutations in Pax genes. The altered transcriptional activation properties correlate with altered protein–DNA interaction in band-shift assays. Our data provide additional evidence that mutations in Pax1 can act as a risk factor for NTDs and suggest that the PDGFRα gene is a direct target of Pax1. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that deregulated PDGFRα expression may be causally related to NTDs. PMID:9826722

  2. A Functional Genetic Screen Identifies the Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Pathway as a Determinant of Resistance to Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors in FGFR Mutant Urothelial Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqin; Šuštić, Tonći; Leite de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Lieftink, Cor; Halonen, Pasi; van de Ven, Marieke; Beijersbergen, Roderick L; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Bernards, René; van der Heijden, Michiel S

    2017-01-17

    Activating mutations and translocations of the FGFR3 gene are commonly seen in urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder and urinary tract. Several fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors are currently in clinical development and response rates appear promising for advanced UCC. A common problem with targeted therapeutics is intrinsic or acquired resistance of the cancer cells. To find potential drug targets that can act synergistically with FGFR inhibition, we performed a synthetic lethality screen for the FGFR inhibitor AZD4547 using a short hairpin RNA library targeting the human kinome in the UCC cell line RT112 (FGFR3-TACC3 translocation). We identified multiple members of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and found that inhibition of PIK3CA acts synergistically with FGFR inhibitors. The PI3K inhibitor BKM120 acted synergistically with inhibition of FGFR in multiple UCC and lung cancer cell lines having FGFR mutations. Consistently, we observed an elevated PI3K-protein kinase B pathway activity resulting from epidermal growth factor receptor or Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3 reactivation caused by FGFR inhibition as the underlying molecular mechanism of the synergy. Our data show that feedback pathways activated by FGFR inhibition converge on the PI3K pathway. These findings provide a strong rationale to test FGFR inhibitors in combination with PI3K inhibitors in cancers harboring genetic activation of FGFR genes.

  3. Increased Viral Dissemination in the Brain and Lethality in MCMV-Infected, Dicer-Deficient Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Eleonore; Macquin, Cécile; Krezel, Wojciech; Bahram, Seiamak; Georgel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among Herpesviruses, Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV or HHV-5) represents a major threat during congenital or neonatal infections, which may lead to encephalitis with serious neurological consequences. However, as opposed to other less prevalent pathogens, the mechanisms and genetic susceptibility factors for CMV encephalitis are poorly understood. This lack of information considerably reduces the prognostic and/or therapeutic possibilities. To easily monitor the effects of genetic defects on brain dissemination following CMV infection we used a recently developed in vivo mouse model based on the neonatal inoculation of a MCMV genetically engineered to express Luciferase. Here, we further validate this protocol for live imaging, and demonstrate increased lethality associated with viral infection and encephalitis in mutant mice lacking Dicer activity. Our data indicate that miRNAs are important players in the control of MCMV pathogenesis and suggest that miRNA-based endothelial functions and integrity are crucial for CMV encephalitis. PMID:25955106

  4. Cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-03-01

    People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition-active suppression of task-irrelevant processing-is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. A total of 102 participants aged 60 years and older (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared with psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, Mini mental state examination score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared with non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Cognitive Inhibition in Elderly High-Lethality Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A.; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition – active suppression of task-irrelevant processing – is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. Methods 102 participants aged 60+ (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. Results High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared to psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, MMSE score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Conclusions Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. PMID:24816626

  6. Abrogation of both short and long forms of Latent Transforming Growth Factor-β Binding Protein-1 causes defective cardiovascular development and is perinatally lethal

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Masahito; Todorovic, Vesna; Hadjiolova, Krassimira; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-1 (LTBP-1) is an extracellular protein that is structurally similar to fibrillin and has an important role in controlling transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by storing the cytokine in the extracellular matrix and by being involved in the conversion of the latent growth factor to its active form. LTBP-1 is found as both a short (LTBP-1S) and long (LTBP-1L) forms, which are derived though the use of separate promoters. There is controversy regarding the importance of LTBP-1L, as Ltbp1L knockout mice showed multiple cardiovascular defects but the complete null mice did not. Here, we describe a third line of Ltbp1 knockout mice generated utilizing a conditional knockout strategy that ablated expression of both L and S forms of LTBP-1. These mice show severe developmental cardiovascular abnormalities and die perinatally; thus these animals display a phenotype similar to previously reported Ltbp1L knockout mice. We reinvestigated the other “complete” knockout line, and found that these mice express a splice variant of LTBP-1L and, therefore, are not complete Ltbp1 knockouts. Our results clarify the phenotypes of Ltbp1 null mice and re-emphasize the importance of LTBP-1 in vivo. PMID:25805620

  7. Complement component 5 promotes lethal thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Tomohiro; Yoshioka, Kengo; Mizuno, Masashi; Shimizu, Mie; Nagano, Fumihiko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Maruyama, Shoichi; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Imai, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular histones promote platelet aggregation and thrombosis; this is followed by induction of coagulation disorder, which results in exhaustion of coagulation factors. Complement component 5 (C5) is known to be associated with platelet aggregation and coagulation system activation. To date, the pathological mechanism underlying liver injury has remained unclear. Here, we investigated whether C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. C5-sufficient and C5-deficient mice received single tail vein injections of purified, unfractionated histones obtained from calf thymus (45–75 μg/g). Subsequently, the mice were monitored for survival for up to 72 h. Based on the survival data, the 45 μg/g dose was used for analysis of blood cell count, liver function, blood coagulation ability, and promotion of platelet aggregation and platelet/leukocyte aggregate (PLA) production by extracellular histones. C5-deficient mice were protected from lethal thrombosis and had milder thrombocytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy, and liver injury with embolism and lower PLA production than C5-sufficient mice. These results indicate that C5 is associated with coagulation disorders, PLA production, and embolism-induced liver injury. In conclusion, C5 promotes liver injury associated with histone-induced lethal thrombosis. PMID:28205538

  8. Impact of clinical parameters and systemic inflammatory status on epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant non-small cell lung cancer patients readministration with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Mu; Lai, Chien-Hao; Rau, Kun-Ming; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Chang, Huang-Chih; Chao, Tung-Ying; Tseng, Chia-Cheng; Fang, Wen-Feng; Chung, Yu-Hsiu; Wang, Yi-Hsi; Su, Mao-Chang; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Liu, Shih-Feng; Chen, Hung-Chen; Chang, Ya-Chun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-11-08

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) readministration to lung cancer patients is common owing to the few options available. Impact of clinical factors on prognosis of EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving EGFR-TKI readministration after first-line EGFR-TKI failure and a period of TKI holiday remains unclear. Through this retrospective study, we aimed to understand the impact of clinical factors in such patients. Of 1386 cases diagnosed between December 2010 and December 2013, 80 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients who were readministered TKIs after failure of first-line TKIs and intercalated with at least one cycle of cytotoxic agent were included. We evaluated clinical factors that may influence prognosis of TKI readministration as well as systemic inflammatory status in terms of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR). Baseline NLR and LMR were estimated at the beginning of TKI readministration and trends of NLR and LMR were change amount from patients receiving first-Line TKIs to TKIs readministration. Median survival time since TKI readministration was 7.0 months. In the univariable analysis, progression free survival (PFS) of first-line TKIs, baseline NLR and LMR, and trend of LMR were prognostic factors in patients receiving TKIs readministration. In the multivariate analysis, only PFS of first-line TKIs (p < 0.001), baseline NLR (p = 0.037), and trend of LMR (p = 0.004) were prognostic factors. Longer PFS of first-line TKIs, low baseline NLR, and high trend of LMR were good prognostic factors in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients receiving TKI readministration.

  9. von Willebrand disease type 2A phenotypes IIC, IID and IIE: A day in the life of shear-stressed mutant von Willebrand factor.

    PubMed

    Brehm, M A; Huck, V; Aponte-Santamaría, C; Obser, T; Grässle, S; Oyen, F; Budde, U; Schneppenheim, S; Baldauf, C; Gräter, F; Schneider, S W; Schneppenheim, R

    2014-07-03

    The bleeding disorder von Willebrand disease (VWD) is caused by mutations of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a multimeric glycoprotein essential for platelet-dependent primary haemostasis. VWD type 2A-associated mutations each disrupt VWF biosynthesis and function at different stages, depending on the VWF domain altered by the mutation. These effects cause considerable heterogeneity in phenotypes and symptoms. To characterise the molecular mechanisms underlying the specific VWF deficiencies in VWD 2A/IIC, IID and IIE, we investigated VWF variants with patient-derived mutations either in the VWF pro-peptide or in domains D3 or CK. Additionally to static assays and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we used microfluidic approaches to perform a detailed investigation of the shear-dependent function of VWD 2A mutants. For each group, we found distinct characteristics in their intracellular localisation visualising specific defects in biosynthesis which are correlated to respective multimer patterns. Using microfluidic assays we further determined shear flow-dependent characteristics in polymer-platelet-aggregate formation, platelet binding and string formation for all mutants. The phenotypes observed under flow conditions were not related to the mutated VWF domain. By MD simulations we further investigated how VWD 2A/IID mutations might alter the ability of VWF to form carboxy-terminal dimers. In conclusion, our study offers a comprehensive picture of shear-dependent and shear-independent dysfunction of VWD type 2A mutants. Furthermore, our microfluidic assay might open new possibilities for diagnosis of new VWD phenotypes and treatment choice for VWD patients with shear-dependent VWF dysfunctions that are currently not detectable by static tests.

  10. Neurovirulent factor ICP34.5 uniquely expressed in the herpes simplex virus type 1 Delta gamma 1 34.5 mutant 1716.

    PubMed

    Holman, Holly A; MacLean, Alasdair R

    2008-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) diploid gene gamma(1)34.5 encodes a neurovirulent factor, infected cell protein 34.5 (ICP34.5). The promoter to gamma(1)34.5 is located within the HSV-1 genome where there are repeated sequences. This region of the genome also contains important overlapping transcripts involved with the virus's ability to establish lytic and latent infections and reactivation. These transcripts include the latency-associated transcripts and regulator proteins ICP0 and ICP4. This study aimed to separate ICP34.5 from these overlapping transcripts and test if its expression from a single gene could restore wild-type HSV-1 strain 17+ virulence. To address these aims, different recombinant viruses were constructed using the Delta gamma(1)34.5 mutant 1716. Immunoblots probed with different ICP34.5 antisera demonstrated that one of the newly generated recombinant viruses, 1622, overexpresses ICP34.5 relative to a panel of wild-type viruses. Interestingly, the overexpression of ICP34.5 does not yield a more virulent virus. The onset of ICP34.5 expression from 1622-infected cells in vitro matched that of 17+, and its expression restored the function of maintaining protein synthesis in human neuroblastoma cells. Replication of 1622, however, was only partially restored to 17+ levels in vivo. Additionally, plaque morphology from 1622-infected cells indicates there is an additional defect. The authors report that the mutant virus 1622 can express ICP34.5 from a single gamma(1)34.5 gene and restore most (but not all) wild-type function. These findings are discussed with respect to the use of the gamma(1)34.5 deleted mutant, 1716, in oncolytic viral vector therapies and future studies for ICP34.5.

  11. Activity of panitumumab alone or with chemotherapy in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines expressing mutant epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel J; Bush, Tammy; Ogbagabriel, Selam; Belmontes, Brian; Juan, Todd; Plewa, Cherylene; Van, Gwyneth; Johnson, Carol; Radinsky, Robert

    2009-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations cause hyperresponsiveness to ligand and hypersensitivity to small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, little is known about how these mutations respond to antibodies against EGFR. We investigated the activity of panitumumab, a fully human anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, in vitro in mutant EGFR-expressing non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells and in vivo with chemotherapy in xenograft models. Mutant EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells (NCI-H1975 [L858R+T790M] and NCI-H1650 [Delta746-750]) and CHO cells were treated with panitumumab before EGF stimulation to assess the inhibition of EGFR autophosphorylation. Established tumors were treated with panitumumab (25, 100, or 500 mug/mouse twice a week) alone or with docetaxel (10 or 20 mg/kg once a week) or cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg once a week). Antitumor activity and levels of proliferation markers were analyzed. Treatment of mutant EGFR-expressing CHO and NSCLC cells with panitumumab inhibited ligand-dependent autophosphorylation. In NCI-H1975 and NCI-H1650 xenografts, treatment with panitumumab alone or with cisplatin inhibited tumor growth compared with control (P < 0.0003). With panitumumab plus docetaxel, enhanced antitumor activity was seen in both xenografts versus panitumumab alone. Panitumumab treatment alone decreased Ki-67 and phospho- mitogen-activated protein kinase (pMAPK) staining in both xenografts compared with control. Docetaxel enhanced panitumumab activity in NCI-H1650 xenografts (decreased Ki-67 and pMAPK staining by >60%) when compared with either agent alone. Panitumumab inhibits ligand-induced EGFR phosphorylation, tumor growth, and markers of proliferation alone or with docetaxel in NSCLC cell lines that express clinically observed EGFR kinase domain mutations, including the small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant T790M mutation.

  12. A mutant E2F-1 transcription factor that affects the phenotype of NIH3T3 fibroblasts inefficiency associates with cyclin A-cdk2.

    PubMed

    Jordan-Sciutto, K L; Hall, D J

    1998-01-01

    The amino-terminal domain of the E2F1 transcription factor is the site of association with cyclin A-cdk2, mapping to residues 87-94. A mutant of E2F1 lacking the first 87 amino acids (termed E2F1d87) has a number of potent effects on cellular phenotype when constitutively expressed in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. For example, in these fibroblasts the duration of S phase and the sensitivity to S phase chemotherapeutic agents are both increased. Since E2F1d87 only partially truncates the cyclin A-cdk2 binding domain, it was important to determine the level of cyclin A-cdk2 association with this mutant to correlate any reduction in association with the observed effects on the cell cycle. It was found that cyclin A-cdk2 binds E2F1d87 in an in vitro assay but that this binding is reduced approximately 8 fold compared with binding to full-length E2F1, whereas no detectable binding was seen to a mutant E2F1 that lacks the first 117 amino acids. Correspondingly, H1 kinase activity in E2F1d87 immunoprecipitates from E2F1d87-expressing cells was significantly reduced compared with that seen for full-length E2F1. From these data it appears that E2F1 with reduced cyclin A-cdk2 binding activity mediates the alteration in cell cycle parameters seen in these cells.

  13. Arg156 in the AP2-Domain Exhibits the Highest Binding Activity among the 20 Individuals to the GCC Box in BnaERF-B3-hy15, a Mutant ERF Transcription Factor from Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Jing; Li, Meng-Yao; Wu, Bei; Liu, Yan-Jun; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To develop mutants of the ERF factor with more binding activities to the GCC box, we performed in vitro directed evolution by using DNA shuffling and screened mutants through yeast one-hybrid assay. Here, a series of mutants were obtained and used to reveal key amino acids that induce changes in the DNA binding activity of the BnaERF-B3 protein. With the BnaERF-B3-hy15 as the template, we produced 12 mutants which host individual mutation of potential key residues. We found that amino acid 156 is the key site, and the other 18 mutants host the 18 corresponding individual amino acid residues at site 156. Among the 20 individuals comprising WT (Gly156), Mu3 (Arg156), and 18 mutants with other 18 amino acid residues, Arg156 in the AP2-domain is the amino acid residue with the highest binding activity to the GCC box. The structure of the α-helix in the AP2-domain affects the binding activity. Other residues within AP2-domain modulated binding activity of ERF protein, suggesting that these positions are important for binding activity. Comparison of the mutant and wild-type transcription factors revealed the relationship of protein function and sequence modification. Our result provides a potential useful resource for understanding the trans-activation of ERF proteins. PMID:27833627

  14. Clostridium sordellii Lethal-Toxin Autoprocessing and Membrane Localization Activities Drive GTPase Glucosylation Profiles in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Craven, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium sordellii infections cause gangrene and edema in humans and gastrointestinal infections in livestock. One of the principle virulence factors is TcsL, a large protein toxin which glucosylates host GTPases to cause cytopathic and cytotoxic effects. TcsL has two enzymatic domains, an N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain (GTD) and an autoprocessing domain responsible for release of the GTD within the cell. The GTD can then use its N-terminal membrane localization domain (MLD) for orientation on membranes and modification of GTPases. This study describes the use of conditionally immortalized murine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells as a model for the study of TcsL functional activities. Point mutations that disrupt the glucosyltransferase, autoprocessing, or membrane localization activities were introduced into a recombinant version of TcsL, and the activities of these mutants were compared to those of wild-type toxin. We observed that all mutants are defective or impaired in cytotoxicity but differ in their modification of Rac1 and Ras. The data suggest a model where differences in GTPase localization dictate cellular responses to intoxication and highlight the importance of autoprocessing in the function of TcsL. IMPORTANCE Clostridium sordellii is a bacterium that can infect humans and cause serious disease and death. The principle virulence factor associated with clinical symptoms is a large protein toxin known as lethal toxin. The mechanism of lethal-toxin intoxication is assumed to be similar to that of the homologous toxins from C. difficile, but very few studies have been done in the context of endothelial cells, a relevant target in C. sordellii infections. This study was designed to test the role of the lethal-toxin enzymatic activities and membrane localization in endothelial cell toxicity and host substrate modification. PMID:27303685

  15. Hydrophilicity of quinolones is not an exclusive factor for decreased activity in efflux-mediated resistant mutants of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Takenouchi, T; Tabata, F; Iwata, Y; Hanzawa, H; Sugawara, M; Ohya, S

    1996-08-01

    The elevated expression of the norA gene is responsible for efflux-mediated resistance to quinolones in Staphylococcus aureus (E.Y.W. Ng, M. Trucksis, and D.C. Hooper, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1345-1355, 1994). For S. aureus transformed with a plasmid containing the cloned norA gene, SA113(pTUS20) (H. Yoshida, M. Bogaki, S. Nakamura, K. Ubukata, and M. Konno, J. Bacteriol. 172:6942-6949, 1990), and an overexpressed mutant, SA-1199B (G.W. Kaatz, S.M. Seo, and C.A. Ruble, J. Infect. Dis. 163:1080-1086, 1991), the MICs of norfloxacin increased 16 and 64 times compared with its MICs for the recipient and wild-type strains, SA113 and SA-1199, respectively. MICs of CS-940, however, increased only two and eight times, even though these two fluoroquinolones are similarly hydrophilic (apparent logPs of approximately -1). No good correlation was found, among 15 developed and developing quinolones, between the increment ratio in MICs and hydrophobicity (r = 0.61). Analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationship among 40 fluoroquinolones revealed that the MIC increment ratio was significantly correlated with the bulkiness of the C-7 substituent and bulkiness and hydrophobicity of the C-8 substituent of fluoroquinolones (r = 0.87) and not with its molecular hydrophobicity (r = 0.47). Cellular accumulation of norfloxacin in SA-1199B was significantly lower than that in SA-1199, and it was increased by addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. On the other hand, accumulations of CS-940 in these strains were nearly identical, and they were not affected by addition of the protonophore.

  16. Computational modeling of the bHLH domain of the transcription factor TWIST1 and R118C, S144R and K145E mutants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human TWIST1 is a highly conserved member of the regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. TWIST1 forms homo- or heterodimers with E-box proteins, such as E2A (isoforms E12 and E47), MYOD and HAND2. Haploinsufficiency germ-line mutations of the twist1 gene in humans are the main cause of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), which is characterized by limb abnormalities and premature fusion of cranial sutures. Because of the importance of TWIST1 in the regulation of embryonic development and its relationship with SCS, along with the lack of an experimentally solved 3D structure, we performed comparative modeling for the TWIST1 bHLH region arranged into wild-type homodimers and heterodimers with E47. In addition, three mutations that promote DNA binding failure (R118C, S144R and K145E) were studied on the TWIST1 monomer. We also explored the behavior of the mutant forms in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, focusing on the structural changes of the wild-type versus mutant dimers. Results The solvent-accessible surface area of the homodimers was smaller on wild-type dimers, which indicates that the cleft between the monomers remained more open on the mutant homodimers. RMSD and RMSF analyses indicated that mutated dimers presented values that were higher than those for the wild-type dimers. For a more careful investigation, the monomer was subdivided into four regions: basic, helix I, loop and helix II. The basic domain presented a higher flexibility in all of the parameters that were analyzed, and the mutant dimer basic domains presented values that were higher than the wild-type dimers. The essential dynamic analysis also indicated a higher collective motion for the basic domain. Conclusions Our results suggest the mutations studied turned the dimers into more unstable structures with a wider cleft, which may be a reason for the loss of DNA binding capacity observed for in vitro circumstances. PMID:22839202

  17. Computational modeling of the bHLH domain of the transcription factor TWIST1 and R118C, S144R and K145E mutants.

    PubMed

    Maia, Amanda M; da Silva, João Hm; Mencalha, André L; Caffarena, Ernesto R; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2012-07-28

    Human TWIST1 is a highly conserved member of the regulatory basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. TWIST1 forms homo- or heterodimers with E-box proteins, such as E2A (isoforms E12 and E47), MYOD and HAND2. Haploinsufficiency germ-line mutations of the twist1 gene in humans are the main cause of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), which is characterized by limb abnormalities and premature fusion of cranial sutures. Because of the importance of TWIST1 in the regulation of embryonic development and its relationship with SCS, along with the lack of an experimentally solved 3D structure, we performed comparative modeling for the TWIST1 bHLH region arranged into wild-type homodimers and heterodimers with E47. In addition, three mutations that promote DNA binding failure (R118C, S144R and K145E) were studied on the TWIST1 monomer. We also explored the behavior of the mutant forms in aqueous solution using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, focusing on the structural changes of the wild-type versus mutant dimers. The solvent-accessible surface area of the homodimers was smaller on wild-type dimers, which indicates that the cleft between the monomers remained more open on the mutant homodimers. RMSD and RMSF analyses indicated that mutated dimers presented values that were higher than those for the wild-type dimers. For a more careful investigation, the monomer was subdivided into four regions: basic, helix I, loop and helix II. The basic domain presented a higher flexibility in all of the parameters that were analyzed, and the mutant dimer basic domains presented values that were higher than the wild-type dimers. The essential dynamic analysis also indicated a higher collective motion for the basic domain. Our results suggest the mutations studied turned the dimers into more unstable structures with a wider cleft, which may be a reason for the loss of DNA binding capacity observed for in vitro circumstances.

  18. Differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene expression by wild type and mutant androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Schayek, Hagit; Seti, Hila; Greenberg, Norman M.; Sun, Shihua; Werner, Haim; Plymate, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The progression of prostate cancer from an organ-confined, androgen-sensitive disease to a metastatic one is associated with dysregulation of androgen receptor (AR)-regulated target genes and with a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression. To investigate the differential effects of wild type (wt) and mutant AR on IGF-IR levels we employed a series of isogenic prostate-derived cell lines and human xenografts. We show that basal and phosphorylated IGF-IR levels progressively decreased as prostate cancer cells became more tumorigenic and metastatic. In addition, we show that wt, but not mutant, AR along with dihydrotestosterone treatment increased IGF-IR promoter activity and endogenous IGF-IR levels. ChIP analysis show enhanced AR binding to the IGF-IR promoter in AR-overexpressing cells. Finally, wt AR-overexpressing cells display an enhanced proliferation rate. In summary, we provide evidence that activated wt AR enhances IGF-IR transcription in prostate cancer cells via a mechanism that involves AR binding to the IGF-IR promoter. AR mutations alter the ability of the mutated protein to regulate IGF-IR expression. Our results suggest that prostate cancer progression is associated with a decrease in IGF-IR expression that could be the result of impaired ability of AR to stimulate IGF-IR gene expression. PMID:20417685

  19. Differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene expression by wild type and mutant androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schayek, Hagit; Seti, Hila; Greenberg, Norman M; Sun, Shihua; Werner, Haim; Plymate, Stephen R

    2010-07-29

    The progression of prostate cancer from an organ-confined, androgen-sensitive disease to a metastatic one is associated with dysregulation of androgen receptor (AR)-regulated target genes and with a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression. To investigate the differential effects of wild type (wt) and mutant AR on IGF-IR levels we employed a series of isogenic prostate-derived cell lines and human xenografts. We show that basal and phosphorylated IGF-IR levels progressively decreased as prostate cancer cells became more tumorigenic and metastatic. In addition, we show that wt, but not mutant, AR along with dihydrotestosterone treatment increased IGF-IR promoter activity and endogenous IGF-IR levels. ChIP analysis show enhanced AR binding to the IGF-IR promoter in AR-overexpressing cells. Finally, wt AR-overexpressing cells display an enhanced proliferation rate. In summary, we provide evidence that activated wt AR enhances IGF-IR transcription in prostate cancer cells via a mechanism that involves AR binding to the IGF-IR promoter. AR mutations alter the ability of the mutated protein to regulate IGF-IR expression. Our results suggest that prostate cancer progression is associated with a decrease in IGF-IR expression that could be the result of impaired ability of AR to stimulate IGF-IR gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectral characteristics of the mutant form GGBP/H152C of D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein labeled with fluorescent dye BADAN: influence of external factors

    PubMed Central

    Fonin, Alexander V.; Stepanenko, Olga V.; Povarova, Olga I.; Volova, Catherine A.; Philippova, Elizaveta M.; Bublikov, Grigory S.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Demchenko, Alexander P.

    2014-01-01

    The mutant form GGBP/H152C of the D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein with the solvatochromic dye BADAN linked to cysteine residue Cys 152 can be used as a potential base for a sensitive element of glucose biosensor system. We investigated the influence of various external factors on the physical-chemical properties of GGBP/H152C-BADAN and its complex with glucose. The high affinity (Kd = 8.5 µM) and high binding rate of glucose make GGBP/H152C-BADAN a good candidate to determine the sugar content in biological fluids extracted using transdermal techniques. It was shown that changes in the ionic strength and pH of solution within the physiological range did not have a significant influence on the fluorescent characteristics of GGBP/H152C-BADAN. The mutant form GGBP/H152C has relatively low resistance to denaturation action of GdnHCl and urea. This result emphasizes the need to find more stable proteins for the creation of a sensitive element for a glucose biosensor system. PMID:24711960

  1. An empirical phase diagram approach to investigate conformational stability of “second-generation” functional mutants of acidic fibroblast growth factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Wang, Tingting; Kim, Jae Hyun; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Lee, Jihun; Blaber, Michael; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2012-01-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) is an angiogenic protein which requires binding to a polyanion such as heparin for its mitogenic activity and physicochemical stability. To evaluate the extent to which this heparin dependence on solution stability could be reduced or eliminated, the structural integrity and conformational stability of 10 selected FGF-1 mutants were examined as a function of solution pH and temperature by a series of spectroscopic methods including circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and static light scattering. The biophysical data were summarized in the form of colored empirical phase diagrams (EPDs). FGF-1 mutants were identified with stability profiles in the absence of heparin comparable to that of wild-type FGF-1 in the presence of heparin while still retaining their biological activity. In addition, a revised version of the EPD methodology was found to provide an information rich, high throughput approach to compare the effects of mutations on the overall conformational stability of proteins in terms of their response to environmental stresses such as pH and temperature. PMID:22113934

  2. Structure-Guided Development of Covalent and Mutant-Selective Pyrazolopyrimidines to Target T790M Drug Resistance in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Engel, Julian; Smith, Steven; Lategahn, Jonas; Tumbrink, Hannah L; Goebel, Lisa; Becker, Christian; Hennes, Elisabeth; Keul, Marina; Unger, Anke; Müller, Heiko; Baumann, Matthias; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Günther, Georgia; Hengstler, Jan G; Rauh, Daniel

    2017-09-28

    Reversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors prompt a beneficial clinical response in non-small cell lung cancer patients who harbor activating mutations in EGFR. However, resistance mutations, particularly the gatekeeper mutation T790M, limit this efficacy. Here, we describe a structure-guided development of a series of covalent and mutant-selective EGFR inhibitors that effectively target the T790M mutant. The pyrazolopyrimidine-based core differs structurally from that of aminopyrimidine-based third-generation EGFR inhibitors and therefore constitutes a new set of inhibitors that target this mechanism of drug resistance. These inhibitors exhibited strong inhibitory effects toward EGFR kinase activity and excellent inhibition of cell growth in the drug-resistant cell line H1975, without significantly affecting EGFR wild-type cell lines. Additionally, we present the in vitro ADME/DMPK parameters for a subset of the inhibitors as well as in vivo pharmacokinetics in mice for a candidate with promising activity profile.

  3. The alternative sigma factor sigma28 of Legionella pneumophila restores flagellation and motility to an Escherichia coli fliA mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Heuner, K; Hacker, J; Brand, B C

    1997-01-01

    Gene expression in Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, can be controlled by alternative forms of RNA polymerase programmed by distinct sigma factors. To understand the regulation of L. pneumophila flagellin expression, we cloned the sigma factor (FliA) of RNA polymerase responsible for the transcription of the flagellin gene, flaA. FliA is a member of the sigma28 class of alternative sigma factors identified in several bacterial genera. The gene fliA has been isolated from an expression library of L. pneumophila isolate Corby in Escherichia coli K-12. This library was transformed into a fliA mutant of E. coli K-12 containing a plasmid carrying the L. pneumophila-specific flaA promoter fused to the reporter gene luxAB. Screening the obtained transformants for luciferase activity, we isolated the major part of the fliA gene on a 1.64-kb fragment. This fragment was sequenced and used for reverse PCR in order to recover the complete fliA gene. The resulting 1.03-kb fragment was shown to contain the entire fliA gene. L. pneumophila FliA has 55 and 43% amino acid identity with the homologous sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Furthermore, the L. pneumophila fliA gene was able to restore the flagellation and the motility defect of an E. coli fliA mutant. This result suggests that the L. pneumophila sigma28 protein can bind to the E. coli core RNA polymerase to direct transcription initiation from the flaA-specific promoter. PMID:8981975

  4. Survival and Predictive Factors of Lethality in Hemodyalisis: D/I Polymorphism of The Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme and of the Angiotensinogen M235T Genes

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Mauro; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; Salis, Lucia Helena Alvares; Pereira, Basilio de Bragança; Godoy, Paulo Henrique; do Nascimento, Emília Matos; Oliveira, Jose Mario Franco

    2014-01-01

    Background End-stage kidney disease patients continue to have markedly increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Analysis of genetic factors connected with the renin-angiotensin system that influences the survival of the patients with end-stage kidney disease supports the ongoing search for improved outcomes. Objective To assess survival and its association with the polymorphism of renin-angiotensin system genes: angiotensin I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion and angiotensinogen M235T in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods Our study was designed to examine the role of renin-angiotensin system genes. It was an observational study. We analyzed 473 chronic hemodialysis patients in four dialysis units in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between the curves were evaluated by Tarone-Ware, Peto-Prentice, and log rank tests. We also used logistic regression analysis and the multinomial model. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The local medical ethics committee gave their approval to this study. Results The mean age of patients was 45.8 years old. The overall survival rate was 48% at 11 years. The major causes of death were cardiovascular diseases (34%) and infections (15%). Logistic regression analysis found statistical significance for the following variables: age (p = 0.000038), TT angiotensinogen (p = 0.08261), and family income greater than five times the minimum wage (p = 0.03089), the latter being a protective factor. Conclusions The survival of hemodialysis patients is likely to be influenced by the TT of the angiotensinogen M235T gene. PMID:25076182

  5. Isolation and characterization of type III group B streptococcal mutants defective in biosynthesis of the type-specific antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, M K; Mattingly, S J

    1983-01-01

    Four classes of mutants of type III group B streptococcus were isolated by serial subculture of the wild-type strain in the presence of type III-specific rabbit antiserum. Class I mutants no longer synthesized sialic acid but still elaborated the core antigen. Class II mutants maintained the ability to synthesize sialic acid but could not attach it to the core antigen. Class III mutants did not produce the core antigen but still synthesized intracellular sialic acid. Class IV mutants synthesized the complete antigen; however, only approximately 4% of the antigen synthesized was found associated with the cell wall peptidoglycan (in the wild-type strain greater than 85% of the antigen synthesized is covalently attached to the cell wall peptidoglycan), whereas greater than 90% of the antigen was secreted into the growth medium. Production of other components (CAMP factor, group B antigen, beta-hemolysin, neuraminidase) by these mutants appeared similar to those of the wild-type strain. Mouse lethality studies of these strains indicated that all four classes have greater than 3 log10-higher 50% lethal dose values than that of the wild-type strain. To understand the basis for this variation, the invasive ability of the wild-type strain and the sialic acid-deficient mutant strain M-10 (class I) was examined. Mice received 10(5) CFU of each organism; they were then sacrificed at various times postinoculation, and viable group B streptococci from different organs were enumerated. Mice were able to clear M-10 more efficiently, with greater than 80% of M-10 cells being phagocytized by macrophages within 1 h, whereas the wild-type strain was able to evade phagocytic killing and disseminate to other tissues. These data, therefore, strongly indicate that the sialic acid moiety greatly enhances the virulence of the type III antigen. In addition, the level of cell-associated type-specific antigen appears to contribute significantly to the pathogenicity of the organism. PMID

  6. Evidence that mutant PfCRT facilitates the transmission to mosquitoes of chloroquine-treated Plasmodium gametocytes.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Andrea; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Sinnis, Photini; Coppens, Isabelle; Fidock, David A

    2011-01-15

    Resistance of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum to the antimalarial drug chloroquine has rapidly spread from several independent origins and is now widely prevalent throughout the majority of malaria-endemic areas. Field studies have suggested that chloroquine-resistant strains might be more infective to mosquito vectors. To test the hypothesis that the primary chloroquine resistance determinant, mutations in PfCRT, facilitates parasite transmission under drug pressure, we have introduced a mutant or wild-type pfcrt allele into the rodent model malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei. Our results show that mutant PfCRT from the chloroquine-resistant 7G8 strain has no effect on asexual blood stage chloroquine susceptibility in vivo or ex vivo but confers a significant selective advantage in competitive mosquito infections in the presence of this drug, by protecting immature gametocytes from its lethal action. Enhanced infectivity to mosquitoes may have been a key factor driving the worldwide spread of mutant pfcrt.

  7. Signaling pathways modulating dependence of lung cancer on mutant epidermal growth factor receptor and mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wannesson, Luciano; Viteri, Santiago; Costa, Carlota; Karachaliou, Niki; Molina-Vila, Miguel Angel; Rosell, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    A new era in lung cancer targeted therapy arrived with the discovery of a subset of lung adenocarcinomas harboring activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), whose tyrosine kinase activity can be selectively blocked by small molecule pharmaceuticals referred as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This was the starting point for a less toxic and more effective treatment strategy for a disease that has historically presented as chemorefractory and highly lethal. In spite of this progress, only 80% of the patients treated with this class of compounds will obtain a clinical benefit, of variable magnitude and duration, with remaining patients being primarily refractory to the treatment. Moreover, responding tumors will eventually develop acquired resistance to TKIs and progress to more advanced stages. In this review we summarize the current knowledge with regard to the mechanisms leading to tumor regression and the modifiers of this primary response that determine significant variability in sensitivity of tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations, ranging from complete remission to primary refractoriness. We also analyze the mechanisms of secondary resistance and the strategies the scientific community is exploring in order to overcome these barriers.

  8. Transcription of TIM9, a new factor required for the petite-positive phenotype of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is defective in spt7 mutants.

    PubMed

    Senapin, Saengchan; Chen, Xin Jie; Clark-Walker, G Desmond

    2003-12-01

    TIM9 has been identified as an additional novel gene required for the petite-positive phenotype in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. tim9-1 was obtained through a screen for respiratory-deficient strains that are unable to survive in the absence of mitochondrial DNA. A point mutation found in the tim9-1 coding region converts codon 71 from Gly to Arg. Examination of genes encoding other Tim components indicated that the temperature-conditional alleles of essential genes for the viability of S. cerevisiae, TIM9, TIM10 and TIM12, are required for petite survival, while deletion of TIM8 and TIM13 has no notable effect on petite cell viability. Northern hybridization results suggested that the Spt7 transcription factor is strictly involved in transcription of TIM9 and that the synergistic lethality of tim9-1/spt7Delta dual mutations is due to the deficiency of TIM9 transcription together with defective function of the tim9-1 protein.

  9. Synthetic lethal interactions for the development of cancer therapeutics: biological and methodological advancements.

    PubMed

    Mizuarai, Shinji; Kotani, Hidehito

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic lethal interaction is defined as a combination of two mutations that is lethal when present in the same cell; each individual mutation is non-lethal. Synthetic lethal interactions attract attention in cancer research fields since the discovery of synthetic lethal genes with either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) provides novel cancer therapeutic targets. Due to the selective lethal effect on cancer cells harboring specific genetic alterations, it is expected that targeting synthetic lethal genes would provide wider therapeutic windows compared with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. Here, we review the current status of the application of synthetic lethal screening in cancer research fields from biological and methodological viewpoints. Very recent studies seeking to identify synthetic lethal genes with K-RAS and p53, which are known to be the most frequently occurring oncogenes and TSGs, respectively, are introduced. Among the accumulating amount of research on synthetic lethal interactions, the synthetic lethality between BRCA1/2 and PARP1 inhibition has been clinically proven. Thus, both preclinical and clinical data showing a preferential anti-tumor effect on BRCA1/2 deficient tumors by a PARP1 inhibitor are the best examples of the synthetic lethal approach of cancer therapeutics. Finally, methodological progress regarding synthetic lethal screening, including barcode shRNA screening and in vivo synthetic lethal screening, is described. Given the fact that an increasing number of synthetic lethal genes for major cancerous genes have been validated in preclinical studies, this intriguing approach awaits clinical verification of preferential benefits for cancer patients with specific genetic alterations as a clear predictive factor for tumor response.

  10. Human tumor necrosis factor receptor (p55) and interleukin 10 gene transfer in the mouse reduces mortality to lethal endotoxemia and also attenuates local inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Anticytokine therapies have been promulgated in gram-negative sepsis as a means of preventing or neutralizing excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, systemic administration of cytokine inhibitors is an inefficient means of targeting excessive production in individual tissue compartments. In the present study, human gene transfer was used to deliver to organs of the reticuloendothelial system antagonists that either inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha) synthesis or block its interactions with cellular receptors. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with cationic liposomes containing 200 micrograms of either a pCMV (cytomegalovirus)/p55 expression plasmid that contains the extracellular domain and transmembrane region of the human p55 TNF receptor, or a pcD-SR-alpha/hIL-10 expression plasmid containing the DNA for human interleukin 10. 48 h later, mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine. Pretreatment of mice with p55 or IL-10 cDNA-liposome complexes improved survival (p < 0.01) to LPS-D-galactosamine. In additional studies, intratracheal administration of IL-10 DNA-liposome complexes 48 h before an intratracheal LPS challenge reduced pulmonary TNF-alpha levels by 62% and decreased neutrophil infiltration in the lung by 55% as measured by myeloperoxidase activity (both p < 0.05). Gene transfer with cytokine inhibitors is a promising option for the treatment of both the systemic and local sequelae of septic shock. PMID:7760015

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of wild-type and mutant recombinant human transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp)

    PubMed Central

    Runager, Kasper; García-Castellanos, Raquel; Valnickova, Zuzana; Kristensen, Torsten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Klintworth, Gordon K.; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBIp) has been linked to several corneal dystrophies as certain point mutations in the protein may give rise to a progressive accumulation of insoluble protein material in the human cornea. Little is known about the biological functions of this extracellular protein, which is expressed in various tissues throughout the human body. However, it has been found to interact with a number of extracellular matrix macromolecules such as collagens and proteoglycans. Structural information about TGFBIp might prove to be a valuable tool in the elucidation of its function and its role in corneal dystrophies caused by mutations in the TGFBI gene. A simple method for the purification of wild-type and mutant forms of recombinant human TGFBIp from human cells under native conditions is presented here. Moreover, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of TGFBIp are reported. PMID:19255489

  12. Evaluation of the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis for delivery of Mycobacterium T cell antigen ESAT-6 into cytosol of antigen presenting cells to elicit effective cytotoxic T lymphocyte response

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Subhash; Kaur, Manpreet; Midha, Shuchi; Bhatnagar, Rakesh . E-mail: rakbhat01@yahoo.com; Banerjee-Bhatnagar, Nirupama . E-mail: nirupama@icgeb.res.in

    2006-12-22

    We report the ability of N-terminal fragment of lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis to deliver genetically fused ESAT-6 (early secretory antigen target), a potent T cell antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, into cytosol to elicit Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. In vitro Th1 cytokines data and CTL assay proved that efficient delivery of LFn.ESAT-6 occurs in cytosol, in the presence of protective antigen (PA), and leads to generation of effective CTL response. Since CTL response is essential for protection against intracellular pathogens and, it is well known that only single T cell epitope or single antigenic protein is not sufficient to elicit protective CTL response due to variation or polymorphism in MHC-I alleles among the individuals, we suggest that as a fusion protein LFn can be used to deliver multiepitopes of T cells or multiproteins which can generate effective CTLs against intracellular pathogens like M. tuberculosis. It can be used to enhance the protective efficacy of BCG vaccine.

  13. [The "lethal white foal" syndrome].

    PubMed

    Blendinger, C; Müller, G; Bostedt, H

    1994-06-01

    The lethal white foal syndrome (congenital intestinal aganglionosis) was diagnosed by history, clinical signs and pathological findings in a female foal, born in March 1992, that was an offspring of two overo-spotted paint horses. The syndrome is a congenital innervation defect of the gastrointestinal tract. A literature review of this condition, relatively unknown in Germany, is given.

  14. High-Affinity Ligand Binding by Wild-Type:Mutant Heteromeric Complexes of the Mannose 6-Phosphate/Insulin-like Growth Factor II Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Michelle A.; Kreiling, Jodi L.; Byrd, James C.; MacDonald, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R) has diverse ligand-binding properties contributing to its roles in lysosome biogenesis and growth suppression. Optimal receptor binding and internalization of mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P)-bearing ligands requires a dimeric structure leading to bivalent high-affinity binding, presumably mediated by cooperation between sites on both subunits. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) binds to a single site on each monomer. It is hypothesized that IGF-II binding to cognate sites on each monomer occurs independently, but bivalent Man-6-P ligand binding requires cooperative contributions from sites on both monomers. To test this hypothesis, we co-immunoprecipitated differentially epitope-tagged soluble mini-receptors and assessed ligand binding. Pairing of wild-type and point-mutated IGF-II binding sites between two dimerized mini-receptors had no effect on the function of the contralateral binding site, indicating IGF-II binding to each side of the dimer is independent and manifests no intersubunit effects. As expected, heterodimeric receptors composed of a wild-type monomer and a mutant bearing two Man-6-P-binding knockout mutations form functional IGF-II binding sites. In contrast to prediction, such heterodimeric receptors also bind Man-6-P–based ligands with high affinity, and the amount of binding can be attributed entirely to the immunoprecipitated wild-type receptors. Anchoring of both C-terminal ends of the heterodimer produces optimal binding of both IGF-II and Man-6-P ligands. Thus, IGF-II binds independently to both subunits of the dimeric M6P/IGF2R. Although wild-type/mutant heterooligomers from readily when mixed, it appears that multivalent Man-6-P ligands bind preferentially to wild-type sites, possibly by cross-bridging receptors within clusters of immobilized receptors. PMID:19236480

  15. Compound mouse mutants of bZIP transcription factors Mafg and Mafk reveal a regulatory network of non-crystallin genes associated with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Smriti A.; Anand, Deepti; Siddam, Archana D.; Kakrana, Atul; Dash, Soma; Scheiblin, David A.; Dang, Christine A.; Terrell, Anne M.; Waters, Stephanie M.; Singh, Abhyudai; Motohashi, Hozumi; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Lachke, Salil A.

    2015-01-01

    Although majority of the genes linked to early-onset cataract exhibit lens fiber cell-enriched expression, our understanding of gene regulation in these cells is limited to function of just eight transcription factors and largely in the context of crystallins. We report on small Maf transcription factors Mafg and Mafk as regulators of several non-crystallin human cataract-associated genes in fiber cells and establish their significance to this disease. We applied a bioinformatics tool for cataract gene discovery iSyTE to identify Mafg and its co-regulators in the lens, and generated various null-allelic combinations of Mafg:Mafk mouse mutants for phenotypic and molecular analysis. By age 4-months, Mafg−/−:Mafk+/− mutants exhibit lens defects that progressively develop into cataract. High-resolution phenotypic characterization of Mafg−/−:Mafk+/− mouse lens reveals severely disorganized fiber cells, while microarrays-based expression profiling identifies 97 differentially regulated genes (DRGs). Integrative analysis of Mafg−/−:Mafk+/− lens-DRGs with 1) binding-motifs and genomic targets of small Mafs and their regulatory partners, 2) iSyTE lens-expression data, and 3) interactions between DRGs in the String database, unravels a detailed small Maf regulatory network in the lens, several nodes of which are linked to cataract. This approach identifies 36 high-priority candidates from the original 97 DRGs. Significantly, 8/36 (22%) DRGs are associated with cataracts in human (GSTO1, MGST1, SC4MOL, UCHL1) or mouse (Aldh3a1, Crygf, Hspb1, Pcbd1), suggesting a multifactorial etiology that includes oxidative stress and mis-regulation of sterol synthesis. These data identify Mafg and Mafk as new cataract-associated candidates and define their function in regulating largely non-crystallin genes linked to human cataract. PMID:25896808

  16. Attenuated virulence of a Francisella mutant lacking the lipid A 4′-phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Ribeiro, Anthony A.; Guan, Ziqiang; Abraham, Soman N.; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2007-01-01

    Francisella tularensis causes tularemia, a highly contagious disease of animals and humans, but the virulence features of F. tularensis are poorly defined. F. tularensis and the related mouse pathogen Francisella novicida synthesize unusual lipid A molecules lacking the 4′-monophosphate group typically found in the lipid A of Gram-negative bacteria. LpxF, a selective phosphatase located on the periplasmic surface of the inner membrane, removes the 4′-phosphate moiety in the late stages of F. novicida lipid A assembly. To evaluate the relevance of the 4′-phosphatase to pathogenesis, we constructed a deletion mutant of lpxF and compared its virulence with wild-type F. novicida. Intradermal injection of 106 wild-type but not 108 mutant F. novicida cells is lethal to mice. The rapid clearance of the lpxF mutant is associated with a stronger local cytokine response and a greater influx of neutrophils compared with wild-type. The F. novicida mutant was highly susceptible to the cationic antimicrobial peptide polymyxin. LpxF therefore represents a kind of virulence factor that confers a distinct lipid A phenotype, preventing Francisella from activating the host innate immune response and preventing the bactericidal actions of cationic peptides. Francisella lpxF mutants may be useful for immunization against tularemia. PMID:17360489

  17. Fission yeast mutants that alleviate transcriptional silencing in centromeric flanking repeats and disrupt chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Ekwall, K; Cranston, G; Allshire, R C

    1999-11-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes are transcriptionally silenced when placed within centromeres, within or close to the silent mating-type loci or adjacent to telomeres. Factors required to maintain mating-type silencing also affect centromeric silencing and chromosome segregation. We isolated mutations that alleviate repression of marker genes in the inverted repeats flanking the central core of centromere I. Mutations csp1 to 13 (centromere: suppressor of position effect) defined 12 loci. Ten of the csp mutants have no effect on mat2/3 or telomere silencing. All csp mutants allow some expression of genes in the centromeric flanking repeat, but expression in the central core is undetectable. Consistent with defective centromere structure and function, chromosome loss rates are elevated in all csp mutants. Mutants csp1 to 6 are temperature-sensitive lethal and csp3 and csp6 cells are defective in mitosis at 36 degrees. csp7 to 13 display a high incidence of lagging chromosomes on late anaphase spindles. Thus, by screening for mutations that disrupt silencing in the flanking region of a fission yeast centromere a novel collection of mutants affecting centromere architecture and chromosome segregation has been isolated.

  18. crl mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae resemble both mutants affecting general control of amino acid biosynthesis and omnipotent translational suppressor mutants.

    PubMed

    McCusker, J H; Haber, J E

    1988-06-01

    Cyocloheximide resistant lethal (crl) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, defining 22 unlinked complementation groups, are unable to grow at 37 degrees. They are also highly pleiotropic at their permissive temperature of 25 degrees. The mutants are all unable to arrest at the G1 stage of the cell cycle when grown to stationary phase or when starved for a single amino acid, though they do arrest at G1 when deprived of all nitrogen. The crl mutants are also hypersensitive to various amino acid analogs and to 3-aminotriazole. These mutants also "tighten" leaky auxotrophic mutations that permit wild-type cells to grow in the absence of the appropriate amino acid. All of these phenotypes are also exhibited by gcn mutants affecting general control of amino acid biosynthesis. In addition, the crl mutants are all hypersensitive to hygromycin B, an aminoglycoside antibiotic that stimulates translational misreading. The crl mutations also suppress one nonsense mutation which is phenotypically suppressed by hygromycin B. Many crl mutants are also osmotically sensitive. These are phenotypes which the crl mutations have in common with previously isolated omnipotent suppressors. We suggest that the the crl mutations all affect the fidelity of protein translation.

  19. Bleomycin: female-specific dominant lethal effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Sudman, P D; Rutledge, J C; Bishop, J B; Generoso, W M

    1992-12-01

    Limited comparative data in mice indicate that chemical mutagens that induce dominant lethal mutations in males are not necessarily effective in females, but those which are effective in females are generally equally or more effective in males. Recently, however, a few chemicals have been identified that are female-specific with respect to induction of dominant lethal mutations. The antitumor antibiotic adriamycin is among them. Another antitumor antibiotic, bleomycin was examined for its ability to induce dominant lethal mutations in the reproductive cells of male and female mice. No dominant lethal or cytotoxic effects were observed in males treated with bleomycin, even at a maximum tolerated dose. In females, on the other hand, a dose nearly 1/4 of that used in males induced not only a high level of dominant lethal mutations but also killed oocytes in certain stages of follicular development. The effectiveness of bleomycin in inducing dominant lethal mutations in mouse oocytes makes it a valuable tool for investigating whether gonadal transport, inherent differences in the configuration of chromatin in the germ cells of the two sexes or other factors are responsible for the differential susceptibility to bleomycin, which implies potential gender-specific genetic risk in cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Protective Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization of Mice with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Braun Lipoprotein (Lpp) and Acetyltransferase (MsbB) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Erova, Tatiana E.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Fitts, Eric C.; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Baze, Wallace B.; Andersson, Jourdan A.; Cong, Yingzi; Tiner, Bethany L.; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the extent of attenuation and immunogenicity of the ΔlppAB and ΔlppAB ΔmsbB mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium when delivered to mice by the oral route. These mutants were deleted either for the Braun lipoprotein genes (lppA and lppB) or in combination with the msbB gene, which encodes an acetyltransferase required for lipid A modification of lipopolysaccharide. Both the mutants were attenuated (100% animal survival) and triggered robust innate and adaptive immune responses. Comparable levels of IgG and its isotypes were produced in mice infected with wild-type (WT) S. typhimurium or its aforementioned mutant strains. The ΔlppAB ΔmsbB mutant-immunized animals resulted in the production of higher levels of fecal IgA and serum cytokines during later stages of vaccination (adaptive response). A significant production of interleukin-6 from T-cells was also noted in the ΔlppAB ΔmsbB mutant-immunized mice when compared to that of the ΔlppAB mutant. On the other hand, IL-17A production was significantly more in the serum of ΔlppAB mutant-immunized mice (innate response) with a stronger splenic T-cell proliferative and tumor-necrosis factor-α production. Based on 2-dimensional gel analysis, alterations in the levels of several proteins were observed in both the mutant strains when compared to that in WT S. typhimurium and could be associated with the higher immunogenicity of the mutants. Finally, both ΔlppAB and ΔlppAB ΔmsbB mutants provided complete protection to immunized mice against a lethal oral challenge dose of WT S. typhimurium. Thus, these mutants may serve as excellent vaccine candidates and also provide a platform for delivering heterologous antigens. PMID:27891321

  1. Protective Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization of Mice with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Braun Lipoprotein (Lpp) and Acetyltransferase (MsbB) Mutants.

    PubMed

    Erova, Tatiana E; Kirtley, Michelle L; Fitts, Eric C; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Baze, Wallace B; Andersson, Jourdan A; Cong, Yingzi; Tiner, Bethany L; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the extent of attenuation and immunogenicity of the ΔlppAB and ΔlppAB ΔmsbB mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium when delivered to mice by the oral route. These mutants were deleted either for the Braun lipoprotein genes (lppA and lppB) or in combination with the msbB gene, which encodes an acetyltransferase required for lipid A modification of lipopolysaccharide. Both the mutants were attenuated (100% animal survival) and triggered robust innate and adaptive immune responses. Comparable levels of IgG and its isotypes were produced in mice infected with wild-type (WT) S. typhimurium or its aforementioned mutant strains. The ΔlppAB ΔmsbB mutant-immunized animals resulted in the production of higher levels of fecal IgA and serum cytokines during later stages of vaccination (adaptive response). A significant production of interleukin-6 from T-cells was also noted in the ΔlppAB ΔmsbB mutant-immunized mice when compared to that of the ΔlppAB mutant. On the other hand, IL-17A production was significantly more in the serum of ΔlppAB mutant-immunized mice (innate response) with a stronger splenic T-cell proliferative and tumor-necrosis factor-α production. Based on 2-dimensional gel analysis, alterations in the levels of several proteins were observed in both the mutant strains when compared to that in WT S. typhimurium and could be associated with the higher immunogenicity of the mutants. Finally, both ΔlppAB and ΔlppAB ΔmsbB mutants provided complete protection to immunized mice against a lethal oral challenge dose of WT S. typhimurium. Thus, these mutants may serve as excellent vaccine candidates and also provide a platform for delivering heterologous antigens.

  2. Systematic annotation and analysis of “virmugens” - virulence factors whose mutants can be used as live attenuated vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Racz, Rebecca; Chung, Monica; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines are usually generated by mutation of genes encoding virulence factors. “Virmugen” is coined here to represent a gene that encodes for a virulent factor of a pathogen and has been proven feasible in animal models to make a live attenuated vaccine by knocking out this gene. Not all virulence factors are virmugens. VirmugenDB is a web-based virmugen database (http://www.violinet.org/virmugendb). Currently, VirmugenDB includes 225 virmugens that have been verified to be valuable for vaccine development against 57 bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens. Bioinformatics analysis has revealed significant patterns in virmugens. For example, 10 Gram-negative and one Gram-positive bacterial aroA genes are virmugens. A sequence analysis has revealed at least 50% of identities in the protein sequences of the 10 Gram-negative bacterial aroA virmugens. As a pathogen case study, Brucella virmugens were analyzed. Out of 15 verified Brucella virmugens, six are related to carbohydrate or nucleotide transport and metabolism, and two involving cell membrane biogenesis. In addition, 54 virmugens from 24 viruses and 12 virmugens from 4 parasites are also stored in VirmugenDB. Virmugens tend to involve metabolism of nutrients (e.g., amino acids, carbohydrates, and nucleotides) and cell membrane formation. Host genes whose expressions were regulated by virmugen mutation vaccines or wild type virulent pathogens have also been annotated and systematically compared. The bioinformatics annotation and analysis of virmugens helps elucidate enriched virmugen profiles and the mechanisms of protective immunity, and further supports rational vaccine design. PMID:23219434

  3. Peripheral Nerve Demyelination Caused by a Mutant Rho GTPase Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Frabin/FGD4

    PubMed Central

    Stendel, Claudia ; Roos, Andreas ; Deconinck, Tine ; Pereira, Jorge ; Castagner, François ; Niemann, Axel ; Kirschner, Janbernd ; Korinthenberg, Rudolf ; Ketelsen, Uwe-Peter ; Battaloglu, Esra ; Parman, Yesim ; Nicholson, Garth ; Ouvrier, Robert ; Seeger, Jürgen ; Jonghe, Peter De ; Weis, Joachim ; Krüttgen, Alexander ; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine ; Bergmann, Carsten ; Suter, Ueli ; Zerres, Klaus ; Timmerman, Vincent ; Relvas, João B. ; Senderek, Jan 

    2007-01-01

    GTPases of the Rho subfamily are widely involved in the myelination of the vertebrate nervous system. Rho GTPase activity is temporally and spatially regulated by a set of specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Here, we report that disruption of frabin/FGD4, a GEF for the Rho GTPase cell-division cycle 42 (Cdc42), causes peripheral nerve demyelination in patients with autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. These data, together with the ability of frabin to induce Cdc42-mediated cell-shape changes in transfected Schwann cells, suggest that Rho GTPase signaling is essential for proper myelination of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:17564972

  4. Peripheral nerve demyelination caused by a mutant Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor, frabin/FGD4.

    PubMed

    Stendel, Claudia; Roos, Andreas; Deconinck, Tine; Pereira, Jorge; Castagner, Francois; Niemann, Axel; Kirschner, Janbernd; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Ketelsen, Uwe-Peter; Battaloglu, Esra; Parman, Yesim; Nicholson, Garth; Ouvrier, Robert; Seeger, Jürgen; De Jonghe, Peter; Weis, Joachim; Krüttgen, Alexander; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Bergmann, Carsten; Suter, Ueli; Zerres, Klaus; Timmerman, Vincent; Relvas, João B; Senderek, Jan

    2007-07-01

    GTPases of the Rho subfamily are widely involved in the myelination of the vertebrate nervous system. Rho GTPase activity is temporally and spatially regulated by a set of specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Here, we report that disruption of frabin/FGD4, a GEF for the Rho GTPase cell-division cycle 42 (Cdc42), causes peripheral nerve demyelination in patients with autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. These data, together with the ability of frabin to induce Cdc42-mediated cell-shape changes in transfected Schwann cells, suggest that Rho GTPase signaling is essential for proper myelination of the peripheral nervous system.

  5. JAK3 inhibitor VI is a mutant specific inhibitor for epidermal growth factor receptor with the gatekeeper mutation T790M

    PubMed Central

    Nishiya, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yasumitsu; Oku, Yusuke; Nonaka, Takamasa; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify non-quinazoline kinase inhibitors effective against drug resistant mutants of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). METHODS: A kinase inhibitor library was subjected to screening for specific inhibition pertaining to the in vitro kinase activation of EGFR with the gatekeeper mutation T790M, which is resistant to small molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for EGFR in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This inhibitory effect was confirmed by measuring autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells, an NSCLC cell line harboring the gatekeeper mutation. The effects of a candidate compound, Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor VI, on cell proliferation were evaluated using the MTT assay and were compared between T790M-positive and -negative lung cancer cell lines. JAK3 inhibitor VI was modeled into the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R. Potential physical interactions between the compound and kinase domains of wild-type (WT) or mutant EGFRs or JAK3 were estimated by calculating binding energy. The gatekeeper residues of EGFRs and JAKs were aligned to discuss the similarities among EGFR T790M and JAKs. RESULTS: We found that JAK3 inhibitor VI, a known inhibitor for JAK3 tyrosine kinase, selectively inhibits EGFR T790M/L858R, but has weaker inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR in vitro. JAK3 inhibitor VI also specifically reduced autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells upon EGF stimulation, but did not show the inhibitory effect on WT EGFR in A431 cells. Furthermore, JAK3 inhibitor VI suppressed the proliferation of NCI-H1975 cells, but showed limited inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR-expressing cell lines A431 and A549. A docking simulation between JAK3 inhibitor VI and the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R predicted a potential binding status with hydrogen bonds. Estimated binding energy of JAK3 inhibitor VI to EGFR T790M/L858R was more stable than its binding energy to the WT EGFR. Amino acid

  6. JAK3 inhibitor VI is a mutant specific inhibitor for epidermal growth factor receptor with the gatekeeper mutation T790M.

    PubMed

    Nishiya, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yasumitsu; Oku, Yusuke; Nonaka, Takamasa; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2015-11-26

    To identify non-quinazoline kinase inhibitors effective against drug resistant mutants of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). A kinase inhibitor library was subjected to screening for specific inhibition pertaining to the in vitro kinase activation of EGFR with the gatekeeper mutation T790M, which is resistant to small molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for EGFR in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This inhibitory effect was confirmed by measuring autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells, an NSCLC cell line harboring the gatekeeper mutation. The effects of a candidate compound, Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) inhibitor VI, on cell proliferation were evaluated using the MTT assay and were compared between T790M-positive and -negative lung cancer cell lines. JAK3 inhibitor VI was modeled into the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R. Potential physical interactions between the compound and kinase domains of wild-type (WT) or mutant EGFRs or JAK3 were estimated by calculating binding energy. The gatekeeper residues of EGFRs and JAKs were aligned to discuss the similarities among EGFR T790M and JAKs. We found that JAK3 inhibitor VI, a known inhibitor for JAK3 tyrosine kinase, selectively inhibits EGFR T790M/L858R, but has weaker inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR in vitro. JAK3 inhibitor VI also specifically reduced autophosphorylation of EGFR T790M/L858R in NCI-H1975 cells upon EGF stimulation, but did not show the inhibitory effect on WT EGFR in A431 cells. Furthermore, JAK3 inhibitor VI suppressed the proliferation of NCI-H1975 cells, but showed limited inhibitory effects on the WT EGFR-expressing cell lines A431 and A549. A docking simulation between JAK3 inhibitor VI and the ATP-binding pocket of EGFR T790M/L858R predicted a potential binding status with hydrogen bonds. Estimated binding energy of JAK3 inhibitor VI to EGFR T790M/L858R was more stable than its binding energy to the WT EGFR. Amino acid sequence alignments revealed

  7. Phenotype of cerebellar glutamatergic neurons is altered in stargazer mutant mice lacking brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Christine A; Leitch, Beulah

    2005-01-10

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influences neuronal survival, differentiation, and maturation. More recently, its role in synapse formation and plasticity has also emerged. In the cerebellum of the spontaneous recessive mutant mouse stargazer (stg) there is a specific and pronounced deficit in BDNF mRNA expression. BDNF protein levels in the cerebellum as a whole are reduced by 70%, while in the granule cells (GCs) there is a selective and near total reduction in BDNF mRNA expression. Recently, we published data demonstrating that inhibitory neurons in the cerebella of stgs have significantly reduced levels (approximately 50%) of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and fewer, smaller inhibitory synapses compared to wildtype (WT) controls. Our current investigations indicate that the stargazer mutation has an even more pronounced effect on the phenotype of glutamatergic neurons in the cerebellum. There is a profound decrease in the levels of glutamate-immunoreactivity (up to 77%) in stg compared to WT controls. The distribution profile of presynaptic vesicles is also markedly different: stgs have proportionally fewer docked vesicles and fewer vesicles located adjacent to the active zone ready to dock than WTs. Furthermore, the thickness of the postsynaptic density (PSD) at mossy fiber-granule cell (MF-GC) and parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses is severely reduced (up to 33% less than WT controls). The number and length of excitatory synapses, however, appear to be relatively unchanged. It is possible that at least some of theses changes in phenotype are directly attributable to the lack of BDNF in the cerebellum of the stg mutant.

  8. Twice weekly pulse and daily continuous-dose erlotinib as initial treatment for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant lung cancers and brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Kathryn C; Kris, Mark G; Riely, Gregory J; Ni, Ai; Beal, Kathryn; Daras, Mariza; Hayes, Sara A; Young, Robert J; Rodriguez, Christopher R; Ahn, Linda; Pao, William; Yu, Helena A

    2017-09-21

    In a phase 1 study of pulse/continuous-dose erlotinib, no patient had disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS). This expansion cohort of the phase 1 study tested the same regimen in a cohort of individuals with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant lung cancers with untreated brain metastases. Patients had not received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors or radiation for brain metastases. All received 1200 mg of erlotinib on days 1 and 2 and 50 mg on days 3 to 7 weekly. The primary endpoints were the overall and CNS response rates (according to version 1.1 of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors). Between May 2015 and August 2016, 19 patients were enrolled. Forty-two percent of the patients had target brain lesions, and the median size of the target brain lesions was 13 mm. Overall, 14 patients (74%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51%-89%) had partial responses. The response rate in brain metastases was 75%. The overall median progression-free survival was 10 months (95% CI, 7 months to not reached). Only 3 patients (16%) had CNS progression. To date, 4 patients required CNS radiation at some time during their course. The adverse events (any grade) seen in 10% or more of the patients were rash, diarrhea, nausea, an increase in alanine aminotransferase, and fatigue. Pulse/continuous-dose erlotinib produced a 74% overall response rate and a 75% response rate in brain metastases in patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancers and untreated brain metastases. CNS control persisted even after progression elsewhere. Although this regimen did not improve progression-free survival or delay the emergence of EGFR T790M, it prevented progression in the brain and could be useful in situations in which CNS control is critical. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of spontaneously mutated rats showing lethal dwarfism and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroetsu; Takenaka, Motoo; Suzuki, Katsushi

    2007-08-01

    We have characterized the phenotype of spontaneously mutated rats, found during experimental inbreeding in a closed colony of Wistar Imamichi rats. Mutant rats showed severe dwarfism, short lifespan (early postnatal lethality), and high incidence of epileptic seizures. Mutant rats showed growth retardation after 3 d of age, and at 21 d their weight was about 56% that of normal rats. Most mutant rats died without reaching maturity, and 95% of the mutant rats had an ataxic gait. About 34% of the dwarf rats experienced epileptic seizures, most of which started as 'wild running' convulsions, progressing to generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. At age 28 d, the relative weight of the testes was significantly lower, and the relative weight of the brain was significantly higher, in mutant than in normal rats. Histologically, increased apoptotic germ cells, lack of spermatocytes, and immature Leydig cells were found in the mutant testes, and extracellular vacuoles of various sizes were present in the hippocampus and amygdala of the mutant brain. Mutant rats had significantly increased concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, and inorganic phosphate, as well as decreased concentrations of plasma growth hormone. Hereditary analysis showed that the defects were inherited as a single recessive trait. We have named the hypothetically mutated gene as lde (lethal dwarfism with epilepsy).

  10. Human ARF4 expression rescues sec7 mutant yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, S B; Wu, C; Silve, S; Howell, K E; Melançon, P; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated traffic between compartments of the yeast secretory pathway involves recruitment of multiple cytosolic proteins for budding, targeting, and membrane fusion events. The SEC7 gene product (Sec7p) is a constituent of coat structures on transport vesicles en route to the Golgi complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify mammalian homologs of Sec7p and its interacting proteins, we used a genetic selection strategy in which a human HepG2 cDNA library was transformed into conditional-lethal yeast sec7 mutants. We isolated several clones capable of rescuing sec7 mutant growth at the restrictive temperature. The cDNA encoding the most effective suppressor was identified as human ADP ribosylation factor 4 (hARF4), a member of the GTPase family proposed to regulate recruitment of vesicle coat proteins in mammalian cells. Having identified a Sec7p-interacting protein rather than the mammalian Sec7p homolog, we provide evidence that hARF4 suppressed the sec7 mutation by restoring secretory pathway function. Shifting sec7 strains to the restrictive temperature results in the disappearance of the mutant Sec7p cytosolic pool without apparent changes in the membrane-associated fraction. The introduction of hARF4 to the cells maintained the balance between cytosolic and membrane-associated Sec7p pools. These results suggest a requirement for Sec7p cycling on and off of the membranes for cell growth and vesicular traffic. In addition, overexpression of the yeast GTPase-encoding genes ARF1 and ARF2, but not that of YPT1, suppressed the sec7 mutant growth phenotype in an allele-specific manner. This allele specificity indicates that individual ARFs are recruited to perform two different Sec7p-related functions in vesicle coat dynamics. PMID:8668142

  11. The effects of anthrax lethal toxin on host barrier function.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Auth, Roger D; Frucht, David M

    2011-06-01

    The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA). LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs), but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT) leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  12. Stem cell expansion during carcinogenesis in stem cell-depleted conditional telomeric repeat factor 2 null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Bojovic, B; Ho, H-Y; Wu, J; Crowe, D L

    2013-10-24

    To examine the role of telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) in epithelial tumorigenesis, we characterized conditional loss of TRF2 expression in the basal layer of mouse epidermis. These mice exhibit some characteristics of dyskeratosis congenita, a human stem cell depletion syndrome caused by telomere dysfunction. The epidermis in conditional TRF2 null mice exhibited DNA damage response and apoptosis, which correlated with stem cell depletion. The stem cell population in conditional TRF2 null epidermis exhibited shorter telomeres than those in control mice. Squamous cell carcinomas induced in conditional TRF2 null mice developed with increased latency and slower growth due to reduced numbers of proliferating cells as the result of increased apoptosis. TRF2 null epidermal stem cells were found in both primary and metastatic tumors. Despite the low-grade phenotype of the conditional TRF2 null primary tumors, the number of metastatic lesions was similar to control cancers. Basal cells from TRF2 null tumors demonstrated extreme telomere shortening and dramatically increased numbers of telomeric signals by fluorescence in situ hybridization due to increased genomic instability and aneuploidy in these cancers. DNA damage response signals were detected at telomeres in TRF2 null tumor cells from these mice. The increased genomic instability in these tumors correlated with eightfold expansion of the transformed stem cell population compared with that in control cancers. We concluded that genomic instability resulting from loss of TRF2 expression provides biological advantages to the cancer stem cell population.

  13. Intragenic suppressor mutations restore GTPase and translation functions of a eukaryotic initiation factor 5B switch II mutant.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Acker, Michael G; Maag, David; Kim, Joo-Ran; Lorsch, Jon R; Dever, Thomas E

    2007-03-01

    Structural studies of GTP-binding proteins identified the Switch I and Switch II elements as contacting the gamma-phosphate of GTP and undergoing marked conformational changes upon GTP versus GDP binding. Movement of a universally conserved Gly at the N terminus of Switch II is thought to trigger the structural rearrangement of this element. Consistently, we found that mutation of this Gly in the Switch II element of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae impaired cell growth and the guanine nucleotide-binding, GTPase, and ribosomal subunit joining activities of eIF5B. In a screen for mutations that bypassed the critical requirement for this Switch II Gly in eIF5B, intragenic suppressors were identified in the Switch I element and at a residue in domain II of eIF5B that interacts with Switch II. The intragenic suppressors restored yeast cell growth and eIF5B nucleotide-binding, GTP hydrolysis, and subunit joining activities. We propose that the Switch II mutation distorts the geometry of the GTP-binding active site, impairing nucleotide binding and the eIF5B domain movements associated with GTP binding. Accordingly, the Switch I and domain II suppressor mutations induce Switch II to adopt a conformation favorable for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis and thereby reestablish coupling between GTP binding and eIF5B domain movements.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mutant rats show selective cognitive changes and vulnerability to chronic corticosterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, A; Hill, R A; van den Buuse, M

    2015-01-22

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a widely expressed neurotrophin involved in neurodevelopment, neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. It is also implicated in a range of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Stress during adolescence/young adulthood can have long-term psychiatric and cognitive consequences, however it is unknown how altered BDNF signaling is involved in such effects. Here we investigated whether a congenital deficit in BDNF availability in rats increases vulnerability to the long-term effects of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT). Compared to wildtype (WT) littermates, BDNF heterozygous (HET) rats showed higher body weights and minor developmental changes, such as reduced relative brain and pituitary weight. These animals furthermore showed deficits in short-term spatial memory in the Y-maze and in prepulse inhibition and startle, but not in object-recognition memory. CORT treatment induced impairments in novel-object recognition memory in both genotypes but disrupted fear conditioning extinction learning in BDNF HET rats only. These results show selective behavioral changes in BDNF HET rats, at baseline or after chronic CORT treatment and add to our understanding of the role of BDNF and its interaction with stress. Importantly, this study demonstrates the utility of the BDNF HET rat in investigations into the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders.

  15. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels.

  16. An allele of sequoia dominantly enhances a trio mutant phenotype to influence Drosophila larval behavior.

    PubMed

    Dean, Kathryn E; Fields, April; Geer, Marcus J; King, Eric C; Lynch, Brian T; Manohar, Rohan R; McCall, Julianne R; Palozola, Katherine C; Zhang, Yan; Liebl, Eric C

    2013-01-01

    The transition of Drosophila third instar larvae from feeding, photo-phobic foragers to non-feeding, photo-neutral wanderers is a classic behavioral switch that precedes pupariation. The neuronal network responsible for this behavior has recently begun to be defined. Previous genetic analyses have identified signaling components for food and light sensory inputs and neuropeptide hormonal outputs as being critical for the forager to wanderer transition. Trio is a Rho-Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor integrated into a variety of signaling networks including those governing axon pathfinding in early development. Sequoia is a pan-neuronally expressed zinc-finger transcription factor that governs dendrite and axon outgrowth. Using pre-pupal lethality as an endpoint, we have screened for dominant second-site enhancers of a weakly lethal trio mutant background. In these screens, an allele of sequoia has been identified. While these mutants have no obvious disruption of embryonic central nervous system architecture and survive to third instar larvae similar to controls, they retain forager behavior and thus fail to pupariate at high frequency.

  17. Lethal Mutagenesis Failure May Augment Viral Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Paff, Matthew L.; Stolte, Steven P.; Bull, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Lethal mutagenesis, the attempt to extinguish a population by elevating its mutation rate, has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach for treating viral infections. In support of the concept, in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. However, the one known mutagenic drug used on patients commonly fails to cure infections, and in vitro studies typically find a wide range of mutagenic conditions permissive for viral growth. A key question becomes how subsequent evolution is affected if the viral population is mutated but avoids extinction—Is viral adaptation augmented rather than suppressed? Here we consider the evolution of highly mutated populations surviving mutagenesis, using the DNA phage T7. In assays using inhibitory hosts, whenever resistance mutants were observed, the mutagenized populations exhibited higher frequencies, but some inhibitors blocked plaque formation by even the mutagenized stock. Second, outgrowth of previously mutagenized populations led to rapid and potentially complete fitness recovery but polymorphism was slow to decay, and mutations exhibited inconsistent patterns of change. Third, the combination of population bottlenecks with mutagenesis did cause fitness declines, revealing a vulnerability that was not apparent from mutagenesis of large populations. The results show that a population surviving high mutagenesis may exhibit enhanced adaptation in some environments and experience little negative fitness consequences in many others. PMID:24092771

  18. Genome-Wide Identification of the Transcription Factors Involved in Citrus Fruit Ripening from the Transcriptomes of a Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Juxun; Fu, Lili; Yi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process. Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in plant development and ripening by temporarily and spatially regulating the transcription of their target genes. In this study, a total of 159 TFs were identified from a spontaneous late-ripening mutant 'Fengwan' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange (MT) and its wild-type counterpart ('Fengjie 72–1', WT) along the ripening period via the Transcription Factor Prediction of PlantTFDB 3.0. Fifty-two differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT; 92 and 120 differentially expressed TFs were identified in WT and MT, respectively. The Venn diagram analysis showed that 16 differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT and during the ripening of WT and MT. These TFs were primarily assigned to the families of C2H2, Dof, bHLH, ERF, MYB, NAC and LBD. Particularly, the number of TFs of the ERF family was the greatest between MT and WT. According to the results of the WGCNA analysis, a weighted correlation network analysis tool, several important TFs correlated to abscisic acid (ABA), citric acid, fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified, such as RD26, NTT, GATA7 and MYB21/62/77. Hierarchical cluster analysis and the expression analysis conducted at five fruit ripening stages further validated the pivotal TFs that potentially function during orange fruit development and ripening. PMID:27104786

  19. Genome-Wide Identification of the Transcription Factors Involved in Citrus Fruit Ripening from the Transcriptomes of a Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juxun; Fu, Lili; Yi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process. Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in plant development and ripening by temporarily and spatially regulating the transcription of their target genes. In this study, a total of 159 TFs were identified from a spontaneous late-ripening mutant 'Fengwan' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange (MT) and its wild-type counterpart ('Fengjie 72-1', WT) along the ripening period via the Transcription Factor Prediction of PlantTFDB 3.0. Fifty-two differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT; 92 and 120 differentially expressed TFs were identified in WT and MT, respectively. The Venn diagram analysis showed that 16 differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT and during the ripening of WT and MT. These TFs were primarily assigned to the families of C2H2, Dof, bHLH, ERF, MYB, NAC and LBD. Particularly, the number of TFs of the ERF family was the greatest between MT and WT. According to the results of the WGCNA analysis, a weighted correlation network analysis tool, several important TFs correlated to abscisic acid (ABA), citric acid, fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified, such as RD26, NTT, GATA7 and MYB21/62/77. Hierarchical cluster analysis and the expression analysis conducted at five fruit ripening stages further validated the pivotal TFs that potentially function during orange fruit development and ripening.

  20. [Diffusible signal factor production and virulence expression in deltarpfFxoo, deltarpfCxoo and deltarpfGxoo, the gene deletion mutants of DSF/Rpf signaling proteins of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Wu, Maosen; Chen, Huamin; He, Chenyang

    2010-06-01

    To better elucidate the functions of RpfFxoo, RpfCxoo and RpfGxoo, 3 proteins of diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent cell-cell signaling system in regulation of virulence expression of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Deltarpfxoo, the gene deletion mutants were generated from PXO99(A), the wild-type strain of Xoo via marker-exchanging and DSF biosynthesis and extracellular polysaccharide production and virulence to rice of the mutants were assayed. rpfFxoo,rpfCxoo and rpfGxoo were cloned from the genomic DNA of PXO99(A) and the relative single or double mutants were constructed. Compared to PXO99(A), DSF production was deficient in deltarpfFxoo, deltarpfFCxoo and deltarpfFGxoo, while DSF was overproduced in deltarpfCxoo and reduced in deltarpfGxoo. DSF production of deltarpfFxcc, deltarpfCxcc and deltarpfGxcc, the mutants of X. campestris pv. campestris can be restored as XC1, the wild-type strain by in trans complementation of rpfFxoo, rpfCxoo and rpfGxoo. All the mutants except deltarpfFxoo were remarkably deficient in production All the mutants significantly exhibited the reduced bacterial virulence to rice. of extracellular polysaccharide. DSF signaling proteins RpfFxoo, RpfCxoo and RpfGxoo might function in regulation of DSF biogenesis and EPS production and bacterial virulence.

  1. Next-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in epidermal growth factor receptor -mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chee-Seng; Cho, Byoung-Chul; Soo, Ross A

    2016-03-01

    Since the discovery of sensitizing EGFR mutations as a predictive marker of sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the field of targeted therapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been revolutionized. Patients harbouring these sensitizing mutations treated with EGFR TKI have derived significant clinical outcome when compared with standard platinum based chemotherapy doublets. However disease progression invariably occurs at a median of about 9-13 months from initiation treatment, if acquired resistance commonly due to the development of EGFR T790M mutation. A novel class of "third generation" EGFR TKIs have been developed that is sensitising and T790M mutant-specific whilst sparing WT EGFR, representing a significant breakthrough in the treatment in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance harboring these genotypes. Early phase clinical data suggest the third generation EGFR TKIs such as osimertinib, rociletinib, and HM61713 are highly efficacious and well tolerated. Another promising class of EGFR TKI such as AZD3759 has been designed to penetrate blood brain barrier to treat brain metastases and leptomeningeal disease and has showed promising responses in patients with brain metastases. Acquired resistance to third generation EGFR TKIs has been reported including EGFR C797S. Given its non-invasive nature, plasma ctDNA is being explored as a possible approach to detect T790M mutation and to also inform on novel molecular mechansims of tertiary resistance to third generation EGFR TKIs. An understanding of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to the third-generation EGFR TKIs will greatly aid in the development of the next generation of EGFR TKIs.

  2. The spectral karyotype of L5178Y TK⁺/⁻ mouse lymphoma cells clone 3.7.2C and factors affecting mutant frequency at the thymidine kinase (tk) locus in the microtitre mouse lymphoma assay.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Mick D; McDermott, Angela; Clare, Katie R; Doherty, Ann; Aardema, Marilyn J

    2014-01-01

    There has been much discussion on acceptable spontaneous mutant frequencies in the mouse lymphoma assay (MLA). This culminated in the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) recommended control limits for the microtitre version of 50-170 mutants/10(6) viable cells, which has now been included in the draft Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development guideline for assays investigating mammalian cell gene mutation at the tk locus. Some of the factors affecting mutant frequency have been investigated. It was shown that when culturing methotrexate cleansed TK⁺/⁻ cells, a spontaneous mutant frequency of ∼100 mutants/10⁶ viable cells was achieved after only 26 doublings. However, after further culturing for ∼6 months the spontaneous mutant frequency only gradually increased. Culturing for this time did not affect the karyotype of the cell in so much as the modal chromosome number remained stable. The spontaneous mutant frequency could effectively be manipulated by cleansing with various concentrations of methotrexate. The necessity for using appropriately heat-inactivated horse serum was confirmed. Finally, following treatment with 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, cells did not preferentially survive when plated at high cell densities (1.6 cells plus 2,000 feeder cells/well) versus cells at low density (1.6 cells/well). It was considered that these findings confirm that the dynamics of spontaneous mutant formation in the MLA are complex. However, the karyotype of L5178Y cells is remarkably stable and assuming investigators are using cells with appropriate provenance and good culturing technique, it is clear that the IWGT recommendations are achievable.

  3. Mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis binds to adenine/uridine-rich stability elements in the vascular endothelial growth factor 3′-untranslated region

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuelin; Lu, Liang; Bush, Donald J.; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zheng, Lei; Suswam, Esther A.; King, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a neurotrophic factor essential for maintenance of motor neurons. Loss of this factor produces a phenotype similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We recently showed that ALS-producing mutations of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) disrupt post-transcriptional regulation of VEGF mRNA, leading to significant loss of expression. Mutant SOD1 was present in the ribonucleoprotein complex associated with adenine/uridine-rich elements (ARE) of the VEGF 3′-untranslated region (UTR). Here, we show by electrophoretic mobility shift assay that mutant SOD1 bound directly to the VEGF 3′-UTR with a predilection for AREs similar to the RNA stabilizer HuR. SOD1 mutants A4V and G37R showed higher affinity for the ARE than L38V or G93A. Wild-type SOD1 bound very weakly with an apparent Kd 11- to 72-fold higher than mutant forms. Mutant SOD1 showed an additional lower shift with VEGF ARE that was accentuated in the metal-free state. A similar pattern of binding was observed with AREs of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8, except only a single shift predominated. Using an ELISA-based assay, we demonstrated that mutant SOD1 competes with HuR and neuronal HuC for VEGF 3′-UTR binding. To define potential RNA-binding domains, we truncated G37R, G93A and wild-type SOD1 and found that peptides from the N-terminal portion of the protein that included amino acids 32-49 could recapitulate the binding pattern of full-length protein. Thus, the strong RNA-binding affinity conferred by ALS-associated mutations of SOD1 may contribute to the post-transcriptional dysregulation of VEGF mRNA. PMID:19196430

  4. Xenopus mutant reveals necessity of rax for specifying the eye field which otherwise forms tissue with telencephalic and diencephalic character

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Marilyn; Hirsch, Nicolas; Cox, Amanda; Reeder, Rollin; Carruthers, Samantha; Hall, Amanda; Stemple, Derek L.; Grainger, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The retinal anterior homeobox (rax) gene encodes a transcription factor necessary for vertebrate eye development. rax transcription is initiated at the end of gastrulation in Xenopus, and is a key part of the regulatory network specifying anterior neural plate and retina. We describe here a Xenopus tropicalis rax mutant, the first mutant analyzed in detail from a reverse genetic screen. As in other vertebrates, this nonsense mutation results in eyeless animals, and is lethal peri-metamorphosis. Tissue normally fated to form retina in these mutants instead forms tissue with characteristics of diencephalon and telencephalon. This implies that a key role of rax, in addition to defining the eye field, is in preventing alternative forebrain identities. Our data highlight that brain and retina regions are not determined by the mid-gastrula stage but are by the neural plate stage. An RNA-Seq analysis and in situ hybridization assays for early gene expression in the mutant revealed that several key eye field transcription factors (e.g. pax6, lhx2 and six6) are not dependent on rax activity through neurulation. However, these analyses identified other genes either up- or down-regulated in mutant presumptive retinal tissue. Two neural patterning genes of particular interest that appear up-regulated in the rax mutant RNA-seq analysis are hesx1 and fezf2. These genes were not previously known to be regulated by rax. The normal function of rax is to partially repress their expression by an indirect mechanism in the presumptive retina region in wildtype embryos, thus accounting for the apparent up-regulation in the rax mutant. Knock-down experiments using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides directed against hesx1 and fezf2 show that failure to repress these two genes contributes to transformation of presumptive retinal tissue into non-retinal forebrain identities in the rax mutant. PMID:25224223

  5. Xenopus mutant reveals necessity of rax for specifying the eye field which otherwise forms tissue with telencephalic and diencephalic character.

    PubMed

    Fish, Margaret B; Nakayama, Takuya; Fisher, Marilyn; Hirsch, Nicolas; Cox, Amanda; Reeder, Rollin; Carruthers, Samantha; Hall, Amanda; Stemple, Derek L; Grainger, Robert M

    2014-11-15

    The retinal anterior homeobox (rax) gene encodes a transcription factor necessary for vertebrate eye development. rax transcription is initiated at the end of gastrulation in Xenopus, and is a key part of the regulatory network specifying anterior neural plate and retina. We describe here a Xenopus tropicalis rax mutant, the first mutant analyzed in detail from a reverse genetic screen. As in other vertebrates, this nonsense mutation results in eyeless animals, and is lethal peri-metamorphosis. Tissue normally fated to form retina in these mutants instead forms tissue with characteristics of diencephalon and telencephalon. This implies that a key role of rax, in addition to defining the eye field, is in preventing alternative forebrain identities. Our data highlight that brain and retina regions are not determined by the mid-gastrula stage but are by the neural plate stage. An RNA-Seq analysis and in situ hybridization assays for early gene expression in the mutant revealed that several key eye field transcription factors (e.g. pax6, lhx2 and six6) are not dependent on rax activity through neurulation. However, these analyses identified other genes either up- or down-regulated in mutant presumptive retinal tissue. Two neural patterning genes of particular interest that appear up-regulated in the rax mutant RNA-seq analysis are hesx1 and fezf2. These genes were not previously known to be regulated by rax. The normal function of rax is to partially repress their expression by an indirect mechanism in the presumptive retina region in wildtype embryos, thus accounting for the apparent up-regulation in the rax mutant. Knock-down experiments using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides directed against hesx1 and fezf2 show that failure to repress these two genes contributes to transformation of presumptive retinal tissue into non-retinal forebrain identities in the rax mutant.

  6. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6) causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto.

    PubMed

    Sasado, Takao; Kondoh, Hisato; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Naruse, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68). CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm) which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3'UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3'UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3'UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo.

  7. Mutation in cpsf6/CFIm68 (Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor Subunit 6) causes short 3'UTRs and disturbs gene expression in developing embryos, as revealed by an analysis of primordial germ cell migration using the medaka mutant naruto

    PubMed Central

    Kondoh, Hisato; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Naruse, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Our previous studies analyzing medaka mutants defective in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration identified cxcr4b and cxcr7, which are both receptors of the chemokine sdf1/cxcl12, as key regulators of PGC migration. Among PGC migration mutants, naruto (nar) is unique in that the mutant phenotype includes gross morphological abnormalities of embryos, suggesting that the mutation affects a broader range of processes. A fine genetic linkage mapping and genome sequencing showed the nar gene encodes Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor subunit 6 (CPSF6/CFIm68). CPSF6 is a component of the Cleavage Factor Im complex (CFIm) which plays a key role in pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage and polyadenylation. 3'RACE of sdf1a/b and cxcr7 transcripts in the mutant embryos indicated shorter 3’UTRs with poly A additions occurring at more upstream positions than wild-type embryos, suggesting CPSF6 functions to prevent premature 3’UTR cleavage. In addition, expression of the coding region sequences of sdf1a/b in nar mutants was more anteriorly extended in somites than wild-type embryos, accounting for the abnormally extended distribution of PGCs in nar mutants. An expected consequence of shortening 3'UTR is the escape from the degradation mechanism mediated by microRNAs interacting with distal 3’UTR sequence. The abnormal expression pattern of sdf1a coding sequence may be at least partially accounted for by this mechanism. Given the pleiotropic effects of nar mutation, further analysis using the nar mutant will reveal processes in which CPSF6 plays essential regulatory roles in poly A site selection and involvement of 3'UTRs in posttranscriptional gene regulation in various genes in vivo. PMID:28253363

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 mutants affected in homoserine lactone and diffusible signal factor-based quorum sensing systems suggests interplay between both types of systems.

    PubMed

    Udine, Claudia; Brackman, Gilles; Bazzini, Silvia; Buroni, Silvia; Van Acker, Heleen; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Riccardi, Giovanna; Coenye, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Many putative virulence factors of Burkholderia cenocepacia are controlled by various quorum sensing (QS) circuits. These QS systems either use N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) or cis-2-dodecenoic acid ("Burkholderia diffusible signal factor", BDSF) as signalling molecules. Previous work suggested that there is little cross-talk between both types of systems. We constructed mutants in B. cenocepacia strain J2315, in which genes encoding CepI (BCAM1870), CciI (BCAM0239a) and the BDSF synthase (BCAM0581) were inactivated, and also constructed double (ΔcepIΔBCAM0581, ΔcciIΔBCAM0581 and ΔcepIΔcciI) mutants and a triple (ΔcepIΔcciIΔBCAM0581) mutant. Subsequently we investigated phenotypic properties (antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation, production of AHL and BDSF, protease activity and virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans) and measured gene expression in these mutants, and this in the presence and absence of added BDSF, AHL or both. The triple mutant was significantly more affected in biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence in C. elegans, and protease production than either the single or double mutants. The ΔBCAM0581 mutant and the ΔcepIΔBCAM0581 and ΔcciIΔBCAM0581 double mutants produced significantly less AHL compared to the WT strain and the ΔcepI and ΔcciI single mutant, respectively. The expression of cepI and cciI in ΔBCAM0581, was approximately 3-fold and 7-fold (p<0.05) lower than in the WT, respectively. The observed differences in AHL production, expression of cepI and cciI and QS-controlled phenotypes in the ΔBCAM0581 mutant could (at least partially) be restored by addition of BDSF. Our data suggest that, in B. cenocepacia J2315, AHL and BDSF-based QS systems co-regulate the same set of genes, regulate different sets of genes that are involved in the same phenotypes and/or that the BDSF system controls the AHL-based QS system. As the expression of the gene encoding the C6-HSL synthase CciI (and to a lesser extent

  9. Identification of lethal cluster of genes in the yeast transcription network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, K.; Jeong, H.; Kahng, B.

    2006-05-01

    Identification of essential or lethal genes would be one of the ultimate goals in drug designs. Here we introduce an in silico method to select the cluster with a high population of lethal genes, called lethal cluster, through microarray assay. We construct a gene transcription network based on the microarray expression level. Links are added one by one in the descending order of the Pearson correlation coefficients between two genes. As the link density p increases, two meaningful link densities pm and ps are observed. At pm, which is smaller than the percolation threshold, the number of disconnected clusters is maximum, and the lethal genes are highly concentrated in a certain cluster that needs to be identified. Thus the deletion of all genes in that cluster could efficiently lead to a lethal inviable mutant. This lethal cluster can be identified by an in silico method. As p increases further beyond the percolation threshold, the power law behavior in the degree distribution of a giant cluster appears at ps. We measure the degree of each gene at ps. With the information pertaining to the degrees of each gene at ps, we return to the point pm and calculate the mean degree of genes of each cluster. We find that the lethal cluster has the largest mean degree.

  10. Adenoviral delivery of truncated MMP-8 fused with the hepatocyte growth factor mutant 1K1 ameliorates liver cirrhosis and promotes hepatocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinghua; Li, Jianbo; Fu, Weiwei; Tang, Jiacheng; Feng, Xu; Chen, Jiang; Liang, Yuelong; Jin, Ren'an; Xie, Anyong; Cai, Xiujun

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease caused by chronic liver injury, which activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM). Cirrhosis accounts for an extensive level of morbidity and mortality worldwide, largely due to lack of effective treatment options. In this study, we have constructed a fusion protein containing matrix metal-loproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and the human growth factor mutant 1K1 (designated cMMP8-1K1) and delivered it into hepatocytes and in vivo and in cell culture via intravenous injection of fusion protein-harboring adenovirus. In doing so, we found that the cMMP8-1K1 fusion protein promotes the proliferation of hepatocytes, likely resulting from the combined inhibition of type I collagen secretion and the degradation of the ECM in the HSCs. This fusion protein was also observed to ameliorate liver cirrhosis in our mouse model. These changes appear to be linked to changes in downstream gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest a possible strategy for the treatment of liver cirrhosis and additional work is warranted.

  11. Interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulate amyloid-beta plaque deposition and beta-secretase expression in Swedish mutant APP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaru; Kiyota, Tomomi; Horiba, Masahide; Buescher, James L; Walsh, Shannon M; Gendelman, Howard E; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2007-02-01

    Reactive astrocytes and microglia in Alzheimer's disease surround amyloid plaques and secrete proinflammatory cytokines that affect neuronal function. Relationship between cytokine signaling and amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) accumulation is poorly understood. Thus, we generated a novel Swedish beta-amyloid precursor protein mutant (APP) transgenic mouse in which the interferon (IFN)-gamma receptor type I was knocked out (APP/GRKO). IFN-gamma signaling loss in the APP/GRKO mice reduced gliosis and amyloid plaques at 14 months of age. Aggregated Abeta induced IFN-gamma production from co-culture of astrocytes and microglia, and IFN-gamma elicited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion in wild type (WT) but not GRKO microglia co-cultured with astrocytes. Both IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha enhanced Abeta production from APP-expressing astrocytes and cortical neurons. TNF-alpha directly stimulated beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) expression and enhanced beta-processing of APP in astrocytes. The numbers of reactive astrocytes expressing BACE1 were increased in APP compared with APP/GRKO mice in both cortex and hippocampus. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha activation of WT microglia suppressed Abeta degradation, whereas GRKO microglia had no changes. These results support the idea that glial IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha enhance Abeta deposition through BACE1 expression and suppression of Abeta clearance. Taken together, these observations suggest that proinflammatory cytokines are directly linked to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

  12. Adenoviral delivery of truncated MMP-8 fused with the hepatocyte growth factor mutant 1K1 ameliorates liver cirrhosis and promotes hepatocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinghua; Li, Jianbo; Fu, Weiwei; Tang, Jiacheng; Feng, Xu; Chen, Jiang; Liang, Yuelong; Jin, Ren’an; Xie, Anyong; Cai, Xiujun

    2015-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease caused by chronic liver injury, which activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM). Cirrhosis accounts for an extensive level of morbidity and mortality worldwide, largely due to lack of effective treatment options. In this study, we have constructed a fusion protein containing matrix metal-loproteinase 8 (MMP-8) and the human growth factor mutant 1K1 (designated cMMP8-1K1) and delivered it into hepatocytes and in vivo and in cell culture via intravenous injection of fusion protein-harboring adenovirus. In doing so, we found that the cMMP8-1K1 fusion protein promotes the proliferation of hepatocytes, likely resulting from the combined inhibition of type I collagen secretion and the degradation of the ECM in the HSCs. This fusion protein was also observed to ameliorate liver cirrhosis in our mouse model. These changes appear to be linked to changes in downstream gene expression. Taken together, these results suggest a possible strategy for the treatment of liver cirrhosis and additional work is warranted. PMID:26527860

  13. Characterization of mutants within the gene for the adenovirus E3 14.7-kilodalton protein which prevents cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Ranheim, T S; Shisler, J; Horton, T M; Wold, L J; Gooding, L R; Wold, W S

    1993-01-01

    The 14,700-Da protein (14.7K protein) encoded by the E3 region of adenovirus has previously been shown to protect mouse cells from cytolysis by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Delineating the sequences in the 14.7K protein that are required for this activity may provide insight into the mechanism of protection from TNF by 14.7K as well as the mechanism of TNF cytolysis. In the present study, we examined the ability of 14.7K mutants to protect cells from lysis by TNF. In-frame deletions as well as Cys-to-Ser mutations in the 14.7K gene were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and then built into the genome of a modified adenovirus type 5 (dl7001) that lacks all E3 genes. dl7001, which replicates to the same titers as does adenovirus type 5 in cultured cells, has the largest E3 deletion analyzed to date. 51Cr release was used to assay TNF cytolysis. Our results indicate that most mutations in the 14.7K gene result in a loss of function, suggesting that nearly the entire protein rather than a specific domain functions to prevent TNF cytolysis. Images PMID:8445725

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor derived peptide vaccination to prevent lung adenocarcinoma formation: An in vivo study in a murine model of EGFR mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ebben, Johnathan D; Lubet, Ronald A; Gad, Ekram; Disis, Mary L; You, Ming

    2016-11-01

    The ability to prevent disease is the holy grail of medicine. For decades, efforts have been made to extend the successes seen with vaccination against infectious diseases to cancer. In some instances, preventive vaccination against viruses (prototypically HPV) has successfully prevented tumorigenesis and will make a major impact on public health in the decades to come. However, the majority of cancers that arise are a result of genetic mutation within the host, or non-viral environmental exposures. We present compelling evidence that vaccination against an overexpressed self-tumor oncoprotein has the potential to prevent tumor development. Vaccination against the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) using a multipeptide vaccine in a preventive setting decreased EGFR-driven lung carcinogenesis by 76.4% in a mouse model of EGFR-driven lung cancer. We also demonstrate that anti-EGFR vaccination primes the development of a robust immune response in vivo. This study provides proof of concept for the first time that targeting tumor drivers in a preventive setting in lung cancer using peptide vaccination can inhibit tumorigenesis and may provide useful clinical insights into the development of strategies to vaccinate against EGFR in populations where EGFR-mutant disease is highly prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterisation of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 Mutants Affected in Homoserine Lactone and Diffusible Signal Factor-Based Quorum Sensing Systems Suggests Interplay between Both Types of Systems

    PubMed Central

    Udine, Claudia; Brackman, Gilles; Bazzini, Silvia; Buroni, Silvia; Van Acker, Heleen; Pasca, Maria Rosalia; Riccardi, Giovanna; Coenye, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Many putative virulence factors of Burkholderia cenocepacia are controlled by various quorum sensing (QS) circuits. These QS systems either use N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) or cis-2-dodecenoic acid (“Burkholderia diffusible signal factor”, BDSF) as signalling molecules. Previous work suggested that there is little cross-talk between both types of systems. We constructed mutants in B. cenocepacia strain J2315, in which genes encoding CepI (BCAM1870), CciI (BCAM0239a) and the BDSF synthase (BCAM0581) were inactivated, and also constructed double (ΔcepIΔBCAM0581, ΔcciIΔBCAM0581 and ΔcepIΔcciI) mutants and a triple (ΔcepIΔcciIΔBCAM0581) mutant. Subsequently we investigated phenotypic properties (antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation, production of AHL and BDSF, protease activity and virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans) and measured gene expression in these mutants, and this in the presence and absence of added BDSF, AHL or both. The triple mutant was significantly more affected in biofilm formation, antimicrobial susceptibility, virulence in C. elegans, and protease production than either the single or double mutants. The ΔBCAM0581 mutant and the ΔcepIΔBCAM0581 and ΔcciIΔBCAM0581 double mutants produced significantly less AHL compared to the WT strain and the ΔcepI and ΔcciI single mutant, respectively. The expression of cepI and cciI in ΔBCAM0581, was approximately 3-fold and 7-fold (p<0.05) lower than in the WT, respectively. The observed differences in AHL production, expression of cepI and cciI and QS-controlled phenotypes in the ΔBCAM0581 mutant could (at least partially) be restored by addition of BDSF. Our data suggest that, in B. cenocepacia J2315, AHL and BDSF-based QS systems co-regulate the same set of genes, regulate different sets of genes that are involved in the same phenotypes and/or that the BDSF system controls the AHL-based QS system. As the expression of the gene encoding the C6-HSL synthase CciI (and to a lesser

  16. Impact of acute alcohol consumption on lethality of suicide methods.

    PubMed

    Park, C Hyung Keun; Yoo, Seong Ho; Lee, Jaewon; Cho, Sung Joon; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Ham, Keunsoo; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-05-01

    The influence of acute alcohol consumption on the factors related to suicide remains understudied. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between blood alcohol content (BAC) and the lethality of suicide methods. Autopsy data on 315 South Korean suicide completers with a positive BAC were collected from a nationwide pool between May 2015 and November 2015, and the methods were dichotomised as suicide methods of low lethality (SMLL; drug/chemical overdose and sharp objects, n=67) and suicide methods of high lethality (SMHL; everything else, n=243). BAC at the time of autopsy and various suicide-related factors of these two groups were compared with logistic regression analyses. Compared to suicide completers with a BAC in the lowest range of 0.011-0.049%, suicide completers with a BAC in the range of 0.150-0.199% were more likely to use SMHL (odds ratio [OR]: 3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.221-10.874). Additionally, the adoption of SMHL was significantly associated with the absence of a psychiatric illness (OR: 0.433, 95% CI: 0.222-0.843) and a younger age; the OR for high BAC among subjects in their 40s was 0.266 (95% CI: 0.083-0.856); in their 50s, 0.183 (95% CI: 0.055-0.615); and in their 60s, 0.057 (95% CI: 0.015-0.216). The relationship between BAC and suicide method lethality was represented by a bell-shaped pattern in which suicide methods of high lethality were more likely to be used by suicide completers with mid-range BAC levels. The increased impulsivity and impairments in particular executive functions, including planning and organization, associated with acute alcohol use may influence the selection of a particular suicide method based on its lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and K-ras mutant lung cancer through induction of an immunosuppressive pro-tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Caetano, Mauricio; Cumpian, Amber M.; Daliri, Soudabeh; Garza Flores, Alejandra; Chang, Seon Hee; Evans, Christopher M.; Yu, Zhentao; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known as an important regulator of tumor microenvironment and inflammation. TNF levels are markedly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model (CC-LR mouse). This was associated with a significant increase of neutrophils in BALF, accompanied by a marked increase in TNF level, suggesting a link between COPD, TNF, and lung cancer promotion. Therefore, we first overexpressed TNF in the airway epithelium of CC-LR mice, which promoted lung cancer by ∼2-fold. This was associated with increased numbers of Ki67 and CD31 positive cells in lung tumors of CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice. We also found a robust increase in NF-κB activation, and numbers of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung. Accordingly, we depleted MDSCs in CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice, which lead to significant tumor suppression emphasizing on the role of TNF-induced MDSCs in K-ras induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, we targeted TNF expression by crossing CC-LR mice with TNF knock-out mice (CC-LR/TNF-KO), which resulted in a significant decrease in lung tumor burden in the absence or presence of COPD-like airway inflammation. Interestingly, there were less MDSCs and lower Ki67 and CD31 expression in the lung of the CC-LR/TNF-KO mice. We conclude that TNF links COPD to lung cancer promotion by induction of an immunosuppressive MDSC response, and subsequent amplification of proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors. PMID:27853654

  18. Tumor necrosis factor links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and K-ras mutant lung cancer through induction of an immunosuppressive pro-tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; da Silva Caetano, Mauricio; Cumpian, Amber M; Daliri, Soudabeh; Garza Flores, Alejandra; Chang, Seon Hee; Ochoa, Cesar E; Evans, Christopher M; Yu, Zhentao; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known as an important regulator of tumor microenvironment and inflammation. TNF levels are markedly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model (CC-LR mouse). This was associated with a significant increase of neutrophils in BALF, accompanied by a marked increase in TNF level, suggesting a link between COPD, TNF, and lung cancer promotion. Therefore, we first overexpressed TNF in the airway epithelium of CC-LR mice, which promoted lung cancer by ∼2-fold. This was associated with increased numbers of Ki67 and CD31 positive cells in lung tumors of CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice. We also found a robust increase in NF-κB activation, and numbers of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung. Accordingly, we depleted MDSCs in CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice, which lead to significant tumor suppression emphasizing on the role of TNF-induced MDSCs in K-ras induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, we targeted TNF expression by crossing CC-LR mice with TNF knock-out mice (CC-LR/TNF-KO), which resulted in a significant decrease in lung tumor burden in the absence or presence of COPD-like airway inflammation. Interestingly, there were less MDSCs and lower Ki67 and CD31 expression in the lung of the CC-LR/TNF-KO mice. We conclude that TNF links COPD to lung cancer promotion by induction of an immunosuppressive MDSC response, and subsequent amplification of proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors.

  19. AAV-mediated delivery of the transcription factor XBP1s into the striatum reduces mutant Huntingtin aggregation in a mouse model of Huntington's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Zuleta, Amparo; Vidal, Rene L.; Armentano, Donna; Parsons, Geoffrey; Hetz, Claudio

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contribution of ER stress to HD has not been directly addressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of XBP1s using AAVs decreases Huntingtin aggregation in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a new in vivo model of HD based on the expression of a large fragment of mHtt-RFP. -- Abstract: Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by mutations that expand a polyglutamine region in the amino-terminal domain of Huntingtin (Htt), leading to the accumulation of intracellular inclusions and progressive neurodegeneration. Recent reports indicate the engagement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in human HD post mortem samples and animal models of the disease. Adaptation to ER stress is mediated by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an integrated signal transduction pathway that attenuates protein folding stress by controlling the expression of distinct transcription factors including X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Here we targeted the expression of XBP1 on a novel viral-based model of HD. We delivered an active form of XBP1 locally into the striatum of adult mice using adeno-associated vectors (AAVs) and co-expressed this factor with a large fragment of mutant Htt as a fusion protein with RFP (Htt588{sup Q95}-mRFP) to directly visualize the accumulation of Htt inclusions in the brain. Using this approach, we observed a significant reduction in the accumulation of Htt588{sup Q95}-mRFP intracellular inclusion when XBP1 was co-expressed in the striatum. These results contrast with recent findings indicating a protective effect of XBP1 deficiency in neurodegeneration using knockout mice, and suggest a potential use of gene therapy strategies to manipulate the UPR in the context of HD.

  20. Hepatocyte growth factor renders BRAF mutant human melanoma cell lines resistant to PLX4032 by downregulating the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins PUMA and BIM.

    PubMed

    Rohrbeck, Leona; Gong, Jia-Nan; Lee, Erinna F; Kueh, Andrew J; Behren, Andreas; Tai, Lin; Lessene, Guillaume; Huang, David C S; Fairlie, Walter D; Strasser, Andreas; Herold, Marco J

    2016-12-01

    A large proportion of melanomas harbour the activating BRAF(V600E) mutation that renders these cells dependent on MAPK signalling for their survival. Although the highly specific and clinically approved BRAF(V600E) kinase inhibitor, PLX4032, induces apoptosis of melanoma cells bearing this mutation, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we reveal that PLX4032-induced apoptosis depends on the induction of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein PUMA with a minor contribution of its relative BIM. Apoptosis could be significantly augmented when PLX4032 was combined with an inhibitor of the pro-survival protein BCL-XL, whereas neutralization of the pro-survival family member BCL-2 caused no additional cell death. Although the initial response to PLX4032 in melanoma patients is very potent, resistance to the drug eventually develops and relapse occurs. Several factors can cause melanoma cells to develop resistance to PLX4032; one of them is the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase cMET on melanoma cells by its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), provided by the tumour microenvironment or the cancer cells themselves. We found that HGF mediates resistance of cMET-expressing BRAF mutant melanoma cells to PLX4032-induced apoptosis through downregulation of PUMA and BIM rather than by increasing the expression of pro-survival BCL-2-like proteins. These results suggest that resistance to PLX4032 may be overcome by specifically increasing the levels of PUMA and BIM in melanoma cells through alternative signalling cascades or by blocking pro-survival BCL-2 family members with suitable BH3 mimetic compounds.

  1. The maize auxotrophic mutant orange pericarp is defective in duplicate genes for tryptophan synthase beta.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, A D; Moehlenkamp, C A; Perrot, G H; Neuffer, M G; Cone, K C

    1992-01-01

    orange pericarp (orp) is a seedling lethal mutant of maize caused by mutations in the duplicate unlinked recessive loci orp1 and orp2. Mutant seedlings accumulate two tryptophan precursors, anthranilate and indole, suggesting a block in tryptophan biosynthesis. Results from feeding studies and enzyme assays indicate that the orp mutant is defective in tryptophan synthase beta activity. Thus, orp is one of only a few amino acid auxotrophic mutants to be characterized in plants. Two genes encoding tryptophan synthase beta were isolated from maize and sequenced. Both genes encode polypeptides with high homology to tryptophan synthase beta enzymes from other organisms. The cloned genes were mapped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to approximately the same chromosomal locations as the genetically mapped factors orp1 and orp2. RNA analysis indicates that both genes are expressed in all tissues examined from normal plants. Together, the biochemical, genetic, and molecular data verify the identity of orp1 and orp2 as duplicate structural genes for the beta subunit of tryptophan synthase. PMID:1356534

  2. The maize auxotrophic mutant orange pericarp is defective in duplicate genes for tryptophan synthase beta.

    PubMed

    Wright, A D; Moehlenkamp, C A; Perrot, G H; Neuffer, M G; Cone, K C

    1992-06-01

    orange pericarp (orp) is a seedling lethal mutant of maize caused by mutations in the duplicate unlinked recessive loci orp1 and orp2. Mutant seedlings accumulate two tryptophan precursors, anthranilate and indole, suggesting a block in tryptophan biosynthesis. Results from feeding studies and enzyme assays indicate that the orp mutant is defective in tryptophan synthase beta activity. Thus, orp is one of only a few amino acid auxotrophic mutants to be characterized in plants. Two genes encoding tryptophan synthase beta were isolated from maize and sequenced. Both genes encode polypeptides with high homology to tryptophan synthase beta enzymes from other organisms. The cloned genes were mapped by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to approximately the same chromosomal locations as the genetically mapped factors orp1 and orp2. RNA analysis indicates that both genes are expressed in all tissues examined from normal plants. Together, the biochemical, genetic, and molecular data verify the identity of orp1 and orp2 as duplicate structural genes for the beta subunit of tryptophan synthase.

  3. Lethal and mutagenic action of hydrogen peroxide on Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Rincón, D A; Cabrera-Juárez, E

    1991-01-01

    The lethal and mutagenic effects of H2O2 on wild-type Haemophilus influenzae Rd and on uvr1, uvr2, rec1, and rec2 mutant strains were studied. The first two mutants are sensitive to UV, and the second two are defective in recombination. Rd, urv1, and rec1 strains were more sensitive to the killing effect of H2O2 treatment than were uvr2 and rec2 strains. There were peaks of mutagenesis at two H2O2 concentrations over a range of 30 to 275 mM. Our results suggest a specific repair of H2O2 damage that is independent of the Uvr2 and Rec2 gene products. Sensitivity to the killing effect of H2O2 and to the lethal action of near-UV light were similar for Rd and uvr1 strains. This finding suggests that the mechanisms of killing by and repair of H2O2 damage may have some overlap with those of near-UV radiation. PMID:1917884

  4. Modeling the Arabidopsis seed shape by a cardioid: efficacy of the adjustment with a scale change with factor equal to the Golden Ratio and analysis of seed shape in ethylene mutants.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Emilio; Javier Martín, José; Ardanuy, Ramón; de Diego, Juana G; Tocino, Angel

    2010-03-15

    A new model for the description of Arabidopsis seed shape based on the comparison of the outline of its longitudinal section with a transformed cardioid is presented. The transformation consists of scaling the horizontal axis by a factor equal to the Golden Ratio. The elongated cardioid approximates the shape of the Arabidopsis seed with more accuracy than other figures. The length to width ratio in wild-type Columbia Arabidopsis dry seeds is close to the Golden Ratio and decreases over the course of imbibition. Dry seeds of etr1-1 mutants presented a reduced length to width ratio. Application of the new model based on the cardioid allows for comparison of shape between wild-type and mutant genotypes, revealing other general alterations in the seeds in ethylene signaling pathway mutants (etr1-1).

  5. Chimeras of the native form or achondroplasia mutant (G375C) of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 induce ligand-dependent differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, L M; Raffioni, S; Wasmuth, J J; Bradshaw, R A

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (hFGFR3) cause a variety of skeletal dysplasias, including the most common genetic form of dwarfism, achondroplasia (ACH). Evidence indicates that these phenotypes are not due to simple haploinsufficiency of FGFR3 but are more likely related to a role in negatively regulating skeletal growth. The effects of one of these mutations on FGFR3 signaling were examined by constructing chimeric receptors composed of the extracellular domain of human platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (hPDGFR beta) and the transmembrane and intracellular domains of hFGFR3 or of an ACH (G375C) mutant. Following stable transfection in PC12 cells, which lack platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, all clonal cell lines, with either type of chimera, showed strong neurite outgrowth in the presence of PDGF but not in its absence. Antiphosphotyrosine immunoblots showed ligand-dependent autophosphorylation, and both receptor types stimulated strong phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, an event associated with the differentiative response of these cells. In addition, ligand-dependent phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma and Shc was also observed. All of these responses were comparable to those observed from ligand activation, such as by nerve growth factor, of the native PC12 cells used to prepare the stable transfectants. The cells with the chimera bearing the ACH mutation were more rapidly responsive to ligand with less sustained MAPK activation, indicative of a preactivated or primed condition and consistent with the view that these mutations weaken ligand control of FGFR3 function. However, the full effect of the mutation likely depends in part on structural features of the extracellular domain. Although FGFR3 has been suggested to act as a negative regulator of long-bone growth in chrondrocytes, it produces differentiative signals similar to

  6. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  7. Genome-wide screen identifies Escherichia coli TCA cycle-related mutants with extended chronological lifespan dependent on acetate metabolism and the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ArcA

    PubMed Central

    Gonidakis, Stavros; Finkel, Steven E.; Longo, Valter D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Single-gene mutants with extended lifespan have been described in several model organisms. We performed a genome-wide screen for long-lived mutants in Escherichia coli which revealed strains lacking TCA cycle-related genes that exhibit longer stationary phase survival and increased resistance to heat stress compared to wild-type. Extended lifespan in the sdhA mutant, lacking subunit A of succinate dehydrogenase, is associated with reduced production of superoxide and increased stress resistance. On the other hand, the longer lifespan of the lipoic acid synthase mutant (lipA) is associated with reduced oxygen consumption and requires the acetate-producing enzyme pyruvate oxidase, as well as acetyl-CoA synthetase, the enzyme that converts extracellular acetate to acetyl-CoA. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor ArcA, acting independently of acetate metabolism, is also required for maximum lifespan extension in the lipA and lpdA mutants, indicating that these mutations promote entry into a mode normally associated with a low-oxygen environment. Since analogous changes from respiration to fermentation have been observed in long-lived Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans strains, such metabolic alterations may represent an evolutionarily conserved strategy to extend lifespan. PMID:20707865

  8. Lethal Synergism between Influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Jennifer M; Ashar, Harshini K; Chow, Vincent TK; Teluguakula, Narasaraju

    2016-01-01

    The devastating synergism of bacterial pneumonia with influenza viral infections left its mark on the world over the last century. Although the details of pathogenesis remain unclear, the synergism is related to a variety of factors including pulmonary epithelial barrier damage which exposes receptors that influence bacterial adherence and the triggering of an exaggerated innate immune response and cytokine storm, which further acts to worsen the injury. Several therapeutics and combination therapies of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories including corticosteroids and toll-like receptor modifiers, and anti-virals are being discussed. This mini review summarizes recent developments in unearthing the pathogenesis of the lethal synergism of pneumococcal co-infection following influenza, as well as addresses potential therapeutic options and combinations of therapies currently being evaluated. PMID:27981251

  9. Characterization of a New Pink-Fruited Tomato Mutant Results in the Identification of a Null Allele of the SlMYB12 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tzfadia, Oren; Forment, Javier; Presa, Silvia; Rogachev, Ilana; Meir, Sagit; Orzaez, Diego; Aharoni, Aspah; Granell, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The identification and characterization of new tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants affected in fruit pigmentation and nutritional content can provide valuable insights into the underlying biology, as well as a source of new alleles for breeding programs. To date, all characterized pink-pigmented tomato fruit mutants appear to result from low SlMYB12 transcript levels in the fruit skin. Two new mutant lines displaying a pink fruit phenotype (pf1 and pf2) were characterized in this study. In the pf mutants, SlMYB12 transcripts accumulated to wild-type levels but exhibited the same truncation, which resulted in the absence of the essential MYB activation domain coding region. Allelism and complementation tests revealed that both pf mutants were allelic to the y locus and showed the same recessive null allele in homozygosis: Δy A set of molecular and metabolic effects, reminiscent of those observed in the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) myb11 myb12 myb111 triple mutant, were found in the tomato Δy mutants. To our knowledge, these have not been described previously, and our data support the idea of their being null mutants, in contrast to previously described transcriptional hypomorphic pink fruit lines. We detected a reduction in the expression of several flavonol glycosides and some associated glycosyl transferases. Transcriptome analysis further revealed that the effects of the pf mutations extended beyond the flavonoid pathway into the interface between primary and secondary metabolism. Finally, screening for Myb-binding sites in the candidate gene promoter sequences revealed that 141 of the 152 co-down-regulated genes may be direct targets of SlMYB12 regulation.

  10. The Pursuit of Non-Lethal Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    at the upper end of the spectrum. Without non- lethal options, a Marine would potentially have to resort to deadly force or face further risk by...Technologies with a potential for generating non- lethal military capabilities cover a very broad spectrum. At the low end of this spectrum are...systems, these modifications must not in any way reduce the capability of those systems to fire lethal munitions.” This stance incurred much debate

  11. Clueless regulates aPKC activity and promotes self-renewal cell fate in Drosophila lgl mutant larval brains.

    PubMed

    Goh, Li Hui; Zhou, Xiu; Lee, Mei Chin; Lin, Shuping; Wang, Huashan; Luo, Yan; Yang, Xiaohang

    2013-09-15

    Asymmetric cell division of Drosophila neural stem cells or neuroblasts is an important process which gives rise to two different daughter cells, one of which is the stem cell itself and the other, a committed or differentiated daughter cell. During neuroblast asymmetric division, atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) activity is tightly regulated; aberrant levels of activity could result in tumorigenesis in third instar larval brain. We identified clueless (clu), a genetic interactor of parkin (park), as a novel regulator of aPKC activity. It preferentially binds to the aPKC/Bazooka/Partition Defective 6 complex and stabilizes aPKC levels. In clu mutants, Miranda (Mira) and Numb are mislocalized in small percentages of dividing neuroblasts. Adult mutants are short-lived with severe locomotion defects. Clu promotes tumorigenesis caused by loss of function of lethal(2) giant larvae (lgl) in the larval brain. Removal of clu in lgl mutants rescues Mira and Numb mislocalization and restores the enlarged brain size. Western blot analyses indicate that the rescue is due to the down-regulation of aPKC levels in the lgl clu double mutant. Interestingly, the phenotype of the park mutant, which causes Parkinson's Disease-like symptoms in adult flies, is reminiscent of that of clu in neuroblast asymmetric division. Our study provides the first clue for the potential missing pathological link between temporally separated neurogenesis and neurodegeneration events; the minor defects during early neurogenesis could be a susceptible factor contributing to neurodegenerative diseases at later stages of life.

  12. Elongation factor Tu D138N, a mutant with modified substrate specificity, as a tool to study energy consumption in protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Weijland, A; Parlato, G; Parmeggiani, A

    1994-09-06

    Substitution Asp138-->Asn changes the substrate specificity of elongation factor (EF) Tu from GTP to XTP [Hwang & Miller (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 13081-13085]. This mutated EF-Tu (EF-Tu D138N) was used to show that 2 XTP molecules are hydrolyzed for each elongation cycle [Weijland & Parmeggiani (1993) Science 259, 1311-1313]. Here we extend the study of the properties of this EF-Tu mutant and its function in the elongation process. In poly(U)-directed poly(phenylalanine) synthesis, the number of peptide chains synthesized using EF-Tu D138N.XTP was 30% higher than with EF-Tu wild type (wt).GTP. However, since in the former case the average peptide chain length was correspondingly reduced, the number of the residues incorporated turned out to be nearly the same in both systems. The K'd values of the XTP and XDP complexes of EF-Tu D138N were similar to those of the GTP and GDP complexes of EF-Tu wt. The extent of leucine misincorporation and the kirromycin effect were also comparable to those in the EF-Tu wt/GTP system. The hydrolysis of two XTP molecules, very likely as part of two EF-Tu D138N.XTP complexes, for each elongation cycle was found to be independent of (i) MgCl2 concentration, (ii) ribosome concentration, and (iii) temperature (5-40 degrees C). With rate-limiting amounts of XTP the K'm of its XTPase activity corresponded to the K'm for XTP of poly(phenylalanine) synthesis (0.3-0.6 microM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Reduced Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mitigates Defective Dendrite Morphogenesis in Mutants of the ER Stress Sensor IRE-1

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Yehuda; Cohen-Berkman, Moran; Biederer, Thomas; Bülow, Hannes E.

    2017-01-01

    Neurons receive excitatory or sensory inputs through their dendrites, which often branch extensively to form unique neuron-specific structures. How neurons regulate the formation of their particular arbor is only partially understood. In genetic screens using the multidendritic arbor of PVD somatosensory neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a mutation in the ER stress sensor IRE-1/Ire1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) as crucial for proper PVD dendrite arborization in vivo. We further found that regulation of dendrite growth in cultured rat hippocampal neurons depends on Ire1 function, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for IRE-1/Ire1 in dendrite patterning. PVD neurons of nematodes lacking ire-1 display reduced arbor complexity, whereas mutations in genes encoding other ER stress sensors displayed normal PVD dendrites, specifying IRE-1 as a selective ER stress sensor that is essential for PVD dendrite morphogenesis. Although structure function analyses indicated that IRE-1’s nuclease activity is necessary for its role in dendrite morphogenesis, mutations in xbp-1, the best-known target of non-canonical splicing by IRE-1/Ire1, do not exhibit PVD phenotypes. We further determined that secretion and distal localization to dendrites of the DMA-1/leucine rich transmembrane receptor (DMA-1/LRR-TM) is defective in ire-1 but not xbp-1 mutants, suggesting a block in the secretory pathway. Interestingly, reducing Insulin/IGF1 signaling can bypass the secretory block and restore normal targeting of DMA-1, and consequently normal PVD arborization even in the complete absence of functional IRE-1. This bypass of ire-1 requires the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. In sum, our work identifies a conserved role for ire-1 in neuronal branching, which is independent of xbp-1, and suggests that arborization defects associated with neuronal pathologies may be overcome by reducing Insulin/IGF signaling and improving ER homeostasis and function. PMID

  14. QM/MM MD and Free Energy Simulations of G9a-Like Protein (GLP) and Its Mutants: Understanding the Factors that Determine the Product Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yuzhuo; Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Certain lysine residues on histone tails could be methylated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Since the methylation states of the target lysines play a fundamental role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression, it is important to study the property of PKMTs that allows a specific number of methyl groups (one, two or three) to be added (termed as product specificity). It has been shown that the product specificity of PKMTs may be controlled in part by the existence of specific residues at the active site. One of the best examples is a Phe/Tyr switch found in many PKMTs. Here quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations are performed on wild type G9a-like protein (GLP) and its F1209Y and Y1124F mutants for understanding the energetic origin of the product specificity and the reasons for the change of product specificity as a result of single-residue mutations at the Phe/Tyr switch as well as other positions. The free energy barriers of the methyl transfer processes calculated from our simulations are consistent with experimental data, supporting the suggestion that the relative free energy barriers may determine, at least in part, the product specificity of PKMTs. The changes of the free energy barriers as a result of the mutations are also discussed based on the structural information obtained from the simulations. The results suggest that the space and active-site interactions around the ε-amino group of the target lysine available for methyl addition appear to among the key structural factors in controlling the product specificity and activity of PKMTs. PMID:22624060

  15. QM/MM MD and free energy simulations of G9α-like protein (GLP) and its mutants: Understanding the factors that determine the product specificity

    DOE PAGES

    Chu, Yuzhuo; Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Hong

    2012-05-18

    Certain lysine residues on histone tails could be methylated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Since the methylation states of the target lysines play a fundamental role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression, it is important to study the property of PKMTs that allows a specific number of methyl groups (one, two or three) to be added (termed as product specificity). It has been shown that the product specificity of PKMTs may be controlled in part by the existence of specific residues at the active site. One of the best examplesmore » is a Phe/Tyr switch found in many PKMTs. Here quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations are performed on wild type G9a-like protein (GLP) and its F1209Y and Y1124F mutants for understanding the energetic origin of the product specificity and the reasons for the change of product specificity as a result of single-residue mutations at the Phe/Tyr switch as well as other positions. The free energy barriers of the methyl transfer processes calculated from our simulations are consistent with experimental data, supporting the suggestion that the relative free energy barriers may determine, at least in part, the product specificity of PKMTs. The changes of the free energy barriers as a result of the mutations are also discussed based on the structural information obtained from the simulations. Furthermore, the results suggest that the space and active-site interactions around the -amino group of the target lysine available for methyl addition appear to among the key structural factors in controlling the product specificity and activity of PKMTs.« less

  16. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Yuling; Geng, Chuanying; Liu, Nian; Yang, Guangzhong; Liu, Jinwei; Li, Xin; Deng, Haiteng; Chen, Wenming

    2016-06-01

    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially expressed proteins between the two cell lines were analyzed prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL administration by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The results showed that following TRAIL treatment, 6 apoptosis-related proteins, calpain small subunit 1 (CPNS1), peflin (PEF1), B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 2 (BAG2) and chromobox protein homolog 3 (CBX3), were upregulated in RPMI 8226 cells while no change was identified in the U266 cells. Furthermore, small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 and several other ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related proteins expressed higher levels in TRAIL-resistant cells U266 compared to the RPMI-8226 cells prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL treatment. These results suggested that CPNS1, PEF1, BAP31, ASC, BAG2 and CBX3 were possibly target proteins of rmhTRAIL on RPMI 8226 cells, while UPP may have a vital role in mediating TRAIL-resistance in U266 cells.

  17. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    JIAN, YUAN; CHEN, YULING; GENG, CHUANYING; LIU, NIAN; YANG, GUANGZHONG; LIU, JINWEI; LI, XIN; DENG, HAITENG; CHEN, WENMING

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially expressed proteins between the two cell lines were analyzed prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL administration by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The results showed that following TRAIL treatment, 6 apoptosis-related proteins, calpain small subunit 1 (CPNS1), peflin (PEF1), B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 2 (BAG2) and chromobox protein homolog 3 (CBX3), were upregulated in RPMI 8226 cells while no change was identified in the U266 cells. Furthermore, small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 and several other ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related proteins expressed higher levels in TRAIL-resistant cells U266 compared to the RPMI-8226 cells prior and subsequent to rmhTRAIL treatment. These results suggested that CPNS1, PEF1, BAP31, ASC, BAG2 and CBX3 were possibly target proteins of rmhTRAIL on RPMI 8226 cells, while UPP may have a vital role in mediating TRAIL-resistance in U266 cells. PMID:27284413

  18. QM/MM MD and free energy simulations of G9α-like protein (GLP) and its mutants: Understanding the factors that determine the product specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yuzhuo; Yao, Jianzhuang; Guo, Hong

    2012-05-18

    Certain lysine residues on histone tails could be methylated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor. Since the methylation states of the target lysines play a fundamental role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression, it is important to study the property of PKMTs that allows a specific number of methyl groups (one, two or three) to be added (termed as product specificity). It has been shown that the product specificity of PKMTs may be controlled in part by the existence of specific residues at the active site. One of the best examples is a Phe/Tyr switch found in many PKMTs. Here quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations are performed on wild type G9a-like protein (GLP) and its F1209Y and Y1124F mutants for understanding the energetic origin of the product specificity and the reasons for the change of product specificity as a result of single-residue mutations at the Phe/Tyr switch as well as other positions. The free energy barriers of the methyl transfer processes calculated from our simulations are consistent with experimental data, supporting the suggestion that the relative free energy barriers may determine, at least in part, the product specificity of PKMTs. The changes of the free energy barriers as a result of the mutations are also discussed based on the structural information obtained from the simulations. Furthermore, the results suggest that the space and active-site interactions around the -amino group of the target lysine available for methyl addition appear to among the key structural factors in controlling the product specificity and activity of PKMTs.

  19. TT Mutant Homozygote of Kruppel-like Factor 5 Is a Key Factor for Increasing Basal Metabolic Rate and Resting Metabolic Rate in Korean Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Ran; Kwon, In-Su; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the contribution of genetic variations of KLF5 to basal metabolic rate (BMR) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the inhibition of obesity in Korean children. A variation of KLF5 (rs3782933) was genotyped in 62 Korean children. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we developed a model to predict BMR in children. We divided them into several groups; normal versus overweight by body mass index (BMI) and low BMR versus high BMR by BMR. There were no differences in the distributions of alleles and genotypes between each group. The genetic variation of KLF5 gene showed a significant correlation with several clinical factors, such as BMR, muscle, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. Children with the TT had significantly higher BMR than those with CC (p = 0.030). The highest muscle was observed in the children with TT compared with CC (p = 0.032). The insulin and C-peptide values were higher in children with TT than those with CC (p= 0.029 vs. p = 0.004, respectively). In linear regression analysis, BMI and muscle mass were correlated with BMR, whereas insulin and C-peptide were not associated with BMR. In the high-BMR group, we observed that higher muscle, fat mass, and C-peptide affect the increase of BMR in children with TT (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.018, respectively), while Rohrer's index could explain the usual decrease in BMR (adjust r(2) = 1.000, p < 0.001, respectively). We identified a novel association between TT of KLF5 rs3782933 and BMR in Korean children. We could make better use of the variation within KLF5 in a future clinical intervention study of obesity.

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant SOD1 sequesters Hu antigen R (HuR) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR): implications for impaired post-transcriptional regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liang; Wang, Shuying; Zheng, Lei; Li, Xuelin; Suswam, Esther A; Zhang, Xiaowen; Wheeler, Crystal G; Nabors, L B; Filippova, Natalia; King, Peter H

    2009-12-04

    Down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the mouse leads to progressive and selective degeneration of motor neurons similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In mice expressing ALS-associated mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), VEGF mRNA expression in the spinal cord declines significantly prior to the onset of clinical manifestations. In vitro models suggest that dysregulation of VEGF mRNA stability contributes to that decline. Here, we show that the major RNA stabilizer, Hu Antigen R (HuR), and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR) colocalize with mutant SOD1 in mouse spinal cord extracts and cultured glioma cells. The colocalization was markedly reduced or abolished by RNase treatment. Immunoanalysis of transfected cells indicated that colocalization occurred in insoluble aggregates and inclusions. RNA immunoprecipitation showed a significant loss of VEGF mRNA binding to HuR and TIAR in mutant SOD1 cells, and there was marked depletion of HuR from polysomes. Ectopic expression of HuR in mutant SOD1 cells more than doubled the mRNA half-life of VEGF and significantly increased expression to that of wild-type SOD1 control. Cellular effects produced by mutant SOD1, including impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, were reversed by HuR in a gene dose-dependent pattern. In summary, our findings indicate that mutant SOD1 impairs post-transcriptional regulation by sequestering key regulatory RNA-binding proteins. The rescue effect of HuR suggests that this impairment, whether related to VEGF or other potential mRNA targets, contributes to cytotoxicity in ALS.

  1. rRNA suppressor of a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B/initiation factor 2 mutant reveals a binding site for translational GTPases on the small ribosomal subunit.

    PubMed

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Kim, Joo-Ran; Acker, Michael G; Maher, Kathryn N; Lorsch, Jon R; Dever, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    The translational GTPases promote initiation, elongation, and termination of protein synthesis by interacting with the ribosome. Mutations that impair GTP hydrolysis by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B/initiation factor 2 (eIF5B/IF2) impair yeast cell growth due to failure to dissociate from the ribosome following subunit joining. A mutation in helix h5 of the 18S rRNA in the 40S ribosomal subunit and intragenic mutations in domain II of eIF5B suppress the toxic effects associated with expression of the eIF5B-H480I GTPase-deficient mutant in yeast by lowering the ribosome binding affinity of eIF5B. Hydroxyl radical mapping experiments reveal that the domain II suppressors interface with the body of the 40S subunit in the vicinity of helix h5. As the helix h5 mutation also impairs elongation factor function, the rRNA and eIF5B suppressor mutations provide in vivo evidence supporting a functionally important docking of domain II of the translational GTPases on the body of the small ribosomal subunit.

  2. Deletion of eIF2beta suppresses testicular cancer incidence and causes recessive lethality in agouti-yellow mice.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jason D; Michelson, Megan V; Youngren, Kirsten K; Lam, Man-Yee J; Nadeau, Joseph H

    2009-04-15

    The agouti-yellow (A(y)) deletion is the only genetic modifier known to suppress testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) susceptibility in mice or humans. The A(y) mutation deletes Raly and Eif2s2, and induces the ectopic expression of agouti, all of which are potential TGCT-modifying mutations. Here we report that the reduced TGCT incidence of heterozygous A(y) males and the recessive embryonic lethality of A(y) are caused by the deletion of Eif2s2, the beta subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2. We found that the incidence of affected males was reduced 2-fold in mice that were partially deficient for Eif2s2 and that embryonic lethality occurred near the time of implantation in mice that were fully deficient for Eif2s2. In contrast, neither reduced expression of Raly in gene-trap mice nor ectopic expression of agouti in transgenic or viable-yellow (A(vy)) mutants affected TGCT incidence or embryonic viability. In addition, we provide evidence that partial deficiency of Eif2s2 attenuated germ cell proliferation and differentiation, both of which are important to TGCT formation. These results show that germ cell development and TGCT pathogenesis are sensitive to the availability of the eIF2 translation initiation complex and to changes in the rate of translation.

  3. Mutant KRAS promotes malignant pleural effusion formation.

    PubMed

    Agalioti, Theodora; Giannou, Anastasios D; Krontira, Anthi C; Kanellakis, Nikolaos I; Kati, Danai; Vreka, Malamati; Pepe, Mario; Spella, Magda; Lilis, Ioannis; Zazara, Dimitra E; Nikolouli, Eirini; Spiropoulou, Nikolitsa; Papadakis, Andreas; Papadia, Konstantina; Voulgaridis, Apostolos; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Stamou, Panagiota; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Snyder, Linda A; Antimisiaris, Sophia G; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Psallidas, Ioannis; Marazioti, Antonia; Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2017-05-16

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is the lethal consequence of various human cancers metastatic to the pleural cavity. However, the mechanisms responsible for the development of MPE are still obscure. Here we show that mutant KRAS is important for MPE induction in mice. Pleural disseminated, mutant KRAS bearing tumour cells upregulate and systemically release chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) into the bloodstream to mobilize myeloid cells from the host bone marrow to the pleural space via the spleen. These cells promote MPE formation, as indicated by splenectomy and splenocyte restoration experiments. In addition, KRAS mutations are frequently detected in human MPE and cell lines isolated thereof, but are often lost during automated analyses, as indicated by manual versus automated examination of Sanger sequencing traces. Finally, the novel KRAS inhibitor deltarasin and a monoclonal antibody directed against CCL2 are equally effective against an experimental mouse model of MPE, a result that holds promise for future efficient therapies against the human condition.

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  6. XPO1-dependent nuclear export is a druggable vulnerability in KRAS-mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimi; McMillan, Elizabeth; Kim, Hyun Seok; Venkateswaran, Niranjan; Makkar, Gurbani; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Villalobos, Pamela; Neggers, Jasper Edgar; Mendiratta, Saurabh; Wei, Shuguang; Landesman, Yosef; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Chow, Chi-Wan B.; Frink, Robin E.; Gao, Boning; Roth, Michael; Minna, John D.; Daelemans, Dirk; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Posner, Bruce A.; Scaglioni, PierPaolo; White, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The common participation of oncogenic KRAS proteins in many of the most lethal human cancers, together with the ease of detecting somatic KRAS mutant alleles in patient samples, has spurred persistent and intensive efforts to develop drugs that inhibit KRAS activity1. However, advances have been hindered by the pervasive inter- and intra-lineage diversity in the targetable mechanisms that underlie KRAS-driven cancers, limited pharmacological accessibility of many candidate synthetic-lethal interactions and the swift emergence of unanticipated resistance mechanisms to otherwise effective targeted therapies. Here we demonstrate the acute and specific cell-autonomous addiction of KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer cells to receptor-dependent nuclear export. A multi-genomic, data-driven approach, utilizing 106 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, was used to interrogate 4,725 biological processes with 39,760 short interfering RNA pools for those selectively required for the survival of KRAS-mutant cells that harbour a broad spectrum of phenotypic variation. Nuclear transport machinery was the sole process-level discriminator of statistical significance. Chemical perturbation of the nuclear export receptor XPO1 (also known as CRM1), with a clinically available drug, revealed a robust synthetic-lethal interaction with native or engineered oncogenic KRAS both in vitro and in vivo. The primary mechanism underpinning XPO1 inhibitor sensitivity was intolerance to the accumulation of nuclear IκBα (also known as NFKBIA), with consequent inhibition of NFκB transcription factor activity. Intrinsic resistance associated with concurrent FSTL5 mutations was detected and determined to be a consequence of YAP1 activation via a previously unappreciated FSTL5–Hippo pathway regulatory axis. This occurs in approximately 17% of KRAS-mutant lung cancers, and can be overcome with the co-administration of a YAP1–TEAD inhibitor. These findings indicate that clinically

  7. XPO1-dependent nuclear export is a druggable vulnerability in KRAS-mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimi; McMillan, Elizabeth; Kim, Hyun Seok; Venkateswaran, Niranjan; Makkar, Gurbani; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Villalobos, Pamela; Neggers, Jasper Edgar; Mendiratta, Saurabh; Wei, Shuguang; Landesman, Yosef; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Chow, Chi-Wan B; Frink, Robin E; Gao, Boning; Roth, Michael; Minna, John D; Daelemans, Dirk; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Posner, Bruce A; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo; White, Michael A

    2016-10-06

    The common participation of oncogenic KRAS proteins in many of the most lethal human cancers, together with the ease of detecting somatic KRAS mutant alleles in patient samples, has spurred persistent and intensive efforts to develop drugs that inhibit KRAS activity. However, advances have been hindered by the pervasive inter- and intra-lineage diversity in the targetable mechanisms that underlie KRAS-driven cancers, limited pharmacological accessibility of many candidate synthetic-lethal interactions and the swift emergence of unanticipated resistance mechanisms to otherwise effective targeted therapies. Here we demonstrate the acute and specific cell-autonomous addiction of KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer cells to receptor-dependent nuclear export. A multi-genomic, data-driven approach, utilizing 106 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines, was used to interrogate 4,725 biological processes with 39,760 short interfering RNA pools for those selectively required for the survival of KRAS-mutant cells that harbour a broad spectrum of phenotypic variation. Nuclear transport machinery was the sole process-level discriminator of statistical significance. Chemical perturbation of the nuclear export receptor XPO1 (also known as CRM1), with a clinically available drug, revealed a robust synthetic-lethal interaction with native or engineered oncogenic KRAS both in vitro and in vivo. The primary mechanism underpinning XPO1 inhibitor sensitivity was intolerance to the accumulation of nuclear IκBα (also known as NFKBIA), with consequent inhibition of NFκB transcription factor activity. Intrinsic resistance associated with concurrent FSTL5 mutations was detected and determined to be a consequence of YAP1 activation via a previously unappreciated FSTL5-Hippo pathway regulatory axis. This occurs in approximately 17% of KRAS-mutant lung cancers, and can be overcome with the co-administration of a YAP1-TEAD inhibitor. These findings indicate that clinically available

  8. Embryonic Lethals and T-DNA Insertional Mutagenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Errampalli, D; Patton, D; Castle, L; Mickelson, L; Hansen, K; Schnall, J; Feldmann, K; Meinke, D

    1991-01-01

    T-DNA insertional mutagenesis represents a promising approach to the molecular isolation of genes with essential functions during plant embryo development. We describe in this report the isolation and characterization of 18 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana defective in embryo development following seed transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Random T-DNA insertion was expected to result in a high frequency of recessive embryonic lethals because many target genes are required for embryogenesis. The cointegrate Ti plasmid used in these experiments contained the nopaline synthase and neomycin phosphotransferase gene markers. Nopaline assays and resistance to kanamycin were used to estimate the number of functional inserts present in segregating families. Nine families appeared to contain a T-DNA insert either within or adjacent to the mutant gene. Eight families were clearly not tagged with a functional insert and appeared instead to contain mutations induced during the transformation process. DNA gel blot hybridization with internal and right border probes revealed a variety of rearrangements associated with T-DNA insertion. A general strategy is presented to simplify the identification of tagged embryonic mutants and facilitate the molecular isolation of genes required for plant embryogenesis. PMID:12324593

  9. Alpha and beta subunits of F1-ATPase are required for survival of petite mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chen, X J; Clark-Walker, G D

    1999-12-01

    Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae can form petite mutants with deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (rho-) and can survive complete loss of the organellar genome (rho(o)), the genetic factor(s) that permit(s) survival of rho- and rho(o) mutants remain(s) unknown. In this report we show that a function associated with the F1-ATPase, which is distinct from its role in energy transduction, is required for the petite-positive phenotype of S. cerevisiae. Inactivation of either the alpha or beta subunit, but not the gamma, delta, or epsilon subunit of F1, renders cells petite-negative. The F1 complex, or a subcomplex composed of the alpha and beta subunits only, is essential for survival of rho(o) cells and those impaired in electron transport. The activity of F1 that suppresses rho(o) lethality is independent of the membrane Fo complex, but is associated with an intrinsic ATPase activity. A further demonstration of the ability of F1 subunits to suppress rho(o) lethality has been achieved by simultaneous expression of S. cerevisiae F1 alpha and gamma subunit genes in Kluyveromyces lactis - which allows this petite-negative yeast to survive the loss of its mtDNA. Consequently, ATP1 and ATP2, in addition to the previously identified AAC2, YME1 and PEL1/PGS1 genes, are required for establishment of rho- or rho(o) mutations in S. cerevisiae.

  10. Examining the impact of psychiatric diagnosis and comorbidity on the medical lethality of adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H; Berzin, Stephanie C

    2012-08-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of suicide attempts among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N=375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without substance abuse. Regression results indicated having depression comorbid with any other diagnosis was not associated with medical lethality. However, having a substance abuse disorder was associated with higher suicide attempt lethality, highlighting the importance of substance abuse as a risk factor for lethal suicide attempts in adolescents. This finding stimulates critical thinking around the understanding of suicidal behavior in youth and the development and implementation of treatment strategies for suicidal adolescents with substance abuse disorders.

  11. An Exon-Specific U1snRNA Induces a Robust Factor IX Activity in Mice Expressing Multiple Human FIX Splicing Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Balestra, Dario; Scalet, Daniela; Pagani, Franco; Rogalska, Malgorzata Ewa; Mari, Rosella; Bernardi, Francesco; Pinotti, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    In cellular models we have demonstrated that a unique U1snRNA targeting an intronic region downstream of a defective exon (Exon-specific U1snRNA, ExSpeU1) can rescue multiple exon-skipping mutations, a relevant cause of genetic disease. Here, we explored in mice the ExSpeU1 U1fix9 toward two model Hemophilia B-causing mutations at the 5′ (c.519A > G) or 3′ (c.392-8T > G) splice sites of F9 exon 5. Hydrodynamic injection of wt-BALB/C mice with plasmids expressing the wt and mutant (hFIX-2G5′ss and hFIX-8G3′ss) splicing-competent human factor IX (hFIX) cassettes resulted in the expression of hFIX transcripts lacking exon 5 in liver, and in low plasma levels of inactive hFIX. Coinjection of U1fix9, but not of U1wt, restored exon inclusion of variants and in the intrinsically weak FIXwt context. This resulted in appreciable circulating hFIX levels (mean ± SD; hFIX-2G5′ss, 1.0 ± 0.5 µg/ml; hFIX-8G3′ss, 1.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml; and hFIXwt, 1.9 ± 0.6 µg/ml), leading to a striking shortening (from ~100 seconds of untreated mice to ~80 seconds) of FIX-dependent coagulation times, indicating a hFIX with normal specific activity. This is the first proof-of-concept in vivo that a unique ExSpeU1 can efficiently rescue gene expression impaired by distinct exon-skipping variants, which extends the applicability of ExSpeU1s to panels of mutations and thus cohort of patients. PMID:27701399

  12. Analysis of the Role of Vaccinia Virus H7 in Virion Membrane Biogenesis with an H7-Deletion Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Wu, Xiang; Yan, Bo; Deng, Junpeng

    2013-01-01

    Essential vaccinia virus genes are often studied with conditional-lethal inducible mutants. Here, we constructed a deletion mutant lacking the essential H7R gene (the ΔH7 mutant) with an H7-expressing cell line. Compared to an inducible H7 mutant, the ΔH7 mutant showed a defect at an earlier step of virion membrane biogenesis, before the development of short crescent-shaped precursors of the viral envelope. Our studies refine the role of H7 in virion membrane biogenesis and highlight the values of analyzing deletion mutants. PMID:23678177

  13. Mutant p53 Promotes Tumor Cell Malignancy by Both Positive and Negative Regulation of the Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lei; Xu, Jinjin; Liu, Jian; Amjad, Ali; Zhang, Kun; Liu, Qingwu; Zhou, Lei; Xiao, Jianru; Li, Xiaotao

    2015-01-01

    Specific p53 mutations abrogate tumor-suppressive functions by gaining new abilities to promote tumorigenesis. Inactivation of p53 is known to distort TGF-β signaling, which paradoxically displays both tumor-suppressive and pro-oncogenic functions. The molecular mechanisms of how mutant p53 simultaneously antagonizes the tumor-suppressive and synergizes the tumor-promoting function of the TGF-β pathway remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that mutant p53 differentially regulates subsets of TGF-β target genes by enhanced binding to the MH2 domain in Smad3 upon the integration of ERK signaling, therefore disrupting Smad3/Smad4 complex formation. Silencing Smad2, inhibition of ERK, or introducing a phosphorylation-defective mutation at Ser-392 in p53 abrogates the R175H mutant p53-dependent regulation of these TGF-β target genes. Our study shows a mechanism to reconcile the seemingly contradictory observations that mutant p53 can both attenuate and cooperate with the TGF-β pathway to promote cancer cell malignancy in the same cell type. PMID:25767119

  14. Lethal endotoxic shock using alpha-galactosylceramide sensitization as a new experimental model of septic shock.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyasu; Koide, Naoki; Hassan, Ferdaus; Islam, Shamima; Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Mori, Isamu; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Kakumu, Shinichi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yokochi, Takashi

    2006-03-01

    The effect of alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated lethality was examined. Administration of LPS killed all mice pretreated with alpha-GalCer, but not untreated control mice. The lethal shock in alpha-GalCer-sensitized mice was accompanied by severe pulmonary lesions with marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and massive cell death. On the other hand, hepatic lesions were focal and mild. A number of cells in pulmonary and hepatic lesions underwent apoptotic cell death. alpha-GalCer sensitization was ineffective for the development of the systemic lethal shock in Valpha14-positive natural killer T cell-deficient mice. Sensitization with alpha-GalCer led to the circulation of a high level of interferon (IFN)-gamma and further augmented the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in response to LPS. The lethal shock was abolished by the administration of anti-IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha antibody. Further, the lethal shock did not occur in TNF-alpha-deficient mice. Taken together, alpha-GalCer sensitization rendered mice very susceptible to LPS-mediated lethal shock, and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were found to play a critical role in the preparation and execution of the systemic lethal shock, respectively. The LPS-mediated lethal shock using alpha-GalCer sensitization might be useful for researchers employing experimental models of sepsis and septic shock.

  15. Uncovering the post-embryonic functions of gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal genes.

    PubMed

    Candela, Héctor; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel; Micol, José Luis

    2011-06-01

    An estimated 500-1 000 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes mutate to embryonic lethality. In addition, several hundred mutations have been identified that cause gametophytic lethality. Thus, a significant fraction of the ∼25,000 protein-coding genes in Arabidopsis are indispensable to the early stages of the diploid phase or to the haploid gametophytic phase. The expression patterns of many of these genes indicate that they also act later in development but, because the mutants die at such early stages, conventional methods limit the study of their roles in adult diploid plants. Here, we describe the toolset that allows researchers to assess the post-embryonic functions of plant genes for which only gametophytic- and embryonic-lethal alleles have been isolated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millson, Charles E.; Wilson, Michael; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with a large number of gastroduodenal disorders. Clearance of the bacteria has been shown to benefit patients with duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, and certain rare types of gastric tumors. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are the mainstay of current treatment strategies but side-effects, poor compliance, and drug resistance limit their usefulness. We sensitized H. pylori with toluidine blue, haematoporphyrin derivative, aluminum disulphonated phthalocyanine, methylene blue or protoporphyrin IX prior to exposure to low-power laser light from either a gallium aluminum arsenide laser or a helium neon gas laser. All 5 sensitizers caused reductions of greater than 1000-fold in the number of viable bacteria. Light alone had no effect and only HpD caused a significant decrease in bacterial numbers without laser light. Next, we sensitized H. mustelae on explanted ferret gastric mucosa (ex vivo) with the same sensitizers and exposed them to light from a copper vapor pumped dye laser tuned appropriately. MB caused significant reductions in bacterial counts. Successful lethal photosensitization of Helicobacter pylori both in vitro and ex vivo raises the possibility of a local method for eradicating the bacteria, especially as the bacteria are only found in those parts of the upper gastrointestinal tract that are accessible to the endoscope.

  17. Lethal entanglement in baleen whales.

    PubMed

    Cassoff, Rachel M; Moore, Kathleen M; McLellan, William A; Barco, Susan G; Rotsteins, David S; Moore, Michael J

    2011-10-06

    Understanding the scenarios whereby fishing gear entanglement of large whales induces mortality is important for the development of mitigation strategies. Here we present a series of 21 cases involving 4 species of baleen whales in the NW Atlantic, describing the available sighting history, necropsy observations, and subsequent data analyses that enabled the compilation of the manners in which entanglement can be lethal. The single acute cause of entanglement mortality identified was drowning from entanglement involving multiple body parts, with the animal's inability to surface. More protracted causes of death included impaired foraging during entanglement, resulting in starvation after many months; systemic infection arising from open, unresolved entanglement wounds; and hemorrhage or debilitation due to severe gear-related damage to tissues. Serious gear-induced injury can include laceration of large vessels, occlusion of the nares, embedding of line in growing bone, and massive periosteal proliferation of new bone in an attempt to wall off constricting, encircling lines. These data show that baleen whale entanglement is not only a major issue for the conservation of some baleen whale populations, but is also a major concern for the welfare of each affected individual.

  18. Comparative study of peritoneal macrophage functions in mice receiving lethal and non-lethal doses of LPS.

    PubMed

    Víctor, V M; De la Fuente, M

    2000-01-01

    In previous studies, we have observed changes in several functions of peritoneal macrophages from female BALB/c mice with lethal endotoxic shock caused by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 mg/kg), which were associated with a high production of superoxide anion and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). In the present work, both a lethal dose (250 mg/kg) and a non-lethal dose (100 mg/kg) of LPS were used in female Swiss mice. In peritoneal macrophages, the following functions were studied at 2, 4, 12 and 24 h after LPS injection: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis, ingestion of particles, and superoxide anion and TNF-alpha production. In both groups, the results showed a stimulation of adherence, ingestion and superoxide production as well as a decrease of chemotaxis, whereas TNF-alpha could not be detected in either of the two groups. These effects were more evident with the 250 mg/kg dose, especially as regards superoxide anion production, which was higher in the animals treated with a lethal dose of LPS.

  19. Syndactyly lethal: new mutation with multiple malformations occurring in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Sakiko; Yabe, Kaoru; Kimura, Yuki; Ito, Yukie; Rokukawa, Masumi; Furukawa, Masatoshi; Ito, Kouta; Matsuura, Masao; Kiguchi, Masao

    2009-12-01

    We previously found newborns exhibiting syndactyly of both fore- and hindlimbs in a litter from a pair of Sprague Dawley rats. Continuous breeding of the parental animals yielded pups with the same anomaly in following litters, suggesting that the syndactyly was genetic in origin. In the present study, as all the syndactylous pups died on postnatal day 0, we conducted genetic analyses using 30 phenotypically normal female progeny and the sire. The females were subjected to caesarean section on day 20 of gestation and the fetuses were examined for the phenotypes. The results of the mating experiments suggest that the mutant phenotype is caused by a single autosomal recessive gene at a homozygous condition. As homozygous mutants are lethal at the neonatal stage, the mutant gene was named syndactyly lethal, gene symbol syl. The mutant rats have multiple abnormalities, such as syndactyly, micrognathia, fused/absent/small lung lobes, absent kidney and ureter, small spleen, small uterus, fused phalanges, sternoschisis, absent/detached rib, and splitting/fused/absent/small thoracic vertebra, some of which must be the cause of death on postnatal day 0. This mutant is considered to be useful for investigating the mechanisms and/or pathogenesis of syndactyly, as well as the accompanying malformations.

  20. Synthetic Lethal Interactions Identify Phenotypic “Interologs” of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint Components

    PubMed Central

    Tarailo, Maja; Tarailo, Sanja; Rose, Ann M.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we report genetic interactions with mdf-1(gk2)/MAD1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nine are evolutionarily conserved or phenotypic “interologs” and two are novel enhancers, hcp-1 and bub-3. We show that HCP-1 and HCP-2, the two CENP-F-related proteins, recently implicated in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) function, do not have identical functions, since hcp-1(RNAi), but not hcp-2(RNAi), enhances the lethality of the SAC mutants. PMID:18073444

  1. Mouse embryogenesis requires the tissue factor extracellular domain but not the cytoplasmic domain

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Graham C.N.; Mackman, Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that tissue factor (TF) acts in embryogenesis, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Three independent groups showed that targeted disruption of the murine TF (mTF) gene results in 90% lethality of mTF null embryos at embryonic days 9.5–10.5. We have demonstrated that expression of wild-type human TF (hTF) from a minigene rescues the embryonic lethality of mTF null embryos. To investigate the role of TF in embryogenesis, we made mutant hTF minigenes whose products either bound FVII/VIIa at a reduced level or lacked the cytoplasmic domain. Two independent transgenic lines expressing the hTF extracellular domain mutant failed to rescue the embryonic lethality of mTF null embryos, suggesting that FVII/VIIa binding by TF, proteolytic activity by the TF/FVIIa complex, or both were required for embryogenesis. In contrast, two transgenic lines expressing the hTF cytoplasmic domain mutant rescued the embryonic lethality of mTF null embryos, indicating that the cytoplasmic domain of TF was not required for embryogenesis. We propose that TF/FVIIa-dependent extracellular protease activity is required for embryogenesis. PMID:10841513

  2. Extended longevity and survivorship during amino-acid starvation in a Drosophila Sir2 mutant heterozygote.

    P