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Sample records for leucaena leucaena leucocephala

  1. Some studies on anaerobic decomposition of leucaena leucocephala leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Torane, J.V.; Lokhande, C.D.; Pawar, S.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Batch type anaerobic decomposition process in leucaena leucocephala plant material (leaves) has been carried out under mesophilic conditions (below 35{degrees}C). The results of studies involving variations in pH, conductivity, temperature, and optical density of digester slurry for four weeks are reported. The gas production rate was also studied which reveals that the use of leucaena leucocephala for biogas production will be helpful.

  2. Soil Solution Phosphorus Status and Mycorrhizal Dependency in Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Manjunath, A

    1987-04-01

    A phosphorus sorption isotherm was used to establish concentrations of P in a soil solution ranging from 0.002 to 0.807 mug/ml. The influence of P concentration on the symbiotic interaction between the tropical tree legume Leucaena leucocephala and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum was evaluated in pot experiments. The level of mycorrhizal infection in Leucaena roots increased as the concentration of P was raised from 0.002 to 0.153 mug/ml. Higher levels of P depressed mycorrhizal infection, but the level of infection never declined below 50%. Periodic monitoring of P contents of Leucaena subleaflets indicated that significant mycorrhizal activity was detected as early as 17 days after planting, with the activity peaking 12 to 16 days thereafter. The highest level of mycorrhizal activity was associated with a soil solution P level of 0.021 mug/ml. Even though the mycorrhizal inoculation effect diminished as the concentration of P in the soil solution was increased, mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased P uptake and dry-matter yield of Leucaena at all levels of soil solution P examined. The concentration of P required by nonmycorrhizal L. leucocephala for maximum yield was 27 to 38 times higher than that required by mycorrhizal L. leucocephala. The results illustrate the very high dependence of L. leucocephala on VAM fungi and the significance of optimizing soil solution phosphorus for enhancing the benefits of the VAM symbiosis. PMID:16347323

  3. Heterologous Expression and Characterization of Mimosinase from Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Borthakur, Dulal

    2016-01-01

    Heterologous expression of eukaryotic genes in bacterial system is an important method in synthetic biology to characterize proteins. It is a widely used method, which can be sometimes quite challenging, as a number of factors that act along the path of expression of a transgene to mRNA, and mRNA to protein, can potentially affect the expression of a transgene in a heterologous system. Here, we describe a method for successful cloning and expression of mimosinase-encoding gene from Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) in E. coli as the heterologous host. Mimosinase is an important enzyme especially in the context of metabolic engineering of plant secondary metabolite as it catalyzes the degradation of mimosine, which is a toxic secondary metabolite found in all Leucaena and Mimosa species. We also describe the methods used for characterization of the recombinant mimosinase. PMID:26843166

  4. A note on averting goats to a toxic but palatable plant, Leucaena leucocephala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conditioned taste aversions are a useful tool to reduce livestock consumption of toxic plants. The forage legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is both toxic and palatable. The objective of this study was to determine if goats could be aversively conditioned to avoid leucaena. Adult and juvenil...

  5. Forest Disturbance Leads to the Rapid Spread of the Invasive Leucaena Leucocephala in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.; Jump, A. S.

    2012-07-01

    This study, based on different investigative documents and analytical methods, elucidates spatial distribution of habitats for major invasive exotic plants, Leucaena leucocephala, in Taiwan. Results show that Leucaena leucocephala is most harmful to broad-leaved trees and its invasion directly relates to changes in the physical environment. Leucaena leucocephala can bloom and bear fruits all year round and during the period of seeds sprouting and saplings, the invasion varies greatly among different soil types. Leucaena leucocephala prefers weakly acidic soil, though it grows well with other soil textures and nutrients as well. The average spreading rate of Leucaena leucocephala is 3.55 ha year-1 on abandoned farm land calculated from the aerial photographs taken in 1982, 1992, 2003, and 2007.

  6. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  7. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  8. Anthelmintic activity of Leucaena leucocephala protein extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Soares, Alexandra Martins dos Santos; de Araújo, Sandra Alves; Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Costa Junior, Livio Martins

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein extracts obtained from the plant Leucaena leucocephala on the nematode parasite Haemonchus contortus. The seeds, shell and cotyledon of L. leucocephala were separated and their proteins extracted using a sodium phosphate buffer, and named as TE (total seed extract), SE (shell extract) and CE (cotyledon extract). Soluble protein content, protease, protease inhibitory and chitinase activity assays were performed. Exsheathment inhibition of H. contortus larvae were performed at concentrations of 0.6 mg mL-1, and egg hatch assays were conducted at protein concentrations of 0.8, 0.4, 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 mg mL-1. The effective concentration for 50% hatching inhibition (EC50) was estimated by probit. Different proportions of soluble proteins, protease and chitinase were found in TE and CE. Protease inhibitory activity was detected in all extracts. The EC50 of the CE and TE extracts were 0.48 and 0.33 mg mL-1, respectively. No ovicidal effects on H. contortus were detected in SE extracts, and none of the protein extracts demonstrated larvicidal effects on H. contortus. We therefore conclude that protein extracts of L. leucocephala had a detrimental effect on nematode eggs, which can be correlated with the high protease and chitinase activity of these extracts. PMID:26689178

  9. Toxicity of Leucaena leucocephala. The effect of iodine and mineral supplements on penned steers fed a sole diet of Leucaena.

    PubMed

    Jones, R J; Blunt, C G; Nurnberg, B I

    1978-08-01

    Steers fed a sole diet of Leucaena leucocephala cv. Peru (leucaena), rapidly developed a hypothyroid condition. Total serum thyroxine (T4) levels declined from c 120 n mol litre-1 to 13 n mol litre-1 within six weeks of full leucaena feeding. Associated with the hypothyroidism was a declined in feed intake, poor weight gain, hair loss, excessive salivation and the development of lesions on the oesophagus of some animals. Light steers (119 kg) were more severely affected than heavy steers (220 kg) and two light steers died. During the eight week period of full leucaena feeding animals gained only 0.18 kg head-1 day-1 compared with 0.73 kg head-1 day -1 for steers fed cowpea (Vigna sinensis) hay. Supplementation with minerals (Fe, Cu, Zn) significantly increased mean daily intake (85.4 v 68.9 g/kg0.75), daily liveweight gain, (334 v 14 g), and serum T3 resin uptake (42.5 v 39.6%); decreased hair loss and skin lesions but did not alleviate the low serum T4 levels. Iodine supplementation did not affect intake, bodyweight gain, serum T4 levels, serum T3 uptake or toxicity scores compared with unsupplemented leucaena fed steers. When the leucaena fed animals were subsequently fed cowpea hay, appetite improved and the serum T4 levels returned to normal within two weeks. For the heavy steers over this period, weight gain was similar to the controls; however, the light steers continued to gain poorly. PMID:718558

  10. Rheological characterization of the galactomannan from Leucaena leucocephala seed.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, Louis M; Williams, Peter A

    2012-10-01

    A water soluble galactomannan isolated from Leucaena leucocephala seeds gave an intrinsic viscosity of 3.5 dl/g and viscosity average molecular mass, M(v), of 6.98 × 10(5) g/mol. This was in reasonably good agreement with the value of the weight average molecular mass, M(w), of 5.44 ± 0.20 × 10(5) g/mol determined by GPC-MALLS coupled to RI. The onset of polymer coil overlap occurred at c*[η] of 2.1, with slope of 3.0 above and 1.3 below the point of polymer coil overlap. The shear viscosity of the polysaccharide was temperature dependent and decreased with increasing temperature. The activation energy for viscous flow of 3.0% polysaccharide concentration obtained by Arrhenius plot of zero shear viscosity as a function of temperature was 26.4 kJ/mol. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) showed strong dependence on frequency indicating the presence of entangled coils. The Cox-Merz plot gave close superimposition of the complex and shear viscosities. PMID:22840009

  11. Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Yosra A; Morsy, Amr S; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Lucas, Ronaldo C; Louvandini, Helder; Kreuzer, Michael; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2013-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), a leguminous shrub promising to cope with feed scarcity in the tropics, may help in mitigating ruminal methane (CH4) emission in the tropics as well. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucaena and major secondary compounds of this plant in ruminants. At first, effects of Leucaena tannins and mimosine on ruminal CH4 and nutrient degradability were tested in vitro. Incubations were made with Leucaena without or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to exclude the tannins effects, as well as with Bermuda grass (Tifton) and lucerne hays, both either untreated or supplemented with mimosine at the same concentration that has been provided by the tested Leucaena (6.52 mg/g DM). Furthermore, in an in vivo experiment a control diet (per kg DM 700 g Tifton hay) and Leucaena diets (per kg DM 350 g Tifton hay and 350 g Leucaena), either with or without 20 g PEG/d per head, were evaluated in six Santa Inês sheep following a double Latin square design. In vitro, Leucaena resulted in the lowest (p < 0.05) gas and CH4 production and the highest (p < 0.05) partitioning factor, a measure for microbial efficiency, whereas the amount of truly degraded organic matter (TDOM) was lowest (p < 0.05) with Tifton among the experimental forage plants. Mimosine addition to lucerne and Tifton as well as PEG addition to Leucaena had no effect on ruminal CH4 and TDOM. In vivo Leucaena, compared to the Tifton diet, enhanced (p < 0.05) intake, faecal nitrogen excretion, body nitrogen retention and the excretion of urinary purine derivatives as an indicator for microbial protein synthesis and availability. This was independent of PEG addition. Leucaena also decreased (p < 0.001) CH4 emission per unit of digested organic matter by 14.1% and 10.8%, without and with PEG, respectively. No significant diet differences were observed in total-tract nutrient digestibility. The study demonstrated efficiency of Leucaena to mitigate in vivo methane emission of

  12. Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Soltan, Yosra A; Morsy, Amr S; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Lucas, Ronaldo C; Louvandini, Helder; Kreuzer, Michael; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2013-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), a leguminous shrub promising to cope with feed scarcity in the tropics, may help in mitigating ruminal methane (CH4) emission in the tropics as well. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of Leucaena and major secondary compounds of this plant in ruminants. At first, effects of Leucaena tannins and mimosine on ruminal CH4 and nutrient degradability were tested in vitro. Incubations were made with Leucaena without or with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to exclude the tannins effects, as well as with Bermuda grass (Tifton) and lucerne hays, both either untreated or supplemented with mimosine at the same concentration that has been provided by the tested Leucaena (6.52 mg/g DM). Furthermore, in an in vivo experiment a control diet (per kg DM 700 g Tifton hay) and Leucaena diets (per kg DM 350 g Tifton hay and 350 g Leucaena), either with or without 20 g PEG/d per head, were evaluated in six Santa Inês sheep following a double Latin square design. In vitro, Leucaena resulted in the lowest (p < 0.05) gas and CH4 production and the highest (p < 0.05) partitioning factor, a measure for microbial efficiency, whereas the amount of truly degraded organic matter (TDOM) was lowest (p < 0.05) with Tifton among the experimental forage plants. Mimosine addition to lucerne and Tifton as well as PEG addition to Leucaena had no effect on ruminal CH4 and TDOM. In vivo Leucaena, compared to the Tifton diet, enhanced (p < 0.05) intake, faecal nitrogen excretion, body nitrogen retention and the excretion of urinary purine derivatives as an indicator for microbial protein synthesis and availability. This was independent of PEG addition. Leucaena also decreased (p < 0.001) CH4 emission per unit of digested organic matter by 14.1% and 10.8%, without and with PEG, respectively. No significant diet differences were observed in total-tract nutrient digestibility. The study demonstrated efficiency of Leucaena to mitigate in vivo methane emission of

  13. Rumen function in vivo and in vitro in sheep fed Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio; Solorio-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Klieve, Athol; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael Antonio; Briceño-Poot, Eduardo Gaspar; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The effect of Leucaena leucocephala inclusion in sheep diets upon rumen function was evaluated. Nine Pelibuey sheep, 32.6 ± 5.33 kg live weight (LW), fitted with rumen cannula were used. A complete randomized block design was employed. Two experimental periods of 60 days each, with 60-day intervals between them, were used. Experimental treatments were as follows (n = 6): T1 (control), 100 % Pennisetum purpureum grass; T2, 20 % L. leucocephala + 80 % P. purpureum; T3, 40 % L. leucocephala + 60 % P. purpureum. In situ rumen neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) degradation, dry matter intake (DMI), volatile fatty acids (VFA) production, estimated methane (CH4) yield, rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3), and protozoa counts were measured. The aNDF in situ rumen degradation of P. purpureum and leucaena was higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3. Leucaena CP degradation was higher in T2 and T3 but for P. purpureum it was only significantly higher in T3. Leucaena aNDF and CP degradation rate (c) was 50 % higher (P < 0.05) in T2 and T3, but only higher in T3 for P. purpureum. Voluntary intake and rumen (N-NH3) was higher in T2 and T3 (P = 0.0001, P = 0.005, respectively). Molar VFA proportions were similar for all treatments (P > 0.05). Protozoa counts and in vitro gas production (48 h) were lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001). Estimated methane yield (mol CH4/day) was higher in sheep fed leucaena (P < 0.0001). However, CH4 yield relative to animal performance (mol CH4/g LW gain) was lower in T2 and T3 (P < 0.0001). In summary, these results indicate that including L. leucocephala in sheep diets did not modify rumen fermentation pattern (same VFA ratios) nor reduce the amount of CH4 per unit of DMI (mol CH4/g DMI). However, leucaena inclusion does increase rumen N-NH3, aNDF and CP digestibility, and voluntary intake. PMID:25764346

  14. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior. PMID:26210396

  15. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior.

  16. Leucaena leucocephala fruit aqueous extract stimulates adipogenesis, lipolysis, and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Arumugam, Bavani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro "insulin-like" activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  17. Leucaena leucocephala Fruit Aqueous Extract Stimulates Adipogenesis, Lipolysis, and Glucose Uptake in Primary Rat Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Azaman, Nooriza; Jen Wai, Chai

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala had been traditionally used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate in vitro “insulin-like” activities of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) deWit. aqueous fruit extract on lipid and glucose metabolisms. The ability of the extract to stimulate adipogenesis, inhibit lipolysis, and activate radio-labeled glucose uptake was assessed using primary rat adipocytes. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR was performed to investigate effects of the extract on expression levels of genes (protein kinases B, AKT; glucose transporter 4, GLUT4; hormone sensitive lipase, HSL; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI3KA; sterol regulatory element binding factor 1, Srebp1) involved in insulin-induced signaling pathways. L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract stimulated moderate adipogenesis and glucose uptake into adipocytes when compared to insulin. Generally, the extract exerted a considerable level of lipolytic effect at lower concentration but decreased gradually at higher concentration. The findings concurred with RT-PCR analysis. The expressions of GLUT4 and HSL genes were upregulated by twofold and onefold, respectively, whereas AKT, PI3KA, and Srebp1 genes were downregulated. The L. leucocephala aqueous fruit extract may be potentially used as an adjuvant in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and weight management due to its enhanced glucose uptake and balanced adipogenesis and lipolysis properties. PMID:25180205

  18. Mimosine Content of Leucaena leucocephala and the Sensitivity of Rhizobium to Mimosine.

    PubMed

    Mathews, A; Vittal Rai, P

    1985-01-01

    Mimosine was qualitatively and quantitatively estimated from the different parts of Leucaena leucocephala strains K-8 and K-67. The amount of mimosine as percentage of dry weight in the two strains were, respectively, as follows: seeds, 6.82, 9.98; old leaves, 1.5, 1.33; young leaves, 2.85, 3.33; main root, 1.13, 1.02; lateral roots, 1.46, 1.17; stems, 0.73, 0.33. Rhizobium isolates from L. leucocephala (UAS-Ll-8, UAS-Ll-67), Mimosa pudica (UAS-Mp) and Prosopis juliflora (UAS-Pj) formed an effective (nod(+) fix(+)) association with Leucaena, while an isolate from Crotalaria sp. (UAS-Cr) proved to be ineffective (nod(+) fix(-)). All isolates performed better than reference strain TAL-82. Strain UAS-Pj gave optimum nodulation and plant growth characteristics. The effect of mimosine on the vegetative Rhizobium cultures was studied by the lawn method of growing rhizobia, using 2.5 to 15 mg·ml(-1) mimosine. All the effective strains were stimulated by mimosine up to 7.5 mg·ml(-1)strains. UAS-Ll-8 and UAS-Ll-67 were stimulated up to 15 mg·ml(-1) of mimosine. The ineffective strain UAS-Cr was inhibited at all the concentrations of mimosine tried.

  19. The type 3 protein secretion system of Cupriavidus taiwanensis strain LMG19424 compromises symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Saad, Maged M; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Masson-Boivin, Catherine; Perret, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Cupriavidus taiwanensis forms proficient symbioses with a few Mimosa species. Inactivation of a type III protein secretion system (T3SS) had no effect on Mimosa pudica but allowed C. taiwanensis to establish chronic infections and fix nitrogen in Leucaena leucocephala. Unlike what was observed for other rhizobia, glutamate rather than plant flavonoids mediated transcriptional activation of this atypical T3SS. PMID:22865066

  20. An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.

    PubMed

    Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-07-01

    In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 μM sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 μM cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as β-substituted alanine synthases. PMID:24777760

  1. An O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase from Leucaena leucocephala is a cysteine synthase but not a mimosine synthase.

    PubMed

    Yafuso, Jannai T; Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-07-01

    In plants, the final step of cysteine formation is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL). The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize an OAS-TL from the tree legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). Leucaena contains a toxic, nonprotein amino acid, mimosine, which is also formed by an OAS-TL, and characterization of this enzyme is essential for developing a mimosine-free leucaena for its use as a protein-rich fodder. The cDNA for a cytosolic leucaena OAS-TL isoform was obtained through interspecies suppression subtractive hybridization. A 40-kDa recombinant protein was purified from Escherichia coli and used in enzyme activity assays where it was found to synthesize only cysteine. The enzyme followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the Km was calculated to be 1,850±414 μM sulfide and the Vmax was 200.6±19.92 μM cysteine min(-1). The N-terminal affinity His-tag was cleaved from the recombinant OAS-TL to eliminate its possible interference in binding with the substrate, 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, for mimosine formation. The His-tag-cleaved OAS-TL was again observed to catalyze the formation of cysteine but not mimosine. Thus, the cytosolic OAS-TL from leucaena used in this study is specific for only cysteine synthesis and is different from previously reported OAS-TLs that also function as β-substituted alanine synthases.

  2. Polyphasic characterization of rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala from Panxi, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Zou, Lan; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Hu, Chao; Liu, Fan

    2013-12-01

    Leucaena leucocephala was introduced into Panxi, Sichuan, China, in the 1980s and 1990s for afforestation and preventing water loss and soil erosion in this area. The co-introduction of rhizobial symbionts of introduced plants has drawn attention since they may influence local soil communities. We studied the phylogenetic position of the L. leucocephala isolates and assessed if the rhizobia were introduced together with the host to Panxi, Sichuan, China. The glnII and atpD genes of fifteen representative isolates were sequenced and analyzed, and applied multilocus sequence analyses in which the housekeeping genes recA, glnII and atpD were included. Furthermore, we estimated the within species diversity directly with 23S rDNA and IGS RFLP and indirectly through phenotypic analysis of forty L. leucocephala isolates. The isolates represented seven species and 38 diversified strains in the genera Ensifer, Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. The within species diversity of the Ensifer isolates was large, proposing a potential to occupy novel niches. There was not conclusive evidence to show that any of the strains would have been co-introduced with L. leucocephala. On the contrary, we came to a conclusion that the possible introduction should not be inferred from sequence data alone. PMID:23749221

  3. Down-regulation of lignin biosynthesis in transgenic Leucaena leucocephala harboring O-methyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Smita; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, a 0.47 kb OMT gene construct from aspen, encoding for an enzyme O-methyltransferase (OMT, EC 2.1.1.6), in antisense orientation was used to down-regulate lignin biosynthesis in Leucaena leucocephala. The plants were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring the antisense gene, and the transformation was confirmed by PCR amplification of the npt II gene. The integration of a heterologous antisense OMT gene construct in transformed plants led to a maximum of 60% reduction in OMT activity relative to control. The evaluation of total lignin content by the Klason method revealed a maximum of 28% reduction. Histochemical analyses of stem sections depicted a reduction in lignin content and normal xylem development. The results also suggested a probable increase in aldehyde levels and a decrease in syringyl units. Lignin down-regulation was accompanied by an increase in methanol soluble phenolics to an extent that had no impact on wood discoloration, and the plants displayed a normal phenotype. Concomitantly, an increase of up to 9% in cellulose content was also observed. Upon alkali extraction, modified lignin was more extractable as evident from reduced Klason lignin in saponified residue and increased alkali soluble phenolics. The results together suggested that the extent of down-regulation of OMT activity achieved may lead to quality amelioration of Leucaena with respect to its applicability in pulp and paper manufacture as well as nutritive and easily digestible forage production. PMID:16739940

  4. Pt/Al₂O₃-catalytic deoxygenation for upgrading of Leucaena leucocephala-pyrolysis oil.

    PubMed

    Payormhorm, Jiraporn; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Reubroycharoen, Presert; Kuchonthara, Prapan; Hinchiranan, Napida

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the quality of bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of Leucaena leucocephala trunks via catalytic deoxygenation using Pt/Al2O3 (Pt content=1.32% (w/w)). The minimum molar ratio of oxygen/carbon (O/C) at 0.14 was achieved when the amount of catalyst was 10% (w/w, bio-oil) and was applied under 4 bar of initial nitrogen pressure at 340°C for 1h. The reaction mechanism of the catalytic deoxygenation, in terms of reforming, water-gas shift and dehydration reactions, was proposed. To consider the effect of different biomass types on the efficiency of catalytic deoxygenation, the bio-oils obtained from the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice straw and green microalgae were likewise evaluated for direct comparison. PMID:23648762

  5. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) genes from Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding leguminous tree.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Omer, Sumita; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a leguminous tree species accounting for one-fourth of raw material supplied to paper and pulp industry in India. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) is the second gene of phenylpropanoid pathway and a member of cytochrome P450 family. There is currently intense interest to alter or modify lignin content of L. leucocephala. Three highly similar C4H alleles of LlC4H1 gene were isolated and characterized. The alleles shared more than 98 % sequence identity at amino acid level to each other. Binding of partial promoter of another C4H gene LlC4H2, to varying amounts of crude nuclear proteins isolated from leaf and stem tissues of L. leucocephala formed two loose and one strong complex, respectively, suggesting that the abundance of proteins that bind with the partial C4H promoter is higher in stem tissue than in leaf tissue. Quantitative Real Time PCR study suggested that among tissues of same age, root tissues had highest level of C4H transcripts. Maximum transcript level was observed in 30 day old root tissue. Among the tissues investigated, C4H activity was highest in 60 day old root tissues. Tissue specific quantitative comparison of lignin from developing seedling stage to 1 year old tree stage indicated that Klason lignin increased in tissues with age. PMID:23070917

  6. Rumen dry matter and crude protein degradability of extracted or untreated oilseeds and Leucaena leucocephala leaves.

    PubMed

    Gralak, M A; Kamalu, T; von Keyserlingk, M A; Kulasek, G W

    1997-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the rumen DM and CP degradability characteristics of soyabean, canola seed, peanut, palm kernel and Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The oilseeds were either treated with n-hexane to extract the fat or left untreated. Nylon bags were incubated in each of four rumen cannulated sheep for 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Animals were fed on a diet consisting of meadow hay (ad libitum) and 150 g of concentrate twice daily. Fat extraction caused a decrease (P < or = 0.05) in DM disappearance of soyabean at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h and of peanuts at all incubation times. CP disappearance from peanuts was reduced (P < or = 0.05) as a result of fat extraction at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h. Fat extraction of canola seed increased CP disappearance at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h (P < or = 0.05). However, in the case of defatted canola seed, an increase in DM disappearance (P < or = 0.05) was observed in the first 4 incubation times and a decrease (P < or = 0.05) in the later times. Fat extraction increased (P < or = 0.05) DM disappearance of palm kernel at 0 and 48 h, but reduced it at 4, 6 and 24 h. CP disappearance of palm kernel was improved by treatment (P < or = 0.05) at 0, 4, 24 and 48 h and decreased at 12 h. In the case of palm kernel the largest differences in DM and CP disappearance occurred between the 24 and 48 h incubation times. Degradability characteristics for DM and CP of full-fat soyabean, canola seed and peanut were comparable to those of the full fat samples. Effective DM degradability of soyabean, canola seed and peanuts was 72.2 and 71.9; 74.1 and 66.8; and 85.9 and 70.8 for full fat and extracted feeds, respectively. Effective CP degradability was similar in all oilseeds with the exception of the extracted canola seed. Therefore, the incorporation of full-fat soyabean, canola seed and peanut into ruminant rations can be considered as a means of increasing the energy balance. Both palm kernel DM and CP degradabilities were characterized by slow

  7. Amino acid contents and transport of fixed N in nodules of Leucaena leucocephala variety K-8

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala var. K-8 were grown with a N-free fertilizer or fertilizer containing /sup 15/N-depleted (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.01 atom /sup 15/N; 10 ppm). The nodules of 5 month old trees grown on N-free media were used for /sup 15/N-enriched treatment and as controls. Nodules from plants grown on /sup 15/N-depleted media were also used. Nodules were extracted with 0.5% aqueous toluene and aliquots were analyzed with a Beckman 120B Amino Acid Analyzer. Samples were separated into free ammonium, Asp-N, Glu-N, Asn and Gln amide- and amino-N, and remaining amino acids. Fractions were then analyzed for /sup 15/N content. Asn (27.3 umol/gfw) represented 56% of the total free amino acid pool in the nodules. Asn (amide-N and amino-N) also represented approximately 77% of the total N fixed during the one hour /sup 15/N-enriched N/sub 2/ and the /sup 15/N-depleted treatments. Based on these findings and the fact that the ureide fraction is barely detectable in the nodules (0.25 ..mu..mol/gfw), the authors considers L. leucocephala an amide transporter of fixed N. Additional information will be presented on the amino acid contents of tissues, as well as a time course of amino acid content from seed through nodulation.

  8. Highly porous activated carbons from resource-recovered Leucaena leucocephala wood as capacitive deionization electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chia-Hung; Liu, Nei-Ling; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Highly porous activated carbons were resource-recovered from Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. wood through combined chemical and physical activation (i.e., KOH etching followed by CO2 activation). This invasive species, which has severely damaged the ecological economics of Taiwan, was used as the precursor for producing high-quality carbonaceous electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI). Carbonization and activation conditions strongly influenced the structure of chars and activated carbons. The total surface area and pore volume of activated carbons increased with increasing KOH/char ratio and activation time. Overgasification induced a substantial amount of mesopores in the activated carbons. In addition, the electrochemical properties and CDI electrosorptive performance of the activated carbons were evaluated; cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements revealed a typical capacitive behavior and electrical double layer formation, confirming ion electrosorption in the porous structure. The activated-carbon electrode, which possessed high surface area and both mesopores and micropores, exhibited improved capacitor characteristics and high electrosorptive performance. Highly porous activated carbons derived from waste L. leucocephala were demonstrated to be suitable CDI electrode materials. PMID:26135977

  9. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems. PMID:24077919

  10. A carbon-nitrogen lyase from Leucaena leucocephala catalyzes the first step of mimosine degradation.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

    2014-02-01

    The tree legume Leucaena leucocephala contains a large amount of a toxic nonprotein aromatic amino acid, mimosine, and also an enzyme, mimosinase, for mimosine degradation. In this study, we isolated a 1,520-bp complementary DNA (cDNA) for mimosinase from L. leucocephala and characterized the encoded enzyme for mimosine-degrading activity. The deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of the cDNA was predicted to have a chloroplast transit peptide. The nucleotide sequence, excluding the sequence for the chloroplast transit peptide, was codon optimized and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was used in mimosine degradation assays, and the chromatogram of the major product was found to be identical to that of 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P), which was further verified by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The enzyme activity requires pyridoxal 5'-phosphate but not α-keto acid; therefore, the enzyme is not an aminotransferase. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products. The dependence of the enzyme on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and the production of 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicate that it is a carbon-nitrogen lyase. It was found to be highly efficient and specific in catalyzing mimosine degradation, with apparent Km and Vmax values of 1.16×10(-4) m and 5.05×10(-5) mol s(-1) mg(-1), respectively. The presence of other aromatic amino acids, including l-tyrosine, l-phenylalanine, and l-tryptophan, in the reaction did not show any competitive inhibition. The isolation of the mimosinase cDNA and the biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme will be useful in developing transgenic L. leucocephala with reduced mimosine content in the future. PMID:24351687

  11. Anthelmintic effects of Salix babylonica L. and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. extracts in growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Pablo Mejia; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Elghandour, Mona M M Y; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas; Camacho, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Twenty Katahdin × Pelibuey crossbreed male lambs, 3 to 4 months of age and 24 ± 0.3 kg of body weight, were used to study the anthelmintic effects of administering extracts of Salix babylonica L. (SB) and Leucaena leucocephala Lam. (LL). Lambs had not been treated with anthelmintics previously and were randomly allocated into four groups of five lambs each in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: control (lambs fed on total mixed ration without extracts), SB (as control plus S. babylonica L. extract at 30 ml/day), LL (as control plus L. leucocephala Lam. extract at 30 ml/day), and SBLL (as control plus 30 ml/day of S. babylonica L. and L. leucocephala Lam. extracts in a 1:1 (v/v) mixture) for 63 days. Extracts were orally administered before the 8:00 a.m. feeding to each lamb. Rectal fecal samples were collected from each lamb at day 22 (P1), day 43 (P2), and day 63 (P3) of the experiment. Adult worm and egg counts were determined in each fecal sample immediately after collection. Plant secondary metabolites of total phenolics, saponins, and the aqueous fraction were 50 % lower in the SB versus LL extracts. Overall, the oral administration of extracts has improved the egg and worm count reductions in lamb feces by 54, 47, and 40 % for LL, SB, and SBLL, respectively, versus the control lambs. Reductions of worm egg counts in lamb feces were higher (P < 0.05) in P2 and P3 versus P1. Extracts of SB and LL or possibly isolated bioactive compounds could be a promising alternative to conventional anthelmintics to treat gastrointestinal parasites of small ruminants. Such treatments could be used in control strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes in organic and conventional production systems.

  12. The co-occurrence of two pyridine alkaloids, mimosine and trigonelline, in Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Misako; Watanabe, Shin; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a nitrogen-fixing tropical leguminous tree that produces two pyridine alkaloids, i. e. mimosine [beta-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridon-1-yl)-L-alanine] and trigonelline (1-methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate). Mimosine has been detected in leaves, flowers, pods, seeds, and roots, and it is one of the principal non-protein amino acids that occurs in all organs. Asparagine was the most abundant amino acid in flowers. The mimosine content varied from 3.3 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) in developing flowers to 171 micromol/g FW in mature seeds. Trigonelline was also detected in leaves, flowers, pods, and seeds, but not roots. The trigonelline content was lower than that of mimosine in all organs. It varied from 0.12 micromol/g FW in developing seeds to 2.6 micromol/g FW in mature seeds. [2-14C]Nicotinic acid supplied to the developing seeds was incorporated into trigonelline but not mimosine. This indicates that the pyridine and dihydroxypyridine structures of these two alkaloids are derived from distinct precursors. The physiological functions of mimosine and trigonelline are discussed briefly. PMID:24873033

  13. Conformational transitions of cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 from Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Prashant D; Khan, Bashir M; Gaikwad, Sushama M

    2014-03-01

    Conformational transitions of cinnamoyl CoA reductase, a key regulatory enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, from Leucaena leucocephala (Ll-CCRH1) were studied using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The native protein possesses four trp residues exposed on the surface and 66% of helical structure, undergoes rapid structural transitions at and above 45 °C and starts forming aggregates at 55 °C. Ll-CCRH1 was transformed into acid induced (pH 2.0) molten globule like structure, exhibiting altered secondary structure, diminished tertiary structure and exposed hydrophobic residues. The molten globule like structure was examined for the thermal and chemical stability. The altered secondary structure of L1-CCRH1 at pH 2.0 was stable up to 90 °C. Also, in presence of 0.25 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), it got transformed into different structure which was stable in the vicinity of 2M GdnHCl (as compared to drastic loss of native structure in 2M GdnHCl) as seen in far UV-CD spectra. The structural transition of Ll-CCRH1 at pH 2.0 followed another transition after readjusting the pH to 8.0, forming a structure with hardly any similarity to that of native protein. PMID:24309513

  14. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., "subabul" stem lignin: Isolation, structural characterization and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Yearla, Srinivasa Rao; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth after cellulose. It is being used in many industrial applications due to its abundance. In the present study, lignin was isolated from the stems of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a high biomass yielding plant using acidic dioxane under N2 atmosphere. Structural characterization of isolated dioxane lignin (DL) was performed by analytical techniques: UV, FT-IR, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Their monolignol content was determined by nitrobenzene oxidation followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The data was compared with commercial alkali lignin (AL). The results showed that DL is of hardwood guaiacyl-syringyl (GS) type, whereas AL is softwood type with more guaiacyl units and trace amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of DL showed two stage thermal degradation profile similar to AL. The DTGmax for DL and AL were found in the second major loss event of second stage of TGA at 424°C and 404°C, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study exhibited the glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 132°C and 122°C for DL and AL, respectively. The results from thermal stability studies suggest that dioxane lignin isolated from the "miracle tree" (subabul) can be exploited in various thermoplastic industrial applications. PMID:27468468

  15. Competition among rhizobium species for nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala in two tropical soils

    SciTech Connect

    Moawad, H.; Bohlool, B.B.

    1984-07-01

    The successful nodulation of legumes by a Rhizobium strain is determined by the competitve ability of that strain against the mixture of other native and inoculant rhizobia. Competition among six Leucaena rhizobial strains in single and multistrain inoculants were studied. Field inoculation trials were conducted in an oxisol and a mollisol soil, both of which contained indigenous Leucaena-nodulating rhizobia. Strain-specific fluorescent antibodies were used for the identification of the strains in Leucaena nodules. Mixtures of three recommended inoculum strains for Leucaena species (TAL82, TAL582, and TAL1145) were used in peat-based inocula either alone or with one of the three other strains isolated from the sites, B213, B214, and B215. Each of these latter three strains was also used as single-strain inocula to study their competition with the native rhizobia in the two soil systems. In the oxisol soil, strains B213 and B215, when used as single-strain inocula, outcompeted the native rhizobia and formed 92 and 62% of the nodules, respectively. Strain B214 was the least competitive in oxisol soil, where it formed 30% of the nodules, and the best in mollisol soil, where it formed 70% of the nodules. The most successful competitor for nodulation in multistrain inocula was strain TAL1145, which outcompeted native and other inoculum Leucaena rhizobia is both soils. None of the strains in single or multistrain inoculants was capable of completely overcoming the resident rhizobia, which formed 4 to 70% of the total nodules in oxisol soil and 12 to 72% in mollisol soil. No strong relationship was detected between the size of the rhizosphere population of a strain and its successful occupation of nodules. 24 references.

  16. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil.

    PubMed

    Jayanthy, V; Geetha, R; Rajendran, R; Prabhavathi, P; Karthik Sundaram, S; Dinesh Kumar, S; Santhanam, P

    2014-09-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC-MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  17. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV–vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC–MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  18. Effects of supplementing Leucaena leucocephala and conserved forages from natural pasture on the performance of grazing calves.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Victoria Olubunmi A; Aina, Ayobami B J; Fasae, Oladapo A; Oni, Adebayo O; Aderinboye, Ronke Y; Dele, Peter A; Idowu, Oluwaseun J; Adelusi, Oludotun O; Shittu, Olalekan O; Okeniyi, Funmilayo A; Jolaosho, Alaba O

    2014-01-01

    Twelve white Fulani × N'dama cross-bred calves weighing 83.79 ± 1.16 kg were used in an 84-day experiment to investigate the utilization of forage resources from natural grazing land. The experimental diets were sole grazing, grazing + hay, grazing + silage and grazing + Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The calves were divided into four groups of three animals each and were randomly assigned to the four experimental diets. Crude protein (CP) contents of the forages ranged from 59 to 171 g/kg dry matter (DM). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents of the forages ranged from 560 to 705 g/kg DM and 363 to 440 g/kg DM, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher values in mineral contents (Ca, K, P and Mg) were recorded for L. leucocephala leaves compared to other forage resources. Variations (P < 0.05) were observed in the average daily gain. Animals on grazing + L. leucocephala leaves diet had the highest (113 g/day) average daily gain, while those on sole grazing showed the least value (26.2 g/day). Packed cell volume (PCV), total serum protein, urea and calcium concentration showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Effective utilization of forage resources from the natural pasture by the calves was attained on supplementation with conserved forages and L. leucocephala leaves without any deleterious effects on the haematological and serum parameters. PMID:24077958

  19. PEI modified Leucaena leucocephala seed powder, a potential biosorbent for the decontamination of arsenic species from water bodies: bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Kumar Rohit; Kardam, Abhishek; Srivastava, Shalini

    2013-03-01

    Environmental contamination due to anthropogenic and natural sources is increasing day by day because of increase in population, industrialization and urbanization. Arsenic species released into the environment tend to persist indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain, thus becoming a serious threat to the environment. The present study explores the effectiveness of Leucaena leucocephala seed powder (agricultural waste) in removing arsenic ions from aqueous solution. Batch studies were carried out to characterize As (III) and As (V) removal capability of L. leucocephala seed powder. Maximum biosorption capacity for As (III) and As (V) was found to be 81.88 and 92.61 %, respectively. Amino acid-arsenic interaction has been highlighted on the basis of shifting of FTIR bands of native LLSP. Morphological changes and reduction in pore area have been observed in modified LLSP. Modification on the native LLSP results into the increase in percentage sorption of As (III) and As (V) up to 85 and 99 %, respectively. Enhancement in the percentage sorption is due the increase in the stability of the biosorbent due to increase in the final decomposition temperature of the modified LLSP. The findings showed that L. leucocephala seed powder can easily be envisaged as a new, vibrant, low-cost biosorbent for arsenic clean-up operations.

  20. Anatomy and ultrastructure alterations of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi in response to arsenic-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jerusa; Labory, Claudia Regina Gontijo; Rangel, Wesley Melo; Alves, Eduardo; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto Guimarães

    2013-11-15

    Many studies demonstrate the potential application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for remediation purposes, but little is known on AMF potential to enhance plant tolerance to arsenic (As) and the mechanisms involved in this process. We carried anatomical and ultrastructural studies to examine this symbiotic association and the characteristics of shoots and roots of Leucaena leucocephala in As-amended soils (35 and 75 mg As dm(-3)). The experiment used 3 AMF isolates from uncontaminated soils: Acaulospora morrowiae, Glomus clarum, and Gigaspora albida; a mixed inoculum derived from combining these 3 isolates (named Mix AMF); and, 3 AMF isolates from As-contaminated areas: A. morrowiae, G. clarum and Paraglomus occultum. Phytotoxicity symptoms due to arsenic contamination appeared during plant growth, especially in treatments without AMF application. Inoculation with G. clarum and the mixture of species (A. morrowiae, G. albida, and G. clarum) resulted in better growth of L. leucocephala in soils with high As concentrations, as well as significant As removal from the soil, showing a potential for using AMF in phytoextraction. Light microscopy (LS), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) studies showed the colonization of the AMF in plant tissues and damage in all treatments, with ultrastructural changes being observed in leaves and roots of L. leucocephala, especially with the addition of 75 mg dm(-3) of As.

  1. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  2. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake.

  3. Effect of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, Assem Mohamed; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Nieves, Duilio

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as tropical feed resources at two levels (30 or 40 %) on growth performance, carcass traits, and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 60 California growing rabbits were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits and were allocated individually; the groups were control, 30 % LLM, 40 % LLM, 30 % MOLM, and 40 % MOLM. The experimental period lasted from 6 to 12 weeks of age. The results showed that rabbits fed control and 30 % MOLM diets had significantly the highest final body weight and daily weight gain being 2,040 and 2,000 g and 31.6 and 30.6 g/day, respectively. Similarly, the best feed conversion ratio was associated with 30 % MOLM and control groups (3.2 and 3.4), while the worst value was for 40 % LLM group (5.2). MOLM treatments recorded significantly the highest dressing percentage along with control group. The inclusion of MOLM by 30 and 40 % improved the economical efficiency (2 and 1.5) in comparison with the control group (1.1). The results suggest that MOLM can be included in growing rabbit diets up to 40 % without any adverse effect on growth performance or carcass traits with higher economical efficiency of growing rabbits. PMID:24935404

  4. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts against lipid oxidation in model systems.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Maqsood, Sajid

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal was studied in comparison with mimosine. Both extracts showed similar hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, singlet oxygen inhibition and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging capacity (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the extract without prior chlorophyll removal had higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity than that with prior chlorophyll removal (p < 0.05). Generally, lead seed extracts with and without prior chlorophyll removal possessed a lower antioxidant activity, compared with mimosine. When lead seed extract without prior chlorophyll removal (100 and 200 ppm) was used in different lipid oxidation model systems, including β-carotene-linoleic acid and lecithin liposome systems, the preventive effect toward lipid oxidation was dose-dependent. At the same level of use, mimosine exhibited a higher efficacy in prevention of lipid oxidation in both systems as indicated by the lower increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. A similar result was obtained in minced mackerel. Therefore, lead seed extract containing mimosine could act as a natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. PMID:23729420

  5. Biorefinery process for production of paper and oligomers from Leucaena leucocephala K360 with or without prior autohydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Feria, M J; García, J C; Díaz, M J; Fernández, M; López, F

    2012-12-01

    Lignocellulosic material from Leucaena leucocephala was subjected to a two-stage fractionation process to obtain a valorized effluent containing hemicellulose derivatives and a solid phase for producing cellulose pulp by conventional soda-anthraquinone delignification. This solid phase allows the production of cellulose pulp, under less rigorous conditions from NaOH-AQ process (177 °C, 21%, 120 min) than without pretreatment delignification (185 °C, 25%, 150 min) and better or similar properties in the paper sheets obtained (yield 27.6 and 34.0%, brightness 39.3 and 31.6% ISO, tensile index 7.8 and 10.5 N m/g, burst index 0.43 and 0.29 MPa m(2)/kg with and without previous autohydrolysis) have be found. Also, the first autohydrolysis stage allows up to 46.6% of the initial hemicellulose in the raw material to be extracted as xylooligomers, xylose and furfural into the liquid phase. PMID:23073090

  6. Biochemical characterization of recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1) from Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Prashant; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-07-01

    Recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1) protein from Leucaena leucocephala was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain and purified to apparent homogeneity. Optimum pH for forward and reverse reaction was found to be 6.5 and 7.8 respectively. The enzyme was most stable around pH 6.5 at 25°C for 90 min. The enzyme showed Kcat/Km for feruloyl, caffeoyl, sinapoyl, coumaroyl CoA, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde as 4.6, 2.4, 2.3, 1.7, 1.9 and 1.2 (×10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), respectively, indicating affinity of enzyme for feruloyl CoA over other substrates and preference of reduction reaction over oxidation. Activation energy, Ea for various substrates was found to be in the range of 20-50 kJ/mol. Involvement of probable carboxylate ion, histidine, lysine or tyrosine at the active site of enzyme was predicted by pH activity profile. SAXS studies of protein showed radius 3.04 nm and volume 49.25 nm(3) with oblate ellipsoid shape. Finally, metal ion inhibition studies revealed that Ll-CCRH1 is a metal independent enzyme. PMID:23541561

  7. Probing the active site of cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (Ll-CCRH1) from Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Prashant; Patel, Krunal; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Srivastava, Sameer; Singh, Somesh; Gaikwad, Sushama; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-09-01

    Lack of three dimensional crystal structure of cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) limits its detailed active site characterization studies. Putative active site residues involved in the substrate/NADPH binding and catalysis for Leucaena leucocephala CCR (Ll-CCRH1; GenBank: DQ986907) were identified by amino acid sequence alignment and homology modeling. Putative active site residues and proximal H215 were subjected for site directed mutagenesis, and mutated enzymes were expressed, purified and assayed to confirm their functional roles. Mutagenesis of S136, Y170 and K174 showed complete loss of activity, indicating their pivotal roles in catalysis. Mutant S212G exhibited the catalytic efficiencies less than 10% of wild type, showing its indirect involvement in substrate binding or catalysis. R51G, D77G, F30V and I31N double mutants showed significant changes in Km values, specifying their roles in substrate binding. Finally, chemical modification and substrate protection studies corroborated the presence Ser, Tyr, Lys, Arg and carboxylate group at the active site of Ll-CCRH1. PMID:23688416

  8. Purification and characterization of a zinc-dependent cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda P; Shasany, A K; Dwivedi, U N

    2014-04-01

    A cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) from the secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala has been purified to homogeneity through successive steps of ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE cellulose, Sephadex G-75, and Blue Sepharose CL-6B affinity column chromatographies. CAD was purified to 514.2 folds with overall recovery of 13 % and specific activity of 812. 5 nkat/mg. Native and subunit molecular masses of the purified enzyme were found to be ∼76 and ∼38 kDa, respectively, suggesting it to be a homodimer. The enzyme exhibited highest catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km 3.75 μM(-1) s(-1)) with cinnamyl aldehyde among all the substrates investigated. The pH and temperature optima of the purified CAD were pH 8.8 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced in the presence of 2.0 mM Mg(2+), while Zn(2+) at the same concentration exerted an inhibitory effect. The inclusion of 2.0 mM EDTA in the assay system activated the enzyme. The enzyme was inhibited with caffeic acid and ferulic acid in a concentration-dependent manner, while no inhibition was observed with salicylic acid. Peptide mass analysis of the purified CAD by MALDI-TOF showed a significant homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of MDR superfamily. PMID:24532464

  9. Effect of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, Assem Mohamed; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Nieves, Duilio

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as tropical feed resources at two levels (30 or 40 %) on growth performance, carcass traits, and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 60 California growing rabbits were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits and were allocated individually; the groups were control, 30 % LLM, 40 % LLM, 30 % MOLM, and 40 % MOLM. The experimental period lasted from 6 to 12 weeks of age. The results showed that rabbits fed control and 30 % MOLM diets had significantly the highest final body weight and daily weight gain being 2,040 and 2,000 g and 31.6 and 30.6 g/day, respectively. Similarly, the best feed conversion ratio was associated with 30 % MOLM and control groups (3.2 and 3.4), while the worst value was for 40 % LLM group (5.2). MOLM treatments recorded significantly the highest dressing percentage along with control group. The inclusion of MOLM by 30 and 40 % improved the economical efficiency (2 and 1.5) in comparison with the control group (1.1). The results suggest that MOLM can be included in growing rabbit diets up to 40 % without any adverse effect on growth performance or carcass traits with higher economical efficiency of growing rabbits.

  10. Elucidation of Leucaena leucocephala anthelmintic-like phytochemicals and the ultrastructural damage generated to eggs of Cooperia spp.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; González-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo Gallegos, Epigmenio

    2015-11-30

    Leucaena leucocephala is a tropical forage legume suggested as an alternative method to control gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants. This study: (1) performed a bio-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of L. leucocephala using the egg hatch assay (EHA) to identify the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemicals present in fresh leaves, and (2) assessed the ultrastructural damage to eggs of Cooperia spp. after incubation with the final fraction. Phytochemicals were isolated using silica gel columns and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and standards for comparison. The final fraction was evaluated using EHA at 0.06, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.1 mg ml(-1). The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (LC50) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural changes present in Cooperia spp. eggs. Bio-guided isolation procedures led to the recognition of an active fraction (LlC1F3) mainly composed of quercetin (82.21%) and caffeic acid (13.42%) which inhibited 90.49 ± 2.8% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (P<0.05), and an LC50 of 0.06 ± 0.14 mg ml(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed eggs exposed to the active fraction had an irregular external layer with small projections and ruptures of lateral eggshell walls. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed changes to Cooperia spp. eggs in electro-density, including the thickness of the eggshell layers and fractures after incubation with the final fraction (LlC1F3). Changes in bioactivity after purification suggest synergistic interactions between quercetin and caffeic acid. PMID:26477279

  11. Polymerization degrees, molecular weights and protein-binding affinities of condensed tannin fractions from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Mookiah; Tan, Hui Yin; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Wong, Clemente Michael Vui Ling; Abdulmalek, Emilia; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-01-01

    Condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with proteins and are able to protect them from degradation, which could lead to rumen bypass proteins. Depending on their degrees of polymerization (DP) and molecular weights, CT fractions vary in their capability to bind proteins. In this study, purified condensed tannins (CTs) from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid were fractionated into five different molecular weight fractions. The structures of the CT fractions were investigated using 13C-NMR. The DP of the CT fractions were determined using a modified vanillin assay and their molecular weights were determined using Q-TOF LC-MS. The protein-binding affinities of the respective CT fractions were determined using a protein precipitation assay. The DP of the five CT fractions (fractions F1-F5) measured by the vanillin assay in acetic acid ranged from 4.86 to 1.56. The 13C-NMR results showed that the CT fractions possessed monomer unit structural heterogeneity. The number-average molecular weights (Mn) of the different fractions were 1265.8, 1028.6, 652.2, 562.2, and 469.6 for fractions F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5, respectively. The b values representing the CT quantities needed to bind half of the maximum precipitable bovine serum albumin increased with decreasing molecular weight--from fraction F1 to fraction F5 with values of 0.216, 0.295, 0.359, 0.425, and 0.460, respectively. This indicated that higher molecular weight fractions of CTs from L. leucocephala have higher protein-binding affinities than those with lower molecular weights. PMID:24927368

  12. Elucidation of Leucaena leucocephala anthelmintic-like phytochemicals and the ultrastructural damage generated to eggs of Cooperia spp.

    PubMed

    von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; González-Cortazar, Manases; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Castillo Gallegos, Epigmenio

    2015-11-30

    Leucaena leucocephala is a tropical forage legume suggested as an alternative method to control gastrointestinal parasitism in ruminants. This study: (1) performed a bio-guided fractionation of an aqueous extract of L. leucocephala using the egg hatch assay (EHA) to identify the anthelmintic (AH)-like phytochemicals present in fresh leaves, and (2) assessed the ultrastructural damage to eggs of Cooperia spp. after incubation with the final fraction. Phytochemicals were isolated using silica gel columns and identified using high performance liquid chromatography and standards for comparison. The final fraction was evaluated using EHA at 0.06, 0.125, 0.250, 0.500 and 1.1 mg ml(-1). The lethal concentration to inhibit 50% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (LC50) was calculated using a Probit analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural changes present in Cooperia spp. eggs. Bio-guided isolation procedures led to the recognition of an active fraction (LlC1F3) mainly composed of quercetin (82.21%) and caffeic acid (13.42%) which inhibited 90.49 ± 2.8% of Cooperia spp. egg hatching (P<0.05), and an LC50 of 0.06 ± 0.14 mg ml(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed eggs exposed to the active fraction had an irregular external layer with small projections and ruptures of lateral eggshell walls. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed changes to Cooperia spp. eggs in electro-density, including the thickness of the eggshell layers and fractures after incubation with the final fraction (LlC1F3). Changes in bioactivity after purification suggest synergistic interactions between quercetin and caffeic acid.

  13. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.

  14. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    PubMed

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region. PMID:27113453

  15. Biomass estimation in a young stand of mesquite (Prosopis species), ironwood (Olneya tesota), pado verde (Cercidium floridium, and Parkinsonia aculeata), and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Simple methods for estimating standing biomass in a stand of tree legumes containing the genera Prosopis, Cercidium, Olneya, Leucaena, and Parkinsonia are reported. Fresh and dry biomass were related to height and stem diameter measurements for 212 leguminous trees ranging in biomass from 0.04 to 17.8 kg using linear regression. The dry matter content of the above-ground biomass of these genera ranged from 40-56% and the stem dry matter percentage ranged from 70 to 96%. The best functional form of the model was log 10 dry weight (kg) = 2.55 log basal diameter (cm)-1.25, which had an r2 of 0.956 for 212 samples.

  16. Leucaena: promising forage and tree crop for the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A report mainly on L. leucocephala with similar chapters to those found in the first edition, and additional chapters on: experiences with Leucaena - illustrating the growth and use of L. leucocephala throughout the tropics and subtropics; and other Leucaena species - giving very brief descriptions of L. diversifolia, L. esulenta, L. macrophylla, L. pulverulenta, L. shannoni, L. retusa, L. lanceolata, L. collinsii and L. trichodes. 34 references.

  17. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  18. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract. PMID:26396295

  19. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  20. Symbiotic efficiency and phylogeny of the rhizobia isolated from Leucaena leucocephala in arid-hot river valley area in Panxi, Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai Wei; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Yuan Xue; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    In search of effective nitrogen-fixing strains for inoculating Leucaena leucocephala, we assessed the symbiotic efficiency of 41 rhizobial isolates from root nodules of L. leucocephala growing in the arid-hot river valley area in Panxi, China. The genetic diversity of the isolates was studied by analyzing the housekeeping genes 16S rRNA and recA, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. In the nodulation and symbiotic efficiency assay, only 11 of the 41 isolates promoted the growth of L. leucocephala while the majority of the isolates were ineffective in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Furthermore, one fourth of the isolates had a growth slowing effect on the host. According to the 16S rRNA and recA gene analyses, most of the isolates were Ensifer spp. The remaining isolates were assigned to Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. The sequence analyses indicated that the L. leucocephala rhizobia had undergone gene recombination. In contrast to the promiscuity observed as a wide species distribution of the isolates, the results implied that L. leucocephala is preferentially nodulated by strains that share common symbiosis genes. The symbiotic efficiency was not connected to chromosomal background of the symbionts and isolates carrying a similar nifH or nodC showed totally different nitrogen fixation efficiency. PMID:22767181

  1. Over-expression of a subgroup 4 R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala reduces lignin content in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Omer, Sumita; Kumar, Santosh; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : LlMYB1 , a subgroup 4 R2R3-type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala appears to be a repressor of lignin biosynthesis pathway by regulating the transcription of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. R2R3MYB transcription factors are known to play a wide role in regulating the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. In this study, we report isolation, cloning and characterization of an R2R3MYB transcription factor gene (LlMYB1) from an economically important tree species, Leucaena leucocephala. LlMYB1 consists of 705 bp coding sequence corresponding to 235 amino acids. Sequence alignment revealed that the N-terminal (MYB) domain of the gene shares up to 95 % similarity with subgroup 4 (Sg4) members of R2R3Myb gene family functionally known to be lignin repressors. Highly divergent C-terminal region of the gene carried an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, another characteristic of the Sg4. The gene was phylogenetically grouped closest with AmMYB308, a known repressor of monolignol biosynthetic pathway genes. Spatio-temporal expression studies at different ages of seedlings using quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) showed highest transcript level of the gene in 10 day old stem tissues. Over-expression of the gene in transgenic tobacco showed statistically significant decline in the transcript levels of the general phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduction in lignin content. Our study suggests that LlMYB1 might be playing the role of a repressor of lignin biosynthesis in L. leucocephala. PMID:23052594

  2. Manual harvesting of high population Leucaena stands

    SciTech Connect

    Pecson, R.D.; Van Den Beldt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Five-year-old giant Leucaena leucocephala, planted at spacing 1x0.5 m, were harvested using bolos (Filipino machetes) and chainsaws. For felling alone, chainsaws took 35% less time than bolos. For the total harvest including delimbing and hauling an average 20 m to the edge of the stand, chainsaws took 20% less time than bolos. Assuming chainsaws are economically viable, it may be advisable to fell with chainsaws in advance of bolo teams that buck and haul. 2 references.

  3. Anaerobic cellulolytic rumen fungal populations in goats fed with and without Leucaena leucocephala hybrid, as determined by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Kok, Ching Mun; Sieo, Chin Chin; Tan, Hui Yin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Liang, Juan Boo; Ho, Yin Wan

    2013-10-01

    The effect of Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Bahru (LLB), which contains a high concentration of condensed tannins, on cellulolytic rumen fungal population in goats was investigated using real-time PCR. The fungal population in goats fed LLB was inhibited during the first 10 days of feeding, but after 15 days of feeding, there was a tremendous increase of fungal population (157.0 μg/ml), which was about fourfold more than that in control goats (39.7 μg/ml). However, after this period, the fungal population decreased continuously, and at 30 days of feeding, the fungal population (50.6 μg/ml) was not significantly different from that in control goats (55.4 μg/ml). PMID:24173648

  4. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals. PMID:23397521

  5. Feeding potential of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) peels ensiled with Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium assessed with West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Oduguwa, Bamidele Omonuwa; Oni, Adebayo Olusoji; Arigbede, Oluwasanmi Moses; Adesunbola, Julius Olukunle; Sudekum, Karl Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Cassava peels (CaPe) were ensiled in mixtures with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and the utilization of the mixed silages by West African dwarf (WAD) goats was assessed. Five silages were composed, comprising of 100% ensiled CaPe (control), CaPe + G. sepium 2:1 (w/w; 2CGS), CaPe + G. sepium 1:1 (w/w; CGS), CaPe + L. leucocephala 2:1 (w/w; 2CLL) and CaPe + L. leucocephala 1:1 (w/w; CLL). All diets were supplemented with molasses (40 g/kg) before ensiling which lasted 3 months. Fifteen WAD goats (8.01 ± 0.12 kg body weight) were fed one of the experimental diets (50 g/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. The control had the lowest hydrocyanic acid content (0.05 mg/kg DM), while others ranged from 6.2 to 81.3 mg/kg. Condensed tannin concentration ranged from 1.7 to 8.4 mg/kg DM, while mimosine levels were 11.6 and 12.4 mg/kg DM in 2CLL and CLL, respectively. After fermentation, all silages showed low pH (<4.5) and were different (P < 0.05) in the lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. Ratio of foliage supplementation influenced DM intake (P < 0.05). Daily weight gains ranged from 17 (CLL) to 24 g/day in control. The digestibility coefficients of nutrients and fibre fractions differed (P < 0.05) among diets. The values for packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were also different (P < 0.05) across the dietary treatments. Ensiling CaPe with foliages of G. sepium and L. leucocephala can be recommended for feeding WAD goats especially during the dry spells when there is little or no available forage for the animals.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Wesley Melo; Thijs, Sofie; Moreira, Fatima Maria de Souza; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Rineau, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands. PMID:26966214

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. UFLA 01-765, a Multitolerant, Efficient Symbiont and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Zn-Mining Soil Using Leucaena leucocephala as a Trap Plant

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Sofie; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Rineau, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We report the 7.4-Mb draft genome sequence of Mesorhizobium sp. strain UFLA 01-765, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Phyllobacteriaceae isolated from Zn-mining soil in Minas Gerais, Brazil. This strain promotes plant growth, efficiently fixes N2 in symbiosis with Leucaena leucocephala on multicontaminated soil, and has potential for application in bioremediation of marginal lands. PMID:26966214

  8. High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 Bacteroids in Determinate Nodules of Vigna unguiculata and Indeterminate Nodules of Leucaena leucocephala

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata. PMID:23936444

  9. High-resolution transcriptomic analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 bacteroids in determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata and indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata.

  10. High-resolution transcriptomic analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 bacteroids in determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata and indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata. PMID:23936444

  11. Abiotic stress induces change in Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) protein abundance and lignin deposition in developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sameer; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Arafat, Yasir Ali; Gupta, Sushim K; Khan, Bashir M

    2015-04-01

    Aboitic stress such as drought and salinity are class of major threats, which plants undergo through their lifetime. Lignin deposition is one of the responses to such abiotic stresses. The gene encoding Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase (CCR) is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis, which has been shown to be over-expressed under stress conditions. In the present study, developing seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala (Vernacular name: Subabul, White popinac) were treated with 1 % mannitol and 200 mM NaCl to mimic drought and salinity stress conditions, respectively. Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) based expression pattern of CCR protein was monitored coupled with Phlorogucinol/HCl activity staining of lignin in transverse sections of developing L. leucocephala seedlings under stress. Our result suggests a differential lignification pattern in developing root and stem under stress conditions. Increase in lignification was observed in mannitol treated stems and corresponding CCR protein accumulation was also higher than control and salt stress treated samples. On the contrary CCR protein was lower in NaCl treated stems and corresponding lignin deposition was also low. Developing root tissue showed a high level of CCR content and lignin deposition than stem samples under all conditions tested. Overall result suggested that lignin accumulation was not affected much in case of developing root however developing stems were significantly affected under drought and salinity stress condition. PMID:25931776

  12. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    SciTech Connect

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20/sup 0/C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse labeling techniques.

  13. Intercropping of two Leucaena spp. with sweet potato: yield, growth rate and biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Results of trials with Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena diversifolia at Wau, Papua New Guinea, showed potential benefits of the agroforestry cropping system. The total biomass yield (sweet potato plus firewood and green manure) was considerably greater than the yield per unit area of sweet potato alone. 3 references.

  14. Evaluation of herbicides for use in transplanting leucaena leucocephala and prosopis alba on semi-arid lands without irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Smith, D.; Smith, M.; Bingham, R.L.; Reyes, I.

    1984-01-01

    Five herbicides were applied to plots at 2 rates in April 1982, and 3-month old seedlings planted 2 days later. Basal diameter was measured after 110 days and converted to dry weight using published equations. Percent weed cover was recorded 45, 75, and 105 days after planting. All herbicides increased survival over untreated controls. The greatest biomass production of both species was obtained with oryzalin treatment at 2.8 kg/ha active ingredient, which increased production 4-5X compared with control plots. Oryzalin was second to napropamide (2.24 kg/ha active ingredient) in grass control and equal to oxyfluorfen (1.12 kg/ha active ingredient) in forb control, oxyfluorfen at this rate also gave the second best biomass production. Oryzalin increased survival from 71 to 87% for Leucaena and from 81-94% for Prosopis, and is considered to be the best herbicide tested, followed by oxyfluorfen and metolachlor. Alachlor was considered to be too short-lived and napropamide too expensive.

  15. Soil Solution Phosphorus Status and Mycorrhizal Dependency in Leucaena leucocephala†

    PubMed Central

    Habte, Mitiku; Manjunath, Aswathanarayan

    1987-01-01

    A phosphorus sorption isotherm was used to establish concentrations of P in a soil solution ranging from 0.002 to 0.807 μg/ml. The influence of P concentration on the symbiotic interaction between the tropical tree legume Leucaena leucocephala and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum was evaluated in pot experiments. The level of mycorrhizal infection in Leucaena roots increased as the concentration of P was raised from 0.002 to 0.153 μg/ml. Higher levels of P depressed mycorrhizal infection, but the level of infection never declined below 50%. Periodic monitoring of P contents of Leucaena subleaflets indicated that significant mycorrhizal activity was detected as early as 17 days after planting, with the activity peaking 12 to 16 days thereafter. The highest level of mycorrhizal activity was associated with a soil solution P level of 0.021 μg/ml. Even though the mycorrhizal inoculation effect diminished as the concentration of P in the soil solution was increased, mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased P uptake and dry-matter yield of Leucaena at all levels of soil solution P examined. The concentration of P required by nonmycorrhizal L. leucocephala for maximum yield was 27 to 38 times higher than that required by mycorrhizal L. leucocephala. The results illustrate the very high dependence of L. leucocephala on VAM fungi and the significance of optimizing soil solution phosphorus for enhancing the benefits of the VAM symbiosis. PMID:16347323

  16. Functional characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of β-glucosidase responsible for bioactivation of cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides from Leucaena leucocephala (subabul).

    PubMed

    Shaik, Noor M; Misra, Anurag; Singh, Somesh; Fatangare, Amol B; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidases are important enzymes that serve many diverse functions in plants including defense, whereby hydrolyzing the defensive compounds such as hydroxynitrile glucosides. A hydroxynitrile glucoside cleaving β-glucosidase gene (Llbglu1) was isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, cloned into pET-28a (+) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimal temperature and pH for this β-glucosidase were found to be 45 °C and 4.8, respectively. The purified Llbglu1 enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic glycosides, pNPGlucoside (pNPGlc) and pNPGalactoside (pNPGal). Also, the enzyme hydrolyzed amygdalin, a hydroxynitrile glycoside and a few of the tested flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides. The kinetic parameters K (m) and V (max) were found to be 38.59 μM and 0.8237 μM/mg/min for pNPGlc, whereas for pNPGal the values were observed as 1845 μM and 0.1037 μM/mg/min. In the present study, a three dimensional (3D) model of the Llbglu1 was built by MODELLER software to find out the substrate binding sites and the quality of the model was examined using the program PROCHEK. Docking studies indicated that conserved active site residues are Glu 199, Glu 413, His 153, Asn 198, Val 270, Asn 340, and Trp 462. Docking of rhodiocyanoside A with the modeled Llbglu1 resulted in a binding with free energy change (ΔG) of -5.52 kcal/mol on which basis rhodiocyanoside A could be considered as a potential substrate. PMID:23079707

  17. Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov., from nodules of Dalea leporina, Leucaena leucocephala and Clitoria ternatea, and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., from nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, siratro, cowpea and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    López-López, Aline; Rogel-Hernández, Marco A; Barois, Isabelle; Ortiz Ceballos, Angel I; Martínez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2012-09-01

    Two novel related Rhizobium species, Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. and Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov., were identified by a polyphasic approach using DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic and phenotypic characterization including nodulation of Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris (bean). As similar bacteria were found in the Los Tuxtlas rainforest in Mexico and in Central America, we suggest the existence of a Mesoamerican microbiological corridor. The type strain of Rhizobium grahamii sp. nov. is CCGE 502(T) (= ATCC BAA-2124(T) = CFN 242(T) = Dal4(T) = HAMBI 3152(T)) and that of Rhizobium mesoamericanum sp. nov. is CCGE 501(T) (= ATCC BAA-2123(T) = HAMBI 3151(T) = CIP 110148(T) = 1847(T)). PMID:22081714

  18. Partial replacement of dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves for noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake in the diet of highland sheep fed on wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Tesfay, Temesgen; Tesfay, Yayneshet

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing noug (Guizotia abyssinica) (L.f.) Cass. seed cake by dried Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit leaves on feed intake, live weight gain, nutrient digestibility, and nitrogen balance of highland sheep in Tigray Region in northern Ethiopia. Twenty intact yearling male highland sheep weighing 16.9 ± 1.62 kg were used in a randomized complete block design and included the following four treatments: T1 (control, wheat straw ad libitum + 200 g noug seed cake (NSC) + 150 g wheat bran (WB)); T2 (wheat straw ad libitum + 170 g NSC + 44.3 g dried L. leucocephala (DLL) + 150 g WB); T3 (wheat straw ad libitum + 140 g NSC + 87.3 g DLL + 150 g WB); and T4 (wheat straw ad libitum + 110 g NSC + 130.2 g DLL + 150 g WB). Sheep fed on T4 diet consumed higher total dry matter (658 g/head/day) and recorded the highest average daily weight gain (59 g/head/day). Sheep fed on T4 diet had higher dry matter (61 %), organic matter (63 %), and crude protein (75 %) digestibility values than the other treatments. Sheep fed on T3 diet demonstrated higher feed conversion ratio (11.93) than sheep kept on the other treatments. All sheep exhibited positive nitrogen balance, with the highest nitrogen retention being measured in T4 (12 g/head/day). It is concluded that partially replacing NSC by DLL can improve total dry matter intake, digestibility of nutrients, and body weight gain in highland sheep fed on wheat straw as the basal diet. PMID:22820996

  19. Potential contribution of leucaena hedgerows intercropped with maize to the production of organic nitrogen and fuelwood in the lowland tropics. [L. leucocephala

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, F.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the literature was analysed. Annual N-production by L. leucocephala hedgerows planted more than 150 cm apart and cut every 8 weeks to 15-30 cm was estimated to be 45 g/linear m of hedgerow. The system is thought to be useful where soil-N availability is a limiting factor and where maize productivity is less than 1000 kg/ha (when increases of 112% for 1.5 m hedge spacings to 28% for 6 m spacings are predicted).

  20. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  1. Coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar: II. Coat and tail alopecia associated with Leucaena leucocepahala, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Alison

    2009-03-01

    Fur condition in wild ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, was recorded during September-November birth seasons 2001-2006 at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Body coat condition was scored on a scale from BS 0: full, smooth coat with guard hairs, to BS5: half or more of back and limbs hairless. Tail condition was scored from TS 0: full, to TS 5: half or more hairless. Where troop core areas included stands of Leucaena leucocephala, alopecia was dramatically more frequent than in similar areas without leucaena, including many animals with score BS5 or TS5, "bald lemur syndrome." Females' coats were worse than males', possibly related to female dominance and access to this preferred food. Tails in non-leucaena-feeding females tend to remain full, even if coats deteriorate, but with leucaena-feeding female tails are highly correlated with coat condition and equally bare. Coat and tail condition in L. catta reflected not only the dietary toxin but individual differences as well as differences between adjacent troops that may result from territorially mediated access to the environment. Leucaena contains the non-protein amino acid mimosine, a known cause of alopecia, wasting, and organ damage in livestock, although the effects are usually reversible. This is the first case of its effect in wildlife. Leucaena is an agroforestry tree introduced throughout the tropics. In high dietary concentrations leucaena might potentially affect any browsing mammal.

  2. Leucaena sp. recombinant cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Parth; Gupta, Neha; Gaikwad, Sushama; Agrawal, Dinesh C; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-02-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase is a broad substrate specificity enzyme catalyzing the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, leading to lignin formation in plants. Here, we report characterization of a recombinant CAD homologue (LlCAD2) isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. LlCAD2 is 80 kDa homo-dimer associated with non-covalent interactions, having substrate preference toward sinapaldehyde with Kcat/Km of 11.6×10(6) (M(-1) s(-1)), and a possible involvement of histidine at the active site. The enzyme remains stable up to 40 °C, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 0.002 and 5h, respectively. LlCAD2 showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 9 for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively, and was stable between pH 7 and 9, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 7.5×10(-4) and 15 h, respectively. It is a Zn-metalloenzyme with 4 Zn(2+) per dimer, however, was inhibited in presence of externally supplemented Zn(2+) ions. The enzyme was resistant to osmolytes, reducing agents and non-ionic detergents. PMID:24064207

  3. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-09-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

  4. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-01-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

  5. Comparison of the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts with phytoestrogens on the reproductive physiology and sexual behavior in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Juárez-Rojas, L; Hernández, A; Romero, C; López, G; Miranda, L; Guerrero-Aguilera, A; Solano, F; Hernández, E; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-10-01

    Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) and Leucaena leucocephala are widespread legumes, widely used to feed several livestock species and as food source for human populations in several countries. Both mesquite and Leucaena contain several phytoestrogens which might have potential estrogenic effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the male rat. The effects of the extracts were compared with those of estradiol (E2) and of two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact male rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; Leucaena extract; E2; DAI; GEN. The results indicate that mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts disrupt male sexual behavior in a similar way to DAI and GEN, but less than E2. The main disruptor of sexual behavior was E2, however after 40 and 50days of administration, both extracts and phytoestrogens disrupted sexual behavior in a similar way to E2. The extracts also increased testicular germ cell apoptosis, decreased sperm quality, testicular weight, and testosterone levels, as phytoestrogens did, although these effects were less than those caused by estradiol. The number of seminiferous tubules with TUNEL-positive germ cells increased in extracts treated groups in a similar way to phytoestrogens groups, and E2 caused the greatest effect. The number of TUNEL-positive cells per tubule increased only in Leucaena extract and E2 groups, but not in mesquite- and phytoestrogens-treated groups. Spermatocytes and round spermatids were the TUNEL-positive cells observed in all experimental groups. This effect was associated with smaller testicular weights without atrophy in experimental groups compared with control. Testicular atrophy was only observed in estradiol-treated males. Testosterone decreased in males of all experimental groups, compared with control, this androgen was undetectable in E2

  6. Comparison of the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts with phytoestrogens on the reproductive physiology and sexual behavior in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Juárez-Rojas, L; Hernández, A; Romero, C; López, G; Miranda, L; Guerrero-Aguilera, A; Solano, F; Hernández, E; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2016-10-01

    Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) and Leucaena leucocephala are widespread legumes, widely used to feed several livestock species and as food source for human populations in several countries. Both mesquite and Leucaena contain several phytoestrogens which might have potential estrogenic effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts on several aspects of behavior and reproductive physiology of the male rat. The effects of the extracts were compared with those of estradiol (E2) and of two isoflavones: daidzein (DAI) and genistein (GEN). The following treatments were given to groups of intact male rats: vehicle; mesquite pod extract; Leucaena extract; E2; DAI; GEN. The results indicate that mesquite pod and Leucaena extracts disrupt male sexual behavior in a similar way to DAI and GEN, but less than E2. The main disruptor of sexual behavior was E2, however after 40 and 50days of administration, both extracts and phytoestrogens disrupted sexual behavior in a similar way to E2. The extracts also increased testicular germ cell apoptosis, decreased sperm quality, testicular weight, and testosterone levels, as phytoestrogens did, although these effects were less than those caused by estradiol. The number of seminiferous tubules with TUNEL-positive germ cells increased in extracts treated groups in a similar way to phytoestrogens groups, and E2 caused the greatest effect. The number of TUNEL-positive cells per tubule increased only in Leucaena extract and E2 groups, but not in mesquite- and phytoestrogens-treated groups. Spermatocytes and round spermatids were the TUNEL-positive cells observed in all experimental groups. This effect was associated with smaller testicular weights without atrophy in experimental groups compared with control. Testicular atrophy was only observed in estradiol-treated males. Testosterone decreased in males of all experimental groups, compared with control, this androgen was undetectable in E2

  7. Isolation of Insertion Sequence ISRLdTAL1145-1 from a Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) and Distribution of Homologous Sequences Identifying Cross-Inoculation Group Relationships †

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Douglas J.; Somasegaran, Padma; MacGlashan, Kathryn; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1994-01-01

    Insertion sequence (IS) element ISRLdTAL1145-1 from Rhizobium sp. (Leucaena diversifolia) strain TAL 1145 was entrapped in the sacB gene of the positive selection vector pUCD800 by insertional inactivation. A hybridization probe prepared from the whole 2.5-kb element was used to determine the distribution of homologous sequences in a diverse collection of 135 Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains. The IS probe hybridized strongly to Southern blots of genomic DNAs from 10 rhizobial strains that nodulate both Phaseolus vulgaris (beans) and Leucaena leucocephala (leguminous trees), 1 Rhizobium sp. that nodulates Leucaena spp., 9 R. meliloti (alfalfa) strains, 4 Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Sophora chrysophylla (leguminous trees), and 1 nonnodulating bacterium associated with the nodules of Pithecellobium dulce from the Leucaena cross-inoculation group, producing distinguishing IS patterns for each strain. Hybridization analysis revealed that ISRLdTAL1145-1 was strongly homologous with and closely related to a previously isolated element, ISRm USDA1024-1 from R. meliloti, while restriction enzyme analysis found structural similarities and differences between the two IS homologs. Two internal segments of these IS elements were used to construct hybridization probes of 1.2 kb and 380 bp that delineate a structural similarity and a difference, respectively, of the two IS homologs. The internal segment probes were used to analyze the structures of homologous IS elements in other strains. Five types of structural variation in homolog IS elements were found. The predominate IS structural type naturally occurring in a strain can reasonably identify the strain's cross-inoculation group relationships. Three IS structural types were found in Rhizobium species that nodulate beans and Leucaena species, one of which included the designated type IIB strain of R. tropici (CIAT 899). Weak homology to the whole IS probe, but not with the internal segments, was found with two

  8. Leucaena and dried poultry waste improve the performance of West African Dwarf sheep on a grass diet.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Euphresia Besongtakor; Ndamukong, Kenneth Jacob Ngoh; Pamo, Etienne Tendonkeng

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects on digestibility and growth when West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep were fed a basal diet of Tripsacum laxum with Leucaena leucocephala or dried poultry waste as supplement. Fifteen WAD sheep (12 rams and 3 ewes) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments of 5 animals each, namely T1-basal diet of chopped T. laxum (control), T2-basal diet plus dried poultry waste, and T3-basal diet plus L. leucocephala. Animals had access to drinking water and a mineral mix ad libitum. They were weighed weekly after a 2-week adaptation period, for a duration of 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rams randomly selected from each treatment group were used for the digestibility study. Results revealed that average daily intake of L. leucocephala (350.0 ± 0.3 g/animal) was higher than that of dried poultry waste (260.0 ± 0.1 g/animal). The supplemented groups, T2 and T3, gained 21.4 and 31.0 g daily respectively, while animals of the control group (T1) lost 6.0 g daily. There was a significant difference (P<0.01) in dry matter intake between the control and supplemented groups, with T2 recording the highest intake. Organic matter intake of treatment 3 was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of T1 and T2. The differences in crude fibre (CF) ingestion between T2 and T1 as well as T3 and T1 were significant (P<0.01), with the highest ingestion of CF occurring in T1. The dry matter digestibility of the supplemented groups was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The organic matter digestibility of T2 and T3, as well as T1 and T3 were significantly different (P<0.05), being highest in T3 (77.0 ± 2.1 %) and lowest in T2 (58.1 ± 1.0 %) It was concluded from the study that T. laxum can be better utilized in West African Dwarf sheep when supplemented with dried poultry waste or L. leucocephala.

  9. Leucaena and dried poultry waste improve the performance of West African Dwarf sheep on a grass diet.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Euphresia Besongtakor; Ndamukong, Kenneth Jacob Ngoh; Pamo, Etienne Tendonkeng

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects on digestibility and growth when West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep were fed a basal diet of Tripsacum laxum with Leucaena leucocephala or dried poultry waste as supplement. Fifteen WAD sheep (12 rams and 3 ewes) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments of 5 animals each, namely T1-basal diet of chopped T. laxum (control), T2-basal diet plus dried poultry waste, and T3-basal diet plus L. leucocephala. Animals had access to drinking water and a mineral mix ad libitum. They were weighed weekly after a 2-week adaptation period, for a duration of 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rams randomly selected from each treatment group were used for the digestibility study. Results revealed that average daily intake of L. leucocephala (350.0 ± 0.3 g/animal) was higher than that of dried poultry waste (260.0 ± 0.1 g/animal). The supplemented groups, T2 and T3, gained 21.4 and 31.0 g daily respectively, while animals of the control group (T1) lost 6.0 g daily. There was a significant difference (P<0.01) in dry matter intake between the control and supplemented groups, with T2 recording the highest intake. Organic matter intake of treatment 3 was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of T1 and T2. The differences in crude fibre (CF) ingestion between T2 and T1 as well as T3 and T1 were significant (P<0.01), with the highest ingestion of CF occurring in T1. The dry matter digestibility of the supplemented groups was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the control. The organic matter digestibility of T2 and T3, as well as T1 and T3 were significantly different (P<0.05), being highest in T3 (77.0 ± 2.1 %) and lowest in T2 (58.1 ± 1.0 %) It was concluded from the study that T. laxum can be better utilized in West African Dwarf sheep when supplemented with dried poultry waste or L. leucocephala. PMID:23224820

  10. Prevention of leucaena toxicosis of cattle in Florida by ruminal inoculation with 3-hydroxy-4-(1H)-pyridone-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hammond, A C; Allison, M J; Williams, M J; Prine, G M; Bates, D B

    1989-12-01

    Ruminal microorganisms in cattle at a Florida agriculture research station did not have the ability to detoxify leucaena by degradation of 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridone (3,4,-DHP), but a DHP isomer (2,3-DHP) was degraded in some cattle. Cattle with microorganisms that degraded 2,3-DHP were mostly Senepol cattle imported from St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, where leucaena is an indigenous species. Hereford cattle at the research station in Florida generally did not degrade 3,4-DHP or 2,3-DHP. An experiment was conducted in which a pure culture of 3,4-DHP-degrading bacteria was inoculated into Hereford cattle (with ruminal fistula) grazing leucaena. The bacteria successfully colonized the rumen of recipient cattle and persisted through the following winter when there was no leucaena in the diet. PMID:2610447

  11. Mimosine, a Toxin Present in Leguminous Trees (Leucaena spp.), Induces a Mimosine-Degrading Enzyme Activity in Some Rhizobium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Soedarjo, Muchdar; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.; Borthakur, Dulal

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-seven Rhizobium isolates obtained from the nodules of leguminous trees (Leucaena spp.) were selected on the basis of their ability to catabolize mimosine, a toxin found in large quantities in the seeds, foliage, and roots of plants of the genera Leucaena and Mimosa. A new medium containing mimosine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was used for selection. The enzymes of the mimosine catabolic pathway were inducible and were present in the soluble fraction of the cell extract of induced cells. On the basis of a comparison of the growth rates of Rhizobium strains on general carbon and nitrogen sources versus mimosine, the toxin appears to be converted mostly to biomass and carbon dioxide. Most isolates able to grow on mimosine as a source of carbon and nitrogen are also able to utilize 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, a toxic intermediate of mimosine degradation in other organisms. PMID:16349454

  12. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2016-08-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  13. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Phesatcha, K.; Wanapat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  14. Exploiting unique germplasm resources of leguminous trees: Prosopis, leucaena and acacia. Final report, August 31, 1982-August 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.

    1992-01-01

    In Haiti, and other semiarid regions of the world, the need for fuelwood and forage is critical. The report summarizes research conducted over a ten year period on developing replicable plantations of leguminous trees in semiarid lands, especially in areas near seawater salinity levels. Research included greenhouse and laboratory work followed by field trials in Haiti and focused on two species: Prosopis and Leucaena. (Acacia is mentioned in the report's title but not in the report itself.) Results were as follows. (1) Greenhouse experiments identified leaf diagnostic criteria indicating mineral nutrient deficiencies in field trees. It also established the importance of micronutrients, especially zinc, in permitting growth in high pH (9.0) soils.

  15. Optimization the soda-AQ process for cellulose pulp production and energy content of black liquor from L. leucocephala K360.

    PubMed

    Feria, M J; García, J C; Díaz, M J; Garrote, G; López, F

    2012-09-01

    A commercial variety of Leucaena leucocephala K360 was used for pulp production and papermaking employing the soda-anthraquinone process. Also, the chemical and energy contents of the resultant black liquors were determined to simultaneously optimize: pulp and paper production and energy generation. A process temperature of (185°C), an operating time of (120 min) and an active alkali concentration of (21%) provided sheets of paper with good strength (tensile index of 12.12 Nm/g, burst index of 0.38 kPa m(2)/g, tear index of 1.29 mN m(2)/g and a Kappa number of 20.5) and black liquor with a greater calorific value (14.1 MJ/kg) than that obtained with higher active alkali concentrations. However, reducing the active alkali concentration to a level in the low operation range led to less marked degradation of cellulose and allowed paper sheets with good properties to be obtained and energy to be optimally produced from the black liquor. PMID:22789829

  16. Optimization the soda-AQ process for cellulose pulp production and energy content of black liquor from L. leucocephala K360.

    PubMed

    Feria, M J; García, J C; Díaz, M J; Garrote, G; López, F

    2012-09-01

    A commercial variety of Leucaena leucocephala K360 was used for pulp production and papermaking employing the soda-anthraquinone process. Also, the chemical and energy contents of the resultant black liquors were determined to simultaneously optimize: pulp and paper production and energy generation. A process temperature of (185°C), an operating time of (120 min) and an active alkali concentration of (21%) provided sheets of paper with good strength (tensile index of 12.12 Nm/g, burst index of 0.38 kPa m(2)/g, tear index of 1.29 mN m(2)/g and a Kappa number of 20.5) and black liquor with a greater calorific value (14.1 MJ/kg) than that obtained with higher active alkali concentrations. However, reducing the active alkali concentration to a level in the low operation range led to less marked degradation of cellulose and allowed paper sheets with good properties to be obtained and energy to be optimally produced from the black liquor.

  17. Biomass and energy productivity of Leucaena under humid subtropical conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, A.B.; Prine, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A table shows the amount and energy content of above-ground biomass produced in 1982 and 1983 by the 12 most productive of 62 accessions of Leucanena spp. established in 1979 at the University of Florida. Mean annual biomass production of the 12 accessions was 29.3 and 24.7 Mg/ha, with energy contents of 19,690 and 19,820 J/g, in 1982 and 1983 respectively.

  18. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  19. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    PubMed

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species. PMID:27010846

  20. Making a Bad Situation Worse: An Invasive Species Altering the Balance of Interactions between Local Species.

    PubMed

    Mello, Thayná Jeremias; Oliveira, Alexandre Adalardo de

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasions pose a significant threat to biodiversity, especially on oceanic islands. One of the primary explanations for the success of plant invaders is direct suppression of competitors. However, indirect interactions can also be important, although they are often overlooked in studies on biological invasion. The shrub Leucaena leucocephala is a widespread island invader with putative allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of other species. We quantified the impact of Leucaena on plant communities richness on an oceanic Brazilian island and, through nursery experiments, investigated the potential for allelopathic effects on the germination of Erythrina velutina, a native species that is often absent from stands of Leucaena. Additionally, in a manipulative field experiment, we examined the direct and indirect effects (mediated by the native species Capparis flexuosa) of the invader on the development of Erythrina. The species richness in invaded sites was lower than in uninvaded sites, and Capparis was the only native species that was frequently present in invaded sites. In the nursery experiments, we found no evidence that Leucaena affects the germination of Erythrina. In the field experiments, the odds of Erythrina germination were lower in the presence of Leucaena litter, but higher in the presence of Leucaena trees. However, the survival and growth of Erythrina were considerably inhibited by the presence of Leucaena trees. The isolated effect of native Capparis on the germination and growth of Erythrina varied from positive to neutral. However, when Capparis and Leucaena were both present, their combined negative effects on Erythrina were worse than the effect of Leucaena alone, which may be attributed to indirect effects. This study provides the first empirical evidence that the balance of the interactions between native species can shift from neutral/positive to negative in the presence of an exotic species.

  1. Economic analysis of a simulated alley cropping system for semi-arid conditions, using micro computers

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Returns were simulated for the semi-arid areas in Mackakos District, Kenya (bimodal rainfall distribution, 600 mm/yr) comparing the present system (maize and beans intercropped twice a year) with a Leucaena leucocephala hedgerow system. Although some of the assumptions contain a large element of uncertainty, the results were promising enough for the system to be considered further. 4 references.

  2. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    PubMed

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases. PMID:24502152

  3. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    PubMed

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  4. Isolation and characterization of mimosine, 3, 4 DHP and 2, 3 DHP degrading bacteria from a commercial rumen inoculum.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani, Hooman; Corley, Sean W; Al Jassim, Rafat

    2016-05-01

    The presence of the toxic amino acid mimosine in Leucaena leucocephala restricts its use as a protein source for ruminants. Rumen bacteria degrade mimosine to 3,4- and 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP), which remain toxic. Synergistes jonesii is believed to be the main bacterium responsible for degradation of these toxic compounds but other bacteria may also be involved. In this study, a commercial inoculum provided by the Queensland's Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry was screened for isolation and characterization of mimosine, 3,4- and 2,3-DHP degrading bacterial strains. A new medium for screening of 2,3-DHP degrading bacteria was developed. Molecular and biochemical approaches used in this study revealed four bacterial isolates - Streptococcus lutetiensis, Clostridium butyricum, Lactobacillus vitulinus, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens - to be able to completely degrade mimosine within 7 days of incubation. It was also observed that C. butyricum and L. vitulinus were able to partially degrade 2,3-DHP within 12 days of incubation, while S. lutetiensis, was able to fully degrade both 3,4 and 2,3 DHP. Collectively, we concluded that S. jonesii is not the sole bacterium responsible for detoxification of Leucaena. Comprehensive screening of rumen fluid of cattle grazing on Leucaena pastures is needed to identify additional mimosine-detoxifying bacteria and contribute to development of more effective inoculums to be used by farmers against Leucaena toxicity. PMID:26773324

  5. Detection of ruminal bacteria that degrade toxic dihydroxypyridine compounds produced from mimosine.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, M J; Hammond, A C; Jones, R J

    1990-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala, a tropical leguminous shrub, contains a toxic amino acid, mimosine. Successful utilization of leucaena as a ruminant forage depends on colonization of the rumen by bacteria that degrade dihydroxypyridines (DHP), which are toxic intermediates in the metabolism of mimosine. Populations in the rumina of animals in some parts of the world, however, do not include bacteria that are able to carry out this degradation. We thus describe tests for the presence of DHP degraders in ruminal populations that are based on degradation (loss) of DHP compounds from culture media. Results obtained with the tests indicate that DHP degraders were not part of microbial populations in the rumina of cattle, sheep, and goats in Iowa, while most rumen samples examined from animals from the Virgin Islands and Haiti contained DHP degraders. These results confirm and extend the findings of others about geographic limits to the distribution of these important ruminal bacteria. PMID:2317038

  6. Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.

    PubMed

    Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity. PMID:24750263

  7. Buffer nitrogen solubility, in vitro ruminal partitioning of nitrogen and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves of four fodder tree species.

    PubMed

    Cudjoe, N; Mlambo, V

    2014-08-01

    This study explores the chemical composition, buffer N solubility, in vitro ruminal N degradability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of tannins in leaves from Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Trichanthera gigantea trees. These tree leaves are a potential protein source for ruminants, but their site-influenced nutritive value is largely unknown. Leucaena leucocephala leaves had the highest N content (42.1 g/kg DM), while T. gigantea leaves had the least (26.1 g/kg DM). Leucaena leucocephala had the highest buffer solubility index (20%), while 10% of the total N in leaves of the other three species was soluble. The rapidly fermentable N fraction 'a' was highest in M. alba leaves (734.9 g/kg DM) and least in T. gigantea leaves (139.5 g/kg DM). The rate of fermentation (c) was highest for M. alba (7%/hours) leaves. No significant correlations were recorded between buffer solubility index of N and in vitro ruminal N degradability parameters: a, b, and c. The highest response to tannin inactivation using polyethylene glycol, in terms of percentage increase in 36-hours cumulative gas production, was recorded in M. alba (39%) and T. gigantea (38%) leaves. It was concluded that buffer solubility of N is not a good indicator of ruminal N degradation in the leaves of these tree species. Leaves of M. alba could be more valuable as a source of rapidly fermentable N when animals are offered low-protein, high-fibre diets compared with other tree species evaluated in the current study. However, when feeding M. alba leaves, the role of tannins must be considered because these secondary plant compounds showed significant in vitro ruminal biological activity.

  8. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.

  9. Effect of condensed tannins on bovine rumen protist diversity based on 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Yin; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Liang, Juan Boo; Huang, Xiao Dan; Ho, Yin Wan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diversity of protists from bovine rumen fluid incubated with condensed tannins of Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang at 20 mg/500 mg dry matter (treatment) or without condensed tannins (control) was investigated using 18S rRNA gene library. Clones from the control library were distributed within nine genera, but clones from the condensed tannin treatment clone library were related to only six genera. Diversity estimators such as abundance-based coverage estimation and Chao1 showed significant differences between the two libraries, although no differences were found based on Shannon-Weaver index and Libshuff.

  10. Effect of condensed tannins on bovine rumen protist diversity based on 18S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Yin; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Liang, Juan Boo; Huang, Xiao Dan; Ho, Yin Wan

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diversity of protists from bovine rumen fluid incubated with condensed tannins of Leucaena leucocephala hybrid-Rendang at 20 mg/500 mg dry matter (treatment) or without condensed tannins (control) was investigated using 18S rRNA gene library. Clones from the control library were distributed within nine genera, but clones from the condensed tannin treatment clone library were related to only six genera. Diversity estimators such as abundance-based coverage estimation and Chao1 showed significant differences between the two libraries, although no differences were found based on Shannon-Weaver index and Libshuff. PMID:23205499

  11. Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., a symbiont of Phaseolus vulgaris that is very effective at fixing nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-11-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can establish symbiotic associations with several Rhizobium species; however, the effectiveness of most strains at fixing nitrogen under field conditions is very low. PRF 81(T) is a very effective strain, usually referred to as Rhizobium tropici and used successfully in thousands of doses of commercial inoculants for the common bean crop in Brazil; it has shown high rates of nitrogen fixation in all areas representative of the crop in the country. Here, we present results that indicate that PRF 81(T), although it belongs to the 'R. tropici group', which includes 10 Rhizobium species, R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum, R. multihospitium, R. miluonense, R. hainanense, R. calliandrae, R. mayense, R. jaguaris and R. rhizogenes, represents a novel species. Several morpho-physiological traits differentiated PRF 81(T) from related species. Differences were also confirmed in the analysis of rep-PCR (sharing less than 45 % similarity with the other species), MLSA with recA, atpD and rpoB genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. The novel species, for which we propose the name Rhizobium freirei sp. nov., is able to establish effective root nodule symbioses with Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena esculenta, Crotalaria juncea and Macroptilium atropurpureum. The type strain is PRF 81(T) ( = CNPSo 122(T) = SEMIA 4080(T) = IPR-Pv81(T) = WDCM 440(T)). PMID:23771622

  12. [Vegetation biomass allocation and its spatial distribution after 20 years ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley in Yuanmou, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tang, Guo-Yong; Li, Kun; Gao, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Fang-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2013-06-01

    By using layering harvest method, a comparative study was conducted on the biomass allocation and its spatial distribution of 20-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation, Leucaena leucocephala plantation, and E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation in Yuanmou dry-hot valley of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The stand biomass in the mixed E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation (82.99 t x hm(-2)) was between that of monoculture E. camaldulensis plantation (60.64 t x hm(-2)) and L. leucocephala plantation (127.79 t x hm(-2)). The individual tree biomass of E. camaldulensis in the mixed plantation (44.32 kg) was 49.8% higher than that in monoculture plantation (29.58 kg). The branch and leaf biomass of L. leucocephala (25.4%) in monoculture plantation was larger than that of E. camaldulensis (8.9%) in monoculture plantation, and the aboveground biomass distribution ratio (78.0%) of L. leucocephala (25.4%) was also higher than that of E. camaldulensis (73.4%). The roots of L. leucocephala in both monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer, while those of E. camaldulensis in monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly found in 0-80 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. The proportion of biomass allocated to roots including medium roots, small roots, and fine roots of L. leucocephala in mixed plantation was higher than that in monoculture plantation, but it was contrary for E. camaldulensis. It was suggested that introducing L. leucocephala in E. camaldulensis plantation promoted the growth of E. camaldulensis, especially for its aboveground biomass, and increased the amount of lateral roots in 0-20 cm soil layer, which had significance in soil and water conservation in the study area.

  13. [Vegetation biomass allocation and its spatial distribution after 20 years ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley in Yuanmou, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tang, Guo-Yong; Li, Kun; Gao, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Fang-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2013-06-01

    By using layering harvest method, a comparative study was conducted on the biomass allocation and its spatial distribution of 20-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation, Leucaena leucocephala plantation, and E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation in Yuanmou dry-hot valley of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The stand biomass in the mixed E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation (82.99 t x hm(-2)) was between that of monoculture E. camaldulensis plantation (60.64 t x hm(-2)) and L. leucocephala plantation (127.79 t x hm(-2)). The individual tree biomass of E. camaldulensis in the mixed plantation (44.32 kg) was 49.8% higher than that in monoculture plantation (29.58 kg). The branch and leaf biomass of L. leucocephala (25.4%) in monoculture plantation was larger than that of E. camaldulensis (8.9%) in monoculture plantation, and the aboveground biomass distribution ratio (78.0%) of L. leucocephala (25.4%) was also higher than that of E. camaldulensis (73.4%). The roots of L. leucocephala in both monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer, while those of E. camaldulensis in monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly found in 0-80 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. The proportion of biomass allocated to roots including medium roots, small roots, and fine roots of L. leucocephala in mixed plantation was higher than that in monoculture plantation, but it was contrary for E. camaldulensis. It was suggested that introducing L. leucocephala in E. camaldulensis plantation promoted the growth of E. camaldulensis, especially for its aboveground biomass, and increased the amount of lateral roots in 0-20 cm soil layer, which had significance in soil and water conservation in the study area. PMID:24066529

  14. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals.

  15. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    PubMed

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals. PMID:23670312

  16. Mutual reproductive dependence of distylic Cordia leucocephala (Cordiaceae) and oligolectic Ceblurgus longipalpis (Halictidae, Rophitinae) in the Caatinga

    PubMed Central

    Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo; Schlindwein, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The close relationship between distylic Cordia leucocephala and the bee Ceblurgus longipalpis, both endemic to the Caatinga, north-east Brazil, was investigated, emphasizing reproductive dependence, morphological adaptations of the partners, and pollen flow. Methods In the municipality of Pedra, in the Caatinga of Pernambuco, the breeding system and reproductive success of C. leucocephala, its interaction with flower visitors and inter- and intramorph pollen flow were determined. Key Results The bee Ceblurgus longipalpis, the unique flower visitor and effective pollinator of self-incompatible Cordia leucocephala, presents morphological features adapted to exploit hidden pollen and nectar in the long and narrow corolla tubes. Pollen of low-level anthers is collected with hairs on prolonged mouthparts and pollen of high-level anthers with clypeus, mandibles, and labrum, showing pollen removal from both levels with the same effectiveness. In both morphs, this results in similar legitimate, i.e. intermorph cross-pollen flow. Illegitimate pollen flow to stigmas of pin flowers, however, was much higher than to stigmas of thrum flowers. Moreover, more illegitimate pollen was transported to stigmas of pin and less to those of thrum flowers when compared with legitimate pollen flow. Conclusions The study reveals a one-to-one reproductive inter-dependence between both partners. Data indicate that this relationship between bee species and plant species is one of the rare cases of monolecty among bees. Monotypic Ceblurgus longipalpis, the only rophitine species of Brazil, evolved prolonged mouthparts rare among short-tongued bees that enable them to access pollen from flowers with short-level anthers hidden for bees of other species, and nectar at the base of the flower tube. PMID:20400457

  17. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:19226752

  18. Grass and herbaceous plants for biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Mislevy, P.

    1983-01-01

    Florida has little fossil fuel resources, but the state does have an adequate climate for high plant biomass production. Grasses and herbaceous plants are renewable resources which could furnish a portion of Florida's energy needs. Dry matter yields of various annual and perennial grasses and herbaceous plants which can be grown in Florida are presented in this paper. Residues of crops already being grown for other reasons would be an economical source of biomass. The best alternative for an energy crop appears to be tropical perennial shrub-like legumes and tall, strong-stemmed grasses that have their top growth killed by frosts each winter and that regrow annually from below-ground regenerative plant parts. Napiergrass or elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum L.), leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) are examples of such energy plants. Napiergrass (PI 300086) had dry matter yields when cut once at the end of the season of 44.5 and 52.4 Mg/ha in 1981 and 1982 respectively, at Gainesville, Fla. and 56.7 Mg/ha for the first season after planting (1982) at Ona, Fla. A dry matter yield of 73 Mg/ha was obtained from a 10-year-old clump of leucaena at Gainesville in 1981. However, research needs to be conducted on methods of harvesting and storing biomass plants to be used for energy. Napiergrass and other grasses may be solar dried standing after a freeze or following cutting in the fall and then be rolled into large bales for storage in the open or crude shelters. A year-round supply of economical biomass must be available before grasses and herbaceous plants are widely grown and used for energy purposes. 6 references.

  19. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation.

  20. Metabolism of the soil and groundwater contaminants, ethylene dibromide and trichloroethylene, by the tropical leguminous tree, Leuceana leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty; Shang, Tanya Qing; Wilson, Angela M; Moore, Allison Leigh; Newman, Lee A; Strand, Stuart Edward; Gordon, Milton Paul

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene dibromide (EDB; dibromoethane) and trichloroethylene (TCE) are hazardous environmental pollutants. The use of plants to treat polluted sites and groundwater, termed phytoremediation, requires plants that can both effectively remove the pollutant as well as grow in the climatic region of the site. In this paper, we report that the tropical leguminous tree, Leuceana leucocephala var. K636, is able to take up and metabolize EDB and TCE. The plants were grown in sterile hydroponic solution without its symbiont, Rhizobium. EDB and TCE were both metabolized by the plant, as indicated by the formation of bromide ion from EDB and trichloroethanol from TCE. Each plant organ was independently capable of debromination of EDB. L. leucocephala is being used to treat perched groundwater as part of a remedial alternative to address an accidental EDB spill in Hawaii. Bromide levels of plant tissues from the trees grown in the phytoremediation treatment cells at the Hawaii Site were elevated, indicating uptake and degradation of brominated compounds in the trees. This report is the first evidence of a tropical tree effectively metabolizing these common organic pollutants.

  1. Multiple copies of nodD in Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 and BR816.

    PubMed Central

    van Rhijn, P J; Feys, B; Verreth, C; Vanderleyden, J

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium tropici strains are able to nodulate a wide range of host plants: Phaseolus vulgaris, Leucaena spp., and Macroptilium atropurpureum. We studied the nodD regulatory gene for nodulation of two R. tropici strains: CIAT899, the reference R. tropici type IIb strain, and BR816, a heat-tolerant strain isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. A survey revealed several nodD-hybridizing DNA regions in both strains: five distinct regions in CIAT899 and four distinct regions in BR816. Induction experiments of a nodABC-uidA fusion in combination with different nodD-hybridizing fragments in the presence of root exudates of the different hosts indicate that one particular nodD copy contributes to nodulation gene induction far more than any other nodD copy present. The nucleotide sequences of both nodD genes are reported here and show significant homology to those of the nodD genes of other rhizobia and a Bradyrhizobium strain. A dendrogram based on the protein sequences of 15 different NodD proteins shows that the R. tropici NodD proteins are linked most closely to each other and then to the NodD of Rhizobium phaseoli 8002. Images PMID:8419293

  2. Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov., an effective N2-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with broad geographical distribution in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Ribeiro, Renan Augusto; Delamuta, Jakeline Renata Marçon; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Andrade, Diva Souza; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Hungria, Mariangela

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N), the nutrient most required for plant growth, is key for good yield of agriculturally important crops. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can benefit from bacteria collectively called rhizobia, which are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) in root nodules and supplying it to the plant. Common bean is amongst the most promiscuous legume hosts; several described species, in addition to putative novel ones have been reported as able to nodulate this legume, although not always effectively in terms of fixing N2. In this study, we present data indicating that Brazilian strains PRF 35(T), PRF 54, CPAO 1135 and H 52, currently classified as Rhizobium tropici, represent a novel species symbiont of common bean. Morphological, physiological and biochemical properties differentiate these strains from other species of the genus Rhizobium, as do BOX-PCR profiles (less than 60 % similarity), multilocus sequence analysis with recA, gyrB and rpoA (less than 96.4 % sequence similarity), DNA-DNA hybridization (less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness), and average nucleotide identity of whole genomes (less than 92.8.%). The novel species is effective in nodulating and fixing N2 with P. vulgaris, Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena esculenta. We propose the name Rhizobium paranaense sp. nov. for this novel taxon, with strain PRF 35(T) ( = CNPSo 120(T) = LMG 27577(T) = IPR-Pv 1249(T)) as the type strain. PMID:24972614

  3. Lactational performance of Jersey cows given Napier fodder (Pennisetum purpureum) with and without protein concentrates in the semi-humid tropics.

    PubMed

    Muinga, R W; Thorpe, W; Topps, J H

    1993-05-01

    Two experiments with 12 and 18 lactating Jersey cows respectively were carried out in the coastal semi-humid zone of Kenya to assess the performance arising from the feeding of chopped Napier fodder (Pennisetum purpureum) given ad libitum with and without one of three sources of protein; fishmeal, copra cake and freshly cut Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala). Each source supplied approximately 300 g crude protein daily. Dry matter intakes of Napier fodder fed alone averaged 7.1 and 5.5 kg in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively. Additional protein did not affect Napier fodder intake, but total intakes of dry matter were higher for the cows receiving the protein supplements, differences which were significant (P < 0.05) in Experiment 2. Average daily milk production from cows fed Napier fodder alone was 6.4 and 4.2 kg in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively. The additional 300 g crude protein increased milk production by 1.0 to 1.6 kg/day, increases which, except that for fishmeal, were significant (P < 0.05). Weight losses of the cows were either reduced or changed to weight gains by the provision of protein. The results are assessed in relation to the energy and protein requirements for milk production.

  4. [Effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Xing; He, Bing-Hui; Mei, Xue-Mei; Liang, Yan-Ling; Xiong, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Taking bare land as the control, this paper studied the effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area. For the test six planting modes, the soil permeability was in the order of Eriobotrya japonica > Citrus limon > Vetiveria zizanioides hedgerows +corn >Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows + corn> Hemerocallis fulva > corn> bare land, and decreased with increasing depth. The eigenvalues of soil infiltration were in the order of initial infiltration rate> average infiltration rate> stable infiltration rate. The soil permeability had significant positive linear correlations with soil total porosity, non-capillary porosity, initial moisture content, water holding capacity, and organic matter content, and significant negative linear correlation with soil bulk density. The common empirical infiltration model could well fit the soil moisture infiltration processes under the six planting modes, while the Kostiakov equation could not. PMID:23755487

  5. [Effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Xing; He, Bing-Hui; Mei, Xue-Mei; Liang, Yan-Ling; Xiong, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Taking bare land as the control, this paper studied the effects of different planting modes on the soil permeability of sloping farmlands in purple soil area. For the test six planting modes, the soil permeability was in the order of Eriobotrya japonica > Citrus limon > Vetiveria zizanioides hedgerows +corn >Leucaena leucocephala hedgerows + corn> Hemerocallis fulva > corn> bare land, and decreased with increasing depth. The eigenvalues of soil infiltration were in the order of initial infiltration rate> average infiltration rate> stable infiltration rate. The soil permeability had significant positive linear correlations with soil total porosity, non-capillary porosity, initial moisture content, water holding capacity, and organic matter content, and significant negative linear correlation with soil bulk density. The common empirical infiltration model could well fit the soil moisture infiltration processes under the six planting modes, while the Kostiakov equation could not.

  6. Immobilized lipase from Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 for the production of fatty acids methyl esters from cyanobacterial oil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyoti; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Madan; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Novel lipase from model mushroom Schizophyllum commune strain ISTL04 produced by solid state fermentation of Leucaena leucocephala seeds, was immobilized onto Celite for enzymatic FAMEs production from cyanobacterial endolith Leptolyngbya ISTCY101. The isolate showed vigorous growth and produced remarkable lipase activity of 146.5 U g(-1) dry solid substrate, without any external lipase inducer. Single-factor experiments were carried out to study the effects of various reaction parameters on the FAMEs yield. The best conditions for enzymatic transesterification as revealed by the results were: 1:3 oil to methanol molar ratio, added at 3h intervals, 12% water content, 1581.5 U g(-1) immobilized lipase, temperature 45 °C, and time 24h. Under these conditions, the maximum FAMEs yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase was able to produce >90% of the relative FAMEs yield after four repeated transesterification cycles. This immobilized lipase exhibited potential for application in biodiesel industry. PMID:25670399

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:7618891

  8. The role of nurse trees in mitigating fire effects on tropical dry forest restoration: a case study.

    PubMed

    Santiago-García, Ricardo J; Colón, Sandra Molina; Sollins, Phillip; Van Bloem, Skip J

    2008-12-01

    The threat of fire is always a consideration when establishing a forest restoration program. Two wildfires occurred in 2006 and 2007 in an established dry forest restoration project in Puerto Rico. The original goal of the project was to determine differential growth responses of native trees under the nurse tree Leucaena leucocephala versus in open sites. Tree species growth, mortality and response to the fires were evaluated according to their leaf habit, successional status, and prefire tolerance to environmental conditions. Results showed that regardless of a species' leaf habit and successional status, trees attained greater height and lower mortality under nurse trees. In open sites, sprouting was the most common fire response and mature-forest and evergreen species had greater postfire survival than pioneers and deciduous species. Although nurse trees are typically used to help manage nutrient or light environments in reforestation projects, these trees also appear to provide a secondary benefit of limiting fire damage by reducing fuel load.

  9. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  10. Voltammetric trace determination of mercury using plant refuse modified carbon paste electrodes.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Harsha; Satsangee, Soami Piara

    2013-11-01

    Citrus limon peel (kitchen waste) and Leucaena leucocephala seeds (agricultural waste) were used as a modifier for fabrication of modified carbon paste electrode for determination of mercury in aqueous sample using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. Mercury was adsorbed on electrode surface at open circuit and anodic stripping voltammetric scan was run from -0.5 to 0.5 V. Various electrochemical parameters including amount of modifier, supporting electrolyte, accumulating solvent, pH of the accumulating solvent, and accumulation time were investigated. The effect of presence of other metal ions and surfactants was also studied. In comparison C. limon peel proved to be a better modifier than L. leucocephala seed biomass. This was justified by electrode characterization using cyclic voltammetry that indicated decrease in resistance of electrode when C. limon peel was used as modifier and increase when modifier was L. leucocephala seeds. Maximum current response was obtained using 5% C. limon peel biomass, hydrochloric acid as supporting electrolyte, acetate buffer of pH 6 as an accumulating solvent, 10-min accumulation time, and scan rate of 50 mV/s. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 100 to 1,000 μg L(-1) of mercury for accumulation time of 10 min with limit of detection of 57.75 μg L(-1) and limit of quantification of 192.48 μg L(-1). This technique does not use mercury as electrode material and, therefore, has a positive environmental benefit. PMID:23709264

  11. Macaria mirthae Vargas et al (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): Confirmation of the Use of an Invasive Host Plant in the Northern Atacama Desert of Chile Based on DNA Barcodes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Cabello, D; Huanca-Mamani, W; Vargas, H A

    2015-08-01

    Macaria mirthae Vargas et al (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a geometrid moth native to the northern Atacama Desert of Chile. Its oligophagous larvae are associated with native hosts of the plant family Fabaceae, the most important of which is Acacia macracantha. The invasive tree Leucaena leucocephala (Fabaceae) was recently recorded as a host plant for M. mirthae based on morphology. The taxonomic status of larvae collected on A. macracantha and L. leucocephala was assessed using sequences of the DNA barcode fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Genetic divergence between samples from the host plants was found to be 0%-0.8% (Kimura 2-parameter model). Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses were also performed, including additional barcode sequences of Neotropical geometrid moths from GenBank and BOLD databases. Sequences of the larvae from both host plants clustered in a single clade with high statistical support in both analyses. Based on these results, it is concluded that M. mirthae has effectively expanded its host range and its larvae are currently feeding on the exotic tree L. leucocephala. Additionally, the importance of this new host association in a highly disturbed habitat is briefly discussed in terms of the field biology of this native geometrid moth. PMID:26174961

  12. The NodD proteins of Rhizobium sp. strain BR816 differ in their interactions with coinducers and in their activities for nodulation of different host plants.

    PubMed Central

    van Rhijn, P; Desair, J; Vlassak, K; Vanderleyden, J

    1994-01-01

    The early steps of symbiotic nodule formation by Rhizobium spp. on plants require coordinate expression of several nod gene operons, which is accomplished by the activating protein NodD. Rhizobium sp. strain BR816, isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, contains four nodD genes which differ in their interaction with flavonoids. Two of the four NodD proteins, namely, NodD1 and NodD2, obey the LysR rule regarding the need of a coinducer. NodD3 shows hardly any inducing activity, and NodD4 contains a high basal activity and no response to any of the flavonoids tested. Complementation experiments with the NGR234 nodD mutant by the different nodD genes of BR816, as well as the analysis of the nodulation phenotype of different nodD mutants of BR816, revealed that all the nodD genes of BR816 are functional, but differences can be noticed when different host plants are tested. Whereas the nodD2 and nodD4 genes of BR816 have a great impact on the nodulation of L. leucocephala, nodD3 and nodD4 appear to be important for the nodulation of Phaseolus vulgaris. It appears that NodD1 of BR816 can function as a transcriptional activator in bean nodulation but not in nodulation of L. leucocephala. PMID:7986038

  13. Interaction of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Erosion in an Oxisol †

    PubMed Central

    Habte, M.; Fox, R. L.; Aziz, T.; El-Swaify, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis was monitored in Leucaena leucocephala grown in an Oxisol subjected to incremental simulated erosion. The density of VAM infective propagules in the soil diminished as the level of simulated erosion (removal of surface soil) was increased from 0 to 50 cm. The level of infection on L. leucocephala roots observed at harvest was not significantly influenced by simulated erosion unless removal of surface soil exceeded 25 cm. Inoculation of this soil and the uneroded soil with Glomus aggregatum enhanced the early onset of infection but did not significantly influence the level of infection observed at the time of harvest. Simulated erosion in excess of 7.5 cm of surface soil removal significantly delayed the development of VAM effectiveness monitored in terms of the P status of L. leucocephala subleaflets and also curtailed the level of maximum effectiveness observed. Decreases in VAM effectiveness were significantly correlated with decreases in soil chemical constituents. However, VAM effectiveness in a soil subjected to 30 cm of surface soil removal was not restored to a significant extent unless the soil was amended with P, even though other nutrients were restored to sufficiency levels. Our results demonstrate that the development of VAM effectiveness is the phase of the VAM symbiosis that is most adversely influenced by simulated erosion and that this effect appears to be caused primarily by insufficient P in the soil solution. PMID:16347615

  14. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with erosion in an oxisol.

    PubMed

    Habte, M; Fox, R L; Aziz, T; El-Swaify, S A

    1988-04-01

    The development of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) symbiosis was monitored in Leucaena leucocephala grown in an Oxisol subjected to incremental simulated erosion. The density of VAM infective propagules in the soil diminished as the level of simulated erosion (removal of surface soil) was increased from 0 to 50 cm. The level of infection on L. leucocephala roots observed at harvest was not significantly influenced by simulated erosion unless removal of surface soil exceeded 25 cm. Inoculation of this soil and the uneroded soil with Glomus aggregatum enhanced the early onset of infection but did not significantly influence the level of infection observed at the time of harvest. Simulated erosion in excess of 7.5 cm of surface soil removal significantly delayed the development of VAM effectiveness monitored in terms of the P status of L. leucocephala subleaflets and also curtailed the level of maximum effectiveness observed. Decreases in VAM effectiveness were significantly correlated with decreases in soil chemical constituents. However, VAM effectiveness in a soil subjected to 30 cm of surface soil removal was not restored to a significant extent unless the soil was amended with P, even though other nutrients were restored to sufficiency levels. Our results demonstrate that the development of VAM effectiveness is the phase of the VAM symbiosis that is most adversely influenced by simulated erosion and that this effect appears to be caused primarily by insufficient P in the soil solution. PMID:16347615

  15. Creation of Alternate Stable States in Tropical Dry Forests as a Consequence of Human Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Bloem, S. J.; Whitmire, S. L.; Thaxton, J.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances in Caribbean subtropical dry forests of the Caribbean lead to either novel species assemblages in post-disturbance forest, or stable degraded grassland states. Among these disturbances are fire and clearing. Short-term responses to both disturbances include sharp increases in nutrient fluxes, shifts in soil moisture availability, and the spread of invasive grass species if seed sources are nearby. In Guánica Forest, Puerto Rico, our studies in sites that were frequently burned and a chronosequence of once-burned sites beginning 30 years ago showed that fire is associated with invasion by exotic grass species and that once invaded, grass dominated sites do not revert to forest. After 30 years, single burn sites were still ≥65% lower in basal area and species richness than native forest. Frequently burned sites had 60-75% lower soil N, 50-65% lower S, and 56-68% lower C, as well as elevated Fe and pH. A single burn in a previously unburned forest elevated NO3 flux ~6-fold for at least the next year. Once dominated by grass, tree seed rain is extremely low (7 seeds/m2/y). Low dispersal rates combined with low germination rates makes forest regeneration unlikely. In contrast, sites that cleared or plowed without grass invasion regain structural characteristics of native forests in approximately 40 years. However, these sites are typically dominated by Leucaena leucocephala, a naturalized tree introduced to the island in the 1700s. The proportion of native-species saplings in the understory of Leucaena-dominated forests increased by 0.85%/yr in stands >35 years old until reaching ~95% in 76 yr old stands, suggesting that Leucaena facilitated the reestablishment of native species. We conclude that when anthropogenic disturbance creates grass-dominated sites, these areas will remain stable degraded states. Leucaena can serve as an alternate pathway to forest restoration, facilitating the return of forest cover with a novel combination of

  16. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental

  17. Effects of tropical high tannin non legume and low tannin legume browse mixtures on fermentation parameters and methanogenesis using gas production technique.

    PubMed

    Seresinhe, T; Madushika, S A C; Seresinhe, Y; Lal, P K; Orskov, E R

    2012-10-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it's highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental

  18. Effects of Tropical High Tannin Non Legume and Low Tannin Legume Browse Mixtures on Fermentation Parameters and Methanogenesis Using Gas Production Technique

    PubMed Central

    Seresinhe, T.; Madushika, S. A. C.; Seresinhe, Y.; Lal, P. K.; Ørskov, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of several mixtures of high tanniniferous non legumes with low tanniniferous legumes on in vitro gas production (IVGP), dry matter degradation, Ammonia-N, methane production and microbial population. Eight treatments were examined in a randomized complete block design using four non-legumes and two legumes (Carallia integerrima×Leucaena leucocephala (LL) (Trt 1), C. integerrima×Gliricidia sepium (GS) (Trt 2), Aporosa lindeliyana×LL (Trt 3), A. lindeliyana×GS (Trt 4), Ceiba perntandra×LL (Trt 5), C. perntandra×GS (Trt 6), Artocarpus heterophyllus×LL (Trt 7), A. heterophyllus×GS (Trt 8). The condensed tannin (CT) content of non legumes ranged from 6.2% (Carallia integerrima) to 4.9% (Ceiba perntandra) while the CT of legumes were 1.58% (Leucaena leucocephala) and 0.78% (Gliricidia sepium). Forage mixtures contained more than 14% of crude protein (CP) while the CT content ranged from 2.8% to 4.0% respectively. Differences (p<0.05) were observed in in vitro gas production (IGVP) within treatments over a 48 h period dominated by C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6). The net gas production (p<0.05) was also high with Trt6 followed by A. heterophyllus×L. leucocephala (Trt 7) and A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8). Highest (p>0.05) NH3-N (ml/200 mg DM) production was observed with the A. heterophyllus×G. sepium (Trt 8) mixture which may be attributed with it’s highest CP content. The correlation between IVGP and CT was 0.675 while IVGP and CP was 0.610. In vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) was highest in Trt 8 as well. Methane production ranged from 2.57 to 4.79 (ml/200 mg DM) to be synonimous with IVGP. A higher bacteria population (p<0.05) was found in C. perntandra×G. sepium (Trt 6) followed by Artocarpus heterophyllus+G. sepium (Trt 8) and the same trend was observed with the protozoa population as well. The results show that supplementing high tannin non leguminous forages by incremental

  19. Comparing the sensitivity of two in vitro assays to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of tropical tannin rich plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Díaz, M A; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H

    2011-09-27

    The present trial aimed at comparing the sensitivity of two in vitro methods, i.e. the larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) and the larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA), to evaluate the anthelmintic (AH) properties of tannin-rich plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae. The two assays were applied on the same batch of H. contortus infective larvae exposed to water/acetonic extracts obtained from four tropical plants with different tannin contents: Acacia gaumeri, Brosimum alicastrum, Havardia albicans and Leucaena leucocephala. Increasing concentrations (0, 75, 150, 300, 600, 1200 μg/ml PBS) of lyophilized extracts were used in both in vitro assays. A general lineal model test was used to determine the dose-effect in the LMIA or the difference in the percentage of exsheathed larvae between the respective control and treated groups. The LMIA showed a dose-dependent AH effect for H. albicans (P<0.001) and A. gaumeri (P<0.05), but not for L. leucocephala and B. alicastrum. In contrast, the exsheathment process was significantly affected by all doses of H. albicans and A. gaumeri extracts and a significant dose-dependent effect was found for B. alicastrum and L. leucocephala. Calculation of lethal dose (LD) was possible with LEIA using B. alicastrum and L. leucocephala but not with H. albicans and A. gaumeri as the lowest tested concentration was achieving more than 50% inhibition. Calculation of LD with the LMIA results was not feasible. These results suggest that tannin-rich plant extracts are more potent inhibitors of the exsheathment of H. contortus L(3) larvae than their motility. This information underlines the difference of sensitivity between methodological procedures to evaluate the AH properties of plant extracts on the same nematode stage.

  20. Contrasting bee pollination in two co-occurring distylic species of Cordia (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) in the Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga: generalist in C. globosa vs. specialist in C. leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Machado, Isabel C; Lopes, Ariadna V; Sazima, Marlies

    2010-12-01

    In this study we compare the reproductive biology of Cordia globosa and C. leucocephala (Cordiaceae, Boraginales; formerly referred to Boraginaceae) to understand the functioning of the floral morphs and the relations with their effective pollinators. The species are synchronopatric, distylic, and self-incompatible. Though they share melittophilous traits, the main visitor and pollinator of C. globosa was the generalist and exotic bee Apis mellifera, while the only one of C. leucocephala was the oligoletic bee Ceblurgus longipalpis. These two latter species are restricted to the Caatinga of NE Brazil, contrasting with the wide distribution of Cordia globosa. While the fruit-set for C. globosa was high, independently if the pollen donor/stigma receptor was a pin (long-styled) or thrum (short-styled) individual, in C. leucocephala the fruit-set was low and occurred only when a thrum individual was the pollen donor. This raises the possibility of this species moving towards dioecy. The high natural fruit-set of C. globosa confirms the generalist bee as its effective pollinator. The low fruit-set after manual crosses in C. leucocephala may be due to low pollen viability. Additionally, the low natural fruit-set (two times lower than after crosses) may be related with the foraging behavior of the specialist pollinator.

  1. Temporal Dynamics of Arthropods on Six Tree Species in Dry Woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis–Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  2. Temporal dynamics of arthropods on six tree species in dry woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable. PMID:25502036

  3. Temporal dynamics of arthropods on six tree species in dry woodlands on the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, William; Wunderle, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of foliage arthropod populations are poorly studied in tropical dry forests despite the importance of these studies for understanding arthropod population responses to environmental change. We monitored the abundance, temporal distributions, and body size of arthropods in five naturalized alien and one native tree species to characterize arthropod seasonality in dry novel Prosopis-Leucaena woodlands in Puerto Rico. A branch clipping method was used monthly to sample foliage arthropod abundance over 39 mo. Seasonal patterns of rainfall and abundance within various arthropod taxa were highly variable from year to year. Abundance for most taxa did not show significant seasonality over the 3 yr, although most taxa had abundance peaks each year. However, Homoptera displayed high seasonality with significant temporal aggregations in each year. Formicidae, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera showed high variation in abundance between wet and dry periods, whereas Hemiptera were consistently more abundant in the wet period. Seasonal differences in mean abundance were found only in a few taxa on Tamarindus indica L., Bucida buceras L., Pithecellobium dulce, and (Roxburgh) Benth. Mean arthropod abundance varied among tree species, with highest numbers on Prosopis juliflora, (Swartz) De Candolle, Pi. dulce, Leucaena leucocephala, and (Lamarck) de Wit. Abundance of Araneae, Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, and all arthropods showed weak relationships with one or more climatic variables (rainfall, maximum temperature, or relative humidity). Body size of arthropods was usually largest during the dry periods. Overall, total foliage arthropod abundance showed no consistent seasonality among years, which may become a more common trend in dry forests and woodlands in the Caribbean if seasonality of rainfall becomes less predictable.

  4. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  5. Immunostimulatory effect of artificial feed supplemented with indigenous plants on Clarias gariepinus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop

  6. A tannin-blocking agent does not modify the preference of sheep towards tannin-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orduño, G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Capetillo-Leal, C M; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Alonso-Díaz, M A

    2015-06-01

    Sheep have been suggested to use their senses to perceive plant properties and associate their intake with consequences after ingestion. However, sheep with browsing experience do not seem to select against tannin-rich browsing materials in cafeteria trials. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition, selectivity index (SI), preference and intake rate (IR) of tannin-containing forage trees offered to sheep in cafeteria experiments. Four trees were selected for their condensed tannin content and their varying biological activities. Havardia albicans (high biological activity), Leucaena leucocephala (medium biological activity), Acacia gaumeri (low biological activity) and Brosimum alicastrum (very low biological activity) were used in this study. Ten hair sheep (23.7kg±1.43LW) with eight months of browsing experience in native vegetation were used in this study. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 3600MW) was administered to five sheep during all experiments. In experiment 1, fresh foliage from all trees was offered ad libitum for 4h. In experiment 2, B. alicastrum was withdrawn and the preference was determined again. The forage preference in experiment 1 was A. gaumeri (14.77gDM/kgLW)>B. alicastrum (11.77gDM/kgLW)>H. albicans (3.71gDM/kgLW)=L. leucocephala (1.87gDM/kgLW) (P<0.05). The preference in experiment 2 was A. gaumeri>H. albicans=L. leucocephala. PEG administration had no effect on the preference or IR. The intake rate seemed to have been affected by the plant density. Moreover, fiber compounds were found to be better predictors of DM intake than polyphenolic compounds at levels typically found in the evaluated forages. It was concluded that tannins and PEG did not modify the preferences of sheep in cafeteria trials. Thus, tannins are not involved in the preference regulation of animals with browsing experience. PMID:25843904

  7. A tannin-blocking agent does not modify the preference of sheep towards tannin-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orduño, G; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Capetillo-Leal, C M; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Alonso-Díaz, M A

    2015-06-01

    Sheep have been suggested to use their senses to perceive plant properties and associate their intake with consequences after ingestion. However, sheep with browsing experience do not seem to select against tannin-rich browsing materials in cafeteria trials. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition, selectivity index (SI), preference and intake rate (IR) of tannin-containing forage trees offered to sheep in cafeteria experiments. Four trees were selected for their condensed tannin content and their varying biological activities. Havardia albicans (high biological activity), Leucaena leucocephala (medium biological activity), Acacia gaumeri (low biological activity) and Brosimum alicastrum (very low biological activity) were used in this study. Ten hair sheep (23.7kg±1.43LW) with eight months of browsing experience in native vegetation were used in this study. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 3600MW) was administered to five sheep during all experiments. In experiment 1, fresh foliage from all trees was offered ad libitum for 4h. In experiment 2, B. alicastrum was withdrawn and the preference was determined again. The forage preference in experiment 1 was A. gaumeri (14.77gDM/kgLW)>B. alicastrum (11.77gDM/kgLW)>H. albicans (3.71gDM/kgLW)=L. leucocephala (1.87gDM/kgLW) (P<0.05). The preference in experiment 2 was A. gaumeri>H. albicans=L. leucocephala. PEG administration had no effect on the preference or IR. The intake rate seemed to have been affected by the plant density. Moreover, fiber compounds were found to be better predictors of DM intake than polyphenolic compounds at levels typically found in the evaluated forages. It was concluded that tannins and PEG did not modify the preferences of sheep in cafeteria trials. Thus, tannins are not involved in the preference regulation of animals with browsing experience.

  8. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  9. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  10. Symbiosis-induced cascade regulation of the Mesorhizobium loti R7A VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Hubber, Andree M; Sullivan, John T; Ronson, Clive W

    2007-03-01

    The Mesorhizobium loti R7A symbiosis island contains genes encoding a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) similar to that of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This system has host-dependent effects on symbiosis that probably are due to translocation of two effector proteins, Msi059 and Msi061, into host cells. Here we report that, as in A. tumefaciens, the M. loti vir genes are transcriptionally regulated by a VirA/VirG two-component regulatory system. A virGN54D mutant gene of M. loti caused constitutive expression of lacZ reporter gene fusions to virB1, virD4, msi059, and msi061. Expression of these gene fusions also was activated by a NodD gene product from Rhizobium leguminosarum in the presence of the inducer naringenin, as was a virA::lacZ fusion. This activation was dependent on a nod box present 851 bp upstream of virA, and a mutant with the nod box deleted formed effective nodules on Leucaena leucocephala, the same symbiotic phenotype as other M. loti vir mutants. In contrast, the wild-type strain formed small, empty nodules whereas a nodD1 mutant was completely Nod-. These results indicate that the M. loti vir genes are induced in a symbiosis-specific manner that involves a two-tiered regulatory cascade, and that the vir effectors act after Nod factor during infection thread formation. PMID:17378428

  11. Impact of weed control on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical agroecosystem: a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Marrufo-Zapata, Denis; Guadarrama, Patricia; Carrillo-Sánchez, Lilia; Hernández-Cuevas, Laura; Caamal-Maldonado, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    Cover crop species represent an affordable and effective weed control method in agroecosystems; nonetheless, the effect of its use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been scantily studied. The goal of this study was to determine root colonization levels and AMF species richness in the rhizosphere of maize plants and weed species growing under different cover crop and weed control regimes in a long-term experiment. The treatment levels used were (1) cover of Mucuna deeringian (Muc), (2) "mulch" of Leucaena leucocephala (Leu), (3) "mulch" of Lysiloma latisiliquum (Lys), (4) herbicide (Her), (5) manual weeding (CD), (6) no weeding (SD), and (7) no maize and no weeding (B). A total of 18 species of AMF belonging to eight genera (Acaulospora, Ambispora, Claroideoglomus, Funneliformis, Glomus, Rhizophagus, Sclerocystis, and Scutellospora) were identified from trap cultures. Muc and Lys treatments had a positive impact on AMF species richness (11 and seven species, respectively), while Leu and B treatments on the other hand gave the lowest richness values (six species each). AMF colonization levels in roots of maize and weeds differed significantly between treatment levels. Overall, the use of cover crop species had a positive impact on AMF species richness as well as on the percentage of root colonized by AMF. These findings have important implications for the management of traditional agroecosystems and show that the use of cover crop species for weed control can result in a more diverse AMF community which should potentially increase crop production in the long run.

  12. Description of nests, eggs, and nestlings of the endangered nightingale reed-warbler on Saipan, Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, S.M.; Fancy, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first verified nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Nightingale Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus luscinia), an endangered species endemic to the Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Nest composition, nest dimensions, and eggs were studied on the island of Saipan. Nests were located within three habitat types: upland introduced tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) forest, a native mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) wetland, and a native reed (Phragmites karka) wetland. Nesting substrates included five native and two introduced tree species and one native reed species. Nests were composed primarily of dry vine stems, needle-like branchlets of ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia), and tangantangan petioles. Nests were compact to bulky in construction and were secured to a forked arrangement of branches or stems. The background color of eggs ranged from white to cream to ivory-buff. Eggs were spotted, speckled, and blotched with gray, brown, black, and rust colored markings. Clutch size was 2-4, with a mode of two. Hatchlings were altricial with closed eyelids and devoid of natal down with dark gray to black skin. Nestlings examined prior to fledging resembled the adult plumage, except for the lack of the yellow supercilium found in adults. The nests and eggs have some characteristics similar to those of other Acrocephaline warblers found throughout Micronesia and Polynesia.

  13. Performance of growing indigenous goats fed diets based on urban market crop wastes.

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Sabiiti, E N; Bareeba, F B; Ledin, I

    2009-03-01

    The effect of feeding diets including market crop wastes (sweet potato vines (Ipomoea batatas) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum)) on growth and digestibility was studied using 32 indigenous intact growing male goats. Adding elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), maize bran and Leucaena leucocephala leaves, four isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets (Sweet potato vines, Solanum, Mixed and Control) were formulated. After the growth trial, 12 goats were randomly selected for a digestibility trial with the same diets, and 8 goats for a feed preference test comparing the market wastes and elephant grass. Crude protein (CP) intake was highest (P<0.05) for the Control (48 g/day) and lowest for the Sweet potato vines diet (23 g/day). Average daily gain was between 11.0 and 14.2 g/day, and similar between diets. The DM and CP digestibilities of the diets were 0.56 and 0.56 (Control), 0.62 and 0.56 (Mixed), 0.59 and 0.49 (Sweet potato vines), and 0.54 and 0.45 (Solanum), respectively. Faecal and urinary N excretions were highest in goats fed the Sweet potato vines and Solanum diets. Eggplant wastes were the least (P<0.05) preferred. On average the goats spent 5% of their 8-hour time eating eggplant wastes, 34% on sweet potato vines and 36% on elephant grass. Growth performance and N retention were low due to the low intake of feed, especially eggplant wastes.

  14. Phenotypic and biochemical characterization of root nodule bacteria naturally associated with woody tree legumes in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alshaharani, Thobayet Safar; Shetta, Nader Desouky

    2015-03-01

    Thirty root-nodulating bacteria isolates were obtained from the roots of Acacia ampliceps (Maslin), A. ehrenbergiana (Hayne.), A. saligna (Labill.), A. seyal (Del.), A. tortilis (Forssk.), A. tortilis subsp. raddiana (Savi.), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and Vicia faba (L.) trees growing in the Riyadh region. The isolates' phenotypic and biochemical properties were characterized by assessing colony appearance, growth rate, resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, and tolerance to salinity, elevated temperature and pH. All isolates had same colony morphology and grew on yeast extract mannitol and tryptone yeast agar, but not MGS media. The results also revealed considerable diversity among the isolates, which exhibited different patterns of resistance to abiotic stresses. Most isolates tolerated temperatures up to 37 degrees C and could grow from pH 5.5-8.5 and at a high NaCl concentration (2% w/v). The majority of isolates could utilize a variety of carbohydrates. Most of the isolates displayed resistance to antibiotics in the 75 microg ml(-1) range, with approximately 100 pg ml(-1) the maximum concentration at which growth was observed. All isolates were sensitive to aluminum and resistant to other heavy metals tested, and they were able to reduce nitrate and hydrolyze urea. PMID:25895257

  15. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10 kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26 kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45 nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor. PMID:24090421

  16. Distribution and phytoavailability of heavy metal chemical fractions in artificial soil on rock cut slopes alongside railways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoqiong; Ai, Yingwei; Fang, Chen; Wang, Kexiu; Li, Wei; Liu, Shui; Li, Chunlin; Xiao, Jingyao; Huang, Zhiyu

    2014-05-30

    Artificial soil is often sprayed onto cut slopes alongside railroad tracks to promote revegetation. This study evaluated the heavy metal content and the distribution of heavy metal chemical fractions in the soil, as well as the uptake of heavy metals by plants. The soil at four sites was determined to be considerably contaminated with Cd and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increased with the length of time the railway had been in use and decreased further away from the railway tracks. Pb primarily existed in reducible form but as residual fractions, whereas Cd was predominantly in exchangeable form. A correlation analysis indicated that pH, organic matter, and total phosphorus levels were important factors affecting the distribution of the heavy metal chemical fractions. The amounts of exchangeable Pb and Cd in the soil were highly correlated with their amounts in the plants sampled, indicating that the exchangeable fraction is a better indication of heavy metal phytoavailability than the total amount of heavy metals in the soil. Bioaccumulation and translocation factors indicated that Indigofera amblyantha had moderate tolerance and bioaccumulation capability for Pb, as did Leucaena leucocephala for Cd. These two plant species can serve as ideal slope remediation plants. PMID:24727018

  17. An assessment of Hawaii's biomass enrgy options: Economics and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kasturi, P.

    1980-12-01

    The technology for converting agricultural biomass to generate electrical power by the direct combustion method has long been established on sugarcane plantations in the state of Hawaii. Increasing uncertainty over energy supplies and pyramidal escalation of energy prices in recent years have served to refocus both state and national attention on the operational feasibility and economic viability of alternate Biomass Energy Systems. This study scrutinizes the key parameters affecting the overall productivity and the cost of electricity from such systems. The conditions for obtaining net energy productivity and associated costs are examined for electrical power generation from wood yields of the giant koa haole (Leucaena leucocephala) as a reference point. Current technology involving direct combustion of biomass generates substantial net electrical energy though from a cost perspective it would appear that conditions for biomass production and harvest as a replacement for diesel fuel in utilities having conventional generator units are only now being met. Some potentials and constraints for three other candidate plant species using similar conversion system are also explored.

  18. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Polyorach, Sineenart

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  19. Phytostabilization of a Pb-contaminated mine tailing by various tree species in pot and field trial experiments.

    PubMed

    Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2012-10-01

    The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb >9850 mg kg(-1)) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer attained the highest total biomass (15.3 g plant(-1)) followed by P. pterocarpum (12.6 g plant(-1)) and A. mangium (10.8 g plant(-1)) both treated with cow manure. Cow manure application resulted in the highest root Pb accumulation (>10000 mg kg(-1)) in L. floribunda and P. macrocarpus. These two species also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (85-88 mg plant(-1)). Results from field trial also showed that Osmocote promoted the best growth performance in E. camaldulensis (biomass 385.7 g plant(-1), height 141.7 cm) followed by A. mangium (biomass 215.9 g plant(-1), height 102.7 cm), and they also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (600-800 microg plant(-1)). A. mangium with the addition of organic fertilizer was the best option for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated mine tailing because it retained higher Pb concentration in the roots. PMID:22908655

  20. Size-based trends and management implications of microhabitat utilization by Brown Treesnakes, with an emphasis on juvenile snakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodda, Gordon H.; Reed, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis, or BTS), a costly invasive species, has been the subject of intensive research on Guam over the past two decades. The behavior and habitat use of hatchling and juvenile snakes, however, remain largely unknown. We used a long-term dataset of BTS captures (N = 2,415) and a dataset resulting from intensive sampling within and immediately around a 5-ha fenced population (N = 2,541) to examine habitat use of BTS. Small snakes were almost exclusively arboreal and that they appeared to prefer tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) habitats. In contrast, large snakes used arboreal and terrestrial habitats in roughly equal proportion, and were less frequently found in tangantangan. Among snakes found in trees, there were no clear size-based preferences for certain heights above ground, nor for size-based choice of perch diameters. We discuss these results as they relate to management and interdiction implications for brown treesnakes on Guam and in potential incipient populations on other islands.

  1. Preventing Establishment: An Inventory of Introduced Plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos

    PubMed Central

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum). PMID:17940606

  2. Ecological Indicators of Native Rhizobia in Tropical Soils †

    PubMed Central

    Woomer, Paul; Singleton, Paul W.; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between environment and abundance of rhizobia was described by determining the populations of root nodule bacteria at 14 diverse sites on the island of Maui. Mean annual rainfall at the sites ranged from 320 to 1,875 mm, elevation from 37 to 1,650 m, and soil pH from 4.6 to 7.9. Four different soil orders were represented in this study: inceptisols, mollisols, ultisols, and an oxisol. The rhizobial populations were determined by plant infection counts of five legumes (Trifolium repens, Medicago sativa, Vicia sativa, Leucaena leucocephala, and Macroptilium atropurpureum). Populations varied from 1.1 to 4.8 log10 cells per g of soil. The most frequently occurring rhizobia were Bradyrhizobium spp., which were present at 13 of 14 sites with a maximum of 4.8 log10 cells per g of soil. Rhizobium trifolii and R. leguminosarum occurred only at higher elevations. The presence of a particular Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium sp. was correlated with the occurrence of its appropriate host legume. Total rhizobial populations were significantly correlated with mean annual rainfall, legume cover and shoot biomass, soil temperature, soil pH, and phosphorus retention. Regression models are presented which describe the relationship of legume hosts, soil climate, and soil fertility on native rhizobial populations. PMID:16347624

  3. Preventing establishment: an inventory of introduced plants in Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island, Galapagos.

    PubMed

    Guézou, Anne; Pozo, Paola; Buddenhagen, Christopher

    2007-10-17

    As part of an island-wide project to identify and eradicate potentially invasive plant species before they become established, a program of inventories is being carried out in the urban and agricultural zones of the four inhabited islands in Galapagos. This study reports the results of the inventory from Puerto Villamil, a coastal village representing the urban zone of Isabela Island. We visited all 1193 village properties to record the presence of the introduced plants. In addition, information was collected from half of the properties to determine evidence for potential invasiveness of the plant species. We recorded 261 vascular taxa, 13 of which were new records for Galapagos. Most of the species were intentionally grown (cultivated) (73.3%) and used principally as ornamentals. The most frequent taxa we encountered were Cocos nucifera (coconut tree) (22.1%) as a cultivated plant and Paspalum vaginatum (salt water couch) (13.2%) as a non cultivated plant. In addition 39 taxa were naturalized. On the basis of the invasiveness study, we recommend five species for eradication (Abutilon dianthum, Datura inoxia, Datura metel, Senna alata and Solanum capsicoides), one species for hybridization studies (Opuntia ficus-indica) and three species for control (Furcraea hexapetala, Leucaena leucocephala and Paspalum vaginatum).

  4. Effects of species and season on chemical composition and ruminal crude protein and organic matter degradability of some multi-purpose tree species by West African dwarf rams.

    PubMed

    Arigbede, O M; Anele, U Y; Südekum, K-H; Hummel, J; Oni, A O; Olanite, J A; Isah, A O

    2012-04-01

    Seasonal chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities were determined in four tropical multi-purpose tree species (MPTS) namely; Pterocarpus santalinoides, Grewia pubescens, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Leucaena leucocephala. Three West African dwarf (WAD) rams fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used for the degradability trials. Foliage samples were collected four times to represent seasonal variations as follows: January--mid dry; April--late dry; July--mid rainy and October--late rainy seasons. Leaf samples were randomly collected from the trees for estimation of dry matter (DM) and chemical composition. Ruminal in sacco OM and CP degradabilities were estimated from residues in nylon bags. All samples had high CP (161-259 g/kg DM) and moderate fibre concentrations [neutral detergent fibre (without residual ash], 300-501 g/kg DM; acid detergent fibre (without residual ash), 225-409 g/kg DM and acid detergent lignin, 87-179 g/kg DM across seasons. Interaction effects of species and season on chemical composition were highly significant (p = 0.001) except for trypsin inhibitor (p = 0.614). The MPTS recorded more than 60% OM and CP degradability at 24 h, which implied that they were all highly degradable in the rumen. Their incorporation into ruminant feeding systems as dry season forage supplements is therefore recommended.

  5. Impact of weed control on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a tropical agroecosystem: a long-term experiment.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Marrufo-Zapata, Denis; Guadarrama, Patricia; Carrillo-Sánchez, Lilia; Hernández-Cuevas, Laura; Caamal-Maldonado, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    Cover crop species represent an affordable and effective weed control method in agroecosystems; nonetheless, the effect of its use on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been scantily studied. The goal of this study was to determine root colonization levels and AMF species richness in the rhizosphere of maize plants and weed species growing under different cover crop and weed control regimes in a long-term experiment. The treatment levels used were (1) cover of Mucuna deeringian (Muc), (2) "mulch" of Leucaena leucocephala (Leu), (3) "mulch" of Lysiloma latisiliquum (Lys), (4) herbicide (Her), (5) manual weeding (CD), (6) no weeding (SD), and (7) no maize and no weeding (B). A total of 18 species of AMF belonging to eight genera (Acaulospora, Ambispora, Claroideoglomus, Funneliformis, Glomus, Rhizophagus, Sclerocystis, and Scutellospora) were identified from trap cultures. Muc and Lys treatments had a positive impact on AMF species richness (11 and seven species, respectively), while Leu and B treatments on the other hand gave the lowest richness values (six species each). AMF colonization levels in roots of maize and weeds differed significantly between treatment levels. Overall, the use of cover crop species had a positive impact on AMF species richness as well as on the percentage of root colonized by AMF. These findings have important implications for the management of traditional agroecosystems and show that the use of cover crop species for weed control can result in a more diverse AMF community which should potentially increase crop production in the long run. PMID:22584877

  6. Evidence of an American Origin for Symbiosis-Related Genes in Rhizobium lusitanum ▿

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Angel; Velázquez, Encarna; Cervantes, Emilio; Igual, José M.; van Berkum, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to investigate the diversity of 179 bean isolates recovered from six field sites in the Arcos de Valdevez region of northwestern Portugal. The isolates were divided into 6 groups based on the fingerprint patterns that were obtained. Representatives for each group were selected for sequence analysis of 4 chromosomal DNA regions. Five of the groups were placed within Rhizobium lusitanum, and the other group was placed within R. tropici type IIA. Therefore, the collection of Portuguese bean isolates was shown to include the two species R. lusitanum and R. tropici. In plant tests, the strains P1-7, P1-1, P1-2, and P1-16 of R. lusitanum nodulated and formed nitrogen-fixing symbioses both with Phaseolus vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene identical with the R. tropici locus that confers wide host range was detected in the strain P1-7 as well as 24 others identified as R. lusitanum. A methyltransferase-encoding nodS gene also was detected in the remaining isolates of R. lusitanum, but in this case the locus was that identified with the narrow-host-range R. etli. Representatives of isolates with the nodS of R. etli formed effective nitrogen-fixing symbioses with P. vulgaris and did not nodulate L. leucocephala. From sequence data of nodS, the R. lusitanum genes for symbiosis were placed within those of either R. tropici or R. etli. These results would support the suggestion that R. lusitanum was the recipient of the genes for symbiosis with beans from both R. tropici and R. etli. PMID:21705533

  7. Rehabilitation of a debris-flow prone mountain stream in southwestern China - Strategies, effects and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guo-an; Huang, He Qing; Wang, Zhaoyin; Brierley, Gary; Zhang, Kang

    2012-01-01

    SummaryRehabilitation of Shengou Creek, a small, steep mountain stream in southwestern China that is prone to debris flows, started more than 30 years ago through an integrated program of engineering applications (check dams and guiding dikes), biological measures (reforestation), and social measures (reducing human disturbance). Small and medium-sized check dams and guiding dikes were constructed on key upper and middle sections of the creek to stabilize hillslopes and channel bed. Meanwhile, Leucaena leucocephala, a drought-tolerant, fast-growing, and highly adaptive plant species, was introduced to promote vegetation recovery in the watershed. The collective community structure of tree, shrub, and herb assemblages in the artificial L. leucocephala forest, which developed after 7 years, enhanced soil structure and drastically reduced soil erosion on hillslopes. Cultivation of steep land was strictly controlled in the basin, and some inhabitants were encouraged to move from upstream areas to downstream towns to reduce disturbance. These integrated measures reduced sediment supply from both hillslopes and upstream channels, preventing sediment-related hazards. The development of natural streambed resistance structures (mainly step-pool systems) and luxuriant riparian vegetation aided channel stability, diversity of stream habitat, and ecological maintenance in the creek. These findings are compared with Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, two adjacent non-rehabilitated debris-flow streams which have climate and geomorphologic conditions similar to Shengou Creek. Habitat diversity indices, taxa richness, biodiversity, and bio-community indices are much higher in Shengou Creek relative to Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, attesting to the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures.

  8. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88 ± 2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p = 0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results.

  9. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    PubMed

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  10. midD-encoded 'rhizomimosinase' from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase that catabolizes L-mimosine into 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, pyruvate and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Negi, Vishal Singh; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

    2013-06-01

    Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 catabolizes mimosine, which is a toxic non-protein amino acid present in Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena). The objective of this investigation was to study the biochemical and catalytic properties of the enzyme encoded by midD, one of the TAL1145 genes involved in mimosine degradation. The midD-encoded enzyme, MidD, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and used for biochemical and catalytic studies using mimosine as the substrate. The reaction products in the enzyme assay were analyzed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. MidD has a molecular mass of ~45 kDa and its catalytic activity was found to be optimal at 37 °C and pH 8.5. The major product formed in the reaction had the same retention time as that of synthetic 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (3H4P). It was confirmed to be 3H4P by MS/MS analysis of the HPLC-purified product. The K m, V max and K cat of MidD were 1.27 × 10(-4) mol, 4.96 × 10(-5) mol s(-1) mg(-1), and 2,256.05 s(-1), respectively. Although MidD has sequence similarities with aminotransferases, it is not an aminotransferase because it does not require a keto acid as the co-substrate in the degradation reaction. It is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme and the addition of 50 μM hydroxylamine completely inhibited the reaction. However, the supplementation of the reaction with 0.1 μM PLP restored the catalytic activity of MidD in the reaction containing 50 μM hydroxylamine. The catalytic activity of MidD was found to be specific to mimosine, and the presence of its structural analogs including L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine did not show any competitive inhibition. In addition to 3H4P, we also identified pyruvate and ammonia as other degradation products in equimolar quantities of the substrate used. The degradation of mimosine into a ring compound, 3H4P with the release of ammonia indicates that MidD of Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 is a C-N lyase. PMID:23462928

  11. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88 ± 2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p = 0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23054809

  12. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    PubMed

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  13. Reproductive capacities and development of a seed Bruchid beetle, Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus, a potential host for the mass rearing of the parasitoid, Dinarmus basalis.

    PubMed

    Effowe, T Q; Amevoin, K; Nuto, Y; Mondedji, D; Glitho, I A

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive capacities and development of the seed beetle Acanthoscelides macrophthalmus (Schaeffer) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), found in Togo, were determined under natural conditions in a Guinean zone for its use as a substitute host for the mass rearing of the parasitoid Dinarmus basalts Rond (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a biological agent for the control of beetles that are pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae). Population dynamics at the field level; and survival, fecundity and offspring production by A. macrophthalmus under laboratory conditions were measured when fed on its natural plant-host Leucaena leucocephala (Lamark) deWit (Fabales: Mimosaceae). The data resulting from the laboratory study were used to calculate the demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus by establishing its fertility and life tables. Contrary to cultivated leguminous food plants, L. leucocephala is a perennial sub-spontaneous leguminous plant whose pods are available year round. Although A. macrophthalmus was present in nature throughout the year, its infestation rate of the pods fluctuated according to the phenology of the plant. The maximum infestation of L. leucocephala pods was observed between August and December. Four larval stages and one pupal stage of A. macrophthalmus were identified in the laboratory. The total mean development time varied on average 33.75 ± 2.87 days on the mature pods and 33.39 ± 2.02 days on seeds. The adult female lived from one to two weeks. During its life time, the female laid an average of 62.3 ± 19 and 43.1 ± 13 eggs on the mature pods and seeds respectively and produced an average of 36.7 ± 11.3 offspring on the mature pods and 21.8 ± 8.4 offspring on seeds. On seeds, the net reproduction rate was 5.88 females per female and the intrinsic rate of population increase 0.051 per day. The generation time was 34.59 days and the doubling time 13.59 days. The demographic parameters of A. macrophthalmus in this

  14. Economic development through biomass systems integration in central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, J.A.; Rahmani, M.; Hodges, A.W.

    1995-11-01

    A biomass to energy system for central Florida was conceptualized with sugarcane as the main feedstock. Additional feedstocks include elephantgrass, leucaena (woody tropical legume), and Eucalyptus. Juice will be pressed from sugarcane and sugars fermented into ethanol with conventional technology. Enough sugarcane will be grown to supply a conventional ethanol plant with juice for a 330 day operating period each yr. Juice will be condensed to 24 degrees Brix for direct conversion during the approximately 100 day harvest season and to 70 degrees Brix for storage and use the remaining 230 days. Residues (mainly lignin), from converting lignocellulosic materials to ethanol, will fuel the plant including evaporators for sugarcane juice. Sugarcane presscake, elephantgrass, leucaena, and Eucalyptus will be feedstocks for the lignocellulose conversion processes. The lignocellulose plant will be sized to convert all sugarcane presscake as it is produced to reduce storage costs. Elephantgrass, leucaena and Eucalyptus will feed the plant outside sugarcane harvest season. The biomass/energy system will produce 123,230,000 L (32,830,000 gal) of ethanol per year with 90% conversion of sugars from juice, hemicellulose, and cellulose to ethanol. Estimated cost of producing ethanol form various feedstocks include: sugarcane $0.25/L ($0.94/gal), elephantgrass $0.30/L ($1.13/gal), 1 leucaena $0.28/L ($1.06/gal), and Eucalyptus $0.28/L (1.07/gal). Future opportunities exist for development of a chemical industry based on lignocellulose materials from biomass.

  15. Re-marriage of crops and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, P.K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Agroforestry is defined and its role in the productive use and conservation of marginal or forested lands explained. Examples are given of existing agroforestry and silvo-pastural systems involving plantation crops (coffee, tea, cacao, rubber) and multipurpose species (Leucaena leucocephale, Casuarina, Almis, Parasponia, Acacia, Prosopis). The origin and activities of ICRAF are outlined.

  16. Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  17. A ripening associated peroxidase from papaya having a role in defense and lignification: heterologous expression and in-silico and in-vitro experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-25

    Fruit ripening associated full length cDNA of a peroxidase from papaya was cloned and heterologously expressed. The expressed peroxidase was activated by in-vitro re-folding in the presence of hemin and calcium. The purified recombinant peroxidase exhibited broad substrate affinity in the order of o-dianisidine>pyrogallol>guaiacol and was found to be a homotetramer of 155kDa with each subunit having a size of 38kDa. The basis of the distinctive preferences for various substrates was investigated through in-silico molecular modeling approaches. Thus, when the modeled papaya peroxidase-heme complex was docked with these substrates, the in-silico binding efficiency was found to be in agreement with those of wet lab results with the involvement of Arg37, Phe40, His41, Pro137, Asn138, His139, His167, and Phe239 as the common interacting residues in all the cases. However, the binding of the different substrates were found to be associated with conformational changes in the peroxidase. Thus, in the case of o-dianisidine (the most efficient substrate), the protein was folded in the most compact fashion when compared to guaiacol (the least efficient substrate). Protein function annotation analyses revealed that the papaya peroxidase may have biological roles in oxidation-reduction processes, stresses, defense responses etc. In order to further validate its role in lignifications, the papaya peroxidase was compared with a lignin biosynthetic peroxidase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume. Thus, based on 3D structure superimposition and docking, both peroxidases exhibited a great extent of similarity suggesting the papaya peroxidase having a role in lignification (defense response) too. The predicted functions of papaya peroxidase in defense response and lignification were further validated experimentally using qRT-PCR analyses and measurement of oxidation of coniferyl alcohol.

  18. Characterization of Rhizobium grahamii extrachromosomal replicons and their transfer among rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhizobium grahamii belongs to a new phylogenetic group of rhizobia together with Rhizobium mesoamericanum and other species. R. grahamii has a broad-host-range that includes Leucaena leucocephala and Phaseolus vulgaris, although it is a poor competitor for P. vulgaris nodulation in the presence of Rhizobium etli or Rhizobium phaseoli strains. This work analyzed the genome sequence and transfer properties of R. grahamii plasmids. Results Genome sequence was obtained from R. grahamii CCGE502 type strain isolated from Dalea leporina in Mexico. The CCGE502 genome comprises one chromosome and two extrachromosomal replicons (ERs), pRgrCCGE502a and pRgrCCGE502b. Additionally, a plasmid integrated in the CCGE502 chromosome was found. The genomic comparison of ERs from this group showed that gene content is more variable than average nucleotide identity (ANI). Well conserved nod and nif genes were found in R. grahamii and R. mesoamericanum with some differences. R. phaseoli Ch24-10 genes expressed in bacterial cells in roots were found to be conserved in pRgrCCGE502b. Regarding conjugative transfer we were unable to transfer the R. grahamii CCGE502 symbiotic plasmid and its megaplasmid to other rhizobial hosts but we could transfer the symbiotic plasmid to Agrobacterium tumefaciens with transfer dependent on homoserine lactones. Conclusion Variable degrees of nucleotide identity and gene content conservation were found among the different R. grahamii CCGE502 replicons in comparison to R. mesoamericanum genomes. The extrachromosomal replicons from R. grahamii were more similar to those found in phylogenetically related Rhizobium species. However, limited similarities of R. grahamii CCGE502 symbiotic plasmid and megaplasmid were observed in other more distant Rhizobium species. The set of conserved genes in R. grahamii comprises some of those that are highly expressed in R. phaseoli on plant roots, suggesting that they play an important role in root colonization

  19. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  20. Methane Production of Different Forages in In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Meale, S. J.; Chaves, A. V.; Baah, J.; McAllister, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM) ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses), 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs) and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs). After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05) within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended. PMID:25049482

  1. Determination of tropical forage preferences using two offering methods in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D

    2014-04-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1(st) method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  2. A ripening associated peroxidase from papaya having a role in defense and lignification: heterologous expression and in-silico and in-vitro experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Veda P; Dwivedi, Upendra N

    2015-01-25

    Fruit ripening associated full length cDNA of a peroxidase from papaya was cloned and heterologously expressed. The expressed peroxidase was activated by in-vitro re-folding in the presence of hemin and calcium. The purified recombinant peroxidase exhibited broad substrate affinity in the order of o-dianisidine>pyrogallol>guaiacol and was found to be a homotetramer of 155kDa with each subunit having a size of 38kDa. The basis of the distinctive preferences for various substrates was investigated through in-silico molecular modeling approaches. Thus, when the modeled papaya peroxidase-heme complex was docked with these substrates, the in-silico binding efficiency was found to be in agreement with those of wet lab results with the involvement of Arg37, Phe40, His41, Pro137, Asn138, His139, His167, and Phe239 as the common interacting residues in all the cases. However, the binding of the different substrates were found to be associated with conformational changes in the peroxidase. Thus, in the case of o-dianisidine (the most efficient substrate), the protein was folded in the most compact fashion when compared to guaiacol (the least efficient substrate). Protein function annotation analyses revealed that the papaya peroxidase may have biological roles in oxidation-reduction processes, stresses, defense responses etc. In order to further validate its role in lignifications, the papaya peroxidase was compared with a lignin biosynthetic peroxidase from Leucaena leucocephala, a tree legume. Thus, based on 3D structure superimposition and docking, both peroxidases exhibited a great extent of similarity suggesting the papaya peroxidase having a role in lignification (defense response) too. The predicted functions of papaya peroxidase in defense response and lignification were further validated experimentally using qRT-PCR analyses and measurement of oxidation of coniferyl alcohol. PMID:25447898

  3. Steady state fluorescence studies of wild type recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase (Ll-CCRH1) and its active site mutants.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Prashant; Vishwakarma, Rishi Kishore; Singh, Somesh; Gaikwad, Sushama; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence quenching and time resolved fluorescence studies of wild type recombinant cinnamoyl CoA reductase (Ll-CCRH1), a multitryptophan protein from Leucaena leucocephala and 10 different active site mutants were carried out to investigate tryptophan environment. The enzyme showed highest affinity for feruloyl CoA (K(a)  = 3.72 × 10(5) M(-1)) over other CoA esters and cinnamaldehydes, as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Quenching of the fluorescence by acrylamide for wild type and active site mutants was collisional with almost 100% of the tryptophan fluorescence accessible under native condition and remained same after denaturation of protein with 6 M GdnHCl. In wild type Ll-CCRH1, the extent of quenching achieved with iodide (f(a) = 1.0) was significantly higher than cesium ions (f(a) = 0.33) suggesting more density of positive charge around surface of trp conformers under native conditions. Denaturation of wild type protein with 6 M GdnHCl led to significant increase in the quenching with cesium (f(a) = 0.54), whereas quenching with iodide ion was decreased (f(a) = 0.78), indicating reorientation of charge density around trp from positive to negative and heterogeneity in trp environment. The Stern-Volmer plots for wild type and mutants Ll-CCRH1 under native and denatured conditions, with cesium ion yielded biphasic quenching profiles. The extent of quenching for cesium and iodide ions under native and denatured conditions observed in active site mutants was significantly different from wild type Ll-CCRH1 under the same conditions. Thus, single substitution type mutations of active site residues showed heterogeneity in tryptophan microenvironment and differential degree of conformation of protein under native or denatured conditions. PMID:24322526

  4. Comparison of the formation of nicotinic acid conjugates in leaves of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Watanabe, Shin; Mimura, Tetsuro; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2012-11-01

    There are three metabolic fates of nicotinic acid in plants: (1) nicotinic acid mononucleotide formation for NAD synthesis by the so-called salvage pathway of pyridine nucleotide biosynthesis; (2) nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; and (3) trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) formation. In the present study, the metabolism of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide was investigated in leaves of 23 wild plant species. All species readily converted nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, and only a fraction of nicotinic acid was utilised for NAD and NADP synthesis. The remaining nicotinic acid is converted to the nicotinic acid conjugates. Only one plant species, Cycas revoluta, produced both nicotinic acid N-glucoside and trigonelline; the other 22 species produced one or other of the conjugates. The nicotinic acid N-glucoside-forming plants are Cyathea lepifera, Arenga trewmula var. englri, Barringtonia racemosa, Ilex paraguariensis, Angelica japonica, Scaevola taccada and Farfugium japonicum. In contrast, trigonelline is formed in C. lepifera, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus luchuensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Alocasia odora, Pandanus odoratissimus, Hylocereus undatus, Kalanchoe pinnata, Kalanchoe tubiflora, Populus alba, Garcinia subelliptica, Oxalis corymbosa, Leucaena leucocephala, Vigna marina, Hibiscus tiliaceus and Melicope triphylla. The diversity of nicotinic acid conjugate formation in plants is discussed using these results and our previous investigation involving a few model plants, various crops and ferns. Nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation was restricted mostly to ferns and selected orders of angiosperms, whereas other plants produce trigonelline. In most cases the formation of both nicotinic acid conjugates is incompatible, but some exceptions have been found. PMID:22983143

  5. Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P < 0.05) among treatments. Kids that were supplemented with cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P < 0.05) initially but gained weight slightly towards the end of the study. Significantly higher weight gains (P < 0.05) were observed in animals in CLLM and CAAM treatment. It was concluded that fresh cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector. PMID:25023231

  6. NrcR, a New Transcriptional Regulator of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Involved in the Legume Root-Nodule Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, Pablo; Rolla-Santos, Amanda A P; Valderrama-Fernández, Rocío; Gil-Serrano, Antonio; Bellogín, Ramón A; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Megías, Manuel; Hungría, Mariangela; Ollero, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium-legume symbioses requires a highly complex cascade of events. In this molecular dialogue the bacterial NodD transcriptional regulators in conjunction with plant inducers, mostly flavonoids, are responsible for the biosynthesis and secretion of Nod factors which are key molecules for successful nodulation. Other transcriptional regulators related to the symbiotic process have been identified in rhizobial genomes, including negative regulators such as NolR. Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 is an important symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and its genome encompasses intriguing features such as five copies of nodD genes, as well as other possible transcriptional regulators including the NolR protein. Here we describe and characterize a new regulatory gene located in the non-symbiotic plasmid pRtrCIAT899c, that shows homology (46% identity) with the nolR gene located in the chromosome of CIAT 899. The mutation of this gene, named nrcR (nolR-like plasmid c Regulator), enhanced motility and exopolysaccharide production in comparison to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the number and decoration of Nod Factors produced by this mutant were higher than those detected in the wild-type strain, especially under salinity stress. The nrcR mutant showed delayed nodulation and reduced competitiveness with P. vulgaris, and reduction in nodule number and shoot dry weight in both P. vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. Moreover, the mutant exhibited reduced capacity to induce the nodC gene in comparison to the wild-type CIAT 899. The finding of a new nod-gene regulator located in a non-symbiotic plasmid may reveal the existence of even more complex mechanisms of regulation of nodulation genes in R. tropici CIAT 899 that may be applicable to other rhizobial species. PMID:27096734

  7. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production. PMID:24703358

  8. Changes in soil quality indicators under long-term sewage irrigation in a sub-tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K.; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Though irrigation with sewage water has potential benefits of meeting the water requirements, the sewage irrigation may mess up to harm the soil health. To assess the potential impacts of long-term sewage irrigation on soil health and to identify sensitive soil indicators, soil samples were collected from crop fields that have been irrigated with sewage water for more than 20 years. An adjacent rain-fed Leucaena leucocephala plantation system was used as a reference to compare the impact of sewage irrigation on soil qualities. Soils were analyzed for different physical, chemical, biological and biochemical parameters. Results have shown that use of sewage for irrigation improved the clay content to 18-22.7%, organic carbon to 0.51-0.86% and fertility status of soils. Build up in total N was up to 2,713 kg ha-1, available N (397 kg ha-1), available P (128 kg ha-1), available K (524 kg ha-1) and available S (65.5 kg ha-1) in the surface (0.15 m) soil. Long-term sewage irrigation has also resulted a significant build-up of DTPA extractable Zn (314%), Cu (102%), Fe (715%), Mn (197.2), Cd (203%), Ni (1358%) and Pb (15.2%) when compared with the adjacent rain-fed reference soil. Soils irrigated with sewage exhibited a significant decrease in microbial biomass carbon (-78.2%), soil respiration (-82.3%), phosphatase activity (-59.12%) and dehydrogenase activity (-59.4%). An attempt was also made to identify the sensitive soil indicators under sewage irrigation, where microbial biomass carbon was singled out as the most sensitive indicator.

  9. Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P < 0.05) among treatments. Kids that were supplemented with cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P < 0.05) initially but gained weight slightly towards the end of the study. Significantly higher weight gains (P < 0.05) were observed in animals in CLLM and CAAM treatment. It was concluded that fresh cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector.

  10. NrcR, a New Transcriptional Regulator of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Involved in the Legume Root-Nodule Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    del Cerro, Pablo; Rolla-Santos, Amanda A. P.; Valderrama-Fernández, Rocío; Gil-Serrano, Antonio; Bellogín, Ramón A.; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Megías, Manuel; Hungría, Mariangela; Ollero, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium-legume symbioses requires a highly complex cascade of events. In this molecular dialogue the bacterial NodD transcriptional regulators in conjunction with plant inducers, mostly flavonoids, are responsible for the biosynthesis and secretion of Nod factors which are key molecules for successful nodulation. Other transcriptional regulators related to the symbiotic process have been identified in rhizobial genomes, including negative regulators such as NolR. Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 is an important symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and its genome encompasses intriguing features such as five copies of nodD genes, as well as other possible transcriptional regulators including the NolR protein. Here we describe and characterize a new regulatory gene located in the non-symbiotic plasmid pRtrCIAT899c, that shows homology (46% identity) with the nolR gene located in the chromosome of CIAT 899. The mutation of this gene, named nrcR (nolR-like plasmid c Regulator), enhanced motility and exopolysaccharide production in comparison to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the number and decoration of Nod Factors produced by this mutant were higher than those detected in the wild-type strain, especially under salinity stress. The nrcR mutant showed delayed nodulation and reduced competitiveness with P. vulgaris, and reduction in nodule number and shoot dry weight in both P. vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. Moreover, the mutant exhibited reduced capacity to induce the nodC gene in comparison to the wild-type CIAT 899. The finding of a new nod-gene regulator located in a non-symbiotic plasmid may reveal the existence of even more complex mechanisms of regulation of nodulation genes in R. tropici CIAT 899 that may be applicable to other rhizobial species. PMID:27096734

  11. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  12. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Kun, Jun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua; Kang, Li Hua

    2015-10-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (T m).

  13. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Lu, Jun Kun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (Tm). PMID:26296667

  14. Genotypic Characterization of Bradyrhizobium Strains Nodulating Endemic Woody Legumes of the Canary Islands by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Genes Encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) and 16S-23S rDNA Intergenic Spacers, Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic PCR Genomic Fingerprinting, and Partial 16S rDNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Vinuesa, Pablo; Rademaker, Jan L. W.; de Bruijn, Frans J.; Werner, Dietrich

    1998-01-01

    We present a phylogenetic analysis of nine strains of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus) and other endemic woody legumes of the Canary Islands, Spain. These and several reference strains were characterized genotypically at different levels of taxonomic resolution by computer-assisted analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs), 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) RFLPs, and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) genomic fingerprints with BOX, ERIC, and REP primers. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA restriction patterns with four tetrameric endonucleases grouped the Canarian isolates with the two reference strains, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110spc4 and Bradyrhizobium sp. strain (Centrosema) CIAT 3101, resolving three genotypes within these bradyrhizobia. In the analysis of IGS RFLPs with three enzymes, six groups were found, whereas rep-PCR fingerprinting revealed an even greater genotypic diversity, with only two of the Canarian strains having similar fingerprints. Furthermore, we show that IGS RFLPs and even very dissimilar rep-PCR fingerprints can be clustered into phylogenetically sound groupings by combining them with 16S rDNA RFLPs in computer-assisted cluster analysis of electrophoretic patterns. The DNA sequence analysis of a highly variable 264-bp segment of the 16S rRNA genes of these strains was found to be consistent with the fingerprint-based classification. Three different DNA sequences were obtained, one of which was not previously described, and all belonged to the B. japonicum/Rhodopseudomonas rDNA cluster. Nodulation assays revealed that none of the Canarian isolates nodulated Glycine max or Leucaena leucocephala, but all nodulated Acacia pendula, C. proliferus, Macroptilium atropurpureum, and Vigna unguiculata. PMID:9603820

  15. Foliar Chlorosis in Symbiotic Host and Nonhost Plants Induced by Rhizobium tropici Type B Strains

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Kevin P.; Handelsman, Jo

    1993-01-01

    Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 induced chlorosis in the leaves of its symbiotic hosts, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum Urb.), and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Chlorosis induction by strains CIAT899 and CT9005, an exopolysaccharide-deficient mutant of CIAT899, required carbon substrate. When the bacteria were added at planting in a solution of mannitol (50 g/liter), as few as 103 cells of CIAT899 were sufficient to induce chlorosis in bean plants. All carbon sources tested, including organic acids and mono- and disaccharides, supported chlorosis induction. The addition of a carbon source did not affect the growth rate or the population density of CT9005 in the bean plant rhizosphere. Cell-free filtrates of cultures of CT9005 did not induce detectable chlorosis. All type B strains of R. tropici tested also induced chlorosis in common bean. Type A strains of R. tropici and all other species of bacteria tested did not induce chlorosis. Several lines of evidence indicated that nodulation was not required for chlorosis induction. Strain RSP900, a pSym-cured derivative of CIAT899, induced chlorosis in wild-type P. vulgaris. In addition, NOD125, a nodulation-defective line of common bean, developed chlorosis when inoculated with CIAT899, but did not develop nodules. CIAT899 consistently induced severe chlorosis in the leaves of the nonhost legumes alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.), and induced chlorosis in 29 to 58% of the plants tested of sunflower, cucumber, and tomato seedlings, but it did not induce chlorosis in the leaves of corn or wheat. Chlorosis induction in nonhost plants also required carbon substrate. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that R. tropici type B strains produce a chlorosis-inducing factor that affects a wide range of plant species. PMID:16348994

  16. Classification of the uptake hydrogenase-positive (Hup+) bean rhizobia as Rhizobium tropici.

    PubMed Central

    van Berkum, P; Navarro, R B; Vargas, A A

    1994-01-01

    Phenotypic and genetic characterization indicated that Hup+ bean rhizobial strains are type IIA and type IIB Rhizobium tropici. The Hup+ strain USDA 2840, which did not cluster with either of the two types of R. tropici in a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, had electrophoretic patterns of PCR products generated with primers for repetitive extragenic palindromic and enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus sequences similar to those of three reference strains of R. tropici type IIA. The Hup+ strain USDA 2738, which clustered with the reference strain of R. tropici IIB in a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, had electrophoretic patterns of PCR products generated with primers for repetitive extragenic palindromic and enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus sequences more closely resembling those of the reference strains of R. tropici type IIA than those of type IIB. DNA amplification with the Y1 and Y2 primers to generate a portion of the 16S rDNA operon was useful to distinguish R. tropici type IIA strains from other bean rhizobial strains. The phylogenetic position of the type IIA strain of R. tropici USDA 2840, determined from the partial 16S rDNA sequence, indicated a more distant relationship with the type IIB strain of R. tropici CIAT899 than with the as yet unnamed rhizobial species of Leucaena leucocephala, TAL 1145. Therefore, we suggest that it may be appropriate either to separate R. tropici types IIA and IIB into two different species or to identify TAL 1145 to the species level as a third type of R. tropici. Images PMID:8135515

  17. NrcR, a New Transcriptional Regulator of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 Involved in the Legume Root-Nodule Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, Pablo; Rolla-Santos, Amanda A P; Valderrama-Fernández, Rocío; Gil-Serrano, Antonio; Bellogín, Ramón A; Gomes, Douglas Fabiano; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Megías, Manuel; Hungría, Mariangela; Ollero, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium-legume symbioses requires a highly complex cascade of events. In this molecular dialogue the bacterial NodD transcriptional regulators in conjunction with plant inducers, mostly flavonoids, are responsible for the biosynthesis and secretion of Nod factors which are key molecules for successful nodulation. Other transcriptional regulators related to the symbiotic process have been identified in rhizobial genomes, including negative regulators such as NolR. Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 is an important symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and its genome encompasses intriguing features such as five copies of nodD genes, as well as other possible transcriptional regulators including the NolR protein. Here we describe and characterize a new regulatory gene located in the non-symbiotic plasmid pRtrCIAT899c, that shows homology (46% identity) with the nolR gene located in the chromosome of CIAT 899. The mutation of this gene, named nrcR (nolR-like plasmid c Regulator), enhanced motility and exopolysaccharide production in comparison to the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the number and decoration of Nod Factors produced by this mutant were higher than those detected in the wild-type strain, especially under salinity stress. The nrcR mutant showed delayed nodulation and reduced competitiveness with P. vulgaris, and reduction in nodule number and shoot dry weight in both P. vulgaris and Leucaena leucocephala. Moreover, the mutant exhibited reduced capacity to induce the nodC gene in comparison to the wild-type CIAT 899. The finding of a new nod-gene regulator located in a non-symbiotic plasmid may reveal the existence of even more complex mechanisms of regulation of nodulation genes in R. tropici CIAT 899 that may be applicable to other rhizobial species.

  18. Determination of tropical forage preferences using two offering methods in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D

    2014-04-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1(st) method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    del Papa, María F.; Balagué, Laura J.; Sowinski, Susana Castro; Wegener, Caren; Segundo, Eduardo; Abarca, Francisco Martínez; Toro, Nicolás; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Aguilar, O. Mario; Martínez-Drets, Gloria; Lagares, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809–1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191. PMID:10103231

  20. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%). PMID:26524272

  1. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Kun, Jun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua; Kang, Li Hua

    2015-10-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but < 60 % DNA–DNA relatedness with the closest type strains of recognized species of the genus Mesorhizobium. They differed from each other and from their closest phylogenetic neighbours by presence/absence of several fatty acids, or by large differences in the relative amounts of particular fatty acids. While showing distinctive features, they were generally able to utilize a wide range of substrates as sole carbon sources based on API 50CH and API 20NE tests. The three strains were able to form nodules with the original host Acacia melanoxylon and other woody legumes such as Acacia aneura, Albizia falcataria and Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (T m). PMID:26296667

  2. Soil quality index for evaluation of reclaimed coal mine spoil.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Masto, R E; Yadav, A; George, J; Ram, L C; Shukla, S P

    2016-01-15

    Success in the remediation of mine spoil depends largely on the selection of appropriate tree species. The impacts of remediation on mine soil quality cannot be sufficiently assessed by individual soil properties. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more holistic status of reclamation potentials of tree species. Remediation potentials of four tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo, and Leucaena leucocephala) were studied on reclaimed coal mine overburden dumps of Jharia coalfield, Dhanbad, India. Soil samples were collected under the canopies of the tree species. Comparative studies on the properties of soils in the reclaimed and the reference sites showed improvements in soil quality parameters of the reclaimed site: coarse fraction (-20.4%), bulk density (-12.8%), water holding capacity (+0.92%), pH (+25.4%), EC (+2.9%), cation exchange capacity (+46.6%), organic carbon (+91.5%), N (+60.6%), P (+113%), K (+19.9%), Ca (+49.6%), Mg (+12.2%), Na (+19.6%), S (+46.7%), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (-71.4%), dehydrogenase activity (+197%), and microbial biomass carbon (+115%). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Selected indicators include: coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity. The indicator values were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and integrated into SQI. The calculated SQI was significantly (P<0.001) correlated with tree biomass and canopy cover. Reclaimed site has 52-93% higher SQI compared to the reference site. Higher SQI values were obtained for sites reclaimed with D.sissoo (+93.1%) and C.siamea (+86.4%).

  3. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  4. Phenotypic, molecular and symbiotic characterization of the rhizobial symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart that grow in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, María Florencia; López, José Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, María Antonieta; Pensiero, José Francisco; Lagares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart belongs to the D. virgatus complex, subfamily Mimosoidae. The known potential as livestock fodder of several of these legumes prompted us to undertake a phenotypic, molecular, and symbiotic characterization of the D. paspalaceus symbionts in the Santa Fe province, Argentina. The rhizobia collected--containing isolates with different abiotic-stress tolerances--showed a remarkable genetic diversity by PCR fingerprinting, with 11 different amplification profiles present among 20 isolates. In selected isolates 16S-rDNA sequencing detected mesorhizobia (60%) and rhizobia (40%) within the collection, in contrast to the genus of the original inoculant strain CB3126--previously isolated from Leucaena leucocephala--that we typified here through its 16S rDNA as Sinorhizobium terangae. The results revealed the establishment by diverse bacterial genera--rhizobia, sinorhizobia, and mesorhizobia--of full N2-fixing symbiotic associations with D. paspalaceus. This diversity was paralleled by the presence of at least two different nodC allelic variants. The identical nodC alleles of the Mesorhizobia sp. 10.L.4.2 and 10.L.5.3 notably failed to group within any of the currently described rhizo-/brady-/azorhizobial nodC clades. Interestingly, the nodC from S. terangae CB3126 clustered close to homologs from common bean nodulating rhizobia, but not with the nodC from S. terangae WSM1721 that nodulates Acacia. No previous data were available on nod-gene phylogeny for Desmanthus symbionts. A field assay indicated that inoculation of D. paspalaceus with the local Rhizobium sp. 10L.11.4 produced higher aerial-plant dry weights compared to S. teranga CB3126-inoculated plants. Neither the mesorhizobia 10.L.4.2 or 10.L.5.3 nor the rhizobium 10L.11.4 induced root nodules in L. leucocephala or P. vulgaris. The results show that some of the local isolates have remarkable tolerances to several abiotic stresses including acidity, salt, and temperature; while

  5. Potential of tannin-rich plants for modulating ruminal microbes and ruminal fermentation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rira, M; Morgavi, D P; Archimède, H; Marie-Magdeleine, C; Popova, M; Bousseboua, H; Doreau, M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutritional strategies for decreasing methane production by ruminants fed tropical diets, combining in vitro and in vivo methods. The in vitro approach was used to evaluate the dose effect of condensed tannins (CT) contained in leaves of Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, and Manihot esculenta (39, 75, and 92 g CT/kg DM, respectively) on methane production and ruminal fermentation characteristics. Tannin-rich plants (TRP) were incubated for 24 h alone or mixed with a natural grassland hay based on Dichanthium spp. (control plant), so that proportions of TRP were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. Methane production, VFA concentration, and fermented OM decreased with increased proportions of TRP. Numerical differences on methane production and VFA concentration among TRP sources may be due to differences in their CT content, with greater effects for L. leucocephala and M. esculenta than for G. sepium. Independently of TRP, the response to increasing doses of CT was linear for methane production but quadratic for VFA concentration. As a result, at moderate tannin dose, methane decreased more than VFA. The in vivo trial was conducted to investigate the effect of TRP on different ruminal microbial populations. To this end, 8 rumen-cannulated sheep from 2 breeds (Texel and Blackbelly) were used in two 4 × 4 Latin square designs. Diets were fed ad libitum and were composed of the same feeds used for the in vitro trial: control plant alone or combined with pellets made from TRP leaves at 44% of the diet DM. Compared to TRP, concentration of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was greater for the control diet and concentration of Ruminococcus albus was least for the control diet. The methanogen population was greater for Texel than for Blackbelly. By contrast, TRP-containing diets did not affect protozoa or Fibrobacter succinogenes numbers. Hence, TRP showed potential for mitigating methane production by ruminants. These findings suggest

  6. In vitro screening of plant lectins and tropical plant extracts for anthelmintic properties.

    PubMed

    Ríos-de Álvarez, L; Jackson, F; Greer, A; Bartley, Y; Bartley, D J; Grant, G; Huntley, J F

    2012-05-25

    Lectins are plant secondary metabolites (PSM) found in many forages and which may confer anthelmintic properties to gastrointestinal parasites through disrupting the development of parasitic larvae throughout its life cycle. In experiment 1, the ability of the plant lectins jacalin (JAC), concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin E2L2 (PHA-E2L2), phytohemagglutinin L4 (PHA-L4), phytohemagglutinin E3L (PHA-E3L), kidney bean albumin (KBA), Robinia pseudoacacia agglutinin (RPA), Maackia amurensis lectin (MAA), Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MAA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) to disrupt the feeding of the first stage larvae (L(1)) of the sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes (GIN) Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis was investigated using a larval feeding inhibition test (LFIT). Only PHA-E3L, WGA and Con A had a potent effect on disrupting larval feeding of all of the three species of GIN investigated. The lectin concentration required to inhibit feeding in 50% of L(1) (IC50) was 7.3±1.2, 8.3±1.4 and 4.3±1.7 μg/ml for PHA-E3L; 59.1±32.4, 58.7±11.9 and 8.1±7.0 μg/ml for Con A and 78.9±11.2, 69.4±8.1 and 28.0±14.1 μg/ml for WGA for T. circumcincta, H. contortus and T. colubriformis larvae, respectively (P=0.006). The addition of the lectin inhibitors fetuin, glucose/mannose or N-acetylglucosamine for PHA-E3L, Con A and WGA, respectively, caused an increase in the proportion of larvae that had fed at all concentrations for PHA-E3L only. In experiment 2, the effect of extracts from the tropical plants Azadiractha indica, Trichanthera gigantea, Morus alba, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on the feeding behaviour of H. contortus L(1,) was examined. A. indica, T. gigantea and M. alba failed to inhibit 50% of larvae from feeding at concentrations up to 10mg plant extract per ml. In contrast, both G. sepium and L. leucocephala demonstrated

  7. Thermal efficiency and particulate pollution estimation of four biomass fuels grown on wasteland

    SciTech Connect

    Kandpal, J.B.; Madan, M.

    1996-10-01

    The thermal performance and concentration of suspended particulate matter were studied for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels, namely Acacia nilotica, Leucaena leucocepholea, Jatropha curcus, and Morus alba grown in wasteland. Among the four biomass fuels, the highest thermal efficiency was achieved with Acacia nilotica. The suspended particulate matter concentration for 1-hour combustion of four biomass fuels ranged between 850 and 2,360 {micro}g/m{sup 3}.

  8. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

  9. Neotropical dry forests of the Caribbean: Secondary forest dynamics and restoration in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Brian F.

    Neotropical dry forests exist today mainly as secondary forests heavily influenced by exotic plants. This project analyzes land-cover change and secondary dry forest dynamics in three distinct phases (land cover change, secondary forest succession and forest rehabilitation), using St. Croix, US Virgin Islands as an example. Using Landsat satellite images and other data layers, I created classified land cover maps of St. Croix for 1992 and 2002. Forest was the dominant (56%) cover type on both dates, followed by development, grassland/pastures and water. A land cover change analysis comparing the two images revealed that 15% of the study area experienced a change either to (8%) or from (7%) forest. Grassland was the cover most likely to change and decreased from 16% to 11%, converted primarily to development. The overall result is a landscape trending toward younger forests, and increased forest fragmentation and development. In a second study, vegetation data from a chronosequence of secondary forests was analyzed for changes to forest structure, species composition and presence of exotic species. The leguminous exotic tree Leucaena leucocephala was by far the most frequently observed tree and dominated all stands, except those over 50 years old. Species diversity was significantly ( p<0.001) higher for forests in the two oldest age classes and there was a strong trend toward increasing canopy complexity with increased age. However, age class accounted for only a small portion of variability in species diversity, indicating other influencing factors. Slope, elevation, aspect and soil were not significant and sites with long histories of intensive agricultural land-use remained low in species diversity and dominated by exotics >50 years after abandonment. In a third experiment, a 'gap planting' method for establishing four rare native tree species was tested on a site experiencing arrested succession. All four species successfully established at >69% survival in 3m

  10. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Report on Energy Tree Farm Workshop No. 2, Hilo, Hawaii, June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Troy, M.

    1982-11-01

    Results of the workshop show that a eucalyptus tree plantation, including a small nursery to produce the seedlings not available from the Waimea State Tree Nursery, could be established on 12,000 acres of Puna Sugar Company land. At approximately six years of age, the trees could be harvested, chipped, and burned in the renovated Puna Sugar Company's bagasse boiler to generate electricity. The cost of a bone dry ton of chips would be $37 if a real money rate of 3% is assumed, and $50 at a real money rate of 8%. Electricity could be produced at 7.7 cents per kWh assuming a 3% real money rate, and at 9.8 cents per kWh at an 8% rate. This workshop included an evaluation of soils at the selected Keeau site. Tree crop requirements were matched with soil and other environmental characteristics such as rainfall, altitude, and temperature. Leucaena Leucocephala, L. diversifolia, Eucalyptus saligna, E. grandis, and E. robusta were among the primary species considered, and based upon known environmental requirements and previous experience, E. grandis was selected. A conservative yield estimate for E. grandis at the specified site is 10 bone dry tons (20 green tons)/acre/year of total biomass. The 12,000 acre area would be planted continuously over period of six years at an annual production rate of 2000 acres per year. Spacing would be 6x6, or 1210 trees per acre, which, including a 10% seedling discard rate, would bring the total number of seedlings required to 2.7 million/year. Harvesting operations would begin in the 7th year, and three coppice crops would be harvested before replanting became necessary again. For the production of 120,000 bone dry tons (240,000 green tons) per year, four separate harvesting systems would be needed. Each would consist of 1 mobile whole tree chipper, 2 tracked feller-bunchers, 3 rubber-tired and tracked grapple skidders, 2 truck trailers, 3 chip vans, and 1 D-4 dozer. 10 figures, 31 tables.

  11. Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 ± 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL and TPC of 5030 ± 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 μg/disc and 500 μg/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C

  12. Inoculation Response of Legumes in Relation to the Number and Effectiveness of Indigenous Rhizobium Populations

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, P. W.; Tavares, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The response of legumes to inoculation with rhizobia can be affected by many factors. Little work has been undertaken to examine how indigenous populations or rhizobia affect this response. We conducted a series of inoculation trials in four Hawaiian soils with six legume species (Glycine max, Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus lunatus, Leucaena leucocephala, Arachis hypogaea, and Phaseolus vulgaris) and characterized the native rhizobial populations for each species in terms of the number and effectiveness of the population for a particular host. Inoculated plants had, on average, 76% of the nodules formed by the inoculum strain, which effectively eliminated competition from native strains as a variable between soils. Rhizobia populations ranged from less than 6 × 100/g of soil to 1 × 104/g of soil. The concentration of nitrogen in shoots of inoculated plants was not higher than that in uninoculated controls when the most probable number MPN counts of rhizobia were at or above 2 × 101/g of soil unless the native population was completely ineffective. Tests of random isolates from nodules of uninoculated plants revealed that within most soil populations there was a wide range of effectiveness for N2 fixation. All populations had isolates that were ineffective in fixing N2. The inoculum strains generally did not fix more N2 than the average isolate from the soil population in single-isolate tests. Even when the inoculum strain proved to be a better symbiont than the soil rhizobia, there was no response to inoculation. Enhanced N2 fixation after inoculation was related to increased nodule dry weights. Although inoculation generally increased nodule number when there were less than 1 × 102 rhizobia per g of soil, there was no corresponding increase in nodule dry weight when native populations were effective. Most species compensated for reduced nodulation in soils with few rhizobia by increasing the size of nodules and therefore maintaining a nodule dry weight similar

  13. Phenotypic, Molecular and Symbiotic Characterization of the Rhizobial Symbionts of Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart That Grow in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Fornasero, Laura Viviana; Del Papa, María Florencia; López, José Luis; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Zabala, Juan Marcelo; Toniutti, María Antonieta; Pensiero, José Francisco; Lagares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Desmanthus paspalaceus (Lindm.) Burkart belongs to the D. virgatus complex, subfamily Mimosoidae. The known potential as livestock fodder of several of these legumes prompted us to undertake a phenotypic, molecular, and symbiotic characterization of the D. paspalaceus symbionts in the Santa Fe province, Argentina. The rhizobia collected—containing isolates with different abiotic-stress tolerances—showed a remarkable genetic diversity by PCR fingerprinting, with 11 different amplification profiles present among 20 isolates. In selected isolates 16S-rDNA sequencing detected mesorhizobia (60%) and rhizobia (40%) within the collection, in contrast to the genus of the original inoculant strain CB3126—previously isolated from Leucaena leucocephala—that we typified here through its 16S rDNA as Sinorhizobium terangae. The results revealed the establishment by diverse bacterial genera -rhizobia, sinorhizobia, and mesorhizobia- of full N2-fixing symbiotic associations with D. paspalaceus. This diversity was paralleled by the presence of at least two different nodC allelic variants. The identical nodC alleles of the Mesorhizobia sp. 10.L.4.2 and 10.L.5.3 notably failed to group within any of the currently described rhizo-/brady-/azorhizobial nodC clades. Interestingly, the nodC from S. terangae CB3126 clustered close to homologs from common bean nodulating rhizobia, but not with the nodC from S. terangae WSM1721 that nodulates Acacia. No previous data were available on nod-gene phylogeny for Desmanthus symbionts. A field assay indicated that inoculation of D. paspalaceus with the local Rhizobium sp. 10L.11.4 produced higher aerial-plant dry weights compared to S. teranga CB3126–inoculated plants. Neither the mesorhizobia 10.L.4.2 or 10.L.5.3 nor the rhizobium 10L.11.4 induced root nodules in L. leucocephala or P. vulgaris. The results show that some of the local isolates have remarkable tolerances to several abiotic stresses including acidity, salt, and temperature

  14. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  15. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  16. Symbiotic and taxonomic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ba, Salif; Willems, Anne; de Lajudie, Philippe; Roche, Philippe; Jeder, Habib; Quatrini, Paola; Neyra, Marc; Ferro, Myriam; Promé, Jean-Claude; Gillis, Monique; Boivin-Masson, Catherine; Lorquin, Jean

    2002-04-01

    A collection of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana from various sites in the North and South of Sahara was analyzed for their diversity at both taxonomic and symbiotic levels. On the basis of whole cell protein (SDS-PAGE) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, most of the strains were found to belong to the Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium genera where they may represent several different genospecies. Despite their chromosomal diversity, most A. tortilis Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium symbionts exhibited very similar symbiotic characters. Nodulation tests showed that the strains belong to the Acacia-Leucaena-Prosopis nodulation group, although mainly forming non-fixing nodules on species other than A. tortilis. Most of the strains tested responded similarly to flavonoid nod gene inducers, as estimated by using heterologous nodA-lacZ fusions. Thin layer chromatography analysis of the Nod factors synthesized by overproducing strains showed that most of the strains exhibited similar profiles. The structures of Nod factors produced by four different Sinorhizobium sp. strains were determined and found to be similar to other Acacia-Prosopis-Leucaena nodulating rhizobia of the Sinorhizobium-Mesorhizobium-Rhizobium branch. They are chitopentamers, N-methylated and N-acylated by common fatty acids at the terminal non reducing sugar. The molecules can also be 6-O sulfated at the reducing end and carbamoylated at the non reducing end. The phylogenetic analysis of available NodA sequences, including new sequences from A. tortilis strains, confirmed the clustering of the NodA sequences of members of the Acacia-Prosopis-Leucaena nodulation group.

  17. Charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.

    1995-12-01

    High quality charcoal has been produced with very high yields of 50% to 60% from macadamia nut and kukui nut shells and of 44% to 47% from Eucalyptus and Leucaena wood in a bench scale unit at elevated pressure on a 2 to 3 hour cycle, compared to commercial practice of 25% to 30% yield on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Neither air pollution nor tar is produced by the process. The effects of feedstock pretreatments with metal additives on charcoal yield are evaluated in this paper. Also, the influences of steam and air partial pressure and total pressure on yields of activated carbon from high yield charcoal are presented.

  18. Linking Above- and Belowground Dynamics in Tropical Urban Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, E. E.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    . timber plantation and subsequent forest regeneration) while the N-fixing species Leucaena leucocephala drove differences between these forests and younger forests (10-year old), which only recently regenerated. The 40-year old mixed-species forests, regardless of successional trajectory, both had higher soil organic C and N (40 × 6 Mg C/ha and 3.8 × 6 Mg N/ha) compared to younger forests (32 × 2 Mg C/ha and 2.9 × 0.2 Mg N/ha) and active pastures. Active pastures had the lowest soil organic C and N (22 × 6 Mg C/ha and 2.1 × 0.5 Mg N/ha). We found that each successional trajectory showed distinct soil microbial community composition. In addition, the recently regenerated younger forests, dominated by N-fixing tree species, had higher microbial biomass and higher rates of N-cycling enzyme activity (N-acetyl glucosaminidase) when compared with the older, mixed-species forest. Our next step is to link microbial community structure and function with distinct forms of soil organic matter (SOM), and thus determine whether changes in function create distinct SOM stabilization pathways. To do this we will compare SOM chemistry and turnover for the different successional trajectories and analyze data from long-term leaf litter and root transplant experiments between the young and old secondary forests.

  19. An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    -filled in a long process of base level lowering and landscape denudation. These valley processes are linked to hillslope "throughflow" lines and exfiltration points appear in gully walls from which secondary gullies develop, thus creating expanding erosional networks. After incision, channel widening and meandering are followed by gully wall declination and in duplex soils headwall retreat consumes the A horizon of the surrounding hillslope soils. Consequently, sediment from eroding headwalls on the slopes is deposited in the gullies and lower slopes. New vegetation establishes and completely masks the previous gully. This is a different kind of base level effect when compared with the traditional incision by trunk and regional catchment networks and needs to be understood when considering the effects of grazing management. Recent advances in knowledge about the Southern Oscillation Index and the Inter-decadal Pacific Oscillation are a two-edged sword for land managers because some parts of properties can be best rehabilitated during wet periods while other very productive parts can be damaged the most. Rehabilitation of some key areas on hillslopes, successful introduction of tropical legumes and buffel grass(Cenchus Celaris), choking of gullies where deposition is occurring with growth of Leucaena leucocephala shrubs, and rotational resting (Time Controlled Grazing) from grazing has been highly successful in changing hydrology and erosion.

  20. Influence of the Size of Indigenous Rhizobial Populations on Establishment and Symbiotic Performance of Introduced Rhizobia on Field-Grown Legumes †

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Janice E.; Singleton, Paul W.; Bohlool, B. Ben

    1991-01-01

    Indigenous rhizobia in soil present a competition barrier to the establishment of inoculant strains, possibly leading to inoculation failure. In this study, we used the natural diversity of rhizobial species and numbers in our fields to define, in quantitative terms, the relationship between indigenous rhizobial populations and inoculation response. Eight standardized inoculation trials were conducted at five well-characterized field sites on the island of Maui, Hawaii. Soil rhizobial populations ranged from 0 to over 3.5 × 104 g of soil-1 for the different legumes used. At each site, no less than four but as many as seven legume species were planted from among the following: soybean (Glycine max), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Leucaena leucocephala, tinga pea (Lathyrus tingeatus), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and clover (Trifolium repens). Each legume was (i) inoculated with an equal mixture of three effective strains of homologous rhizobia, (ii) fertilized at high rates with urea, or (iii) left uninoculated. For soybeans, a nonnodulating isoline was used in all trials as the rhizobia-negative control. Inoculation increased economic yield for 22 of the 29 (76%) legume species-site combinations. While the yield increase was greater than 100 kg ha-1 in all cases, in only 11 (38%) of the species-site combinations was the increase statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05). On average, inoculation increased yield by 62%. Soybean (G. max) responded to inoculation most frequently, while cowpea (V. unguiculata) failed to respond in all trials. Inoculation responses in the other legumes were site dependent. The response to inoculation and the competitive success of inoculant rhizobia were inversely related to numbers of indigenous rhizobia. As few as 50 rhizobia g of soil-1 eliminated inoculation response. When fewer than 10 indigenous rhizobia g of soil-1 were present, economic yield was

  1. Fast pyrolysis of tropical biomass species and influence of water pretreatment on product distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe; Gupta, Vijai

    2016-03-15

    Here, the fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amountmore » of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.« less

  2. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.

  3. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena. PMID:26978265

  4. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely

  5. Fast Pyrolysis of Tropical Biomass Species and Influence of Water Pretreatment on Product Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe

    2016-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amount of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena. PMID:26978265

  6. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in Mycteria leucocephala Pennant 1769: molted feathers as successful DNA source.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Mustafa, Mohd; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2014-10-01

    DNA from molted feathers is being increasingly used for genetic studies on birds. However, the DNA obtained from such non-invasive sources is often not of enough quantity and quality for isolation of new microsatellite markers. The present study examined the potential of shed feathers of near threatened Painted Stork as a source of its DNA for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. Thirty-one shed feathers of varying conditions ('good' and 'deteriorated') and sizes ('large', 'intermediate' and 'small') collected in a north Indian population were used to isolate DNA by a standard isopropanol method and 11 microsatellite markers already developed in the Wood Stork were screened for amplification. Nine plucked feathers from two dead Painted Storks were also used to compare the DNA yield and amplification success. The DNA yield of feathers varied significantly in relation to the calamus size and condition. Among molted feathers, 'good' and 'large' samples provided more DNA than 'deteriorated' and 'small' ones, respectively. 'Large' plucked feathers yielded more DNA than 'large' molted feathers. DNA was almost degraded in all the samples and ratio of absorbance at 260/280 nm varied from 1.0 to 1.8, indicating impurity in many samples. Independent of DNA yields, all microsatellites were cross-amplified in all kinds of feathers, with > 80% success in different feather categories. It is concluded that the shed feathers can be successfully used to isolate DNA in the Painted Stork and for cross-species amplification of microsatellites.

  7. Several herbal compounds in Okinawa plants directly inhibit the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-12-01

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target, and the search for blockers of this oncogenic/aging kinase would be potentially useful for the treatment of various diseases/disorders in the future. Here, we report for the first time the anti-PAK1 activity of compounds derived from three distinct Okinawa plants. 5,6-Dehydrokawain (DK) and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) from alpinia inhibited directly PAK1 more strongly than mimosine and mimosinol from leucaena. Cucurbitacin I isolated from bitter gourd/melon also exhibited a moderate anti-PAK1 activity. Hispidin, a metabolite of DK, strongly inhibited PAK1 with the IC50 = 5.7 μM. The IC50 of three hispidin derivatives (H1-3) for PAK1 inhibition ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 μM, while mimosine tetrapeptides [mimosine-Phe-Phe-Tyr (MFFY) and mimosine-Phe-Trp-Tyr (MFWY)] inhibit PAK1 at nanomolar level (IC50 of 0.13 and 0.60 μM, respectively). Thus, we hope these derivatives of hispidin and mimosine could be used as potential leading compounds for developing far more potent anti-PAK1 drugs which would be useful for clinical application in the future. PMID:25639302

  8. Release of fuel-bound nitrogen during biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.; Masutani, S.M.; Ishimura, D.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Kinoshita, C.M.

    2000-03-01

    Gasification of four biomass feedstocks (leucaena, sawdust, bagasse, and banagrass) with significantly different fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) content was investigated to determine the effects of operational parameters and nitrogen content of biomass on the partitioning of FBN among nitrogenous gas species. Experiments were performed using a bench-scale, indirectly heated, fluidized-bed gasifier. Data were obtained over a range of temperatures and equivalence ratios representative of commercial biomass gasification processes. An assay of all major nitrogenous components in the gasification products was performed for the first time, providing a clear accounting of the evolution of FBN. Important findings of this research include the following: (1) NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are the dominant species evolved from fuel nitrogen during biomass gasification; >90% of FBN in feedstock is converted to NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}; (2) relative levels of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} are determined by thermochemical reactions in the gasifier; these reactions are affected strongly by temperature; (3) N{sub 2} appears to be primarily produced through the conversion of NH{sub 3} in the gas phase; (4) the structural formula and content of fuel nitrogen in biomass feedstock significantly affect the formation and evolution of nitrogen species during biomass gasification.

  9. Phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial species and symbiovars nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rouhrazi, Kiomars; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Velázquez, Encarna

    2016-03-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of 29 rhizobial strains nodulating Phaseolus vulgaris in Iran was analysed on the basis of their core and symbiotic genes. These strains displayed five 16S rRNA-RFLP patterns and belong to eight ERIC-PCR clusters. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA and atpD core genes allowed the identification of several strains as Rhizobium sophoriradicis, R. leguminosarum, R. tropici and Pararhizobium giardinii, whereas other strains represented a new phylogenetic lineage related to R. vallis. These strains and those identified as R. sophoriradicis and R. leguminosarum belong to the symbiovar phaseoli carrying the γ nodC allele distributed in P. vulgaris endosymbionts in America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as R. tropici belongs to the symbiovar tropici carried by strains of R. tropici, R. leucaenae, R. lusitanum and R. freirei nodulating P. vulgaris in America, Africa and Asia. The strain identified as P. giardinii belongs to the symbiovar giardinii together with the type strain of this species nodulating P. vulgaris in France. It is remarkable that the recently described species R. sophoriradicis is worldwide distributed in P. vulgaris nodules carrying the γ nodC allele of symbiovar phaseoli harboured by rhizobia isolated in the American distribution centers of this legume.

  10. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L).

    PubMed

    Paengkoum, P; Phonmun, T; Liang, J B; Huang, X D; Tan, H Y; Jahromi, M F

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations.

  11. Molecular Weight, Protein Binding Affinity and Methane Mitigation of Condensed Tannins from Mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L)

    PubMed Central

    Paengkoum, P.; Phonmun, T.; Liang, J. B.; Huang, X. D.; Tan, H. Y.; Jahromi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) peel, its protein binding affinity and effects on fermentation parameters including total gas, methane (CH4) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The average molecular weight (Mw) of the purified CT was 2,081 Da with a protein binding affinity of 0.69 (the amount needed to bind half the maximum bovine serum albumin). In vitro gas production declined by 0.409, 0.121, and 0.311, respectively, while CH4 production decreased by 0.211, 0.353, and 0.549, respectively, with addition of 10, 20, and 30 mg CT/500 mg dry matter (DM) compared to the control (p<0.05). The effects of CT from mangosteen-peel on in vitro DM degradability (IVDMD) and in vitro N degradability was negative and linear (p<0.01). Total VFA, concentrations of acetic, propionic, butyric and isovaleric acids decreased linearly with increasing amount of CT. The aforementioned results show that protein binding affinity of CT from mangosteen-peel is lower than those reported for Leucaena forages, however, the former has stronger negative effect on IVDMD. Therefore, the use of mangosteen-peel as protein source and CH4 mitigating agent in ruminant feed requires further investigations. PMID:26323400

  12. Homestead tree planting in two rural Swazi communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Tree planting practices were investigated on a total of 95 homesteads in two communities in rural Swaziland. Information was also collected on socioeconomic characteristics of the homesteads. In both the study areas, Sigombeni and Bhekinkosi, there was considerable variation amongst individual homesteads in size, relative wealth (as indicated by cattle and motor vehicle ownership), and amount and types of trees planted. Eighty-five percent of all homesteads in Sigombeni and 73% in Bhekinkosi had planted at least one tree. Common forms of planting included small woodlots, fruit trees, and ornamentals. Virtually all the woodlots consisted of two introduced wattle species (Acacia mearnsii and A. decurrens). The most commonly planted fruit trees were avocados, bananas, and peaches. No complex or labor-intensive agroforestry practices (such as maize/leucaena intercropping) were observed. There was some evidence that the poorest and newest homesteads were the least likely to have planted any trees and that the richest homesteads were the most likely to have planted woodlots. The results indicate that forestry research and extension efforts should take into account homestead characteristics, and strive to offer a range of tree planting options that vary in input requirements, labor needs, and complexity.

  13. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Diana V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E.; Jansen, Robert K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T.; Hajrah, Nahid H.; Alharbi, Njud S.; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  14. Characterization of tropical tree rhizobia and description of Mesorhizobium plurifarium sp. nov.

    PubMed

    de Lajudie, P; Willems, A; Nick, G; Moreira, F; Molouba, F; Hoste, B; Torck, U; Neyra, M; Collins, M D; Lindström, K; Dreyfus, B; Gillis, M

    1998-04-01

    A collection of strains isolated from root nodules of Acacia species in Senegal was analysed previously by electrophoresis of total cell protein, auxanographic tests, rRNA-DNA hydridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA base composition and DNA-DNA hybridization [de Lajudie, P., Willems, A., Pot, B. & 7 other authors (1994). Int J Syst Bacteriol 44, 715-733]. Strains from Acacia were shown to belong to two groups, Sinorhizobium terangae, and a so-called gel electrophoretic cluster U, which also included some reference strains from Brazil. Further taxonomic characterization of this group using the same techniques plus repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and nodulation tests is presented in this paper. Reference strains from Sudan and a number of new rhizobia isolated from nodules of Acacia senegal, Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana and Prosopis juliflora in Senegal were included. As a result of this polyphasic approach, the creation of a new species, Mesorhizobium plurifarium, is proposed for a genotypically and phenotypically distinct group corresponding to the former cluster U and containing strains isolated from Acacia, Leucaena, Prosopis and Chamaecrista in West Africa (Senegal), East Africa (Sudan) and South America (Brazil). The type strain of Mesorhizobium plurifarium ORS 1032 has been deposited in the LMG collection as LMG 11892.

  15. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-11-23

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms.

  16. Agriculture and nutrition at village level, Underexploited village resources.

    PubMed

    Vietmeyer, N D

    1980-07-28

    Developing country villages contain plants, animals and technologies whose extraordinary potentials are poorly appreciated by scientists. Examples of nutritious village crops that are still largely undeveloped and unappreciated outside their traditional villages are the winged bean, amaranths and the tepary bean. Tropical tree legumes, such as leucaena, grow fast and fix nitrogen and--although barely studied by foresters--are promising sources for village firewood and lumber. There are several animals with great promise for use in villages. The water buffalo is a gentle, productive village resource, neglected by the cow used by Indonesian villagers and unknown elsewhere in the tropics. And Papua New Guinea's new village farms for crocodiles and butterflies graphically demonstrate that wildlife husbandry can be valuable for remote rural areas, despite its neglect by animal science. Among exceptionally useful village technologies, an example is the amazingly efficient cooking system used on the small Indonesian islands of Roti and Sumba, which has so far been described only in Captain Cook's journals.

  17. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms. PMID:26592928

  18. Lead isotopes and lead shot ingestion in the globally threatened marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) and white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala).

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Fredrik; Mateo, Rafael; Hillström, Lars; Green, Andy J; Taggart, Mark A; Raab, Andrea; Meharg, Andy A

    2006-11-01

    Lead isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) and concentrations in the livers and bones of marbled teal and white-headed duck found dead or moribund were determined in order to establish the main lead source in these waterfowl species. Lead concentrations in bone (dry weight) and liver (wet weight) were found to be very high in many of the white-headed ducks (bone: geometric mean=88.9 ppm, maximum=419 ppm; liver: geometric mean=16.8 ppm, maximum=57.0 ppm). Some of the marbled teal had high lead levels in the bones but liver lead levels were all low (bone: geometric mean=6.13 ppm, maximum=112 ppm; liver: geometric mean=0.581 ppm, maximum=4.77 ppm). Ingested lead shot were found in 71% of the white-headed duck and 20% of the marbled teal. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in livers and bones of white-headed ducks and marbled teals showed no significant differences compared to the ratios obtained from lead shot. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in bones of marbled teal ducklings with the highest lead concentrations tended to resemble the ratios of lead shot, which supports our hypothesis that the lead was derived from the hens. We also found that the lead ratios of lead shot and lead ratios described for soils in the area overlapped, but also that the isotopic ratio (206)Pb/(207)Pb in lead shot used in Spain has a narrow range compared with those used in North America. The principal source of lead in many of these birds was, however, most likely lead shot, as supported by the similar isotopic ratios, high lead concentrations in tissues and evidence of ingested shot.

  19. Microhabitat use and diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks (Oxyura leucocephala Scopoli, 1769) wintering at Burdur Lake, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nergiz, Humeyra; Tabur, Mehmet Ali; Ayvaz, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    Diurnal time-activity budgets of White-headed Ducks were investigated with respect to sex and temporal environmental variables to document behavioral responses to winter conditions and nutritional requirements at Burdur Lake where the largest winter concentrations occur. Behaviors of males and females were recorded separately in randomly selected focal flocks during 1140 sessions. For the entire population a large proportion of time was spent resting. During the day they spent 61% of time resting, 22% feeding, 12% comfort and 5% in locomotion. Resting peaked in the middle of day while feeding was observed frequently in evening and morning. Time use did not differ significantly between sexes. However, it was detected that more time was spent feeding during windy days as wave-height increased.

  20. Effect of Various Organic Matter stimulates Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Plantations on Eroded Slopes in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha Vaidya, G.; Shrestha, K.; Wallander, H.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion resulting from landslides is a serious problem in mountainous countries such as Nepal. To restore such sites it is essential to establish plant cover that protects the soil and reduces erosion. Trees and shrubs on the lower hillsides in Nepal form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and these fungi are important for the uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil. In addition, the mycelia formed by these fungi have an important function in stabilizing the soil. The success of plantations of these eroded slopes is therefore highly dependent on the extent of mycorrhizal colonization of the plants. Mycorrhizal fungi growing in symbiosis with plants are essential in this respect because they improve both plant and nutrient uptake and soil structure. We investigated the influence of organic matter and P amendment on recently produced biomass of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in eroded slopes in Nepal. Eroded soil mixed with different types of organic matter was placed in mesh bags which were buried around the trees of Bauhinia purpurea and Leucaena diversifolia .This experiment were done in two seasons ( (the wet and the dry season). Signature fatty acids were used to determine bacterial and AM fungal biomass after the six month intervals. The amount and composition of AM fungal spores were analyzed in the mesh bags from the wet and dry seasons. More microbial biomass was produced during wet season than during dry season. Further more, organic matter addition enhanced the production of AM fungal and bacterial biomass during both seasons. The positive influence of organic matter addition on AM fungi could be an important contribution to plant survival, growth and nutrient composition in the soil in plantations on eroded slopes. Different AM spore communities and bacterial profiles were obtained with different organic amendments and this suggests a possible way of selecting for specific microbial communities in the management of eroded

  1. Density and microhabitat use of Bengal slow loris in primary forest and non-native plantation forest.

    PubMed

    Pliosungnoen, Manoon; Gale, George; Savini, Tommaso

    2010-12-01

    The extent of planted forests has greatly increased in the tropics, but their conservation value while assumed to be low, is largely unknown. We compared the density and microhabitat selection of a nocturnal arboreal primate, the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), in mostly undisturbed, evergreen tropical forest to those in 15-18 year old Acacia/Leucaena plantations with significant secondary regrowth, and <15 year old plantations with little regrowth. Based on estimates derived from distance sampling, loris densities in older plantations were nearly identical to primary forest (4.26 vs. 4.00 lorises per square kilometer), although encounter rates were three times higher in the older plantations probably owing to the lower detection probability in the more complex vegetation of the primary forest. The mean density estimate for the younger plantation was one-third of the above habitats (1.27 lorises per square kilometer), although not statistically different. Lorises tended to use larger diameter and taller trees, with a greater crown depth than randomly sampled trees, and tended to avoid habitats with sparsely crowned trees. The older plantations had trees with lower basal area and shorter stems than the primary forest; however, the older plantations contained higher densities of Bauhinia lianas, a commonly eaten food source and did not contain the red giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), a potential competitor. Although it is unknown whether the Bengal slow loris would persist without the presence of primary forest in the landscape, we suggest that older plantations have conservation value for at least selected species and as such, could be better managed to increase this value. PMID:20938966

  2. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of legume condensed tannins on in vitro larval migration inhibition of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Naumann, H D; Armstrong, S A; Lambert, B D; Muir, J P; Tedeschi, L O; Kothmann, M M

    2014-01-17

    The effect of molecular weight of condensed tannins (CT) from a variety of warm-season perennial legumes commonly consumed by sheep and goats on anthelmintic activity has not been previously explored. The objectives of this study were to determine if molecular weight of CT from warm-season perennial legumes could predict the biological activity of CT relative to anthelmintic activity against ivermectin resistant L3 stage Haemonchus contortus (HC) using a larval migration inhibition (LMI) assay. A second objective was to determine if CT from warm-season perennial legumes possess anthelmintic properties against L3 stage (HC). Lespedeza stuevei had the greatest concentration of total condensed tannin (TCT; 11.7%), whereas, with the exception of Arachis glabrata, a CT-free negative control, Leucaena retusa had the least TCT (3.3%). Weight-average molecular weight of CT ranged from 552 Da for L. stuevei to 1483 Da for Lespedeza cuneata. The treatments demonstrating the greatest percent LMI were L. retusa, L. stuevei and Acacia angustissima var. hirta (65.4%, 63.1% and 42.2%, respectively). The ivermectin treatment had the smallest percent LMI (12.5%) against ivermectin resistant L3 HC. There was a weak correlation (R(2)=0.34; P=0.05) between CT MW and percent LMI, suggesting that molecular weight of CT is a weak contributing factor to CT biological activity as it relates to LMI of L3 stage HC. L. stuevei, L. retusa and A. angustissima var. hirta STP5 warrant further evaluation of anthelmintic properties in vivo.

  3. Phylogeny and genetic diversity of native rhizobia nodulating common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aserse, Aregu Amsalu; Räsänen, Leena A; Assefa, Fassil; Hailemariam, Asfaw; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-03-01

    The diversity and phylogeny of 32 rhizobial strains isolated from nodules of common bean plants grown on 30 sites in Ethiopia were examined using AFLP fingerprinting and MLSA. Based on cluster analysis of AFLP fingerprints, test strains were grouped into six genomic clusters and six single positions. In a tree built from concatenated sequences of recA, glnII, rpoB and partial 16S rRNA genes, the strains were distributed into seven monophyletic groups. The strains in the groups B, D, E, G1 and G2 could be classified as Rhizobium phaseoli, R. etli, R. giardinii, Agrobacterium tumefaciens complex and A. radiobacter, respectively, whereas the strains in group C appeared to represent a novel species. R. phaseoli, R. etli, and the novel group were the major bean nodulating rhizobia in Ethiopia. The strains in group A were linked to R. leguminosarum species lineages but not resolved. Based on recA, rpoB and 16S rRNA genes sequences analysis, a single test strain was assigned as R. leucaenae. In the nodC tree the strains belonging to the major nodulating groups were clustered into two closely linked clades. They also had almost identical nifH gene sequences. The phylogenies of nodC and nifH genes of the strains belonging to R. leguminosarum, R. phaseoli, R. etli and the putative new species (collectively called R. leguminosarum species complex) were not consistent with the housekeeping genes, suggesting symbiotic genes have a common origin which is different from the core genome of the species and indicative of horizontal gene transfer among these rhizobia.

  4. Density and microhabitat use of Bengal slow loris in primary forest and non-native plantation forest.

    PubMed

    Pliosungnoen, Manoon; Gale, George; Savini, Tommaso

    2010-12-01

    The extent of planted forests has greatly increased in the tropics, but their conservation value while assumed to be low, is largely unknown. We compared the density and microhabitat selection of a nocturnal arboreal primate, the Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), in mostly undisturbed, evergreen tropical forest to those in 15-18 year old Acacia/Leucaena plantations with significant secondary regrowth, and <15 year old plantations with little regrowth. Based on estimates derived from distance sampling, loris densities in older plantations were nearly identical to primary forest (4.26 vs. 4.00 lorises per square kilometer), although encounter rates were three times higher in the older plantations probably owing to the lower detection probability in the more complex vegetation of the primary forest. The mean density estimate for the younger plantation was one-third of the above habitats (1.27 lorises per square kilometer), although not statistically different. Lorises tended to use larger diameter and taller trees, with a greater crown depth than randomly sampled trees, and tended to avoid habitats with sparsely crowned trees. The older plantations had trees with lower basal area and shorter stems than the primary forest; however, the older plantations contained higher densities of Bauhinia lianas, a commonly eaten food source and did not contain the red giant flying squirrel (Petaurista petaurista), a potential competitor. Although it is unknown whether the Bengal slow loris would persist without the presence of primary forest in the landscape, we suggest that older plantations have conservation value for at least selected species and as such, could be better managed to increase this value.

  5. Selenium volatilization in vegetated agricultural drainage sediment from the San Luis Drain, Central California.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, G S; Lin, Z-Q; Arroyo, I; Terry, N

    2005-09-01

    The presence of large amounts of Se-laden agricultural drainage sediment in the San Luis Drain, Central California, poses a serious toxic threat to wildlife in the surrounding environment. Effective management of the drainage sediment becomes a practical challenge because the sediment is polluted with high levels of Se, B, and salts. This two-year field study was conducted to identify the best plant species that are salt and B tolerant and that have a superior ability of volatilizing Se from drainage sediment. The drainage sediment was mixed with clean soil, and vegetated with salado alfalfa (Medicago sativa 'salado'), salado grass (Sporobulus airoides 'salado'), saltgrass-turf (Distichlis spp. 'NYPA Turf'), saltgrass-forage (Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene), cordgrass (Spartina patens 'Flageo'), Leucaenia (Leucaena leucocephola), elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum), or wild type-Brassica (Brassica spp.). Results show that elephant grass produced the greatest amount of biomass and accumulated highest concentrations of B. Highest concentrations of Se, S, and Cl were observed in wild-type Brassica. Biogenic volatilization of Se by plants and soil microbes was greater in summer. Among the treatments, the mean daily rates of Se volatilization (microg Se m(-2)d(-1)) were wild-type Brassica (39) > saltgrass-turf (31) > cordgrass (27) > saltgrass forage (24) > elephant grass (22) > salado grass (21) > leucaenia (19) > salado alfalfa (14) > irrigated bare soil (11) > non-irrigated bare soil (6). Overall, rates of Se volatilization in drainage sediment were relatively low due to high levels of sulfate. To manage Se in drainage sediment by phytoremediation, the biological volatilization process needs to be enhanced substantially under field conditions.

  6. Conservation agriculture among small scale farmers in semi-arid region of Kenya does improve soil biological quality and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waweru, Geofrey; Okoba, Barrack; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    The low food production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been attributed to declining soil quality. This is due to soil degradation and fertility depletion resulting from unsustainable conventional farming practices such as continuous tillage, crop residue burning and mono cropping. To overcome these challenges, conservation agriculture (CA) is actively promoted. However, little has been done in evaluating the effect of each of the three principles of CA namely: minimum soil disturbance, maximum surface cover and diversified/crop rotation on soil quality in SSA. A study was conducted for three years from 2012 to 2015 in Laikipia East sub county in Kenya to evaluate the effect of tillage, surface cover and intercropping on a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological soil quality indicators, crop parameters and the field-water balance. This abstract reports on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and soil organic carbon (SOC). The experimental set up was a split plot design with tillage as main treatment (conventional till (CT), no-till (NT) and no-till with herbicide (NTH)), and intercropping and surface cover as sub treatment (intercropping maize with: beans, MB; beans and leucaena, MBL; beans and maize residues at 1.5 Mg ha-1 MBMu, and dolichos, MD). NT had significantly higher SMBC by 66 and 31% compared with CT and NTH respectively. SOC was significantly higher in NTH than CT and NT by 15 and 4%, respectively. Intercropping and mulching had significant effect on SMBC and SOC. MBMu resulted in higher SMBC by 31, 38 and 43%, and SOC by 9, 20 and 22% as compared with MBL, MD and MB, respectively. SMBC and SOC were significantly affected by the interaction between tillage, intercropping and soil cover with NTMBMu and NTHMBMu having the highest SMBC and SOC, respectively. We conclude that indeed tillage, intercropping and mulching substantially affect SMBC and SOC. On the individual components of CA, tillage and surface cover had the highest effect on SMBC and

  7. Soil carbon sequestration in rainfed production systems in the semiarid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Ch; Lal, Rattan; Kundu, Sumanta; Babu, M B B Prasad; Venkateswarlu, B; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-07-15

    Severe soil organic carbon (SOC) depletion is a major constraint in rainfed agroecosystems in India because it directly influences soil quality, crop productivity and sustainability. The magnitude of soil organic, inorganic and total carbon stocks in the semi-arid bioclimate is estimated at 2.9, 1.9 and 4.8 Pg respectively. Sorghum, finger millet, pearl millet, maize, rice, groundnut, soybean, cotton, food legumes etc. are predominant crop production systems with a little, if any, recycling of organic matter. Data from the long term experiments on major rainfed production systems in India show that higher amount of crop residue C input (Mg/ha/y) return back to soil in soybean-safflower (3.37) system practiced in Vertisol region of central India. Long term addition of chemical fertilizer and organic amendments improved the SOC stock. For every Mg/ha increase in SOC stock in the root zone, there occurs an increase in grain yield (kg/ha) of 13, 101, 90, 170, 145, 18 and 160 for groundnut, finger millet, sorghum, pearl millet, soybean and rice, respectively. Long-term cropping without using any organic amendment and/or mineral fertilizers can severely deplete the SOC stock which is the highest in groundnut-finger millet system (0.92 Mg C/ha/y) in Alfisols. Some agroforestry systems also have a huge potential of C sequestration to the extent of 10Mg/ha/y in short rotation eucalyptus and Leucaena plantations. The critical level of C input requirements for maintaining SOC at the antecedent level ranges from 1.1 to 3.5 Mg C/ha/y and differs among soil type and production systems. National level policy interventions needed to promote sustainable use of soil and water resources include prohibiting residue burning, reducing deforestation, promoting integrated farming systems and facilitating payments for ecosystem services. A wide spread adoption of these measures can improve soil quality through increase in SOC sequestration and improvement in agronomic productivity of

  8. Current status of plant products reported to inhibit sperm.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, N R; Waller, D P

    1982-06-01

    This report reviews research on plant-derived agents that prevent sperm production if taken orally by the male or that incapacitate or kill sperm on contact if used vaginally by the female. It would be of great value to develop fertility inhibitors that are totally selective for reproductive systems and enzymes, and there is a possibility that a plant-derived drug may have this effect. Plants that have been studied for their fertility inhibiting effects in the male include: Aristolochia indica L. (Aristolochiaceae); Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae); Balanites roxburghii Planch. (Zygophyllaceae); Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae); Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae); Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae); Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacquin) Schott. (Araceae); Ecaballium elaterium A. Richard (Cucurbitaceae); Gossypium species (Malvaceae); Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae); Hippophae salicifolia D. Don (Elaeagnaceae); Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. (Leguminosae); Lonicera ciliosa Poir. (Caprifoliaceae); Lupinus termis Forsk. (Leguminosae); Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. (Malvaceae); Momordica charantia L. (Curcurbitaceae); Ocimum sanctum L. (Labiatae); Prunus emarginata Walp. (Rosaceae); and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae). A large number of plants have been randomly selected and screened for spermicidal activity "in vitro" and several seem promising. Those species found to be active and the nature of the active principle(s), when known, are presented in a table as are plant-derived chemical substances of known or partially known structure reported to be spermicidal "in vitro." Plants warrant systematic study as potential sources of sperm-agglutinating compounds. Of 1600 Indian plants tested, 90 showed positive semen coagulating properties. There seems to be a lack of correlation among experimental results obtained by different groups of investigators, between data obtained "in vitro" and "in vivo," and between experimental results and

  9. In situ Management and Domestication of Plants in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Alejandro; Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Ethnobotanical studies in Mexico have documented that Mesoamerican peoples practise systems of in situ management of wild and weedy vegetation directed to control availability of useful plants. In situ management includes let standing, encouraging growing and protection of individual plants of useful species during clearance of vegetation, which in some cases may involve artificial selection. The aim of this study was to review, complement and re-analyse information from three case studies which examined patterns of morphological, physiological and genetic effects of artificial selection in plant populations under in situ management in the region. Methods Information on wild and in situ managed populations of the herbaceous weedy plants Anoda cristata and Crotalaria pumila, the tree Leucaena esculenta subsp. esculenta and the columnar cacti Escontria chiotilla, Polaskia chichipe and Stenocereus stellatus from Central Mexico was re-analysed. Analyses compared morphology and frequency of morphological variants, germination patterns, and population genetics parameters between wild and managed in situ populations of the species studied. Species of columnar cacti are under different management intensities and their populations, including cultivated stands of P. chichipe and S. stellatus, were also compared between species. Key Results Significant differences in morphology, germination patterns and genetic variation documented between wild, in situ managed and cultivated populations of the species studied are associated with higher frequencies of phenotypes favoured by humans in managed populations. Genetic diversity in managed populations of E. chiotilla and P. chichipe is slightly lower than in wild populations but in managed populations of S. stellatus variation was higher than in the wild. However, genetic distance between populations was generally small and influenced more by geographic distance than by management. Conclusions Artificial

  10. Genomic basis of broad host range and environmental adaptability of Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 which are used in inoculants for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are α-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. Results Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. Conclusions Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean

  11. 78 FR 34118 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... of January 21, 2009--Transparency and Open Government (74 FR 4685; January 26, 2009), which call on... guarouba), Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala), and Vinaceous parrot (Amazona vinacea) to enhance the... Ursidae Accipitridae Cathartidae Columbidae Gruidae Psittacidae (does not include thick-billed...

  12. The white-crowned pigeon: A fruit-eating pigeon as a host for Trichomonas gallinae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Sprunt, A.

    1971-01-01

    Trichomoniasis resulting from infection by Trichomonas gallinae was observed in 12 laboratory reared white-crowned pigeons (Columba leucocephala). A field survey of nestlings in the Florida Keys revealed a prevalence of 88% T. gallinae carriers but no evidence of trichomoniasis could be found among the wild birds.

  13. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  14. Serotypes in Saccharomyces telluris: Their relation to source of isolation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasenclever, H.F.; Kocan, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    Three serotypes have been characterized with three reference strains of Saccharomyces telluris and designated as A, B, and C. One reference strain of Torpulopsis bovina, the imperfect form of S. telluris, belonged to serotype B. Strains of S. telluris isolated from four columbid species were serotyped. All 98 strains of this yeast isolated from Columba livia belonged to serotype B. Three other columbid species, C. leucocephala, C. fasciata, and Zenaidura macroura harbored strains of serotype C only. Serotype A was not isolated from any of the avian species.

  15. Some nemerteans (Nemertea) from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R; Sundberg, P

    2001-12-01

    Three species of marine nemerteans described and illustrated from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, include one new genus and two new species: these are the monostiliferous hoplonemerteans Thallasionemertes leucocephala gen. et sp. nov. and Correanemertes polyophthalma sp. nov. A new colour variety of the heteronemertean Micrura callima is also reported, this species previously only being known from Rottnest Island, Western Australia. A key for the field identification of the marine nemerteans recorded from coastal Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef is provided.

  16. A parasitic plant increases native and exotic plant species richness in vernal pools.

    PubMed

    Graffis, Andrea M; Kneitel, Jamie M

    2015-08-24

    Species interactions are well known to affect species diversity in communities, but the effects of parasites have been less studied. Previous studies on parasitic plants have found both positive and negative effects on plant community diversity. Cuscuta howelliana is an abundant endemic parasitic plant that inhabits California vernal pools. We tested the hypothesis that C. howelliana acts as a keystone species to increase plant species richness in vernal pools through a C. howelliana removal experiment at Beale Air Force Base in north-central California. Vernal pool endemic plants were parasitized more frequently, and Eryngium castrense and Navarretia leucocephala were the most frequently parasitized host plant species of C. howelliana. Cuscuta howelliana caused higher plant species richness, both natives and exotics, compared with removal plots. However, there was no single plant species that significantly increased with C. howelliana removal. Decreases in Eryngium castrense percent cover plots with C. howelliana is a plausible explanation for differences in species richness. In conclusion, C. howelliana led to changes in species composition and increases in plant species richness, consistent with what is expected from the effects of a keystone species. This research provides support for a shift in management strategies that focus on species-specific targets to strategies that target maintenance of complex species interactions and therefore maximize biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems.

  17. A parasitic plant increases native and exotic plant species richness in vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Graffis, Andrea M.; Kneitel, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Species interactions are well known to affect species diversity in communities, but the effects of parasites have been less studied. Previous studies on parasitic plants have found both positive and negative effects on plant community diversity. Cuscuta howelliana is an abundant endemic parasitic plant that inhabits California vernal pools. We tested the hypothesis that C. howelliana acts as a keystone species to increase plant species richness in vernal pools through a C. howelliana removal experiment at Beale Air Force Base in north-central California. Vernal pool endemic plants were parasitized more frequently, and Eryngium castrense and Navarretia leucocephala were the most frequently parasitized host plant species of C. howelliana. Cuscuta howelliana caused higher plant species richness, both natives and exotics, compared with removal plots. However, there was no single plant species that significantly increased with C. howelliana removal. Decreases in Eryngium castrense percent cover plots with C. howelliana is a plausible explanation for differences in species richness. In conclusion, C. howelliana led to changes in species composition and increases in plant species richness, consistent with what is expected from the effects of a keystone species. This research provides support for a shift in management strategies that focus on species-specific targets to strategies that target maintenance of complex species interactions and therefore maximize biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26307042

  18. Unravelling lignin formation and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.G. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

  19. Unravelling lignin formation and structure. Final report, April 1, 1988--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.G.

    1991-12-31

    During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

  20. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  1. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  2. Return to Glacier Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  3. Normal yeast flora of the upper digestive tract of some wild columbids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.M.; Hasenclever, H.F.

    1972-01-01

    Seven species of pigeons and doves were cultured for yeasts in the upper digestive tract. The following list gives the isolation rate for each columbid species and the yeasts cultured from them: feral pigeon Columba Livia (Gmelin) 95% -Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout, C. tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout, C. krusei (Cast.) Berkhout, C. guilliermondii (Cast.) Langeron et Guerra, Torulopsis glabrata (Anderson) Lodder et De Vries, Saccharomyces telluris Van der Walt, and Geotrichum sp.; white-crowned pigeon (C. leucocephala Linnaeus) 56% -- S. telluris; mourning dove (Zenaidura rnacroura Linnaeus) 24% -- C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, and Geotrichurn sp.; passerine ground dove (Collumbigallina passerina Linnaeus) 20% -- C. parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice, Kloeckera apiculata (Reess Emend. Klocker) Janke; zenaida dove (Zenaida aurita Temminck) 16% -- C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, and T. glabrata; one moustasche dove (Geotrygon mystacea Gosse) -- C. guillierrnondii; ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia rizoria Linnaeus) 14% -- C. albicans and Geotrichurn sp. No signs of disease could be seen in the 139 birds that were examined, and it was concluded that these yeasts comprise a part of the columbid's normal microbial flora.

  4. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    PubMed

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores < insectivores < omnivores < piscivores < carnivores. Although, the organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species.

  5. Effects of energy supplementation on productivity of dual-purpose cows grazing in a silvopastoral system in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Magaña, Juan Carlos; Aguilar-Pérez, Carlos Fernando; Delgado-León, Roger; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos; Herrera-Camacho, Jose

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate milk yield, postpartum (pp) ovarian activity and pregnancy rate in dual-purpose cows grazing Cynodon nlemfuensis and browsing L. leucocephala, with or without energy supplementation. Twenty-four Bos taurus × B. indicus cows were divided in two groups from calving to 70 days post-calving: supplemented group (SG) with ground sorghum grain offered at 0.4% of live weight at calving and control group (CG) without supplement. There was a trend for milk yield (kg day(-1)) to be greater (p = 0.08) for SG (10.55 ± 0.51) compared to CG (9.53 ± 0.61), although without differences in fat (0.42 ± 0.02 vs. 0.38 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)), protein (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 kg day(-1)) or lactose (0.49 ± 0.02 vs. 0.49 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)) concentration. Populations of large, medium and small follicles were similar between treatments. Percentage of cows which showed corpus luteum tended to be greater in SG (50%), compared to CG (33%). Supplemented cows tended to have a shorter calving-first corpus luteum interval (40 ± 10 vs. 51 ± 10 days) and had a significantly higher (χ (2) = 0.03) pregnancy rate (42% vs. 0%). It is concluded that energy supplementation helped to improve ovarian activity and pregnancy rate. Since supplementation did not avoid loss of body condition, the higher pregnancy rate in SG suggests beneficial effects of supplementation probably mediated by metabolic hormones.

  6. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  7. Ecology of mangroves in the Jewfish Chain, Exuma, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, L. V.; Yocom, Thomas G.; Forbes, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and function of mangrove communities in the Jewfish Chain, Exumas, Bahamas, were investigated for 3-1/2 years. Mangrove vegetation in the Jewfish Chain is similar to that in all the Caribbean-Florida area; Rhizophora mangle L. dominates and is interspersed with Avicennia germinans (L.) Lamk. and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. There is no apparent zonation of these three species. The mangrove communities in the Jewfish Chain occur only where they are protected from prevailing winds, storms, and tides, although all are periodically devastated by hurricanes. We found little or no evidence of coast building within these protected locations. The importance of the mangroves appears to be in providing protection and food for other flora and fauna within this unique ecosystem. Twenty-four species of algae were found in the mangroves, 9 of which had not previously been reported from the Bahamas. Distribution of these algae appears to be correlated to incident solar radiation, desiccation, and tide level. A total of 56 species of fish were found in the mangroves, 2 of which were not previously known from the Bahamas. Many fish taken were juveniles, suggesting that mangroves are a nursery ground for numerous species. Nine species of molluscs were found. Each species had a distinct distribution pattern relative to distance from the seaward edge of the mangroves, as well as a distinct vertical distribution pattern. Seventeen species of decapod crustaceans were recorded. Though several species of birds were noted in the mangroves, three species were most abundant: the white-crowned pigeon (Columba leucocephala) uses the mangrove for nesting but feeds in nearby shrub-thorn communities; the gray kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis) and green heron (Butorides virescens) nest and feed in the mangroves. Our data do not completely describe a stereotyped mangrove community in the Bahamas, but they do give an indication of community structure and suggest several

  8. The Nodulation of Alfalfa by the Acid-Tolerant Rhizobium sp. Strain LPU83 Does Not Require Sulfated Forms of Lipochitooligosaccharide Nodulation Signals▿

    PubMed Central

    Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Del Papa, María Florencia; Soria-Diaz, M. Eugenia; Draghi, Walter; Lozano, Mauricio; Giusti, María de los Ángeles; Manyani, Hamid; Megías, Manuel; Gil Serrano, Antonio; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten; Lagares, Antonio; Pistorio, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    The induction of root nodules by the majority of rhizobia has a strict requirement for the secretion of symbiosis-specific lipochitooligosaccharides (nodulation factors [NFs]). The nature of the chemical substitution on the NFs depends on the particular rhizobium and contributes to the host specificity imparted by the NFs. We present here a description of the genetic organization of the nod gene cluster and the characterization of the chemical structure of the NFs associated with the broad-host-range Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83, a bacterium capable of nodulating at least alfalfa, bean, and Leucena leucocephala. The nod gene cluster was located on the plasmid pLPU83b. The organization of the cluster showed synteny with those of the alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia, Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae. Interestingly, the strongest sequence similarity observed was between the partial nod sequences of Rhizobium mongolense USDA 1844 and the corresponding LPU83 nod genes sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the intergenic region nodEG positions strain LPU83 and the type strain R. mongolense 1844 in the same branch, which indicates that Rhizobium sp. strain LPU83 might represent an early alfalfa-nodulating genotype. The NF chemical structures obtained for the wild-type strain consist of a trimeric, tetrameric, and pentameric chitin backbone that shares some substitutions with both alfalfa- and bean-nodulating rhizobia. Remarkably, while in strain LPU83 most of the NFs were sulfated in their reducing terminal residue, none of the NFs isolated from the nodH mutant LPU83-H were sulfated. The evidence obtained supports the notion that the sulfate decoration of NFs in LPU83 is not necessary for alfalfa nodulation. PMID:20971905

  9. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: an example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks.

    PubMed

    McCracken, K G; Harshman, J; McClellan, D A; Afton, A D

    1999-12-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. maccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  10. Differences in the Vulnerability of Waterbird Species to Botulism Outbreaks in Mediterranean Wetlands: an Assessment of Ecological and Physiological Factors

    PubMed Central

    Anza, I.; Vidal, D.; Feliu, J.; Crespo, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian botulism kills thousands of waterbirds every year, including endangered species, but information about the differences between species in vulnerability to botulism outbreaks and the capacity to act as carriers of Clostridium botulinum is still poorly known. Here, we estimated the vulnerability to botulism of 11 waterbird species from Mediterranean wetlands by comparing the number of affected birds with the census of individuals at risk. The capacity of different species to act as carriers was studied by detecting the presence of the C. botulinum type C/D botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) gene in fecal samples and prey items of waterbirds in the wild and by the serial sampling of cloacal swabs of birds affected by botulism. We found differences among species in their vulnerabilities to botulism, probably related to feeding habits, season of arrival, turnover, and, possibly, phylogenetic resilience. The globally endangered white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) showed mortality rates in the studied outbreaks of 7% and 17% of the maximum census, which highlights botulism as a risk factor for the conservation of the species. Invasive water snails, such as Physa acuta, may be important drivers in botulism epidemiology, because 30% of samples tested positive for the BoNT gene during outbreaks. Finally, our results show that birds may excrete the pathogen for up to 7 days, and some individuals can do it for longer periods. Rails and ducks excreted C. botulinum more often and for longer times than gulls, which could be related to their digestive physiology (i.e., cecum development). IMPORTANCE Botulism is an important cause of mortality in waterbirds, including some endangered species. The global climate change may have consequences in the ecology of wetlands that favor the occurrence of botulism outbreaks. Here, we offer some information to understand the ecology of this disease that can be useful to cope with these global changes in the future. We have found

  11. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCracken, K.G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  12. N-P-K balance in a milk production system on a C. nlemfuensis grassland and a biomass bank of P. purpureum CT-115 clone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, G.; Rodriguez, I.; Martinez, O.

    2009-04-01

    In very intensive milk production systems in Europe and America with the use of high amounts of chemical fertilizers, the nutrient recycling models consider the losses by leaching and N volatilization, as well as the hydro physical characteristics of the soil affecting the performance of this element (10; 6). However, in more extensive milk production systems, low input agriculture forming the natural cycle occurring within each farm, is of vital importance to potentate nutrient recycling for a stable animal production. The objective is the determination of the values of N, P and K inputs and outputs in a dairy farm with a sward composed by 60% of C. nlemfuensis and 40% of P. purpureum CT-115, associated with legumes in 28% of the area and the balance of these nutrients in the system using the "Recycling" software proposed by Crespo et al (2007). The grassland covered an area of 53.4 ha, composed by C. nlemfuensis (60%), P. purpureum CT-115 (40%) and L. leucocephala and C. cajan legumes intercropped in 28% of the area. The dairy herd consisted of 114 cows, 35 replacement heifers and 24 calves. There was a milk yield of 100 000 litters and the animals consumed 825 t DM from pastures and 75.1 t DM from other supplementary feeds. Nutrients extracted by pastures, nutrients intake by animals from pastures, symbiotically N fixation by legumes and N, P and K determinations outside the system due to animal production were determined (3-11). Volatilized ammonia, nutrient input and litter accumulated in the paddocks were measured once each season of the year. In the whole system the balance indicates negative values of N, P and K. Out of the total amount of nutrients consumed, animals used only 16 kg N, 5 Kg P and 4 Kg K for milk production, LW gain and calf production, the remainder returned to the system through excretions. Hence, more than 90% of the N and K, and approximately 81% of the P consumed by the animals were recycled to the system through the excretions. These