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Sample records for leukocyte antigen antibody

  1. Implications for Human Leukocyte Antigen Antibodies After Lung Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ziwei; Chen, Dong-Feng; Reinsmoen, Nancy L.; Finlen-Copeland, C. Ashley; Davis, W. Austin; Zaas, David W.; Palmer, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term survival after lung transplant is limited by the development of chronic and progressive airflow obstruction, a condition known as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). While prior studies strongly implicate cellular rejection as a strong risk factor for BOS, less is known about the clinical significance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies and donor HLA-specific antibodies in long-term outcomes. Methods: A single-center cohort of 441 lung transplant recipients, spanning a 10-year period, was prospectively screened for HLA antibodies after transplant using flow cytometry-based methods. The prevalence of and predictors for HLA antibodies were determined. The impact of HLA antibodies on survival after transplant and the development of BOS were determined using Cox models. Results: Of the 441 recipients, 139 (32%) had detectable antibodies to HLA. Of these 139, 54 (39%) developed antibodies specific to donor HLA. The detection of posttransplant HLA antibodies was associated with BOS (HR, 1.54; P = .04) and death (HR, 1.53; P = .02) in multivariable models. The detection of donor-specific HLA antibodies was associated with death (HR, 2.42; P < .0001). The detection of posttransplant HLA antibodies was associated with pretransplant HLA-antibody detection, platelet transfusions, and the development of BOS and cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of lung transplant recipients have detectable HLA antibodies, which are associated with a worse prognosis regarding graft function and patient survival. PMID:23328795

  2. Methodological aspects of anti-human leukocyte antigen antibody analysis in solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lobashevsky, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    Donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-specific antibodies (DSA) play an important role in solid organ transplantation. Preexisting IgG isotype DSA are considered a risk factor for antibody mediated rejection, graft failure or graft loss. The post-transplant development of DSA depends on multiple factors including immunogenicity of mismatched antigens, HLA class II typing of the recipient, cytokine gene polymorphisms, and cellular immunoregulatory mechanisms. De novo developed antibodies require special attention because not all DSA have equal clinical significance. Therefore, it is important for transplant clinicians and transplant immunologists to accurately characterize DSA. In this review, the contemporary immunological techniques for detection and characterization of anti-HLA antibodies and their pitfalls are described. PMID:25346888

  3. Human Leukocyte Antigens Influence the Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Bagheri-Jamebozorgi, Masoome; Nemati, Maryam; Golsaz-Shirazi, Forough; Shokri, Fazel

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma has remained a serious public health problem throughout the world. The WHO strategy for effective control of HBV infection and its complications is mass vaccination of neonates and children within the framework of Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Vaccination with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) induces protective antibody response (anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L) in 90-99% of vaccinees. The lack of response to HBsAg has been attributed to a variety of immunological mechanisms, including defect in antigen presentation, defect in HBsAg-specific T and/or B cell repertoires, T-cell suppression, increase in the regulatory T cell count, lack of necessary help of T-cells for production of anti-HBs by B cells, defect in Th1 and/or Th2 cytokine production and selective killing of HBsAg-specific B-cells by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The HLA complex plays an important role in many of these immunological processes. A variety of HLA class I, II, and III alleles and antigens have been reported to be associated with antibody response to HBsAg vaccination in different ethnic populations. Moreover, some HLA haplotypes were also associated with responsiveness to HBsAg. In this review the association of the HLA specificities with antibody response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccine is discussed.

  4. Characterisation of maternal human leukocyte antigen class I antibodies in suspected foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Refsum, E; Mörtberg, A; Dahl, J; Meinke, S; Auvinen, M-K; Westgren, M; Reilly, M; Höglund, P; Wikman, A

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the specificities and level of HLA class I antibodies in selected cases referred for suspected foetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). FNAIT occurs in 1 : 1-2000 live births, whereas maternal immunisation against human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I is common. Whether HLA class I antibodies alone can cause FNAIT is debatable. A total of 260 patient samples were referred between 2007 and 2012. Referrals with maternal HLA class I antibodies and no other cause for the neonatal thrombocytopenia were included for analysis (cases, n = 23). HPA-1a negative mothers were excluded. Control groups were screened positive mothers of healthy neonates (controls, n = 33) and female blood donors (blood donors, n = 19). LABScreen single antigen HLA class I beads was used for antibody analysis. Clinical records were reviewed for cases. All groups had broad antibody reactivity. Cases had more antibodies with high SFI levels compared with the controls (SFI>9999; medians 26, 6 and 0; P < 0·05) and higher overall median HLA-ABC and HLA-B SFI (P < 0·05). Many of the antibodies were reactive with rare alleles. When reviewing the clinical records, several of the cases had other contributing factors to the thrombocytopenia. There was no correlation between foetal platelet count and antibody levels. Mothers of thrombocytopenic neonates had higher levels of HLA class I antibodies compared with control groups of women with healthy children and female blood donors. However, clinical outcome and antibody response correlated poorly in the heterogeneous case group, indicating a multifactorial cause to the thrombocytopenia in the majority of cases. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  5. Presence of antibodies against self human leukocyte antigen class II molecules in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Takamura, Masaaki; Genda, Takuya; Ichida, Takafumi; Nomoto, Minoru; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) can arise de novo after liver transplantation (LT) for non-autoimmune liver diseases. Considering the identical features of de novo AIH after LT and classical AIH, as well as the importance of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in graft rejection, we investigated the presence of circulating anti-HLA class II antibodies in the sera of 35 patients with AIH, 30 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and 30 healthy donors using fluorescent dye-impregnated beads bound to HLA molecules. We then investigated the allele specificity of the antibodies and identified the HLA alleles in each patient using DNA-based HLA typing. We also examined HLA class II expression in liver samples using immunohistochemistry. Anti-HLA class II antibodies were detected significantly more frequently in the patients with AIH (88.1%) than in the patients with PBC (33.3%) or in the healthy donors (13.3%) (both P <0.01). We confirmed that the anti-HLA class II antibodies in the AIH patients showed specificity for several HLA class II alleles, including self HLA class II alleles. Moreover, positive reactivity with anti-self HLA class II antibodies was associated with higher serum transaminase levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated, for the first time, that antibodies against self HLA class II alleles were detectable in patients with AIH. Our results suggest that an antibody-mediated immune response against HLA class II molecules on hepatocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis or acceleration of liver injury in AIH.

  6. Denatured class I human leukocyte antigen antibodies in sensitized kidney recipients: prevalence, relevance, and impact on organ allocation.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Jonathan; Guidicelli, Gwendaline; Bachelet, Thomas; Jacquelinet, Christian; Audry, Benoît; Nong, Thoa; Dubois, Valérie; Moreau, Jean-François; Lee, Jar-How; Couzi, Lionel; Merville, Pierre; Taupin, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-15

    Single antigen flow beads assays may overestimate sensitization because of the detection of supposedly irrelevant antibodies recognizing denatured class I human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Sera of 323 HLA-sensitized kidney transplant candidates positive with a class I HLA single antigen flow beads assay were retested after acid treatment of the beads. Denatured HLA antibodies were identified according to ratio between the measured fluorescence intensity for treated and nontreated beads. T-lymphocyte flow cytometry crossmatches were performed to characterize the ability of these antibodies to recognize HLA on normal cells as a surrogate of their potential clinical relevance. Their impact on organ allocation was evaluated through a calculated panel reactive antibody. The utility of single antigen flow beads largely devoid of denatured HLA (iBeads) was also evaluated. Denatured HLA antibodies were detected in 39% of the patients. They provided much less positive flow cytometry crossmatches than anti-native HLA antibodies (16% vs. 83%, P<0.0001). Removing the HLA-A and HLA-B antigens targeted by denatured HLA antibodies from unacceptable antigens lowered the calculated panel reactive antibody for 90 patients, sometimes dramatically. The iBeads assay demonstrated nearly the same ability to predict crossmatch results than the acid treatment assay. Denatured class I HLA antibodies are common, but the antigens they target should not be considered as unacceptable in most cases, because they negatively impact access to a transplant while predominantly providing negative sensitive crossmatches. The iBeads assay seems to be a valuable alternative to better define unacceptable antigens.

  7. Anti-human leukocyte antigen DQ antibodies in renal transplantation: Are we underestimating the most frequent donor specific alloantibodies?

    PubMed

    Carta, Paolo; Di Maria, Lorenzo; Caroti, Leonardo; Buti, Elisa; Antognoli, Giulia; Minetti, Enrico Eugenio

    2015-07-01

    The role of anti-human leukocyte antigens DQ region (HLA-DQ) in transplantation is historically less studied than HLA-DR and HLA class I regions, but several studies are demonstrating that anti HLA-DQ antibodies are among the most frequent anti HLA antibodies that develop after transplantation and can have great influence on the developing of humoral rejection and graft loss. In this article we review the gene structure and nomenclature of the HLA-DQ region, the role of anti HLA-DQ antibodies after and before transplantation and briefly the associations of particular HLA-DQ alleles and other diseases.

  8. Limited proteolysis of human leukocyte interferon-. cap alpha. 2 and localization of the monoclonal antibody-binding antigenic determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Kostrov, S.V.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Khodova, O.M.; Borukhov, S.I.; Ryzhavskaya, A.S.; Izotova, L.S.; Strongin, A.Ya.

    1986-05-20

    Large peptide fragments of human leukocyte interferon-..cap alpha..2 (INF-..cap alpha..2) were produced by limited proteolysis with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens serine proteinase, and the ability of the fragments to react with murine monoclonal antibodies NK2, directed toward INF-..cap alpha..2, was studied by the immunoblotting technique. The region of the sequence 110-149 is the most sensitive to proteinase attack and evidently is exposed on the surface of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule. The INF-..cap alpha..2 fragments 1-139, 1-147, and 1-149 react with antibodies, whereas the fragments 1-109 and 1-112 do not bind NK2 antibodies. A comparison of the primary structure of the families of human leukocyte and murine leukocyte INF in the region of the sequence 110-139 and an analysis of the ability of human INF differing in amino acid sequence to interact with NK2 antibodies suggested that the antigenic determinant that binds monoclonal antibodies NK2 is the sequence Glu/sub 114/-Asp/sub 115/-Ser/sub 116/-He/sub 117/ of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule.

  9. Leukocyte procoagulant activity: enhancement of production in vitro by IgG and antigen-antibody complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Rothberger, H; Zimmerman, T S; Spiegelberg, H L; Vaughan, J H

    1977-01-01

    In a variety of immunologic diseases, fibrin-fibrinogen and immune complexes deposit in areas of tissue damage. However, the mechanisms which initiate fibrin-fibrinogen deposition have not been clarified. We find that the procoagulant activity of human leukocytes is markedly increased after incubation with immunoglobulin and immune complexes. This procoagulant activity is evident after 4-24 h incubation in the presence of as little as 0.1 mg/ml of autologous, isologous, or heterologous IgG. At least three of the four subclasses of IgG myeloma proteins are effective. Experiments with purified rabbit and rat antibodies demonstrate that enhancement of procoagulant activity is significantly greater with soluble antigen-antibody complexes than with immunoglobulin alone. In contrast, insoluble complexes are less affective than immunoglobulin alone. Artifacts due to endotoxin contamination of the IgG preparations were excluded on the basis of the differential sensitivities of immunoglobulin and endotoxin to heat and polymyxin B. Evidence is also presented which shows that enhancement of procoagulant activity involves the production, rather than a simple release, of leukocyte procoagulant activity in vitro. PMID:190271

  10. [Antibodies, human leukocyte antigens, and biomodulators in transfusion-related acute adverse effects].

    PubMed

    Martínez Álvarez, Julio César

    2013-01-01

    With the onset of the AIDS epidemic, major changes occurred in blood banking and transfusion medicine. These changes occurred mainly in donor selection and screening tests for infectious diseases, blood centers modified their organizational philosophy regarding quality. Transfusion of blood products are procedures that allow us to correct the haematology deficiencies for which was indicated. But today, despite the strict controls that precede transfusion,recipients may have undesirable effects, which are known as adverse effects or adverse reactions to transfusion. Antibodies and antigens of the HLA system plays a role in a series of events related to transfusion, such as immunological platelet refractoriness, febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions, transfusion related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. The determination of anti-HLA antibodies is evidence that in most developed countries is used on a daily basis in the regular assessment of patients multitransfused or waiting lists for organs from deceased donors. The biomodulators are able to modify biological responses which act in sequence to lead to the differentiation of T lymphocytes. These agents may subcategorizes those which facilitate a normal immune response, those stimulates the immune response, those are capable of inducing immunosuppression not cytotoxic, and those enhancing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic treatment (transfusion or transplant).

  11. Protein A radio-assay of H-Y antigen on human leukocytes using mouse and rat antisera and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Savikurki, H; Andersson, L C; Wachtel, S S; de la Chapelle, A

    1983-01-01

    The presence of H-Y antigen on human leukocytes was investigated using a protein A radio-assay. H-Y antigen could be demonstrated on male cells using either conventional H-Y antisera produced in mice and rats, or monoclonal H-Y antibodies. With mouse antiserum and IgG-type monoclonal antibody the reaction was male-specific using a single antibody. The reaction obtained with rat antiserum was enhanced by the application of a second antibody (rabbit anti-mouse IgG). This technique provides a rapid, simple, objective, and semiquantitative method for the determination of cellular H-Y antigen, the results being expressed as radioactivity bound to the test cells and thus being independent of human observation. It requires only 10-20 ml of blood and small quantities of antiserum or antibody.

  12. Human Leukocyte Antigen Antibodies in Chronic Transplant Vasculopathy - Mechanisms and Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fang; Atz, Mary E.; Reed, Elaine F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary of recent advances Transplant recipients exhibiting posttransplant antibodies are at a higher risk for acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). The primary alloantigens recognized by antibodies in recipients with AMR are the highly polymorphic HLA class I and class II molecules expressed on the surface of the endothelial cells (ECs) of the graft. Traditionally, anti-HLA antibodies were thought to mediate graft injury through complement-dependent mechanisms. However, recent studies indicate that antibodies can also contribute to alterations in EC function through complement independent mechanisms by transducing intracellular signals. Anti-HLA antibodies transduce signals that are both pro-inflammatory and pro-proliferative suggesting mechanistic roles in acute and chronic AMR. PMID:19748769

  13. Anti-citrullinated fibronectin antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis are associated with human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 shared epitope alleles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Fibronectin is one of the most abundant proteins present in the inflamed joint. Here, we characterized the citrullination of fibronectin in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and studied the prevalence, epitope specificity and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association of autoantibodies against citrullinated fibronectin in RA. Methods Citrullinated residues in fibronectin isolated from RA patient synovial fluid were identified by mass spectrometry. The corresponding citrullinated and non-citrullinated peptides were synthesized and used to analyze the presence of autoantibodies to these peptides in RA sera and sera from other diseases and healthy controls by ELISA. The data were compared with risk factors like shared epitope HLA alleles and smoking, and with clinical features. Results Five citrullinated residues were identified in fibronectin from RA synovial fluid. RA sera reacted in a citrulline-dependent manner with two out of four citrullinated fibronectin peptides, one of which contains two adjacent citrulline residues, in contrast to non-RA sera, which were not reactive. The most frequently recognized peptide (FN-Cit1035,1036, LTVGLTXXGQPRQY, in which × represents citrulline) was primarily targeted by anti-CCP (cyclic citrullinated peptide) 2-positive RA patients. Anti-FN-Cit1035,1036 autoantibodies were detected in 50% of established anti-CCP2-positive RA patients and in 45% of such patients from a early arthritis clinic. These antibodies appeared to be predominantly of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype and to be associated with HLA shared epitope alleles (odds ratio = 2.11). Conclusions Fibronectin in the inflamed synovia of RA patients can be citrullinated at least at five positions. Together with the flanking amino acids, three of these citrullinated residues comprise two epitopes recognized by RA autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated fibronectin peptide antibodies are associated with HLA shared epitope alleles. PMID:22339947

  14. Studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles and antiphospholipid antibodies in Danish and Czech women with recurrent miscarriages.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, O B; Ulcova-Gallova, Z; Mohapeloa, H; Krauz, V

    1998-12-01

    Autoantibody production is commonly associated with particular HLA class II phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the presence of antiphospholipid (APL) antibodies and other autoantibodies in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage was associated with particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR or -DQ alleles or linked epitopes which have previously been reported as being associated with the recurrent miscarriage syndrome or the presence of APL. In a total of 123 Danish and Czech women with recurrent miscarriage, serum was investigated for six different APL antibodies including anticardiolipin (ACL) antibody. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-zona pellucida antibodies and anti-sperm antibodies were also investigated. The women were HLA-DR and -DQ typed by DNA-based methods. The frequency of HLA-DR phenotypes did not differ significantly between APL antibody positive recurrent miscarriage patients and APL antibody negative recurrent miscarriage patients or healthy controls. Among ACL antibody positive recurrent miscarriage patients, significantly more were positive for the HLA-DR3 phenotype and negative for the HLA-DR2 phenotypes compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). Among ANA positive recurrent miscarriage women, 55% carried the HLA-DR3 phenotype compared with 28% of ANA negative patients (P < 0.05) and 21% of healthy controls (P < 0.002). In conclusion, among recurrent miscarriage women, the HLA-DR3 phenotypes seem to predispose to formation of ACL antibodies and ANA. The association between APL antibodies and particular HLA alleles and HLA-linked epitopes reported in studies of patients with lupus erythematosus (e.g. HLA-DR7 and -DR4) could not be confirmed in patients with recurrent miscarriage.

  15. Coexistence of Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies and Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies in a Child With Human Leukocyte Antigen Susceptibility and Detailed Antibody Description: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-jun; Cui, Zhao; Jia, Xiao-yu; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Xiao-rong; Zhao, Ming-hui

    2015-07-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis both could cause rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The coexistence of ANCAs and anti-GBM antibodies was known as "double positive," which was extremely rare in children. We report a pediatric case with coexistence of ANCAs and anti-GBM antibodies. A 6-year-old girl presented with acute renal failure, hematuria, proteinuria, and oliguria. She was double positive of ANCAs specific to myeloperoxidase, and anti-GBM antibodies. Kidney biopsy confirmed linear immunoglobulin (Ig)G deposit along GBM and 100% of crescent formation in glomeruli; among them 83.3% were cellular crescents. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene typing showed DRB1*1501, an allele strongly associated with anti-GBM disease, and DRB1*0405, an independent risk factor for renal failure in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. The titer of anti-GBM antibodies was 1:800, and the predominant IgG subclass was IgG1, which was closely related with severe kidney injury and worse outcome. The target antigen of anti-GBM antibodies was restricted on the noncollagen domain 1 of the α3 chain of type IV collagen (α3[IV]NC1), with recognitions to both epitopes, EA (α317-31) and EB (α3127-141). This is the first reported pediatric case with coexistence of ANCAs and anti-GBM antibodies, in which the HLA typing and immunologic characters of autoantibodies were identified. The findings on this early-onset patient are meaningful for understanding the mechanisms of both anti-GBM disease and ANCA-associated vasculitis.

  16. Increased frequency of class I and II anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma and associated factors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tozkir, Hilmi; Pamuk, Omer Nuri; Duymaz, Julide; Gurkan, Hakan; Yazar, Metin; Sari, Gulce; Tanrikulu, Hazel; Pamuk, Gulsum Emel

    2016-12-01

    There is significant autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and scleroderma (SSc); microchimerism is also thought to play a role in pathogenesis. We determined the frequency of anti-HLA antibodies in SLE and SSc patients and evaluated associated clinical factors. We included 77 SLE patients, 46 SSc patients and 53 healthy controls into the study. Clinical data about the patients were obtained from hospital records. Anti-human leukocyte (anti-HLA) antigen antibody analysis of sera was performed by applying Lifecodes anti-HLA Class I and Class II Screening kits based on xMAP technology. The frequencies of class I and II anti-HLA antibodies were significantly higher in SLE (27.3% and 41.6%) and SSc (26.1% and 41.3%) groups than in healthy controls (1.9% and 5.7%) (all P < 0.001). Frequencies of thrombocytopenia (P = 0.021), anti-ribonucleoprotein (P = 0.037) and anti-Ro (P = 0.027) were significantly higher in the class I antibody-positive SLE group; however, pericarditis was less frequent (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the class II antibody-positive SLE group had more frequent anti-ribosomal P antibody (P = 0.038), but less frequent active disease (P = 0.038). In the SSc group, class I antibody-positive patients had more frequent digital ulcers (P = 0.048) and anti-centromere antibodies (P = 0.01). There was no association of anti-HLA antibodies with pulmonary hypertension and interstitial fibrosis in SSc patients. Both class I and class II antibodies were found to be significantly increased in SLE and SSc. Rather than major organ involvement, anti-HLA antibodies were associated with the presence of other antibodies in both diseases. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Antibody response against three widespread bovine viruses is not impaired in Holstein cattle carrying bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles associated with bovine leukemia virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Juliarena, M A; Poli, M; Ceriani, C; Sala, L; Rodríguez, E; Gutierrez, S; Dolcini, G; Odeon, A; Esteban, E N

    2009-01-01

    Due to the wide dissemination of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection among dairy cattle, control and eradication programs based on serological detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling face a major economic task. In Argentina, genetic selection of cattle carrying alleles of the bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 gene associated with BLV-infection resistance, like *0902, emerges as the best additional tool toward controlling virus spread. A potential risk in expanding or segregating BoLA selected populations of cattle is that it might increase susceptibility to other common viruses. Special concern raises the strong association found between low proviral load and low antibody titer against major BLV structural proteins. This phenomenon might depend on host genetic factors influencing other viruses requiring, unlike BLV, strong and long-lasting humoral immune response to prevent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that there is no association among neutralizing antibody titers against foot and mouth disease virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, or bovine herpesvirus type 1 and polymorphism of the BoLA DRB3.2 gene. Conversely, there is strong association between BoLA DRB3.2*0902 and low antibody titers against 2 BLV structural proteins--env gp51 and gag p24--to date, the best BLV resistance marker. There is also significant association between low antibody titers against gp51 and p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1701 and low antibody titers against p24 and BoLA DRB3.2*1101 or 02. Our data suggest that increasing BoLA-selected BLV-resistant cattle or segregating BoLA-associated alleles to BLV susceptibility would not affect the resistance or the predisposition to bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, or foot and mouth disease virus infection.

  18. The Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study-II (LAPS-II): a retrospective cohort study of transfusion-related acute lung injury in recipients of high-plasma-volume human leukocyte antigen antibody–positive or –negative components

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven H.; Triulzi, Darrell J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Carey, Patricia M.; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Roback, John D.; Carrick, Danielle; Mathew, Sunitha; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard; Ness, Paul; Gajic, Ognjen; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Looney, Mark R.; Kakaiya, Ram M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND We used a multicenter retrospective cohort study design to evaluate whether human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody donor screening would reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) or possible TRALI. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In the Leukocyte Antibody Prevalence Study-II (LAPS-II), we evaluated pulmonary outcomes in recipients of 2596 plasma-rich blood components (transfusable plasma and plateletpheresis) sent to participating hospitals; half of the components were collected from anti-HLA–positive donors (study arm) and half from anti-HLA–negative donors (control arm) matched by sex, parity, and blood center. A staged medical record review process was used. Final recipient diagnosis was based on case review by a blinded expert panel of pulmonary or critical care physicians. RESULTS TRALI incidence was 0.59% (seven cases) in study arm recipients versus 0.16% (two cases) in control arm recipients for an odds ratio (OR) of 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7–17.4; p = 0.10). For possible TRALI cases (nine study arm, eight control arm), the OR was 1.2 (95% CI, 0.4–3.0; p = 0.81), and for TRALI and possible TRALI aggregated together, it was 1.7 (95% CI, 0.7–3.7; p = 0.24). Transfusion-associated circulatory overload incidence was identical in the two arms (1.17 and 1.22%, respectively; OR, 1.0; p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS TRALI incidence in recipients of anti-HLA–positive components was relatively low for a look-back study (1 in 170) and was higher than in the control arm, but did not reach significance. Based on this trend, the data are consistent with the likelihood that TRALI risk is decreased by selecting high-volume plasma components for transfusion from donors at low risk of having HLA antibodies. PMID:21446938

  19. Infusion of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin fails to lower the strength of human leukocyte antigen antibodies in highly sensitized patients.

    PubMed

    Alachkar, Nada; Lonze, Bonnie E; Zachary, Andrea A; Holechek, Mary J; Schillinger, Karl; Cameron, Andrew M; Desai, Niraj M; Dagher, Nabil N; Segev, Dorry L; Montgomery, Robert A; Singer, Andrew L

    2012-07-27

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization presents a major obstacle for patients awaiting renal transplantation. HLA antibody reduction and favorable transplantation rates have been reported after treatment with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). We enrolled 27 patients whose median flow cytometric calculated panel reactive antibody (CPRA) was 100% and mean wait-list time exceeded 4 years in a protocol whereby high-dose IVIg was administered, HLA antibody profiles of sera obtained before and after treatment were characterized, and cross-match tests were performed with all blood group identical kidney offers. Whereas 12.8% of a similarly sensitized historic control cohort underwent transplantation in the course of a year, 41% of the IVIg-treated group underwent transplantation during the study period. Surprisingly, HLA antibody profiles, measured by CPRA, showed no significant change in response to IVIg treatment. In fact, retrospective cross-match testing using pretreatment sera of those receiving deceased-donor allografts showed that all patients would have been eligible for transplantation with their respective donors before IVIg infusions. This study does not corroborate previous reports of CPRA reduction leading to increased deceased-donor transplantation rates in broadly sensitized patients undergoing desensitization with high-dose IVIg. The increased rate of transplantation relative to historic controls is not related to improved cross-match eligibility and likely resulted from frequent crossmatching using a cytotoxic strength threshold, improved medical readiness for transplantation, and newly recognized options for live-donor transplantation, all of which could have been achieved without IVIg treatment.

  20. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dydensborg Sander, Stine; Størdal, Ketil; Plato Hansen, Tine; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Murray, Joseph A; Lillevang, Søren Thue; Husby, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank) and information on celiac disease-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes obtained from patient medical records. Patients and methods We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG) and HLA genotypes. Results We identified 2,247 children who were registered in the Danish National Patient Register with celiac disease. Duodenal biopsies for 1,555 of the children (69%) were registered in the Patobank; 1,127 (50%) had a biopsy that was compatible with celiac disease (ie, Marsh 2–3). We accessed the medical records of 95% of the children who were registered in the Danish National Patient Register with celiac disease. We found that 1,510 (67%) had one or more positive antibody-test results; 1,120 (50%) had anti-tissue transglutaminase 2, IgA at tenfold or greater the upper limit of the normal range and/or positive endomysial antibody results. The positive predictive value depended on the criteria used for validation and the types and numbers of registrations that were included in the analysis and ranged from 62% (95% confidence interval: 60%–64%) to 86% (95% confidence interval: 84%–87%). Conclusion Our findings indicate that the Danish National Patient Register is a valuable source to identify patients who have been diagnosed with celiac disease. However, validation of the diagnoses is warranted before data on the

  1. Validation of celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register using duodenal biopsies, celiac disease-specific antibodies, and human leukocyte-antigen genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dydensborg Sander, Stine; Størdal, Ketil; Plato Hansen, Tine; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Murray, Joseph A; Lillevang, Søren Thue; Husby, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the celiac disease diagnoses recorded in the Danish National Patient Register. To validate the diagnoses, we used information on duodenal biopsies from a national register of pathology reports (the Patobank) and information on celiac disease-specific antibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes obtained from patient medical records. We included all the children who were born from 1995 to 2012 and who were registered as having celiac disease in the Danish National Patient Register. We reviewed all the pathology reports on duodenal biopsies in the Patobank and the information in the medical records on celiac disease-specific antibodies (ie, anti-tissue transglutaminase 2 IgA and IgG, endomysial antibodies IgA, and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG) and HLA genotypes. We identified 2,247 children who were registered in the Danish National Patient Register with celiac disease. Duodenal biopsies for 1,555 of the children (69%) were registered in the Patobank; 1,127 (50%) had a biopsy that was compatible with celiac disease (ie, Marsh 2-3). We accessed the medical records of 95% of the children who were registered in the Danish National Patient Register with celiac disease. We found that 1,510 (67%) had one or more positive antibody-test results; 1,120 (50%) had anti-tissue transglutaminase 2, IgA at tenfold or greater the upper limit of the normal range and/or positive endomysial antibody results. The positive predictive value depended on the criteria used for validation and the types and numbers of registrations that were included in the analysis and ranged from 62% (95% confidence interval: 60%-64%) to 86% (95% confidence interval: 84%-87%). Our findings indicate that the Danish National Patient Register is a valuable source to identify patients who have been diagnosed with celiac disease. However, validation of the diagnoses is warranted before data on the patients are used for research purposes.

  2. Breed differences in development of anti-insulin antibodies in diabetic dogs and investigation of the role of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes.

    PubMed

    Holder, Angela L; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ollier, William E R; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-10-15

    Administration of insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs can stimulate an immune response, with a proportion of animals developing anti-insulin antibodies (AIA). For an IgG antibody response to occur, this would require B cell presentation of insulin peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, encoded by dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes, in order to receive T-cell help for class switching. DLA genes are highly polymorphic in the dog population and vary from breed to breed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate AIA reactivity in diabetic dogs of different breeds and to investigate whether DLA genes influence AIA status. Indirect ELISA was used to determine serological reactivity to insulin in diabetic dogs, treated with either a porcine or bovine insulin preparation. DLA haplotypes for diabetic dogs were determined by sequence-based typing of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. Significantly greater insulin reactivity was seen in treated diabetic dogs (n=942) compared with non-diabetic dogs (n=100). Relatively few newly diagnosed diabetic dogs (3/109) were found to be AIA positive, although this provides evidence that insulin autoantibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease in some cases. Of the diabetic dogs treated with a bovine insulin preparation, 52.3% (182/348) were AIA positive, compared with 12.6% (75/594) of dogs treated with a porcine insulin preparation, suggesting that bovine insulin is more immunogenic. Breeds such as dachshund, Cairn terrier, miniature schnauzer and Tibetan terrier were more likely to develop AIA, whereas cocker spaniels were less likely to develop AIA, compared with crossbreed dogs. In diabetic dogs, DLA haplotype DRB1*0015--DQA1*006--DQB1*023 was associated with being AIA positive, whereas the haplotype DLA-DRB1*006--DQA1*005--DQB1*007 showed an association with being AIA negative. These research findings suggest that DLA genes influence AIA responses in treated diabetic

  3. Detection of a low-molecular-weight antigen on melanoma cells by a human antiserum in leukocyte-dependent antibody assays.

    PubMed

    Hersey, P; Murray, E; Werkmeister, J; McCarthy, W H

    1979-10-01

    Biochemical characterization of serologically detected human melanoma antigens was undertaken for the development of immunodiagnostic assays in melanoma. An antiserum from a human melanoma patient, which detected melanoma antigens expressed on a large proportion of different melanoma cells, was used in leucocyte-dependent cytotoxic antibody (LDA) 51Cr-release assays to monitor the purification of melanoma antigens in urea/acetate extracts of lactoperoxidase 125I-labelled melanoma cell membranes. The separation procedures included affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A, gel filtration on porous polyacrylamide beads and preparative isoelectric focusing. The fractions were also monitored by polyacrylamide electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate and by measurement of beta 2 microglobulin and carcinoembryonic antigen content. The antigens detected by this antiserum appeared to be acidic (pI 3.5) low-mol.-wt glycoproteins of approximately 15,000 daltons which were resistant to heating at 56 degrees C and digestion with neuraminidase, but susceptible to repeated freeze-thawing and trypsin digestion. They did not appear to be related to HLA antigens, beta 2 microglobulin or known foetal antigens. The nature of the antigens detected in these studies is as yet unknown, but they appear similar to those described in the sera and urine of melanoma patients in previous reports. Thes combined results and the frequent expression of these antigens on melanoma cells from different patients suggest that assays to detect this antigen may provide a valuable immunodiagnostic aid in the management of melanoma.

  4. Swine Leukocyte Antigen (SLA) Class II is a Xenoantigen.

    PubMed

    Ladowski, Joseph M; Reyes, Luz M; Martens, Gregory R; Butler, James R; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Eckhoff, Devin E; Tector, Matt; Tector, A Joseph

    2017-08-24

    Over 130 000 patients in the United States alone need a life-saving organ transplant. Genetically modified porcine organs could resolve the donor organ shortage, but human xenoreactive antibodies destroy pig cells and are the major barrier to clinical application of xenotransplantation. The objective of this study was to determine whether waitlisted patients possess preformed antibodies to swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II, homologs of the class II human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Sera from people currently awaiting solid organ transplant were tested for IgG binding to class II SLA proteins when expressed on mammalian cells. Pig fibroblasts were made positive by transfection with the class II transactivator (CIITA). As a second expression system, transgenes encoding the alpha and beta chains of class II SLA were transfected into Human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Human sera containing IgG specific for class II HLA molecules exhibited greater binding to class II SLA positive cells than to SLA negative cells. Sera lacking antibodies against class II HLA showed no change in binding regardless of the presence of class II SLA. These antibodies could recognize either SLA-DR or SLA-DQ complexes. Class II SLA proteins may behave as xenoantigens for people with humoral immunity towards class II HLA molecules.

  5. A major allogenic leukocyte antigen in the agnathan hagfish.

    PubMed

    Takaba, Hiroyuki; Imai, Takeshi; Miki, Shoji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Miyashita, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Naoko; Nishizumi, Hirofumi; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    All vertebrates, from jawless fish to mammals, possess adaptive immune systems that can detect and inactivate non-self-antigens through a vast repertoire of antigen receptors. Unlike jawed vertebrates, the hagfish utilizes variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are unrelated to immunoglobulin molecules but are diversified by copy-choice gene conversion mechanism. Here, we report that hagfish VLRs react with allogenic leukocyte antigens but not with self-antigens. We found that a highly polymorphic membrane protein, NICIR3, is recognized by VLRs as an allogenic leukocyte antigen (ALA). In a serological cross-reactivity test, a close correlation was observed between the amino acid differences in the protein sequences and the VLR cross-reactivities. This leukocyte antigen was predominantly expressed in phagocytic leukocytes, where it was associated with phagocytosed protein antigens. These findings suggest that a polymorphic leukocyte antigen, NICIR3/ALA, plays a pivotal role in jawless vertebrate adaptive immunity.

  6. A major allogenic leukocyte antigen in the agnathan hagfish

    PubMed Central

    Takaba, Hiroyuki; Imai, Takeshi; Miki, Shoji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Miyashita, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Naoko; Nishizumi, Hirofumi; Sakano, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    All vertebrates, from jawless fish to mammals, possess adaptive immune systems that can detect and inactivate non-self-antigens through a vast repertoire of antigen receptors. Unlike jawed vertebrates, the hagfish utilizes variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are unrelated to immunoglobulin molecules but are diversified by copy-choice gene conversion mechanism. Here, we report that hagfish VLRs react with allogenic leukocyte antigens but not with self-antigens. We found that a highly polymorphic membrane protein, NICIR3, is recognized by VLRs as an allogenic leukocyte antigen (ALA). In a serological cross-reactivity test, a close correlation was observed between the amino acid differences in the protein sequences and the VLR cross-reactivities. This leukocyte antigen was predominantly expressed in phagocytic leukocytes, where it was associated with phagocytosed protein antigens. These findings suggest that a polymorphic leukocyte antigen, NICIR3/ALA, plays a pivotal role in jawless vertebrate adaptive immunity. PMID:23612706

  7. Mechanisms of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI): anti-leukocyte antibodies.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R; McFarland, Janice G

    2006-05-01

    There is abundant evidence that leukocyte antibodies in blood donor products are somehow involved in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, HLA class II, and neutrophil-specific antibodies in the plasma of both blood donors and recipients have been implicated in the pathogenesis of TRALI. The case for a relationship between leukocyte antibodies and TRALI is more compelling if concordance between the antigen specificity of the leukocyte antibodies in the donor plasma and the corresponding antigen on the cells of the affected recipient is demonstrated. Such antibody-antigen concordance can be investigated by typing the recipient for the cognate leukocyte antigens or by cross-matching the donor plasma against the recipient's leukocytes. Two proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms for TRALI have received the most attention: the antibody hypothesis and the two-event hypothesis. The final common pathway in all of the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of TRALI is increased pulmonary capillary permeability, which results in movement of plasma into the alveolar space causing pulmonary edema. A typical TRALI serologic workup consists of tests for HLA class I and II and neutrophil-specific antibodies. The use of flow cytometry and HLA-coated microbeads is recommended for detection of HLA antibodies in plasma of implicated blood donors and a combination of the granulocyte agglutination test and granulocyte immunofluorescence test for detection of neutrophil-specific antibodies. Genotyping for class I and II HLA and for a limited number of neutrophil antigens may also be helpful in establishing antibody-antigen concordance.

  8. Pretransplant human leukocyte antigen antibodies detected by single-antigen bead assay are a risk factor for long-term kidney graft loss even in the absence of donor-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Richter, Rudolf; Süsal, Caner; Köhler, Stefanie; Qidan, Sara; Schödel, Alicia; Holschuh, Lisa; Brzoska, Martin; Asbe-Vollkopf, Aida; Büttner, Stefan; Betz, Christoph; Herrmann, Eva; Gauer, Stefan; Seifried, Erhard; Geiger, Helmut; Seidl, Christian; Hauser, Ingeborg A

    2016-09-01

    Clinical relevance of ELISA- and single-antigen bead assay (SAB)-detected pretransplant HLA antibodies (SAB-HLA-Ab) for kidney graft survival was evaluated retrospectively in 197 patients transplanted between 2002 and 2009 at the University Clinic Frankfurt. Having adjusted for retransplantation and delayed graft function, a significantly increased risk for death-censored graft loss was found in patients with pretransplant SAB-HLA-Ab [HR: 4.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47-13.48; P = 0.008]. The risk for increased graft loss was also significant in patients with pretransplant SAB-HLA-Ab but without SAB-detected donor-specific Ab (SAB-DSA) (HR: 4.91; 95% CI of 1.43-16.991; P = 0.012). ELISA was not sufficient to identify pretransplant immunized patients with an increased risk for graft loss. In immunized patients, graft loss was predominantly present in patients who received transplants with a mismatch on the HLA-DR locus. In conclusion, even if our study is limited due to small sample size, the results show an increased risk for long-term graft loss in patients with pretransplant SAB-HLA, even in the absence of DSA. SAB-HLA-Ab-positive patients, being negative in ELISA or CDC assay, might profit from a well-HLA-DR-matched graft and intensified immunosuppression. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  9. Subclinical antibody-mediated rejection due to anti-human-leukocyte-antigen-DR53 antibody accompanied by plasma cell-rich acute rejection in a patient with cadaveric kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Katsuma, Ai; Yamamoto, Izumi; Komatsuzaki, Yo; Niikura, Takahito; Kawabe, Mayuko; Okabayashi, Yusuke; Yamakawa, Takafumi; Katsumata, Haruki; Nakada, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Akimitsu; Tanno, Yudo; Miki, Jun; Yamada, Hiroki; Ohkido, Ichiro; Tsuboi, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yokoo, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    A 56-year-old man who had undergone cadaveric kidney transplantation 21 months earlier was admitted to our hospital for a protocol biopsy; he had a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg/dL and no proteinuria. Histological features showed two distinct entities: (i) inflammatory cell infiltration, in the glomerular and peritubular capillaries and (ii) focal, aggressive tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, predominantly plasma cells, with mild tubulitis (Banff 13 classification: i2, t1, g2, ptc2, v0, ci1, ct1, cg0, cv0). Immunohistological studies showed mildly positive C4d immunoreactivity in the peritubular capillaries. The patient had donor specific antibody to human-leucocyte-antigen-DR53. We diagnosed him with subclinical antibody-mediated rejection accompanied by plasma cell-rich acute rejection. Both antibody-mediated rejection due to anti- human-leucocyte-antigen -DR53 antibodies and plasma cell-rich acute rejection are known to be refractory and have a poor prognosis. Thus, we started plasma exchange with intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab for the former and 3 days of consecutive steroid pulse therapy for the latter. Three months after treatment, a follow-up allograft biopsy showed excellent responses to treatment for both histological features. This case report considers the importance of an early diagnosis and appropriate intervention for subclinical antibody-mediated rejection due to donor specific antibody to human-leucocyte-antigen-DR53 and plasma cell-rich acute rejection.

  10. Relationship between thyroid peroxidase T cell epitope restriction and antibody recognition of the autoantibody immunodominant region in human leukocyte antigen DR3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin; McLachlan, Sandra M; Pichurin, Pavel N; Chen, Chun-Rong; Pham, Nancy; Aliesky, Holly A; David, Chella S; Rapoport, Basil

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody and T lymphocyte epitopes in TPO-adenovirus (TPO-Ad) immunized BALB/c mice and mice transgenic for the human class II molecule DR3 associated with human thyroid autoimmunity. TPO autoantibodies are largely restricted to an immunodominant region (IDR). BALB/c mice immunized with fewer (10(7) vs. 10(9)) TPO-Ad particles developed TPO antibodies with lower titers that displayed greater restriction to the IDR. However, as with higher-dose TPO-Ad immunization, T cell epitopes (assessed by splenocyte interferon-gamma response to TPO in vitro) were highly diverse and variable in different animals. In contrast, DR3 mice immunized the higher TPO-Ad dose (10(9) particles) had high TPO antibody levels that showed relative focus on the IDR. Moreover, T cell epitopes recognized by splenocytes from DR3 mice showed greater restriction than BALB/c mice. Antibody affinities for TPO were higher in DR3 than in BALB/c mice. The present study indicates that weak TPO-Ad immunization of BALB/c mice (with consequent low TPO antibody titers) is required for enhanced IDR focus yet is not associated with T cell epitopic restriction. Humanized DR3 transgenic mice, despite stronger TPO-Ad immunization, develop higher titer TPO antibodies that do focus on the autoantibody IDR with T cells that recognize a more limited range of TPO peptides. These data suggest a relationship between major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and the development of antibodies to the IDR, a feature of human thyroid autoimmunity.

  11. Factors Predicting Risk for Antibody-mediated Rejection and Graft Loss in Highly Human Leukocyte Antigen Sensitized Patients Transplanted After Desensitization.

    PubMed

    Vo, Ashley A; Sinha, Aditi; Haas, Mark; Choi, Jua; Mirocha, James; Kahwaji, Joseph; Peng, Alice; Villicana, Rafael; Jordan, Stanley C

    2015-07-01

    Desensitization with intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab (I+R) significantly improves transplant rates in highly sensitized patients, but antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) remains a concern. Between July 2006 and December 2012, 226 highly sensitized patients received transplants after desensitization. Most received alemtuzumab induction and standard immunosuppression. Two groups were examined: ABMR (n = 181) and ABMR (n = 45, 20%). Risk factors for ABMR, pathology, and outcomes were assessed. Significant risks for ABMR included previous transplants and pregnancies as sensitizing events, donor-specific antibody (DSA) relative intensity scores greater than 17, presence of both class I and II DSAs at transplant and time on waitlist. The ABMR showed a significant benefit for graft survival and glomerular filtration rate at 5 years (P < 0.0001). Banff pathology characteristics for ABMR patients with or without graft loss did not differ. C4d versus C4d ABMR did not predict graft loss (P = 0.086). Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) significantly predicted graft failure (P = 0.045). The ABMR episodes were treated with I+R (n = 25), or, in more severe ABMR, plasma exchange (PLEX)+I+R (n = 20). Graft survival for patients treated with I+R was superior (P = 0.028). Increased mortality was seen in ABMR patients experiencing graft loss after ABMR treatment (P = 0.004). The PLEX + Eculizumab improved graft survival for TMA patients (P = 0.036). Patients desensitized with I+R who remain ABMR have long-term graft and patient survival. The ABMR patients have significantly reduced graft survival and glomerular filtration rate at 5 years, especially TMA. Severe ABMR episodes benefit from treatment with PLEX + Eculizumab. The DSA-relative intensity scores at transplant was a strong predictor of ABMR. Donor-specific antibody avoidance and reduction strategies before transplantation are critical to avoiding ABMR and improving long-term outcomes.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to mouse cell-surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Alaverdi, Noosheen

    2002-05-01

    The cluster of differentiation (CD) nomenclature, originally devised by the International Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA) to classify leukocyte surface antigens, has become more accepted by researchers in nonhuman animal models. The CD homologues from other species are usually identified by multiple studies, including biochemical, functional analysis, cloning, and immunological assays. This unit compiles a complete (as of August, 2001) list of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the mouse CD antigens and several non-CD surface antigens that are commonly used as phenotypic and functional markers in the mouse system. There are many reagents recognizing polymorphic epitopes of the mouse MHC and different subunits of TCR; for simplicity, only a few mAbs to the framework determinants of these molecules are listed here.

  13. Platelet subpopulation bearing leukocyte specific antigen and tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Gabbasov, Z A; Saburova, O S; Antonova, O A; Golubeva, N V; Khaspekova, S G; Shustova, O N; Zyuryaev, I T; Ruda, M Ya; Mazurov, A V

    2016-11-01

    Platelets bearing leukocyte antigen CD45 were identified in the blood of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and healthy donors by flow cytofluorimetry. Part of these platelets contained tissue factor (TF)-primary initiator of blood clotting. The number of CD45(+) and CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets in MI patients at the first day was comparable with their level in healthy donors, but was increased at 8-12 days after MI onset. At that time in some patients the amount of CD45(+) and CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets reached 5-6 and 2-3% of their total number. It is assumed that CD45(+)/TF(+) platelets could be formed as a result of platelet interaction with leukocytes or leukocyte produced membrane microparticles.

  14. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  15. Alloantibody Generation and Effector Function Following Sensitization to Human Leukocyte Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Michelle J.; Valenzuela, Nicole M.; Reed, Elaine F.

    2016-01-01

    Allorecognition is the activation of the adaptive immune system to foreign human leukocyte antigen (HLA) resulting in the generation of alloantibodies. Due to a high polymorphism, foreign HLA is recognized by the immune system following transplant, transfusion, or pregnancy resulting in the formation of the germinal center and the generation of long-lived alloantibody-producing memory B cells. Alloantibodies recognize antigenic epitopes displayed by the HLA molecule on the transplanted allograft and contribute to graft damage through multiple mechanisms, including (1) activation of the complement cascade resulting in the formation of the MAC complex and inflammatory anaphylatoxins, (2) transduction of intracellular signals leading to cytoskeletal rearrangement, growth, and proliferation of graft vasculature, and (3) immune cell infiltration into the allograft via FcγR interactions with the FC portion of the antibody. This review focuses on the generation of HLA alloantibody, routes of sensitization, alloantibody specificity, and mechanisms of antibody-mediated graft damage. PMID:26870045

  16. Human Leukocyte Antigen Diversity: A Southern African Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tshabalala, Mqondisi; Mellet, Juanita; Pepper, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasingly well-documented evidence of high genetic, ethnic, and linguistic diversity amongst African populations, there is limited data on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) diversity in these populations. HLA is part of the host defense mechanism mediated through antigen presentation to effector cells of the immune system. With the high disease burden in southern Africa, HLA diversity data is increasingly important in the design of population-specific vaccines and the improvement of transplantation therapeutic interventions. This review highlights the paucity of HLA diversity data amongst southern African populations and defines a need for information of this kind. This information will support disease association studies, provide guidance in vaccine design, and improve transplantation outcomes. PMID:26347896

  17. Chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies to retarget T cells in pediatric oncology

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Maya; Curran, Kevin J.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy using antigen-specific T cells has broad therapeutic potential. Chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies can redirect T cells to kill tumors without human leukocyte antigens (HLA) restriction. Key determinants of clinical potential include the choice of target antigen, antibody specificity, antibody affinity, tumor accessibility, T cell persistence, and tumor immune evasion. For pediatric cancers, additional constraints include their propensity for bulky metastatic disease and the concern for late toxicities from treatment. Nonetheless, the recent preclinical and clinical developments of these T cell based therapies are highly encouraging. PMID:25832831

  18. Microscale purification of antigen-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Eric P.; Normandin, Erica; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Mahan, Alison E.; Chan, Ying N.; Lai, Jennifer I.; Vaccari, Monica; Rao, Mangala; Franchini, Genoveffa; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation of the Fc domain is an important driver of antibody effector function. While assessment of antibody glycoform compositions observed across total plasma IgG has identified differences associated with a variety of clinical conditions, in many cases it is the glycosylation state of only antibodies against a specific antigen or set of antigens that may be of interest, for example, in defining the potential effector function of antibodies produced during disease or after vaccination. Historically, glycoprofiling such antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples has been challenging due to their low prevalence, the high sample requirement for most methods of glycan determination, and the lack of high-throughput purification methods. New methods of glycoprofiling with lower sample requirements and higher throughput have motivated the development of microscale and automatable methods for purification of antigen-specific antibodies from polyclonal sources such as clinical serum samples. In this work, we present a robot-compatible 96-well plate-based method for purification of antigen-specific antibodies, suitable for such population level glycosylation screening. We demonstrate the utility of this method across multiple antibody sources, using both purified plasma IgG and plasma, and across multiple different antigen types, with enrichment factors greater than 1000-fold observed. Using an on-column IdeS protease treatment, we further describe staged release of Fc and Fab domains, allowing for glycoprofiling of each domain. PMID:26078040

  19. Microscale purification of antigen-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric P; Normandin, Erica; Osei-Owusu, Nana Yaw; Mahan, Alison E; Chan, Ying N; Lai, Jennifer I; Vaccari, Monica; Rao, Mangala; Franchini, Genoveffa; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E

    2015-10-01

    Glycosylation of the Fc domain is an important driver of antibody effector function. While assessment of antibody glycoform compositions observed across total plasma IgG has identified differences associated with a variety of clinical conditions, in many cases it is the glycosylation state of only antibodies against a specific antigen or set of antigens that may be of interest, for example, in defining the potential effector function of antibodies produced during disease or after vaccination. Historically, glycoprofiling such antigen-specific antibodies in clinical samples has been challenging due to their low prevalence, the high sample requirement for most methods of glycan determination, and the lack of high-throughput purification methods. New methods of glycoprofiling with lower sample requirements and higher throughput have motivated the development of microscale and automatable methods for purification of antigen-specific antibodies from polyclonal sources such as clinical serum samples. In this work, we present a robot-compatible 96-well plate-based method for purification of antigen-specific antibodies, suitable for such population level glycosylation screening. We demonstrate the utility of this method across multiple antibody sources, using both purified plasma IgG and plasma, and across multiple different antigen types, with enrichment factors greater than 1000-fold observed. Using an on-column IdeS protease treatment, we further describe staged release of Fc and Fab domains, allowing for glycoprofiling of each domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in graft by blood donor antibodies against host leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Jodi; Tinckam, Kathryn; denHollander, Neal; Haroon, Ayesha; Keshavjee, Shaf; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    It is unknown the extent to which transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) contributes to primary graft dysfunction (PGD), the leading cause of death after lung transplantation. In this case of suspected transfusion-associated acute bilateral graft injury in a 61-year-old idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patient, recipient sera from before and after transplantation/transfusion, as well as the sera of 22 of the 24 implicated blood donors, were individually screened by Luminex bead assay for the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, with recipient and lung donor HLA typing to explore for cognate relationships. A red-cell-unit donor-source anti-Cw6 antibody, cognate with the HLA type of the recipient, was identified. This is the second reported case of TRALI in the setting of lung transplantation, and the first to show an associated interaction between donor antibodies (in a low-plasma volume product) with recipient leukocytes (rather than graft antigens); therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of PGD.

  1. Monoclonal antibodies to guinea pig Ia antigens. II. Effect on alloantigen-, antigen-, and mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Four xenographic monoclonal antibodies to guinea pig Ia antigens were tested for their inhibitory effects on antigen-, alloantigen-, and mitogen-induced T cell proliferation. All four monoclonal antibodies reacted with strain 2 Ia antigens, and all four were capable of inhibiting the strain 13 against strain 2 mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) by 50-70%; the two monoclonals that reacted with strain 13 Ia antigens were also capable of inhibiting the strain 2 against strain 13 MLR. In contrast, an analysis of the effects of a single monoclonal antibody on the responses to several antigens demonstrated a selective monoclonal pattern of inhibition in that the responses to some, but not all, antigens were inhibited. These results suggest that monoclonal antibodies react with different parts of Ia molecules that may have different functional roles and that certain parts of an Ia molecule participate in the presentation of certain antigens, whereas other regions of the same molecule present different antigens. PMID:6158543

  2. Human leukocyte antigen and idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Usui, Toru; Naisbitt, Dean J

    2017-02-01

    A clinical association between a specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele and idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs) is a strong indication that IADRs are mediated by the adaptive immune system. For example, it is well-established that HLA-B*15:02 and HLA-B*57:01 are associated with carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and abacavir-induced hypersensitivity/flucloxacillin-induced liver injury, respectively. Drug-specific T-cells whose response is restricted by specific HLA risk alleles have been detected from IADR patients, also suggesting an adaptive immune pathogenesis. T-cells from carbamazepine SJS/TEN patients are activated by direct pharmacological interaction between carbamazepine and HLA-B*15:02 expressed on antigen presenting cells (APCs). Abacavir-specific, HLA-B*57:01-restricted T-cells are activated by APCs presenting peptides which are only displayed by the HLA molecule when abacavir is bound during peptide loading. Finally, HLA-B*57:01-restricted activation of T-cells from patients with flucloxacillin-induced liver injury is dependent on processing of drug protein adducts. Based on these observations, it is now possible to utilize blood from healthy drug-naïve volunteers to study the priming of naïve T-cells to drugs. Future development of these methodologies may lead to the development of assays that predict intrinsic immunogenicity of drugs and chemicals at the preclinical stage of drug development. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyrotropin Receptor Epitope and Human Leukocyte Antigen in Graves’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hidefumi; De Groot, Leslie J.; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR) is a major autoantigen in this condition. Since the extracellular domain of human TSHR (TSHR-ECD) is shed into the circulation, TSHR-ECD is a preferentially immunogenic portion of TSHR. Both genetic factors and environmental factors contribute to development of GD. Inheritance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, especially HLA-DR3, is associated with GD. TSHR-ECD protein is endocytosed into antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and processed to TSHR-ECD peptides. These peptide epitopes bind to HLA-class II molecules, and subsequently the complex of HLA-class II and TSHR-ECD epitope is presented to CD4+ T cells. The activated CD4+ T cells secrete cytokines/chemokines that stimulate B-cells to produce TSAb, and in turn hyperthyroidism occurs. Numerous studies have been done to identify T- and B-cell epitopes in TSHR-ECD, including (1) in silico, (2) in vitro, (3) in vivo, and (4) clinical experiments. Murine models of GD and HLA-transgenic mice have played a pivotal role in elucidating the immunological mechanisms. To date, linear or conformational epitopes of TSHR-ECD, as well as the molecular structure of the epitope-binding groove in HLA-DR, were reported to be related to the pathogenesis in GD. Dysfunction of central tolerance in the thymus, or in peripheral tolerance, such as regulatory T cells, could allow development of GD. Novel treatments using TSHR antagonists or mutated TSHR peptides have been reported to be effective. We review and update the role of immunogenic TSHR epitopes and HLA in GD, and offer perspectives on TSHR epitope specific treatments. PMID:27602020

  4. Association of human leukocyte antigen with postherpetic neuralgia in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye Yoon; Song, Eun Young; Yoon, Jung Ah; Suh, Dae Hun; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Yong Chul; Park, Myoung Hee

    2016-10-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most frequent complication of varicella-zoster virus reactivation, is characterized by pain that persists for more than 3 months, often for years after healing of zoster rash. A few studies revealing the association of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) with PHN have been reported, but only in the Japanese. The aim of this study was to investigate the primary HLA locus associated with PHN susceptibility in Koreans. We compared HLA-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 genotypes of 66 PHN patients with those of 54 herpes zoster (HZ) patients without developing PHN and 235 healthy controls. Frequencies of HLA-B*13, B*44, B*15 (B75), DRB1*10:01, and DRB1*12:02 were increased, and those of HLA-C*01, C*12, and DRB1*01:01 were decreased in PHN patients compared to those in controls (each, p < 0.05). Among these alleles, only the frequency of HLA-B*44 was significantly increased in PHN patients compared to that in HZ patients and the change was due to HLA-B*44:03 (PHN vs controls, p = 0.043; PHN vs HZ, p = 0.012). The results suggest that HLA-B*44:03 or other closely linked gene of the major histocompatibility complex is associated with susceptibility to the development of PHN after HZ, but not with the onset of HZ.

  5. Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) diversity in Sinclair and Hanford swine.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chak-Sum; Martens, Gregory W; Amoss, Max S; Gomez-Raya, Luis; Beattie, Craig W; Smith, Douglas M

    2010-03-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotype B is associated with increased penetrance of the tumor traits in Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma (SSCM). We established a series of SinclairxHanford swine crosses to facilitate genetic mapping of the tumor-associated loci. In this study, the SLA diversity in the founding animals was characterized for effective selection of maximum tumor penetrance in the pedigrees. Using the sequence-based typing (SBT) method we identified a total of 29 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing six class I and five class II haplotypes. We subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the crossbred progeny. In a total of 469 animals we identified three crossovers within the class I region and three between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.39% and 0.56%, respectively. We also confirmed the presence of two expressed SLA-1 loci in three of the class I haplotypes and were able to determine the relative chromosomal arrangement of the duplicated loci in two haplotypes. This study furthers our understanding of the allelic architecture and polymorphism of the SLA system and will facilitate the mapping of loci associated with the expression of SSCM. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb): a compendium of antigen-antibody interactions.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Raskar-Renuse, Snehal; Natekar-Kalantre, Girija; Saxena, Smita A

    2014-01-01

    Antigen-Antibody Interaction Database (AgAbDb) is an immunoinformatics resource developed at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune, and is available online at http://bioinfo.net.in/AgAbDb.htm. Antigen-antibody interactions are a special class of protein-protein interactions that are characterized by high affinity and strict specificity of antibodies towards their antigens. Several co-crystal structures of antigen-antibody complexes have been solved and are available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). AgAbDb is a derived knowledgebase developed with an objective to compile, curate, and analyze determinants of interactions between the respective antigen-antibody molecules. AgAbDb lists not only the residues of binding sites of antigens and antibodies, but also interacting residue pairs. It also helps in the identification of interacting residues and buried residues that constitute antibody-binding sites of protein and peptide antigens. The Antigen-Antibody Interaction Finder (AAIF), a program developed in-house, is used to compile the molecular interactions, viz. van der Waals interactions, salt bridges, and hydrogen bonds. A module for curating water-mediated interactions has also been developed. In addition, various residue-level features, viz. accessible surface area, data on epitope segment, and secondary structural state of binding site residues, are also compiled. Apart from the PDB numbering, Wu-Kabat numbering and explicit definitions of complementarity-determining regions are provided for residues of antibodies. The molecular interactions can be visualized using the program Jmol. AgAbDb can be used as a benchmark dataset to validate algorithms for prediction of B-cell epitopes. It can as well be used to improve accuracy of existing algorithms and to design new algorithms. AgAbDb can also be used to design mimotopes representing antigens as well as aid in designing processes leading to humanization of antibodies.

  7. Degenerate interfaces in antigen-antibody complexes.

    PubMed

    Decanniere, K; Transue, T R; Desmyter, A; Maes, D; Muyldermans, S; Wyns, L

    2001-10-26

    In most of the work dealing with the analysis of protein-protein interfaces, a single X-ray structure is available or selected, and implicitly it is assumed that this structure corresponds to the optimal complex for this pair of proteins. However, we have found a degenerate interface in a high-affinity antibody-antigen complex: the two independent complexes of the camel variable domain antibody fragment cAb-Lys3 and its antigen hen egg white lysozyme present in the asymmetric unit of our crystals show a difference in relative orientation between antibody and antigen, leading to important differences at the protein-protein interface. A third cAb-Lys3-hen lysozyme complex in a different crystal form adopts yet another relative orientation. Our results show that protein-protein interface characteristics can vary significantly between different specimens of the same high-affinity antibody-protein antigen complex. Consideration should be given to this type of observation when trying to establish general protein-protein interface characteristics.

  8. Lensfree holographic imaging of antibody microarrays for high-throughput detection of leukocyte numbers and function.

    PubMed

    Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Mudanyali, Onur; Seo, Sungkyu; Silangcruz, Jaime; Macal, Monica; Ramanculov, Erlan; Dandekar, Satya; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan; Revzin, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Characterization of leukocytes is an integral part of blood analysis and blood-based diagnostics. In the present paper, we combine lensless holographic imaging with antibody microarrays for rapid and multiparametric analysis of leukocytes from human blood. Monoclonal antibodies (Abs) specific for leukocyte surface antigens (CD4 and CD8) and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2) were printed in an array so as to juxtapose cell capture and cytokine detection antibody (Ab) spots. Integration of Ab microarrays into a microfluidic flow chamber (4 muL volume) followed by incubation with human blood resulted in capture of CD4 and CD8 T-cells on specific Ab spots. On-chip mitogenic activation of these cells induced release of cytokine molecules that were subsequently captured on neighboring anticytokine Ab spots. The binding of IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma molecules on their respective Ab spots was detected using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled anticytokine Abs and a visible color reagent. Lensfree holographic imaging was then used to rapidly ( approximately 4 s) enumerate CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes captured on Ab spots and to quantify the cytokine signal emanating from IL-2, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma spots on the same chip. To demonstrate the utility of our approach for infectious disease monitoring, blood samples of healthy volunteers and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were analyzed to determine the CD4/CD8 ratio, an important HIV/AIDS diagnostic marker. The ratio obtained by lensfree on-chip imaging of CD4 and CD8 T-cells captured on Ab spots was in close agreement with conventional microscopy-based cell counting. The present paper, describing tandem use of Ab microarrays and lensfree holographic imaging, paves the way for future development of miniature cytometry devices for multiparametric blood analysis at the point of care or in a resource-limited setting.

  9. LFA-1 integrin antibodies inhibit leukocyte α4β1-mediated adhesion by intracellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Grönholm, Mikaela; Jahan, Farhana; Bryushkova, Ekaterina A; Madhavan, Sudarrshan; Aglialoro, Francesca; Soto Hinojosa, Laura; Uotila, Liisa M; Gahmberg, Carl G

    2016-09-01

    Binding of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 to the β2-integrin leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) is known to induce cross-talk to the α4β1 integrin. Using different LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies, we have been able to study the requirement and mechanism of action for the cross-talk in considerable detail. LFA-1-activating antibodies and those inhibitory antibodies that signal to α4β1 induce phosphorylation of Thr-758 on the β2-chain, which is followed by binding of 14-3-3 proteins and signaling through the G protein exchange factor Tiam1. This results in dephosphorylation of Thr-788/789 on the β1-chain of α4β1 and loss of binding to its ligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. The results show that with LFA-1 antibodies, we can activate LFA-1 and inhibit α4β1, inhibit both LFA-1 and α4β1, inhibit LFA-1 but not α4β1, or not affect LFA-1 or α4β1 These findings are important for the understanding of integrin regulation and for the interpretation of the effect of integrin antibodies and their use in clinical applications. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. A comparison of leukocyte aggregation, leukocyte migration and skin reactivity to recall antigens in patients with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Rouveix, B; Groult, F; Pocidalo, J J

    1986-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate the leukocyte aggregation test (LAT) in patients at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and with confirmed AIDS using tuberculin, streptococcus and candida as recall antigens. These patients were selected on the basis of their well known absence of delayed hypersensitivity, a fact which should avoid false positive tests. Antigen-induced human peripheral blood leukocyte aggregation was measured quantitatively. The results obtained have been compared with the leukocyte migration inhibition test (LMIT) in patient and control groups. Among the 46 patients, less than 7% were positive for the LAT, whereas more than 50% were LMIT positive (P less than 0.001). These results suggest that there are fewer false positive reactions with LAT which can therefore be considered as a reliable method for assessing CMI in human. Furthermore, a negative LAT correlated well with negative delayed skin tests in more than 90% of the patients for the three antigens. These patients had either an AIDS or an advanced AIDS-related complex (ARC). In only eight of the patients was there a discrepancy in the results of the two tests. A positive LAT and a negative skin test were seen in three cases lacking opportunistic infections (OI), whereas a negative LAT and a positive skin test were found in patients with or without OI. In the latter, a negative LAT could indicate a more advanced stage of disease and hence a poor prognosis. PMID:3568448

  11. Circulating antigen-antibody complexes in onchocerciasis.

    PubMed Central

    Steward, M W; Sisley, B; Mackenzie, C D; El Sheikh, H

    1982-01-01

    The presence of circulating antigen-antibody complexes in the sera of patients with onchocerciasis was investigated using the Clq and conglutinin solid-phase binding assays. Only 50% of patients' sera had demonstrable complexes, levels of complexes were unrelated to microfilarial load and specific anti-onchocercal antibody titres and results with the two tests for complexes were not correlated. Both IgM- and IgG-containing complexes were commonly involved but there was no correlation between the levels of complexes containing these isotypes. Evidence for the presence of IgE in complexes of sera from a minority of individuals was also obtained. PMID:6979445

  12. Natural micropolymorphism in human leukocyte antigens provides a basis for genetic control of antigen recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Archbold, Julia K.; Macdonald, Whitney A.; Gras, Stephanie; Ely, Lauren K.; Miles, John J.; Bell, Melissa J.; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Beddoe, Travis; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Clements, Craig S.; Purcell, Anthony W.; McCluskey, James; Burrows, Scott R.; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2009-07-10

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene polymorphism plays a critical role in protective immunity, disease susceptibility, autoimmunity, and drug hypersensitivity, yet the basis of how HLA polymorphism influences T cell receptor (TCR) recognition is unclear. We examined how a natural micropolymorphism in HLA-B44, an important and large HLA allelic family, affected antigen recognition. T cell-mediated immunity to an Epstein-Barr virus determinant (EENLLDFVRF) is enhanced when HLA-B*4405 was the presenting allotype compared with HLA-B*4402 or HLA-B*4403, each of which differ by just one amino acid. The micropolymorphism in these HLA-B44 allotypes altered the mode of binding and dynamics of the bound viral epitope. The structure of the TCR-HLA-B*4405EENLLDFVRF complex revealed that peptide flexibility was a critical parameter in enabling preferential engagement with HLA-B*4405 in comparison to HLA-B*4402/03. Accordingly, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism can alter the dynamics of the peptide-MHC landscape, resulting in fine-tuning of T cell responses between closely related allotypes.

  13. Lensfree Holographic Imaging of Antibody Microarrays for High-Throughput Detection of Leukocyte Numbers and Function

    PubMed Central

    Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Mudanyali, Onur; Seo, Sungkyu; Silangcruz, Jaime; Macal, Monica; Ramanculov, Erlan; Dandekar, Satya; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan; Revzin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of leukocytes is an integral part of blood analysis and blood-based diagnostics. In the present paper we combine lensless holographic imaging with antibody microarrays for rapid and multiparametric analysis of leukocytes from human blood. Monoclonal antibodies (Abs) specific for leukocyte surface antigens (CD4 and CD8) and cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2) were printed in an array so as to juxtapose cell capture and cytokine detection Ab spots. Integration of Ab microarrays into a microfluidic flow chamber (4 μl volume) followed by incubation with human blood resulted in capture of CD4 and CD8 T-cells on specific Ab spots. On-chip mitogenic activation of these cells induced release of cytokine molecules that were subsequently captured on neighboring anti-cytokine Ab spots. The binding of IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ molecules on their respective Ab spots was detected using HRP-labeled anti-cytokine Abs and a visible color reagent. Lensfree holographic imaging was then used to rapidly (∼4 sec) enumerate CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocytes captured on Ab spots and to quantify the cytokine signal emanating from IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ spots on the same chip. To demonstrate the utility of our approach for infectious disease monitoring, blood samples of healthy volunteers and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were analyzed to determine CD4/CD8 ratio – an important HIV/AIDS diagnostic marker. The ratio obtained by lensfree on-chip imaging of CD4 and CD8 T-cells captured on Ab spots was in close agreement with conventional microscopy-based cell counting. The present paper, describing tandem use of Ab microarrays and lensfree holographic imaging, paves the way for future development of miniature cytometry devices for multiparametric blood analysis at the point of care or in a resource-limited setting. PMID:20359168

  14. Antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccines of various antigenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, K M; Monto, A S; Foster, D A

    1990-02-01

    Four inactivated influenza vaccines (containing the recommended antigens for the 1985-1986 influenza season) of various antigenic concentration levels were randomly administered to 140 study participants. The effect of the increasing antigen concentration resulted in significantly higher influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels 3 weeks after vaccination for the A/H1N1 antigen but not for the A/H3N2 or B antigens. Also, at 3 weeks after vaccination, there were significantly lower antibody titer levels associated with increasing age for the A/H1N1 and B antigens (adjusting for the prevaccination antibody titer and antigen content).

  15. Human leukocyte antigen-E alleles and expression in patients with serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Lu, Renquan; Xie, Suhong; Wen, Xuemei; Wang, Hongling; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) is one of the most extensively studied non-classical MHC class I molecules that is almost non-polymorphic. Only two alleles (HLA-E*0101 and HLA-E*0103) are found in worldwide populations, and suggested to be functional differences between these variants. The HLA-E molecule can contribute to the escape of cancer cells from host immune surveillance. However, it is still unknown whether HLA-E gene polymorphisms might play a role in cancer immune escape. To explore the association between HLA-E alleles and the susceptibility to serous ovarian cancer (SOC), 85 primary SOC patients and 100 healthy women were enrolled. Here, we indicated that high frequency of HLA-E*0103 allele existed in SOC patients by the allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR method. The levels of HLA-E protein expression in SOC patients with the HLA-E*0103 allele were higher than those with the HLA-E*0101 allele using immunohistochemistry analysis. The cell surface expression and functional differences between the two alleles were verified by K562 cells transfected with HLA-E*0101 or HLA-E*0103 allelic heavy chains. The HLA-E*0103 allele made the transfer of the HLA-E molecule to the cell surface easier, and HLA-E/peptides complex more stable. These differences ultimately influenced the function of natural killer cells, showing that the cells transfected with HLA-E*0103 allele inhibited natural killer cells to lysis. This study reveals a novel mechanism regarding the susceptibility to SOC, which is correlated with the HLA-E*0103 allele. PMID:25711417

  16. Differing rates of antibody acquisition to merozoite antigens in malaria: implications for immunity and surveillance.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Fiona J; Persson, Kristina E M; Fowkes, Freya J I; Reiling, Linda; Mugyenyi, Cleopatra K; Richards, Jack S; Simpson, Julie A; Williams, Thomas N; Gilson, Paul R; Hodder, Anthony N; Sanders, Paul R; Anders, Robin F; Narum, David L; Chitnis, Chetan; Crabb, Brendan S; Marsh, Kevin; Beeson, James G

    2017-04-01

    Antibodies play a key role in acquired human immunity to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria and target merozoites to reduce or prevent blood-stage replication and the development of disease. Merozoites present a complex array of antigens to the immune system, and currently, there is only a partial understanding of the targets of protective antibodies and how responses to different antigens are acquired and boosted. We hypothesized that there would be differences in the rate of acquisition of antibodies to different antigens and how well they are boosted by infection, which impacts the acquisition of immunity. We examined responses to a range of merozoite antigens in 2 different cohorts of children and adults with different age structures and levels of malaria exposure. Overall, antibodies were associated with age, exposure, and active infection, and the repertoire of responses increased with age and active infection. However, rates of antibody acquisition varied between antigens and different regions within an antigen following exposure to malaria, supporting our hypothesis. Antigen-specific responses could be broadly classified into early response types in which antibodies were acquired early in childhood exposure and late response types that appear to require substantially more exposure for the development of substantial levels. We identified antigen-specific responses that were effectively boosted after recent infection, whereas other responses were not. These findings advance our understanding of the acquisition of human immunity to malaria and are relevant to the development of malaria vaccines targeting merozoite antigens and the selection of antigens for use in malaria surveillance. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. A melanoma immune response signature including Human Leukocyte Antigen-E.

    PubMed

    Tremante, Elisa; Ginebri, Agnese; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Benassi, Barbara; Frascione, Pasquale; Grammatico, Paola; Cappellacci, Sandra; Catricalà, Caterina; Arcelli, Diego; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Di Filippo, Franco; Mottolese, Marcella; Visca, Paolo; Benevolo, Maria; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Paired cultures of early-passage melanoma cells and melanocytes were established from metastatic lesions and the uninvolved skin of five patients. In this stringent autologous setting, cDNA profiling was used to analyze a subset of 1477 genes selected by the Gene Ontology term 'immune response'. Human Leukocyte Antigen E (HLA-E) was ranked 19th among melanoma-overexpressed genes and was embedded in a transformation signature including its preferred peptide ligand donors HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-G. Mostly undetectable in normal skin and 39 nevi (including rare and atypical lesions), HLA-E was detected by immunohistochemistry in 17/30 (57%) and 32/48 (67%) primary and metastatic lesions, respectively. Accordingly, surface HLA-E was higher on melanoma cells than on melanocytes and protected the former (6/6 cell lines) from lysis by natural killer (NK) cells, functionally counteracting co-expressed triggering ligands. Although lacking HLA-E, melanocytes (4/4 cultures) were nevertheless (and surprisingly) fully protected from NK cell lysis.

  18. Characterization of the lymphocyte activation gene 3-encoded protein. A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), expressed in human activated T and natural killer (NK) cells, is closely related to CD4 at the gene and protein levels. We report here the initial characterization of the LAG-3-encoded protein. We have generated two monoclonal antibodies after immunization of mice with a 30-amino acid peptide that corresponds to an exposed extra loop region present in the LAG-3 immunoglobulin-like first domain. The reactivity of these reagents is directed against LAG-3 since they recognize both membrane-expressed and soluble recombinant LAG-3 molecules produced in a baculovirus expression system. The two antibodies are likely to react with the same or closely related epitope (termed LAG-3.1) exposed on the LAG-3 first domain extra loop, as assessed in competition experiments on LAG-3- expressing activated lymphocytes. Cellular distribution analysis indicated that the LAG-3.1 epitope is expressed on activated T (both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets) and NK cells, and not on activated B cells or monocytes. In immunoprecipitation experiments performed on activated T and NK cell lysates, a 70-kD protein was detected after SDS-PAGE analysis. 45-kD protein species were also immunoprecipitated. Both the 70- and 45-kD proteins were shown to be N-glycosylated. In Western blot analysis, only the former molecule was recognized by the anti-LAG-3 antibodies, demonstrating that it is LAG-3 encoded. These anti-LAG-3 antibodies were used to investigate whether the LAG-3 protein interacts with the CD4 ligands. By using a high-level expression cellular system based on COS-7 cell transfection with recombinant CDM8 vectors and a quantitative cellular adhesion assay, we demonstrate that rosette formation between LAG-3-transfected COS-7 cells and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-bearing B lymphocytes is specifically dependent on LAG-3/HLA class II interaction. In contrast to CD4, LAG-3 does not bind the human immunodeficiency virus gp120. This initial

  19. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases.

  20. Calcium-dependent antigen binding as a novel modality for antibody recycling by endosomal antigen dissociation.

    PubMed

    Hironiwa, N; Ishii, S; Kadono, S; Iwayanagi, Y; Mimoto, F; Habu, K; Igawa, T; Hattori, K

    2016-01-01

    The pH-dependent antigen binding antibody, termed a recycling antibody, has recently been reported as an attractive type of second-generation engineered therapeutic antibody. A recycling antibody can dissociate antigen in the acidic endosome, and thus bind to its antigen multiple times. As a consequence, a recycling antibody can neutralize large amounts of antigen in plasma. Because this approach relies on histidine residues to achieve pH-dependent antigen binding, which could limit the epitopes that can be targeted and affect the rate of antigen dissociation in the endosome, we explored an alternative approach for generating recycling antibodies. Since calcium ion concentration is known to be lower in endosome than in plasma, we hypothesized that an antibody with antigen-binding properties that are calcium-dependent could be used as recycling antibody. Here, we report a novel anti-interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody, identified from a phage library that binds to IL-6R only in the presence of a calcium ion. Thermal dynamics and a crystal structure study revealed that the calcium ion binds to the heavy chain CDR3 region (HCDR3), which changes and possibly stabilizes the structure of HCDR3 to make it bind to antigen calcium dependently (PDB 5AZE). In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that this calcium-dependent antigen-binding antibody can dissociate its antigen in the endosome and accelerate antigen clearance from plasma, making it a novel approach for generating recycling antibody.

  1. Determination of an unrelated donor pool size for human leukocyte antigen-matched platelets in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bub, Carolina Bonet; Torres, Margareth Afonso; Moraes, Maria Elisa; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Kutner, José Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful transfusion of platelet refractory patients is a challenge. Many potential donors are needed to sustain human leukocyte antigen matched-platelet transfusion programs because of the different types of antigens and the constant needs of these patients. For a highly mixed population such as the Brazilian population, the pool size required to provide adequate platelet support is unknown. Methods A mathematical model was created to estimate the appropriate size of an unrelated donor pool to provide human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet support for a Brazilian population. A group of 154 hematologic human leukocyte antigen-typed patients was used as the potential patient population and a database of 65,500 human leukocyte antigen-typed bone marrow registered donors was used as the donor population. Platelet compatibility was based on the grading system of Duquesnoy. Results Using the mathematical model, a pool containing 31,940, 1710 and 321 donors would be necessary to match more than 80% of the patients with at least five completely compatible (no cross-reactive group), partial compatible (one cross-reactive group) or less compatible (two cross-reactive group) donors, respectively. Conclusion The phenotypic diversity of the Brazilian population has probably made it more difficulty to find completely compatible donors. However, this heterogeneity seems to have facilitated finding donors when cross-reactive groups are accepted as proposed by the grading system of Duquesnoy. The results of this study may help to establish unrelated human leukocyte antigen-compatible platelet transfusions, a procedure not routinely performed in most Brazilian transfusion services. PMID:26969768

  2. No Evidence of Human Leukocyte Antigen Gene Association With Rheumatic Fever Among Children in Samoa.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Guliz; Seifried, Steven E

    2015-03-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) have been implicated in rheumatic fever pathogenesis. This pilot whole genome association study compares genotypes of Samoan children with rheumatic fever to unaffected siblings and unrelated healthy controls. No risk-related genotypes were associated with HLA genes. Thirteen Regions of Interest were identified as candidates for further study.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen - 2 gene for Korean native pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate genetic distances of the SLA-2 gene, to characterize SLA-2 alleles, and to provide basic genetic information of Korean pigs. The swine leukocyte antigen - 2 (SLA-2) gene in the MHC classical region was cloned with spleen tissues from Korean native pigs ...

  4. Molecular characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II genes in outbred pig populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune, disease and vaccine responses. Thus, understanding how SLA gene polymorphism affects immunity, especially in outbred pig populations with a diverse genetic background, requires accu...

  5. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SWINE LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN (SLA) CLASS I GENES IN OUTBRED PIG POPULATIONS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes are one of the most important determinants in swine immune responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and in transplantation. Study of SLA influence requires accurate and effective typing methods. We developed a simple and rapid method to t...

  6. Structural Consensus among Antibodies Defines the Antigen Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Kunik, Vered; Peters, Bjoern; Ofran, Yanay

    2012-01-01

    The Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) of antibodies are assumed to account for the antigen recognition and binding and thus to contain also the antigen binding site. CDRs are typically discerned by searching for regions that are most different, in sequence or in structure, between different antibodies. Here, we show that ∼20% of the antibody residues that actually bind the antigen fall outside the CDRs. However, virtually all antigen binding residues lie in regions of structural consensus across antibodies. Furthermore, we show that these regions of structural consensus which cover the antigen binding site are identifiable from the sequence of the antibody. Analyzing the predicted contribution of antigen binding residues to the stability of the antibody-antigen complex, we show that residues that fall outside of the traditionally defined CDRs are at least as important to antigen binding as residues within the CDRs, and in some cases, they are even more important energetically. Furthermore, antigen binding residues that fall outside of the structural consensus regions but within traditionally defined CDRs show a marginal energetic contribution to antigen binding. These findings allow for systematic and comprehensive identification of antigen binding sites, which can improve the understanding of antigenic interactions and may be useful in antibody engineering and B-cell epitope identification. PMID:22383868

  7. Isolation of human single chain variable fragment antibodies against specific sperm antigens for immunocontraceptive development

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, A.S.; Naz, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Contraceptive vaccines can provide valuable alternatives to current methods of contraception. We describe here the development of sperm-reactive human single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies of defined sperm specificity for immunocontraception. METHODS Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from antisperm antibody-positive immunoinfertile and vasectomized men were activated with human sperm antigens in vitro, and the complementary DNA prepared and PCR-amplified using primers based on all the variable regions of heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins. The scFv repertoire was cloned into pCANTAB5E vector to create a human scFv antibody library. RESULTS Panning of the library against specific sperm antigens yielded several clones, and the four strongest reactive were selected for further analysis. These clones had novel sequences with unique complementarity-determining regions. ScFv antibodies were expressed, purified and analyzed for human sperm reactivity and effect on human sperm function. AFA-1 and FAB-7 scFv antibodies both reacted with fertilization antigen-1 antigen, but against different epitopes. YLP20 antibody reacted with the expected human sperm protein of 48 ± 5 kDa. The fourth antibody, AS16, reacted with an 18 kDa sperm protein and seems to be a human homologue of the mouse monoclonal recombinant antisperm antibody that causes sperm agglutination. All these antibodies inhibited human sperm function. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to report the use of phage display technology to obtain antisperm scFv antibodies of defined antigen specificity. These antibodies will find clinical applications in the development of novel immunocontraceptives, and specific diagnostics for immunoinfertility. PMID:18372255

  8. Association of human leukocyte antigen class I antigens in Iranian patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hossein; Amirzargar, Ali Akbar; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Toofan, Hesam; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Hosseini, Seyed Hamed; Rezaei, Nima

    2013-04-01

    There are a limited number of reports indicating the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles in pemphigus vulgaris. This study was designed to highlight the association of HLA class I alleles with pemphigus vulgaris in Iran. Fifty patients with pemphigus vulgaris, diagnosed based on clinical, histological and direct immunofluorescence findings were enrolled into this study. The control group consisted of 50 healthy, age- and sex-matched individuals. HLA typing of class I (A, B and C alleles) was carried out using polymerase chain reaction based on the sequence-specific primer method. This study showed the higher frequency of HLA-B*44:02 (P = 0.007), -C*04:01 (P < 0.001), -C*15:02 (P < 0.001) and -C*16:01 (P = 0.027) in the patient group, compared to the controls, while the frequency of HLA-C*06:02 (P < 0.001) and -C*18:01 (P = 0.008) in the patients with pemphigus vulgaris was significantly lower than the controls. Regarding the linkage disequilibrium between HLA class I alleles, the HLA-A*03:01, -B*51:01, -C*16:02 haplotype (4% vs 0%, P = 0.04) is suggested to be a predisposing factor, whereas HLA-A*26:01, -B*38, -C*12:03 haplotype (0% vs 6%, P = 0.01) is suggested to be a protective factor. In conclusion, it is suggested that HLA-B*44:02, -C*04:01, -C*15:02 alleles and HLA-A*03:01, -B*51:01, -C*16:02 haplotype are susceptibility factors for development of pemphigus vulgaris in the Iranian population, while HLA-C*06:02, -C*18:01 alleles and HLA-A*26:01, -B*38, -C*12:03 haplotype may be considered as protective alleles.

  9. Human leukocyte Antigen-DM polymorphisms in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Eliot; Wieczorek, Marek; Sticht, Jana; Freund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Classical MHC class II (MHCII) proteins present peptides for CD4+ T-cell surveillance and are by far the most prominent risk factor for a number of autoimmune disorders. To date, many studies have shown that this link between particular MHCII alleles and disease depends on the MHCII's particular ability to bind and present certain peptides in specific physiological contexts. However, less attention has been paid to the non-classical MHCII molecule human leucocyte antigen-DM, which catalyses peptide exchange on classical MHCII proteins acting as a peptide editor. DM function impacts the presentation of both antigenic peptides in the periphery and key self-peptides during T-cell development in the thymus. In this way, DM activity directly influences the response to pathogens, as well as mechanisms of self-tolerance acquisition. While decreased DM editing of particular MHCII proteins has been proposed to be related to autoimmune disorders, no experimental evidence for different DM catalytic properties had been reported until recently. Biochemical and structural investigations, together with new animal models of loss of DM activity, have provided an attractive foundation for identifying different catalytic efficiencies for DM allotypes. Here, we revisit the current knowledge of DM function and discuss how DM function may impart autoimmunity at the organism level. PMID:27534821

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies Identify Novel Neural Antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, Richard; Niday, Evelyn; Matus, Andrew

    1982-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were raised against synaptic plasma membranes from rat cerebellum. The hybridomas were screened with a solid-phase immunoassay, the positive lines were characterized by their immunoperoxidase staining pattern on cerebellum, and the specific polypeptide antigens were identified on protein blots. Among the Mabs described are some that stain only neurons or only glia and others that react with specific parts of cells, such as axons, dendrites, and synapses. Many Mabs reveal novel relationships between antigens and the cells in which they occur. For example, a Mab designated 7D5 reacts with a family of > 30 proteins but stains only glial cells. Several Mabs stain punctate sites of synaptic size and distribution in the cerebellar cortex but each reacts with a different subset of polypeptides. One of the most restricted cytological staining patterns is given by 12D5, which stains punctate sites in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and reacts with a single polypeptide band of apparent Mr 270,000. These results illustrate the feasibility of raising Mabs that can be used to follow the expression of specific gene products during brain development.

  11. Jon Van Rood: pioneer at the crossroad of human leukocyte antigens and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jan

    2007-04-01

    Jon Van Rood (born in 1926) has made major contributions to the fields of transfusion medicine as well as organ and stem cell transplantation. His group was the first to start unraveling the complexity of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system through collaborative studies that used panels of sera and leukocyte samples. Furthermore, using HLA typing, he introduced the first HLA-matched platelet transfusions and developed routine leukocyte depletion as a means to prevent HLA alloimmunization. Van Rood has also been active in the fields of kidney transplantation (Eurotransplant) and stem cell transplantation (Europdonor). He combined scientific laboratory research with application to clinical medicine. He retired from his university position in 1991 but remains active in the field.

  12. In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens.

    PubMed

    Franke, Frederik; Rahn, Anna K; Dittmar, Janine; Erin, Noémie; Rieger, Jennifer K; Haase, David; Samonte-Padilla, Irene E; Lange, Joseph; Jakobsen, Per J; Hermida, Miguel; Fernández, Carlos; Kurtz, Joachim; Bakker, Theo C M; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Kalbe, Martin; Scharsack, Jörn P

    2014-01-01

    Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved strategies to evade and manipulate the immune responses of their hosts. Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter-adaptation. Generalist parasites, infective for a number of host species, might be unable to adapt optimally to the immune system of a certain host species, while specialist parasites might display high levels of adaptation to a particular host species. The degree of adaptations may further differ between sympatric and allopatric host-parasite combinations. Here, we test these hypotheses by in vitro exposure of head kidney leukocytes from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to antigens from parasites with a broad fish host range (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Triaenophorus nodulosus), a specific fish parasite of cyprinids (Ligula intestinalis) and parasites highly specific only to a single fish species as second intermediate host (Schistocephalus pungitii, which does not infect G. aculeatus, and Schistocephalus solidus, infecting G. aculeatus). In vitro responses of stickleback leukocytes to S. solidus antigens from six European populations, with S. solidus prevalence from <1% to 66% were tested in a fully crossed experimental design. Leukocyte cultures were analysed by means of flow cytometry and a chemiluminescence assay to quantify respiratory burst activity. We detected decreasing magnitudes of in vitro responses to antigens from generalist to specialist parasites and among specialists, from parasites that do not infect G. aculeatus to a G. aculeatus-infecting species. Generalist parasites seem to maintain their ability to infect different host species at the costs of relatively higher immunogenicity compared to specialist parasites. In a comparison of sympatric and allopatric combinations of stickleback leukocytes and antigens from S. solidus, magnitudes of in vitro responses were dependent on

  13. Specific antigen/antibody interactions measured by force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Dammer, U; Hegner, M; Anselmetti, D; Wagner, P; Dreier, M; Huber, W; Güntherodt, H J

    1996-01-01

    Molecular recognition between biotinylated bovine serum albumin and polyclonal, biotin-directed IG antibodies has been measured directly under various buffer conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that even highly structured molecules such as IgG antibodies preserve their specific affinity to their antigens when probed with an AFM in the force mode. We could measure the rupture force between individual antibody-antigen complexes. The potential and limitations of this new approach for the measurement of individual antigen/antibody interactions and some possible applications are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 PMID:9172770

  14. CD Nomenclature 2015: Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshops as a Driving Force in Immunology.

    PubMed

    Engel, Pablo; Boumsell, Laurence; Balderas, Robert; Bensussan, Armand; Gattei, Valter; Horejsi, Vaclav; Jin, Bo-Quan; Malavasi, Fabio; Mortari, Frank; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard; Stockinger, Hannes; van Zelm, Menno C; Zola, Heddy; Clark, Georgina

    2015-11-15

    CD (cluster of differentiation) Ags are cell surface molecules expressed on leukocytes and other cells relevant for the immune system. CD nomenclature has been universally adopted by the scientific community and is officially approved by the International Union of Immunological Societies and sanctioned by the World Health Organization. It provides a unified designation system for mAbs, as well as for the cell surface molecules that they recognize. This nomenclature was established by the Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops. In addition to defining the CD nomenclature, these workshops have been instrumental in identifying and determining the expression and function of cell surface molecules. Over the past 30 y, the data generated by the 10 Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops have led to the characterization and formal designation of more than 400 molecules. CD molecules are commonly used as cell markers, allowing the identification and isolation of leukocyte populations, subsets, and differentiation stages. mAbs against these molecules have proven to be essential for biomedical research and diagnosis, as well as in biotechnology. More recently, they have been recognized as invaluable tools for the treatment of several malignancies and autoimmune diseases. In this article, we describe how the CD nomenclature was established, present the official updated list of CD molecules, and provide a rationale for their usefulness in the 21st century.

  15. Secondary structure and 3D homology modeling of swine leukocyte antigen class 2 (SLA-2) molecules.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng-Shan; Xu, Chong-bo; Long, Yi-hou; Xia, Chun

    2009-01-01

    No information to date is available to elucidate the structure of swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) molecule which is comprised by a heavy chain of SLA-I non-covalently associated with a light chain, beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) proteins. Presently, one of SLA-I gene SLA-2 and beta(2)m gene were expressed as soluble maltose binding proteins (MBP-proteins) in a pMAL-p2X/Escherichia coli TB1 system and identified by western blotting with anti-MBP polyclonal antibodies. The expressed proteins MBP-SLA-2 and MBP-beta(2)m were purified on amylose affinity columns followed by DEAE-Sepharose. The purified products were cleaved by Factor Xa, respectively, and the interest of proteins SLA-2 and beta(2)m were purified on amylose affinity columns followed by separation from MBP on DEAE-Sepharose. The secondary structures of SLA-2 and beta(2)m were analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of their peptide-binding domain (PBD) was modeled-based sequence homology. The content of the alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn, and random coil in the SLA-2 protein were 76, 95, 36, and 67aa, respectively. In the 98aa of beta(2)m, the contents of the alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn, and random coil were 0, 45, 8, and 45aa, respectively. The SLA-2 protein displayed a typical alpha-helix structure while beta(2)m protein displayed a typical beta-sheet structure. Homology modeling of the SLA-2 and beta(2)m proteins demonstrated similarities with the structure of human and mouse MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I proteins.

  16. A Killer Immunoglobulin - Like Receptor Gene - Content Haplotype and A Cognate Human Leukocyte Antigen Ligand are Associated with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Anthony; Westover, Jonna; Benson, Michael; Johnson, Randall; Dykes, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The killing activity of natural killer cells is largely regulated by the binding of class I human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands to killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor proteins. The killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - complex contains genes that activate and others that inhibit the killing state of natural killer cells depending on the binding of specific human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands. It has been suggested in previous publications that activating human leukocyte antigen/killer - cell immunoglobulin - like receptor complexes are increased in people with autism. We present data, which suggests that an activating cB01/tA01 killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - content haplotype and the cognate ligand human leukocyte antigen - C1k that activates this haplotype is significantly increased in autism. This is an important observation suggesting that the interaction between two proteins encoded on different chromosomes increases natural killer cell killing in autism. PMID:27853655

  17. A Killer Immunoglobulin - Like Receptor Gene - Content Haplotype and A Cognate Human Leukocyte Antigen Ligand are Associated with Autism.

    PubMed

    Torres, Anthony; Westover, Jonna; Benson, Michael; Johnson, Randall; Dykes, Annelise

    2016-04-01

    The killing activity of natural killer cells is largely regulated by the binding of class I human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands to killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor proteins. The killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - complex contains genes that activate and others that inhibit the killing state of natural killer cells depending on the binding of specific human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands. It has been suggested in previous publications that activating human leukocyte antigen/killer - cell immunoglobulin - like receptor complexes are increased in people with autism. We present data, which suggests that an activating cB01/tA01 killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - content haplotype and the cognate ligand human leukocyte antigen - C1k that activates this haplotype is significantly increased in autism. This is an important observation suggesting that the interaction between two proteins encoded on different chromosomes increases natural killer cell killing in autism.

  18. Sera from dams of calves with bovine neonatal pancytopenia contain alloimmune antibodies directed against calf leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Pardon, Bart; Stuyven, Edith; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Hostens, Miel; Dewulf, Jeroen; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Cox, Eric; Deprez, Piet

    2011-06-15

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a bleeding and pancytopenic syndrome in neonatal calves, which recently emerged all over Europe. The present study tested whether antibodies directed against calf leukocytes are present in sera from known BNP dams. Sera from BNP dams (n=11) were combined with leukocytes from 11 calves (5 BNP survivors and 6 controls). After adding a fluorescein conjugated F(ab')(2) fragment of rabbit anti-bovine IgG (H&L) the level of antibody binding was measured by flow cytometry. As control groups both sera from dams from BNP affected (n=48) as from unaffected (n=54) herds were combined with leukocytes from the same calves. With sera from BNP dams, antibody binding could be visualised by immunofluoresence in both peripheral blood as in bone marrow smears. Mean fluoresence intensity values of all leukocyte subpopulations were significantly higher for the BNP dams compared to both control groups (P<0.01). BNP dams showed significantly more antibody binding on multiple leukocyte subpopulations of both BNP survivors and control calves and this from cut off values of MFI 100 onwards (P<0.01). The BNP survivor calves reacted significantly more often with sera from the BNP dams than the control calves (P<0.01). In conclusion the present study supports the hypothesis that BNP is an immune-mediated disease.

  19. Surface Antigen Profiling of Helicobacter pylori-Infected and -Uninfected Gastric Cancer Cells Using Antibody Microarray.

    PubMed

    Sukri, Asif; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Kosai, Nik Ritza; Mohamed Taher, Mustafa; Mohamed Rose, Isa

    2016-10-01

    Comprehensive immunophenotyping cluster of differentiation (CD) antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma, specifically between Helicobacter pylori-infected and -uninfected gastric cancer patients by using DotScan(™) antibody microarray has not been conducted. Current immunophenotyping techniques include flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry are limited to the use of few antibodies for parallel examination. We used DotScan(™) antibody microarray consisting 144 CD antibodies to determine the distribution of CD antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to elucidate the effect of H. pylori infection toward CD antigen expression in gastric cancer. Mixed leukocytes population derived from gastric adenocarcinoma patients were immunophenotyped using DotScan(™) antibody microarray. AGS cells were infected with H. pylori strains and cells were captured on DotScan(™) slides. Cluster of differentiation antigens involved in perpetuating the tolerance of immune cells to tumor cells was upregulated in gastric adenocarcinoma cells compared to normal cells. CD279 which is essential in T cells apoptosis was found to be upregulated in normal cells. Remarkably, H. pylori-infected gastric cancer patients exhibited upregulated expression of CD27 that important in maintenance of T cells. Infection of cagA+ H. pylori with AGS cells increased CD antigens expression which involved in cancer stem cell while cagA- H. pylori polarized AGS cells to express immune-regulatory CD antigens. Increased CD antigens expression in AGS cells infected with cagA+ H. pylori were also detected in H. pylori-infected gastric cancer patients. This study suggests the tolerance of immune system toward tumor cells in gastric cancer and distinct mechanisms of immune responses exploited by different H. pylori strains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Monoclonal antibody specific for a pigmentation associated antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, T.M.; Mattes, M.J.; Old, L.J.; Lloyd, K.O

    1989-01-17

    Monoclonal antibody TA99, which specifically binds to a pigmentation associated antigen present on melanoma cells is described. Additionally, the hybridoma cell line deposited with the ATCC under Accession Number HB 8704 from which the antibody is derived, as well as methods for using the antibody are described.

  1. Supernatants of human leukocytes contain mediator, different from interferon gamma, which induces expression of MHC class II antigens

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In this report, data are presented on the regulation of MHC class II antigen expression by a mediator present in supernatants of human mixed leukocyte cultures (MLC-SN), and which is different from IFN-gamma. The capacity of supernatants to induce antigen expression did not correspond to titers of IFN-gamma. Removal of IFN-gamma using either dialysis against pH 2 or neutralizing mAb against human IFN-gamma did not abrogate the MHC class II antigen expression-inducing capacity of MLC-SN when tested on adenocarcinoma cell lines, kidney epithelial cells, and fibroblasts in vitro in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Therefore, supernatants of human leukocytes contain a mediator, different from IFN-gamma, which induces expression of MHC class II antigens. Dose-response studies revealed that the mediator is produced after allogeneic and lectin stimulation of human leukocytes, and by unstimulated leukocytes. Activation of leukocytes resulted in increased titers of the mediator. The mediator markedly enhances expression of both HLA-DR and HLA-DQ antigens, whereas IFN-gamma had a similar effect on HLA-DR antigens, and only a minor effect on HLA-DQ antigens. Interaction of the mediator and IFN-gamma resulted in a potentiating effect of these two factors on MHC class II antigen expression. Biochemical analysis revealed a mediator, distinguishable by FPLC from IL-1, IL-2, and human IFN-gamma, and which has a molecular mass of 32 kD. PMID:2941512

  2. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; Montaño, Sherwin P.; Kurosawa, Kohei; Zheng, Yupeng; Akin, Louesa R.; Świst-Rosowska, Kalina M.; Grzybowski, Adrian T.; Koide, Akiko; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Ruthenburg, Alexander J.; Koide, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. This “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies. PMID:26862167

  3. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; Montaño, Sherwin P.; Kurosawa, Kohei; Zheng, Yupeng; Akin, Louesa R.; Świst-Rosowska, Kalina M.; Grzybowski, Adrian T.; Koide, Akiko; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Ruthenburg, Alexander J.; Koide, Shohei

    2016-02-09

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. This “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies.

  4. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    DOE PAGES

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; ...

    2016-02-09

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. Thismore » “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies.« less

  5. Genetic variability in swine leukocyte antigen class II and Toll-like receptors affects immune responses to vaccination for bacterial infections in pigs.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, H; Arakawa, A; Tanaka-Matsuda, M; Ide-Okumura, H; Terada, K; Chikyu, M; Kawarasaki, T; Ando, A; Uenishi, H

    2012-12-01

    The genes encoding swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) are highly polymorphic in pig populations, and likely have influences on infection and the effects of vaccination. We explored the associations of different genotypes of SLA class II and of the genes TLR1, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR6 with antibody responses after vaccination against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (ER) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) serotypes 1, 2, and 5 in 191 Duroc pigs maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. We demonstrated close relationships between SLA class II and ER antibody response and between TLR genes other than TLR4 and APP antibody responses. Pigs with specific haplotypes in SLA class II or TLR5 showed decreased antibody response to ER vaccination or increased responses to APP2 and APP5 vaccination, respectively. It might be possible to breed for responsiveness to vaccination and to implement new vaccine development strategies unaffected by genetic backgrounds of pigs.

  6. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Jennewein, Madeleine F; Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  .

  7. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W.; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D.; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H.; Alter, Galit

    2016-01-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.   PMID:26982805

  8. Identification of the binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for its receptor, leukocyte function-associated antigen 1.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, K L; Lu, J; Riddle, L; Kim, K J; Presta, L G; Bodary, S C

    1997-01-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, CD54) is a member of the Ig superfamily and is a counterreceptor for the beta 2 integrins: lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18), complement receptor 1 (MAC-1, CD11b/CD18), and p150,95 (CD11c/CD18). Binding of ICAM-1 to these receptors mediates leukocyte-adhesive functions in immune and inflammatory responses. In this report, we describe a cell-free assay using purified recombinant extracellular domains of LFA-1 and a dimeric immunoadhesin of ICAM-1. The binding of recombinant secreted LFA-1 to ICAM-1 is divalent cation dependent (Mg2+ and Mn2+ promote binding) and sensitive to inhibition by antibodies that block LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, indicating that its conformation mimics that of LFA-1 on activated lymphocytes. We describe six novel anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies, two of which are function blocking. Thirty-five point mutants of the ICAM-1 immunoadhesin were generated and residues important for binding of monoclonal antibodies and purified LFA-1 were identified. Nineteen of these mutants bind recombinant LFA-1 equivalently to wild type. Sixteen mutants show a 66-2500-fold decrease in LFA-1 binding yet, with few exceptions, retain binding to the monoclonal antibodies. These mutants, along with modeling studies, define the LFA-1 binding site on ICAM-1 as residues E34, K39, M64, Y66, N68, and Q73, that are predicted to lie on the CDFG beta-sheet of the Ig fold. The mutant G32A also abrogates binding to LFA-1 while retaining binding to all of the antibodies, possibly indicating a direct interaction of this residue with LFA-1. These data have allowed the generation of a highly refined model of the LFA-1 binding site of ICAM-1. Images PMID:9188101

  9. Clinical outcome of critically ill patients cannot be defined by cutoff values of monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, Helmut; Luschin, Ursula; Köhrer, Karin; Anzur, Christian; Vevera, Daniela; Spittler, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Septic shock is the most common cause of death in intensive care units. During the last two decades, new strategies have focused on the diagnosis and on the immunological changes in critically ill patients. There have been conflicting reports whether monocyte human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR expression poses a useful parameter to characterize clinical outcome of these patients. To elucidate the role of monocyte HLA-DR expression, we hypothesized that low expression of HLA-DR on circulating human monocytes in critically ill patients correlates with higher mortality and that cutoff values of HLA-DR discriminate surviving from nonsurviving patients. In this retrospective study, monocyte HLA-DR expression in 413 critically ill patients was investigated during their intensive care unit stay. Human leukocyte antigen DR was determined in a quantitative and standardized procedure by flow cytometry (anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies bound per cell [mABs/cell]) at least every third day or when clinical changes in the patients conditions were observed. Healthy probands served as control group to determine the range of "normal" values. As expected, HLA-DR expression was significantly higher in the group of survivors (n = 279) than in the group of nonsurvivors (n = 134; mABs/cell: 23,038 [SD, 11,150] vs. 18,070 [SD, 8,906]; P < 0.001). When minimal HLA-DR values per patient were compared, no cutoff values could be identified between the groups of survivors and nonsurvivors (mABs/cell: 19,611 [SD, 11,129] vs. 14,944 [SD, 8,013]; P < 0.001). In conclusion, in this sizable cohort we could again show that HLA-DR expression is decreased in critically ill patients but it is not suitable as a prognostic or predictive parameter for clinical outcome.

  10. Appropriate clinical use of human leukocyte antigen typing for coeliac disease: an Australasian perspective.

    PubMed

    Tye-Din, J A; Cameron, D J S; Daveson, A J; Day, A S; Dellsperger, P; Hogan, C; Newnham, E D; Shepherd, S J; Steele, R H; Wienholt, L; Varney, M D

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing emerge as a remarkably popular test for the diagnostic work-up of coeliac disease with high patient acceptance. Although limited in its positive predictive value for coeliac disease, the strong disease association with specific HLA genes imparts exceptional negative predictive value to HLA typing, enabling a negative result to exclude coeliac disease confidently. In response to mounting evidence that the clinical use and interpretation of HLA typing often deviates from best practice, this article outlines an evidence-based approach to guide clinically appropriate use of HLA typing, and establishes a reporting template for pathology providers to improve communication of results.

  11. Genome-wide genetic and transcriptomic investigation of variation in antibody response to dietary antigens

    PubMed Central

    Rubicz, Rohina; Yolken, Robert; Alaedini, Armin; Drigalenko, Eugene; Charlesworth, Jac C.; Carless, Melanie A.; Severance, Emily G.; Krivogorsky, Bogdana; Dyer, Thomas D.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Cole, Shelley A.; Almasy, Laura; Moses, Eric K.; Blangero, John; Göring, Harald H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to dietary antigens can be associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction and autoimmunity. The underlying processes contributing to these adverse reactions remain largely unknown, and it is likely that genetic factors play a role. Here we estimate heritability and attempt to localize genetic factors influencing IgG antibody levels against food-derived antigens using an integrative genomics approach. IgG antibody levels were determined by ELISA in >1300 Mexican Americans for the following food antigens: wheat gliadin; bovine casein; and two forms of bovine serum albumin (BSA-a and BSA-b). Pedigree-based variance components methods were used to estimate additive genetic heritability (h2), perform genome-wide association analyses, and identify transcriptional signatures (based on 19,858 transcripts from peripheral blood lymphocytes). Heritability estimates were significant for all traits (0.15-0.53), and shared environment (based on shared residency among study participants) was significant for casein (0.09) and BSA-a (0.33). Genome-wide significant evidence of association was obtained only for antibody to gliadin (p=8.57×10-8), mapping to the human leukocyte antigen II region, with HLA-DRA and BTNL2 as the best candidate genes. Lack of association of known celiac disease risk alleles HLA-DQ2.5 and -DQ8 with anti-gliadin antibodies in the studied population suggests a separate genetic etiology. Significant transcriptional signatures were found for all IgG levels except BSA-b. These results demonstrate that individual genetic differences contribute to food antigen antibody measures in this population. Further investigations may elucidate the underlying immunological processes involved. PMID:24962563

  12. Do FY antigens act as minor histocompatibility antigens in the graft-versus-host disease paradigm after human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed Hichem; Chaabane, Manel; Kaabi, Houda; Torjemane, Lamia; Ladeb, Saloua; Ben Othmane, Tarek; Hmida, Slama

    2012-03-01

    FY antigens are candidate minor histocompatibility antigens relevant to renal allograft rejection, but no data have been reported about their role in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence after human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of donor/recipient disparity at FY antigens on the incidence of GVHD in Tunisian patients receiving an HLA-identical HSCT. This work enrolled 105 Tunisian pairs of recipients and their HLA-identical sibling donors of HSCs. FY genotyping was performed with the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer method and donor/recipient disparity for these antigens was analyzed at two levels: incompatibility and nonidentity. The case-control analyses showed no significant correlation between FY disparity and the incidence of either acute or chronic GVHD. Sample size calculation showed that 572 cases and 1716 controls would be necessary to be able to detect a significant association with 80% power and two-sided type I error level of 5% (α=0.05). The lack of association in the studied cohort may be explained by the low immunogenicity of FY antigens in HSCT context, compared with other antigens such as HA-1 and CD31.

  13. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) might contaminate murine monoclonal antibodies after purification on protein G.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Jörg A; Fettke, Joerg; Lenz, Christine; Albers, Katharina; Mallwitz, Frank; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Kusch, Emely; Sellrie, Frank

    2012-03-31

    The large scale production of a monoclonal anti-progesterone antibody in serum free medium followed by affinity chromatography on protein G lead to a contamination of the antibody sample with a protein of about 14 kDa. This protein was identified by mass spectrometry as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). This SLPI contamination lead to a failure of the fiber-optic based competitive fluorescence assay to detect progesterone in milk. Purification of the monoclonal antibody using protein A columns circumvented this problem.

  14. Selective gene silencing in activated leukocytes by targeting siRNAs to the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Dan; Zhu, Pengcheng; Carman, Christopher V.; Lieberman, Judy; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2007-01-01

    Silencing gene expression by RNAi is a powerful method for exploring gene function and validating drug targets and potentially for therapy. Lymphocytes and other primary blood cells are resistant to lipid-based transfection in vitro and are difficult to target in vivo. We show here that antibody-protamine fusion proteins targeting the human integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) efficiently deliver siRNAs and specifically induce silencing in primary lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells. Moreover, a fusion protein constructed from an antibody that preferentially recognizes activation-dependent conformational changes in LFA-1 selectively targets activated leukocytes and can be used to suppress gene expression and cell proliferation only in activated lymphocytes. The siRNA-fusion protein complexes do not cause lymphocyte activation or induce IFN responses. K562 cells expressing latent WT or constitutively activated LFA-1 engrafted in the lungs of SCID mice are selectively targeted by intravenously injected fusion protein–siRNA complexes, demonstrating the potential in vivo applicability of LFA-1-directed siRNA delivery. PMID:17360483

  15. Association of human leukocyte antigen DRB1 with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Alrogy, Abdullah; Dirar, Abduallah; Alrogy, Waleed; Fakhoury, Hana; Hajeer, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The genetic association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles and the risk of development of autoantibodies has been investigated, but there are few studies from the Gulf region. To investigate the association between the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope and the risk for development of autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a Saudi population. Analytical cross-sectional study. Tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We enrolled consecutive Saudi RA patients attending the rheumatology clinic between January and April 2015. Previously published data on HLA typing on unmatched healthy controls were used for comparison. HLA typing was performed using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP). Rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were also measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the autoantibodies as possible explanatory variables for the presence of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope. The association between the presence of the shared epitope and the risk of developing anti-CCP antibodies, ANA, and RF. In 76 patients with RA, carrying the shared epitope was associated with a significantly higher risk of having RA [OR=2.65, 95% CI (1.42-4.94), P=.0009]. However, only HLA-DRB1*04:05 was significantly as.sociated with RA [OR=3.73, 95% CI (1.61-8.96), Pc=.016]. In the logistic regression analysis, only anti-CCP was significantly associated with the shared epitope [OR=14.51, 95% CI (1.53-137.49), P=.02]. Our analysis indicates that the presence of the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope is strongly associated with the development of anti-CCP antibodies in Saudi patients with RA. A larger sample size is needed to confirm our finding.

  16. Antibodies to selected minor target antigens in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA).

    PubMed

    Talor, M V; Stone, J H; Stebbing, J; Barin, J; Rose, N R; Burek, C L

    2007-10-01

    In patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, indirect immunofluorescence (IF) distinguishes between cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) and perinuclear (P-ANCA) neutrophil staining patterns. In patients with primary systemic vasculitis such as Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome, these IF staining patterns correspond broadly with antibodies to the two major antigens: the C-ANCA pattern is associated generally with antibodies to serine protease 3 (PR3) and the P-ANCA pattern with antibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO). However, some sera positive for ANCA by IF are negative for anti-PR3 and anti-MPO antibodies, suggesting the presence of antibodies to minor antigens of PMN granules. We tested sera from a previously well-defined clinical cohort of patients for antibodies to four possible minor antigens: bactericidal permeability increasing protein, elastase, cathepsin G and lactoferrin. IF-positive (+) sera had significantly higher antibody frequencies to the minor antigens than did the IF-negative (-) sera (P < 0.01). Patients with IF(+) PR3(-)MPO(-) sera showed the most varied reactivity to the minor antigens. Among the IF(+) groups, the IF(+) PR3(+)/MPO(-) sera showed the lowest reactivity to the minor antigens. Patients with well-defined ANCA specificities, e.g. the PR3-ANCA response associated with Wegener's granulomatosis, are less likely than are other patient subsets to have antibodies to minor antigen targets. Autoantibodies to these minor antigens contribute to the overall pattern of ANCA identified by IF and help to explain why the correlation between IF and enzyme immunoassays show discrepancies. While the pathophysiological significance of antibodies to minor target antigens needs further evaluation, they may be markers of inflammation associated with disease processes.

  17. Human cysticercosis: antigens, antibodies and non-responders.

    PubMed Central

    Flisser, A; Woodhouse, E; Larralde, C

    1980-01-01

    Immunoelectrophoresis of sera from patients with brain cysticercosis against a crude antigenic extract from Cysticercus cellulosae indicates that nearly 50% of the patients do not make sufficient antibodies to ostensively precipitate. The other 50% of the patients who do make precipitating antibodies show a very heterogeneous response in the number of antigens they recognize as well as in the type of antigen--as classified by their electrophoretic mobilities. The most favoured, called antigen B, is recognized by 84% of positive sera and corresponds to one or a limited number of antigens isoelectric at pH 8.6. Indirect immunofluorescence with monospecific anti-human immunoglobulins, performed upon the immunoelectrophoretic preparations, reveal that all cysticercus antigens induced the synthesis of antibodies in the immunoglobulin classes in the order G greater than M greater than E greater than A greater than D. Finally, antigen H (an anodic component) seems to favour IgE relative to its ability to induce IgG. Thus, although in natural infection a good proportion of cysticercotic patients do not seem to mount an energetic antibody response against the parasite, giving rise to some speculations about immunosuppression, the fact that 50% do synthesize antibodies allows for some optimistic expectations from vaccination of humans--in view of the good results of vaccination in experimental animals mediated by IgG antibodies. A likely prospect for a human vaccine would be antigen B because it is the most frequently detected by humans, although its immunizing and toxic properties remain to be properly studied. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 6 PMID:7389197

  18. Association between human leukocyte antigen-DR and demylinating Guillain-Barré syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Zaki N.; Zalzala, Haider H.; Mohammedsalih, Hyam R.; Mahdi, Batool M.; Abid, Laheeb A.; Shakir, Zena N.; Fadhel, Maithem J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find an association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5 alleles frequencies in a sample of Iraqi patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and compare with a healthy control group. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study consisting of 30 Iraqi Arab patients with GBS attending the Neurological Department in the Neuroscience Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq between September 2012 and June 2013. The control group comprised 42 apparently healthy volunteers. Human leukocyte antigen genotyping for HLA DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5 was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers method. The allele frequencies were compared across both groups. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class II HLA-DR genotyping and serotyping were performed by software analysis. Results: We found increased frequencies of HLA genotype DRB1*03:01 (p=0.0009), DRB1*07:01 (p=0.0015), and DRB4*01:01 (p<0.0001) in patients with GBS compared with healthy controls. The HLA DR6 was increased in the control group (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Our results suggest an association between HLA-DRB1*03:01, DRB1*07:01, DRB4*01:01, and HLA DR3, DR7 and a susceptibility to GBS. PMID:25274590

  19. Human leukocyte antigen class II susceptibility conferring alleles among non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Tipu, Hamid Nawaz; Ahmed, Tahir Aziz; Bashir, Mohammad Mukarram

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II susceptibility conferring alleles among type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients, in comparison with healthy controls. Cross-sectional comparative study. Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2009 to April 2010. Patients with non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus meeting World Health Organization criteria were studied. These were compared with age and gender matched healthy control subjects. For each subject (patients as well as controls), DNA was extracted from ethylene diamine tetra-acetate sample and HLA class II DRB1 typing was carried out at allele group level (DRB1*01-DRB1*16) by sequence specific primers. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 type was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and results were recorded. Frequencies were determined as number of an allele divided by total number of alleles per group; p-value was computed using Pearson's chi-square test. Among the 100 patients, there were 63 males and 37 females with 68 controls. A total of 13 different HLA DRB1 alleles were detected, with DRB1*15 being the commonest in both the groups. The allele DRB1*13 had statistically significant higher frequency in patient group as compared to controls (p = 0.005). HLA DRB1*13 was found with a significantly increased frequency in non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus.

  20. A study on human leukocyte antigen class I molecules in paediatric bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mahendra N; Dudeja, Puja; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2014-04-01

    Childhood asthma, often associated with atopy, is more common in boys and may persist throughout life in 50% of cases. This case-control study was carried out to examine if any association of paediatric bronchial asthma with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigens. Thirty-six children with bronchial asthma diagnosed on basis of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria and an equal number of healthy controls without history of bronchial asthma were studied. Low resolution HLA- ABC typing was performed by sequence specific primers (SSP) and the frequency of HLA-ABC antigens in the two groups was compared. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) estimation was done as a marker of atopy by ELISA. The study included 24 boys and 12 girls aged 13 months to 11 yrs, of which 16 (44%) had positive family history. Serum IgE levels were elevated in 20 (55%) of the cases and 33% of controls with peak values of 4877 and 627 IU/ml, respectively. No statistically significant correlation was observed between childhood asthma and HLA class I antigens, however, a statistically significant correlation was observed between serum IgE levels and asthma, which was elevated in cases, as compared to normal population. Serum IgE levels did not show a linear trend, in that a direct correlation with the severity of disease was not observed.

  1. CDR2 antigen and Yo antibodies.

    PubMed

    Totland, Cecilie; Aarskog, Nina K; Eichler, Tilo W; Haugen, Mette; Nøstbakken, Jane K; Monstad, Sissel E; Salvesen, Helga B; Mørk, Sverre; Haukanes, Bjørn I; Vedeler, Christian A

    2011-02-01

    Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is often associated with Yo antibodies that are directed against human cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2 (CDR2). Such antibodies may also be found in ovarian cancer patients without PCD. We studied if there was an association between Yo antibody production and differences in CDR2 cDNA sequence, mRNA or CDR2 expression in ovarian cancers. We found similar CDR2 cDNA sequence, mRNA and protein levels in primary ovarian cancers, with or without associated Yo antibodies. CDR2 was also present in other cancers, as well as in normal ovary tissue. The results suggest that Yo antibodies are not only related to the expression of CDR2 alone, but also to immune dysregulation.

  2. A unique secreted adenovirus E3 protein binds to the leukocyte common antigen CD45 and modulates leukocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Windheim, Mark; Southcombe, Jennifer H; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Chaplin, Lucy; Urlaub, Doris; Falk, Christine S; Claus, Maren; Mihm, Janine; Braithwaite, Myles; Dennehy, Kevin; Renz, Harald; Sester, Martina; Watzl, Carsten; Burgert, Hans-Gerhard

    2013-12-10

    The E3 transcription unit of human adenoviruses (Ads) encodes immunomodulatory proteins. Interestingly, the size and composition of the E3 region differs considerably among Ad species, suggesting that distinct sets of immunomodulatory E3 proteins may influence their interaction with the human host and the disease pattern. However, to date, only common immune evasion functions of species C E3 proteins have been described. Here we report on the immunomodulatory activity of a species D-specific E3 protein, E3/49K. Unlike all other E3 proteins that act on infected cells, E3/49K seems to target uninfected cells. Initially synthesized as an 80- to 100-kDa type I transmembrane protein, E3/49K is subsequently cleaved, with the large ectodomain (sec49K) secreted. We found that purified sec49K exhibits specific binding to lymphoid cell lines and all primary leukocytes, but not to fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Consistent with this binding profile and the molecular mass, the sec49K receptor was identified as the cell surface protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45. Antibody-blocking studies suggested that sec49K binds to the membrane proximal domains present in all CD45 isoforms. Functional studies showed that sec49K can suppress the activation and cytotoxicity of natural killer cells as well as the activation, signaling, and cytokine production of T cells. Thus, we have discovered an adenovirus protein that is actively secreted and describe immunomodulatory activities of an E3 protein uniquely expressed by a single Ad species.

  3. THE INDIVIDUAL ANTIGENIC SPECIFICITY OF ANTIBODIES TO STREPTOCOCCAL CARBOHYDRATES

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Dietmar G.; Krause, Richard M.

    1968-01-01

    Although a single electrophoretically uniform antibody component with specificity for the group carbohydrate may comprise the bulk of the γ-globulin in rabbits immunized with streptococcal vaccines, this is not always the case. Not infrequently, electrophoresis may reveal multiple antibody components. Nevertheless, it has been feasible by various preparative procedures to isolate from a single antiserum at least two antibody components with similar reactivity for the carbohydrate both of which are electrophoretically monodisperse. Light chains from such antibodies reveal a restricted pattern when examined by disc electrophoresis. Antibodies to streptococcal carbohydrates have been examined for their individual antigenic specificity. Goats were immunized with isolated Group C and Group A-variant antibodies raised in rabbits. Individual antigenic specificity of these antibodies was brought out by absorption of the goat anti-antiserum with Fr II of pooled normal rabbit sera. Additional absorption of the goat anti-antisera with Fr II diminished but did not eliminate the reactivity for the homologous antibody. Immunoelectrophoretic studies with papain fragments of purified streptococcal antibodies localized the specificity to the Fab fragment. Specificity was not confined to the isolated light chains of the antibody. PMID:4176226

  4. Solid-phase assays for the detection of alloantibody against human leukocyte antigens: panacea or Pandora?

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Tumer, G; Gebel, H M; Bray, R A

    2014-10-01

    Serological assessments of antibodies directed against human leucocyte antigens (HLA) formed the basis of early histocompatibility testing (Patel & Terasaki, 1969 N Engl J Med, 280, 735). However, over the past decade, significant advances in HLA antibody detection technologies have emerged. The development and implementation of solid-phase assays has led to safer and more efficient allocation of organs by effectively distinguishing HLA from non-HLA antibodies. Although solid-phase assays are not standardized, they are widely accepted as the new 'gold standard'. However, this technology is not without its challenges. This review is intended to provide a better understanding of solid-phase HLA antibody testing and will focus on important caveats associated with this evolving technology. Examples of the limitations of the technology as well as common data misinterpretations will be shown. Both of which could pose potential harm to transplant recipients (Tait et al., Transplantation, 95, 19). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Biochemical Characterization of Plasma Class I Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Strachan T: Molecular Genetics and Polymorphism of Class I HLA Antigens. Br Med Bull 43:1-14, 1987 52. Duquesnoy FJ, Trucco M: Genetic Basis of Cell...Antibodies to Group A Erythrocytes, HLA and Other Human Cell Surface Antigens-New Tools for Genetic Analysis. Cell 14:9-30, 1978 31. Brodsky FM...Bouhallier 0, Merdrignac G, Genetet B, Turmel P, Charron DJ: New Class I in Man: Serological and Molecular Characterization. Human Immuno. 17:3-20, 1986 58

  6. Identification of mutant monoclonal antibodies with increased antigen binding.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R R; French, D L; Gefter, M L; Scharff, M D

    1988-04-01

    Sib selection and an ELISA have been used to isolate hybridoma subclones producing mutant antibodies that bind antigen better than the parental monoclonal antibody. Such mutants arise spontaneously in culture at frequencies of 2.5-5 X 10(-5). The sequences of the heavy and light chain variable regions of the mutant antibodies are identical to that of the parent and the Ka values of the mutants and the parent are the same. The increase in binding is associated with abnormalities of the constant region polypeptide and probably reflect changes in avidity of these antibodies.

  7. Antigen-binding site anatomy and somatic mutations in antibodies that recognize different types of antigens.

    PubMed

    Raghunathan, Gopalan; Smart, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Almagro, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-01

    The number of antibody structures co-crystallized with their respective antigens has increased rapidly in the last few years, thus offering a formidable source of information to gain insight into the structure-function relationships of this family of proteins. We have analyzed here 140 unique middle-resolution to high-resolution (<3 Å) antibody structures, including 55 in complex with proteins, 39 with peptides, and 46 with haptens. We determined (i) length variations of the hypervariable loops, (ii) number of contacts with antigen, (iii) solvent accessible area buried upon binding, (iv) location and frequency of antigen contacting residues, (v) type of residues interacting with antigens, and (vi) putative somatic mutations. Except for somatic mutations, distinctive profiles were identified for all the variables analyzed. Compared with contacts, somatic mutations occurred with less abundance at any given position and extended beyond the regions in contact, with no clear difference among antibodies that recognize different types of antigens. This observation is consistent with the fact that although antigen recognition accomplished by shape and physicochemical complementarity is selective in nature, the somatic mutation process is stochastic and selection for mutations leading to improved affinity is not directly related to contact residues. Thus, the knowledge emerging from this study enhances our understanding of the structure-function relationship in antibodies while providing valuable guidance to design libraries for antibody discovery and optimization. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 21 CFR 660.1 - Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.1... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.1 Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. The product...

  9. 21 CFR 660.1 - Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.1... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.1 Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. The product...

  10. 21 CFR 660.1 - Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.1... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.1 Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. The product...

  11. 21 CFR 660.1 - Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.1... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.1 Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. The product...

  12. 21 CFR 660.1 - Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.1... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.1 Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. The product is...

  13. Human antibody and antigen response to IncA antibody of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, P Y; Hsu, M C; Huang, C T; Li, S Y

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of C. trachomatis worldwide has underscored the importance of identifying specific immunogenic antigens in facilitating diagnosis as well as vaccine development. The aim of this study is to evaluate IncA antibody and antigen production in natural human infections. Our temporal expression study showed that IncA transcription and protein expression could be detected as early as 4 hours after the start of infection. Antibody responses could be detected in urine and genital swab samples from C. trachomatis-positive patients. It is especially interesting to note that the IncA antigen could be detected in urine. In conclusion, we have identified IncA as an important antigen in human. The potential applicability of the IncA antibody or antigen in the diagnosis as well as to vaccine development for C. trachomatis is also discussed.

  14. Antibody specificity and antigen characterization of rat monoclonal antibodies against Streptococcus mutans cell wall-associated protein antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermans, F; Klein, J P; Cormont, F; Bazin, H; Ogier, J A; Frank, R M; Vreven, J

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to Streptococcus mutans OMZ175 (serotype f) cell wall-associated antigens (wall-extracted antigens [WEA]) were derived from the fusion of Lou C plasmocytoma rat cells (IR 983 F) and spleen cells from Wistar R inbred rats immunized with WEA. Four cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies directed against a component of S. mutans WEA have been established. All four monoclonal antibodies reacted only with two antigens of WEA from S. mutans OMZ175 by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation techniques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and competitive ELISA. Western blot analysis of WEA showed that the four monoclonal antibodies recognized two related cell wall-associated proteins with apparent molecular weights of 125,000 and 76,000. Immunoprecipitation of whole cells with the monoclonal antibodies confirmed the surface localization of the two antigens. The ELISA and competitive ELISA were used to analyze the distribution of the epitopes on seven S. mutans serotypes. All S. mutans serotypes were found to express the recognized epitopes; however, different reactivity patterns could be distinguished among the various strains tested, and the four monoclonal antibodies reacted only weakly with S. mutans serotypes d and g. Images PMID:2410364

  15. Human leukocyte antigens in indigenous (mapuche) people in a regional renal transplantation program in chile.

    PubMed

    Droguett, M A; Oyarzún, M J; Alruiz, P; Jerez, V; Mezzano, S; Ardiles, L

    2005-10-01

    An active regional transplantation program established in the southern region of Chile has allowed the incorporation of ethnic minorities particularly Mapuche living in this geographic area in the development of a histocompatibility database. To identify possible differences in the human leukocyte (HLA) antigen distribution in Chilean Mapuche compared with non-Mapuche, we reviewed 442 HLA tissue-typing studies. Seventy-eight of 309 recipients (25%) and 18 of 133 donors (13%) were Mapuche. Among recipients, Mapuche people showed a significantly higher frequency of the HLA antigens, A28, B16, DR4, and DR8, and a lower one for A19, B15, and DR1 (P < .05) compared with non-Mapuche individuals. A particularly higher frequency of the haplotype A28, -B16, -DR4 was also evidenced in Mapuche. Besides, these recipients showed a higher frequency of the allele -DR4 when compared with Mapuche donors. A greater frequency of some histocompatibility antigens in patients with chronic renal disease might be attributed to allelic concentration due to a high index of endogamy, but a possible association with the development of progressive renal disease cannot be ignored, especially when a higher prevalence of DR4 was observed among Mapuche recipients.

  16. Increased plasma soluble human leukocyte antigen-G in persistent wheezy infants.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Fulya; Eke Gungor, Hatice; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Saraymen, Berkay

    2017-05-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I antigen characterized by limited polymorphism in its coding region, unique tissue expression pattern in physiologic conditions and immunomodulatory properties. Recently, the level of soluble (s)HLA-G was found to be higher in atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis, but this remains to be clarified in wheezy infants. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate sHLA-G in wheezy infants. The subjects consisted of infants with persistent wheezing and positive modified asthma predictive index (mAPI; n = 30; persistent group) and those with transient wheezing and negative mAPI (n = 17; transient group). sHLA-G was measured in plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophil count were measured, and skin testing was performed with a battery of 13 antigens with appropriate positive and negative controls. sHLA-G was significantly higher in the persistent wheezing (positive mAPI) group compared with the transient wheezing (negative mAPI) group (P = 0.008). There was no significant difference in peripheral blood eosinophil count and total IgE between the groups. The increased sHLA-G in infants with persistent wheeze suggests that sHLA-G may be able to be used to distinguish persistent from transient wheeze. Further comprehensive studies are needed on this topic. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Novel human recombinant antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85B.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Manon; Kämpfer, Susanne; Helmsing, Saskia; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Prilop, Wiebke; Frank, Ronald; Dübel, Stefan; Singh, Mahavir; Hust, Michael

    2014-07-17

    Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to bacterial infections worldwide, mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antigen 85 complex comprises a set of major secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, which are potential biomarkers for diagnostic. In this work, the first human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies specific for the tuberculosis biomarker 85 B were selected by phage display from naïve antibody gene libraries (HAL7/8). Produced as scFv-Fc in mammalian cells, these antibodies were further characterized and analysed for specificity and applicability in different tuberculosis antigen detection assays. Sandwich detection of recombinant 85 B was successful in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay and immunoblot. Whereas detection of M. tuberculosis cell extracts and culture filtrates was only possible in direct ELISA and immunoblot assays. It was found that the conformation of 85 B, depending on sample treatment, influenced antigen detection. Recombinant antibodies, selected by phage display, may be applicable for 85 B detection in various assays. These antibodies are candidates for the development of future point of care tuberculosis diagnostic kits. Using 85 B as a biomarker, the antigen conformation influenced by sample treatment is important.

  18. Novel human recombinant antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen 85B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death due to bacterial infections worldwide, mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The antigen 85 complex comprises a set of major secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis, which are potential biomarkers for diagnostic. Results In this work, the first human single chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies specific for the tuberculosis biomarker 85 B were selected by phage display from naïve antibody gene libraries (HAL7/8). Produced as scFv-Fc in mammalian cells, these antibodies were further characterized and analysed for specificity and applicability in different tuberculosis antigen detection assays. Sandwich detection of recombinant 85 B was successful in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), lateral flow immunoassay and immunoblot. Whereas detection of M. tuberculosis cell extracts and culture filtrates was only possible in direct ELISA and immunoblot assays. It was found that the conformation of 85 B, depending on sample treatment, influenced antigen detection. Conclusions Recombinant antibodies, selected by phage display, may be applicable for 85 B detection in various assays. These antibodies are candidates for the development of future point of care tuberculosis diagnostic kits. Using 85 B as a biomarker, the antigen conformation influenced by sample treatment is important. PMID:25033887

  19. Profiling human serum antibodies with a carbohydrate antigen microarray

    PubMed Central

    Oyelaran, Oyindasola; McShane, Lisa M.; Dodd, Lori; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen arrays (glycan arrays) have been recently developed for the high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate macromolecule interactions. When profiling serum, information about experimental variability, inter-individual biological variability, and intra-individual temporal variability is critical. In this report, we describe the characterization of a carbohydrate antigen array and assay for profiling human serum. Through optimization of assay conditions and development of a normalization strategy, we obtain highly reproducible results with a within-experiment coefficient of variation (CV) of 10.8% and an overall CV (across multiple batches of slides and days) of 28.5%. We also report antibody profiles for 48 human subjects and evaluate for the first time the effects of age, race, sex, geographic location, and blood type on antibody profiles for a large set of carbohydrate antigens. We found significant dependence on age and blood type of antibody levels for a variety of carbohydrates. Finally, we conducted a longitudinal study with a separate group of 7 serum donors to evaluate the variation in anti-carbohydrate antibody levels within an individual over a period ranging from 3 to 13 weeks and found that, for nearly all antigens on our array, antibody levels are generally stable over this period. The results presented here provide the most comprehensive evaluation of experimental and biological variation reported to date for a glycan array and have significant implications for studies involving human serum profiling. PMID:19624168

  20. Human Leukocyte Antigen F Presents Peptides and Regulates Immunity through Interactions with NK Cell Receptors.

    PubMed

    Dulberger, Charles L; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Hölzemer, Angelique; Neu, Karlynn E; Liu, Victor; Steinbach, Adriana M; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo F; Sulak, Michael; Jabri, Bana; Lynch, Vincent J; Altfeld, Marcus; Hildebrand, William H; Adams, Erin J

    2017-06-20

    Evidence is mounting that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule HLA-F (human leukocyte antigen F) regulates the immune system in pregnancy, infection, and autoimmunity by signaling through NK cell receptors (NKRs). We present structural, biochemical, and evolutionary analyses demonstrating that HLA-F presents peptides of unconventional length dictated by a newly arisen mutation (R62W) that has produced an open-ended groove accommodating particularly long peptides. Compared to empty HLA-F open conformers (OCs), HLA-F tetramers bound with human-derived peptides differentially stained leukocytes, suggesting peptide-dependent engagement. Our in vitro studies confirm that NKRs differentiate between peptide-bound and peptide-free HLA-F. The complex structure of peptide-loaded β2m-HLA-F bound to the inhibitory LIR1 revealed similarities to high-affinity recognition of the viral MHC-I mimic UL18 and a docking strategy that relies on contacts with HLA-F as well as β2m, thus precluding binding to HLA-F OCs. These findings provide a biochemical framework to understand how HLA-F could regulate immunity via interactions with NKRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Appropriate clinical use of human leukocyte antigen typing for coeliac disease: an Australasian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tye-Din, J A; Cameron, D J S; Daveson, A J; Day, A S; Dellsperger, P; Hogan, C; Newnham, E D; Shepherd, S J; Steele, R H; Wienholt, L; Varney, M D

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing emerge as a remarkably popular test for the diagnostic work-up of coeliac disease with high patient acceptance. Although limited in its positive predictive value for coeliac disease, the strong disease association with specific HLA genes imparts exceptional negative predictive value to HLA typing, enabling a negative result to exclude coeliac disease confidently. In response to mounting evidence that the clinical use and interpretation of HLA typing often deviates from best practice, this article outlines an evidence-based approach to guide clinically appropriate use of HLA typing, and establishes a reporting template for pathology providers to improve communication of results. PMID:25827511

  2. Thirteen novel canine dog leukocyte antigen-88 alleles identified by sequence-based typing.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, G M; Kennedy, L J; Little, M-T E; Graves, S S; Harkey, M A; Torok-Storb, B J; Storb, R

    2017-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in mammals include highly polymorphic class I and class II genes that are critical for donor-recipient matching for transplantation. Dogs have served as an effective, directly translatable model for stem/progenitor cell transplantation. Previous analyses of MHC class I genes in dogs point to a single highly polymorphic gene, dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-88, as an important factor in the success or failure of hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Fifty-nine DLA-88 alleles have been identified and reported so far. Here, we extend this list by presenting 13 novel DLA-88 alleles found in domestic dogs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Identification of two antigenic determinants in pseudomurein by monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.J.L.; Kandler, O.; Wolin, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pseudomurein is a unique peptidoglycan found only in the wall of methanogenic bacteria (MB) of the family Methanobacteriaceae. Although its chemical composition has recently been determined, its immunologic properties have not been elucidated. Methanobacteriaceae elicit antibodies in rabbits and mice. The authors have produced monoclonal antibodies against the bacteria. Antigenic determinants on the MB's surface were resolved with the monoclonal antibodies by means of inhibition-blocking procedures combined with immunoenzymatic assays devised for the structural analysis of bacterial antigens. One monoclonal antibody against Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus DHl recognized a determinant involving the ..gamma..-Glu-Ala end of the pseudomurein peptide. A second antibody did not react with the above determinant but with another involving N-acetylglucosamine. The latter antibody reacted with the immunizing MB, i.e. Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ..delta..H and with another strain of this species, GGl, but it did not react with the rest of the pseudomurein-containing bacteria. The data show that pseudomurein possess at least two different determinants, one in the C-terminus of the peptide moiety and the other in the backbone structure and indicate that the spatial arrangement of the peptidoglycan components is distinctive for the species examined and plays a role in antigenicity.

  4. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II alleles in Turkish patients with rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gündogdu, Fuat; Islamoglu, Yahya; Pirim, Ibrahim; Gurlertop, Yekta; Dogan, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Sevimli, Serdar; Aksakal, Enbiya; Senocak, Huseyin

    2007-05-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is often preceded by rheumatic fever (RF). The disease is a multisystem inflammatory condition that develops as a sequel to untreated throat infection by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Several studies have suggested that genetic susceptibility to RHD may be linked to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles. The study aim was to investigate the association between RHD and the antigens HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR and -DQ profile in RHD patients in eastern Turkey. A case-control study was conducted which included 85 unrelated patients with RHD, and 85 control subjects. The diagnosis was supported by echocardiography and histories of RHD of those patients who underwent valve replacement. The association of class I and class II HLA antigens was examined in RHD and control subjects using a sequence-specific primer (SSP) method. The phenotypes HLA-B51, -Cw*4 and -DRB1*01 were encountered in significantly lower frequencies in patients with RHD compared to the control population (p <0.05, p <0.05, p <0.05, respectively). There was also a significant increase in antigen frequency of HLA-DQB1*08 in RHD patients compared to controls (p <0.005). Among the studied population, the results suggested that susceptibility to RHD was HLA-related, with HLA-DQB1*08 most likely influencing the occurrence of the condition. HLA-B51, -Cw*4 and -DRB1*01 appeared to be more common in control subjects.

  5. Restricted diversity of antigen binding residues of antibodies revealed by computational alanine scanning of 227 antibody-antigen complexes.

    PubMed

    Robin, Gautier; Sato, Yoshiteru; Desplancq, Dominique; Rochel, Natacha; Weiss, Etienne; Martineau, Pierre

    2014-11-11

    Antibody molecules are able to recognize any antigen with high affinity and specificity. To get insight into the molecular diversity at the source of this functional diversity, we compiled and analyzed a non-redundant aligned collection of 227 structures of antibody-antigen complexes. Free energy of binding of all the residue side chains was quantified by computational alanine scanning, allowing the first large-scale quantitative description of antibody paratopes. This demonstrated that as few as 8 residues among 30 key positions are sufficient to explain 80% of the binding free energy in most complexes. At these positions, the residue distribution is not only different from that of other surface residues but also dependent on the role played by the side chain in the interaction, residues participating in the binding energy being mainly aromatic residues, and Gly or Ser otherwise. To question the generality of these binding characteristics, we isolated an antibody fragment by phage display using a biased synthetic repertoire with only two diversified complementarity-determining regions and solved its structure in complex with its antigen. Despite this restricted diversity, the structure demonstrated that all complementarity-determining regions were involved in the interaction with the antigen and that the rules derived from the natural antibody repertoire apply to this synthetic binder, thus demonstrating the robustness and universality of our results.

  6. Thermodynamics of antibody-antigen interaction revealed by mutation analysis of antibody variable regions.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-07-01

    Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Human leukocyte antigen allele linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure in volunteer bone marrow donors of Paraná State.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Paulo Rincoski; Zeck, Suelen Camargo; da Silva, Waldir Antonio; Bicalho, Maria da Graça

    Bone marrow transplantation has been used in the treatment of various diseases, especially hematologic diseases. The success of this treatment, among other factors, requires human leukocyte antigens (HLA) compatibility between patient and donor. Knowing the human leukocyte antigens allele group and haplotype frequencies as well as the linkage disequilibrium between alleles of different human leukocyte antigens loci can shorten the search time for a compatible bone marrow donor. To assemble and analyze data on human leukocyte antigens frequencies available in the Laboratory of Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility (LIGH) database of the Universidade Federal do Paraná adding an estimation of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium. The sample was composed of seven populations grouped by self-declared ancestry or inferred from the surname as follows: Laboratory of Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility database (all groups), descendants of Italians, Poles, and Asians, Afro-Brazilians, Mulattos (mixed ancestry) and Amerindians. Human leukocyte antigens genotyping was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) and -sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) technologies. There were high frequencies of the HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35 and HLA-DRB1*13 allelic groups in all groups. The same was observed for the HLA-A*01-B*08-DRB1*03 haplotype except for Asian descendants. It was observed that the human leukocyte antigens Laboratory of Immunogenetics and Histocompatibility database and the Asian group are not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The Italian, Polish, Asian, Mulatto and Amerindian descendants showed haplotypes in complete linkage disequilibrium. Our results were compared with data on the human leukocyte antigens in the Paraná population available from the Brazilian Voluntary Bone Marrow Donor Registry (REDOME) and data published on the population of Curitiba and the northern region of Paraná. Haplotypes frequent

  8. Cytokine-mediated induction of endothelial adhesion molecule and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen expression by cytomegalovirus-activated T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, W. J.; Knight, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been associated with allograft rejection and transplantation-associated arteriosclerosis. CMV infects endothelium, the interface between allograft tissue and the host immune system; however, mechanisms by which such interaction might exacerbate the rejection process remain unresolved. Here we test the hypothesis that host immune activity, triggered by CMV-infected graft endothelial cells (ECs), can result in the production of cytokines capable of enhancing the alloimmunogenicity of nearby uninfected endothelia. To model these phenomena in vitro, confluent monolayers of ECs derived from human umbilical vein or adult gonadal vein were incubated 5 days beneath trans-well culture inserts containing CMV-seropositive or CMV-seronegative donor-derived CD3+ or CD4+ T cells alone or in combination with CMV-infected or uninfected allogeneic ECs. The extent of T cell proliferation was determined by [3H]thymidine labeling of trans-well contents after transfer to microtiter plates. Endothelial responses to soluble factors elaborated by CMV-activated T cells were determined by immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence flow cytometric analysis of underlying EC monolayers. Results of experiments with CMV-seropositive donor-derived CD4+ T cells demonstrated enhancement of ICAM-1 and histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I, as well as induction of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen DR on ECs incubated beneath T cell/EC/CMV trans-well co-cultures. Total (CD3+) T cells co-cultured with EC/CMV induced VCAM-1 as well. Furthermore, [3H]thymidine incorporation by these T cells indicated a strong proliferative response. Endothelial responses to T cells alone or in combination with uninfected ECs were minimal, and T cells cultured under these conditions showed little proliferative activity. Similarly, little or no endothelial responses were apparent in monolayers beneath trans-wells containing T cells isolated from CMV-seronegative individuals

  9. Transformation-Related Antigens Identified by Monoclonal Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Mette

    1980-06-01

    Tumor-cell proteins that were antigenic in a syngeneic animal were identified by immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies. Spleen cells of BALB/c mice immunized with plasma membranes of Kirsten RNA sarcoma virus-transformed BALB/3T3 cells were fused with NS-l myeloma cells. Antibodies secreted into the culture fluid from these hybridomas were distinguished by their reactivity against proteins of different target cells. A total of 191 cultures were established; 143 produced antibodies that bound to BALB/3T3 cells transformed by the RNA sarcoma virus, of which antibodies from 82 bound to BALB/3T3 transformed with simian virus 40, and antibodies from 56 bound to BALB/3T3 cells. Thus, more than 50% of the cultures produced antibodies that possibly were specific to antigens of the transformed cell. Twenty different hybridomas have been cloned, and antibodies from eight of these were found to immunoprecipitate five different proteins. A protein of approximately 32,000 daltons was precipitated from BALB/3T3 cells transformed by the RNA sarcoma virus, simian virus 40, or methylcholanthrene but not from untransformed BALB/3T3 cells. A protein of about 300,000 daltons was precipitated from all four cell lines; precipitation was enhanced in the viral transformed cells. Proteins of approximately 57,000, 54,000, and 8500 daltons were immunoprecipitated from all four cell lines.

  10. Sperm-immobilizing monoclonal antibody to human seminal plasma antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Shigeta, M; Watanabe, T; Maruyama, S; Koyama, K; Isojima, S

    1980-01-01

    Rat spleen cells immunized to human azoospermic semen (a mixture of seminal plasma components) and mouse myeloma cells (P3/X63 Ag8U1; P3U1) (Marguilies et al., 1976) were successfully fused with polyethylene glycol (PEG 1500) and 19 of 89 fused cell cultures were found to produce sperm-immobilizing antibody. The cells that produced antibody indicating the highest sperm-immobilizing activity were distributed into wells for further recloning and 10 clones producing sperm-immobilizing antibody were established. The clone (1C4) producing the highest antibody titre was found to produce a large amount of IgG in culture supernatants and to contain a mixture of rat and mouse chromosomes. It was proved by immunodiffusion test that the monoclonal antibody was produced to the human seminal plasma antigen No. 7 which is common to human milk protein. Using this hybridoma which produced a large amount of monoclonal sperm-immobilizing antibody, a new method could be developed for purifying human seminal plasma antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography with bound antibody from the hybridoma. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6783353

  11. Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.; Weiblen, B.J.; Clay, M.E.; Forstrom, L.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of different leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of granulocytes is not known. Thus, the optimum in vitro serologic tests to determine a safe and effective granulocyte transfusion or to diagnose immune destruction of granulocytes in other clinical situations have not been identified. We have studied the effect of granulocyte agglutinating (GA), granulocytotoxic (GC), and lymphocytotoxic (LC) antibodies on the intravascular recovery and half-life (t 1/2) and the extravascular localization of Indium-111-granulocytes in 50 patients. GA antibodies caused reduced granulocyte recovery and t 1/2 in three of three non-neutropenic patients (one with anti-NB1), increased sequestration of cells in the liver, and failure of granulocytes to localize at sites of infection in two of two patients (one with anti-NA1). In contrast, GC antibodies in five patients and LC antibodies in one patient did not cause reduced intravascular recovery or t 1/2 of granulocytes. In nine patients with GC and six patients with LC antibodies, incompatible granulocytes localized at known sites of infection. It appears that GA, but not GC nor LC, antibodies alter the fate in vivo of granulocytes.

  12. HIV-1 and influenza antibodies: seeing antigens in new ways

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Peter D; Wilson, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    New modes of humoral recognition have been identified by studies of antibodies that neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and influenza A viruses. Understanding how such modes of antibody-antigen recognition can occur in the context of sophisticated mechanisms of humoral evasion has implications for the development of effective vaccines. Here we describe eight modes of antibody recognition first observed with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Similarities to four of these modes have been identified with antibodies to a conserved ‘stem’ epitope on influenza A viruses. We outline how each of these different modes of antibody recognition is particularly suited to overcoming a specific viral evasion tactic and assess potential routes of re-elicitation in vaccine settings. PMID:19448659

  13. Complement-fixing antibodies against denatured HLA and MICA antigens are associated with antibody mediated rejection.

    PubMed

    Cai, Junchao; Terasaki, Paul I; Zhu, Dong; Lachmann, Nils; Schönemann, Constanze; Everly, Matthew J; Qing, Xin

    2016-02-01

    We have found antibodies against denatured HLA class I antigens in the serum of allograft recipients which were not significantly associated with graft failure. It is unknown whether transplant recipients also have denatured HLA class II and MICA antibodies. The effects of denatured HLA class I, class II, and MICA antibodies on long-term graft outcome were further investigated based on their ability to fix complement c1q. In this 4-year retrospective cohort study, post-transplant sera from 975 kidney transplant recipients were tested for antibodies against denatured HLA/MICA antigens and these antibodies were further classified based on their ability to fix c1q. Thirty percent of patients had antibodies against denatured HLA class I, II, or MICA antigens. Among them, 8.5% and 21.5% of all patients had c1q-fixing and non c1q-fixing antibodies respectively. There was no significant difference on graft survival between patients with or without antibodies against denatured HLA/MICA. However, when these antibodies were further classified according to their ability to fix c1q, patients with c1q-fixing antibodies had a significantly lower graft survival rate than patients without antibodies or patients with non c1q-fixing antibodies (p=0.008). In 169 patients who lost renal grafts, 44% of them had c1q-fixing antibodies against denatured HLA/MICA antigens, which was significantly higher than that in patients with functioning renal transplants (25%, p<0.0001). C1q-fixing antibodies were more significantly associated with graft failure caused by AMR (72.73%) or mixed AMR/CMR (61.9%) as compared to failure due to CMR (35.3%) or other causes (39.2%) (p=0.026). Transplant recipients had antibodies against denatured HLA class I, II, and MICA antigens. However, only c1q-fixing antibodies were associated with graft failure which was related to antibody mediated rejection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Allele-Independent Turnover of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class Ia Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Prevosto, Claudia; Usmani, M. Farooq; McDonald, Sarah; Gumienny, Aleksandra M.; Key, Tim; Goodman, Reyna S.; Gaston, J. S. Hill; Deery, Michael J.; Busch, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) glycoproteins present cytosolic peptides to CD8+ T cells and regulate NK cell activity. Their heavy chains (HC) are expressed from up to three MHC gene loci (human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-A, -B, and -C in humans), whose extensive polymorphism maps predominantly to the antigen-binding groove, diversifying the bound peptide repertoire. Codominant expression of MHCI alleles is thus functionally critical, but how it is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we have examined the effect of polymorphism on the turnover rates of MHCI molecules in cell lines with functional MHCI peptide loading pathways and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). Proteins were labeled biosynthetically with heavy water (2H2O), folded MHCI molecules immunoprecipitated, and tryptic digests analysed by mass spectrometry. MHCI-derived peptides were assigned to specific alleles and isotypes, and turnover rates quantified by 2H incorporation, after correcting for cell growth. MHCI turnover half-lives ranged from undetectable to a few hours, depending on cell type, activation state, donor, and MHCI isotype. However, in all settings, the turnover half-lives of alleles of the same isotype were similar. Thus, MHCI protein turnover rates appear to be allele-independent in normal human cells. We propose that this is an important feature enabling the normal function and codominant expression of MHCI alleles. PMID:27529174

  15. [Analysis of antigens recognized by anti-gamma-seminoprotein antibody and anti-prostate-specific antigen antibody by means of Ouchterlony method and western blotting method].

    PubMed

    Deguchi, T; Matsui, H; Ehara, H; Kobayashi, K; Saito, I; Shinoda, I; Takahashi, Y; Kuriyama, M; Ban, Y; Kawada, Y

    1989-03-01

    Antigens recognized by anti-gamma-seminoprotein (gamma-Sm) antibody and anti-prostate-specific antigen (PA) antibody were analyzed immunologically by Ouchterlony method and Western blotting method. The double immunodiffusion test demonstrated that anti-gamma-Sm antibody and anti-PA antibody reacted against an identical antigen in seminal fluid or prostate homogenate. In the immunoblotting examination, anti-gamma-Sm antibody and anti-PA antibody formed a single and identical band, which gave a molecular weight of 33,000, in seminal fluid and prostate homogenate. This study demonstrated that anti-gamma-Sm antibody and anti-PA antibody recognized a single and identical antigen in seminal fluid and prostate homogenate and suggested that an identical material could be measured in sera of patients with prostate cancer by immunoassay systems using anti-gamma-Sm antibody and anti-PA antibody.

  16. Mycobacterium leprae antigens involved in human immune responses. I. Identification of four antigens by monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, W.J.; Hellqvist, L.; Basten, A.; Raison, R.L.

    1985-12-01

    Four distinct antigens were identified in soluble sonicates of Mycobacterium leprae by using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity studies with other mycobacterial species were conducted by using ELISA and immunoblot assays, and demonstrated that determinants on two of the antigens were present in many mycobacteria, whereas the other two were limited in distribution. Competitive inhibition experiments with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies showed cross-inhibition between antibodies identifying two of the four antigenicbands. These two bands, of M/sub tau/ 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD, were resistant to protease treatment after immunoblotting. In contrast the two other bands of 16 and 70 KD were protease-sensitive. Although all four bands reacted with some human lepromatous leprosy sera in immunoblots, the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands were most prominent. Lepromatous leprosy sera also inhibited the binding of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to each of the four antigens, with the mean titer causing 50% inhibition being higher for antibodies reacting with the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands. These findings indicated that all four antigens were involved in the human B cell response to M. leprae.

  17. Role of metalloproteases in vaccinia virus epitope processing for transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B7 class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Elena; García, Ruth; Mir, Carmen; Barriga, Alejandro; Lemonnier, François A; Ramos, Manuel; López, Daniel

    2012-03-23

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates the viral proteolytic peptides generated by the proteasome and other proteases in the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. There, they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, which are subsequently recognized by the CD8(+) lymphocyte cellular response. However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or tumor or infected cells with blocked TAP molecules are able to present HLA class I ligands generated by TAP-independent processing pathways. Herein, using a TAP-independent polyclonal vaccinia virus-polyspecific CD8(+) T cell line, two conserved vaccinia-derived TAP-independent HLA-B*0702 epitopes were identified. The presentation of these epitopes in normal cells occurs via complex antigen-processing pathways involving the proteasome and/or different subsets of metalloproteinases (amino-, carboxy-, and endoproteases), which were blocked in infected cells with specific chemical inhibitors. These data support the hypothesis that the abundant cellular proteolytic systems contribute to the supply of peptides recognized by the antiviral cellular immune response, thereby facilitating immunosurveillance. These data may explain why TAP-deficient individuals live normal life spans without any increased susceptibility to viral infections.

  18. Role of Metalloproteases in Vaccinia Virus Epitope Processing for Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)-independent Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-B7 Class I Antigen Presentation*

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Elena; García, Ruth; Mir, Carmen; Barriga, Alejandro; Lemonnier, François A.; Ramos, Manuel; López, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates the viral proteolytic peptides generated by the proteasome and other proteases in the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. There, they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, which are subsequently recognized by the CD8+ lymphocyte cellular response. However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or tumor or infected cells with blocked TAP molecules are able to present HLA class I ligands generated by TAP-independent processing pathways. Herein, using a TAP-independent polyclonal vaccinia virus-polyspecific CD8+ T cell line, two conserved vaccinia-derived TAP-independent HLA-B*0702 epitopes were identified. The presentation of these epitopes in normal cells occurs via complex antigen-processing pathways involving the proteasome and/or different subsets of metalloproteinases (amino-, carboxy-, and endoproteases), which were blocked in infected cells with specific chemical inhibitors. These data support the hypothesis that the abundant cellular proteolytic systems contribute to the supply of peptides recognized by the antiviral cellular immune response, thereby facilitating immunosurveillance. These data may explain why TAP-deficient individuals live normal life spans without any increased susceptibility to viral infections. PMID:22298786

  19. A Study of Human Leukocyte D Locus Related Antigens in Graves' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Nadir R.; Sampson, Laura; Noel, Elke P.; Barnard, John M.; Mandeville, Robert; Larsen, Bodil; Marshall, William H.; Carter, Nicholas D.

    1979-01-01

    An association between Graves' disease and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system has previously been reported. The disease was more strongly associated with the HLA D locus antigen Dw3 than with HLA B8. Products of the HLA D locus are determined by the interaction of test cells with standard typing lymphocytes, a technically difficult procedure. Recently, it has been possible to type serologically for D locus related (DRw) specificities on peripheral bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes. Blood B lymphocytes from 50 unrelated controls and 41 patients with Graves' disease were typed for seven HLA DRw specificities. 28 patients with Graves' disease (68%) were positive for DRw3, in contrast to 14 controls (28%); whereas only 21 patients (50%) were HLA B8 positive, compared with 13 (26%) controls. Thus, positivity for DRw3 afforded a relative risk for Graves' disease of 5.5, whereas that for HLA B8 amounted to 3.0. Additionally, a family with multiple cases of Graves' disease in which the disease was previously shown to be inherited with the haplotype, was linked to DRw2, which suggests that the susceptibility to the disease was inherited in association with that antigen. Two HLA B/glyoxalase recombination events were observed in this family; in both instances HLA DRw followed HLA B. This study thus demonstrates that the disease susceptibility gene for Graves' disease is in strong linkage disequilibrium with DRw3; however, it may be associated with other DRw specificities and inherited within family units in association with them. PMID:105012

  20. Electrostatic potential on human leukocyte antigen: implications for putative mechanism of chronic beryllium disease.

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, James A; Weston, Ainsley; Tinkle, Sally S; Demchuk, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    The pathobiology of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) involves the major histocompatibility complex class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Although occupational exposure to beryllium is the cause of CBD, molecular epidemiologic studies suggest that specific (Italic)HLA-DPB1(/Italic) alleles may be genetic susceptibility factors. We have studied three-dimensional structural models of HLA-DP proteins encoded by these genes. The extracellular domains of HLA-DPA1*0103/B1*1701, *1901, *0201, and *0401, and HLA-DPA1*0201/B1*1701, *1901, *0201, and *0401 were modeled from the X-ray coordinates of an HLA-DR template. Using these models, the electrostatic potential at the molecular surface of each HLA-DP was calculated and compared. These comparisons identify specific characteristics in the vicinity of the antigen-binding pocket that distinguish the different HLA-DP allotypes. Differences in electrostatics originate from the shape, specific disposition, and variation in the negatively charged groups around the pocket. The more negative the pocket potential, the greater the odds of developing CBD estimated from reported epidemiologic studies. Adverse impact is caused by charged substitutions in positions 55, 56, 69, 84, and 85, namely, the exact same loci identified as genetic markers of CBD susceptibility as well as cobalt-lung hard metal disease. These findings suggest that certain substitutions may promote an involuntary cation-binding site within a putatively metal-free peptide-binding pocket and therefore change the innate specificity of antigen recognition. PMID:14630515

  1. High Immunogenicity of the Human Leukocyte Antigen Peptidomes of Melanoma Tumor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Jarmalavicius, Saulius; Welte, Yvonne; Walden, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) bind peptides generated by limited proteolysis in cells and present them at the cell surfaces for recognition by T cells. Through this antigen presentation function they control the specificity of T cell responses and thereby adaptive immune responses. Knowledge of HLA-bound peptides is thus key to understanding adaptive immunity and to the development of vaccines and other specific immune intervention strategies. To gain insight into the antigenicity of melanomas, peptides were extracted from HLA isolated from the tumor cells, separated by two-dimensional HPLC, and sequenced by mass spectrometry. The spectra were analyzed by database-dependent MASCOT searches and database-independent de novo sequencing and, where required, confirmed with synthetic peptides, which were also used to determine their immunogenicity. Comparing four different melanoma cell lines, little overlap of the HLA-bound peptides was found, suggesting a high degree of individualization of the HLA peptidomes. This notwithstanding, the peptidomes were highly immunogenic in the patients from whom the tumor cells had been established and in unrelated patients. This broad cross-patient immunogenicity was only exceptionally related to individual peptides. The majority of the identified epitopes were derived from low to medium abundance proteins, mostly involved in sensitive cellular processes such as cell cycle control, DNA replication, control of gene expression, tumor suppressor function, and protein metabolism. The peptidomes thus provide insights into processes potentially related to tumorigenesis. Furthermore, analyses of the peptide sequences yield information on the specificity of peptide selection by HLA applicable to the developing prediction algorithms for T cell epitopes. PMID:22869377

  2. Peripheral neuropathies associated with antibodies directed to intracellular neural antigens.

    PubMed

    Antoine, J-C

    2014-10-01

    Antibodies directed to intracellular neural antigens have been mainly described in paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathies and mostly includes anti-Hu and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies. These antibodies occur with different patterns of neuropathy. With anti-Hu antibody, the most frequent manifestation is sensory neuronopathy with frequent autonomic involvement. With anti-CV2/CRMP5 the neuropathy is more frequently sensory and motor with an axonal or mixed demyelinating and axonal electrophysiological pattern. The clinical pattern of these neuropathies is in keeping with the cellular distribution of HuD and CRMP5 in the peripheral nervous system. Although present in high titer, these antibodies are probably not directly responsible for the neuropathy. Pathological and experimental studies indicate that cytotoxic T-cells are probably the main effectors of the immune response. These disorders contrast with those in which antibodies recognize a cell surface antigen and are probably responsible for the disease. The neuronal cell death and axonal degeneration which result from T-cell mediated immunity explains why treating these disorders remains challenging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  4. Approach for Identifying Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DR Bound Peptides from Scarce Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Heyder, Tina; Kohler, Maxie; Tarasova, Nataliya K; Haag, Sabrina; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Rivera, Natalia V; Sandin, Charlotta; Mia, Sohel; Malmström, Vivianne; Wheelock, Åsa M; Wahlström, Jan; Holmdahl, Rikard; Eklund, Anders; Zubarev, Roman A; Grunewald, Johan; Ytterberg, A Jimmy

    2016-09-01

    Immune-mediated diseases strongly associating with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are likely linked to specific antigens. These antigens are presented to T cells in the form of peptides bound to HLA molecules on antigen presenting cells, e.g. dendritic cells, macrophages or B cells. The identification of HLA-DR-bound peptides presents a valuable tool to investigate the human immunopeptidome. The lung is likely a key player in the activation of potentially auto-aggressive T cells prior to entering target tissues and inducing autoimmune disease. This makes the lung of exceptional interest and presents an ideal paradigm to study the human immunopeptidome and to identify antigenic peptides.Our previous investigation of HLA-DR peptide presentation in the lung required high numbers of cells (800 × 10(6) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells). Because BAL from healthy nonsmokers typically contains 10-15 × 10(6) cells, there is a need for a highly sensitive approach to study immunopeptides in the lungs of individual patients and controls.In this work, we analyzed the HLA-DR immunopeptidome in the lung by an optimized methodology to identify HLA-DR-bound peptides from low cell numbers. We used an Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) immortalized B cell line and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells obtained from patients with sarcoidosis, an inflammatory T cell driven disease mainly occurring in the lung. Specifically, membrane complexes were isolated prior to immunoprecipitation, eluted peptides were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS and processed using the in-house developed ClusterMHCII software. With the optimized procedure we were able to identify peptides from 10 × 10(6) cells, which on average correspond to 10.9 peptides/million cells in EBV-B cells and 9.4 peptides/million cells in BAL cells. This work presents an optimized approach designed to identify HLA-DR-bound peptides from low numbers of cells, enabling the investigation of the BAL immunopeptidome from individual patients

  5. Dendritic Cells Take up and Present Antigens from Viable and Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Carlos; Suarez, Natalia; Oñate, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, Jose L.; Martinez-Forero, Ivan; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Perez, Guiomar; Bolaños, Elixabet; Palazon, Asis; de Sanmamed, Miguel Fernandez; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8), for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs. Such internalization was abrogated at 4°C and partly inhibited by anti-CD18 mAb. In mice, DC which had internalized PMNs containing electroporated ovalbumin (OVA) protein, were able to cross-present the antigen to CD8 (OT-1) and CD4 (OT-2) TCR-transgenic T cells. Moreover, in humans, tumor cell debris is internalized by PMNs and the tumor-cell material can be subsequently taken up from the immunomagnetically re-isolated PMNs by DC. Importantly, if human neutrophils had endocytosed bacteria, they were able to trigger the maturation program of the DC. Moreover, when mouse PMNs with E. coli in their interior are co-injected in the foot pad with DC, many DC loaded with fluorescent material from the PMNs reach draining lymph nodes. Using CT26 (H-2d) mouse tumor cells, it was observed that if tumor cells are intracellularly loaded with OVA protein and UV-irradiated, they become phagocytic prey of H-2d PMNs. If such PMNs, that cannot present antigens to OT-1 T cells, are immunomagnetically re-isolated and phagocytosed by H-2b DC, such DC productively cross-present OVA antigen determinants to OT-1 T cells. Cross-presentation to adoptively transferred OT-1 lymphocytes at draining lymph nodes also take place when OVA-loaded PMNs (H-2d) are coinjected in the footpad of mice with autologous DC (H-2b). In summary, our results indicate that antigens phagocytosed by short-lived PMNs can be in turn internalized and productively cross-presented by DC. PMID:22206007

  6. Approach for Identifying Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DR Bound Peptides from Scarce Clinical Samples *

    PubMed Central

    Heyder, Tina; Kohler, Maxie; Tarasova, Nataliya K.; Haag, Sabrina; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Rivera, Natalia V.; Sandin, Charlotta; Mia, Sohel; Malmström, Vivianne; Wheelock, Åsa M.; Wahlström, Jan; Holmdahl, Rikard; Eklund, Anders; Zubarev, Roman A.; Grunewald, Johan; Ytterberg, A. Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Immune-mediated diseases strongly associating with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are likely linked to specific antigens. These antigens are presented to T cells in the form of peptides bound to HLA molecules on antigen presenting cells, e.g. dendritic cells, macrophages or B cells. The identification of HLA-DR-bound peptides presents a valuable tool to investigate the human immunopeptidome. The lung is likely a key player in the activation of potentially auto-aggressive T cells prior to entering target tissues and inducing autoimmune disease. This makes the lung of exceptional interest and presents an ideal paradigm to study the human immunopeptidome and to identify antigenic peptides. Our previous investigation of HLA-DR peptide presentation in the lung required high numbers of cells (800 × 106 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells). Because BAL from healthy nonsmokers typically contains 10–15 × 106 cells, there is a need for a highly sensitive approach to study immunopeptides in the lungs of individual patients and controls. In this work, we analyzed the HLA-DR immunopeptidome in the lung by an optimized methodology to identify HLA-DR-bound peptides from low cell numbers. We used an Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) immortalized B cell line and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells obtained from patients with sarcoidosis, an inflammatory T cell driven disease mainly occurring in the lung. Specifically, membrane complexes were isolated prior to immunoprecipitation, eluted peptides were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS and processed using the in-house developed ClusterMHCII software. With the optimized procedure we were able to identify peptides from 10 × 106 cells, which on average correspond to 10.9 peptides/million cells in EBV-B cells and 9.4 peptides/million cells in BAL cells. This work presents an optimized approach designed to identify HLA-DR-bound peptides from low numbers of cells, enabling the investigation of the BAL immunopeptidome from individual patients and

  7. Trade-offs in antibody repertoires to complex antigens

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Lauren M.; Baskerville, Edward B.; Cobey, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens vary in their antigenic complexity. While some pathogens such as measles present a few relatively invariant targets to the immune system, others such as malaria display considerable antigenic diversity. How the immune response copes in the presence of multiple antigens, and whether a trade-off exists between the breadth and efficacy of antibody (Ab)-mediated immune responses, are unsolved problems. We present a theoretical model of affinity maturation of B-cell receptors (BCRs) during a primary infection and examine how variation in the number of accessible antigenic sites alters the Ab repertoire. Naive B cells with randomly generated receptor sequences initiate the germinal centre (GC) reaction. The binding affinity of a BCR to an antigen is quantified via a genotype–phenotype map, based on a random energy landscape, that combines local and distant interactions between residues. In the presence of numerous antigens or epitopes, B-cell clones with different specificities compete for stimulation during rounds of mutation within GCs. We find that the availability of many epitopes reduces the affinity and relative breadth of the Ab repertoire. Despite the stochasticity of somatic hypermutation, patterns of immunodominance are strongly shaped by chance selection of naive B cells with specificities for particular epitopes. Our model provides a mechanistic basis for the diversity of Ab repertoires and the evolutionary advantage of antigenically complex pathogens. PMID:26194759

  8. Trade-offs in antibody repertoires to complex antigens.

    PubMed

    Childs, Lauren M; Baskerville, Edward B; Cobey, Sarah

    2015-09-05

    Pathogens vary in their antigenic complexity. While some pathogens such as measles present a few relatively invariant targets to the immune system, others such as malaria display considerable antigenic diversity. How the immune response copes in the presence of multiple antigens, and whether a trade-off exists between the breadth and efficacy of antibody (Ab)-mediated immune responses, are unsolved problems. We present a theoretical model of affinity maturation of B-cell receptors (BCRs) during a primary infection and examine how variation in the number of accessible antigenic sites alters the Ab repertoire. Naive B cells with randomly generated receptor sequences initiate the germinal centre (GC) reaction. The binding affinity of a BCR to an antigen is quantified via a genotype-phenotype map, based on a random energy landscape, that combines local and distant interactions between residues. In the presence of numerous antigens or epitopes, B-cell clones with different specificities compete for stimulation during rounds of mutation within GCs. We find that the availability of many epitopes reduces the affinity and relative breadth of the Ab repertoire. Despite the stochasticity of somatic hypermutation, patterns of immunodominance are strongly shaped by chance selection of naive B cells with specificities for particular epitopes. Our model provides a mechanistic basis for the diversity of Ab repertoires and the evolutionary advantage of antigenically complex pathogens.

  9. Does antibody binding to diverse antigens predict future infection?

    PubMed

    Owen, J P; Waite, J L; Holden, K Z; Clayton, D H

    2014-11-01

    We studied diverse antigen binding in hosts and the outcome of parasitism. We used captive-bred F1 descendants of feral rock pigeons (Columba livia) challenged with blood-feeding flies (Hippoboscidae) and a protozoan parasite (Haemoproteus). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunoblots were used to test (i) whether pre-infection IgY antigen binding predicts parasite fitness and (ii) whether antigen binding changes after infection. Assays used extracts from three pigeon parasites (northern fowl mite, Salmonella bacteria and avian pox virus), as well as nonparasitic molecules from cattle, chicken and keyhole limpet. Binding to hippoboscid and S. enterica extracts were predictive of hippoboscid fly fitness. Binding to extracts from hippoboscids, pox virus and nonparasitic organisms was predictive of Haemoproteus infection levels. Antigen binding to all extracts increased after parasite challenge, despite the fact that birds were only exposed to flies and Haemoproteus. Immunoblots suggested innate Ig binding to parasite-associated molecular markers and revealed that new antigens were bound in extracts after infection. These data suggest that host antibody binding to diverse antigens predicts parasite fitness even when the antigens are not related to the infecting parasite. We discuss the implications of these data for the study of host-parasite immunological interaction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Identification of circulating nonclassic human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G)-like molecules in exudates.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Alvaro; Alegre, Estibaliz; Arroyo, Ainhoa; LeMaoult, Jöel; Echeveste, José Ignacio

    2011-07-01

    HLA-G in biological fluids has been proposed to be useful as a tumor marker as both a diagnostic and prognostic factor. Most HLA-G measurement procedures are based on ELISA methods using highly specific antibodies. However, results of published studies are in conflict regarding the clinical utility and even the nature of HLA-G present in circulation. We collected 118 exudates, 94 from cancer patients and 24 from patients without tumors. We measured HLA-G concentrations by ELISA using MEM-G/9 or G233 as capture antibody. Samples were immunoprecipitated with an anti-HLA-G antibody and analyzed by Western blot using a different anti-HLA-G antibody. Discrepancies in HLA-G concentrations in exudates were observed depending on what capture anti-HLA-G antibody was used for ELISA (r = 0.376). These discrepancies were not observed when the ELISAs were performed using culture supernatants from HLA-G1-transfected cells (r = 0.983). Immunoprecipitation and Western blot of cell culture supernatants with 2 different anti-HLA-G antibodies produced the typical band at 39 kDa assigned to HLA-G. When the immunoprecipitation and western blot were performed with exudates, however, there were bands at 53 kDa and 70-76 kDa, higher molecular weights than those usually assigned to HLA-G. These HLA-G-like molecules were associated with β(2)-microglobulin and could also form disulfide bridges with other HLA-G-like molecules. The main HLA-G antigenic molecules in exudates are HLA-G-like complexes, a factor that should be considered when analyzing HLA-G in biological fluids.

  11. Crystallization of antibody fragments and their complexes with antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulot, G.; Guillon, V.; Mariuzza, R. A.; Poljak, R. J.; Riottot, M.-M.; Souchon, H.; Spinelli, S.; Tello, D.

    1988-07-01

    Immunoglobulins, myeloma light chains and their fragments, and Fab fragments from monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity have been crystallized as single components or complexed with their specific antigens. The intersegmental flexibility of antibody molecules has imposed the strategy of attempting to crystallize their Fab and Fc fragments separately. Intrasegmental mobility in Fabs has not been an obstacle to their crystallization, although this has been a low frequency event, occuring in about 1 in 25 to 1 in 50 trials with different Fabs. However, the immune system provides a large functional and structural diversity of antibody molecules so that an active search may eventually reveal antibodies of the desired specificity suitable for crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies.

  12. Antigenic mosaic of Methanosarcinaceae: partial characterization of Methanosarcina barkeri 227 surface antigens by monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Garberi, J.C.; Macario, A.J.L.; De Macario, E.C.

    1985-10-01

    Hybridomas were constructed with spleen cells from mice immunized against Methanosarcina barkeri 227. The reaction with the resulting monoclonal antibodies identified two antigenic determinants. Determinant 8A is present in M. barkeri 227, where it is accessible to antibody on whole bacterial cells. 8A is undetectable in (or absent from) M. barkeri R1M3, an immunologically closely related strain. Determinant 8C is present in both strains, but with M. barkeri 227 it is found only in extracts and cannot be demonstrated in whole cells. It therefore appears to be hidden. A soluble form of antigen 8A (antigen 227) was obtained treating whole M. barkeri 227 cells with absolute methanol. This antigen was further purified by affinity chromatography with antibody 8A. Chemical and immunochemical analyses of these preparations showed that antigen 227 is a high-molecular-weight (4 x 10/sup 5/) structure composed mainly of one carbohydrate, glucose, and small amounts of amino acids. Its solubility properties suggest that this molecule is associated with a lipid moiety.

  13. Circulating Candida antigens and antibodies: useful markers of candidemia.

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, J; Maroto, C; Piédrola, G; Martín, E; Perez, J A

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the utility of the 48-kDa antigen from Candida albicans in its commercial form (Directigen; Becton Dickinson) and three other serodiagnostic methods (detection of one antigen by Pastorex Candida [Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur] and detection of immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgM antibodies to C. albicans blastoconidia [bioMerieux]) for diagnosis of invasive Candida infection, we conducted a prospective clinical trial among 10 patients with candidemia (group 1), 30 patients colonized by C. albicans (group 2), 20 patients with bacteremia (group 3), and 20 subjects without clinical or microbiological evidence of infection. The Directigen system was positive for at least one serum sample each from eight patients in group 1. In groups 2, 3, and 4, it was positive for only three patients. There was no reaction to the Pastorex system in any of the patients infected with or colonized by C. albicans or in the non-Candida-carrying controls. The IgG antibody concentration oscillated between 100 and 800 (mean, 510 +/- 268) IU/ml for the patients in group 1. In this group, eight patients had IgG antibody levels of > 400 IU/ml. The percentages of persons with IgG antibody levels of > 400 IU/ml in groups 2, 3, and 4 were 43.3, 0, and 0, respectively. Specific IgM antibody was present in all group 1 patients but not in those in groups 2, 3, and 4. The sensitivity and specificity of the Directigen test were 65 and 97.1%, respectively. For the Pastorex test, the sensitivity was 0%. The sensitivity of IgG antibodies was 80%, with a specificity of 81.4%, while the IgM antibodies were 100% specific and sensitive. Both the positive and negative predictive values of specific IgM antibodies appeared to be superior to those of the other three tests. PMID:8408589

  14. Nanopore-based kinetics analysis of individual antibody-channel and antibody-antigen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Winters-Hilt, Stephen; Morales, Eric; Amin, Iftekhar; Stoyanov, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Background The UNO/RIC Nanopore Detector provides a new way to study the binding and conformational changes of individual antibodies. Many critical questions regarding antibody function are still unresolved, questions that can be approached in a new way with the nanopore detector. Results We present evidence that different forms of channel blockade can be associated with the same antibody, we associate these different blockades with different orientations of "capture" of an antibody in the detector's nanometer-scale channel. We directly detect the presence of antibodies via reductions in channel current. Changes to blockade patterns upon addition of antigen suggest indirect detection of antibody/antigen binding. Similarly, DNA-hairpin anchored antibodies have been studied, where the DNA linkage is to the carboxy-terminus at the base of the antibody's Fc region, with significantly fewer types of (lengthy) capture blockades than was observed for free (un-bound) IgG antibody. The introduction of chaotropic agents and its effects on protein-protein interactions have also been observed. Conclusion Nanopore-based approaches may eventually provide a direct analysis of the complex conformational "negotiations" that occur upon binding between proteins. PMID:18047720

  15. Antibodies to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Potentiate the Response of Human T Lymphocyte Clones to the Same Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celis, Esteban; Chang, Tse Wen

    1984-04-01

    Human T-helper lymphocyte clones specific for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) proliferate on stimulation with HBsAg in vitro. Antibodies specific for HBsAg, but no other antibodies, augment this proliferative response. In the presence of antibodies to HBsAg, the maximum response could be achieved at HBsAg concentrations that were 1 percent of those required in the absence of the antibodies. These findings suggest that antigen-specific antibodies exert regulatory controls on T cells that recognize the same antigens.

  16. Human leukocyte antigens and cellular immune responses to anthrax vaccine adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Vierkant, Robert A; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Quinn, Conrad P; Kaslow, Richard A; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2013-07-01

    Interindividual variations in vaccine-induced immune responses are in part due to host genetic polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and other gene families. This study examined associations between HLA genotypes, haplotypes, and homozygosity and protective antigen (PA)-specific cellular immune responses in healthy subjects following immunization with Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA). While limited associations were observed between individual HLA alleles or haplotypes and variable lymphocyte proliferative (LP) responses to AVA, analyses of homozygosity supported the hypothesis of a "heterozygote advantage." Individuals who were homozygous for any HLA locus demonstrated significantly lower PA-specific LP than subjects who were heterozygous at all eight loci (median stimulation indices [SI], 1.84 versus 2.95, P = 0.009). Similarly, we found that class I (HLA-A) and class II (HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1) homozygosity was significantly associated with an overall decrease in LP compared with heterozygosity at those three loci. Specifically, individuals who were homozygous at these loci had significantly lower PA-specific LP than subjects heterozygous for HLA-A (median SI, 1.48 versus 2.13, P = 0.005), HLA-DQA1 (median SI, 1.75 versus 2.11, P = 0.007), and HLA-DQB1 (median SI, 1.48 versus 2.13, P = 0.002) loci, respectively. Finally, homozygosity at an increasing number (≥ 4) of HLA loci was significantly correlated with a reduction in LP response (P < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner. Additional studies are needed to reproduce these findings and determine whether HLA-heterozygous individuals generate stronger cellular immune response to other virulence factors (Bacillus anthracis LF and EF) than HLA-homozygous subjects.

  17. Effects of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody infusion on blood leukocytes in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Gridley, D.S.; Slater, J.M.; Stickney, D.R. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a single infusion of radiolabelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) on peripheral blood leukocytes in cancer patients. Eleven patients with disseminated colon cancer, malignant melanoma, or lung adenocarcinoma were infused with 111In-labelled anti-ZCE 025, anti-p97 type 96.5c, or LA 20207 MAb, respectively. Blood samples were obtained before infusion, immediately after infusion (1 hr), and at 4 and 7 days postinfusion. Flow cytometry analysis of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD19+ lymphocytes showed increasing CD4:CD8 ratios in seven patients after infusion. This phenomenon was not restricted to antibody subclass or to type of cancer. Two of the remaining patients exhibited a marked post-infusion increase in CD8+ cells. In all three patients with malignant melanoma, decreasing levels of CD16+ lymphocytes were noted after infusion and natural killer cell cytotoxicity showed fluctuations which paralleled the changes in the CD16+ subpopulation. Oxygen radical production by phagocytic cells was markedly affected in three subjects. These results suggest that a single infusion of radiolabelled murine MAb may alter the balance of critical lymphocyte subpopulations and modulate other leukocyte responses in cancer patients.

  18. Release of Prostaglandin by Mitogen- and Antigen-Stimulated Leukocytes in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Victor A.; DeRubertis, Frederick R.; Hudson, Thomas H.; Wolfe, Leon

    1974-01-01

    The prostaglandin (PG) content of mitogen- and antigen-stimulated leukocyte cultures was examined by a radioimmunoassay procedure empolying an antiserum reactive with PGB1 and PGB2, the alkaline dehydration products of PGE and PGA. At 48 h, mitogen-activated mouse spleen cell cultures showed 2-10-fold increases in the PGE, but not in the PGA, component of immunoreactive PG (iPG) fractionated by silicic acid column chromatography. Increases in iPG were detectable by h 16 in spleen cell cultures incubated with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Since iPG levels rose only in the culture supernates and not in cells exposed to mitogens for 48 h, increases reflected extracellular release of PG. The validity of the radioimmunoassay determinations of PGE in spleen cell cultures was supported by the results of concomitant assessment of the PGE2 content of basal and enterotoxin-stimulated cultures by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. By the latter method, the PGE2 content was three-fold higher in enterotoxin-activated, compared to basal, cultures at 48 h. Aspirin effectively suppressed increases in both iPG and PGE2. In spleen cell cultures prepared from mice previously inoculated with an attenuated strain of yellow fever virus in vivo and then incubated with this virus in vitro, iPG levels increased twofold over basal at 48 h. By contrast, iPG content of spleen cell cultures prepared from saline-inoculated mice was not appreciably altered by exposure to the virus in vitro. The enhancement of iPG release from cultured spleen cells by mitogens did not correlate with an ability of these agents to increase cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. Moreover, epinephrine and cholera toxin markedly increased spleen cell cAMP content but had no demonstrable effect on basal iPG levels, suggesting iPG release from these cells was not mediated by cAMP. Incubation with mitogens also enhanced the iPG content of 72-cultures of human peripheral leukocytes and of human lymphocytes isolated by

  19. Influence of human leukocyte antigen genes on TCR V gene segment frequencies.

    PubMed

    Genevée, C; Farace, F; Chung, V; Diu, A; Raffoux, C; Charron, D; Hercend, T; Triebel, F

    1994-10-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-dependent selection mechanisms exerted during thymic maturation are supposed to be main contributing factors to the genetic predetermination of the TCR repertoire and may have a detectable effect on adult peripheral blood lymphocyte V segment frequencies. Here, we analyzed whether polymorphic or non-polymorphic HLA determinants are associated with selected expression of some V gene segment specificities. We first examined the reactivity of 17 V segment specific mAb on purified CD4+ and CD8+ cell fractions in 10 unrelated people. We found a significant overexpression of only three V segment products (V beta 2, V beta 5.1 and V beta 6.7) in CD4+ and none in CD8+ cell fractions in most individuals. Skewing of certain V beta segments by non-polymorphic HLA determinants (i.e. class II for CD4+ and class I for CD8+ cells) is therefore more limited (3/17) than previously thought. Considering the effects of polymorphic HLA determinants, we compared TCR V segment frequencies in HLA-identical siblings to sibling pairs who differ at one or both HLA haplotypes, using 13 V beta specific mAb. In pairwise comparisons, we found that the HLA complex had no detectable effect on TCR repertoire in five large families with multiple siblings. Together, these observations suggest that HLA-predicted selection mechanisms exerted during thymic maturation might not have a predominant influence shaping the TCR repertoire of normal adults.

  20. Human leukocyte antigen haplotype phasing by allele-specific enrichment with peptide nucleic acid probes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Nicholas M; Pouton, Colin W; Irving, Helen R

    2014-01-01

    Targeted capture of large fragments of genomic DNA that enrich for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system haplotypes has utility in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current methods of HLA matching are based on inference or familial studies of inheritance; and each approach has its own inherent limitations. We have designed and tested a probe–target-extraction method for capturing specific HLA haplotypes by hybridization of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes to alleles of the HLA-DRB1 gene. Short target fragments contained in plasmids were initially used to optimize the method followed by testing samples of genomic DNA from human subjects with preselected HLA haplotypes and obtained approximately 10% enrichment for the specific haplotype. When performed with high-molecular-weight genomic DNA, 99.0% versus 84.0% alignment match was obtained for the specific haplotype probed. The allele-specific target enrichment that we obtained can facilitate the elucidation of haplotypes between the 65 kb separating the HLA-DRB1 and the HLA-DQA1 genes, potentially spanning a total distance of at least 130 kb. Allele-specific target enrichment with PNA probes is a straightforward technique that has the capability to improve the resolution of DNA and whole genome sequencing technologies by allowing haplotyping of enriched DNA and crucially, retaining the DNA methylation profile. PMID:24936514

  1. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Nielsen, Mette Weidinger; Svendsen, Signe Goul; Lindhard, Anette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2011-12-01

    One of the non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib proteins, HLA-G, is believed to exert important immunoregulatory functions, especially during pregnancy. The presence of HLA protein in paternal seminal fluid has been suggested to have an influence on the risk of developing pre-eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. We detected sHLA-G protein in seminal plasma, and HLA-G expression in normal testis and in epididymal tissue of the male reproductive system but not in the seminal vesicle. Furthermore, the results indicated a weak expression of HLA-G in hyperplastic prostatic tissue. In summary, several of the findings reported in this study suggest an immunoregulatory role of HLA-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma.

  2. Reduced Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Protection in Gulf War Illness (GWI)

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.; James, Lisa M.; Mahan, Margaret Y.; Joseph, Jasmine; Georgopoulos, Angeliki; Engdahl, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a disease of unknown etiology with symptoms suggesting the involvement of an immune process. Here we tested the hypothesis that Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) composition might differ between veterans with and without GWI. Methods We identified 144 unique alleles of Class I and II HLA genes in 82 veterans (66 with and 16 without GWI). We tested the hypothesis that a subset of HLA alleles may classify veterans in their respective group using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis. In addition, each participant rated symptom severity in 6 domains according to established GWI criteria, and an overall symptom severity was calculated. Findings We found 6 Class II alleles that classified participants 84.1% correctly (13/16 control and 56/66 GWI). The number of copies of the 6 alleles was significantly higher in the control group, suggesting a protective role. This was supported by a significant negative dependence of overall symptom severity on the number of allele copies, such that symptom severity was lower in participants with larger numbers of allele copies. Interpretation These results indicate a reduced HLA protection (i.e. genetic susceptibility) in veterans with GWI. Funding University of Minnesota and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:26870819

  3. Meta-Analysis of the Association between Vitiligo and Human Leukocyte Antigen-A

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jianwen; Niu, Xinwu; Xu, Qingqiang; Wang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Yale

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the association between vitiligo and human leukocyte antigen- (HLA-) A. Methods. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and reference lists were searched for relevant original articles. Results. Nineteen case-control studies comprising 3042 patients and 5614 controls were included, in which 33 HLA-A alleles were reported. Overall, three alleles (HLA-A⁎02, A⁎33, and Aw⁎31) were significantly associated with increased risk of vitiligo, two (HLA-A⁎09 and Aw⁎19) were associated with decreased risk, and the remaining 28 were unassociated. Twelve alleles, seven alleles, and 19 alleles were common to three ethnicities, both types of vitiligo, and both typing methods, respectively. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity and typing methods, the association of six alleles and five alleles was inconsistent in three populations and both typing methods, respectively. In the subgroup analysis by clinical type, the association of all seven alleles was consistent in both types of vitiligo. Conclusion. The meta-analysis suggests that HLA-A⁎02, A⁎33, and Aw⁎31 are associated with increased risk of vitiligo, while HLA-A⁎09 and Aw⁎19 are associated with decreased risk of vitiligo. The association of some alleles varies in terms of ethnicity and typing methods. PMID:27689083

  4. Genetic screening for human leukocyte antigen alleles prior to carbamazepine treatment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jeremy C K; Murrell, Dedee F; Hersch, Mark I

    2015-12-01

    We describe a 28-year-old Malaysian Australian man of Han Chinese descent with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), occurring 2 weeks after commencing carbamazepine. He was subsequently found to be positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502. Carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome/TEN is strongly associated with the HLA-B*1502 allele, which is highly prevalent in Han Chinese, Malay, Thai and Indian populations. Prospective screening for the allele may prevent this cutaneous adverse drug reaction from occurring, but many neurologists and other medical practitioners are still unaware of the medico-legal risks of prescribing carbamazepine in susceptible populations and the availability of HLA-B*1502 testing. Performing HLA-B*1502 genotyping and avoiding carbamazepine in at-risk individuals has been proven to decrease incidences of drug-induced TEN. This test is widely available at most large pathology services in Australia, with results available within 2 weeks. The recommendation by regulatory bodies should be strengthened to ensure that the broad medical community is made more aware of this pertinent issue.

  5. Characterization of swine leukocyte antigen alleles and haplotypes on a novel miniature pig line, Microminipig.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Imaeda, N; Ohshima, S; Miyamoto, A; Kaneko, N; Takasu, M; Shiina, T; Kulski, J K; Inoko, H; Kitagawa, H

    2014-12-01

    Microminipigs are extremely small-sized, novel miniature pigs that were recently developed for medical research. The inbred Microminipigs with defined swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotypes are expected to be useful for allo- and xenotransplantation studies and also for association analyses between SLA haplotypes and immunological traits. To establish SLA-defined Microminipig lines, we characterized the polymorphic SLA alleles for three class I (SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3) and two class II (SLA-DRB1 and SLA-DQB1) genes of 14 parental Microminipigs using a high-resolution nucleotide sequence-based typing method. Eleven class I and II haplotypes, including three recombinant haplotypes, were found in the offspring of the parental Microminipigs. Two class I and class II haplotypes, Hp-31.0 (SLA-1*1502-SLA-3*070102-SLA-2*1601) and Hp-0.37 (SLA-DRB1*0701-SLA-DQB1*0502), are novel and have not so far been reported in other pig breeds. Crossover regions were defined by the analysis of 22 microsatellite markers within the SLA class III region of three recombinant haplotypes. The SLA allele and haplotype information of Microminipigs in this study will be useful to establish SLA homozygous lines including three recombinants for transplantation and immunological studies. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Polymorphisms Association With Cancer Post-Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lazarte, Julieta; Goldraich, Livia; Manlhiot, Cedric; Kozuszko, Stella; Rao, Vivek; Delgado, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Post transplantation, a major complication is the development of malignancies. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-G is a molecule that inhibits the immune system and it is utilized by malignant cells to hide from the immune system. Expression of HLA-G from the donor and recipient cells in transplant patients is regulated by gene variations however, the association between genotype and cancer remains unknown. Our objective was to determine the association between genotype and outcome. Heart transplant recipients (251) and available corresponding donors (196) samples were genotyped for polymorphisms and the association of polymorphisms to outcome was evaluated with parametric hazard regression models. Risk of cancer was 22% at 10years post-transplantation. The mean follow-up was of 4.9±3.6years. In a multivariable analysis, donor-recipient SNP 3187 matching was identified as a protective factor for cancer (hazard ratio 0.43; 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.93; p=0.03). While coding region allele (haplotype 6) was identified as an independent risk factor (hazard ratio 3.7; 95% confidence interval 1.36-10.06; p=0.01). In this investigation, we identified an association between cancer post-transplantation and HLA-G polymorphisms, which may reveal a pathway for potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for cancer post-transplantation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Genetic Diversity in Swine Leukocyte Antigen-DRA Gene on Piglet Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Qiaoli; Yuan, Junhu; Liu, Lixia; Sun, Wenyang; Jiang, Yingdi; Zhao, Shengguo; Zhang, Shengwei; Huang, Wangzhou; Gun, Shuangbao

    2016-01-01

    The swine leukocyte antigens (SLAs) are the multigene families related to immune responses. Little is known about the effect of the DRA gene on diarrheal disease. This study reported the genetic diversity of the DRA gene in exons 1, 3 and 4 in 290 Chinese Yantai black pigs. No variation was identified in exon 3. In exon 1, three genotypes and two alleles were identified, generated by two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In exon 4, there were eight genotypes and five alleles containing seven SNPs were detected with four SNPs being novel SNPs. The low polymorphism found in swine DRA is consistent with the concept that the DRA gene is highly conserved among all mammalian species. Statistical analyses indicated that the genotypes of exon 1 were not significantly associated with piglet diarrhea (p > 0.05); however, genotypes C4C4 (1.80 ± 0.33) and A4E4 (1.66 ± 0.25) of exon 4 were significantly susceptible to diarrhea (p < 0.01). These indicate that the particular genotypes of the DRA gene are susceptible to diarrheal disease, which provides valuable information for disease-resistance breeding in swine. PMID:27429004

  8. Leukotoxin Kills Rodent WBC by Targeting Leukocyte Function Associated Antigen 1

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Kristina M; Kaswala, Rajesh H; Patel, Chandni; Kasinathan, Chinnaswam; Kachlany, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    Leukotoxin is a protein that is secreted by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and that primarily targets the active form of leukocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA1) on WBC. Because of its specificity for WBC, leukotoxin is being developed as a novel biologic treatment for hematologic malignancies and autoimmune–inflammatory diseases. Early studies indicated that leukotoxin is specific for WBC from humans and Old World primates. In the current study, we used in vivo and in vitro assays to show that leukotoxin has a wider host range than previously believed and can kill rodent WBC. Administration of leukotoxin to rats and mice resulted in a rapid drop in WBC number but had no effect on RBC or platelet counts. Using LFA1-knockout mice, we showed that leukotoxin-mediated depletion of WBC is dependent on LFA1. In addition, similar to its effect on human monocytes, leukotoxin kills murine myeloid leukemia via a lysosome-mediated pathway that is dependent on cathepsin D. This newly described broader host range of leukotoxin enables the biology of the protein to be studied in rodent species and offers the possibility of using rodent models for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of leukotoxin in various diseases. PMID:24209968

  9. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Within the Male Reproductive System: Implications for Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly by "priming" the woman's immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast cells in the placenta during pregnancy has been well described. Highly variable amounts of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in seminal plasma from different men have been reported, and the concentration of sHLA-G is associated with HLA-G genotype. A first pilot study indicates that the level of sHLA-G in seminal plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings.

  10. Human leukocyte antigen distribution and genomic ancestry in Brazilian patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Malta, M C F; Rodrigues, P S; Zuccherato, L W; de Souza, F C B; Domingues, E M F L; Souza, V R; Tarazona-Santos, E; Martins, M L

    2017-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only established curative treatment for sickle cell disease (SCD), but is limited by donor availability. Ethnicity is thought to have an impact on the complications experienced by patients that undergo HSCT and on the likelihood of identifying an human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched donor. In the present study, we investigated the genomic ancestry and the distribution of HLA allele groups in Brazilian patients with SCD, compared these HLA profiles to worldwide populations and evaluate the availability of HLA-matched donors. A broad intercontinental admixture of patients with SCD was observed, with African ancestry ranging from 6.7% to 93.4%. In a dendrogram based on HLA frequencies, Brazilian patients with SCD were included in a branch containing only populations with a significant African component. Among the 126 patients evaluated, 10 (8%) found a HLA-matched unrelated donor in a database of 18 134 donors. Self-reported white, brown and black matched donors were identified, and no significant difference in the percentage of compatible donors was observed between these ethnic groups. Our results show that Brazilian patients with SCD are very admixed, indicating that this group is a promising target for admixture mapping of genes involved in complications after HSCT. Additional studies may help to clarify the impact of the genetic diversity and admixture of these patients on the donor availability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Analysis of Swine Leukocyte Antigen Haplotypes in Yucatan Miniature Pigs Used as Biomedical Model Animal

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nu-Ri; Seo, Dong-Won; Choi, Ki-Myung; Ko, Na-Young; Kim, Ji-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Il; Jung, Woo-Young; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    The porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is called swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), which controls immune responses and transplantation reactions. The SLA is mapped on pig chromosome 7 (SSC7) near the centromere. In this study, 3 class I (SLA-1, SLA-3, and SLA-2) and 3 class II (DRB1, DQB1, and DQA) genes were used for investigation of SLA haplotypes in Yucatan miniature pigs in Korea. This pig breed is a well-known model organism for biomedical research worldwide. The current study indicated that Korean Yucatan pig population had 3 Class I haplotypes (Lr-4.0, Lr-6.0, and Lr-25.0) and 3 class II haplotypes (Lr-0.5, Lr-0.7, and Lr-0.25). The combinations of SLA class I and II haplotype together, 2 homozygous (Lr-4.5/4.5 and Lr-6.7/6.7) and 3 heterozygous (Lr-4.5/6.7, Lr-4.5/25.25, and Lr-6.7/25.25) haplotypes were identified, including previously unidentified new heterozygous haplotypes (Lr-4.5/4.7). In addition, a new SLA allele typing method using Agilent 2100 bioanalyzer was developed that permitted more rapid identification of SLA haplotypes. These results will facilitate the breeding of SLA homozygous Yucatan pigs and will expedite the possible use of these pigs for the biomedical research, especially xenotransplantation research. PMID:26950861

  12. Human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles in non-Hodgkin lymphoma etiology

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Amr M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Thomas, Rasmi; Cerhan, James R.; Gao, Xiaojiang; Cozen, Wendy; Rothman, Nathaniel; Davis, Scott; Severson, Richard K.; Bernstein, Leslie; Hartge, Patricia; Carrington, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association and candidate gene studies implicate different genetic variants within the 6p21 chromosomal region with different non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes. Complementing these efforts, we conducted human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II genotyping among 610 NHL cases and 555 controls of non-Hispanic white descent from a US multicenter study. Allele-disease associations were assessed by logistic regression for NHL and its subtypes. Statistically significant associations between HLA and NHL subtypes include HLA-DRB1*0101 for follicular lymphoma (odds ratio [OR] = 2.14, P < .001), HLA-DRB1*0401 for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; OR = 0.45, P = .006), and HLA-DRB1*13 and follicular lymphoma (OR = 0.48, P = .008). We further observed significant heterozygote advantage for HLA class I alleles and NHL, and particularly DLBCL (P trend = .01 for elevated risk with increasing number of homozygous alleles). Our results support a role for HLA in the etiology of NHL and its subtypes. PMID:20385791

  13. Human leukocyte antigen class I and MICA haplotypes in a multicase family with Cladophialophora carrionii chromoblastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, F; Márquez, I; Gendzekhadze, K; Zhang, S; Fernández-Mestre, M; Yegres, F; Richard-Yegres, N; Navas, T; Montagnani, S; Ogando, V; Layrisse, Z

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies carried out in an endemic semiarid region northwest of Venezuela at Falcon State have shown a prevalence of 15.4/1000 of chromoblastomycosis following traumatisms with xenophile vegetation infected with Cladophialophora carrionii. We performed high-resolution DNA typing of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B and -C and major histocompatibility complex class I chain related gene A (MICA) alleles and segregation analysis in 49 members of one extended family with 12 affected individuals, who have lived for approximately 70 years in this endemic zone. None of the alleles, haplotypes or genotypes is shared by all the patients. No deviation from the expected HLA haplotype distribution or association of chromoblastomycosis with HLA-A, -B and -C haplotypes was observed. Further, a haplotype-sharing transmission/disequilibria testing of 11 nuclear families did not give enough evidence to claim linkage (P = 0.398), suggesting that genes located in the short arm of chromosome 6 may not be relevant in the immune response toward infection with C. carrionii in this Venezuelan endemic zone. Deleted MICA alleles on HLA-B*4802 haplotypes were present among several members of the extended family, but only two of them were affected.

  14. The experience of two European preimplantation genetic diagnosis centres on human leukocyte antigen typing.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Hilde; De Rycke, Martine; De Man, Caroline; De Hauwere, Kim; Fiorentino, Francesco; Kahraman, Semra; Pennings, Guido; Verpoest, Willem; Devroey, Paul; Liebaers, Inge

    2009-03-01

    Two European centres report on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing of preimplantation embryos for haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation: 'UZ Brussel' in Brussels and 'Genoma' in Rome. Both centres have 6 years' experience with technical and clinical aspects of this type of genetic analysis on single blastomeres. Both centres apply a similar technique for preimplantation HLA typing using short tandem repeats linked to the HLA locus in multiplex PCR for haplotyping. At present, a conclusive HLA diagnosis could be assured in 92.8% and 90.3% of the embryos at UZ Brussel and at Genoma, respectively. The implantation rates were 32.4% and 28.2%, respectively, and the birth rates per cycle were 9.4% and 18.6%, respectively. The HLA programme at UZ Brussel and at Genoma resulted in the birth of 9 babies and 3 successful HSC transplantations, and 42 babies and 7 successful HSC transplantations, respectively, so far. Drastic embryo selection for preimplantation HLA typing (in theory 1/4 for HLA, 1/8 for HLA in combination with sexing for X-linked recessive diseases, 3/16 for HLA in combination with autosomal recessive disorders) resulted overall in the birth of 51 babies (15.9% live birth rate per started cycle) in two European centres.

  15. Role of human leukocyte antigen-G 14-base pair polymorphism in kidney transplantation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Littera, Roberto; Piredda, Gianbenedetto; Pani, Antonello; Frongia, Mauro; Onano, Bruno; Michittu, Maria Benigna; Murgia, Maria Gavina; Lai, Sara; Alba, Francesco; Valentini, Maria Donatella; Loi, Valentina; Caocci, Giovanni; Orrù, Sandro; La Nasa, Giorgio; Carcassi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Both the membrane-bound and soluble forms of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) molecules exhibit a multitude of immunomodulatory properties that can potentially obviate or delay graft rejection. The 14-base pair (14-bp) polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the HLA-G gene is thought to have a role in soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) expression. In this study, we retrospectively investigated a large cohort of 418 kidney transplant recipients with the aim of establishing whether the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism could serve as an effective genetic risk marker for acute and/or chronic deterioration of transplanted kidney function. A statistically significant higher incidence of chronic kidney dysfunction leading to allograft loss was observed in transplant recipients homozygous for the HLA-G 14-bp deletion polymorphism. This difference increased over time and was confirmed by progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate. These results suggest that alongside other factors previously consolidated in clinical practice, recipient HLA-G 14-bp genotype may serve as an adjuvant independent predictor of long-term outcome of kidney transplantation.

  16. Monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR transcriptional downregulation by cortisol during septic shock.

    PubMed

    Le Tulzo, Yves; Pangault, Celine; Amiot, Laurence; Guilloux, Valérie; Tribut, Olivier; Arvieux, Cédric; Camus, Christophe; Fauchet, Renée; Thomas, Rémi; Drénou, Bernard

    2004-05-15

    Monocyte deactivation has been identified as a major factor of immunosuppression in sepsis and is associated with a loss of surface human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression on circulating monocytes. Using flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we investigated this phenomenon in septic patients. We confirmed the early loss of monocyte HLA-DR expression in all infected patients and demonstrated that this persistent lowered expression at Day 6 correlated with severity scores, secondary infection, and death. This phenomenon occurred at a transcriptional level via a decrease in the class II transactivator A (CIITA) transcription. Furthermore, these abnormalities correlated with the high cortisol levels observed in sepsis and not with those of other putative factors such as catecholamines or interleukin-10. Finally, in vitro studies evidenced that glucocorticoids decrease HLA-DR expression at a transcriptional level via a decrease in CIITA mRNA levels, mainly by down modulating its isoforms I and III. We conclude that in human sepsis, the loss of HLA-DR expression on circulating monocytes is associated with a poor outcome. We suggest that the high endogenous cortisol level observed in septic shock may be a possible new factor involved in the loss of HLA-DR expression on monocytes via its effect on HLA-DR and CIITA transcription.

  17. [ICO-10 monoclonal antibodies to the Thy-1 antigen].

    PubMed

    Korotkova, O V; Baryshnikov, A Iu; Tupitsyn, N N; Chimishkian, K L; Kostrykina, V N

    1989-01-01

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAB) ICO-10 to Thy-1 antigen were obtained. MAB ICO-10 reacted in indirect immunofluorescence test with 5.7 +/- 0.8% human thymocytes. Antibodies did not react with granulocytes, monocytes, T- and non-T cells from peripheral blood, and with marrow cells of healthy donors. MAB ICO-10 reacted with blast cells from 25 of 53 patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), from 2 of 5 patients with B-cell ALL. This antigen was absent on blood and marrow cells from some patients with ALL, 80 patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia, 54 patients with chronic granulocytic leukemia at the stage of blastic crisis, 128 patients with acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Antibodies are specifically bound to thymocytes and spleen cells of Thy 1.1 and Thy 1.2 mice. MAB ICO-10 detect Thy-1 antigen expressed on human hematopoietic cells. MAB ICO-10 may be applied for human leukemia and lymphoma immune diagnosis.

  18. Experimental Immunization Based on Plasmodium Antigens Isolated by Antibody Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Ali N.; Marín-García, Patricia; Azcárate, Isabel G.; Puyet, Antonio; Diez, Amalia; Bautista, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines blocking malaria parasites in the blood-stage diminish mortality and morbidity caused by the disease. Here, we isolated antigens from total parasite proteins by antibody affinity chromatography to test an immunization against lethal malaria infection in a murine model. We used the sera of malaria self-resistant ICR mice to lethal Plasmodium yoelii yoelii 17XL for purification of their IgGs which were subsequently employed to isolate blood-stage parasite antigens that were inoculated to immunize BALB/c mice. The presence of specific antibodies in vaccinated mice serum was studied by immunoblot analysis at different days after vaccination and showed an intensive immune response to a wide range of antigens with molecular weight ranging between 22 and 250 kDa. The humoral response allowed delay of the infection after the inoculation to high lethal doses of P. yoelii yoelii 17XL resulting in a partial protection against malaria disease, although final survival was managed in a low proportion of challenged mice. This approach shows the potential to prevent malaria disease with a set of antigens isolated from blood-stage parasites. PMID:26539558

  19. Strong influence of human leukocyte antigen-DP variants on response to hepatitis B vaccine in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yuya; Uno, Naoki; Sato, Shuntaro; Mori, Sayaka; Sasaki, Daisuke; Kaku, Norihito; Kosai, Kosuke; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2017-10-09

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reported that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants are associated with chronic hepatitis B, spontaneous hepatitis B virus (HBV) clearance, and response to hepatitis B vaccine. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HLA-DP (rs9277535 and rs3077) and HLA-DQ (rs2856718 and rs7453920) have been repeatedly associated with chronic hepatitis B and spontaneous HBV clearance. However, the data on the SNPs associated with response to hepatitis B vaccine are inconclusive. The objective of this study was to determine whether these four HLA SNPs that have been identified as risk loci for chronic HBV infection are associated with response to hepatitis B vaccine in a Japanese population. We enrolled 278 medical students who received hepatitis B vaccination and measured anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibody titers 1month after a three-dose vaccination series. We found that rs9277535 and rs3077 in HLA-DP were strongly associated with response to hepatitis B vaccine (odds ratio [OR]=0.31 and 0.32, P=0.004 and 0.010, respectively). These two SNPs were significantly associated with anti-HBs titers in an allele-dependent manner. On the other hand, rs2856718 and rs7453920 in HLA-DQ were not associated with response to hepatitis B vaccine. These results indicate that rs9277535 and rs3077 in HLA-DP are the major determinants of response to hepatitis B vaccine, whereas rs2856718 and rs7453920 in HLA-DQ have little effect on the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Leukocyte Antigen-Presented Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is a Surface Biomarker and Potential Therapeutic Target for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Andrea M; Kaabinejadian, Saghar; McMurtrey, Curtis P; Bardet, Wilfried; Jackson, Ken W; Zuna, Rosemary E; Husain, Sanam; Adams, Gregory P; MacDonald, Glen; Dillon, Rachelle L.; Ames, Harold; Buchli, Rico; Hawkins, Oriana E; Weidanz, Jon A; Hildebrand, William H

    2015-01-01

    T cells recognize cancer cells via human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/peptide complexes and, when disease overtakes these immune mechanisms, immunotherapy can exogenously target these same HLA/peptide surface markers. We previously identified an HLA-A2-presented peptide derived from macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and generated antibody RL21A against this HLA-A2/MIF complex. The objective of the current study was to assess the potential for targeting the HLA-A2/MIF complex in ovarian cancer. First, MIF peptide FLSELTQQL was eluted from the HLA-A2 of the human cancerous ovarian cell lines SKOV3, A2780, OV90, and FHIOSE118hi and detected by mass spectrometry. By flow cytometry, RL21A was shown to specifically stain these four cell lines in the context of HLA-A2. Next, partially matched HLA-A*02:01+ ovarian cancer (n=27) and normal fallopian tube (n=24) tissues were stained with RL21A by immunohistochemistry to assess differential HLA-A2/MIF complex expression. Ovarian tumor tissues revealed significantly increased RL21A staining compared to normal fallopian tube epithelium (p<0.0001), with minimal staining of normal stroma and blood vessels (p<0.0001 and p<0.001 compared to tumor cells) suggesting a therapeutic window. We then demonstrated the anti-cancer activity of toxin-bound RL21A via the dose-dependent killing of ovarian cancer cells. In summary, MIF-derived peptide FLSELTQQL is HLA-A2-presented and recognized by RL21A on ovarian cancer cell lines and patient tumor tissues, and targeting of this HLA-A2/MIF complex with toxin-bound RL21A can induce ovarian cancer cell death. These results suggest that the HLA-A2/MIF complex should be further explored as a cell-surface target for ovarian cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26719579

  1. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Valsami, Serena; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gialeraki, Argyri; Chimonidou, Maria; Politou, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility) have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT) count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization.

  2. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Valsami, Serena; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gialeraki, Argyri; Chimonidou, Maria; Politou, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility) have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT) count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization. PMID:26420927

  3. Existence of an immunoglobulin G component of naturally occurring HLA class I antibodies that are not directed against self-antigens in human serum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, B; Saito, S; Nakazawa, Y; Kobayashi, N; Matsuda, M; Matsumoto, Y; Hosoyama, T; Koike, K

    2008-08-01

    We compared the frequency of immunoglobulin G (IgG) type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antibodies between patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and healthy controls using a highly sensitive FlowPRA method. Sixteen of 130 normal healthy males and 2 of 10 normal females without a history of pregnancy (none had ever been transfused) possessed HLA class I antibodies. In SLE, male, but not female patients, showed a significant increase in the frequency of the antibodies compared with the corresponding controls. The antibodies did not appear to be involved in the development of SLE because of no substantial relationship to the incidence of cytopenia or SLE disease activity index score. Each individual had 1-31 types of HLA class I antibodies. Interestingly, HLA class I antibodies did not correspond to the individual's own HLA antigens. Eight of 32 types of HLA class I antigens detected were rare in the Japanese population. These results suggest that an IgG component of naturally occurring HLA class I antibodies exists in human serum and that these antibodies are not antibodies against self-antigens.

  4. Involvement of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in the invasion of hepatocyte cultures by lymphoma and T-cell hybridoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We studied the interaction of MB6A lymphoma and TAM2D2 T cell hybridoma cells with hepatocyte cultures as an in vitro model for in vivo liver invasion by these tumor cells. A monoclonal antibody against leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) inhibited adhesion of the tumor cells to the surface of hepatocytes and consequently strongly reduced invasion. This effect was specific since control antibodies, directed against Thy.1 and against T200, of the same isotype, similar affinity, and comparable binding to these cells, did not inhibit adhesion. This suggests that LFA-1 is involved in the formation of liver metastases by lymphoma cells. TAM2D2 T cell hybridoma cells were agglutinated by anti- LFA-1, but not by control antibodies. Reduction of adhesion was not due to this agglutination since monovalent Fab fragments inhibited adhesion as well, inhibition was also seen under conditions where agglutination was minimal, and anti-LFA-1 similarly affected adhesion of MB6A lymphoma cells that were not agglutinated. The two cell types differed in LFA-1 surface density. TAM2D2 cells exhibited 400,000 surface LFA-1 molecules, 10 times more than MB6A cells. Nevertheless, the level of adhesion and the extent of inhibition by the anti-LFA-1 antibody were only slightly larger for the TAM2D2 cells. PMID:3301869

  5. Effect of antigen/antibody ratio on macrophage uptake, processing, and presentation to T cells of antigen complexed with polyclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Activation of a galactosidase-specific murine T hybridoma clone and of a human tetanus toxoid-specific T clone by antigen-presenting cells (APC) was used to evaluate the regulatory function of antibodies complexed with the relevant antigen. Complexed antigen, in fact, is taken up with high efficiency thanks to Fc receptors borne by APC. Antibody/antigen ratio in the complexes proved to be a critical parameter in enhancing antigen presentation. Complexes in moderate antibody excess provided optimal T cell activation independently of the physical state of the complexes (precipitated by a second antibody or solubilized by complement). Complexes in extreme antibody excess, on the contrary, did not yield T cell activation although taken up by APC efficiently. The effect of antibodies at extreme excess was observed with substimulatory dose of antigen (loss of potentiation) and with optimal dose of antigen (loss of stimulation). An excess of specific polyclonal antibodies hampers proteolytic degradation of antigen in vitro, supporting the view that a similar mechanism may operate within the APC that have internalized immune complexes in extreme antibody excess. The possibility that immune complex forming in extreme antibody excess may turn off the T cell response is proposed as a regulatory mechanism. PMID:1985125

  6. Antibodies to Citrullinated Protein Antigens (ACPAs): Clinical and Pathophysiologic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Demoruelle, M. Kristen; Deane, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens (ACPAs) are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are useful in the diagnosis of RA as well as the prediction of the course and outcomes of disease. Multiple methodologies exist for measuring ACPAs, including the widely available tests for anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and for antibodies to mutated/modified citrullinated vimentin. These methodologies overall have similar diagnostic accuracies for RA, although there is some variability. The discovery of ACPAs and the biology of citrullination have also led to important advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and development of RA, especially regarding the relationship between potential genetic and environmental risk factors for RA. Going forward, research into autoimmunity to citrullinated proteins may help identify the specific etiology of RA and provide approaches for the prediction of future risk of disease, and ultimately prevention of RA. PMID:21713412

  7. [METHODS FOR DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO HLA ANTIGENS IN PATIENTS AWAITING KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION AND COMBINED PANCREAS-KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION].

    PubMed

    Ančić, Mirela; Maravić, Blaženko; Radman, Maja; Kovačić, Vedran

    2014-12-01

    The best possibility to treat chronic renal disease is renal transplantation. Especially important fact in transplantation is the percentage of so-called panel reactive antibody (PRA) that is focused on the human leukocyte antigen. There are several methods to determine the percentage of PRA in sensitized patients awaiting kidney transplants. The most important is the complement-dependent cytotoxicity. A higher value of PRA implies greater likelihood of positive cross-match with random donor and lower probability of receiving a transplant. Comparing the sensitivity of laboratory tests for determination of PRA percentage in patient serum, it is concluded that ELISA and flow cytometry proved to be more sensitive and specific.

  8. Propofol Shares the Binding Site with Isoflurane and Sevoflurane on Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1

    PubMed Central

    Yuki, Koichi; Bu, Weiming; Xi, Jin; Shimaoka, Motomu; Eckenhoff, Roderic

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that propofol interacted with the leukocyte adhesion molecule leukocyte function–associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and inhibited the production of interleukin-2 via LFA-1 in a dependent manner. However, the binding site(s) of propofol on LFA-1 remains unknown. Methods First, the inhibition of LFA-1's ligand binding by propofol was confirmed in an ELISA-type assay. The binding site of propofol on LFA-1 was probed with a photolabeling experiment using a photoactivatable propofol analog called azi-propofol-m. The adducted residues of LFA-1 by this compound were determined using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, the binding of propofol to the ligand-binding domain of LFA-1 was examined using 1-aminoanthracene (1-AMA) displacement assay. Furthermore, the binding site(s) of 1-AMA and propofol on LFA-1 was studied using the docking program GLIDE. Results We demonstrated that propofol impaired the binding of LFA-1 to its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1. The photolabeling experiment demonstrated that the adducted residues were localized in the allosteric cavity of the ligand-binding domain of LFA-1 called “lovastatin site. ” The shift of fluorescence spectra was observed when 1-AMA was coincubated with the low-affinity conformer of LFA-1 ligand-binding domain (wild-type [WT] αL I domain), not with the high-affinity conformer, suggesting that 1-AMA bound only to WT αL I domain. In the 1-AMA displacement assay, propofol decreased 1-AMA fluorescence signal (at 520 nm), suggesting that propofol competed with 1-AMA and bound to the WT αL I domain. The docking simulation demonstrated that both 1-AMA and propofol bound to the lovastatin site, which agreed with the photolabeling experiment. Conclusions We demonstrated that propofol bound to the lovastatin site in LFA-1. Previously we showed that the volatile anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane bound to this site. Taken together, the lovastatin site is an

  9. Identification of antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies using high-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Li, Ruihua; Liu, Kun; Li, Liangliang; Zai, Xiaodong; Chi, Xiangyang; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-22

    High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire provides a large number of antibody variable region sequences that can be used to generate human monoclonal antibodies. However, current screening methods for identifying antigen-specific antibodies are inefficient. In the present study, we developed an antibody clone screening strategy based on clone dynamics and relative frequency, and used it to identify antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that at least 52% of putative positive immunoglobulin heavy chains composed antigen-specific antibodies. Combining information on dynamics and relative frequency improved identification of positive clones and elimination of negative clones. and increase the credibility of putative positive clones. Therefore the screening strategy could simplify the subsequent experimental screening and may facilitate the generation of antigen-specific antibodies.

  10. Purification and identification of cell surface antigens using lamprey monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuiling; Ali, Shabab; St. Germain, Jonathan; Liu, Yanling; Yu, Xuecong; Jaye, David L.; Moran, Michael F.; Cooper, Max D.; Ehrhardt, Götz R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) B antibodies of the evolutionary distant sea lamprey are structurally distinct from conventional mammalian antibodies. The different protein architecture and large evolutionary distance of jawless vertebrates suggest that VLR antibodies may represent promising tools for biomarker discovery. Here we report the generation of panels of monoclonal VLR antibodies from lamprey larvae immunized with human T cells and the use of a recombinant monoclonal VLR antibody for antigen purification and mass spectrometric identification. We demonstrate that despite predicted low affinity of individual VLR antigen binding units to the antigen, the high avidity resulting from decameric assembly of secreted VLR antibodies allows for efficient antigen capture and subsequent identification by mass spectometry. We show that VLR antibodies detect their antigens with high specificity and can be used in various standard laboratory application techniques. The lamprey antibodies are novel reagents that can complement conventional monoclonal antibodies in multiple scientific research disciplines. PMID:22964555

  11. The influence of storage and leukocyte depletion on the antigen densities of FY1, FY2, MNS3 and MNS4 measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Calonego, Soraia B; Barjas-Castro, Maria de Lourdes; Metze, Konradin; Pereira, Fernanda G; Lorand-Metze, Irene

    2008-04-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) antigens may present changes in density during storage and leukocyte reduction. We evaluated the influence of these variables on FY1, FY2, MNS3 and MNS4 antigens using quantitative flow cytometry (FCM). Forty-eight RBC units were divided into two sub-units each immediately after collection. One of them was leukocyte reduced before storage. Antigen expression was analyzed on days 1 and 35 of storage by gel-centrifugation and FCM. Three RBC samples were submitted to papain and bromelin treatment. The gel-centrifugation test could not detect any influence of storage or leukocyte reduction. However, by FCM, a wide variation of antigen density among the donors was found. Leukocyte depletion did not change the antigen density but after storage, expression of FY1 and MNS4 showed a slight decrease. Median antigenic density of FY1 was 11,332 in FY1,2 and 23,436 in FY1,-2 donors. FY2 presented 7204 and 7868, respectively. MNS4 had 100,589 and 214,340 sites in donors MNS3,4 and MNS-3,4, respectively, and MNS3 had 10,389 and 21,122 sites, respectively. After enzyme treatments none of the antigens could be detected. FCM was a reproducible technique, suitable for the quantification of the antigens studied in RBC concentrates stored and leukocyte reduced in conditions normally used for blood transfusion.

  12. Effect of heparin on antigen-induced airway responses and pulmonary leukocyte accumulation in neonatally immunized rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Janet M H; Page, Clive P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of single administrations of aerosolized heparin, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and the linear polyanionic molecule, polyglutamic acid (PGA) were examined on antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and leukocyte accumulation in neonatally immunized rabbits.Adult litter-matched NZW rabbits immunized within 24 h of birth with Alternaria tenuis antigen were treated with heparin, LMWH or PGA prior to or following antigen challenge (Alternaria tenuis). For each drug-treated group, a parallel group of rabbits were treated with the appropriate vehicle. In all groups, airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 24 h prior to and following antigen challenge.Basal lung function in terms of resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) and acute bronchoconstriction was unaltered by pre-treatment with heparin, LMWH or PGA compared to their respective vehicles 24 h prior to or following antigen challenge.In vehicle-treated animals, airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled histamine was indicated by an increase in the maximal responses of the cumulative concentration-effect curves to histamine and reductions in RLPC50 and CdynPC35 values 24 h following antigen challenge.Heparin and LMWH given prior to antigen challenge significantly inhibited the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, whereas PGA did not. When given following antigen challenge, all three drugs failed to inhibit the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.Eosinophil and neutrophil cell numbers in BAL fluid increased significantly 24 h following antigen challenge. Heparin, LMWH and PGA failed to inhibit the increase in cell numbers following antigen challenge whether given prior to or following antigen challenge. PMID:10780962

  13. Antibody-antigen kinetics constrain intracellular humoral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bottermann, Maria; Lode, Heidrun Elisabeth; Watkinson, Ruth E.; Foss, Stian; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje; James, Leo C.

    2016-01-01

    During infection with non-enveloped viruses, antibodies stimulate immunity from inside cells by activating the cytosolic Fc receptor TRIM21. This intracellular humoral response relies on opsonized viral particles reaching the cytosol intact but the antigenic and kinetic constraints involved are unknown. We have solved the structure of a potent TRIM21-dependent neutralizing antibody in complex with human adenovirus 5 hexon and show how these properties influence immune activity. Structure-guided mutagenesis was used to generate antibodies with 20,000-fold variation in affinity, on-rates that differ by ~50-fold and off-rates by >175-fold. Characterization of these variants during infection revealed that TRIM21-dependent neutralization and NFκB activation was largely unaffected by on-rate kinetics. In contrast, TRIM21 antiviral activity was exquisitely dependent upon off-rate, with sub-μM affinity antibodies nevertheless unable to stimulate signaling because of fast dissociation kinetics. These results define the antibody properties required to elicit an efficient intracellular immune response during viral infection. PMID:27881870

  14. Protective antibody titres and antigenic competition in multivalent Dichelobacter nodosus fimbrial vaccines using characterised rDNA antigens.

    PubMed

    Raadsma, H W; O'Meara, T J; Egerton, J R; Lehrbach, P R; Schwartzkoff, C L

    1994-03-01

    The relationship between K-agglutination antibody titres and protection against experimental challenge with Dichelobacter nodosus, the effect of increasing the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, and the importance of the nature of additional antigens in multivalent vaccines on antibody response and protection against experimental challenge with D. nodosus were examined in Merino sheep. A total of 204 Merino sheep were allocated to one of 12 groups, and vaccinated with preparations containing a variable number of rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial antigens. The most complex vaccine contained ten fimbrial antigens from all major D. nodosus serogroups, while the least complex contained a single fimbrial antigen. In addition to D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, other bacterial rDNA fimbrial antigens (Moraxella bovis Da12d and Escherichia coli K99), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used in some vaccines. Antibody titres to fimbrial antigens and BSA were measured by agglutination and ELISA tests, respectively. Antibody titres were determined on five occasions (Weeks 0, 3, 6, 8, and 11 after primary vaccination). All sheep were exposed to an experimental challenge with virulent isolates of D. nodosus from either serogroup A or B, 8 weeks after primary vaccination. For D. nodosus K-agglutinating antibody titres, a strong negative correlation between antibody titre and footrot lesion score was observed. This relationship was influenced by the virulence of the challenge strain. Increasing the number of fimbrial antigens in experimental rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial vaccines resulted in a linear decrease in K-agglutinating antibody titres to individual D. nodosus serogroups. Similarly, a linear decrease in protection to challenge with homologous serogroups was observed as the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens represented in the vaccine increased. The reduction in antibody titres in multicomponent vaccines is thought to be due to antigenic competition. The level of competition

  15. Regression Mapping of Association between the Human Leukocyte Antigen Region and Graves Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Matthew J.; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Heward, Joanne M.; Cordell, Heather J.; Foxall, Helen; Carr-Smith, Jackie; Gibson, Sarah M.; Walker, Neil; Tomer, Yaron; Franklyn, Jayne A.; Todd, John A.; Gough, Stephen C. L.

    2005-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen class II genes DRB1, DQB1, and DQA1 are associated with Graves disease (GD), but, because of strong linkage disequilibrium within this region, the primary etiological variant(s) remains unknown. In the present study, 871 patients with GD and 621 control subjects were genotyped at the DRB1, DQB1, and DQA1 loci. All three loci were associated with GD (P=1.45×10-12, P=3.20×10-5, and P=9.26×10-12, respectively). Stepwise logistic-regression analysis showed that the association could be explained by either DRB1 or DQA1 but not by DQB1. To extend previous results, the amino acid sequence of the exon 2–encoded peptide-binding domain of DRB1 was predicted for each subject, and, by use of logistic regression, each position was analyzed for association with GD. Of 102 amino acids, 70 were uninformative; of the remaining 32 amino acids, 13 were associated with GD (P values ranged from 2.20×10-4 to 1.2×10-12). The strongest association was at position β74. This analysis is consistent with the possibility that position β74 of exon 2 of the DRB1 molecule may have a specific and central role in autoantigen presentation by DRB1 to T lymphocytes. However, we cannot yet exclude a primary role for DQA1 or for other polymorphisms that affect DRB1 function or expression. PMID:15558498

  16. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the swine leukocyte antigen 3 gene from Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Chung, H Y; Choi, Y C; Park, H N

    2015-05-18

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between pig breeds, compared the genetic similarity between humans and pigs, and provided basic genetic information on Korean native pigs (KNPs), using genetic variants of the swine leukocyte antigen 3 (SLA-3) gene. Primers were based on sequences from GenBank (accession Nos. AF464010 and AF464009). Polymerase chain reaction analysis amplified approximately 1727 bp of segments, which contained 1086 bp of coding regions and 641 bp of the 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones of miniature pigs were used for sequencing the SLA-3 genomic region, which was 3114 bp in total length, including the coding (1086 bp) and non-coding (2028 bp) regions. Sequence analysis detected 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on a minor allele frequency greater than 0.01, which is low compared with other pig breeds, and the results suggest that there is low genetic variability in KNPs. Comparative analysis revealed that humans possess approximately three times more genetic variation than do pigs. Approximately 71% of SNPs in exons 2 and 3 were detected in KNPs, and exon 5 in humans is a highly polymorphic region. Newly identified sequences of SLA-3 using KNPs were submitted to GenBank (accession No. DQ992512-18). Cluster analysis revealed that KNPs were grouped according to three major alleles: SLA-3*0502 (DQ992518), SLA-3*0302 (DQ992513 and DQ992516), and SLA-3*0303 (DQ992512, DQ992514, DQ992515, and DQ992517). Alignments revealed that humans have a relatively close genetic relationship with pigs and chimpanzees. The information provided by this study may be useful in KNP management.

  17. Screening for arthrofibrosis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: analysis of association with human leukocyte antigen.

    PubMed

    Skutek, Michael; Elsner, Holger-A; Slateva, Kalina; Mayr, Hermann-O; Weig, Thomas-G; van Griensven, Martijn; Krettek, Christian; Bosch, Ulrich

    2004-05-01

    Arthrofibrosis represents a severe complication of trauma and reconstructive joint surgery because of generalized connective tissue proliferation resulting in painful joint stiffness. It often appears stereotypical in terms of its clinical and pathologic features, comprising excess deposition of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen type I, III, and VI and proliferation of fibroblasts. However, trauma and surgery around joints does not always lead to fibrosis, suggesting a genetic predisposition. For a number of autoimmune diseases, strong associations have been described. The objective of the study was to investigate whether an association of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) with primary arthrofibrosis exists. Retrospective cohort study. Seventeen patients with primary arthrofibrosis after autologous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were identified and clinically reviewed. Blood samples were taken, and DNA was isolated by column extraction method. DNA samples were typed for the loci HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1. Results were compared with the frequencies of allelic groups as determined for the caucasoid population. HLA-Cw*07 was significantly less often found in the patient group than in the general population (P =.022). The opposite effect was seen for Cw*08, which was found in 17.6% of the patient group but only in 3.8% of the reference group (P =.045). A significant difference was also seen for DQB1*06, because 23.5% of the patients but 48.6% of the reference group possessed an allelic variant of this group (P =.048). However, according to the relatively small number of patients, a statistical bias cannot be excluded. A possible link may exist between arthrofibrosis and HLA-Cw*07- and DQB1*06-negative as well as Cw*08-positive individuals. Further investigation is necesessary to confirm or vitiate the possible association. Level IV.

  18. Cytomegalovirus and cancer after kidney transplantation: Role of the human leukocyte antigen system?

    PubMed

    Wong, Germaine; Chakera, Aron; Chapman, Jeremy R; Chadban, Steve C; Pilmore, Helen; Craig, Jonathan C; Lim, Wai H

    2017-02-01

    The role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cancer development after transplantation remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between donor and recipient CMV serological status and the risk of cancer development after kidney transplantation. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) Registry, we assessed the association between CMV donor/recipient (D/R) serological status and the risk of solid organ cancers in primary adult deceased-donor kidney transplant patients between 1990 and 2012. Of 8140 recipients, a total of 895 (11%) recipients developed incident cancers during a follow-up time of 51 555 person-years. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches was an effect modifier between CMV serological status and cancer (P=.03 for interaction). In recipients who have received 0-2 HLA-ABDR mismatched kidneys, the adjusted hazard ratios for cancer incidence among those with CMV D-/R-, CMV D-/R+, and CMV D+/R- were 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24-0.91), 1.42 (95% CI: 0.97-2.07), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67-1.57), respectively compared with the reference of CMV D+/R+. A similar association was not observed in those with >2 HLA-ABDR mismatches. CMV D-/R- status was associated with a reduced risk of cancer in kidney transplant recipients who have received well-matched renal allografts, suggesting a potential role of HLA matching in cancer development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The link between some alleles on human leukocyte antigen system and autism in children.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gehan A; Shehab, Abeer A; Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y

    2013-02-15

    The reason behind the initiation of autoimmunity to brain in some patients with autism is not well understood. There is an association between some autoimmune disorders and specific alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Thus, we examined the frequency of some HLA-DRB1 alleles in 100 autistic children and 100 healthy matched-children by differential hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. The risk of association between acquisition or absence of these alleles and autism and also a history of autoimmune diseases in autistic relatives was studied. Autistic children had significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 allele than controls (P<0.001). In contrast, autistic children had significantly lower frequency of HLA-DRB1*03 allele than controls (P<0.001). Acquisition of HLA-DRB1*011 and absence of HLA-DRB1*3 had significant risk for association with autism (odds ratio: 3.21 and 0.17, respectively; 95% CI: 1.65-6.31 and 0.06-0.45, respectively). HLA-DRB1*11 had a significant risk for association with a family history of autoimmunity in autistic children (odds ratio: 5.67; 95% CI: 2.07-16.3). In conclusions, the link of some HLA alleles to autism and to family history of autoimmunity indicates the possible contributing role of these alleles to autoimmunity in some autistic children. Despite a relatively small sample size, we are the first to report a probable protective association of HLA-DRB1*03 allele with autism. It warrants a replication study of a larger sample to validate the HLA-DRB1 genetic association with autism. This is important to determine whether therapeutic modulations of the immune function are legitimate avenues for novel therapy in selected cases of autism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanded dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping reveals spurious class II associations

    PubMed Central

    Safra, N.; Pedersen, N.C.; Wolf, Z.; Johnson, E.G.; Liu, H.W.; Hughes, A.M.; Young, A.; Bannasch, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) system contains many of the functional genes of the immune system, thereby making it a candidate region for involvement in immune-mediated disorders. A number of studies have identified associations between specific DLA class II haplotypes and canine immune hemolytic anemia, thyroiditis, immune polyarthritis, type I diabetes mellitus, hypoadrenocorticism, systemic lupus erythematosus-related disease complex, necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) and anal furunculosis. These studies have relied on sequencing approximately 300 bases of exon 2 of each of the DLA class II genes: DLA-DRB1, DLA-DQA1 and DLA-DQB1. An association (odds ratio = 4.29) was identified by this method between Weimaraner dogs with hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD) and DLA-DRB1*01501. In the present study, a genotyping assay of 126 coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from across the entire DLA, spanning a region of 2.5 Mb (3,320,000–5,830,000) on CFA12, was developed and tested on Weimaraners with HOD, as well as two additional breeds with diseases associated with DLA class II: Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers with hypoadrenocorticism and Pug dogs with NME. No significant associations were found between Weimaraners with HOD or Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers with hypoadrenocorticism and SNPs spanning the DLA region. In contrast, significant associations were found with NME in Pug dogs, although the associated region extended beyond the class II genes. By including a larger number of genes from a larger genomic region a SNP genotyping assay was generated that provides coverage of the extended DLA region and may be useful in identifying and fine mapping DLA associations in dogs. PMID:21741283

  1. Human leukocyte antigen-B27 alleles in Xinjiang Uygur patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Zou, H-Y; Yu, W-Z; Wang, Z; He, J; Jiao, M

    2015-05-25

    We investigated the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang. B27-positive patients with ankylosing spondylitis were subtyped by using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing. The HLA-B27 subtype frequencies of Uygur patients were compared with those in Han patients in Xinjiang and the other areas of China. B*2705 was the predominant subtype in Uygur patients with a frequency of 58.95%, which was much higher than that in Han patients in Xinjiang (31.58%, P < 0.05) and the other areas of China (excluding the Shandong region, which was 63.89%). The frequency of B*2704 (27.37%) in Uygur patients was the lowest and significantly lower than that in Han patients (61.18%, P < 0.05) and in 8 other areas of China. B*2710 has not been previously reported in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients; B*2704 was the main (61.18%) subtype in Han patients in Xinjiang, followed by B*2705 (31.58%) and was similar to the characteristics of Han patients in the other areas of China. B*2724 in Han ankylosing spondylitis patients has not been previously reported. Additionally, the B*2702/B*2705 homozygote was identified in Uygur patients. B*2702/B*2704, B*2704/B*2705, and B*2705/B*2705 homozygotes were identified in 3 Han patients. The distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang significantly differed from that in Han patients. Understanding the distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in ethnic minority populations of Xinjiang is important for anthropological genetic studies and for analyzing the impact of genetic background on ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility.

  2. Using high-resolution human leukocyte antigen typing of 11,423 randomized unrelated individuals to determine allelic varieties, deduce probable human leukocyte antigen haplotypes, and observe linkage disequilibria between human leukocyte antigen-B and-C and human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 and-DQB1 alleles in the Taiwanese Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Hsee-Bin

    2017-01-01

    We report here the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allelic variety and haplotype composition in a cohort of the Taiwanese Chinese population and their patterns of linkage disequilibria on HLA-B: HLA-C alleles and HLA-DRB1: HLA-DQB1 alleles at a high-resolution level. Peripheral whole blood from 11,423 Taiwanese Chinese unrelated individuals was collected in acid citrate dextrose. Genomic DNA was extracted using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit. The DNA material was subjected to HLA genotyping for HLA-A,-B,-C,-DRB1, and-DQB1 loci using a commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) kit, the SeCore(®) A/B/C/DRB1/DQB1 Locus Sequencing kit. High-resolution allelic sequencing was performed as previously described. The number of individual HLA-B alleles detected was greater than the number of alleles recognized in the both the HLA-A and-DRB1 loci. Several novel alleles were discovered as a result of employing the SBT method and the high number of donors tested. In addition, we observed a genetic polymorphic feature of association between HLA-A and-B, HLA-B and-C, and HLA-DRB1 and-DQB1 alleles. Further, the homozygous haplotype frequencies of HLA-A and-B; HLA-A,-C, and-B; HLA-A,-C,-B, and-DRB1; and HLA-A,-C,-B,-DRB1, and-DQB1 in Taiwanese Chinese population are presented. As increasing number of HLA alleles are being discovered, periodic HLA profile investigation in a given population is essential to recognize the HLA complexity in that population. Population study can also provide an up-to-date strategic plan for future needs in terms of compatibility measurement for HLA matching between transplant donors and patients.

  3. Association of human leukocyte A, B, and DR antigens in Colombian patients with diagnosis of spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana M; Peña, Paola; Avila, Mabel; Briceño, Ignacio; Jaramillo, Carlos; Vargas-Alarcon, Gilberto; Rueda, Juan C; Saldarriaga, Eugenia-Lucia; Angarita, Jose-Ignacio; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nancy; Londono, John

    2017-04-01

    There is substantial evidence that non-B27 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Studies in Mexican and Tunisian populations demonstrated the association of SpA and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B15. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of HLA-A, B, and DR antigens in a group of Colombian patients with a diagnosis of SpA. A total of 189 patients and 100 healthy subjects were included in the present study. All subjects underwent a complete characterization of HLA alleles A, B, and DR. Of the 189 studied patients, 35 were reactive arthritis (ReA), 87 were ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and 67 undifferentiated SpA (uSpA). According to the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria, 167 were axial SpA (axSpA) and 171 were peripheral SpA (pSpA). 63.8% were men, with a mean age of 35.9 ± 12.7 years. 40.7% (77/189) of patients were HLA-B27 positive of which 52.9% had AS and 42.5% axSpA. 23.2% (44/189) of patients were HLA-B15 positive: 23.8% were uSpA, 12.57% were axSpA, and 11.7% were pSpA. In addition, HLA-DRB1*01 was associated with AS (58.6%) and axSpA (42.5%). Also, HLA-DRB1*04 was present in 62 patients with AS (71.2%) and in 26 with axSpA (15.5%). In this population, we found a strong association between the presence of HLA-B27 and the diagnosis of axSpA and AS, but the HLA-B15 is also significantly associated with all subtypes of the disease, predominantly with pSpA. Additionally, HLA-DR1 and DR4 were associated in a cohort of patients with SpA from Colombia.

  4. Heterotropic modulation of selectin affinity by allosteric antibodies affects leukocyte rolling

    PubMed Central

    Riese, Sebastian B; Kuehne, Christian; Tedder, Thomas F; Hallmann, Rupert; Hohenester, Erhard; Buscher, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Selectins are a family of adhesion receptors designed for efficient leukocyte tethering to the endothelium under shear. As a key property to resist premature bond disruption, selectin adhesiveness is enhanced by tensile forces that promote the conversion of a bent into an extended conformation of the N-terminal lectin and EGF-like domains. Conformation-specific antibodies have been invaluable in deciphering the activation mechanism of integrins, but similar reagents are not available for selectins. Here we show that the anti-human L-selectin monoclonal antibodies DREG-55 and LAM1.5 but not DREG-56, -200 or LAM1.1 heterotropically modulate adhesion presumably by stabilizing the extended receptor conformation. Force-free affinity assays, flow chamber and microkinetic studies reveal a ligand-specific modulation of L-selectin affinity by DREG-55 mAb, resulting in a dramatic decrease of rolling velocity under flow. Furthermore, secondary tethering of polymorphonuclear cells was blocked by DREG-200 but significantly boosted by DREG-55 mAb. The results emphasize the need for a new classification for selectin antibodies and introduce the new concept of heterotropic modulation of receptor function. PMID:24431230

  5. Effect of pH on antigen binding by clonotypic antibodies with different isoelectric points

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Y.; Miyai, K.; Hata, N.; Iijima, Y.

    1987-02-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antibodies to thyroxine, human myoglobin, human growth hormone, human thyrotropin, human alpha-fetoprotein, and human thyroglobulin were fractionated into clonotypic antibodies with different isoelectric points by agarose isoelectric focusing or chromatofocusing. The effect of pH on the binding of these antigens by their respective clonotypic antibodies was assessed by radioimmunoassay. The profiles of the pH effect differed both for different antigens and for different pI's of the antibodies used. The pH optima in the radioimmunoassays for protein antigens were found to be expressed as a function of pI and molecular weight of both antigen and antibody molecules.

  6. ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY REACTIONS IN ALLERGIC HUMAN TISSUES

    PubMed Central

    Rappaport, Ben Z.

    1960-01-01

    Skin sensitizing human antibodies were conjugated with various fluorescent dyes without significant loss in their ability to combine with specific antigen in vitro. A biopsy of the skin site challenged with egg albumin in a patient sensitive to this antigen could be stained specifically by the fluorescent reagins. The epithelial cells of the epidermis, sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands in such a challenged site showed specific staining. In addition to the epithelial cells, the most intense staining was in macrophages and in pericapillary cells. The endothelium of the small blood vessels stained less intensely. Fibrous tissue bundles were specifically stained. The immunologic staining with the conjugated reagins was similar to but more intense than that obtained with conjugated rabbit anti-egg albumin globulins. PMID:13739590

  7. Kinetics of Taenia solium antibodies and antigens in experimental taeniosis.

    PubMed

    Avila, Guillermina; Benitez, Marcela; Aguilar-Vega, Laura; Flisser, Ana

    2003-03-01

    Two groups of hamsters were infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, one of which was suppressed with methyl-prednisolone acetate on the day of infection and every 14 days thereafter. The other did not receive steroid treatment. Faecal and serum samples were taken prior to infection and then at weekly intervals. Parasite circulating- and coproantigens were detected by a capture ELISA with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against T. solium tapeworms. IgG antibodies in serum and in faecal supernatants were detected by ELISA with excretory-secretory products of T. solium adults recovered from hamsters. Infections remained up to 17 weeks in suppressed hamsters, but after week 11 no tapeworms were found in non-suppressed hosts. T. solium coproantigens in both groups of hamsters were positive from the 1st week post-infection (wpi) until the tapeworms were rejected. Circulating antigens were detected only in non-suppressed hamsters from the 3rd wpi until 1 week before T. solium was eliminated. All infected hamsters developed serum IgG antibodies against tapeworms which were detected from the 2nd wpi and decreased slowly after T. solium expulsion. Specific IgG in faecal supernatants was detected from the 3rd wpi only in non-suppressed hamsters. When suppression was stopped, coproantibodies could also be detected. The presence of IgG antibodies indicates that tapeworms induced an immune response in the experimental host and that when hamsters were suppressed with corticosteroids the immune response was impaired and did not allow the detection of IgG coproantibodies. This indicates, in addition, that the passage of T. solium antigens from the small intestine to the circulation was blocked.

  8. Bacterial surface antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies: the methanogens

    SciTech Connect

    Conway de Macario, E.; Macario, A.J.L.; Magarinos, M.C.; Jovell, R.J.; Kandler, O.

    1982-01-01

    The methanogens (MB) are unique microbes of great evolutionary interest with applications in biotechnology-bioengineerings and are important in digestive processes. Their cell-wall composition is distinctively different from that of Eubacteria, e.g. the Methanobacteriaceae possess the peptidoglycan pseudomurein rather than murein. The range of cell-wall compositions among MB and their evolutionary and functional significance is not well known. The authors undertook a systematic study of the MB's surface structure using monoclonal antibodies through the following steps: (1) generation of hybridomas that produce antibody to several MB from 3 of their 4 families; (2) development of immunoenzymatic assays for MB's antigens and antibodies; (3) determination of the fine specificity of monoclonal antibodies by inhibition-blocking tests using cell-wall extracts and compounds of known structure; thus a set of monoclonal probes of predetermined specificity was assembled; and (4) resolution of surface determinants of MB representative of the Methanobacteriaceae using the monoclonal probes. Specific markers of MB strains were characterized. Two epitopes were identified within the pseudomurein molecule.

  9. Specificity of immunoglobulin M antibodies in normal human serum that participate in opsonophagocytosis and intracellular killing of Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron by by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bjornson, A B; Bjornson, H S; Kitko, B P

    1980-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the specificity of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in normal human serum that participate in opsonophagocytosis and intracellular killing of Bacteroides fragilis 1365 and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron 1343 by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Purified normal human IgM was adsorbed with washed heat-killed cells of the homologous strains and heterologous strains of B. fragilis, B. thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides distasonis, and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus and with erythrocytes coated with outer membrane complex prepared from the homologous strains. Hypogammaglobulinemic serum was supplemented with the adsorbed IgM preparations, and the ability of the supplemented sera to support opsonophagocytosis and killing of B. fragilis 1365 and B. thetaiotaomicron 1343 by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was measured in vitro under anaerobic conditions. Normal IgM adsorbed with heat-killed cells of B. fragilis 1365 and B. thetaiotaomicron 1343 or with erythrocytes coated with outer membrane complex prepared from these strains failed to restore the ability of hypogammaglobulinemic serum to support opsonophagocytosis and intracellular killing of the homologous strain. In contrast, adsorption of normal IgM with heat-killed cells of the heterologous strains did not alter its opsonophagocytosis-promoting activity for either test strain. These results indicated that the IgM antibodies in normal human serum that participate in opsonophagocytosis and intracellular killing of B. fragilis 1365 and B. thetaiotaomicron 1343 are directed against strain-specific antigenic determinants contained in the outer membrane complex. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6160104

  10. Suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses in mice ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    T-cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) are suppressed in female C57BL/6N mice exposed to ≥3.75 mg/kg of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for 15 days. To determine if suppression of humoral immunity by PFOA is peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARa)-dependent and if suppression is associated with specific targeting of T- or B-cells, three separate experiments were conducted: (1) female PPARa constitutive knockout (PPARa KO; B6.129S4-Ppar(tm1Gonz)N12) and wild-type controls (WT; C57BL/6-Tac) exposed to 0, 7.5, or 30 mg PFOA/kg for 15 days were immunized on Day 11 with a T-cell-dependent antigen and sera then collected for measures of antigen-specific lgM titers (TDAR) 5 days later; (2) female C57BL/6N WT mice exposed to 0, 0.94, 1.88, 3.75, or 7.5mg PFOA/kg for 15 days were immunized with a T-cell-independent antigen on Day 11 and sera were then collected foranalyses of antigen-specific lgM titers (TIAR) 7 days later; and (3) splenic lymphocyte phenotypes were assessed in unimmunized female C57BL/6N WT mice exposed to 0, 3.75, or 7.5 mg PFOA/kg for 10 days to investigate effects of PFOA in the absence of specific immunization. Separate groups of mice were immunized with a T-cell-dependent antigen after 11 days of exposure and splenic lymphocyte sub-populations were assessed after 13 or 15 days of exposure to assess numbers of stimulated cells. The results indicated that exposure to ≥1.88mg PFOA/kg suppressed the TIAR; exposure to 30 mg PFOA/k

  11. Novel Antibodies Reactive with Sialyl Lewis X in Both Humans and Mice Define Its Critical Role in Leukocyte Trafficking and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Ryuji; Hirakawa, Jotaro; Sato, Kaori; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Nagai, Motoe; Fukuda, Minoru; Imai, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Hiroto

    2015-06-12

    Sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x)) antigen functions as a common carbohydrate determinant recognized by all three members of the selectin family. However, its expression and function in mice remain undefined due to the poor reactivity of conventional anti-sLe(x) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with mouse tissues. Here, we developed novel anti-sLe(x) mAbs, termed F1 and F2, which react well with both human and mouse sLe(x), by immunizing fucosyltransferase (FucT)-IV and FucT-VII doubly deficient mice with 6-sulfo-sLe(x)-expressing cells transiently transfected with an expression vector encoding CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase. F1 and F2 specifically bound both the N-acetyl and the N-glycolyl forms of sLe(x) as well as 6-sulfo-sLe(x), a major ligand for L-selectin expressed in high endothelial venules, and efficiently blocked physiological lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes in mice. Importantly, both of the mAbs inhibited contact hypersensitivity responses not only when administered in the L-selectin-dependent sensitization phase but also when administered in the elicitation phase in mice. When administered in the latter phase, F1 and F2 efficiently blocked rolling of mouse leukocytes along blood vessels expressing P- and E-selectin in the auricular skin in vivo. Consistent with these findings, the mAbs blocked P- and E-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling in a flow chamber assay. Taken together, these results indicate that novel anti-sLe(x) mAbs reactive with both human and mouse tissues, with the blocking ability against leukocyte trafficking mediated by all three selectins, have been established. These mAbs should be useful in determining the role of sLe(x) antigen under physiological and pathological conditions. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Swine Leukocyte Antigen Diversity in Canadian Specific Pathogen-Free Yorkshire and Landrace Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Caixia; Quan, Jinqiang; Jiang, Xinjie; Li, Changwen; Lu, Xiaoye; Chen, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    The highly polymorphic swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), termed swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), is associated with different levels of immunologic responses to infectious diseases, vaccines, and transplantation. Pig breeds with known SLA haplotypes are important genetic resources for biomedical research. Canadian Yorkshire and Landrace pigs represent the current specific pathogen-free (SPF) breeding stock maintained in the isolation environment at the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. In this study, we identified 61 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-2, SLA-3, DRB1, and DQB1) representing 17 class I haplotypes and 11 class II haplotypes using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence-based typing and PCR-sequence specific primers methods in 367 Canadian SPF Yorkshire and Landrace pigs. The official designation of the alleles has been assigned by the SLA Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Animal Genetics and released in updated Immuno Polymorphism Database-MHC SLA sequence database [Release 2.0.0.3 (2016-11-03)]. The submissions confirmed some unassigned alleles and standardized nomenclatures of many previously unconfirmed alleles in the GenBank database. Three class I haplotypes, Hp-37.0, 63.0, and 73.0, appeared to be novel and have not previously been reported in other pig populations. One crossover within the class I region and two between class I and class II regions were observed, resulting in three new recombinant haplotypes. The presence of the duplicated SLA-1 locus was confirmed in three class I haplotypes Hp-28.0, Hp-35.0, and Hp-63.0. Furthermore, we also analyzed the functional diversities of 19 identified frequent SLA class I molecules in this study and confirmed the existence of four supertypes using the MHCcluster method. These results will be useful for studying the adaptive immune response and immunological phenotypic differences in

  13. Association of human leukocyte antigen donor-recipient matching and pediatric heart transplant graft survival.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ryan J; Scheurer, Mark A; Atz, Andrew M; Moussa, Omar; Burnette, Ali L; Hulsey, Thomas C; Savage, Andrew J

    2014-07-01

    The effect of donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching on outcomes remains relatively unexplored in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of donor-recipient HLA matching on graft survival in pediatric heart transplantation. The UNOS (United Network for Organ Sharing) database was queried for heart transplants occurring between October 31, 1987, and December 31, 2012, in a recipient aged ≤17 years with ≥1 postoperative follow-up visit. Retransplants were excluded. Transplants were divided into 3 donor-recipient matching groups: no HLA matches (HLA-no), 1 or 2 HLA matches (HLA-low), and 3 to 6 HLA matches (HLA-high). Primary outcome was graft loss. Four thousand four hundred seventy-one heart transplants met the study inclusion criteria. High degree of donor-recipient HLA matching occurred infrequently: HLA-high (n=269; 6%) versus HLA-low (n=2683; 60%) versus HLA-no (n=1495; 34%). There were no differences between HLA matching groups in the frequency of coronary vasculopathy (P=0.19) or rejection in the first post-transplant year (P=0.76). Improved graft survival was associated with a greater degree of HLA donor-recipient matching: HLA-high median survival, 17.1 (95% confidence interval, 14.0-20.2) years; HLA-low median survival, 14.2 (13.1-15.4) years; and HLA-no median survival, 12.1 (10.9-13.3 years) years; P<0.01, log-rank test. In Cox-regression analysis, HLA matching was independently associated with decreased graft loss: HLA-low versus HLA-no hazard ratio, 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99), P=0.04; HLA-high versus HLA-no, 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.90), P<0.01. Decreased graft loss in pediatric heart transplantation was associated with a higher degree of donor-recipient HLA matching, although a difference in the frequency of early rejection or development of coronary artery vasculopathy was not seen. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Association of Human Leukocyte Antigen Donor-Recipient Matching and Pediatric Heart Transplant Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Ryan J.; Scheurer, Mark A.; Atz, Andrew M.; Moussa, Omar; Burnette, Ali L.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Savage, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching on outcomes remains relatively unexplored in pediatric patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of donor-recipient HLA matching on graft survival in pediatric heart transplantation. Methods and Results The UNOS database was queried for heart transplants occurring between October 31, 1987 to December 31, 2012 in a recipient aged ≤ 17 with at least one postoperative follow-up visit. Retransplants were excluded. Transplants were divided into 3 donor-recipient matching groups: no HLA matches (HLA-no), 1 or 2 HLA matches (HLA-low), and 3-6 HLA matches (HLA-high). Primary outcome was graft loss. 4471 heart transplants met study inclusion criteria. High degree of donor-recipient HLA matching occurred infrequently; (HLA-high n=269 (6 %) v. HLA-low n=2683 (60%) v. HLA-no n=1495 (34%). There were no differences between HLA matching groups in frequency of coronary vasculopathy (p=0.19) or rejection in the first post-transplant year (p=0.76). Improved graft survival was associated with a greater degree of HLA donor-recipient matching: HLA-high median survival 17.1yrs (14.0-20.2yrs, 95%CI), HLA-low median survival 14.2yrs (13.1-15.4), and HLA-no median survival 12.1yrs (10.9-13.3), p<0.01 log rank test. In Cox-regression analysis, HLA matching was independently associated with decreased graft loss [HLA-low v. HLA-no HR 0.86 (0.74-0.99, 95%CI), p=0.04; HLA-high v. HLA-no 0.62 (0.43-0.90, 95%CI), p<0.01]. Conclusions Decreased graft loss in pediatric heart transplantation was associated with a higher degree of donor-recipient HLA matching, although a difference in the frequency of early rejection or development of coronary artery vasculopathy was not seen. PMID:24833649

  15. Understanding and predicting binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides by network analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background As the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are one of the most polymorphic genes in humans. Patients carrying certain HLA alleles may develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after taking specific drugs. Peptides play an important role in HLA related ADRs as they are the necessary co-binders of HLAs with drugs. Many experimental data have been generated for understanding HLA-peptide binding. However, efficiently utilizing the data for understanding and accurately predicting HLA-peptide binding is challenging. Therefore, we developed a network analysis based method to understand and predict HLA-peptide binding. Methods Qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data were harvested and prepared from four major databases. An HLA-peptide binding network was constructed from this dataset and modules were identified by the fast greedy modularity optimization algorithm. To examine the significance of signals in the yielded models, the modularity was compared with the modularity values generated from 1,000 random networks. The peptides and HLAs in the modules were characterized by similarity analysis. The neighbor-edges based and unbiased leverage algorithm (Nebula) was developed for predicting HLA-peptide binding. Leave-one-out (LOO) validations and two-fold cross-validations were conducted to evaluate the performance of Nebula using the constructed HLA-peptide binding network. Results Nine modules were identified from analyzing the HLA-peptide binding network with a highest modularity compared to all the random networks. Peptide length and functional side chains of amino acids at certain positions of the peptides were different among the modules. HLA sequences were module dependent to some extent. Nebula archived an overall prediction accuracy of 0.816 in the LOO validations and average accuracy of 0.795 in the two-fold cross-validations and outperformed the method reported in the literature. Conclusions Network analysis is a

  16. Understanding and predicting binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides by network analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Mattes, William; Mendrick, Donna; Hong, Huixiao

    2015-01-01

    As the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are one of the most polymorphic genes in humans. Patients carrying certain HLA alleles may develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after taking specific drugs. Peptides play an important role in HLA related ADRs as they are the necessary co-binders of HLAs with drugs. Many experimental data have been generated for understanding HLA-peptide binding. However, efficiently utilizing the data for understanding and accurately predicting HLA-peptide binding is challenging. Therefore, we developed a network analysis based method to understand and predict HLA-peptide binding. Qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data were harvested and prepared from four major databases. An HLA-peptide binding network was constructed from this dataset and modules were identified by the fast greedy modularity optimization algorithm. To examine the significance of signals in the yielded models, the modularity was compared with the modularity values generated from 1,000 random networks. The peptides and HLAs in the modules were characterized by similarity analysis. The neighbor-edges based and unbiased leverage algorithm (Nebula) was developed for predicting HLA-peptide binding. Leave-one-out (LOO) validations and two-fold cross-validations were conducted to evaluate the performance of Nebula using the constructed HLA-peptide binding network. Nine modules were identified from analyzing the HLA-peptide binding network with a highest modularity compared to all the random networks. Peptide length and functional side chains of amino acids at certain positions of the peptides were different among the modules. HLA sequences were module dependent to some extent. Nebula archived an overall prediction accuracy of 0.816 in the LOO validations and average accuracy of 0.795 in the two-fold cross-validations and outperformed the method reported in the literature. Network analysis is a useful approach for analyzing large and

  17. Human leukocyte antigen class I supertypes and HIV-1 control in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Song, Wei; Lobashevsky, Elena; Tang, Jianming; Shrestha, Sadeep; Zhang, Kui; Gardner, Lytt I; McNicholl, Janet M; Wilson, Craig M; Klein, Robert S; Rompalo, Anne; Mayer, Kenneth; Sobel, Jack; Kaslow, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    The role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I supertypes in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in African Americans has not been established. We examined the effects of the HLA-A and HLA-B alleles and supertypes on the outcomes of HIV-1 clade B infection among 338 African American women and adolescents. HLA-B58 and -B62 supertypes (B58s and B62s) were associated with favorable HIV-1 disease control (proportional odds ratio [POR] of 0.33 and 95% confidence interval [95% CI] of 0.21 to 0.52 for the former and POR of 0.26 and 95% CI of 0.09 to 0.73 for the latter); B7s and B44s were associated with unfavorable disease control (POR of 2.39 and 95% CI of 1.54 to 3.73 for the former and POR of 1.63 and 95% CI of 1.08 to 2.47 for the latter). In general, individual alleles within specific B supertypes exerted relatively homogeneous effects. A notable exception was B27s, whose protective influence (POR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.94) was masked by the opposing effect of its member allele B*1510. The associations of most B supertypes (e.g., B58s and B7s) were largely explained either by well-known effects of constituent B alleles or by effects of previously unimplicated B alleles aggregated into a particular supertype (e.g., B44s and B62s). A higher frequency of HLA-B genotypic supertypes correlated with a higher mean viral load (VL) and lower mean CD4 count (Pearson's r = 0.63 and 0.62, respectively; P = 0.03). Among the genotypic supertypes, B58s and its member allele B*57 contributed disproportionately to the explainable VL variation. The study demonstrated the dominant role of HLA-B supertypes in HIV-1 clade B-infected African Americans and further dissected the contributions of individual class I alleles and their population frequencies to the supertype effects.

  18. [ICO-166 monoclonal antibodies against the CD45RA antigen].

    PubMed

    Frolova, E A; Baryshnikov, A Iu; Novikov, V V; Syrkin, A B

    1993-07-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCA) ICO-166 against CD45RA antigen were generated and characterized. In the indirect IFA, MCA ICO-166 reacted with 54.1 +/- 1.9% lymphocytes of human peripheral blood and 15.2 +/- 2.3% monocytes but not with granulocytes or thrombocytes. The method of double labelling of cells demonstrated that MCA ICO-166 detected all B-lymphocytes, all NK-cells and 31% of mature T-lymphocytes but only 55% of CD8 suppressor cells and only 21% of CDA helper cells carried this antigen on the surface. Experiments were carried out to block binding of FITC-labeled MCA ALB11 against CD45RA antigen with human lymphocytes by pretreatment of cells with different concentrations of MCA ICO-166. Treatment of cells with MCA ALB11 blocked binding of MCA ALB11-FITC by 85% on the average. MCA ICO-166 blocked binding of MCA ALB11-FITC by 66% on the average. When different dilutions of MCA ICO-166 were used, the dose-dependent effect of blocking of MCA ALB11-FITC binding was observed. MCA ICO-166 immunoprecipitated a protein band of molecular weight 220 kDa from lysates of mononuclear cells of the human peripheral blood.

  19. Human leukocyte antigen genotypes and trial of desensitization in patients with oxcarbazepine-induced skin rash: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bolyun; Yu, Hee Joon; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Munhyang; Lee, Jeehun

    2014-08-01

    Skin rash associated with specific antiepileptic drugs occurs not infrequently and it usually necessitates discontinuation of the causative drugs. An alternative strategy is to desensitize the individual to the offending drug. We checked the human leukocyte antigen genotypes and conducted a pilot study to investigate the usefulness and safety of desensitization in pediatric patients with skin rash associated with oxcarbazepine. We enrolled 19 patients with epilepsy who had discontinued oxcarbazepine because of skin rash despite an initial good response and then became refractory to other antiepileptic drugs along with an individual with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with a similar situation. High-resolution HLA-A and -B genotyping was performed to investigate the genetic risk. The desensitization began with 0.1 mg daily reaching 120 mg on the thirty-first day. Thereafter, the dose was increased at a rate of 12 mg/day. Nineteen patients completed the desensitization protocol to a target dosage over 2-5 months. Five patients developed itching and erythema during desensitization, but the symptoms disappeared after withholding a dose increment transiently. There were no human leukocyte antigen genotypes relevant to aromatic antiepileptic drug-induced severe hypersensitivity reactions. The seizure frequency was reduced to less than at baseline in 18 individuals. This study demonstrated 95% efficacy, including 42% seizure-free patients and the favorable tolerability of desensitization to oxcarbazepine in patients with intractable epilepsy and one patient with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. Screening for sensitive human leukocyte antigen types and exclusion of severe hypersensitivity reactions should precede desensitization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation of human monoclonal antibodies reactive with cellular antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Cote, R J; Morrissey, D M; Houghton, A N; Beattie, E J; Oettgen, H F; Old, L J

    1983-01-01

    Human lymphocytes from lymph node, peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor specimens have been fused with the LICR-LON-HMy2 (LICR-2) or SKO-007 human cell lines or the NS-1 mouse myeloma line. Over 75 fusions with the three myeloma-lymphoblastoid lines have been performed. Several factors appeared to improve the fusion outcome, including maintenance of the myeloma-lymphoblastoid lines in logarithmic phase growth at greater than or equal to 95% viability, a delay of 24 hr in the introduction of aminopterin to the fused cells, and preselection of the fetal calf serum used in the medium. For a given number of lymphocytes, fusions with NS-1 produced 5-20 times more clones than fusions with LICR-2 or SKO-007, and LICR-2 produced 4 times as many clones as SKO-007. The percentage of clones secreting human immunoglobulin, the range of immunoglobulin production, and the proportion of IgM, IgA, and IgG secretors were comparable for clones derived from the three myeloma-lymphoblastoid lines. Stable Ig-secreting clones were isolated with approximately equal frequency from LICR-2 and NS-1 fusions. A number of stable clones producing human monoclonal antibodies reacting with cell-surface, cytoplasmic, or nuclear antigens have been isolated from tumor-bearing patients and normal individuals. A surface antigenic system present on normal and malignant cells has been defined with a human monoclonal antibody derived from a patient with breast cancer. Techniques for producing human monoclonal antibody now appear to be sufficiently advanced to initiate a serological dissection of the humoral immune response to cancer. Images PMID:6572959

  1. Antibody i-Patch prediction of the antibody binding site improves rigid local antibody-antigen docking.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Konrad; Baker, Terry; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M

    2013-10-01

    Antibodies are a class of proteins indispensable for the vertebrate immune system. The general architecture of all antibodies is very similar, but they contain a hypervariable region which allows millions of antibody variants to exist, each of which can bind to different molecules. This binding malleability means that antibodies are an increasingly important category of biopharmaceuticals and biomarkers. We present Antibody i-Patch, a method that annotates the most likely antibody residues to be in contact with the antigen. We show that our predictions correlate with energetic importance and thus we argue that they may be useful in guiding mutations in the artificial affinity maturation process. Using our predictions as constraints for a rigid-body docking algorithm, we are able to obtain high-quality results in minutes. Our annotation method and re-scoring system for docking achieve their predictive power by using antibody-specific statistics. Antibody i-Patch is available from http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/research/proteins/resources.

  2. Three-dimensional structure of an antibody-antigen complex.

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, S; Silverton, E W; Padlan, E A; Cohen, G H; Smith-Gill, S J; Finzel, B C; Davies, D R

    1987-01-01

    We have determined the three-dimensional structure of two crystal forms of an antilysozyme Fab-lysozyme complex by x-ray crystallography. The epitope on lysozyme consists of three sequentially separated subsites, including one long, nearly continuous, site from Gln-41 through Tyr-53 and one from Gly-67 through Pro-70. Antibody residues interacting with lysozyme occur in each of the six complementarity-determining regions and also include one framework residue. Arg-45 and Arg-68 form a ridge on the surface of lysozyme, which binds in a groove on the antibody surface. Otherwise the surface of interaction between the two proteins is relatively flat, although it curls at the edges. The surface of interaction is approximately 26 X 19 A. No water molecules are found in the interface. The positive charge on the two arginines is complemented by the negative charge of Glu-35 and Glu-50 from the heavy chain of the antibody. The backbone structure of the antigen, lysozyme, is mostly unperturbed, although there are some changes in the epitope region, most notably Pro-70. One side chain not in the epitope, Trp-63, undergoes a rotation of approximately 180 degrees about the C beta--C gamma bond. The Fab elbow bends in the two crystal forms differ by 7 degrees. Images PMID:2446316

  3. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Neriishi, K.; Kodama, K.; Akiba, S. |

    1995-11-01

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Immunoglobulin secretion in the human autologous mixed leukocyte reaction. Definition of a suppressor-amplifier circuit using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, P A; Kotzin, B L; Kansas, G S; Engleman, E G

    1982-07-01

    The induction of immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in the autologous MLR has an absolute requirement for helper/inducer (Leu-3) T cells, whereas an excess of suppressor/cytotoxic (leu-2) cells suppresses the response. The current study was an effort to assess the immunoregulatory potential to T cells activated in the autologous mixed-leukocyte response (MLR). T cells were cultured with autologous non-T cells for 8-9 d, after which the activated T cells were fractionated into subsets with monoclonal antibodies to T cell markers and HLA-DR antigen. Each population was co-cultured in fresh autologous MLR, and on the 8th day of culture, Ig-secreting cells were measured in a reverse hemolytic plaque assay. The results show that activated Leu-2, DR+ T cells, but neither Leu-2, DR- nor Leu-3 T cells, were at least 50 times more potent as suppressors of IgM and IgG synthesis than fresh Leu-2 cells alone. The activation of this Leu-2, DR+ subpopulation required Leu-3 cells in the primary culture. Furthermore, in the absence of Leu-2 cells in the second culture, little or no suppression was observed, suggesting that the Leu-2, DR+ cells act to amplify or induce suppressor effects of fresh Leu-2 cells. This indicates that at least two distinct subpopulations of Leu-2 cells are required for maximal suppression of an immune response, and that immunoregulatory circuits analogous to those described in the mouse exist in man.

  5. A DNA vaccine encoding foot-and-mouth disease virus B and T-cell epitopes targeted to class II swine leukocyte antigens protects pigs against viral challenge.

    PubMed

    Borrego, Belén; Argilaguet, Jordi M; Pérez-Martín, Eva; Dominguez, Javier; Pérez-Filgueira, Mariano; Escribano, José M; Sobrino, Francisco; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2011-11-01

    Development of efficient and safer vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a must. Previous results obtained in our laboratory have demonstrated that DNA vaccines encoding B and T cell epitopes from type C FMDV, efficiently controlled virus replication in mice, while they did not protect against FMDV challenge in pigs, one of the FMDV natural hosts. The main finding of this work is the ability to improve the protection afforded in swine using a new DNA-vaccine prototype (pCMV-APCH1BTT), encoding FMDV B and T-cell epitopes fused to the single-chain variable fragment of the 1F12 mouse monoclonal antibody that recognizes Class-II Swine Leukocyte antigens. Half of the DNA-immunized pigs were fully protected upon viral challenge, while the remaining animals were partially protected, showing a delayed, shorter and milder disease than control pigs. Full protection in a given vaccinated-pig correlated with the induction of specific IFNγ-secreting T-cells, detectable prior to FMDV-challenge, together with a rapid development of neutralizing antibodies after viral challenge, pointing towards the relevance that both arms of the immune response can play in protection. Our results open new avenues for developing future FMDV subunit vaccines.

  6. Anti-CD antibody microarray for human leukocyte morphology examination allows analyzing rare cell populations and suggesting preliminary diagnosis in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Khvastunova, Alina N.; Kuznetsova, Sofya A.; Al-Radi, Liubov S.; Vylegzhanina, Alexandra V.; Zakirova, Anna O.; Fedyanina, Olga S.; Filatov, Alexander V.; Vorobjev, Ivan A.; Ataullakhanov, Fazly

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for leukocyte sorting by a microarray of anti-cluster-of-differentiation (anti-CD) antibodies and for preparation of the bound cells for morphological or cytochemical examination. The procedure results in a “sorted” smear with cells positive for certain surface antigens localised in predefined areas. The morphology and cytochemistry of the microarray-captured normal and neoplastic peripheral blood mononuclear cells are identical to the same characteristics in a smear. The microarray permits to determine the proportions of cells positive for the CD antigens on the microarray panel with high correlation with flow cytometry. Using the anti-CD microarray we show that normal granular lymphocytes and lymphocytes with radial segmentation of the nuclei are positive for CD3, CD8, CD16 or CD56 but not for CD4 or CD19. We also show that the described technique permits to obtain a pure leukemic cell population or to separate two leukemic cell populations on different antibody spots and to study their morphology or cytochemistry directly on the microarray. In cases of leukemias/lymphomas when circulating neoplastic cells are morphologically distinct, preliminary diagnosis can be suggested from full analysis of cell morphology, cytochemistry and their binding pattern on the microarray. PMID:26212756

  7. Anti-CD antibody microarray for human leukocyte morphology examination allows analyzing rare cell populations and suggesting preliminary diagnosis in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khvastunova, Alina N; Kuznetsova, Sofya A; Al-Radi, Liubov S; Vylegzhanina, Alexandra V; Zakirova, Anna O; Fedyanina, Olga S; Filatov, Alexander V; Vorobjev, Ivan A; Ataullakhanov, Fazly

    2015-07-27

    We describe a method for leukocyte sorting by a microarray of anti-cluster-of-differentiation (anti-CD) antibodies and for preparation of the bound cells for morphological or cytochemical examination. The procedure results in a "sorted" smear with cells positive for certain surface antigens localised in predefined areas. The morphology and cytochemistry of the microarray-captured normal and neoplastic peripheral blood mononuclear cells are identical to the same characteristics in a smear. The microarray permits to determine the proportions of cells positive for the CD antigens on the microarray panel with high correlation with flow cytometry. Using the anti-CD microarray we show that normal granular lymphocytes and lymphocytes with radial segmentation of the nuclei are positive for CD3, CD8, CD16 or CD56 but not for CD4 or CD19. We also show that the described technique permits to obtain a pure leukemic cell population or to separate two leukemic cell populations on different antibody spots and to study their morphology or cytochemistry directly on the microarray. In cases of leukemias/lymphomas when circulating neoplastic cells are morphologically distinct, preliminary diagnosis can be suggested from full analysis of cell morphology, cytochemistry and their binding pattern on the microarray.

  8. Analysis of the role of human leukocyte antigen class-I genes to understand the etiopathology of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bisu; Banerjee, Sikta; Bera, Nirmal K.; Nayak, Chitta R.; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is the paradigmatic illness of psychiatry. The involvement of immunological and immunopathological mechanisms in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia has been a matter of research, with recently increasing effort. Aims: In this study, we investigated the incidence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I antigens to understand the role of HLA genes in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: India born schizophrenic patients in and around Siliguri who attended outpatient department (OPD) of Department of Psychiatry, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital were considered for the present study. After the longitudinal follow up, 50 patients were enrolled for the study. The same number of age, sex and ethnically matched healthy subjects were considered as control. Low resolution polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method was applied for typing the HLA antigens. Statistics: The phenotype frequencies were calculated by direct count. χ2 test was done to compare the frequency of each antigen among the patients and control group and it was followed by Fisher's exact test. Relative risk was estimated by using Haldane's method. Results: The result showed that some of the HLA antigens are associated with the schizophrenia and significant increase were observed for HLA A*03 antigen along with the significant decrease for HLA A*25, A*31 and HLA B*51. Conclusions: The study provides the evidence for the possible existence of susceptibility locus for schizophrenia within the HLA region. This preliminary observation may help to understand the etiological basis of this disorder and the study may further strengthen the HLA antigens as the marker for schizophrenia. PMID:19742184

  9. Antigen-antibody interactions and structural flexibility of a femtomolar-affinity antibody.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Hiroaki; Shimada, Jiro; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2012-03-27

    The femtomolar-affinity mutant antibody (4M5.3) generated by directed evolution is interesting because of the potential of antibody engineering. In this study, the mutant and its wild type (4-4-20) were compared in terms of antigen-antibody interactions and structural flexibility to elucidate the effects of directed evolution. For this purpose, multiple steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations were performed. The pulling forces of SMD simulations elucidated the regions that form strong attractive interactions in the binding pocket. Structural analysis in these regions showed two important mutations for improving attractive interactions. First, mutation of Tyr102(H) to Ser (sequence numbering of Protein Data Bank entry 1FLR ) played a role in resolving the steric hindrance on the pathway of the antigen in the binding pocket. Second, mutation of Asp31(H) to His played a role in resolving electrostatic repulsion. Potentials of mean force (PMFs) of both the wild type and the mutant showed landscapes that do not include obvious intermediate states and go directly to the bound state. These landscapes were regarded as funnel-like binding free energy landscapes. Furthermore, the structural flexibility based on the fluctuations of the positions of atoms was analyzed. It was shown that the fluctuations in the positions of the antigen and residues in contact with antigen tend to be smaller in the mutant than in the wild type. This result suggested that structural flexibility decreases as affinity is improved by directed evolution. This suggestion is similar to the relationship between affinity and flexibility for in vivo affinity maturation, which was suggested by Romesberg and co-workers [Jimenez, R., et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.100, 92-97]. Consequently, the relationship was found to be applicable up to femotomolar affinity levels.

  10. Urinary antigens as markers of papillary toxicity. I. Identification and characterization of rat kidney papillary antigens with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, F W; Hildebrand, H; Lutte, L; Schwengberg, S; Henke, B; Greshake, D; Schmidt, B; Friederich, A; Rinke, M; Schlüter, G; Bomhard, E

    1996-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared in an attempt to develop diagnostic tools for the identification of toxic damage to the rat renal papilla. One IgG and five IgM monoclonal antibodies, reacting with antigens localized in the papilla were obtained. Three of the IgM class and the IgG class monoclonal antibodies were found to be specific for antigens localized in collecting ducts, two of them staining papillary collecting ducts more intensely than cortical collecting ducts. The IgG class antibody, termed Pap X 5C10, recognizes an antigen located at high density on the luminal side of papillary collecting duct epithelial cells and at lower density in cortical collecting duct cells. One of the IgM class monoclonal antibodies reacts with an antigen localized in epithelial cells as ascending and descending loops of Henle and of connecting tubules. Another of the IgM class monoclonal antibodies reacts with an antigen localized in the interstices of the inner medulla. All these monoclonal antibodies react with their antigens in native frozen as well as in Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue slices. Molecular properties of the Pap X 5C10 antigen have been investigated by gel permeation chromatography, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and isoelectric focusing. The results indicate that the antigen in both its tissue-derived and urinary form is of large (150-200 kDa) molecular size and can be separated into two molecular species with isoelectric points of pH 7.2 and 7.3 respectively. In the urine the antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies form large complexes with Tamm-Horsfall protein. The antigen-containing complexes can be extracted from urine by adsorption to diatomaceous earth and elution with SDS-containing buffer. Using sandwich ELISA-type assays it is possible to determine the concentration of the antigens. In preliminary experiments we were able to show that at least three of the antigens are detected in the urine following toxic insults to the kidney. The

  11. A Monoclonal Antibody Specific to Surface Antigen on Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Raymond; Faure, Odile; Carloti, Arnaud; Lebeau, Bernadette; Bernard, Christian; Marot-Leblond, Agnès; Grillot, Renée; Senet, Jean-Marcel

    1998-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb; MAb 6B3) which reacts specifically with a cell wall antigen found in all strains or isolates of Candida krusei was developed. MAb 6B3 was extensively tested by immunofluorescence assay for cross-reaction with many Candida, Cryptococcus, Saccharomyces, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula species and was found to react only with the species C. krusei. The specific epitope is expressed on the surface of fungal cells and appears to reside on a protein moiety. Taking into account the increasing importance of fluconazole-resistant strains in nosocomial fungal infections, the very high degree of specificity of this MAb for C. krusei could be useful for the routine detection of C. krusei in culture or in tissue samples. PMID:9455893

  12. Identification of Eimeria acervulina conoid antigen using chicken monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Minoura, Chisa; Kimura, Shintaro; Tani, Hiroyuki; Furuya, Masaru; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Matsuda, Haruo; Takenaka, Shigeo; Hatta, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Sasai, Kazumi

    2016-11-01

    In the poultry industry, Eimeria spp. is one of the important pathogens which cause significant economic losses. We have previously generated a chicken monoclonal antibody (mAb), 6D-12-G10, with specificity for an antigen located in the apical cytoskeleton of Eimeria acervulina and with cross-reactive among Apicomplexan parasites, including other Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma, Neospora, and Cryptosporidium spp. Furthermore, the protein of Cryptosporidium parvum recognized by the 6D-12-G10 has been identified as elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). In the present study, to identify the target molecule of E. acervulina by the mAb, we performed two-dimensional Western blotting analysis. Finally, we found two positive molecules which are identified as EF-1α and a related protein. Our previous finding using C. parvum and the results in this study suggest that EF-1α could be associated with the invasion facilitated by the cytoskeleton at the apical region of zoites.

  13. Improved Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis by Combining Antigen and Antibody Detection

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Sarah M.; Smedema, Melinda L.; Durkin, Michelle M.; Herman, Katie M.; Hage, Chadi A.; Fuller, Deanna; Wheat, L. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis can be severe, especially following heavy inoculum exposure. Rapid diagnosis is critical and often possible by detection of antigen, but this test may be falsely negative in 17% of such cases. Antibody detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) may increase sensitivity and permit the measurement of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) classes of antibodies separately. Methods. Microplates coated with Histoplasma antigen were used for testing of serum from patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis and controls in the MVista Histoplasma antibody EIA. Results for IgG and IgM were reported independently. Results. IgG antibodies were detected in 87.5%, IgM antibodies in 67.5%, and IgG and/or IgM antibodies in 88.8% of patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis in this assay, while immunodiffusion, complement fixation, and antigen testing showed sensitivities of 55.0%, 73.1%, and 67.5%, respectively (n = 80). Combining antigen and antibody detection increased the sensitivity to 96.3%. Conclusions. The MVista Histoplasma antibody EIA offers increased sensitivity over current antibody tests while also allowing separate detection of IgG and IgM antibodies and complementing antigen detection. Combining antigen and EIA antibody testing provides an optimal method for diagnosis of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. PMID:26797210

  14. Improved Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis by Combining Antigen and Antibody Detection.

    PubMed

    Richer, Sarah M; Smedema, Melinda L; Durkin, Michelle M; Herman, Katie M; Hage, Chadi A; Fuller, Deanna; Wheat, L Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Acute pulmonary histoplasmosis can be severe, especially following heavy inoculum exposure. Rapid diagnosis is critical and often possible by detection of antigen, but this test may be falsely negative in 17% of such cases. Antibody detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) may increase sensitivity and permit the measurement of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) classes of antibodies separately. Microplates coated with Histoplasma antigen were used for testing of serum from patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis and controls in the MVista Histoplasma antibody EIA. Results for IgG and IgM were reported independently. IgG antibodies were detected in 87.5%, IgM antibodies in 67.5%, and IgG and/or IgM antibodies in 88.8% of patients with acute pulmonary histoplasmosis in this assay, while immunodiffusion, complement fixation, and antigen testing showed sensitivities of 55.0%, 73.1%, and 67.5%, respectively (n = 80). Combining antigen and antibody detection increased the sensitivity to 96.3%. The MVista Histoplasma antibody EIA offers increased sensitivity over current antibody tests while also allowing separate detection of IgG and IgM antibodies and complementing antigen detection. Combining antigen and EIA antibody testing provides an optimal method for diagnosis of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Antibody-induced antigenic modulation is antigen dependent: characterization of 22 proteins on a malignant human B cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Pesando, J.M.; Hoffman, P.; Abed, M.

    1986-12-01

    Expression of several of the surface antigens on normal and malignant hematopoietic cells is reduced or is modulated by incubation with specific antibodies. Although antigenic modulation provides a means by which cells can escape antibody-mediated immune destruction, the physiologic significance and frequency of this phenomenon are both poorly understood. To begin to address these issues, the authors identified and characterized surface antigens on the malignant B cell line Laz 221 established from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Indirect immunofluorescence analysis with the use of 26 hematopoietic cell populations and immune precipitation studies with the use of iodinated ALL cells indicate the 163 monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) identify 22 different proteins on this cell line, including at least six previously described surface molecules. Seven of these antigens are expressed by all nucleated cells examined, whereas only the ..mu.. chain of immunoglobulin is B cell specific. Studies that made use of multiple MoAb specific for the same antigen suggest that the capacity for antigenic modulation is an intrinsic property of individual antigens. These studies also suggest that the murine immune response to shared human antigens varies from one immunizing cell population to another. Immunogenicity of individual human antigens in the mouse may be a function of their cell surface environment.

  16. Tumor microenvironment contributes to Epstein-Barr virus anti-nuclear antigen-1 antibody production in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ping; Li, Zhiping; Jiang, Yong; Song, Changping; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Huaizhong; Wang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear antigen-1 (NA1) protein of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is expressed in EBV-infected cells in the microenvironment of cancer. Since immune cells infiltrate abundantly in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumor tissues, we hypothesized that the local tumor microenvironment may perform an important role in the production of antibodies directed at NA1. Furthermore, we hypothesized that anti-NA1 antibody originating in the local microenvironment could be secreted into the saliva of patients with NPC. In the present study, 20 healthy controls and 39 patients with NPC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy were recruited for the study. Saliva and serum samples were collected from the NPC patients, and nasopharyngeal tissue samples from the patients with NPC. The titers of anti-NA1 antibody [immunoglobulin A (IgA)] were determined by ELISA. Expression of NA1, human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related (HLA-DR), cluster of differentiation (CD)80, CD86, CD3, CD4, CD19 and IgA was detected by immunohistochemical staining on paraffin-embedded nasopharyngeal tissue sections. Anti-NA1 antibodies were detected in the serum and saliva samples of the patients with NPC. In infiltrating cells, expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, CD3, CD4, CD19 and IgA was detected, indicating that dendritic cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes were all present in the local tumor tissues. Furthermore, expression of EBNA1 protein was detected on the membrane of the NPC tumor cells. Therefore, the NPC tumor microenvironment has the potential to initiate a humoral response to EBNA1 by producing IgA antibodies.

  17. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S

    1990-06-15

    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  18. The effect of pH dependence of antibody-antigen interactions on subcellular trafficking dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Devanaboyina, Siva Charan; Lynch, Sandra M; Ober, Raimund J; Ram, Sripad; Kim, Dongyoung; Puig-Canto, Alberto; Breen, Shannon; Kasturirangan, Srinath; Fowler, Susan; Peng, Li; Zhong, Haihong; Jermutus, Lutz; Wu, Herren; Webster, Carl; Ward, E Sally; Gao, Changshou

    2013-01-01

    A drawback of targeting soluble antigens such as cytokines or toxins with long-lived antibodies is that such antibodies can prolong the half-life of the target antigen by a “buffering” effect. This has motivated the design of antibodies that bind to target with higher affinity at near neutral pH relative to acidic endosomal pH (~pH 6.0). Such antibodies are expected to release antigen within endosomes following uptake into cells, whereas antibody will be recycled and exocytosed in FcRn-expressing cells. To understand how the pH dependence of antibody-antigen interactions affects intracellular trafficking, we generated three antibodies that bind IL-6 with different pH dependencies in the range pH 6.0–7.4. The behavior of antigen in the presence of these antibodies has been characterized using a combination of fixed and live cell fluorescence microscopy. As the affinity of the antibody:IL-6 interaction at pH 6.0 decreases, an increasing amount of antigen dissociates from FcRn-bound antibody in early and late endosomes, and then enters lysosomes. Segregation of antibody and FcRn from endosomes in tubulovesicular transport carriers (TCs) into the recycling pathway can also be observed in live cells, and the extent of IL-6 association with TCs correlates with increasing affinity of the antibody:IL-6 interaction at acidic pH. These analyses result in an understanding, in spatiotemporal terms, of the effect of pH dependence of antibody-antigen interactions on subcellular trafficking and inform the design of antibodies with optimized binding properties for antigen elimination. PMID:24492341

  19. Effect of human leukocyte antigen-C and -DQ matching on pediatric heart transplant graft survival.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ryan J; Savage, Andrew J; Nietert, Paul J; Kavarana, Minoo; Moussa, Omar; Burnette, Ali L; Atz, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    A higher degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the A, B, and DR loci has been associated with improved long-term survival after pediatric heart transplantation in multiple International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation registry reports. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HLA matching at the C and DQ loci with pediatric graft survival. The United Network of Organ Sharing database was queried for isolated heart transplants that occurred from 1988 to 2012 with a recipient age of 17 or younger and at least 1 postoperative follow-up encounter. When HLA matching at the C or DQ loci were analyzed, only transplants with complete typing of donor and recipient at the respective loci were included. Transplants were divided into patients with at least 1 match at the C locus (C-match) vs no match (C-no), and at least 1 match at the DQ (DQ-match) locus vs no match (DQ-no). Primary outcome was graft loss. Univariate analysis was performed with the log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was performed with the following patient factors included in the model: recipient age, ischemic time; recipient on ventilator, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular assist device, or inotropes at transplant; recipient serum bilirubin and creatinine closest to transplant, ratio of donor weight to recipient weight, underlying cardiac diagnosis, crossmatch results, transplant year, and HLA matching at the A, B, and DR loci. Complete typing at the C locus occurred in 2,429 of 4,731 transplants (51%), and complete typing at the DQ locus occurred in 3,498 of 4,731 transplants (74%). Patient factors were similar in C-match and C-no, except for year of transplant (median year, 2007 [interquartile range, 1997-2010] vs year 2005 [interquartile range, 1996-2009], respectively; p = 0.03) and the degree of HLA matching at the A, B, and DR loci (high level of HLA matching in 11.9% vs 3%, respectively; p < 0.01). Matching at the C locus was not

  20. The early antibody-forming response to Salmonella antigens

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Pamela J.; Diener, E.

    1970-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the morphological study of individual antibody-forming cells (AFC) on cell smears of the quality of normal haematological preparations. The early AFC response to polymerized flagellin of S. adelaide was studied in vivo using C57BL mice, which have very low background levels of AFC and in vitro using dispersed spleen cell cultures from CBA mice. AFC, arising as a result of in vivo or in vitro stimulation were found to comprise a heterogeneous population, including basophilic mononuclear cells, lymphocytes of most sizes, immature blast cells and occasional plasma cells. The earliest AFC detected comprised a high percentage (28 per cent in vivo, 31 per cent in vitro) of small lymphocyte-like cells. Studies of the incorporation of [3H]thymidine showed that most AFC arose by proliferation but that a proportion of AFC, the small lymphocyte-like cells, arose by differentiation of precursor cells not involving cell division. The effects of antigen concentration on the kinetics of AFC were investigated in vitro. Subtolerogenic antigen doses caused a delayed and decreased AFC response. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 4 PMID:5529118

  1. PULSED ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUE FOR MONITORING ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTIONS AT INTERFACES. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The mechanism of pulsed potential waveform for monitoring antibody¯antigen interactions at immunosensor interfaces is discussed. Some examples of antibody¯antigen interactions at quartz crystal microbalance and polymer-modified ...

  2. Production and immunoanalytical application of 32 monoclonal antibodies against metacestode somatic antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Lu, Rui; Liu, Qiao-Feng; Chen, Jian-Ping; Deng, Qiang; Zhang, Ya-Lou; Zhang, Bing-Hua; Xu, Jia-Nan; Sun, Lei; Niu, Qin-Wang; Liang, Quan-Zeng

    2010-06-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare but potentially fatal disease. Immunodiagnosis based on antibodies or antigens plays an important role in its diagnosis. In this study, metacestode somatic antigens of Echinococcus multilocularis were used to immunize BALB/c mice, and hybridomas were formed by cell fusion. Making use of the inherent effect of monoclonal antibody techniques to isolate different epitopes, we obtained a repertoire of 32 monoclonal antibodies against the metacestode somatic antigens. These monoclonal antibodies were used to investigate the specificity and localization of the metacestode antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nine antibodies specifically reacted with E. multilocularis, while 14 and ten cross-reacted with Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia saginata, respectively. Twenty-five antibodies stained the laminated layer. Eight reacted with the tegument of the protoscolex. Fourteen antibodies recognized the germinal layer. Most of the monoclonal antibodies can react with the antigen Em2. One antibody can react with antigen Em2 and Em10. One antibody that cross-reacted with T. saginata stained the germinal layer and protoscolex, especially its hooklets and suckers, but could not react with Em2 and Em10 antigens. It detected protein bands at 26 and 52 kDa. Two E. multilocularis-specific monoclonal antibodies stained both the germinal and laminated layers and could be used not only to purify specific antigens but also for immunohistochemical studies of E. multilocularis. In summary, these 32 monoclonal antibodies could have potential applications as useful tools in further studies of E. multilocularis antigen profiles.

  3. Gravimetric antigen detection utilizing antibody-modified lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Charlotte; Bramfeldt, Hanna; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl; Höök, Fredrik

    2005-10-01

    Lipid bilayers containing 5% nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) lipids supported on SiO2 have been used as a template for immobilization of oligohistidine-tagged single-chained antibody fragments (scFvs) directed against cholera toxin. It was demonstrated that histidine-tagged scFvs could be equally efficiently coupled to an NTA-Ni2+-containing lipid bilayer from a purified sample as from an expression supernatant, thereby providing a coupling method that eliminates time-consuming protein prepurification steps. Irrespective of whether the coupling was made from the unpurified or purified antibody preparation, the template proved to be efficient for antigen (cholera toxin) detection, verified using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. In addition, via a secondary amplification step using lipid vesicles containing GM1 (the natural membrane receptor for cholera toxin), the detection limit of cholera toxin was less than 750 pM. To further strengthen the coupling of scFvs to the lipid bilayer, scFvs containing two histidine tags, instead of just one tag, were also evaluated. The increased coupling strength provided via the bivalent anchoring significantly reduced scFv displacement in complex solutions containing large amounts of histidine-containing proteins, verified via cholera toxin detection in serum.

  4. Novel use of a radiolabelled antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for the detection of occult abscesses in mammals

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, Madhukar L.

    1990-01-01

    The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents.

  5. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Protective Antigen Component of Bacillus anthracis Toxin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-21

    F. Jaquet, P. Luethy, R. Huetter, and D. G. Braun. 1986. Characterization of mcnoclonal antibodies to a crystal protein of Bacillus thuringiensis ...AD-A192 855 UT FILE COPY Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Protective Antigen Component of Bacillus anthracis...Author Tel. No. 301-663-7341 1--ac",- 88 3 14 05 6 Krhirty-six monoclonal antibodies to the protective antigen protein of Bacillus anthracis exotoxin

  6. Inhibition of immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis by antibody to a pulmonary macrophage cell surface antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Parod, R.J.; Godleski, J.J.; Brain J.D.

    1986-03-15

    Unlike other hamster phagoycytes, hamster pulmonary macrophages (PM) avidly ingest albumin-coated latex particles in the absence of serum. They also possess a highly specific cell surface antigen. To evaluate the relationship between these two characteristics, PM were incubated with mouse monoclonal antibody directed against the PM antigen. After unbound antibody was removed, the amount of bound antibody and the phagocytic capability of PM were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Maximum antibody binding produced a 25% inhibition of ingestion. Particle attachment was not affected. This effect was antigen specific, since neither a nonspecific mouse myeloma protein of the same subclass nor a mouse antibody that bound to another hamster surface antigen had any effect on binding or ingestion. If antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments were introduced both before and during the period of phagocytosis, the inhibition of particle ingestion approached 100%. Particle binding increased at low F(ab')/sub 2/ concentrations but declined at higher concentrations. Because calcium may play a role in the ingestion process, the effect of antibody on /sup 45/Ca uptake was evaluated. It was observed that antigen-specific F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments stimulated /sup 45/Ca uptake, whereas control antibodies did not. These results suggest that the antigen reacting with the anti-hamster PM monoclonal antibody is involved in immune opsonin-independent phagocytosis and that calcium participates in this phagocytic process.

  7. Separation of uncompromised whole blood mixtures for single source STR profiling using fluorescently-labeled human leukocyte antigen (HLA) probes and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

    PubMed

    Dean, Lee; Kwon, Ye Jin; Philpott, M Katherine; Stanciu, Cristina E; Seashols-Williams, Sarah J; Dawson Cruz, Tracey; Sturgill, Jamie; Ehrhardt, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of biological mixtures is a significant problem for forensic laboratories, particularly when the mixture contains only one cell type. Contributions from multiple individuals to biologic evidence can complicate DNA profile interpretation and often lead to a reduction in the probative value of DNA evidence or worse, its total loss. To address this, we have utilized an analytical technique that exploits the intrinsic immunological variation among individuals to physically separate cells from different sources in a mixture prior to DNA profiling. Specifically, we applied a fluorescently labeled antibody probe to selectively bind to one contributor in a mixture through allele-specific interactions with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins that are expressed on the surfaces of most nucleated cells. Once the contributor's cells were bound to the probe, they were isolated from the mixture using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)-a high throughput technique for separating cell populations based on their optical properties-and then subjected to STR analysis. We tested this approach on two-person and four-person whole blood mixtures where one contributor possessed an HLA allele (A*02) that was not shared by other contributors to the mixture. Results showed that hybridization of the mixture with a fluorescently-labeled antibody probe complimentary to the A*02 allele's protein product created a cell population with a distinct optical profile that could be easily differentiated from other cells in the mixture. After sorting the cells with FACS, genetic analysis showed that the STR profile of this cell population was consistent with that of the contributor who possessed the A*02 allele. Minor peaks from the A*02 negative contributor(s) were observed but could be easily distinguished from the profile generated from A*02 positive cells. Overall, this indicates that HLA antibody probes coupled to FACS may be an effective approach for generating STR profiles of

  8. Sustained antigen availability during germinal center initiation enhances antibody responses to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myungsun; Pelet, Jeisa M.; Ruda, Vera M.; Foley, Maria H.; Hu, Joyce K.; Kumari, Sudha; Crampton, Jordan; Baldeon, Alexis D.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Crotty, Shane; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Irvine, Darrell J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total dose of antigen and adjuvant over 1–2 wk through repeated injections or osmotic pumps enhanced humoral responses, with exponentially increasing (exp-inc) dosing profiles eliciting >10-fold increases in antibody production relative to bolus vaccination post prime. Computational modeling of the germinal center response suggested that antigen availability as higher-affinity antibodies evolve enhances antigen capture in lymph nodes. Consistent with these predictions, we found that exp-inc dosing led to prolonged antigen retention in lymph nodes and increased Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell numbers. Thus, regulating the antigen and adjuvant kinetics may enable increased vaccine potency. PMID:27702895

  9. Sustained antigen availability during germinal center initiation enhances antibody responses to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tam, Hok Hei; Melo, Mariane B; Kang, Myungsun; Pelet, Jeisa M; Ruda, Vera M; Foley, Maria H; Hu, Joyce K; Kumari, Sudha; Crampton, Jordan; Baldeon, Alexis D; Sanders, Rogier W; Moore, John P; Crotty, Shane; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G; Chakraborty, Arup K; Irvine, Darrell J

    2016-10-25

    Natural infections expose the immune system to escalating antigen and inflammation over days to weeks, whereas nonlive vaccines are single bolus events. We explored whether the immune system responds optimally to antigen kinetics most similar to replicating infections, rather than a bolus dose. Using HIV antigens, we found that administering a given total dose of antigen and adjuvant over 1-2 wk through repeated injections or osmotic pumps enhanced humoral responses, with exponentially increasing (exp-inc) dosing profiles eliciting >10-fold increases in antibody production relative to bolus vaccination post prime. Computational modeling of the germinal center response suggested that antigen availability as higher-affinity antibodies evolve enhances antigen capture in lymph nodes. Consistent with these predictions, we found that exp-inc dosing led to prolonged antigen retention in lymph nodes and increased Tfh cell and germinal center B-cell numbers. Thus, regulating the antigen and adjuvant kinetics may enable increased vaccine potency.

  10. Quantitative Assessment of the Effects of Oxidants on Antigen-Antibody Binding In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shuang; Wang, Guanyu; Xu, Naijin; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We quantitatively assessed the influence of oxidants on antigen-antibody-binding activity. Methods. We used several immunological detection methods, including precipitation reactions, agglutination reactions, and enzyme immunoassays, to determine antibody activity. The oxidation-reduction potential was measured in order to determine total serum antioxidant capacity. Results. Certain concentrations of oxidants resulted in significant inhibition of antibody activity but had little influence on total serum antioxidant capacity. Conclusions. Oxidants had a significant influence on interactions between antigen and antibody, but minimal effect on the peptide of the antibody molecule. PMID:27313823

  11. Donor CD31 genotype impacts on transplant complications after human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Gary; Chapman, Catherine E; Carter, Vaughan; Dickinson, Anne M; Middleton, Peter G

    2005-03-15

    Mismatch for the adhesion molecule CD31 (PECAM-1) has been associated in some studies with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), suggesting a role for CD31 as a minor histocompatibility antigen. We examined polymorphisms of the CD31 (PECAM-1) gene in 74 patients and their human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling donors, comparing CD31 genotype with outcomes of occurrence of GVHD and survival using regression analysis. Polymorphisms in codon 125, 563, and 670 are strongly linked forming conserved haplotypes. Donor CD31 (val/asn/gly) haplotype was associated with acute GVHD (P=0.004, odds ratio 7.5). In addition, donor heterozygosity at codon 563 was significantly associated with worse overall survival after correcting for other known variables by regression modeling. Peptide binding predictions support the hypothesis that CD31 could act as a minor histocompatibility antigen. Assessment for CD31 gene status may be of value in pretransplant assessment of bone marrow transplant recipients and donors for prediction of likely transplant-related complications.

  12. Decreased human leukocyte antigen-DR expression in the lipid raft by peritoneal macrophages from women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yorito; Maeda, Nagamasa; Izumiya, Chiaki; Kusume, Tomoaki; Oguri, Hiroyoshi; Kawashima, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Nomura, Aki; Yamashita, Chika; Fukaya, Takao

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the macrophage response in endometriosis by determining the expression and localization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-ABC and HLA-DR by the peritoneal fluid (PF) macrophages and PF concentrations of interferon (IFN)-gamma that regulate HLA expression. Case-control study. University hospital. 64 Japanese endometriosis patients, and 65 women with other laparoscopic diagnoses. Venipuncture and laparoscopic peritoneal fluid collection. Expression and localization of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR in PF macrophages were determined by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The concentration of IFN-gamma in PF was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In women with endometriosis, expression of HLA-ABC and HLA-DR by PF macrophages, and the IFN-gamma concentrations in PF were statistically significantly lower than in controls. Women with endometriosis showed a statistically significant positive correlation between HLA expression and IFN-gamma concentration. By confocal microscopy, HLA-ABC was distributed homogenously on the macrophage surface whereas HLA-DR expression on these cells corresponded to the lipid raft. In women with endometriosis, low HLA expression and particularly reduced HLA-DR in the lipid raft may be influenced by low IFN-gamma and may compromise antigen presentation, limiting the immune response to peritoneal cavity antigens such as implanted or metaplastic endometrial tissue.

  13. Activation of clones producing self-reactive antibodies by foreign antigen and antiidiotype antibody carrying the internal image of the antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, N C; Fidanza, V; Mayer, R; Mazza, G; Fougereau, M; Bona, C

    1989-01-01

    Because we found in previous work that a high fraction of antibodies exhibiting various specificities bound to glutamic acid 50-tyrosine50 homopolymer (GT) and expressed pGAT cross-reactive idiotype (IdX), we studied the activation of clones producing multireactive antibodies in 1-mo-old MRL/lpr and C3H/HeJ mice bearing VHJ haplotype. The activation of such clones was studied after mice were immunized with GT in CFA, HP20 (an anti-Id MAb carrying the internal image of GT in the D region), and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the D segment of HP20. Our results indicate that immunized mice produced both GT- and self-reactive antibodies. Study of the immunochemical properties of MAb showed that they exhibit multispecific properties and bind with similar-affinity constants to GT or self-antigens such as DNA, Smith antigen (Sm), and IgG2a. An important fraction of antibodies obtained from MRL/lpr mice immunized with HP20 expressed pGAT IdX and some of these antibodies share IdX expressed on anti-DNA, Sm, and rheumatoid factor (RFs) antibodies. The hybridomas producing multispecific autoantibodies use heavy-chain- (VH) and light-chain-variable region (VK) genes from various V gene families, suggesting that they do not derive from the pool of GAT precursors. Sequencing of VH and VK genes of two antibodies show that they can use closely related VHJ558, unmutated VK1, or different VK genes than those used by anti-GT antibodies. Our data demonstrate that clones producing antibodies binding to GT and self-antigens with similar-affinity constants can be activated by foreign or anti-Id antibodies carrying the internal image of the antigen or even by a synthetic peptide corresponding to the D segment of anti-Id antibodies. Images PMID:2760212

  14. Novel antigen design for the generation of antibodies to G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Larsson, K; Hofström, C; Lindskog, C; Hansson, M; Angelidou, P; Hökfelt, T; Uhlén, M; Wernérus, H; Gräslund, T; Hober, S

    2011-07-29

    Antibodies are important tools for the study of G-protein-coupled receptors, key proteins in cellular signaling. Due to their large hydrophobic membrane spanning regions and often very short loops exposed on the surface of the cells, generation of antibodies able to recognize the receptors in the endogenous environment has been difficult. Here, we describe an antigen-design method where the extracellular loops and N-terminus are combined to a single antigen for generation of antibodies specific to three selected GPCRs: NPY5R, B2ARN and GLP1R. The design strategy enabled straightforward antigen production and antibody generation. Binding of the antibodies to intact receptors was analyzed using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence based confocal microscopy on A-431 cells overexpressing the respective GPCR. The antibody-antigen interactions were characterized using epitope mapping, and the antibodies were applied in immunohistochemical staining of human tissues. Most of the antibodies showed specific binding to their respective overexpressing cell line but not to the non-transfected cells, thus indicating binding to their respective target receptor. The epitope mapping showed that sub-populations within the purified antibody pool recognized different regions of the antigen. Hence, the genetic combination of several different epitopes enables efficient generation of specific antibodies with potential use in several applications for the study of endogenous receptors.

  15. Effect of malnutrition in Ecuadorian children on titers of serum antibodies to various microbial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Brüssow, H; Sidoti, J; Dirren, H; Freire, W B

    1995-01-01

    The titers of serum antibodies to natural infection with enteric and respiratory pathogens, to a food antigen and to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 1,554 Ecuadorian children younger than 5 years of age. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by anthropometry and measurement of biochemical status indicators. The children were enrolled in a representative national nutrition and health survey. Antibody titers were analyzed as a function of the nutritional status of the children. For 12 of 14 antibody concentrations tested, underweight children showed lower antibody titers than did control children. The difference was statistically significant for antibody to both T-cell-dependent antigens (tetanus toxoid, rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus) and T-cell-independent antigens (lipopolysaccharide, polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate, capsular polysaccharide). When children with a recent episode of diarrhea were excluded, many of the differences remained significant. When these children were further classified by age, only difference in titers of antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus and tetanus toxoid remained significant. No statistically significant difference was detected between underweight and control children with respect to protective antibody levels to four bacterial antigens. Anemic children showed significantly lower antibody levels to both T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens than did control children, and a higher proportion of anemic children had diphtheria antitoxin below a conservatively defined protective antibody level. No major differences in antibody titers were seen between children with different retinol and zinc concentrations in serum. PMID:7719915

  16. Exploring the antigenic relatedness of influenza virus haemagglutinins with strain-specific polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    García-Barreno, Blanca; Delgado, Teresa; Benito, Sonia; Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco; Melero, José A

    2014-10-01

    Alternative methods to the standard haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization tests to probe the antigenic properties of the influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) were developed in this study. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing reference HAs were used to immunize rabbits from which polyclonal antibodies were obtained. These antibodies were subtype specific but showed limited intra-subtype strain specificity in ELISA. The discriminatory capacity of these antibodies was, however, markedly increased after adsorption to cells infected with heterologous influenza viruses, revealing antigenic differences that were otherwise undistinguishable by standard HI and neutralization tests. Furthermore, the unadsorbed antibodies could be used to select escape mutants of the reference strain, which after sequencing unveiled amino acid changes responsible of the noted antigenic differences. These procedures therefore provide alternative methods for the antigenic characterization of influenza HA and might be useful in studies of HA antigenic evolution.

  17. Simultaneous quantitation of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies by double antigen, time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Aggerbeck, H; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Heron, I

    1996-04-19

    A dual, double antigen, time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) antibodies in sera has been developed. In the double antigen format one arm of the antibody binds to antigen coated microtitre wells and the other arm binds to labelled antigen to provide a fluorescent signal. This assay was found to be functionally specific for IgG antibodies and showed a good correlation with established toxin neutralization assays. Furthermore, the double antigen set-up was species independent, permitting the direct use of existing international references of animal origin to measure protective antibody levels in humans in international units (IU/ml). The detection limit corresponded to 0.0003 IU/ml with Eu(3+)-labelled toxoids and to 0.0035 IU/ml using Sm(3+)-labelled toxoids. The assay was fast with a high capacity making it a suitable method for serological surveillance studies.

  18. Acute Rejection, Kidney Allograft Function, and Graft Survival in Patients with Circulating Pre-Transplant IgG Antibodies Directed Against Donor HLA-A, -B, or -C Locus Determined Antigens.

    PubMed

    Abuhelaiqa, Essa; Friedlander, Rex; Aull, Meredith; Putheti, Prabhakar; Sharma, Vijay; Suthanthiran, Manikkam; Dadhania, Darshana

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between circulating pre-transplant immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -C locus determined antigens alone and acute rejection, kidney allograft function, and graft survival is not fully defined. Also, the impact of circulating pre-transplant IgG antibodies to donor HLA-C locus antigens alone on these outcomes has not been compared with the impact of circulating pre-transplant IgG antibodies to donor HLA-A or -B locus antigens. We conducted a retrospective review of records of 1252 kidney allograft recipients transplanted at our center between January 2010 and January 2016 to identify patients with circulating pre-transplant IgG antibodies directed at kidney donor HLA-A, -B, or -C locus determined antigens. Antibodies were detected and reported using the LABScreen Single Antigen Bead assay with microbeads coated with single HLA class I antigens. Pre-transplant and post-transplant data were collected and the graft outcomes of 16 kidney graft recipients with antibodies to HLA-C locus antigens were compared to the outcomes in 56 recipients with antibodies to HLA-A or -B locus determined antigens. The one-year acute rejection rate was 6% in those with donor-specific antibodies (DSA) to HLA-C locus antigens and 20% in those with DSA to HLA-A or -B locus antigens. The graft survival rate was 100% in those with DSA to HLA-C locus antigens and 95% in those with DSA to HLA-A or -B locus antigens. None of the numerical differences were statistically significant (p>0.05). The presence of circulating pre-transplant IgG antibodies directed at kidney donor HLA-C locus antigens alone may not be associated with an increased risk of acute rejection or a decreased graft survival rate. Our observations support the concept that circulating pre-transplant IgG antibodies directed at kidney donor HLA-C locus antigens alone do not negatively impact kidney allograft outcomes and that the mean fluorescence intensities of the antibodies

  19. Renal transplant patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation show specific unresponsiveness to donor antigens the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR)

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D.; Saper, V.; Strober, S.

    1987-06-01

    A group of 25 cadaveric renal transplant recipients received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) before transplantation, rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin on alternate days for 10 days after transplantation, and low dose prednisone (5 to 10 mg/day) as the sole maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Allograft function and the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) were monitored serially. After 18 to 30 mo, nine patients were selected on the basis of a return of the MLR such that the mean stimulation index to a panel of normal stimulator cells was greater than or equal to 5, a stable serum creatinine level which was less than or equal to 2 mg/dl, and a history of no more than one rejection episode. The MLR of these patients' post-transplant peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) against cryopreserved donor cells was compared with that against cryopreserved normal third-party cells. In control experiments, the MLR of cryopreserved pre-TLI recipient PBML or fresh normal PBML were tested against the same panel of donor and third-party stimulator cells. Seven of the nine recipients showed a pattern of specific unresponsiveness to the donor cells more than 18 mo after transplantation. Preliminary attempts to identify antigen specific suppressor cells were unsuccessful. The pattern of unresponsiveness may indicate a state of specific immune tolerance to the allogeneic graft.

  20. Transcript origin analysis identifies antigen-presenting cells as primary targets of socially regulated gene expression in leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Steven W.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the biological rationale for social regulation of gene expression, this study sought to identify the specific immune cell types that are transcriptionally sensitive to subjective social isolation (loneliness). Using reference distributions for the expression of each human gene in each major leukocyte subtype, we mapped the cellular origin of transcripts found to be differentially expressed in the circulating immune cells from chronically lonely individuals. Loneliness-associated genes derived primarily from plasmacytoid dendritic cells, monocytes, and, to a lesser extent, B lymphocytes. Those dynamics reflected per-cell changes in the expression of inducible genes and related more strongly to the subjective experience of loneliness than to objective social network size. Evolutionarily ancient myeloid antigen-presenting cells appear to have evolved a transcriptional sensitivity to socioenvironmental conditions that may allow them to shift basal gene expression profiles to counter the changing microbial threats associated with hostile vs. affine social conditions. PMID:21300872

  1. Genomic loss of mismatched human leukocyte antigen and leukemia immune escape from haploidentical graft-versus-leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vago, Luca; Toffalori, Cristina; Ciceri, Fabio; Fleischhauer, Katharina

    2012-12-01

    Recent developments in cell processing and immunosuppressive strategies has allowed the safe infusion of high numbers of donor T cells in the context of clinical haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Haploidentical T cells display an intrinsic ability to recognize and eliminate residual patient leukemic cells, largely due to alloreactivity against the patient-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules encoded on the mismatched haplotype. However, recent evidence has shown that leukemia, like many other tumors displaying pronounced genomic instability, is frequently able to evade this potent graft-versus-leukemia effect by undergoing de novo genomic mutations, which result in the permanent loss of only those HLA molecules targeted by haploidentical donor T-cell alloreactivity. This review summarizes the recent clinical and experimental evidence regarding this phenomenon, and its therapeutic and clinical consequences.

  2. Human leukocyte antigen typing using a knowledge base coupled with a high-throughput oligonucleotide probe array analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Keskin, Derin B; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Lin, Hong Huang; DeLuca, David S; Leppanen, Scott; Milford, Edgar L; Reinherz, Ellis L; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are important biomarkers because multiple diseases, drug toxicity, and vaccine responses reveal strong HLA associations. Current clinical HLA typing is an elimination process requiring serial testing. We present an alternative in situ synthesized DNA-based microarray method that contains hundreds of thousands of probes representing a complete overlapping set covering 1,610 clinically relevant HLA class I alleles accompanied by computational tools for assigning HLA type to 4-digit resolution. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 21 blood samples, 18 cell lines, and multiple controls. The method is accurate, robust, and amenable to automation. Typing errors were restricted to homozygous samples or those with very closely related alleles from the same locus, but readily resolved by targeted DNA sequencing validation of flagged samples. High-throughput HLA typing technologies that are effective, yet inexpensive, can be used to analyze the world's populations, benefiting both global public health and personalized health care.

  3. Association of human leukocyte antigen class II alleles with severe Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Hajeer, Ali H; Balkhy, Hanan; Johani, Sameera; Yousef, Mohammed Z; Arabi, Yaseen

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a disease of the lower respiratory tract and is characterized by high mortality. It is caused by a beta coronavirus (CoV) referred to as MERS-CoV. Majority of MERS-CoV cases have been reported from Saudi Arabia. We investigated the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class II alleles in patients with severe MERS who were admitted in our Intensive Care Unit. A total of 23 Saudi patients with severe MERS-CoV infection were typed for HLA class II, results were compared with those of 161 healthy controls. Two HLA class II alleles were associated with the disease; HLA-DRB1*11:01 and DQB1*02:02, but not with the disease outcome. Our results suggest that the HLA-DRB1*11:01 and DQB1*02:02 may be associated with susceptibility to MERS.

  4. Decreased 19S antibody response to bacterial antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Baum, John; Ziff, Morris

    1969-01-01

    The antibody response to immunization with Brucella and the levels of natural antibody to Escherichia coli and Shigella were compared in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and control groups. After Brucella immunization, SLE patients showed a significantly lower antibody response in whole serum and in the macroglobulin antibody fraction separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Sucrose gradient fractionation of natural antibodies to E. coli and a polyvalent Shigella antigen showed a significant decrease in macroglobulin antibody against four of the five E. coli antigens tested and the Shigella polyvalent antigen in SLE patients when compared with a group of normal individuals and a matched control group with pulmonary tuberculosis. Whole serum natural antibody titers against 5 of 13 Shigella antigens were significantly lower in the SLE patients when compared with the normal group, and against 7 of 13 when compared with the matched tuberculosis controls. Whole serum titers against 8 of 13 E. coli antigens were significantly lower in the SLE patients when compared with normal subjects. The observed decreased antibody response to bacterial antigens in SLE patients, occurring mainly in the macroglobulin fraction, is discussed in relation to the increased incidence of infection commonly observed in these patients. PMID:4886647

  5. [Genetic diversity based on swine leukocyte antigen complex mi-crosatellites(SLA-MS) in five pig populations].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Rong-Hui; Li, Hua; Zuo, Qi-Zhen; Li, Yan; Wu, Zhen-Fang

    2012-11-01

    The genetic diversity of swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA) was studied among Guangdong local pigs, Huanan wild boars (S.s. chirodontus) and introduced pigs, which aimed at providing a theoretical foundation for further pig anti-disease resistance breeding. Pietrain pigs, Duroc pigs, Large black-white pigs, Lantang pigs, and Huanan wild boars were genotyped by employing 18 microsatellites in swine leukocyte antigen complex (SLA-MS). The result showed that the average diversity in SLA II was higher (He=0.628, PIC=0.581) than that in SLA I (He=0.530, PIC=0.474) and in SLA III (He=0.526, PIC=0.458). The molecular diversity indices (MDI) of Huanan wild boars was the highest(0.716), followed by Lantang pigs (0.614), Large black-white pigs (0.559), Pietrain pigs (0.550) and Duroc pigs (0.507). As a whole, the genetic diversity of Huanan wild boars was the highest over Guangdong native pigs and introduced pigs. Large black-white pigs and Duroc pigs had ever happened a severe bottleneck by comparison with the Garza-Williamson index (GWI) in Huanan wild boar. From the genetic distance, one clade was that Lantang pigs were first clustered with Huanan wild boar, and then grouped together with Large black-white pigs; another clade was that Pietrain pigs were independently clustered with Duroc pigs in the NJ tree. The results would establish the foundation for pig conservation of germplasm resource, disease resistance breeding, and multiplicative strains.

  6. Hepatitis and hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in dentists.

    PubMed Central

    Berris, B.; Feinman, S. V.; Sinclair, J. C.; Wrobel, D.

    1978-01-01

    Dentists were surveyed regarding a history of hepatitis and the presence in the blood of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody (anti-HBs) to determine whether they were at high risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus. Of 288 Canadian dentists 5.2% gave a history of hepatitis after graduation. This proportion is similar to that for 1462 Ontario dentists (6.3%) and that for 3162 accountants (5.1%) who had previously completed a mailed questionnaire. One dentist (0.3%) was HBsAg-positive and 42 (14.6%) were anti-HBs-positive. Of 210 healthy volunteer blood donors matched for age, sex and ethnic origin with the group of dentists none was HBsAg-positive and 2.9% significantly fewer (P less than 0.005), were anti-HBs-positive. Among Ontario blood donors 0.3% were HBsAg-positive and 3% were anti-HBs-positive. Thus, in Canada, dentists are not at increased risk of acquiring clinical hepatitis or becoming carriers, but they are more likely than other groups to have anti-HBs in the blood. Among dentists from outside Canada a higher proportion had a history of hepatitis (10.3%) and were HBsAg-positive (1.6%), but approximately the same proportion were anti-HBs-positive (15.9%). PMID:743666

  7. Humanlike immune response of human leukocyte antigen-DR3 transgenic mice to staphylococcal enterotoxins: a novel model for superantigen vaccines.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, Luis; Welcher, Brent C; Ulrich, Robert G; Aman, M Javad; David, Chella S; Bavari, Sina

    2002-06-15

    This study examined the biologic responses of transgenic mice expressing human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3 and human CD4 molecules, in the absence of murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules (Ab(0)), to staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and evaluated protective immunity of a nonsuperantigen form of SEB against wild-type holotoxin. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice responded to several log lower concentrations of SEs and secreted higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines than did wild-type mice. Vaccination of transgenic mice with a nonsuperantigenic form of SEB induced high levels of neutralizing anti-SEB antibodies, which protected the mice from a surge in proinflammatory cytokine secretion after SEB challenge. The humanlike responses of the transgenic mice to SEs support the hypothesis that these mice represent an appropriate model to examine vaccines and therapeutics against SEs. This is thought to be the first report of examination of a vaccine against SEB in the context of human MHC class II receptors.

  8. Identification of parathyroid hormone-related protein-derived peptides immunogenic in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-A24+ prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yao, A; Harada, M; Matsueda, S; Ishihara, Y; Shomura, H; Noguchi, M; Matsuoka, K; Hara, I; Kamidono, S; Itoh, K

    2004-07-19

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a key factor in the development of bone metastases, which are a major barrier in treating prostate cancer patients. In this study, we attempted to identify PTHrP-derived peptides immunogenic in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A24(+) prostate cancer patients. Among four different PTHrP peptides carrying the HLA-A24 binding motif, both the PTHrP(36-44) and PTHrP(102-111) peptides efficiently induced peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HLA-A24(+) prostate cancer patients. Peptide-stimulated PBMCs showed cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells in an HLA-A24-restricted manner. Experiments using antibodies and cold inhibition targets confirmed that their cytotoxicity was dependent on PTHrP peptide-specific and CD8(+) T cells. Immunoglobulin G reactive to the PTHrP(102-111) or PTHrP(110-119) peptide was frequently detected in the plasma of prostate cancer patients, suggesting that the PTHrP(102-111) peptide is able to elicit cellular and humoral immune responses in cancer patients. These results indicate that the PTHrP could be a promising target molecule for specific immunotherapy of HLA-A24(+) prostate cancer patients with metastases.

  9. Development of Anti-donor Antibody Directed Toward Non-MHC Antigens in Tolerant Animals

    PubMed Central

    Scalea, Joseph R.; Villani, Vincenzo; Gillon, Bradford C.; Weiner, Joshua; Gianello, Pierre; Turcotte, Nicole; Arn, J. Scott; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Sachs, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical significance of antibodies directed against antigens other than MHC antigens is poorly understood and there are few large animal models in which such antibodies can be examined. We studied, both retrospectively and prospectively, the development of antibodies to non-MHC antigens in tolerant miniature swine. Methods Our database was assessed for cases of anti-donor antibody formation in tolerant animals over the last 20 years. Flow cytometry, absorption assays and familial analyses for inheritance pattern of the gene(s) potentially responsible for the antibody reactivities were carried out and an animal determined to be negative for this reactivity was immunized by a skin graft and subcutaneous injections of PBMCs from an antigen-positive donor. Results Sixteen of 469 tolerant animals tested were found to have developed anti-donor antibodies. These antibodies were found to be specific for the same, presumably single, non-MHC antigen. Familial analyses indicated that the gene encoding this antigen was expressed in an autosomal dominant manner in approximately 95% of the herd. In a prospective study, anti-donor antibodies with the same specificity as those observed retrospectively were successfully induced in an antigen-negative animal after immunization with PBMCs. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of the development of antibodies to a highly prevalent, non-MHC antigen present on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and developing in tolerant animals without signs of graft dysfunction. Considering the concern often raised by the appearance of anti-donor antibodies in transplant recipients, these data could have important implications for clinical transplantation. PMID:24933456

  10. Screening of Sera for Antibodies to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Antigens by Radial Immunodiffusion

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, G. G.; Cowan, K. M.; McVicar, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Radial immunodiffusion procedures have been developed for testing bovine sera for the presence of antibody activity against three foot-and-mouth disease virus types and a virus infection-associated antigen. Reactions with virus antigens were obtained as early as 4 days after infection, and the virus type causing the response was identified. The procedure had the advantages of great sensitivity for the detection of antibody and the ease with which antibodies to a variety of antigens could be detected. Images PMID:4344090

  11. Human leukocyte antigen DR1 in Japanese and Turkish patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M Erkan

    2006-05-01

    The main focus of this review has been to discuss the probable causes of the higher frequency of HLA DR1 antigen in patients with schizophrenia from Japan and Turkey, and also to see whether there was an impact of belonging to the Ural-Altaic language group. A general medline search on the terms HLA and schizophrenia was used as the method to determine HLA studies in patients with schizophrenia. Most of the findings were inconsistent regarding the increased or decreased frequencies of different Class I and II antigens. However, there were interesting results, which have been consistently repeated in several Japanese studies and in a Turkish study. HLA DR1 antigen was statistically significantly increased in Japanese and Turkish patients with schizophrenia. As Japanese and Turkish languages belong to the Ural-Altaic language group, HLA DR1 antigen might have a specific association with schizophrenia in Japanese and Turkish patients. Searching the frequency of HLA DR1 antigen in patients with schizophrenia in other members of Ural-Altaic language group is necessary to support this hypothesis. Other language groups (e.g. Indo-European) should be assessed as well.

  12. Construction and Screening of Antigen Targeted Immune Yeast Surface Display Antibody Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith D.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Baird, Cheryl L.

    2008-07-01

    These protocols describe a yeast surface display-based process for the rapid selection of antibodies from immunized mice, eliminating the need for creating and screening hybridoma fusions. A yeast surface display library of single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) is created from antigen-binding B cells from the splenocytes of immunized mice. The antigen targeted library is then screened for antigen specific scFv by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Library construction and screening can be accomplished in as little as 2 weeks resulting in a panel of scFvs specific for the target antigen.

  13. Construction and Screening of Antigen Targeted Immune Yeast Surface Display Antibody Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith D.; Pefaur, Noah B.; Baird, Cheryl L.

    2009-08-02

    These protocols describe a yeast surface display-based process for the rapid selection of antibodies from immunized mice, eliminating the need for creating and screening hybridoma fusions. A yeast surface display library of single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) is created from antigen-binding B cells from the splenocytes of immunized mice. The antigen targeted library is then screened for antigen specific scFv by magneticactivated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Library construction and screening can be accomplished in as little as 2 weeks, resulting in a panel of scFvs specific for the target antigen.

  14. In vitro antigen-induced antibody responses to hepatitis B surface antigen in man. Kinetic and cellular requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Cupps, T R; Gerin, J L; Purcell, R H; Goldsmith, P K; Fauci, A S

    1984-01-01

    In this report we define the parameters of the human immune response after immunization with hepatitis B vaccine. 2 wk after booster immunization, there is significant spontaneous secretion of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs IgG), which is not further augmented by stimulation with antigen or pokeweed mitogen (PWM). By 4 wk there is little spontaneous secretion of specific antibody, and low doses of antigen or PWM produce significant increases in the amount of anti-HBs IgG produced. By 8 wk the peripheral blood mononuclear cells are refractory to stimulation by antigen, but anti-HBs IgG is produced in response to PWM. 0.5 yr or more after the last immunization, some individuals will manifest an antigen-induced specific antibody response. This induction of anti-HBs IgG by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is monocyte- and T cell-dependent. Note that there is a dichotomy in the T cell response to HBsAg. The specific antibody response is clearly T cell dependent, but no in vitro T cell proliferative response to HBsAG could be demonstrated in the immunized individuals. Although the precise reason for the absent proliferative response to HBsAg despite well-established humoral immunity has not been determined, there was no evidence to suggest nonspecific suppression by HBsAg or the presence of an adherent suppressor cell population. The ability to evaluate antigen-induced, antigen-specific responses to HBsAg will be useful in defining the unique interaction between the human immune response and this clinically important viral agent. PMID:6332826

  15. Identification of Candida albicans antigens reactive with immunoglobulin E antibody of human sera.

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, A; Homma, M; Torii, S; Tanaka, K

    1992-01-01

    Candida albicans antigens which reacted with immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies of 57 allergic patients were detected by immunoblotting. Of the various antigens, the 175-, 125-, 46-, 43-, and 37-kDa antigenic components reacted most frequently with the patient sera. To purify the major antigens, C. albicans cells were fractionated. The 46-, 43-, and 37-kDa antigens were recovered in cytoplasmic fractions, but the 175- and 125-kDa antigens were not recovered in any fraction. The 46-, 43-, and 37-kDa antigens were purified from cytoplasmic fractions by DEAE and P11 ion-exchange chromatography. Antigens were isolated by cutting bands out of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The purified components confirmed by immunoblotting were next processed for amino acid sequencing. Parts of the sequences of the 46-, 43-, and 37-kDa antigens had significant levels of homology with Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycolytic enzyme enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and aldolase, respectively. Rabbit IgG antibodies prepared against the 46- and 43-kDa antigens strongly cross-reacted with the homologous proteins of S. cerevisiae. However, S. cerevisiae enolase and phosphoglycerate kinase did not cross-react with IgE of patient sera. This result suggests that IgE antibodies against only small parts of their epitopes are elevated in the allergic patients. Since enolase is reported to be a major antigen for systemic candidiasis, this enzyme may be the immunodominant protein in both allergies and fungal infections. Images PMID:1548078

  16. [Immunofluorescent-histologic localization of a placenta-antigen with antibodies from pregnancy blood (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Skrabei, H; Meyer-Falk, E; Mettler, L

    1977-08-01

    Placenta-specific antibodies were isolated by the incubation of washed placental tissue with pregancy serum and then desorption with citric acid pH3. The antigen responsible for the formation of the antibody could be localized via the immunofluorescence technique together with application of the placenta antibody in the syncytiotrophoblast layer. The antibodies are not complement-fixing and belong to the IgG class.

  17. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  18. Association of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 with immune response, mastitis, and production and type traits in Canadian Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Rupp, R; Hernandez, A; Mallard, B A

    2007-02-01

    Data collected from 328 Canadian Holsteins in a research herd at the University of Guelph were used to study associations among expression of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3.2 alleles, immune response, mastitis resistance via somatic cell counts (SCC), and clinical mastitis, as well as to extend these results to production and type traits. Accordingly, groups of cows were evaluated in vivo for both the antibody-mediated immune response (AMIR) and the cell-mediated immune response (CMIR), which generally predominate in responses to extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. Of note was that associations between BoLA DRB3.2 alleles and immune responses tended to be in the opposite sign for the 2 AMIR and CMIR traits examined. For example, alleles DRB3.2*3 and *24 were associated with higher AMIR but lower CMIR, whereas allele *22 was associated with lower AMIR but higher CMIR. This finding is in agreement with the hypothesis that both traits are genetically independent and represent opposing type 1 and type 2 immune responses. Additionally, BoLA DRB3.2*3 and *11 were associated with lower SCC, whereas alleles *22 and *23 were associated with higher SCC. Finally, allele DRB3.2*3 was also associated with less clinical mastitis, whereas allele *8 was associated with higher mastitis risk. Allele *3 was of particular relevance because it was associated with increased antibodies, as well as reduced mastitis and SCC. This could be due to an indirect relationship between the ability to produce a high antibody response and enhanced defense against intrammamary infections caused by extracellular pathogens. Consequently, the BoLA DRB3.2*3 allele should be investigated further as a candidate for resistance to some types of intramammary infections, the important caveat being its association with lower CMIR, particularly with one of the test antigens used to evaluate delayed-type hypersensitivity. The results of associations between BoLA DRB3.2 and production

  19. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    PubMed

    Domina, Maria; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Benfatto, Salvatore; D'Aliberti, Deborah; Venza, Mario; Borgogni, Erica; Castellino, Flora; Biondo, Carmelo; D'Andrea, Daniel; Grassi, Luigi; Tramontano, Anna; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  20. Antigen and antibody testing for the diagnosis of blastomycosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Spector, D; Legendre, A M; Wheat, J; Bemis, D; Rohrbach, B; Taboada, J; Durkin, M

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment are associated with an improved prognosis in blastomycosis. The diagnosis of blastomycosis may be missed by cytology, histopathology, culture, or serology. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis galactomannan antigen in body fluids has been used for rapid diagnosis of blastomycosis in humans. Measurement of Blastomyces antigen in urine or serum by the MVista Blastomyces antigen EIA is more sensitive than measurement of anti-Blastomyces antibodies for diagnosis of blastomycosis in dogs. Serum and urine samples from 46 dogs with confirmed blastomycosis were tested for Blastomyces antigen and serum was tested for anti-Blastomyces antibodies. The sensitivity for the detection of antigen in urine was 93.5% and it was 87.0% in serum. The sensitivity of antibody detection by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) was 17.4% and it was 76.1% by EIA. Antigen and antibody decreased during itraconazole treatment. Antigen detection is a more sensitive test for diagnosis of blastomycosis than antibody testing by AGID, the only commercially available method. Antigen concentrations decreased with treatment.

  1. Antibody

    MedlinePlus

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  2. Loss of enzyme-sensitive antigens due to the presence of leukocytes, neomycin sulfate, and LISS.

    PubMed

    Velliquette, R W; Howard, P; Malyska, H; Reid, M E

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that RBCs with residual WBCs stored in LISS and neomycin sulfate develop characteristics associated with enzyme-treated RBCs. During a mass screening program to antigen type donor RBCs, we observed that the Fya antigens on a RBC sample from an in-house panel became non-detectable with anti-Fya after incubation overnight in Diluent 2 from Micro Typing Systems, Inc. (MTS, Pompano Beach, FL). In response to this observation, we initiated an investigation to determine the cause. Tests were performed according to the manfacturer's instructions in MTS neutral gel cards or gel cards containing anti-IgG. We found that a reduction or loss of the Fya, Fyb, and M antigens occurs when RBCs were prepared from samples containing residual WBCs (as a source of enzymes) and subsequently incubated in media containing neomycin sulfate and LISS. We showed that the effect did not occur in the absence of neomycin sulfate. RBC antigens can be altered in LISS if they have first been exposed to neomycin. We recommend restricting the use of RBCs suspended in MTS Diluent 2 to the day of dilution (as indicated in the package insert) if preparing reagent RBCs from sources that were not leukoreduced and were stored in the presence of neomycin.

  3. Prognostic impact of human leukocyte antigen class I expression and association of platinum resistance with immunologic profiles in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Mariya, Tasuku; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Asano, Takuya; Kuroda, Takafumi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Sonoda, Tomoko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2014-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most deadly carcinomas in females. Immune systems can recognize EOCs; however, a defect of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression is known to be a major mechanism for escape from immune systems, resulting in poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to identify novel correlations between immunologic responses and other clinical factors. We investigated the expression of immunologic components in 122 cases of EOCs for which surgical operations were performed between 2001 and 2011. We immunohistochemically stained EOC specimens using an anti-pan HLA class I monoclonal antibody (EMR8-5) and anti-CD3, -CD4, and -CD8 antibodies, and we analyzed correlations between immunologic parameters and clinical factors. In multivariate analysis that used the Cox proportional hazards model, independent prognostic factors for overall survival in advanced EOCs included low expression level of HLA class I [risk ratio (RR), 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-3.83; P = 0.046] and loss of intraepithelial cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) infiltration (RR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.06-4.20; P = 0.033). Interestingly, almost all platinum-resistant cases showed a significantly low rate of intraepithelial CTL infiltration in the χ(2) test (positive vs. negative: 9.0% vs. 97.7%; P < 0.001). Results from a logistic regression model revealed that low CTL infiltration rate was an independent factor of platinum resistance in multivariate analysis (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.08-13.12; P = 0.037). Platinum-resistant EOCs show poor immunologic responses. The immune escape system of EOCs may be one of the mechanisms of platinum resistance. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Investigating Substitutions in Antibody-Antigen Complexes Using Molecular Dynamics: A Case Study with Broad-spectrum, Influenza A Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lees, William D; Stejskal, Lenka; Moss, David S; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2017-01-01

    In studying the binding of host antibodies to the surface antigens of pathogens, the structural and functional characterization of antibody-antigen complexes by X-ray crystallography and binding assay is important. However, the characterization requires experiments that are typically time consuming and expensive: thus, many antibody-antigen complexes are under-characterized. For vaccine development and disease surveillance, it is often vital to assess the impact of amino acid substitutions on antibody binding. For example, are there antibody substitutions capable of improving binding without a loss of breadth, or antigen substitutions that lead to antigenic escape? The questions cannot be answered reliably from sequence variation alone, exhaustive substitution assays are usually impractical, and alanine scans provide at best an incomplete identification of the critical residue-residue interactions. Here, we show that, given an initial structure of an antibody bound to an antigen, molecular dynamics simulations using the energy method molecular mechanics with Generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) can model the impact of single amino acid substitutions on antibody-antigen binding energy. We apply the technique to three broad-spectrum antibodies to influenza A hemagglutinin and examine both previously characterized and novel variant strains observed in the human population that may give rise to antigenic escape. We find that in some cases the impact of a substitution is local, while in others it causes a reorientation of the antibody with wide-ranging impact on residue-residue interactions: this explains, in part, why the change in chemical properties of a residue can be, on its own, a poor predictor of overall change in binding energy. Our estimates are in good agreement with experimental results-indeed, they approximate the degree of agreement between different experimental techniques. Simulations were performed on commodity computer hardware; hence, this approach

  5. Epigenetic silencing of the chaperone Cosmc in human leukocytes expressing tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Mi, Rongjuan; Song, Lina; Wang, Yingchun; Ding, Xiaokun; Zeng, Junwei; Lehoux, Sylvain; Aryal, Rajindra P; Wang, Jianmei; Crew, Vanja K; van Die, Irma; Chapman, Arlene B; Cummings, Richard D; Ju, Tongzhong

    2012-11-30

    Cosmc is the specific molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum for T-synthase, a Golgi β3-galactosyltransferase that generates the core 1 O-glycan, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr, in glycoproteins. Dysfunctional Cosmc results in the formation of inactive T-synthase and consequent expression of the Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), which is associated with several human diseases. However, the molecular regulation of expression of Cosmc, which is encoded by a single gene on Xq24, is poorly understood. Here we show that epigenetic silencing of Cosmc through hypermethylation of its promoter leads to loss of Cosmc transcripts in Tn4 cells, an immortalized B cell line from a male patient with a Tn-syndrome-like phenotype. These cells lack T-synthase activity and express the Tn antigen. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine causes restoration of Cosmc transcripts, restores T-synthase activity, and reduces Tn antigen expression. Bisulfite sequencing shows that CG dinucleotides in the Cosmc core promoter are hypermethylated. Interestingly, several other X-linked genes associated with glycosylation are not silenced in Tn4 cells, and we observed no correlation of a particular DNA methyltransferase to aberrant methylation of Cosmc in these cells. Thus, hypermethylation of the Cosmc promoter in Tn4 cells is relatively specific. Epigenetic silencing of Cosmc provides another mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of the Tn antigen, which may be important in understanding aberrant Tn antigen expression in human diseases, including IgA nephropathy and cancer.

  6. Epigenetic Silencing of the Chaperone Cosmc in Human Leukocytes Expressing Tn Antigen*

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Rongjuan; Song, Lina; Wang, Yingchun; Ding, Xiaokun; Zeng, Junwei; Lehoux, Sylvain; Aryal, Rajindra P.; Wang, Jianmei; Crew, Vanja K.; van Die, Irma; Chapman, Arlene B.; Cummings, Richard D.; Ju, Tongzhong

    2012-01-01

    Cosmc is the specific molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum for T-synthase, a Golgi β3-galactosyltransferase that generates the core 1 O-glycan, Galβ1–3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr, in glycoproteins. Dysfunctional Cosmc results in the formation of inactive T-synthase and consequent expression of the Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), which is associated with several human diseases. However, the molecular regulation of expression of Cosmc, which is encoded by a single gene on Xq24, is poorly understood. Here we show that epigenetic silencing of Cosmc through hypermethylation of its promoter leads to loss of Cosmc transcripts in Tn4 cells, an immortalized B cell line from a male patient with a Tn-syndrome-like phenotype. These cells lack T-synthase activity and express the Tn antigen. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine causes restoration of Cosmc transcripts, restores T-synthase activity, and reduces Tn antigen expression. Bisulfite sequencing shows that CG dinucleotides in the Cosmc core promoter are hypermethylated. Interestingly, several other X-linked genes associated with glycosylation are not silenced in Tn4 cells, and we observed no correlation of a particular DNA methyltransferase to aberrant methylation of Cosmc in these cells. Thus, hypermethylation of the Cosmc promoter in Tn4 cells is relatively specific. Epigenetic silencing of Cosmc provides another mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of the Tn antigen, which may be important in understanding aberrant Tn antigen expression in human diseases, including IgA nephropathy and cancer. PMID:23035125

  7. Prognostic Implications of Antibodies to Soluble Liver Antigen in Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-Xian; Shao, Jian-Guo; Shen, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Hua, Yu; Wang, Lu-Jun; Qin, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prognostic evaluation is important for the management of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Although some autoantibodies have been associated with disease activity and outcomes, the implication of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) remains controversial. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies which addressed differences in clinical characteristics by anti-SLA status in patients with AIH. Three databases PUBMED, EMBASE, and OVID were systemically searched up to January 2015 using the terms “soluble liver antigen” or “liver-pancreas antigen” and “autoimmune hepatitis” with restriction to English-language. Studies were included if at least 50 patients with objective diagnosis of AIH were enrolled, anti-SLA detection was performed for the patients, and prognostic outcomes and/or disease severity were reported. Two investigators independently reviewed retrieved literature and evaluated eligibility. Discrepancy was resolved by discussion and a third investigator. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Data were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effect models. Prognostic outcomes included death from hepatic failure or requirement for liver transplantation, and responses to immunosuppressive therapy regarding remission or relapse. Results were combined on the odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) scales. Eight studies were enrolled in this study, involving a total of 1297 AIH patients among whom 195 with anti-SLA. Pooled serum AST levels tended to be lower in anti-SLA seropositive patients. The presence of anti-SLA conferred 3.1-fold increased risk of hepatic death in AIH patients. The remission rates were comparable between anti-SLA seropositive and seronegative AIH patients, while anti-SLA positivity was associated with nearly 2-fold increased risk of relapse after drug withdrawal. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allotype DR3 was positively

  8. Monitoring human leukocyte antigen class I molecules by micro-Raman spectroscopy at single-cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Gobind; La Rocca, Rosanna; Lakshmikanth, Tadepally; Gentile, Francesco; Tallerico, Rossana; Zambetti, Lia P.; Devitt, J.; Candeloro, Patrizio; de Angelis, Francesco; Carbone, Ennio; di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2010-03-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules are formed by three immunoglobulin-like domains (α1, α2, and α3) once folded by peptide and β2-microglobulin show the presence of two α-helix streams and one β-sheet limiting the pocket for the antigenic peptide. The loss of HLA class I expression in tumors and virus-infected cells, on one hand, prevents T cell recognition, while on the other hand, it leads to natural killer (NK) cell mediated cytotoxicity. We propose the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to measure the relative expression of HLA class I molecules at the single-cell level. Raman spectra are recorded for three cell lines (K562, T2, and T3) and monomers (HLA class I folded, unfolded and peptide+β2-microlobulin refolded) using 830 nm laser line. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that in the Raman spectra, ranging from 1600 to 1800 cm-1, the intensity variation of cells associated with HLA class I molecules could be measured.

  9. The association of human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms with disease severity and latency period in patients with silicosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Denim sandblasting may cause silicosis as a result of free crystalline silica inhalation. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, but autoimmunity may play a role in the development of silicosis. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and the severity and latency period of silicosis. Methods 48 silicotic patients in the Eastern part of Turkey were classified according to their latency period and disease severity. The distribution of HLAs according to disease severity and latency period was assessed. Results A23 (7.5%), B49 (7.5%), and B51 (25%) were more common in the mild group than in the severe group, and B55 (8.9%) and DR4 (17.9%) were more common in the severe group than in the mild one. Only B51 was significantly more common in the mild group than in the severe one (25%, n = 10 vs. 7.1%, n = 4; p = 0.016). Conclusions This study suggests that HLA antigens may play a particular role in the severity of silica-induced lung disease, but there was no association between HLA and progression time of the disease. PMID:24646632

  10. The association of human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms with disease severity and latency period in patients with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hasan; Akgun, Metin; Araz, Omer; Ucar, Elif Yilmazel; Yoruk, Ozgur; Diyarbakir, Eda; Atis, Omer; Akdemir, Fatih; Acemoglu, Hamit; Pirim, Ibrahim

    2014-03-19

    Denim sandblasting may cause silicosis as a result of free crystalline silica inhalation. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, but autoimmunity may play a role in the development of silicosis. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and the severity and latency period of silicosis. 48 silicotic patients in the Eastern part of Turkey were classified according to their latency period and disease severity. The distribution of HLAs according to disease severity and latency period was assessed. A23 (7.5%), B49 (7.5%), and B51 (25%) were more common in the mild group than in the severe group, and B55 (8.9%) and DR4 (17.9%) were more common in the severe group than in the mild one. Only B51 was significantly more common in the mild group than in the severe one (25%, n = 10 vs. 7.1%, n = 4; p = 0.016). This study suggests that HLA antigens may play a particular role in the severity of silica-induced lung disease, but there was no association between HLA and progression time of the disease.

  11. Identification and functional characterization of platelet-activating factor receptors in human leukocyte populations using polyclonal anti-peptide antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, E; Dagenais, P; Alami, N; Rola-Pleszczynski, M

    1993-01-01

    Recently, the successful cloning of a receptor for platelet-activating factor (PAF), a lipid mediator of inflammation, was reported. Here we investigated the distribution and potential diversity of human PAF receptors (hPAF-Rs) among individual leukocyte populations by (i) hPAF-R mRNA transcription studies and (ii) analysis of cell surface expression of hPAF-R protein using a polyclonal anti-peptide antibody (anti-hPAF-R164-173). Northern blot analysis, flow cytometry, and immunoblotting with anti-hPAF-R antibody indicated that monocytic, neutrophilic, and B-lymphocytic cell lines all shared a similar hPAF-R species, whereas resting T-cell and natural killer cell lines failed to express detectable levels of either hPAF-R protein or mRNA. Peripheral blood leukocyte populations showed a distribution of hPAF-R cell surface expression similar to that of the corresponding cell lines. Furthermore, binding of anti-hPAF-R164-173 antiserum, purified IgG, or Fab and F(ab')2 fragments to the receptor of all investigated PAF-R-positive cell lines induced an increase in intracellular free calcium concentration. The characterization of the expression of a lipid ligand receptor using antibodies against an intrinsic portion of the receptor protein has, to our knowledge, never been reported previously. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:8390683

  12. Effect of antigen turnover rate and expression level on antibody penetration into tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Margaret E; Pawlowski, David; Wittrup, K Dane

    2008-07-01

    Poor tissue penetration is a significant obstacle to the development of successful antibody drugs for immunotherapy of solid tumors, and diverse alterations to the properties of antibody drugs have been made to improve penetration and homogeneity of exposure. However, in addition to properties of the antibody drug, mathematical models of antibody transport predict that the antigen expression level and turnover rate significantly influence penetration. As intrinsic antigen properties are likely to be difficult to modify, they may set inherent limits to penetration. Accordingly, in this study, we assess their contribution by evaluating the distance to which antibodies penetrate spheroids when these antigen properties are systematically varied. Additionally, the penetration profiles of antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen and A33, two targets of clinical interest, are compared. The results agree well with the quantitative predictions of the model and show that localizing antibody to distal regions of tumors is best achieved by selecting slowly internalized targets that are not expressed above the level necessary for recruiting a toxic dose of therapeutic. Each antibody-bound antigen molecule that is turned over or present in excess incurs a real cost in terms of penetration depth-a limiting factor in the development of effective therapies for treating solid tumors.

  13. Antigen specificity of antihistone antibodies in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Fujimoto, M; Ihn, H; Kikuchi, K; Takehara, K

    1994-10-01

    Recently, we detected antihistone antibodies (AHAs) in patients with localized scleroderma. However, the exact antigen specificity of AHAs in this disease is still unknown. Therefore, we determined the reactivity of AHAs with five individual histones and the correlation of AHAs with rheumatoid factor in localized scleroderma by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Twenty patients with localized scleroderma who had IgG and/or IgM AHAs, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were examined. These patients were classified into the following three subgroups: patients with generalized morphea (n = 11), patients with linear scleroderma (n = 6), and patients with morphea (n = 3). In generalized morphea, IgG AHAs strongly reacted with histones H1, H2A, and H2B; and IgM AHAs strongly reacted with H1 and H2B, as determined by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pattern of reactivity in linear scleroderma and morphea was similar to that in generalized morphea. A homogeneous immunofluorescent pattern on HEp-2 cells, which was produced by localized scleroderma sera, was completely abolished by absorption with total histones. By employing a latex agglutination test, IgM rheumatoid factor was detected in 60% of the 20 patients with localized scleroderma and at a frequency of 82% in those with generalized morphea. However, an absorption test of rheumatoid factor activity with human IgG revealed no cross-reactivity of AHAs with rheumatoid factor. Our data suggest that AHAs in localized scleroderma are directed against native chromatin, since H1, H2A, and H2B occupy a relatively exposed portion of chromatin.

  14. Fatal TRALI associated with neutrophil antibodies in a recipient of pre-storage leukocyte-reduced blood components.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Kadota, Eiji; Shimizu, Michiomi; Nomura, Shosaku

    2009-01-01

    A 53-year-old man developed possible transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) after red cell component transfusion. The patient developed autoimmune neutropenia with the expression of neutrophil antibodies. Neutrophil aggregation, endothelial damage, and development of a large thrombus containing platelets were observed post mortem in his pulmonary vessels. The patient also had subacute organizing pneumonia. He received blood components treated with universal pre-storage leuko-reduction. Even though leukocytes in the blood components are reduced to a few million by this process, TRALI can be fatal, as was the case for this recipient, who had subacute organizing pneumonia in conjunction with immune-mediated neutropenia.

  15. [Use of radial immunodiffusion for quantitative determination of antibody to ribonucleoprotein antigen of influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Vaciaev, A I; Isupov, F G

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of quantitative determination of antibody to the inner type-specific antigen of influenza A virus by means of radial immunodiffusion test by the method of Mancini was demonstrated. Development of a method for preparation of a concentrated antigen will make it possible to use the test in practical laboratories. By means of radial immunodiffusion test antibody in paired sera from convalescents, vaccinees as well as animals and birds may be determined.

  16. Challenges in Antibody Development against Tn and Sialyl-Tn Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Liliana R.; Carrascal, Mylène A.; Barbas, Ana; Ramalho, José S.; Novo, Carlos; Delannoy, Philippe; Videira, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    The carbohydrate antigens Tn and sialyl-Tn (STn) are expressed in most carcinomas and usually absent in healthy tissues. These antigens have been correlated with cancer progression and poor prognosis, and associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment. Presently they are used in clinical trials as therapeutic vaccination, but with limited success due to their low immunogenicity. Alternatively, anti-Tn and/or STn antibodies may be used to harness the immune system against tumor cells. Whilst the development of antibodies against these antigens had a boost two decades ago for diagnostic use, so far no such antibody entered into clinical trials. Possible limitations are the low specificity and efficiency of existing antibodies and that novel antibodies are still necessary. The vast array of methodologies available today will allow rapid antibody development and novel formats. Following the advent of hybridoma technology, the immortalization of human B cells became a methodology to obtain human monoclonal antibodies with better specificity. Advances in molecular biology including phage display technology for high throughput screening, transgenic mice and more recently molecularly engineered antibodies enhanced the field of antibody production. The development of novel antibodies against Tn and STn taking advantage of innovative technologies and engineering techniques may result in innovative therapeutic antibodies for cancer treatment. PMID:26270678

  17. The constant region affects antigen binding of antibodies to DNA by altering secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yumin; Janda, Alena; Eryilmaz, Ertan; Casadevall, Arturo; Putterman, Chaim

    2013-11-01

    We previously demonstrated an important role of the constant region in the pathogenicity of anti-DNA antibodies. To determine the mechanisms by which the constant region affects autoantibody binding, a panel of isotype-switch variants (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b) was generated from the murine PL9-11 IgG3 autoantibody. The affinity of the PL9-11 antibody panel for histone was measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine wavelength shifts of the antibody panel upon binding to DNA and histone. Finally, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to measure changes in secondary structure. SPR analysis revealed significant differences in histone binding affinity between members of the PL9-11 panel. The wavelength shifts of tryptophan fluorescence emission were found to be dependent on the antibody isotype, while circular dichroism analysis determined that changes in antibody secondary structure content differed between isotypes upon antigen binding. Thus, the antigen binding affinity is dependent on the particular constant region expressed. Moreover, the effects of antibody binding to antigen were also constant region dependent. Alteration of secondary structures influenced by constant regions may explain differences in fine specificity of anti-DNA antibodies between antibodies with similar variable regions, as well as cross-reactivity of anti-DNA antibodies with non-DNA antigens.

  18. The Dynamics of the Human Leukocyte Antigen Head Domain Modulates Its Recognition by the T-Cell Receptor.

    PubMed

    García-Guerrero, Estefanía; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Generating the immune response requires the discrimination of peptides presented by the human leukocyte antigen complex (HLA) through the T-cell receptor (TCR). However, how a single amino acid substitution in the antigen bonded to HLA affects the response of T cells remains uncertain. Hence, we used molecular dynamics computations to analyze the molecular interactions between peptides, HLA and TCR. We compared immunologically reactive complexes with non-reactive and weakly reactive complexes. MD trajectories were produced to simulate the behavior of isolated components of the various p-HLA-TCR complexes. Analysis of the fluctuations showed that p-HLA binding barely restrains TCR motions, and mainly affects the CDR3 loops. Conversely, inactive p-HLA complexes displayed significant drop in their dynamics when compared with its free versus ternary forms (p-HLA-TCR). In agreement, the free non-reactive p-HLA complexes showed a lower amount of salt bridges than the responsive ones. This resulted in differences between the electrostatic potentials of reactive and inactive p-HLA species and larger vibrational entropies in non-elicitor complexes. Analysis of the ternary p-HLA-TCR complexes also revealed a larger number of salt bridges in the responsive complexes. To summarize, our computations indicate that the affinity of each p-HLA complex towards TCR is intimately linked to both, the dynamics of its free species and its ability to form specific intermolecular salt-bridges in the ternary complexes. Of outstanding interest is the emerging concept of antigen reactivity involving its interplay with the HLA head sidechain dynamics by rearranging its salt-bridges.

  19. The Dynamics of the Human Leukocyte Antigen Head Domain Modulates Its Recognition by the T-Cell Receptor

    PubMed Central

    García-Guerrero, Estefanía; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; De la Rosa, Miguel A.; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Generating the immune response requires the discrimination of peptides presented by the human leukocyte antigen complex (HLA) through the T-cell receptor (TCR). However, how a single amino acid substitution in the antigen bonded to HLA affects the response of T cells remains uncertain. Hence, we used molecular dynamics computations to analyze the molecular interactions between peptides, HLA and TCR. We compared immunologically reactive complexes with non-reactive and weakly reactive complexes. MD trajectories were produced to simulate the behavior of isolated components of the various p-HLA-TCR complexes. Analysis of the fluctuations showed that p-HLA binding barely restrains TCR motions, and mainly affects the CDR3 loops. Conversely, inactive p-HLA complexes displayed significant drop in their dynamics when compared with its free versus ternary forms (p-HLA-TCR). In agreement, the free non-reactive p-HLA complexes showed a lower amount of salt bridges than the responsive ones. This resulted in differences between the electrostatic potentials of reactive and inactive p-HLA species and larger vibrational entropies in non-elicitor complexes. Analysis of the ternary p-HLA-TCR complexes also revealed a larger number of salt bridges in the responsive complexes. To summarize, our computations indicate that the affinity of each p-HLA complex towards TCR is intimately linked to both, the dynamics of its free species and its ability to form specific intermolecular salt-bridges in the ternary complexes. Of outstanding interest is the emerging concept of antigen reactivity involving its interplay with the HLA head sidechain dynamics by rearranging its salt-bridges. PMID:27124285

  20. [Monoclonal antibodies of the ICO series against differentiation antigens of human lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Baryshnikov, A Iu

    1990-08-01

    The principal characteristics of monoclonal antibodies (MCA) ICO have been presented. The MCA ICO panel includes MCA against differentiating antigens of T- and B-lymphocytes, myelomonocytes, human leukemia-associated antigens. The following MCA have been described: MCA ICO-87 against common T-cell antigen CD7, ICO-33 and ICO-80 against common T-cell antigen CD5, MCA ICO-10 against Thy-1 antigen of early thymocytes, ICO-44 against CD1c antigen of cortical thymocytes, MCA ICO-90 against CD3 antigen of mature T-lymphocytes, MCA ICO-86 against CD4 antigen of T-helper/inductor cells, MCA ICO-31 against CD8 antigen of T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells, MCA ICO-1 against nonpolymorphic antigens of HLA II class, MCA ICO-12 against CD22 antigen of B-lymphocytes, MCA ICO-30 against mu-chain of human IgGM, MCA ICO-66 against CD37 antigen of B-lymphocytes, MCA ICO-88 against antigen of activated T- and B-cells, MCA ICO-35 against lymphoblasts, MCA ICO-88 against CD38 antigen of thymocytes and activated cells.

  1. Synthetic oligonucleotide antigens modified with locked nucleic acids detect disease specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Simone V.; Solov’yov, Ilia A.; Balboni, Imelda M.; Mellins, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Astakhova, Kira

    2016-01-01

    New techniques to detect and quantify antibodies to nucleic acids would provide a significant advance over current methods, which often lack specificity. We investigate the potential of novel antigens containing locked nucleic acids (LNAs) as targets for antibodies. Particularly, employing molecular dynamics we predict optimal nucleotide composition for targeting DNA-binding antibodies. As a proof of concept, we address a problem of detecting anti-DNA antibodies that are characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus, a chronic autoimmune disease with multiple manifestations. We test the best oligonucleotide binders in surface plasmon resonance studies to analyze binding and kinetic aspects of interactions between antigens and target DNA. These DNA and LNA/DNA sequences showed improved binding in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human samples of pediatric lupus patients. Our results suggest that the novel method is a promising tool to create antigens for research and point-of-care monitoring of anti-DNA antibodies. PMID:27775006

  2. Use of Radioactive Antibodies for Characterizing Antigens and Application to the Study of Flagella Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Geoffrey F.; Simon, Melvin

    1968-01-01

    A simple rapid immunochemical procedure has been developed which provides information about the qualitative and quantitative nature of antigens. It involves the use of purified radioactive (125I-labeled) antibodies. The amount of antibody bound to the antigen is determined by filtering the mixture through diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose paper. All of the antigen, as well as the antibody complexed with it, is trapped on the paper, whereas free antibody is removed by repeated washing. This technique has been applied to the study of three immune systems, bovine serum albumin, Escherichia coli tryptophan synthetase B protein, and Bacillus subtilis flagella. The results obtained by the DEAE-antibody binding technique were comparable, in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, to data obtained by microcomplement fixation and precipitin methods. The assay was used to measure the kinetics of flagella regeneration in B. subtilis. PMID:4965981

  3. Synthetic oligonucleotide antigens modified with locked nucleic acids detect disease specific antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsen, Simone V.; Solov’Yov, Ilia A.; Balboni, Imelda M.; Mellins, Elizabeth; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Heegaard, Niels H. H.; Astakhova, Kira

    2016-10-01

    New techniques to detect and quantify antibodies to nucleic acids would provide a significant advance over current methods, which often lack specificity. We investigate the potential of novel antigens containing locked nucleic acids (LNAs) as targets for antibodies. Particularly, employing molecular dynamics we predict optimal nucleotide composition for targeting DNA-binding antibodies. As a proof of concept, we address a problem of detecting anti-DNA antibodies that are characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus, a chronic autoimmune disease with multiple manifestations. We test the best oligonucleotide binders in surface plasmon resonance studies to analyze binding and kinetic aspects of interactions between antigens and target DNA. These DNA and LNA/DNA sequences showed improved binding in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human samples of pediatric lupus patients. Our results suggest that the novel method is a promising tool to create antigens for research and point-of-care monitoring of anti-DNA antibodies.

  4. Dynamics behind affinity maturation of an anti-HCMV antibody family influencing antigen binding.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Francesco; Tramontano, Anna

    2017-08-03

    The investigation of antibody affinity maturation and its effects on antigen binding is important with respect to understanding the regulation of the immune response. To shed light on this crucial process, we analyzed two Igs neutralizing the human cytomegalovirus: the primary germline antibody M2J1 and its related mature antibody 8F9. Both antibodies target the AD-2S1 epitope of the gB envelope protein and are considered to establish similar interactions with the cognate antigen. We used molecular dynamics simulations to understand the effect of mutations on the antibody-antigen interactions. The results provide a qualitative explanation for the increased 8F9 peptide affinity compared with that of M2J1. The emerging atomistic-detailed description of these complexes reveals the molecular effects of the somatic hypermutations occurring during affinity maturation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Immune response of sheep to Haemonchus contortus: serum antibodies against cross reacting antigens between parasites.

    PubMed

    Charley, J; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1981-01-01

    Normal and H. contortus infected sera were studied by ELISA technique against different stages of the parasites. In all cases antibody activity was detected. This activity in serum is partially eliminated after absorption with an adult worm extract of N brasiliensis. N. brasiliensis and H. contortus antigens were analysed by TCIEP with a rabbit anti-N. brasiliensis serum to examine shared antigens of H. contortus. A minimum of seven cross reacting antigens were detected. H. contortus adult worm extract was absorbed by the rabbit anti-N. brasiliensis serum. After absorption all cross reacting antigens were removed but at least one antigen reacting with a rabbit serum anti-H. Contortus is maintained. When this antigen is tested in elisa technique only a weak antibody activity is found in normal serum.

  6. Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium) with antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, E; Tavares, C A; Lopes, J D

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated from mice immunized with scolex protein antigen of Cysticercus cellulosae. Three monoclonal antibodies specific for cysticercal antigens, which did not show any cross-reactivity with Taenia solium or Taenia saginata antigens, were selected. Each monoclonal antibody coupled to Sepharose could purify one antigen, which appeared as a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies were used to detect antibody in serum samples taken from patients with cysticercosis, taeniasis, and other parasitic infections in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, cross-reactivity was observed until a serum dilution of 1:128 was reached. Since serum samples from unexposed subjects showed positive reactions until a dilution of 1:64 was reached, we chose a discriminative dilution (1:128) above which no cross-reaction was observed. The percent positive serum samples from cysticercosis patients was 100% by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with any of the antigens purified by monoclonal antibodies. Images PMID:3611310

  7. An epitope on carcinoembryonic antigen defined by the clinically relevant antibody PR1A3.

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, H; Young, S; Stewart, L M; Wrba, F; Rowan, A J; Snary, D; Bodmer, W F

    1994-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody PR1A3 has been used successfully for in vivo imaging of colorectal cancers, and several properties associated with this antibody, including minimal reactions of the antibody with circulating antigen in patients' sera, differentiate it from anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibodies used in similar studies. However, the antigen bound by PR1A3 was identified as CEA by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and by antigen expression from yeast artificial chromosomes, cosmids, and cDNA clones. The molecular weight, presence of a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor, elevation of surface expression by gamma-interferon, and N-terminal amino acid sequence all confirmed the antigen identification as CEA. A series of biliary glycoprotein-CEA hybrid proteins was produced which demonstrated that the epitope bound by the antibody was at the site of membrane attachment and involved parts of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor and the B3 domain of CEA to form a conformational epitope. Access to this epitope, although possible when the antigen was on the cell surface, appeared to be blocked when CEA was released from the cell. The nature and location of the epitope on CEA are proposed to be responsible for the unique properties of the antibody. Images PMID:7514303

  8. Cysticercus antibodies and antigens in serum from blood donors from Pondicherry, India.

    PubMed

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Balamurungan, N; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Subbaiah, S P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen the serum of blood donors, which are apparently healthy and residing in Pondicherry or its neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu State, for specific detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies. A total of 216 blood samples were collected from blood donors at the Central Blood Bank, JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry, India during January and February 2004. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to demonstrate anti-Cysticercus antibodies and the Co-agglutination (CoA) was used to detect antigen in sera. 14 (6.48 %) males were positive for either anti-Cysticercus antibodies or antigens. Of these eight sera were positive for anti-Cysticercus antibodies and six were positive for antigens. Results of the present study show that serum Cysticercus antigen detection may be a useful adjunct to antibody testing for seroprevalence studies of cysticercosis in the community. The present study is the first kind of study, carried out to determine both cysticercal antibodies as well as antigens in the serum samples collected from the healthy blood donors.

  9. An anti-platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 antibody inhibits leukocyte extravasation from mesenteric microvessels in vivo by blocking the passage through the basement membrane

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) plays an active role in the process of leukocyte migration through cultured endothelial cells in vitro and anti-PECAM-1 antibodies (Abs) inhibit accumulation of leukocytes into sites of inflammation in vivo. Despite the latter, it is still not clear at which stage of leukocyte emigration in vivo PECAM-1 is involved. To address this point directly, we studied the effect of an anti-PECAM-1 Ab, recognizing rat PECAM-1, on leukocyte responses within rat mesenteric microvessels using intravital microscopy. In mesenteric preparations activated by interleukin (IL)-1 beta, the anti-PECAM-1 Ab had no significant effect on the rolling or adhesion of leukocytes, but inhibited their migration into the surrounding extravascular tissue in a dose-dependent manner. Although in some vessel segments these leukocytes had come to a halt within the vascular lumen, often the leukocytes appeared to be trapped within the vessel wall. Analysis of these sections by electron microscopy revealed that the leukocytes had passed through endothelial cell junctions but not the basement membrane. In contrast to the effect of the Ab in mesenteric preparations treated with IL-1 beta, leukocyte extravasation induced by topical or intraperitoneal administration of the chemotactic peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine was not inhibited by the anti-PECAM-1 Ab. These results directly demonstrate a role for PECAM-1 in leukocyte extravasation in vivo and indicate that this involvement is selective for leukocyte extravasation elicited by certain inflammatory mediators. Further, our findings provide the first in vivo indication that PECAM-1 may have an important role in triggering the passage of leukocytes through the perivascular basement membrane. PMID:8691137

  10. Comprehensive assessment for serum treatment for single antigen test for detection of HLA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohai; Reinsmoen, Nancy L

    2017-09-09

    The single antigen test is widely used in the field of transplantation to determine the specificity of HLA antibodies. It will be beneficial to standardize the procedure of the single antigen test among HLA laboratories. It is not uncommon that single antigen testing on native sera fails to detect antibodies with very high concentrations. It has been shown that cleavage products of activated complement components may mask strongly binding antibodies in single antigen testing. To overcome inhibition by the activated complement products, sera are pretreated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), dithiothreitol (DTT), or heat inactivation before single antigen testing. However, no studies have been published to systemically compare the impact of these treatments on single antigen testing. The aim of this study is to understand the different effects these treatments may have on single antigen test results. We found that mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) obtained from sera treated with EDTA and heat inactivation were nearly identical, while DTT treatment was less potent to remove the inhibition. In addition, sera dilution did not further increase MFI of antibodies after EDTA treatment. Our results provide guidance to choose a pretreatment reagent for single antigen testing, and to compare studies obtained from laboratories using different treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibody response against three Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens in Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sennang, Nurhayana; Rogerson, Stephen; Wahyuni, Sitti; Yusuf, Irawan; Syafruddin, Din

    2014-09-25

    Malaria endemicity in the archipelago of Indonesia varies substantially across regions. Following the government's plan for a malaria elimination programme in Indonesia, baseline malaria surveys were conducted in Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Province, Indonesia to re-assess the malaria situation prior to the establishment of an evidence-based malaria elimination programme in the area. The present study aims to determine the antibody response to three merozoite antigens among the inhabitants of the district. Antibodies were measured following elution from filter-paper blood spots collected during cross-sectional surveys in the dry and wet season in 2010. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using three merozoite antigens, MSP2, EBA175 and PfRh2a were conducted. A positivity threshold was determined by samples from unexposed individuals and the difference in antibody level against each antigen and correlation of antibody level in different age groups and seasons were statistically analysed. A total of 497 subjects, 248 in dry and 249 in wet season, aged between 0.6 and 78 years were included. The prevalence of positive antibody responses to MSP2, EBA175 and PfRh2a antigens in dry season were 27.82, 27.42 and 25.81%, respectively. In wet season, the antibody prevalences were 64.26, 64.66 and 61.45%. The antibody levels to the three antigens were all higher in older age groups and also significantly higher in the wet season. The antibody levels also correlated positively with the Plasmodium falciparum infection status of the subjects. MSP2, EBA175 and PfRh2a induce antibody responses among the subjects in Mamuju District, and the prevalence is significantly higher in wet season. The level of antibody also correlates significantly with age and malaria positivity. The overall results indicate the antigens might be used as a target for vaccines against P. falciparum infection and as markers for malaria exposure.

  12. Selection of Human Antibody Fragments Which Bind Novel Breast Tumor Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    cell type specific scFv for tumor targeting and as tools for identifying novel tumor antigens ... tumor specific antigens ). Subsequently, the cells were washed extensively with PBS to remove unbound phage and then incubated at 37°C for 15 minutes... detection and isolation of a tumor cell surface antigen using antibody phage display. J. Immunol. Meth. 203: 11-24. 46. Watters, J.M., Telleman, P.,

  13. A human-mouse hybridoma producing monoclonal antibody against human sperm coating antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Kyurkchiev, S D; Shigeta, M; Koyama, K; Isojima, S

    1986-01-01

    Since anti-sperm antibodies were first discovered in the sera of women, the relationship of these antibodies to sterility has been studied by many investigators. In order to determine the antigens of spermatozoa responsible for raising antibodies to spermatozoa in humans, many studies have been carried out by purifying human spermatozoa cell membrane and seminal plasma components. Since it was found that the purification was difficult by physiochemical procedures, the immunoaffinity chromatography bound monoclonal antibody (Mab) to spermatozoa antigens was attempted for this purpose. The establishment of hybridomas producing Mabs to human seminal plasma and human spermatozoa was reported by Shigeta et al. (1980), Isojima, Koyoma & Fujiwara (1982), Lee et al. (1982) and Isahakia & Alexander (1984). The ordinary approaches to obtain the Mabs consisted of xenogenic immunization with human semen and cell fusion of immunized spleen cells with mouse myeloma cells. However, the antigenic epitopes of human spermatozoa, which induced antibody production, are xenogenic for the mouse, and therefore there is a possibility that there is a difference in recognized antigenic epitopes in humans as isotypic and in mice as xenogenic. In order to study these antigenic epitopes, which correspond to antibodies against spermatozoa in women, the establishment of human-mouse hybridomas, which produced anti-semen antibodies as produced in sterile women, became essential. In these studies, we used recently developed cell fusion techniques to fuse immunized human peripheral lymphocytes with mouse myeloma cells. PMID:3456978

  14. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  15. Antibodies to meningococcal H.8 (Lip) antigen fail to show bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, A K; Moran, E E; Zollinger, W D

    1990-02-01

    Purified H.8 (Lip) antigen was coupled to tresyl-activated Sepharose 4B and used in affinity columns to purify anti-Lip antibodies from convalescent patient sera and from immune rabbit sera. Affinity-purified anti-Lip antibodies isolated from two convalescent patient sera contained 1000 and 1280 ELISA units of antibody and included antibodies of IgG, IgA, and IgM isotypes. An anti-Lip mouse monoclonal ascites (2-1-CA2) had 28,400 ELISA units of antibody. Bactericidal assays were performed using three different case strains of Neisseria meningitidis group B, namely 44/76, 8532, and 8047. Neither preparation of purified human anti-Lip antibodies had detectable bactericidal activity against strains 44/76 and 8532, but one of the two had a titer of 1:4 against strain 8047. Anti-Lip antibodies that were purified from immune rabbit serum and contained 1600 ELISA units of anti-Lip antibodies also failed to show detectable bactericidal activity. The rabbits were immunized with purified Lip antigen and showed specific antibody levels of 2000-2200 units by ELISA, but even the unfractionated sera had little or no bactericidal activity against the test strains. The high titer mouse monoclonal ascites had no bactericidal activity against the test strains. The poor bactericidal activity associated with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the Lip antigen suggest that in spite of other attractive properties it may not be useful as a meningococcal vaccine.

  16. A new method for the evaluation of antibody affinity based on serial dilutions of studied antibody-antigen mixture.

    PubMed

    Bobrovnik, S A

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the evaluation of the affinity of bivalent antibodies were suggested. This method is based on the previously published by the author the idea of using so-called coordinates of dilutions. It was shown that the suggested method allows to evaluate the affinity of antibodies with high accuracy using this simple approach. It is supposed that at some conditions the suggested method could have substantial advantages in comparison to the traditional methods. This method allows to analyze situations when antibodies are already in a mixture with antigen, for example in the bloodstream in the case of infections or autoimmune diseases. The method provides useful approach for the evaluation not only antibody affinity, but also the concentration of circulated antigen.

  17. An antibody profile of systemic lupus erythematosus detected by antigen microarray

    PubMed Central

    Fattal, Ittai; Shental, Noam; Mevorach, Dror; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Livneh, Avi; Langevitz, Pnina; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Pauzner, Rachel; Lerner, Miriam; Blank, Miri; Hincapie, Maria-Eugenia; Gafter, Uzi; Naparstek, Yaakov; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Domany, Eytan; Cohen, Irun R

    2010-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) produce antibodies to many different self-antigens. Here, we investigated antibodies in SLE sera using an antigen microarray containing many hundreds of antigens, mostly self-antigens. The aim was to detect sets of antibody reactivities characteristic of SLE patients in each of various clinical states – SLE patients with acute lupus nephritis, SLE patients in renal remission, and SLE patients who had never had renal involvement. The analysis produced two novel findings: (i) an SLE antibody profile persists independently of disease activity and despite long-term clinical remission, and (ii) this SLE antibody profile includes increases in four specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) reactivities to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and hyaluronic acid; the profile also includes decreases in specific IgM reactivities to myeloperoxidase (MPO), CD99, collagen III, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and cardiolipin. The reactivities together showed high sensitivity (> 93%) and high specificity for SLE (> 88%). A healthy control subject who had the SLE antibody profile was later found to develop clinical SLE. The present study did not detect antibody reactivities that differentiated among the various subgroups of SLE subjects with statistical significance. Thus, SLE is characterized by an enduring antibody profile irrespective of clinical state. The association of SLE with decreased IgM natural autoantibodies suggests that these autoantibodies might enhance resistance to SLE. PMID:20201986

  18. Sequence-Based Genotyping of Expressed Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Alleles by Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Novel Swine Leukocyte Antigen Class I Haplotypes and Alleles in Belgian, Danish, and Kenyan Fattening Pigs and Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Maria Rathmann; Ilsøe, Mette; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bishop, Richard; Erbs, Gitte; Hartmann, Sofie Bruun; Jungersen, Gregers

    2017-01-01

    The need for typing of the swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) is increasing with the expanded use of pigs as models for human diseases and organ-transplantation experiments, their use in infection studies, and for design of veterinary vaccines. Knowledge of SLA sequences is furthermore a prerequisite for the prediction of epitope binding in pigs. The low number of known SLA class I alleles and the limited knowledge of their prevalence in different pig breeds emphasizes the need for efficient SLA typing methods. This study utilizes an SLA class I-typing method based on next-generation sequencing of barcoded PCR amplicons. The amplicons were generated with universal primers and predicted to resolve 68–88% of all known SLA class I alleles dependent on amplicon size. We analyzed the SLA profiles of 72 pigs from four different pig populations; Göttingen minipigs and Belgian, Kenyan, and Danish fattening pigs. We identified 67 alleles, nine previously described haplotypes and 15 novel haplotypes. The highest variation in SLA class I profiles was observed in the Danish pigs and the lowest among the Göttingen minipig population, which also have the highest percentage of homozygote individuals. Highlighting the fact that there are still numerous unknown SLA class I alleles to be discovered, a total of 12 novel SLA class I alleles were identified. Overall, we present new information about known and novel alleles and haplotypes and their prevalence in the tested pig populations. PMID:28670315

  19. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-20

    for Germiston, Qalyub, Sicilian, vesicular stomatitis Indiana, and Ganjam viruses . The antigens were inactivated with beta-propiolactone. Rabbits were...immunized successfully intravenously with Ross River, Germiston, and Japanese encephalitis viruses using immunogens grown in RK-13 rabbit kidney...vesicular stomatitis Indiana, and Ganjam viruses . The antigens were inactivated with beta-propiolactone. Rabbits were immunized successfully intravenously

  20. Characterization of antibody binding to cell surface antigens using a plasma membrane-bound plate assay.

    PubMed

    Vater, C A; Reid, K; Bartle, L M; Goldmacher, V S

    1995-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for measuring antibody binding to cell surface antigens using an immobilized plasma membrane fraction. In this method, isolated plasma membranes are dried onto wells of a 96-well microtiter plate and incubated with antibodies that recognize a cell surface protein. Bound antibody is detected indirectly using an enzyme-linked or fluorescently tagged second antibody. Alternatively, the primary antibody itself can be labeled and its binding can be detected directly. The assay is simple and fast and provides several advantages over whole cell binding assays currently in widespread use.

  1. Design, engineering, and production of human recombinant t cell receptor ligands derived from human leukocyte antigen DR2.

    PubMed

    Chang, J W; Mechling, D E; Bächinger, H P; Burrows, G G

    2001-06-29

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are membrane-anchored heterodimers on the surface of antigen-presenting cells that bind the T cell receptor, initiating a cascade of interactions that results in antigen-specific activation of clonal populations of T cells. Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is associated with certain MHC class II haplotypes, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR2. Two DRB chains, DRB5*0101 and DRB1*1501, are co-expressed in the HLA-DR2 haplotype, resulting in the formation of two functional cell surface heterodimers, HLA-DR2a (DRA*0101, DRB5*0101) and HLA-DR2b (DRA*0101, DRB1*1501). Both isotypes can present an immunodominant peptide of myelin basic protein (MBP-(84-102)) to MBP-specific T cells from multiple sclerosis patients. We have previously demonstrated that the peptide binding/T cell recognition domains of rat MHC class II (alpha1 and beta1 domains) could be expressed as a single exon for structural and functional characterization; Burrows, G. G., Chang, J. W., Bächinger, H.-P., Bourdette, D. N., Wegmann, K. W., Offner, H., and Vandenbark A. A. (1999) Protein Eng. 12, 771-778; Burrows, G. G., Adlard, K. L., Bebo, B. F., Jr., Chang, J. W., Tenditnyy, K., Vandenbark, A. A., and Offner, H. (2000) J. Immunol. 164, 6366-6371). Single-chain human recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) of approximately 200 amino acid residues derived from HLA-DR2b were designed using the same principles and have been produced in Escherichia coli with and without amino-terminal extensions containing antigenic peptides. Structural characterization using circular dichroism predicted that these molecules retained the antiparallel beta-sheet platform and antiparallel alpha-helices observed in the native HLA-DR2 heterodimer. The proteins exhibited a cooperative two-state thermal unfolding transition, and DR2-derived RTLs with a covalently linked MBP peptide (MBP-(85-99)) showed increased stability to thermal unfolding relative to the

  2. Antibodies Raised Against Chlamydial Lipopolysaccharide Antigens Reveal Convergence in Germline Gene Usage and Differential Epitope Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Cory L; Müller-Loennies, Sven; Borisova, Svetlana N.; Brade, Lore; Kosma, Paul; Hirama, Tomoko; MacKenzie, C. Roger; Brade, Helmut; Evans, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore monoclonal antibody recognition carbohydrate antigens, several structures from two monoclonal antibodies directed against carbohydrate epitopes derived from chlamydial LPS have been solved to high resolution. With the exception of CDR H3, antibodies S54-10 and S73-2 are both derived from the same set of germline gene segments as the previously reported structures S25-2 and S45-18. Despite this similarity, the antibodies differ in specificity and the mechanism by which they recognize their cognate antigen. S54-10 uses an unrelated CDR H3 to recognize its antigen in a fashion analogous to S45-18; however, S73-2 recognizes the same antigen as S45-18 and S54-10 in a wholly unrelated manner. Together, these antibody-antigen structures provide snapshots into how the immune system uses the same set of inherited germline gene segments to generate multiple possible specificities that allow for differential recognition of epitopes, and how unrelated CDR H3 sequences can result in convergent binding of clinically-relevant bacterial antigens. PMID:20000757

  3. Stable reagent for the detection of antibody to the specific fraction I antigen of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Rust, J H; Berman, S; Habig, W H; Marshall, J D; Cavanaugh, D C

    1972-04-01

    A stable hemagglutinating antigen for detection of fraction I (FR-I) antibody of Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis) is described. The antigen was prepared by sensitizing tanned, pyruvaldehyde-treated sheep erythrocytes (PAT SRBC) with FR-I antigen. Preliminary standardization by titration of each lot of FR-I was required to minimize the effect of molecular heterogeneity of specific FR-I antigen and to eliminate nonspecific reactions caused by the presence of a minor antigenic contaminant. In tests with sera from rabbits, dogs, and humans, FR-I PAT SRBC were as reactive as the previously employed standard antigen, FR-I-sensitized tanned erythrocytes. Fluid suspensions of FR-I PAT SRBC stored at 4 C for 3 months, or lyophilized preparations stored at ambient temperature for 6 months, showed no loss in antigenic activity.

  4. Bacterial surface antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies used to detect beer spoilage pediococci.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M S; Ingledew, W M; Lee, S Y; Ziola, B

    1999-08-01

    Fourteen monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were isolated that react with surface antigens of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms, including P. damnosus, P. pentosaceous, P. acidilactici, and unspeciated isolates. Immunoblotting, enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) of protease- and neuraminidase-treated surface antigen extracts, carbohydrate competition EIAs, and cardiolipin EIAs were used to characterize the bacterial antigens involved in Mab binding. Antigen stability in situ was tested by protease treatment or surface antigen extraction of washed bacteria. In most cases, the Mabs bind to Pediococcus surface antigens that appear to be covalently bound cell wall polymers resistant to alteration or removal from the bacterial surface. These bacterial surface antigen reactive Mabs show good potential for rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay detection of Pediococcus beer spoilage organisms.

  5. Brewing spoilage Lactobacilli detected using monoclonal antibodies to bacterial surface antigens.

    PubMed

    Whiting, M S; Gares, S L; Ingledew, W M; Ziola, B

    1999-01-01

    A panel of thirteen monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) was assembled that reacts with surface antigens on eight of eleven Lactobacillus brewing spoilage organisms, including one or more of L. brevis, L. buchneri, L. casei-alactosus, L. plantarum, or unspeciated isolate(s). Immunoblotting was done to identify the antigens involved in Mab binding. Antigen stability in situ was tested by protease treatment and by surface antigen extraction of washed bacteria. Protease susceptibility of extracted surface antigens was also examined. In most cases, Lactobacillus surface antigens detected by the Mabs appear to be noncovalently bound proteins readily altered or removed from the bacterium by various environmental conditions. This research identifies brewing conditions that need to be tested to ascertain whether bacterial surface antigen-reactive Mabs can be used for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Lactobacillus brewing spoilage organisms.

  6. Switching assay as a novel approach for specific antigen- antibody interaction analysis using magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, M.; Illarionov, R.; Marchenko, Y.; Yakovleva, L.; Nikolaev, B.; Ischenko, A.; Shevtsov, M.

    2016-08-01

    Switching assay was applied for the detection of antigen-antibody interaction between 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) and anti-Hsp70 monoclonal antibodies in water solutions using conjugates with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs). Hsp70 is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that plays a crucial role in cancerogenesis and many other pathologies. Detection of the Hsp70 level in the biological fluids might have a prognostic and diagnostic value in clinic. The developed switch assay for the detection of Hsp70 demonstrated high sensitivity for antigen-antibody interaction analysis thus proving its potential for further preclinical and clinical studies.

  7. Antibody-antigen exchange equilibria in a field of an external force: design of reagentless biosensors.

    PubMed

    Monson, Christopher F; Driscoll, Laura N; Bennion, Eliot; Miller, Cary J; Majda, Marcin

    2009-09-01

    This correspondence presents a new strategy for detecting biological molecules that relies on competitive exchange interactions of an analyte with two-component molecular tethers attaching superparamagnetic microspheres (4 microm in diameter) to a sensor surface. The individual tethers consist of an antibody-antigen complex and are designed to selectively detect antigenic proteins in a sensitive reagentless fashion. In order to impart a driving force to the otherwise free energy neutral antibody-antigen exchange equilibrium, a small mechanical force of approximately 10 pN was applied to stretch the antibody-antigen tethers using a massively parallel magnetic tweezers device. The experimental work was carried out with human cardiac troponin I. This serum heart attack marker was used as an example of analytes of credible relevance to biomedical diagnostics. The initial results illustrate the functioning of a cardiotroponin sensor and offer a preliminary estimate of its sensitivity of 16 pM.

  8. Rapid production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from a variety of animals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although a variety of animals have been used to produce polyclonal antibodies against antigens, the production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from animals remains challenging. Results We propose a simple and rapid strategy to produce monoclonal antibodies from a variety of animals. By staining lymph node cells with an antibody against immunoglobulin and a fluorescent dye specific for the endoplasmic reticulum, plasma/plasmablast cells were identified without using a series of antibodies against lineage markers. By using a fluorescently labeled antigen as a tag for a complementary cell surface immunoglobulin, antigen-specific plasma/plasmablast cells were sorted from the rest of the cell population by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Amplification of cognate pairs of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes followed by DNA transfection into 293FT cells resulted in the highly efficient production of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies from a variety of immunized animals. Conclusions Our technology eliminates the need for both cell propagation and screening processes, offering a significant advantage over hybridoma and display strategies. PMID:23017270

  9. Goat serums for fluorescent antibody conjugates to chlamydial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Tessler, J

    1984-01-01

    Serums from goats hyperimmunized with Chlamydia psittaci consistently produce antichlamydial fluorescent antibody conjugate of high titer. The titer of the fluorescent antibody conjugate prepared from a given serum correlated well with the titer obtained by agar gel precipitin, but not with the complement fixation. The agar gel precipitin test can be used to predict whether a given serum is satisfactory for use in production of a conjugate for direct fluorescent antibody tests. Serums with an agar gel precipitin titer of 1/8 or higher generally produce a usable fluorescent antibody conjugate. Labeling gamma globulins with fluorescein isothiocyanate at a ratio of 1/150 resulted in satisfactory fluorescent antibody conjugates. Cultures of Vero cells infected with chlamydiae were found to be suitable for titration of the fluorescent antibody conjugates. PMID:6372973

  10. Demonstration of a surface antigen of Clostridium tyrobutyricum by use of immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, F; Robreau, G; Talbot, F; Malcoste, R

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody, prepared against whole cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum, recognized a surface antigen extracted by heat treatment or by hot phenol-water treatment. This antigen, after analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, has been shown to present a regularly-spaced ladder pattern similar to those shown by the lipopolysaccharide of many gram-negative bacteria. The proteinase K has been shown to have no effect on the recognition of this epitope by the monoclonal antibody. On the contrary, the inhibition of the antigen reactivity to the monoclonal antibody after a mild periodate oxidation suggests the involvement of a carbohydrate moiety in the epitope. Moreover, the SDS-PAGE analysis of phenol-water extracts has shown an additional compound, detected by silver staining but not recognized by the monoclonal antibody.

  11. Sampling From the Proteome to the Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR (HLA-DR) Ligandome Proceeds Via High Specificity.

    PubMed

    Mommen, Geert P M; Marino, Fabio; Meiring, Hugo D; Poelen, Martien C M; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R; van Els, Cécile A C M

    2016-04-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the complex nature of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II ligandome is of utmost importance to understand the basis for CD4(+)T cell mediated immunity and tolerance. Here, we implemented important improvements in the analysis of the repertoire of HLA-DR-presented peptides, using hybrid mass spectrometry-based peptide fragmentation techniques on a ligandome sample isolated from matured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). The reported data set constitutes nearly 14 thousand unique high-confident peptides,i.e.the largest single inventory of human DC derived HLA-DR ligands to date. From a technical viewpoint the most prominent finding is that no single peptide fragmentation technique could elucidate the majority of HLA-DR ligands, because of the wide range of physical chemical properties displayed by the HLA-DR ligandome. Our in-depth profiling allowed us to reveal a strikingly poor correlation between the source proteins identified in the HLA class II ligandome and the DC cellular proteome. Important selective sieving from the sampled proteome to the ligandome was evidenced by specificity in the sequences of the core regions both at their N- and C- termini, hence not only reflecting binding motifs but also dominant protease activity associated to the endolysosomal compartments. Moreover, we demonstrate that the HLA-DR ligandome reflects a surface representation of cell-compartments specific for biological events linked to the maturation of monocytes into antigen presenting cells. Our results present new perspectives into the complex nature of the HLA class II system and will aid future immunological studies in characterizing the full breadth of potential CD4(+)T cell epitopes relevant in health and disease.

  12. Crystallographic structure of the human leukocyte antigen DRA, DRB3*0101: models of a directional alloimmune response and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Parry, Christian S; Gorski, Jack; Stern, Lawrence J

    2007-08-10

    We describe structural studies of the human leukocyte antigen DR52a, HLA-DRA/DRB3*0101, in complex with an N-terminal human platelet integrin alphaII(B)betaIII glycoprotein peptide which contains a Leu/Pro dimorphism. The 33:Leu dimorphism is the epitope for the T cell directed response in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and post-transfusion purpura in individuals with the alphaII(B)betaIII 33:Pro allele, and defines the unidirectional alloimmune response. This condition is always associated with DR52a. The crystallographic structure has been refined to 2.25 A. There are two alphabeta heterodimers to the asymmetric unit in space group P4(1)2(1)2. The molecule is characterized by two prominent hydrophobic pockets at either end of the peptide binding cleft and a deep, narrower and highly charged P4 opening underneath the beta 1 chain. Further, the peptide in the second molecule displays a sharp upward turn after pocket P9. The structure reveals the role of pockets and the distinctive basic P4 pocket, shared by DR52a and DR3, in selecting their respective binding peptide repertoire. We observe an interesting switch in a residue from the canonically assigned pocket 6 seen in prior class II structures to pocket 4. This occludes the P6 pocket helping to explain the distinctive "1-4-9" peptide binding motif. A beta57 Asp-->Val substitution abrogates the salt-bridge to alpha76 Arg and along with a hydrophobic beta37 is important in shaping the P9 pocket. DRB3*0101 and DRB1*0301 belong to an ancestral haplotype and are associated with many autoimmune diseases linked to antigen presentation, but whereas DR3 is susceptible to type 1 diabetes DR52a is not. This dichotomy is explored for clues to the disease.

  13. Sampling From the Proteome to the Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR (HLA-DR) Ligandome Proceeds Via High Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Mommen, Geert P. M.; Marino, Fabio; Meiring, Hugo D.; Poelen, Martien C. M.; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J. R.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of the complex nature of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II ligandome is of utmost importance to understand the basis for CD4+ T cell mediated immunity and tolerance. Here, we implemented important improvements in the analysis of the repertoire of HLA-DR-presented peptides, using hybrid mass spectrometry-based peptide fragmentation techniques on a ligandome sample isolated from matured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). The reported data set constitutes nearly 14 thousand unique high-confident peptides, i.e. the largest single inventory of human DC derived HLA-DR ligands to date. From a technical viewpoint the most prominent finding is that no single peptide fragmentation technique could elucidate the majority of HLA-DR ligands, because of the wide range of physical chemical properties displayed by the HLA-DR ligandome. Our in-depth profiling allowed us to reveal a strikingly poor correlation between the source proteins identified in the HLA class II ligandome and the DC cellular proteome. Important selective sieving from the sampled proteome to the ligandome was evidenced by specificity in the sequences of the core regions both at their N- and C- termini, hence not only reflecting binding motifs but also dominant protease activity associated to the endolysosomal compartments. Moreover, we demonstrate that the HLA-DR ligandome reflects a surface representation of cell-compartments specific for biological events linked to the maturation of monocytes into antigen presenting cells. Our results present new perspectives into the complex nature of the HLA class II system and will aid future immunological studies in characterizing the full breadth of potential CD4+ T cell epitopes relevant in health and disease. PMID:26764012

  14. Crystallographic Structure of the Human Leukocyte Antigen DRA, DRB3*0101: Models of a Directional Alloimmune Respone and Autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Parry,C.; Gorski, J.; Stern, L.

    2007-01-01

    We describe structural studies of the human leukocyte antigen DR52a, HLA-DRA/DRB3*0101, in complex with an N-terminal human platelet integrin {alpha}II{sub B}{beta}III glycoprotein peptide which contains a Leu/Pro dimorphism. The 33:Leu dimorphism is the epitope for the T cell directed response in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and post-transfusion purpura in individuals with the {alpha}II{sub B}{beta}III 33:Pro allele, and defines the unidirectional alloimmune response. This condition is always associated with DR52a. The crystallographic structure has been refined to 2.25 {angstrom}. There are two {alpha}{beta} heterodimers to the asymmetric unit in space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2. The molecule is characterized by two prominent hydrophobic pockets at either end of the peptide binding cleft and a deep, narrower and highly charged P4 opening underneath the beta 1 chain. Further, the peptide in the second molecule displays a sharp upward turn after pocket P9. The structure reveals the role of pockets and the distinctive basic P4 pocket, shared by DR52a and DR3, in selecting their respective binding peptide repertoire. We observe an interesting switch in a residue from the canonically assigned pocket 6 seen in prior class II structures to pocket 4. This occludes the P6 pocket helping to explain the distinctive '1-4-9' peptide binding motif. A {beta}57 Asp {yields} Val substitution abrogates the salt-bridge to {alpha}76 Arg and along with a hydrophobic {beta}37 is important in shaping the P9 pocket. DRB3*0101 and DRB1*0301 belong to an ancestral haplotype and are associated with many autoimmune diseases linked to antigen presentation, but whereas DR3 is susceptible to type 1 diabetes DR52a is not. This dichotomy is explored for clues to the disease.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Reveals the Selective Binding of Human Leukocyte Antigen Alleles Associated with Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kongkaew, Sirilak; Yotmanee, Pathumwadee; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Kaiyawet, Nopporn; Meeprasert, Arthitaya; Kaburaki, Toshikatsu; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Fujio; Kungwan, Nawee; Hannongbua, Supot

    2015-01-01

    Behçet’s disease (BD), a multi-organ inflammatory disorder, is associated with the presence of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-B*51 allele in many ethnic groups. The possible antigen involvement of the major histocompatibility complex class I chain related gene A transmembrane (MICA-TM) nonapeptide (AAAAAIFVI) has been reported in BD symptomatic patients. This peptide has also been detected in HLA-A*26:01 positive patients. To investigate the link of BD with these two specific HLA alleles, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied on the MICA-TM nonapeptide binding to the two BD-associated HLA alleles in comparison with the two non-BD-associated HLA alleles (B*35:01 and A*11:01). The MD simulations were applied on the four HLA/MICA-TM peptide complexes in aqueous solution. As a result, stabilization for the incoming MICA-TM was found to be predominantly contributed from van der Waals interactions. The P2/P3 residue close to the N-terminal and the P9 residue at the C-terminal of the MICA-TM nonapeptide served as the anchor for the peptide accommodated at the binding groove of the BD associated HLAs. The MM/PBSA free energy calculation predicted a stronger binding of the HLA/peptide complexes for the BD-associated HLA alleles than for the non-BD-associated ones, with a ranked binding strength of B*51:01 > B*35:01 and A*26:01 > A*11:01. Thus, the HLAs associated with BD pathogenesis expose the binding efficiency with the MICA-TM nonapeptide tighter than the non-associated HLA alleles. In addition, the residues 70, 73, 99, 146, 147 and 159 of the two BD-associated HLAs provided the conserved interaction for the MICA-TM peptide binding. PMID:26331842

  16. Characterization of anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies that bind antigen and an anti-idiotype

    PubMed Central

    Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Dall’Acqua, William; Fossati, Carlos A.; Fields, Barry A.; Braden, Bradford C.; Poljak, Roberto J.; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    1997-01-01

    Two mouse monoclonal anti-anti-idiotopic antibodies (anti-anti-Id, Ab3), AF14 and AF52, were prepared by immunizing BALB/c mice with rabbit polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id, Ab2) raised against antibody D1.3 (Ab1) specific for the antigen hen egg lysozyme. AF14 and AF52 react with an “internal image” monoclonal mouse anti-Id antibody E5.2 (Ab2), previously raised against D1.3, with affinity constants (1.0 × 109 M−1 and 2.4 × 107 M−1, respectively) usually observed in secondary responses against protein antigens. They also react with the antigen but with lower affinity (1.8 × 106 M−1 and 3.8 × 106 M−1). This pattern of affinities for the anti-Id and for the antigen also was displayed by the sera of the immunized mice. The amino acid sequences of AF14 and AF52 are very close to that of D1.3. In particular, the amino acid side chains that contribute to contacts with both antigen and anti-Id are largely conserved in AF14 and AF52 compared with D1.3. Therapeutic immunizations against different pathogenic antigens using anti-Id antibodies have been proposed. Our experiments show that a response to an anti-Id immunogen elicits anti-anti-Id antibodies that are optimized for binding the anti-Id antibodies rather than the antigen. PMID:9238040

  17. Impaired Antigen-Specific Immune Response to Vaccines in Children with Antibody Production Defects.

    PubMed

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Breborowicz, Anna; Samara, Husam; Ossowska, Lidia; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    The impaired synthesis of antigen-specific antibodies, which is indispensable for an adaptive immune response to infections, is a fundamental pathomechanism that leads to clinical manifestations in children with antibody production defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synthesis of antigen-specific antibodies following immunization in relation to peripheral blood B cell subsets in young children with hypogammaglobulinemia. Twenty-two children, aged from 8 to 61 months, with a deficiency in one or more major immunoglobulin classes participated in the study. Postvaccination antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus, and the capsular Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antigen were assessed along with an immunophenotypic evaluation of peripheral blood B lymph cell maturation. A deficiency of antibodies against the tetanus toxoid was assessed in 73% of cases and that against the diphtheria toxoid was assessed in 68% of cases, whereas a deficiency of antibodies against the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus was revealed in 59% of the children included in the study. A defective response to immunization with a conjugate vaccine with the Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antigen was demonstrated in 55% of hypogammaglobulinemic patients. Increased proportions of transitional B lymph cells and an accumulation of plasmablasts accompanied antibody deficiencies. The defective response to vaccine protein and polysaccharide antigens is a predominating disorder of humoral immunity in children with hypogammaglobulinemia and may result from a dysfunctional state of the cellular elements of the immune system. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. SnugDock: Paratope Structural Optimization during Antibody-Antigen Docking Compensates for Errors in Antibody Homology Models

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Aroop; Gray, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution structures of antibody-antigen complexes are useful for analyzing the binding interface and to make rational choices for antibody engineering. When a crystallographic structure of a complex is unavailable, the structure must be predicted using computational tools. In this work, we illustrate a novel approach, named SnugDock, to predict high-resolution antibody-antigen complex structures by simultaneously structurally optimizing the antibody-antigen rigid-body positions, the relative orientation of the antibody light and heavy chains, and the conformations of the six complementarity determining region loops. This approach is especially useful when the crystal structure of the antibody is not available, requiring allowances for inaccuracies in an antibody homology model which would otherwise frustrate rigid-backbone docking predictions. Local docking using SnugDock with the lowest-energy RosettaAntibody homology model produced more accurate predictions than standard rigid-body docking. SnugDock can be combined with ensemble docking to mimic conformer selection and induced fit resulting in increased sampling of diverse antibody conformations. The combined algorithm produced four medium (Critical Assessment of PRediction of Interactions-CAPRI rating) and seven acceptable lowest-interface-energy predictions in a test set of fifteen complexes. Structural analysis shows that diverse paratope conformations are sampled, but docked paratope backbones are not necessarily closer to the crystal structure conformations than the starting homology models. The accuracy of SnugDock predictions suggests a new genre of general docking algorithms with flexible binding interfaces targeted towards making homology models useful for further high-resolution predictions. PMID:20098500

  19. Two-color multiparametric method for flow cytometric DNA analysis of carcinomas using staining for cytokeratin and leukocyte-common antigen.

    PubMed

    Zarbo, R J; Visscher, D W; Crissman, J D

    1989-12-01

    Solid tumors contain heterogenous cell populations, resulting in flow cytometric (FCM) DNA quantitations of a mixture of tumor and host cells. Such mixed populations can result in dilution of the tumor cells by the host cells, in difficulty defining the diploid reference mean and in histogram peak overlap, precluding cell-cycle analysis. In this study, epithelial (tumor) cells and contaminating host cells in 100 consecutively accessioned human mammary and colorectal carcinomas were segregated in a multiparametric two-color FCM DNA analysis of intact, ethanol-fixed cells. These two carcinomas and bladder carcinomas contain a cytoskeleton of simple epithelium that is selectively stained with an FITC-labeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cytokeratin (CK: CAM 5.2-FITC). This MAb detects the CK 8, CK 18 and CK 19 consistently present in all layers of normal and neoplastic urothelium, colonic epithelium and mammary epithelium. Gating on CK in these tumors enables the nonstaining leukocytes, stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells to be excluded from DNA analysis. A separate aliquot of each tumor evaluated was labeled with an MAb to leukocyte-common antigen (LCA-FITC) to serve as a patient-specific intrinsic diploid reference standard. Both the CK-labeled and LCA-labeled cells were then dual labeled for DNA with propidium iodide. This method (1) correctly identified the intrinsic diploid (LCA-positive) channel, allowing an accurate definition of normal cell DNA content for calculation of the DNA index; and (2) resulted in an increased sensitivity in the identification of both diploid and abnormal hyperdiploid tumor cell populations. It also (3) limited DNA cell cycle analysis to urothelial, colonic and mammary epithelial cells, the majority of which were neoplastic in carefully selected tumor samples. In addition, this method (4) clarified near-tetraploid populations that overlap the normal nonepithelial G2M region by diminishing the normal G2M peak and accentuating the

  20. Stability of isolated antibody-antigen complexes as a predictive tool for selecting toxin neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Patricia M.; Compton, Jaimee R.; Hale, Martha L.; Anderson, George P.; Olson, Mark A.; Millard, Charles B.; Goldman, Ellen R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ricin is an A-B ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) toxin composed of an A-chain subunit (RTA) that contains a catalytic N-glycosidase and a B-chain (RTB) lectin domain that binds cell surface glycans. Ricin exploits retrograde transport to enter into the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum, and then dislocates into the cytoplasm where it can reach its substrate, the rRNA. A subset of isolated antibodies (Abs) raised against the RTA subunit protect against ricin intoxication, and RTA-based vaccine immunogens have been shown to provide long-lasting protective immunity against the holotoxin. Anti-RTA Abs are unlikely to cross a membrane and reach the cytoplasm to inhibit the enzymatic activity of the A-chain. Moreover, there is not a strict correlation between the apparent binding affinity (Ka) of anti-RTA Abs and their ability to successfully neutralize ricin toxicity. Some anti-RTA antibodies are toxin-neutralizing, whereas others are not. We hypothesize that neutralizing anti-RTA Abs may interfere selectively with conformational change(s) or partial unfolding required for toxin internalization. To test this hypothesis, we measured the melting temperatures (Tm) of neutralizing single-domain Ab (sdAb)-antigen (Ag) complexes relative to the Tm of the free antigen (Tm-shift = Tmcomplex – TmAg), and observed increases in the Tmcomplex of 9–20 degrees. In contrast, non-neutralizing sdAb-Ag complexes shifted the TmComplex by only 6–7 degrees. A strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.992) was observed between the magnitude of the Tm-shift and the viability of living cells treated with the sdAb and ricin holotoxin. The Tm-shift of the sdAb-Ag complex provided a quantitative biophysical parameter that could be used to predict and rank-order the toxin-neutralizing activities of Abs. We determined the first structure of an sdAb-RTA1-33/44-198 complex, and examined other sdAb-RTA complexes. We found that neutralizing sdAb bound to regions involved in the early stages

  1. Novel in vitro booster vaccination to rapidly generate antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuan Nandin, Irene; Fong, Carol; Deantonio, Cecilia; Torreno-Pina, Juan A.; Pecetta, Simone; Maldonado, Paula; Gasparrini, Francesca; Ordovas-Montanes, Jose; Kazer, Samuel W.; Kjaer, Svend; Borley, Daryl W.; Nair, Usha; Poignard, Pascal; Burton, Dennis R.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines remain the most effective tool to prevent infectious diseases. Here, we introduce an in vitro booster vaccination approach that relies on antigen-dependent activation of human memory B cells in culture. This stimulation induces antigen-specific B cell proliferation, differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, and robust antibody secretion after a few days of culture. We validated this strategy using cells from healthy donors to retrieve human antibodies against tetanus toxoid and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 and newly emergent subtypes such as H5N1 and H7N9. Anti-HA antibodies were cross-reactive against multiple subtypes, and some showed neutralizing activity. Although these antibodies may have arisen as a result of previous influenza infection, we also obtained gp120-reactive antibodies from non–HIV-infected donors, indicating that we can generate antibodies without prior antigenic exposure. Overall, our novel approach can be used to rapidly produce therapeutic antibodies and has the potential to assess the immunogenicity of candidate antigens, which could be exploited in future vaccine development. PMID:28739603

  2. Parallel Immunizations of Rabbits Using the Same Antigen Yield Antibodies with Similar, but Not Identical, Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Barbara; Forsström, Björn; Löfblom, John; Rockberg, Johan; Uhlén, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    A problem for the generation of polyclonal antibodies is the potential difficulties for obtaining a renewable resource due to batch-to-batch variations when the same antigen is immunized into several separate animals. Here, we have investigated this issue by determining the epitopes of antibodies generated from parallel immunizations of rabbits with recombinant antigens corresponding to ten human protein targets. The epitopes were mapped by both a suspension bead array approach using overlapping synthetic 15-mer peptides and a bacterial display approach using expression of random fragments of the antigen on the surface of bacteria. Both methods determined antibody binding with the aid of fluorescent-based analysis. In addition, one polyclonal antibody was fractionated by peptide-specific affinity capture for in-depth comparison of epitopes. The results show that the same antigen immunized in several rabbits yields polyclonal antibodies with similar epitopes, but with larger differences in the relative amounts of antibodies to the different epitopes. In some cases, unique epitopes were observed for one of the immunizations. The results suggest that polyclonal antibodies generated by repeated immunizations do not display an identical epitope pattern, although many of the epitopes are similar. PMID:23284606

  3. Antibodies directed against antigens on the endothelium of peritubular capillaries in patients with rejecting renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Paul, L C; van Es, L A; van Rood, J J; van Leeuwen, A; de la Rivière, G B; de Graeff, J

    1979-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the humoral immune response against endothelial antigens of the donor kidney in human renal allograft recipients. Sera from 61 transplant recipients who received 62 grafts were studied for the presence of circulating endothelial antibodies (CEAb) using an indirect immunofluorescence technique with a pretransplant biopsy of the graft as a substrate. IgG antibodies directed against the endothelium of peritubular capillaries were found in the sera of 6 of the 10 patients with graft rejection within 7 weeks after transplantation, whereas these antibodies were not found in the absence of rejection (P less than 0.001). Immunofluorescence studies of post-transplant biopsies showed IgG along the endothelium of peritubular capillaries only in the grafts of patients with CEAb. Eluates from these grafts contained IgG antibodies that bound to the endothelium of the donor as shown by the indirect immunofluorescence technique. Absorption of endothelial antibody (EAb)-positive sera with human platelets or Wistar strain rat erythrocytes showed that the EAb were not directed against serologically defined HLA antigens or against heterophile antigens on rat erythrocytes. We conclude from this study that the presence of antibodies directed against endothelial antigens is associated with poor graft prognosis and that these antibodies may be responsible for the rejection process.

  4. Human leukocyte antigen-G allele polymorphisms have evolved following three different evolutionary lineages based on intron sequences.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Isabel; Herraiz, Miguel Angel; Peñaloza, Jorge; Barbolla, Maria Luz; Jurado, Maria Luisa; Macedo, Jacqueline; Vidart, José Antonio; Martinez-Laso, Jorge

    2010-11-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G alleles follow a different pattern of polymorphism generation from those of the HLA classical I alleles. These polymorphisms have been defined as a result of random permitted point mutations in exons. However, this polymorphism maintenance could have an evolutionary specific pathways based on noncoding regions as introns, 14-bp deletion/insertion (exon 8), or promoter regions. Therefore a systematic sequencing study of HLA-G alleles was done obtaining the complete genomic sequence of 16 different HLA-G alleles: nine alleles were intron and exon confirmatory sequences, four were exon confirmatory and new intron described sequences, and three were new alleles. A 14-bp deletion/insertion polymorphism was also sequenced in these alleles. These sequences, together with those previously published, were compared, and phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were performed. Results showed the presence of three major specific evolutionary patterns, tentatively named lineages, and the other four as minor lineages (only one allele). The relative age of the major lineages could also be established based on the number of lineage-specific positions and the number of alleles of each lineage. Two main mechanisms are clearly defined in the generation of the lineages (introns), gene conversion, and/or convergent evolution following specific patterns.

  5. Imbalance of Th17/Treg cells in pathogenesis of patients with human leukocyte antigen B27 associated acute anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhenchao; Wang, Yuqin; Zhu, Gejing; Gu, Yunfeng; Mao, Liping; Hong, Meng; Li, Yali; Zheng, Meiqin

    2017-01-01

    Th17 and regulatory T cells, involved in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, are new lineages of CD4+ T helper cells. However, the role of their imbalance in human leukocyte antigen B27-associated acute anterior uveitis has not been elucidated. In our study, the percentages of Th17 and Treg cells, their molecular markers and related factors in peripheral blood of patients and healthy controls were measured by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. We observed a remarkable increase of CD4+ and CD4+IL-17+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients compared to controls. The molecular markers and related factors of Th17 cell were also showed a distinct elevation. Interestingly, we observed an obvious decrease of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and Foxp3 mRNA level in patients. The ratio of Th17/Treg in patients was dramatically higher than controls. Moreover, the ratio of Th17/Treg cells had a more significantly positive correlation with the disease activity score than Th17 cells whereas Treg cells had a negative correlation. Our findings demonstrated a distinct increase of Th17 cells and a significant decrease of Treg cells in patients compared to controls. The imbalance of Th17 and Treg cells may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:28091550

  6. Human Leukocyte Antigen Profiles of Latin American Populations: Differential Admixture and Its Potential Impact on Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta-Bolaños, Esteban; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Shaw, Bronwen E.

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is shaped by both clinical and genetic factors that determine its success. Genetic factors including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genetic variants are believed to influence the risk of potentially fatal complications after the transplant. Moreover, ethnicity has been proposed as a factor modifying the risk of graft-versus-host disease. The populations of Latin America are a complex array of different admixture processes with varying degrees of ancestral population proportions that came in different migration waves. This complexity makes the study of genetic risks in this region complicated unless the extent of this variation is thoroughly characterized. In this study we compared the HLA-A and HLA-B allele group profiles for 31 Latin American populations and 61 ancestral populations from Iberia, Italy, Sub-Saharan Africa, and America. Results from population genetics comparisons show a wide variation in the HLA profiles from the Latin American populations that correlate with different admixture proportions. Populations in Latin America seem to be organized in at least three groups with (1) strong Amerindian admixture, (2) strong Caucasian component, and (3) a Caucasian-African gradient. These results imply that genetic risk assessment for HSCT in Latin America has to be adapted for different population subgroups rather than as a pan-Hispanic/Latino analysis. PMID:23213535

  7. Arginine (Di)methylated Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Peptides Are Favorably Presented by HLA-B*07.

    PubMed

    Marino, Fabio; Mommen, Geert P M; Jeko, Anita; Meiring, Hugo D; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Scheltema, Richard A; van Els, Cécile A C M; Heck, Albert J R

    2017-01-06

    Alterations in protein post-translational modification (PTM) are recognized hallmarks of diseases. These modifications potentially provide a unique source of disease-related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-presented peptides that can elicit specific immune responses. While phosphorylated HLA peptides have already received attention, arginine methylated HLA class I peptide presentation has not been characterized in detail. In a human B-cell line we detected 149 HLA class I peptides harboring mono- and/or dimethylated arginine residues by mass spectrometry. A striking preference was observed in the presentation of arginine (di)methylated peptides for HLA-B*07 molecules, likely because the binding motifs of this allele resemble consensus sequences recognized by arginine methyl-transferases. Moreover, HLA-B*07-bound peptides preferentially harbored dimethylated groups at the P3 position, thus consecutively to the proline anchor residue. Such a proline-arginine sequence has been associated with the arginine methyl-transferases CARM1 and PRMT5. Making use of the specific neutral losses in fragmentation spectra, we found most of the peptides to be asymmetrically dimethylated, most likely by CARM1. These data expand our knowledge of the processing and presentation of arginine (di)methylated HLA class I peptides and demonstrate that these types of modified peptides can be presented for recognition by T-cells. HLA class I peptides with mono- and dimethylated arginine residues may therefore offer a novel target for immunotherapy.

  8. [DNA extraction from coagulated human blood for application in genotyping techniques for human leukocyte antigen and immunoglobulin-like receptors].

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Daniela Maira; Guelsin, Gláucia Andréia; Clementino, Samaia Laface; Melo, Fabiano Cavalcante de; Braga, Marco Antônio; Souza, Cleonice de; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to standardize a method for extracting high-quality DNA from samples of coagulated blood. Forty-eight samples of human coagulated blood were used for DNA extraction by means of the EZ-DNA commercial kit (Biological Industries, Beit Haemek, Israel), the Neoscience column kit (One Lambda Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and a modified salting-out method. Only the salting-out method was able to extract high concentrations of DNA (mean, 180 ng/(1/4)microl), which were measured using the Qubit fluorescence detector (Invitrogen, USA). This method enabled amplification of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) genes using the Luminex PCR-SSO (polymerase chain reaction - sequence-specific oligonucleotide) technology, which demands good quality DNA, and amplification of KIR (killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) genes using an in-house PCR-SSP (polymerase chain reaction - sequence-specific primer) technique, which demands a specific concentration of DNA (10 ng/(1/4)microl). We concluded that the modified salting-out technique was very efficient, simple and fast for DNA extraction from human coagulated blood samples, with the aim of genotyping the HLA and KIR genes.

  9. A meta-analysis of the impact of human leukocyte antigen-G on the outcomes of IVF/ICSI.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ziru; Wang, Liangyi; Pang, Ronald T K; Guo, Yifan; Yeung, William S B; Yao, Yuanqing

    2017-06-01

    This analysis was performed to determine whether the presence of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G) in embryo culture medium is predictive of clinical outcomes in IVF treatment. The outcomes of implantation, clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancy and miscarriage, between groups with and without sHLA-G in embryo culture media, were analysed. Fifteen studies with a total of 6170 cases were included. Ten of them were prospective studies while five were retrospective studies. Embryo culture media with sHLA-G were associated with significantly higher implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate when compared with those without; the odd ratios (ORs) were 2.66 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75-4.06, P < 0.00001], 3.79 (95% CI: 2.69-5.33, P < 0.00001), respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of multiple pregnancy (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 0.55-6.31) and miscarriage (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52-1.16). The results suggested that the presence of sHLA-G in the embryo culture medium favoured higher implantation rate and pregnancy rate. However, the conclusion needs to be consolidated by further clinical studies using a more precise method of determination of sHLA-G and research on the physiological and molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effect of sHLA-G on early embryo development and implantation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Balancing selection and heterogeneity across the classical human leukocyte antigen loci: a meta-analytic review of 497 population studies.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Owen D; Mack, Steven J; Lancaster, Alex K; Single, Richard M; Tsai, Yingssu; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thomson, Glenys

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database. In all, these data represent approximately 66,800 individuals from throughout the world, providing an opportunity to observe trends that may not have been evident at the time the data were originally analyzed, especially with regard to the relative importance of balancing selection among the HLA loci. Population genetic measures of allele frequency distributions were summarized across populations by locus and geographic region. A role for balancing selection maintaining much of HLA variation was confirmed. Further, the breadth of this meta-analysis allowed the ranking of the HLA loci, with DQA1 and HLA-C showing the strongest balancing selection and DPB1 being compatible with neutrality. Comparisons of the allelic spectra reported by studies since 1990 indicate that most of the HLA alleles identified since 2000 are very-low-frequency alleles. The literature-based allele-count data, as well as maps summarizing the geographic distributions for each allele, are available online.

  11. Balancing selection and heterogeneity across the classical human leukocyte antigen loci: a meta-analytic review of 497 population studies

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Owen D.; Mack, Steven J.; Lancaster, Alex K.; Single, Richard M.; Tsai, Yingssu; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Thomson, Glenys

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database. In all, these data represent approximately 66,800 individuals from throughout the world, providing an opportunity to observe trends that may not have been evident at the time the data were originally analyzed, especially with regard to the relative importance of balancing selection among the HLA loci. Population genetic measures of allele frequency distributions were summarized across populations by locus and geographic region. A role for balancing selection maintaining much of HLA variation was confirmed. Further, the breadth of this meta-analysis allowed the ranking of the HLA loci, with DQA1 and HLA-C showing strongest balancing selection and DPB1 being compatible with neutrality. Comparisons of the allelic spectra reported by studies since 1990 suggest that most of the HLA alleles identified since 2000 are very-low-frequency alleles. The literature-based allele-count data, as well as maps summarizing the geographic distributions for each allele, are available online. PMID:18638659

  12. SNP variants associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) correlate with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression.

    PubMed

    Ten, Lik-Chin; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tai, Mei-Chee; Chin, Edmund Fui-Min; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Suthandiram, Sujatha; Chang, Kian-Meng; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Bee, Ping-Chong; Mohamed, Zahurin; Gan, Gin-Gin; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2017-01-31

    Large consortia efforts and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have linked a number of genetic variants within the 6p21 chromosomal region to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Complementing these efforts, we genotyped previously reported SNPs in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (rs6457327) and class II (rs9271100, rs2647012 and rs10484561) regions in a total of 1,145 subjects (567 NHL cases and 578 healthy controls) from two major ethnic groups in Malaysia, the Malays and the Chinese. We identified a NHL-associated (PNHL_add = 0.0008; ORNHL_add = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37-0.77) and B-cell associated (PBcell_add = 0.0007; ORBcell_add = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.76) SNP rs2647012 in the Malaysian Malays. In silico cis-eQTL analysis of rs2647012 suggests potential regulatory function of nearby HLA class II molecules. Minor allele rs2647012-T is linked to higher expression of HLA-DQB1, rendering a protective effect to NHL risk. Our findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays an important role in NHL etiology.

  13. sNebula, a network-based algorithm to predict binding between human leukocyte antigens and peptides

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Mendrick, Donna L.; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides is important to understand the functioning of the immune system. Since it is time-consuming and costly to measure the binding between large numbers of HLAs and peptides, computational methods including machine learning models and network approaches have been developed to predict HLA-peptide binding. However, there are several limitations for the existing methods. We developed a network-based algorithm called sNebula to address these limitations. We curated qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data and demonstrated the prediction performance of sNebula on this dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation and five-fold cross-validations. This algorithm can predict not only peptides of different lengths and different types of HLAs, but also the peptides or HLAs that have no existing binding data. We believe sNebula is an effective method to predict HLA-peptide binding and thus improve our understanding of the immune system. PMID:27558848

  14. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs associates with dog leukocyte antigen class II and resembles acute variant forms of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Greer, K A; Wong, A K; Liu, H; Famula, T R; Pedersen, N C; Ruhe, A; Wallace, M; Neff, M W

    2010-08-01

    Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) is a disorder of Pug Dogs that appears to have an immune etiology and high heritability based on population studies. The present study was undertaken to identify a genetic basis for the disease. A genome-wide association scan with single tandem repeat (STR) markers showed a single strong association near the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) complex on CFA12. Fine resolution mapping with 27 STR markers on CFA12 further narrowed association to the region containing DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and, -DQB1 genes. Sequencing confirmed that affected dogs were more likely to be homozygous for specific alleles at each locus and that these alleles were linked, forming a single high risk haplotype. The strong DLA class II association of NME in Pug Dogs resembles that of human multiple sclerosis (MS). Like MS, NME appears to have an autoimmune basis, involves genetic and nongenetic factors, has a relatively low incidence, is more frequent in females than males, and is associated with a vascularly orientated nonsuppurative inflammation. However, NME of Pug Dogs is more aggressive in disease course than classical human MS, appears to be relatively earlier in onset, and involves necrosis rather than demyelination as the central pathobiologic feature. Thus, Pug Dog encephalitis (PDE) shares clinical features with the less common acute variant forms of MS. Accordingly, NME of Pug Dogs may represent a naturally occurring canine model of certain idiopathic inflammatory disorders of the human central nervous system.

  15. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Region Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms are Associated with Leprosy Susceptibility in Vietnam and India

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Andrea; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Singh, Meenakshi; Orlova, Marianna; Van Thuc, Nguyen; Katoch, Kiran; Gao, Xiaojiang; Thai, Vu Hong; Ba, Nguyen Ngoc; Carrington, Mary; Abel, Laurent; Mehra, Narinder; Alcaïs, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggested the existence of unidentified leprosy susceptibility loci in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. To identify such genetic risk factors, a high-density association scan of a 1.9-mega-base (Mb) region in the HLA complex was performed. Among 682 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 59 were associated with leprosy (P <.01) in 198 Vietnamese single-case leprosy families. Genotyping of these SNPs in an independent sample of 292 Vietnamese single-case leprosy families replicated the association of 12 SNPs (P <.01). Multivariate analysis of these 12 SNPs showed that the association information could be captured by 2 intergenic HLA class I region SNPs (P = 9.4 × 10−9)—rs2394885 and rs2922997 (marginal multivariate P = 2.1 × 10−7 and P = .0016, respectively). SNP rs2394885 tagged the HLA-C*15:05 allele in the Vietnamese population. The identical associations were validated in a third sample of 364 patients with leprosy and 371 control subjects from North India. These results implicated class I alleles in leprosy pathogenesis. PMID:21459816

  16. SNP variants associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) correlate with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression

    PubMed Central

    Ten, Lik-Chin; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tai, Mei-Chee; Chin, Edmund Fui-Min; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Suthandiram, Sujatha; Chang, Kian-Meng; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Bee, Ping-Chong; Mohamed, Zahurin; Gan, Gin-Gin; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Large consortia efforts and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have linked a number of genetic variants within the 6p21 chromosomal region to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Complementing these efforts, we genotyped previously reported SNPs in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (rs6457327) and class II (rs9271100, rs2647012 and rs10484561) regions in a total of 1,145 subjects (567 NHL cases and 578 healthy controls) from two major ethnic groups in Malaysia, the Malays and the Chinese. We identified a NHL-associated (PNHL_add = 0.0008; ORNHL_add = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37–0.77) and B-cell associated (PBcell_add = 0.0007; ORBcell_add = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35–0.76) SNP rs2647012 in the Malaysian Malays. In silico cis-eQTL analysis of rs2647012 suggests potential regulatory function of nearby HLA class II molecules. Minor allele rs2647012-T is linked to higher expression of HLA-DQB1, rendering a protective effect to NHL risk. Our findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays an important role in NHL etiology. PMID:28139690

  17. sNebula, a network-based algorithm to predict binding between human leukocyte antigens and peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Heng; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Mendrick, Donna L.; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-08-25

    Understanding the binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides is important to understand the functioning of the immune system. Since it is time-consuming and costly to measure the binding between large numbers of HLAs and peptides, computational methods including machine learning models and network approaches have been developed to predict HLA-peptide binding. However, there are several limitations for the existing methods. We developed a network-based algorithm called sNebula to address these limitations. We curated qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data and demonstrated the prediction performance of sNebula on this dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation and five-fold cross-validations. Furthermore, this algorithm can predict not only peptides of different lengths and different types of HLAs, but also the peptides or HLAs that have no existing binding data. We believe sNebula is an effective method to predict HLA-peptide binding and thus improve our understanding of the immune system.

  18. sNebula, a network-based algorithm to predict binding between human leukocyte antigens and peptides

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; ...

    2016-08-25

    Understanding the binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides is important to understand the functioning of the immune system. Since it is time-consuming and costly to measure the binding between large numbers of HLAs and peptides, computational methods including machine learning models and network approaches have been developed to predict HLA-peptide binding. However, there are several limitations for the existing methods. We developed a network-based algorithm called sNebula to address these limitations. We curated qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data and demonstrated the prediction performance of sNebula on this dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation and five-fold cross-validations. Furthermore, this algorithmmore » can predict not only peptides of different lengths and different types of HLAs, but also the peptides or HLAs that have no existing binding data. We believe sNebula is an effective method to predict HLA-peptide binding and thus improve our understanding of the immune system.« less

  19. Genetic variants in human leukocyte antigen/DP-DQ influence both hepatitis B virus clearance and hepatocellular carcinoma development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingmin; Zhai, Xiangjun; Liu, Jibin; Chu, Minjie; Pan, Shandong; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Hua; Chen, Jianguo; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin

    2012-05-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies showed that four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP (rs3077 and rs9277535) and HLA-DQ (rs2856718 and rs7453920) were associated with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Japanese populations. More than 75% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are attributable to persistent infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), especially in China. We genotyped these four SNPs in 1,300 HBV-positive HCC patients, 1,344 persistent HBV carriers, and 1,344 persons with HBV natural clearance from Southeast China to further test the associations of HLA-DP/DQ variants and with risk of both HBV clearance and HCC development. Logistic regression analyses showed that HLA-DQ rs2856718 significantly decreased host HCC risk, whereas three SNPs were associated with HBV clearance (HLA-DP rs9277535 as well as HLA-DQ rs7453920 and rs2856718). In addition, HLA-DP rs3077 showed an approaching significant effect on susceptibility to HBV persistent infection and HCC development when considering multiple testing adjustments. Taken together, we report, for the first time, that genetic variants in the HLA-DP and HLA-DQ loci may be marker SNPs for risk of both HBV clearance and HCC development.

  20. Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 class II genes in Mexican Amerindian Mazahuas: genes and languages do not correlate.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Abd-El-Fatah, Sedeka; Granados-Silvestre, María Angeles; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Gómez-Prieto, Pablo; Rey, Diego; Areces, Cristina; Peñaranda, Patricia; Menjívar, Martha; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Granados, Julio; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex genes are located on the short arm of the human sixth chromosome; they are highly polymorphic and therefore have been very advantageous in population genetic studies. A Mazahua group established in North Mexico State and also in nearby Michoacan state in the rainy mountain highlands (Mexico) was studied for their human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles. The relationship with other Amerindians and worldwide populations was studied by using 14,996 chromosomes from 75 different populations and calculating neighbor-joining dendrograms and correspondence multidimensional values. Five principal HLA allele frequencies were found in our group: DRB1*0802 (the most frequent one in this population), DRB1*0407, DRB1*0403, DRB1*0101, and DRB1*1406. Both genetic distances and correspondence analyses clearly show that our Mazahua group is genetically close to some of the most ancient groups living in Mexico (Mayos, Zapotecans, Tennek) and South American Amerindians. Amerindians remain as a group apart from the rest of the world. The results analyzing the HLA-DR locus suggest that Mazahua language (Otomangue) does not correlate with those of the most closely HLA-correlated ethnic groups. The present data may be useful for future transplantation programs, HLA and disease diagnosis, and pharmacogenetic studies.

  1. Genetic determinants of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis by human leukocyte antigen genotyping and genome-wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Lung; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Wang, Pei-Wen; Lin, Ying-Chao; Chu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Chen, Szu-Chi; Chang, Ching-Chung; Huang, Tien-Shang; Tsai, Keh Sung; Tseng, Fen-Yu; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lu, Jin-Ying; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Chang, Chien-Ching; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Fann, Cathy Shen-Jang; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Chang, Tien-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Graves' disease is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism affecting 1.0–1.6% of the population. Antithyroid drugs are the treatment cornerstone, but may cause life-threatening agranulocytosis. Here we conduct a two-stage association study on two separate subject sets (in total 42 agranulocytosis cases and 1,208 Graves' disease controls), using direct human leukocyte antigen genotyping and SNP-based genome-wide association study. We demonstrate HLA-B*38:02 (Armitage trend Pcombined=6.75 × 10−32) and HLA-DRB1*08:03 (Pcombined=1.83 × 10−9) as independent susceptibility loci. The genome-wide association study identifies the same signals. Estimated odds ratios for these two loci comparing effective allele carriers to non-carriers are 21.48 (95% confidence interval=11.13–41.48) and 6.13 (95% confidence interval=3.28–11.46), respectively. Carrying both HLA-B*38:02 and HLA-DRB1*08:03 increases odds ratio to 48.41 (Pcombined=3.32 × 10−21, 95% confidence interval=21.66–108.22). Our results could be useful for antithyroid-induced agranulocytosis and potentially for agranulocytosis caused by other chemicals. PMID:26151496

  2. Construction and application of a Korean reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acids of human leukocyte antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.

  3. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen-C genes in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ozgur; Musabak, Ugur; Yesillik, Sait; Sagkan, Rahsan I; Pekel, Aysel; Demirel, Fevzi; Baysan, Abdullah; Selçuk, Ali; Güleç, Mustafa; Şener, Osman

    2016-11-01

    We aimed herein to investigate the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C alleles in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and to reveal their differences from those in healthy population. In all, 18 patients who have been diagnosed with CVID and 15 living donors of kidney transplant recipients were enrolled in the study. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing method was used in molecular genetic analysis. The frequencies of the genes in the study groups were statistically compared with each other using chi-square or Fisher exact tests, whichever were appropriate. Although there was no significant difference between both study groups with respect to distribution of KIR and HLA-C2 group genes, HLA-Cw7 allele frequency in patients with CVID was significantly lower than that in healthy population (P = 0.008). This present study results support that HLA-Cw7 allele, an inhibitor of KIR ligand, may play a role in the pathogenesis of CVID.

  4. Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis in schizophrenic Caucasians: confirming clues for associations with human leukocyte class I and II antigens.

    PubMed

    Dettling, M; Cascorbi, I; Opgen-Rhein, C; Schaub, R

    2007-10-01

    Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CA) is still among the least understood adverse drug reactions in psychopharmacology. In particular, its genetic background is far from being clarified. Within the framework of a case-control study, we performed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping and haplotype analyses in 42 non-Jewish Caucasian schizophrenic patients (N=42) suffering from CA and 75 non-Jewish Caucasian schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine without developing CA. While controlling for age (P<0.0001) and sex (P=0.835), testing of the alleles from both HLA-loci resulted in borderline results for Cw2 (P=0.085, odds ratio (OR)=0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08-1.23), Cw7 (P=0.058, OR=2.0, 95% CI: 0.87-4.63) and DRB5*0201 (P=0.005, adjusted OR=22.15). For haplotype analysis, we obtained significant association results with CA for the two-locus haplotypes HLA-Cw-B (P=0.022) and HLA-DRB5-DRB4 (P=0.050), and for the three-locus haplotype HLA-Cw-B-DRB5 (P=0.030). The complex nature of CA implies that many genes might play a role, but currently, only HLA associations with CA are identified as clinically relevant.

  5. Serological studies of actionomyces israelii by crossed immunoelectrophoresis: standard antigen-antibody system for A. israelii.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, K; Nord, C E; Wadström, T

    1975-08-01

    Standard preparations of crude cytoplasmic and whole cell-associated antigen mixtures of Actinomyces israelii were analyzed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), with a standard polyvalent antiserum comprising purified and concentrated immunoglobulin G antibodies to formolized whole cells of A. israelii serotypes 1 and 2. The standard antigens provided four antigen-antibody systems for A. israelii. The immunoprecipitation patterns of the system were compared, and the immunochemical characteristics of individual precipitates were analyzed. Each system contained specific precipitates, but also one or two precipitates which were immunochemically identical to precipitates of the other systems. The standard system for A. israelii based on cytoplasmic antigens was best reproducible and revealed the highest number of immunoprecipitates. These precipitates possessed immunochemical properties which made them suitable for CIE studies. The cytoplasmic antigen mixture of A. israelii was, therefore, adopted as the most suitable for further development of a crossed immunoelectrophoretic system for A. israelii. In subsequent assays the cytoplasmic antigen mixture was raised in rabbit against cell lysates of A. israelii, serotypes 1 and 2. A standard antigen-antibody system for A. israelii was obtained which revealed an immunoprecipitation pattern of 10 distinguishable precipitates. The resolving power and separation by CIE of this standard system for A. israelii was compared with that of crossed immunoelectrofocusing. The results suggest that these methods supplement each other. Crossed immunoelectrofocusing appeared to be a useful tool for separation of specific components of the protein-antigen complex of A. israelii for analytic serology. The CIE in conjunction with a standard reference antigen-antibody system for A. israelii based on cytoplasmic antigens offers great potentialities in diagnostic A. israelii serology.

  6. The role of flow cytometry in celiac disease screening using human leukocyte antigen in adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Arregui, Miren Vicuña; Urmeneta, Jose Manuel Zozaya; Brito, Helena León; De Esteban, Juan Pablo Martínez; Martínez, Carlos Prieto; Llenas, Lluis Forga; Urtasun, Erkuden Aranburu; Pericas, Francisco Sala; Musgo, Ramón Angós; Gutierrez, Maria Rosario Mercado; Sarrasqueta, Mercedes Palacios

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) have an increased risk of celiac disease (CD). Since CD can be seronegative, more sensible tests for detection are needed. In seronegative patients, CD diagnosis may be difficult because of a lack of specificity. Flow cytometry analysis of lymphocyte populations can be useful in this situation. We aimed to study the prevalence of CD in adult DM1 using human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility-based screening. A secondary goal was to study the role of flow cytometry as a complementary tool in these patients. Methods We selected 200 patients with DM1, of whom 190 (95%) had HLA DQ2, DQ8 or both. Of these, 136 agreed to participate and provided epidemiological data. All patients underwent blood tests and gastroscopy. Results Sixteen patients had a histology consistent with CD. After ruling out other diagnoses, 6 patients were diagnosed with CD, 2 of whom had negative antibodies. All were DQ2.5 homozygous, with a CD prevalence of 9.8% in this group. In the flow cytometry analysis of duodenal biopsy samples, when we compared all non-CD with CD patients, we found that the γ/δ intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) percentage was significantly higher and the CD3 negative IEL percentage significantly lower in the CD group. We found similar results when we compared only those with histological lesions. Conclusions Screening of CD in patients with DM1 by HLA detects only 1% of seronegative patients with CD. DQ2.5 homozygous patients are at most risk of developing CD. The study of lymphocyte populations in the duodenal biopsy by flow cytometry discriminates patients with CD from those without CD with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:28243038

  7. Effect of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide on the outcome of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Farouk, H M; Mansour, H E; Rahman, S A; Mostafa, A A; Shamy, H A; Zarouk, W A

    2009-09-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the presence of the human leukocyte antigen HLA-DRB1 locus is associated with production of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP Abs) and to what extent they are associated with increased susceptibility to and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Egyptian patients. Twenty-nine RA patients gave informed consent to participate in a case-control study that was approved by the Ain Shams University Medical Ethics Committee. RA disease activity and severity were determined using the simplified disease activity index and Larsen scores, respectively. We used a wide scale national study on the pattern of HLA typing in normal Egyptians as a control study. Anti-CCP Abs and HLA-DRB1 typing were determined for all subjects. The alleles most strongly associated with RA were HLA-DRB1 [*01 , *04 and *06] (41.4%). RA patients with serum anti-CCP Ab titers above 60 U/mL had a significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 (58.3%) and HLA-DRB1*04 alleles (83.3%). Significant positive correlations were found between serum and synovial anti-CCP Ab titer, RA disease activity, and severity (r = 0.87, 0.66 and 0.63, respectively; P < 0.05). HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles [*01 and *04] were highly expressed among Egyptian RA patients. The presence of these alleles was associated with higher anti-CCP Ab titer, active and severe RA disease. Early determination of HLA-DRB1 SE+ alleles and serum anti-CCP Ab could facilitate the prediction of the clinical course and prognosis of RA when first evaluated leading to better disease control.

  8. Antineutrophil antibodies associated with ulcerative colitis interact with the antigen(s) during the process of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mallolas, J; Esteve, M; Rius, E; Cabre, E; Gassull, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Cell death by apoptosis seems to be an important mechanism for translocation to the cell surface of a variety of intracellular components capable of inducing autoantibody production.
AIMS—To identify the cellular location of antigen (Ag)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in non-apoptotic human neutrophils, and to assess if ANCA associated with ulcerative colitis reacts with neutrophil antigen(s) during neutrophil apoptosis. The cellular distribution of Ag-ANCA in apoptotic neutrophils was also investigated.
METHODS—Sera from 18 ulcerative colitis patients known to be positive for perinuclear IgG-ANCA (titre ⩾1/320), as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), were analysed by immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy. ANCA were identified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) in non-apoptotic and apoptotic neutrophils, respectively. Apoptotic and non-apoptotic DNA was labelled with FITC and propidium iodide, respectively. Cycloheximide was added to polymorphonuclear leucocyte culture to induce apoptosis.
RESULTS—Three patterns of scanning laser immunofluorescence microscopy in non-apoptotic neutrophils were observed with respect to cellular ulcerative colitis associated ANCA distribution: (1) diffuse nuclear localisation (16.7%); (2) nuclear localisation in the nuclear periphery (50%); and (3) mixed nuclear and cytoplasmic localisation (33.4%). In all sera ANCA fluorescence colocalised almost completely with apoptotic DNA, with persistence of a diffuse and intense fluorescence. No significant changes in ANCA titres were found in non-apoptotic neutrophils.
CONCLUSIONS—The antigen(s) of ANCA associated with ulcerative colitis seems to be localised in most cases in the neutrophil nucleus. The almost identical colocalisation of ANCA and apoptotic cleaved DNA suggests that intracellular DNA redistribution during neutrophil apoptosis may play a role in antigen

  9. The impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) micropolymorphism on ligand specificity within the HLA-B*41 allotypic family

    SciTech Connect

    Bade-Döding, Christina; Theodossis, Alex; Gras, Stephanie; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Eiz-Vesper, Britta; Seltsam, Axel; Huyton, Trevor; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Blasczyk, Rainer

    2011-09-28

    Polymorphic differences between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules affect the specificity and conformation of their bound peptides and lead to differential selection of the T-cell repertoire. Mismatching during allogeneic transplantation can, therefore, lead to immunological reactions. We investigated the structure-function relationships of six members of the HLA-B*41 allelic group that differ by six polymorphic amino acids, including positions 80, 95, 97 and 114 within the antigen-binding cleft. Peptide-binding motifs for B*41:01, *41:02, *41:03, *41:04, *41:05 and *41:06 were determined by sequencing self-peptides from recombinant B*41 molecules by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The crystal structures of HLA-B*41:03 bound to a natural 16-mer self-ligand (AEMYGSVTEHPSPSPL) and HLA-B*41:04 bound to a natural 11-mer self-ligand (HEEAVSVDRVL) were solved. Peptide analysis revealed that all B*41 alleles have an identical anchor motif at peptide position 2 (glutamic acid), but differ in their choice of C-terminal p{Omega} anchor (proline, valine, leucine). Additionally, B*41:04 displayed a greater preference for long peptides (>10 residues) when compared to the other B*41 allomorphs, while the longest peptide to be eluted from the allelic group (a 16mer) was obtained from B*41:03. The crystal structures of HLA-B*41:03 and HLA-B*41:04 revealed that both alleles interact in a highly conserved manner with the terminal regions of their respective ligands, while micropolymorphism-induced changes in the steric and electrostatic properties of the antigen-binding cleft account for differences in peptide repertoire and auxiliary anchoring. Differences in peptide repertoire, and peptide length specificity reflect the significant functional evolution of these closely related allotypes and signal their importance in allogeneic transplantation, especially B*41:03 and B*41:04, which accommodate longer peptides, creating structurally distinct peptide

  10. Rationalization and Design of the Complementarity Determining Region Sequences in an Antibody-Antigen Recognition Interface

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ing-Chien; Lee, Yu-Ching; Chen, Jun-Bo; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chen, Ching-Tai; Chang, Jeng-Yih; Yang, Ei-Wen; Hsu, Po-Chiang; Jian, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Hung-Ju; Chang, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Huang, Kai-Fa; Ma, Alex Che; Yang, An-Suei

    2012-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are critical determinants in biological systems. Engineered proteins binding to specific areas on protein surfaces could lead to therapeutics or diagnostics for treating diseases in humans. But designing epitope-specific protein-protein interactions with computational atomistic interaction free energy remains a difficult challenge. Here we show that, with the antibody-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) interaction as a model system, the experimentally observed amino acid preferences in the antibody-antigen interface can be rationalized with 3-dimensional distributions of interacting atoms derived from the database of protein structures. Machine learning models established on the rationalization can be generalized to design amino acid preferences in antibody-antigen interfaces, for which the experimental validations are tractable with current high throughput synthetic antibody display technologies. Leave-one-out cross validation on the benchmark system yielded the accuracy, precision, recall (sensitivity) and specificity of the overall binary predictions to be 0.69, 0.45, 0.63, and 0.71 respectively, and the overall Matthews correlation coefficient of the 20 amino acid types in the 24 interface CDR positions was 0.312. The structure-based computational antibody design methodology was further tested with other antibodies binding to VEGF. The results indicate that the methodology could provide alternatives to the current antibody technologies based on animal immune systems in engineering therapeutic and diagnostic antibodies against predetermined antigen epitopes. PMID:22457753

  11. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  12. Purification of human seminal plasma no. 7 antigen by immunoaffinity chromatography on bound monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Isojima, S; Koyama, K; Fujiwara, N

    1982-01-01

    Human seminal plasma (HSP) No. 7 antigen was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography on bound 1C4 monoclonal antibody (Moab) (Shigeta et al., 1980b). The pooled HSP protein was applied to a CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B column of bound 1C4 Moab gamma globulin and the antibody bound fraction (fr) eluted was further purified by rechromatography in the same way. The purified antigen in the antibody bound fr obtained by rechromatography gave a single band on SDS-PAGE in a position corresponding to a molecular weight of 15,000 daltons. This preparation was 196.2 times more effective than the original HSP protein in neutralizing the sperm immobilizing activity of 1C4 Moab. The purified HSP No. 7 antigen contained iron, but was different from lactoferrin and transferrin. It did not show any enzymatic activities, such as those of acid phosphatase, LDH or trypsin inhibitor, and shared antigenicity with human milk protein. It was present in seminal plasma as a molecule with a higher molecular weight but seemed to be cleaved to a monomer of 15,000 daltons during purification procedures. This antigen is present on spermatozoa as sperm-coating antigen and the corresponding antibody can immobilize spermatozoa with complement. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7127911

  13. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Mauro; Corallini, Alfredo; Manfrini, Marco; Taronna, Angelo; Butel, Janet S.; Pietrobon, Silvia; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Bononi, Ilaria; Vaccher, Emanuela; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Martini, Fernanda; Mazzoni, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18–65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses. PMID:26731525

  14. Naturally Acquired Human Immunity to Pneumococcus Is Dependent on Antibody to Protein Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Reglinski, Mark; Jose, Ricardo J.; Marshall, Helina; de Vogel, Corné; Gordon, Stephen; Petersen, Fernanda C.; Baxendale, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Naturally acquired immunity against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is thought to be dependent on anti-capsular antibody. However nasopharyngeal colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae also induces antibody to protein antigens that could be protective. We have used human intravenous immunoglobulin preparation (IVIG), representing natural IgG responses to S. pneumoniae, to identify the classes of antigens that are functionally relevant for immunity to IPD. IgG in IVIG recognised capsular antigen and multiple S. pneumoniae protein antigens, with highly conserved patterns between different geographical sources of pooled human IgG. Incubation of S. pneumoniae in IVIG resulted in IgG binding to the bacteria, formation of bacterial aggregates, and enhanced phagocytosis even for unencapsulated S. pneumoniae strains, demonstrating the capsule was unlikely to be the dominant protective antigen. IgG binding to S. pneumoniae incubated in IVIG was reduced after partial chemical or genetic removal of bacterial surface proteins, and increased against a Streptococcus mitis strain expressing the S. pneumoniae protein PspC. In contrast, depletion of type-specific capsular antibody from IVIG did not affect IgG binding, opsonophagocytosis, or protection by passive vaccination against IPD in murine models. These results demonstrate that naturally acquired protection against IPD largely depends on antibody to protein antigens rather than the capsule. PMID:28135322

  15. Diversity of Antigen Recognition by Serum Antibodies in Experimental Bovine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Pollock, John M.; Colangeli, Roberto; Gennaro, Maria Laura

    1998-01-01

    Tuberculosis in cattle remains a major zoonotic and economic problem in many countries. The standard diagnostic assay for bovine tuberculosis, the intradermal tuberculin test, has low accuracy. Therefore, alternative immunodiagnostic methods, such as serological assays, are needed for detection of infected animals. Development of an accurate serodiagnostic test requires a detailed understanding of the humoral immune responses during bovine tuberculosis and, in particular, identification of the key antigens of Mycobacterium bovis involved in antibody production. In this study, we characterized antibody responses in cattle experimentally infected with M. bovis. Sequential serum samples were collected every 3 to 4 weeks for up to 27 months postinfection. Circulating immunoglobulin G antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using 12 highly purified recombinant proteins of M. bovis. Six proteins, ESAT-6, 14-kDa protein, MPT63, MPT70, MPT51, and MPT32, were identified as major seroreactive antigens in bovine tuberculosis. A remarkable animal-to-animal variation of antigen recognition by serum antibodies was observed. Kinetic analyses of the antibody production to individual antigens during infection revealed that the heterogeneous antigen recognition profile changed markedly in a given infected animal as disease progressed. PMID:9784542

  16. Network Theory Analysis of Antibody-Antigen Reactivity Data: The Immune Trees at Birth and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Merbl, Yifat; Quintana, Francisco J.; Tauber, Alfred I.; Cohen, Irun R.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2011-01-01

    Motivation New antigen microarray technology enables parallel recording of antibody reactivities with hundreds of antigens. Such data affords system level analysis of the immune system's organization using methods and approaches from network theory. Here we measured the reactivity of 290 antigens (for both the IgG and IgM isotypes) of 10 healthy mothers and their term newborns. We constructed antigen correlation networks (or immune networks) whose nodes are the antigens and the edges are the antigen-antigen reactivity correlations, and we also computed their corresponding minimum spanning trees (MST) – maximal information reduced sub-graphs. We quantify the network organization (topology) in terms of the network theory divergence rate measure and rank the antigen importance in the full antigen correlation networks by the eigen-value centrality measure. This analysis makes possible the characterization and comparison of the IgG and IgM immune networks at birth (newborns) and adulthood (mothers) in terms of topology and node importance. Results Comparison of the immune network topology at birth and adulthood revealed partial conservation of the IgG immune network topology, and significant reorganization of the IgM immune networks. Inspection of the antigen importance revealed some dominant (in terms of high centrality) antigens in the IgG and IgM networks at birth, which retain their importance at adulthood. PMID:21408156

  17. Development and Evaluation of Single Domain Antibodies for Vaccinia and the L1 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Walper, Scott A.; Liu, Jinny L.; Zabetakis, Daniel; Anderson, George P.; Goldman, Ellen R.

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest to develop high affinity, thermal stable recognition elements to replace conventional antibodies in biothreat detection assays. As part of this effort, single domain antibodies that target vaccinia virus were developed. Two llamas were immunized with killed viral particles followed by boosts with the recombinant membrane protein, L1, to stimulate the immune response for envelope and membrane proteins of the virus. The variable domains of the induced heavy chain antibodies were selected from M13 phage display libraries developed from isolated RNA. Selection via biopanning on the L1 antigen produced single domain antibodies that were specific and had affinities ranging from 4×10−9 M to 7.0×10−10 M, as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Several showed good ability to refold after heat denaturation. These L1-binding single domain antibodies, however, failed to recognize the killed vaccinia antigen. Useful vaccinia binding single domain antibodies were isolated by a second selection using the killed virus as the target. The virus binding single domain antibodies were incorporated in sandwich assays as both capture and tracer using the MAGPIX system yielding limits of detection down to 4×105 pfu/ml, a four-fold improvement over the limit obtained using conventional antibodies. This work demonstrates the development of anti-vaccinia single domain antibodies and their incorporation into sandwich assays for viral detection. It also highlights the properties of high affinity and thermal stability that are hallmarks of single domain antibodies. PMID:25211488

  18. Large-scale sequence and structural comparisons of human naive and antigen-experienced antibody repertoires

    PubMed Central

    DeKosky, Brandon J.; Lungu, Oana I.; Park, Daechan; Johnson, Erik L.; Charab, Wissam; Chrysostomou, Constantine; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ellington, Andrew D.; Ippolito, Gregory C.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Georgiou, George

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating how antigen exposure and selection shape the human antibody repertoire is fundamental to our understanding of B-cell immunity. We sequenced the paired heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL, respectively) from large populations of single B cells combined with computational modeling of antibody structures to evaluate sequence and structural features of human antibody repertoires at unprecedented depth. Analysis of a dataset comprising 55,000 antibody clusters from CD19+CD20+CD27− IgM-naive B cells, >120,000 antibody clusters from CD19+CD20+CD27+ antigen–experienced B cells, and >2,000 RosettaAntibody-predicted structural models across three healthy donors led to a number of key findings: (i) VH and VL gene sequences pair in a combinatorial fashion without detectable pairing restrictions at the population level; (ii) certain VH:VL gene pairs were significantly enriched or depleted in the antigen-experienced repertoire relative to the naive repertoire; (iii) antigen selection increased antibody paratope net charge and solvent-accessible surface area; and (iv) public heavy-chain third complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3) antibodies in the antigen-experienced repertoire showed signs of convergent paired light-chain genetic signatures, including shared light-chain third complementarity-determining region (CDR-L3) amino acid sequences and/or Vκ,λ–Jκ,λ genes. The data reported here address several longstanding questions regarding antibody repertoire selection and development and provide a benchmark for future repertoire-scale analyses of antibody responses to vaccination and disease. PMID:27114511

  19. Antibodies to food antigens in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Takeyuki; Kobashiri, Yasuyuki; Sugie, Yohko; Takai, Shigehisa; Watabe, Kazuhito; Kaino, Yukikazu; Kida, Kaichi

    2002-01-01

    To examine humoral and mucosal immune responses to food antigens and their relation to the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus, IgA and IgG antibodies to cow's milk antigens (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)) and another food antigen (ovalbumin, (OVA)) in human serum were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). If anti-idiotype antibodies to the antibodies were present in serum, they might interfere with the ELISA assay, so suitable microtiter plates were employed to minimize such interference. The levels of IgA and IgG antibodies to the above antigens (P<0.001-P<0.01) and the prevalence of positive sera (P<0.001-P<0.05) in the patient group (n=52, aged 14.5+/-4.1 (S.D.) years) were significantly higher than those in the control group (n=41, aged 13.3+/-6.8 (S.D.) years). Interestingly, the levels of IgA antibodies to all the food antigens examined were elevated in 26 (50%) patients, while the elevation was seen in 3 (7%) healthy controls. The elevation of IgA antibodies in the patients was well correlated with increased concentrations of IgA and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, which induces IgA-producing B-cells, in serum. Although the cytokine TGF-beta is secreted from regulatory T-cells (Th3), and is related to oral tolerance, the interleukin-2 (IL-2, Th1)/IL-4 (Th2) ratio in the patient group was significantly elevated (P<0.001), which might indicate that the oral tolerance is impaired in patients. Thus, we demonstrated that both IgA and IgG antibodies to several food antigens are elevated in patients. We suggest that impairment of oral tolerance might be related to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Granulocyte antigen systems and antibodies and their clinical significance

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.

    1983-03-01

    Granulocyte alloantibodies and autoantibodies have a key role in the pathophysiology of several clinical problems. These include febrile transfusion reactions, severe pulmonary reactions to transfusion, isoimmune neonatal neutropenia, failure of effective granulocyte transfusion, autoimmune neutropenia, drug-induced neutropenia, and neutropenias secondary to many other diseases. Although many techniques are available for detecting granulocyte antibodies, the optimal in-vitro tests for predicting the antibodies' clinical effects are not established. Use of indium-111-labeled granulocytes may provide valuable information regarding the in-vivo effects of different granulocyte antibodies. Granulocyte transfusions continue to be used for a limited number of severely infected neutropenic patients who do not respond to antibiotic therapy.

  1. [Effect of conditions of monoclonal antibody adsorption on antigen-binding activity].

    PubMed

    Tarakanova, Iu N; Dmitriev, D A; Massino, Iu S; Smirnova, M B; Segal, O L; Fartushnaia, O V; Iakovleva, D A; Koliaskina, G I; Lavrov, V F; Dmitriev, A D

    2012-01-01

    The dependence of the antigen-binding activity of immobilized antibodies on pH of a saturating buffer has been investigated. We analyzed 28 monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) produced by various hybridomas to three virus antigens, i.e., the nuclear p23 protein of hepatitis C virus (C core protein p23), p24 protein of HIV 1, and the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg). Antibodies were adsorbed on the surfaces of immune plates in acidic (pH 2.8), neutral (pH 7.5), and alkaline (pH 9.5) buffers. The binding of labeled antigens, i.e., biotinylated or conjugated with horseradish peroxidase, with immobilized antigens was tested. It was shown that 10 out of 28 analyzed MCAs (36%) considerably better preserved their antigen-binding activity if their passive adsorption was carried out on the surface of polystyrene plates in an acidic buffer (pH 2.8). This approach allowed constructing a highly sensitive sandwich method for HBsAg assay with a minimal reliably determined antigen concentration of 0.013-0.017 ng/ml. The described approach may be recommended for the optimization of sandwich methods and solid-phase competitive methods.

  2. Isolation and characterization of recombinant antigens from Leishmania aethiopica that react with human antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Osland, A; Beyene, D; Ashenafi, S; Beetsma, A

    1992-01-01

    A genomic expression library of Leishmania aethiopica was constructed in lambda gt11 and screened with patient sera and sera from healthy people living in an area of endemicity. Forty-five recombinant clones were isolated and partly characterized. Clone-specific antibodies were prepared and used with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western immunoblot analysis to estimate the molecular masses of the parasite-derived antigens containing the reactive epitope(s). Antigens with apparent molecular masses of 90, 85, 63, 50, 41, 25 and 24 kDa as well as several antigens with lower molecular masses were detected. The clone-specific antibodies from patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis reacted with high-molecular-weight antigens (30,000 less than Mr less than 90,000), whereas antibodies from patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis recognized low-molecular-weight antigens (Mr less than 25,000). Nine different purified recombinant antigens were obtained from lysogens in Escherichia coli Y1089 by immunoaffinity chromatography on anti-beta-galactosidase columns and were subsequently tested with patient sera. It is suggested that some of these recombinant antigens might be used for immunodiagnostic purposes. Images PMID:1372294

  3. Targeting endogenous nuclear antigens by electrotransfer of monoclonal antibodies in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Freund, Guillaume; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Desplancq, Dominique; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Vigneron, Marc; Gannon, Julian; Van Regenmortel, Marc H.; Weiss, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies are valuable tools for functional studies in vitro, but their use in living cells remains challenging because they do not naturally cross the cell membrane. Here, we present a simple and highly efficient method for the intracytoplasmic delivery of any antibody into cultured cells. By following the fate of monoclonal antibodies that bind to nuclear antigens, it was possible to image endogenous targets and to show that inhibitory antibodies are able to induce cell growth suppression or cell death. Our electrotransfer system allowed the cancer cells we studied to be transduced without loss of viability and may have applications for a variety of intracellular immuno-interventions. PMID:23765067

  4. A radioimmunoassay for hepatitis A antigen and antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, S J; Boxall, E H

    1979-01-01

    The HAVAB radioimmunoassay for the detection of antibody to hepatitis A is assessed. Its modification to detect virus in faecal samples is described and in this it was found to be more sensitive and specific than electron microscopy. PMID:227943

  5. Antibodies: At The Nexus of Antigens and Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Steplewski, Zenon; Thurin, Magdalena; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the development of monoclonal antibodies and the inception of their use in cancer therapy, their impact on defining cancer biomarkers, and their structural utility in new cancer vaccine development. PMID:26116735

  6. Antibodies: At The Nexus of Antigens and Cancer Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Steplewski, Zenon; Thurin, Magdalena; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    This review describes the development of monoclonal antibodies and the inception of their use in cancer therapy, their impact on defining cancer biomarkers, and their structural utility in new cancer vaccine development.

  7. Probing molecular interactions in intact antibody: antigen complexes, an electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry approach.

    PubMed Central

    Tito, M A; Miller, J; Walker, N; Griffin, K F; Williamson, E D; Despeyroux-Hill, D; Titball, R W; Robinson, C V

    2001-01-01

    Using a combination of nanoflow-electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry we have analyzed the oligomeric state of the recombinant V antigen from Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. The mass spectrometry results show that at pH 6.8 the V antigen in solution exists predominantly as a dimer and a weakly associated tetramer. A monoclonal antibody 7.3, raised against the V antigen, gave rise to mass spectra containing a series of well-resolved charge states at m/z 6000. After addition of aliquots of solution containing V antigen in substoichiometric and molar equivalents, the spectra revealed that two molecules of the V antigen bind to the antibody. Collision-induced dissociation of the antibody-antigen complex results in the selective release of the dimer from the complex supporting the proposed 1:2 antibody:antigen stoichiometry. Control experiments with the recombinant F1 antigen, also from Yersinia pestis, establish that the antibody is specific for the V antigen because no complex with F1 was detected even in the presence of a 10-fold molar excess of F1 antigen. More generally this work demonstrates a rapid means of assessing antigen subunit interactions as well as the stoichiometry and specificity of binding in antibody-antigen complexes. PMID:11721011

  8. Novel use of a radiolabelled antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for the detection of occult abscesses in mammals

    DOEpatents

    Thakur, M.L.

    1990-04-17

    The invention discloses improved reagents containing antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 antibodies and improved methods for detection of occult abscess and inflammation using the improved reagents. No Drawings

  9. Dissecting the antigenic mosaic of the Archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum by monoclonal antibodies of defined molecular specificity

    SciTech Connect

    de Macario, E.C.; Macario, A.J.L.; Magarinos, M.C.; Koenig, H.; Kandler, O.

    1983-10-01

    The antigenic mosaic of the Archaebacterium Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, strain ..delta..H, was analyzed with a panel of six monoclonal antibodies. Five antigenic determinants were identified. One contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, another contains N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, and a third contains ..gamma..-glutamylalanine (..gamma..-Glu-Ala). These residues are not involved, at least as immunodominant epitopes, in the other two determinants, one of which contains L-talosaminuronic acid, a component of pseudomurein found only in Methanobacteriaceae. Each of the five determinants was recognized by one monoclonal antibody exclusively. A sixth antibody recognized a structure containing ..gamma..-Glu-Ala that could be either a sixth determinant or a subdeterminant within the site already recognized as containing ..gamma..-Glu-Ala. It is postulated that two of the determinants are strain specific, three are species specific, and one is a common antigen.

  10. Detection of antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen and hepatitis C virus core antigen in plasma with a waveguide-mode sensor.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takenori; Tanaka, Torahiko; Uno, Shigeyuki; Ashiba, Hiroki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Awazu, Koichi; Makishima, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    In large-scale disasters, such as huge significant earthquakes, on-site examination for blood typing and infectious disease screening will be very helpful to save lives of victims who need surgical treatment and/or blood transfusion. However, physical damage, such as building collapse, electric power failure and traffic blockage, disrupts the capacity of the medical system. Portable diagnostic devices are useful in such cases of emergency. In this study, we evaluated a waveguide-mode sensor for detection of anti-hepatitis virus antibodies. First, we examined whether we can detect antigen-antibody interaction on a sensor chip immobilized hepatitis B virus surface (HBs) antigen and hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen using monoclonal mouse antibodies for HBs antigen and HCV core antigen. We obtained significant changes in the reflectance spectra, which indicate specific antigen-antibody interaction for anti-HBs antibody and anti-HCV antibody. Next, we examined the effect of horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody using aminoethyl carbazole as the peroxidase substrate and found that the colorimetric reaction increases detection sensitivity for anti-HBs antibody more than 300 times. Finally, we successfully detected anti-HBs antibody in human blood samples with an enhancing method using a peroxidase reaction. Thus, a portable device utilizing a waveguide-mode sensor may be applied to on-site blood testing in emergency settings. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antigen nature and complexity influence human antibody light chain usage and specificity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Shah, Hemangi; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; Haley, Kathleen; James, Judith A

    2016-05-27

    Human antibodies consist of a heavy chain and one of two possible light chains, kappa (κ) or lambda (λ). Here we tested how these two possible light chains influence the overall antibody response to polysaccharide and protein antigens by measuring light chain usage in human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells obtained following vaccination with Pneumovax23. Remarkably, we found that individuals displayed restricted light chain usage to certain serotypes and that lambda antibodies have different specificities and modes of cross-reactivity than kappa antibodies. Thus, at both the monoclonal (7 kappa, no lambda) and serum levels (145μg/mL kappa, 2.82μg/mL lambda), antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide were nearly always kappa. The pneumococcal reference serum 007sp was analyzed for light chain usage to 12 pneumococcal serotypes for which it is well characterized. Similar to results at the monoclonal level, certain serotypes tended to favor one of the light chains (14 and 19A, lambda; 6A and 23F, kappa). We also explored differences in light chain usage at the serum level to a variety of antigens. We examined serum antibodies to diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA-1. These responses tended to be kappa dominant (average kappa-to-lambda ratios of 4.52 and 9.72 respectively). Responses to the influenza vaccine were more balanced with kappa-to-lambda ratio averages having slight strain variations: seasonal H1N1, 1.1; H3N2, 0.96; B, 0.91. We conclude that antigens with limited epitopes tend to produce antibodies with restricted light chain usage and that in most individuals, antibodies with lambda light chains have specificities different and complementary to kappa-containing antibodies.

  12. Invasive African Salmonella Typhimurium induces bactericidal antibodies against O-antigens.

    PubMed

    Rondini, Simona; Lanzilao, Luisa; Necchi, Francesca; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Micoli, Francesca; Saul, Allan; MacLennan, Calman A

    2013-10-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella are a major and emerging cause of fatal invasive disease in Africa, and are genetically distinct from those found elsewhere in the world. Understanding the targets of protective immunity to these African Salmonellae is key to vaccine development. We immunized mice and rabbits with heat-inactivated wild-type African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium D23580 and rough mutants lacking O-antigen. Wild-type Salmonella, unlike rough bacteria, induced a large bactericidal antibody response mainly against O-antigen. Bactericidal ability of anti-O-antigen antibodies was confirmed following purification by affinity chromatography. The current findings support the development of an O-antigen conjugate vaccine against invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae for Africa.

  13. Labeling and use of monoclonal antibodies in immunofluorescence: protocols for cytoskeletal and nuclear antigens.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christoph R

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are widely used to target and label specifically extra- or intracellular antigens within cells and tissues. Most protocols follow an indirect approach implying the successive incubation with primary and secondary antibodies. In these protocols the primary antibodies are specifically targeted against the antigen in question and are normally not labeled. The secondary antibodies come from a different species and are in contrast fluorescently labeled. The idea is that the primary antibodies specifically bind to their targets but cannot be visualized directly. Only binding of the secondary (fluorescent) antibodies to the constant region of the primary antibodies allows consecutively the visualization in a fluorescent microscope.Primary antibodies can be either of monoclonal (normally produced in mouse) or of polyclonal origin (normally produced in rabbit, goat, sheep, or donkey). Using (primary) monoclonal antibodies has the clear advantage that all antibodies used are identical in origin and behavior and should thus give a more clear-cut labeling result. On the other hand the demands towards labeling protocols might be concomitantly higher: Binding of primary antibodies will only occur if fixation and labeling protocols preserve the antigen sufficiently to keep its specific and unique target structure available. One could imagine that for polyclonal antibodies this demand is slightly lower as there is a pool of antibodies with varying specificities against multiple parts of their target antigens. Certain fractions of this pool might thus tolerate a larger variety of conditions, and consequently a larger variety of protocols might still result in successful labeling.Each step in a labeling protocol can be decisive for the outcome of an experiment especially if monoclonal antibodies are used. Especially critical are choice of buffer and fixation and permeabilization parameters of the protocol.In this chapter we discuss and detail proven protocols using

  14. THE INHERITANCE OF INDIVIDUAL ANTIGENIC SPECIFICITIES OF RABBIT ANTIBODIES TO STREPTOCOCCAL CARBOHYDRATES

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Klaus; Kindt, Thomas J.

    1971-01-01

    The inheritance of individual antigenic specificities (IAS) of rabbit antibodies to the Group C streptococcal carbohydrate was demonstrated in a selectively bred rabbit family. The IAS of the antibodies from 3 proband rabbits were also observed in the Group C antibodies in as many as 7 out of 42 related rabbits, but in none of the Group C antibodies from 48 unrelated rabbits, Immunodiffusion analyses and quantitative radioprecipitin experiments revealed that this cross-specificity may be either partial or complete. Quantitative inhibition of the precipitin reaction between the proband antibody and its antiserum by preimmune IgG revealed 30-fold differences in the proportion of molecules with cross-specificity for the proband antibody. This proportion is higher in the preimmune IgG of the proband rabbit and of those relatives which produced cross-precipitating antibodies than it is in the IgG of rabbits which had the same group a allotype, but did not produce cross-precipitating antibodies. The proportion is much lower in the IgG of rabbits with a group a allotype different from that of the proband antibody. These data suggest that serologically detected individual antigenic specificities are inherited markers of immunoglobulins. PMID:4104426

  15. Anti-MrkA Monoclonal Antibodies Reveal Distinct Structural and Antigenic Features of MrkA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun; Chen, Yan; Cvitkovic, Romana; Pennini, Meghan E.; Chang, Chew shun; Pelletier, Mark; Bonnell, Jessica; Wu, Herren; Dall’Acqua, William F.; Stover, C. Kendall; Xiao, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Antibody therapy against antibiotics resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections represents a promising strategy, the success of which depends critically on the ability to identify appropriate antibody targets. Using a target-agnostic strategy, we recently discovered MrkA as a potential antibody target and vaccine antigen. Interestingly, the anti-MrkA monoclonal antibodies isolated through phage display and hybridoma platforms all recognize an overlapping epitope, which opens up important questions including whether monoclonal antibodies targeting different MrkA epitopes can be generated and if they possess different protective profiles. In this study we generated four anti-MrkA antibodies targeting different epitopes through phage library panning against recombinant MrkA protein. These anti-MrkA antibodies elicited strong in vitro and in vivo protections against a multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. Furthermore, mutational and epitope analysis suggest that the two cysteine residues may play essential roles in maintaining a MrkA structure that is highly compacted and exposes limited antibody binding/neutralizing epitopes. These results suggest the need for further in-depth understandings of the structure of MrkA, the role of MrkA in the pathogenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae and the protective mechanism adopted by anti-MrkA antibodies to fully explore the potential of MrkA as an efficient therapeutic target and vaccine antigen. PMID:28107434

  16. Library of monoclonal antibodies against brush border membrane epithelial antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Behar, M.; Katz, A.; Silverman, M.

    1986-03-01

    A purified fraction of proximal tubule brush border membranes (BBM) was prepared from dog kidney and used to immunize mice. The standard technique of hybridoma production was followed as described by Kohler and Milstein. Production of antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence on dog kidney slices and by immunodot against the purified fraction on nitrocellulose. Five hybrids exhibited anti BBM activity. These were cloned twice and yielded stable cell lines producing IgG type monoclonal antibodies against BBM. They were designated A/sub 1/, C/sub 7/, D/sub 3/, D/sub 7/ and H/sub 4/. As a family these five monoclonals have broad tissue specificity, i.e. positive staining of the surface mucosa of intestinal kidney proximal tubules. D/sub 3/ exhibits even broader specificity for epithelium reacting with bile canaliculi and choroid plexus. The authors have verified that at least 4/5 antibodies are directed against BBM protein as revealed by immunoprecipitation of solubilized BBM and detected by Coomassie blue staining or autoradiography of lactoperoxidase labelled BBM. Most interestingly all antibodies bind to the surface of LL CPK/sub 1/ cells, a continuous pig kidney cell line of undefined origin but exhibiting many characteristics of proximal tubule cells. The library of monoclonal antibodies obtained provide important probes with which to study membrane biogenesis and polarization in epithelial cells.

  17. Soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 polarizes differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Guo, YiFan; So, Kam-Hei; Vijayan, Madhavi; Guo, Yue; Wong, Vera H H; Yao, YuanQing; Lee, Kai-Fai; Chiu, Philip C N; Yeung, William S B

    2015-10-01

    What are the actions of soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 (sHLAG5) on macrophage differentiation? sHLAG5 polarizes the differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype, which could regulate fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. sHLAG5 is a full-length soluble isoform of human leukocyte antigen implicated in immune tolerance during pregnancy. Low or undetectable circulating level of sHLAG5 in first trimester of pregnancy is associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Decidual macrophages are located in close proximity to invasive trophoblasts, and are involved in regulating fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. Human peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages by treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presence or absence of recombinant sHLAG5 during the differentiation process. The phenotypes and the biological activities of the resulting macrophages were compared. Recombinant sHLAG5 was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 and the protein identity was verified by tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of macrophage markers were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Phagocytosis was determined by flow cytometry. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expression and activity were measured by western blot analysis and kynurenine assay, respectively. Cell proliferation and cell cycling were determined by fluorometric cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytokine secretion was determined by cytokine array and ELISA kits. Intracellular cytokine expression was measured by flow cytometry. Cell invasion and migration were determined by trans-well invasion and migration assay, respectively. sHLAG5 drove the differentiation of macrophages with 'immuno-modulatory' characteristics, including reduced expression of M1 macrophage marker CD86 and increased expression of M2 macrophage marker CD163. sHLAG5-polarized

  18. The prognostic value of anti-paternal antibodies and leukocyte immunizations on the proportion of live births in couples with consecutive recurrent miscarriages.

    PubMed

    Orgad, S; Loewenthal, R; Gazit, E; Sadetzki, S; Novikov, I; Carp, H

    1999-12-01

    Anti-paternal antibodies directed towards paternal leukocytes have been used to predict the prognosis for the subsequent pregnancy in women with consecutive recurrent miscarriages (CRM) and also to determine if the patient has become immune after paternal leukocyte immunization. The predictive value is controversial, as these antibodies are not essential for pregnancy to develop, and only occur in a minority of parous women. This study tried to determine the predictive value of these antibodies when assessed separately for women with five or more abortions and compared to women with three or four abortions. The patients were assessed separately so that the higher live birth rate in the latter group would not obscure meaningful results in the former group with a poor prognosis. Antibody production, whether spontaneous, or induced by immunization, raised the live birth rate in primary and tertiary aborters with three, four, five or more abortions. Anti-paternal antibodies increased the proportion of live births from 18.5 to 53. 7% (P /= 5 CRM and 3-4 CRM respectively. Both immunization with paternal leukocytes per se and the ability to express anti-paternal antibodies were associated with an increased proportion of live births in the next pregnancy. Multivariate analysis showed that that the odds ratio for a live birth was approximately four times greater in women who were immunized and produced anti-paternal antibodies than in control patients. The lack of anti-paternal antibodies at initial testing could serve as a marker for the benefit of immunization with paternal leukocytes; the subsequent presence as a prognostic marker for the subsequent pregnancy.

  19. Use of antibody gene library for the isolation of specific single chain antibodies by ampicillin-antigen conjugates.

    PubMed

    Neumann-Schaal, Meina; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Grenz, Nicole; Heilmann, Katja

    2013-03-01

    Isolation of recombinant antibodies from antibody libraries is commonly performed by different molecular display formats including phage display and ribosome display or different cell-surface display formats. We describe a new method which allows the selection of Escherichia coli cells producing the required single chain antibody by cultivation in presence of ampicillin conjugated to the antigen of interest. The method utilizes the neutralization of the conjugate by the produced single chain antibody which is secreted to the periplasm. Therefore, a new expression system based on the pET26b vector was designed and a library was constructed. The method was successfully established first for the selection of E. coli BL21 Star (DE3) cells expressing a model single chain antibody (anti-fluorescein) by a simple selection assay on LB-agar plates. Using this selection assay, we could identify a new single chain antibody binding biotin by growing E. coli BL21 Star (DE3) containing the library in presence of a biotin-ampicillin conjugate. In contrast to methods as molecular or cell surface display our selection system applies the soluble single chain antibody molecule and thereby avoids undesired effects, e.g. by the phage particle or the yeast fusion protein. By selecting directly in an expression strain, production and characterization of the selected single chain antibody is possible without any further cloning or transformation steps.

  20. Association of a dog leukocyte antigen class II haplotype with hypoadrenocorticism in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Hughes, A M; Jokinen, P; Bannasch, D L; Lohi, H; Oberbauer, A M

    2010-06-01

    Canine hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) is due to a deficiency of corticosteroids and mineralocorticoids produced by the adrenals. Although this is a relatively uncommon disease in the general dog population, some breeds, including the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR), are at increased risk for developing hypoadrenocorticism. A prior study has shown that the increased risk is due to a heritable component. This potentially lethal disorder is hypothesized to have an autoimmune etiology, thus the aim of this study was to determine whether genetic susceptibility to hypoadrenocorticism in NSDTRs is associated with genes of the canine major histocompatibility complex [MHC; dog leukocyte antigen system (DLA)]. Samples were collected from NSDTRs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and healthy siblings or country-matched controls. The DLA class II alleles and haplotypes were determined and compared between cases and controls. We found seven different haplotypes of which the haplotype DLA-DRB1*01502/DQA*00601/DQB1*02301 was significantly more prevalent in the diseased dogs (P = 0.044). In addition, these affected dogs also were more likely to be homozygous across the DLA class II region than the control dogs (OR = 6.7, CI = 1.5-29.3, P = 0.011). We also found that homozygous dogs, regardless of their haplotype, tended to have earlier disease onset compared with heterozygous dogs. These data indicate a limited MHC diversity in North American NSDTRs and suggest that the MHC may play a role in the development of hypoadrenocorticism in the NSDTR, supporting the autoimmune origin of the disease.

  1. Human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms in Italian primary biliary cirrhosis: a multicenter study of 664 patients and 1992 healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo; Poli, Francesca; Frison, Sara; Floreani, Annarosa; Alvaro, Domenico; Almasio, Piero; Rosina, Floriano; Marzioni, Marco; Fabris, Luca; Muratori, Luigi; Qi, Lihong; Seldin, Michael F.; Gershwin, M. Eric; Podda, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Genetic factors are critical in determining susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), but there has not been a clear association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. We performed a multi-center case-control study and analyzed HLA class II DRB1 associations using a large cohort of 664 well-defined cases of PBC and 1,992 controls of Italian ancestry. Importantly, healthy controls were rigorously matched not only by age and gender, but also for the geographical origin of the proband four grandparents (Northern, Central, and Southern Italy). Following correction for multiple testing, DRB1*08 (Odds Ratio–OR, 3.3; 95% Confidence Interval–CI, 2.4−4.5) and DRB1*02 (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.8−1.2) were significantly associated with PBC while alleles DRB1*11 (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.3−0.4) and DRB1*13 (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.6−0.9) were protective. When subjects were stratified according to their grandparental geographical origin, only the associations with DRB1*08 and DRB1*11 were common to all three areas. Associated DRB1 alleles were found only in a minority of patients while an additive genetic model is supported by the gene dosage effect for DRB1*11 allele and the interaction of DRB1*11,*13, and *08. Lastly, no significant associations were detected between specific DRB1 alleles and relevant clinical features represented by the presence of cirrhosis or serum autoantibodies. In conclusion, we confirm the role for HLA to determine PBC susceptibility and suggest that the effect of HLA is limited to patient subgroups. We suggest that a large whole-genome approach is required to identify further genetic elements contributing to the loss of tolerance in this disease. PMID:19003916

  2. Polymorphisms and Tissue Expression of the Feline Leukocyte Antigen Class I Loci FLAI-E, -H and -K

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Jennifer C.; Holmer, Savannah G.; Ross, Peter; Buntzman, Adam S.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.; Hess, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell immunosurveillance for intracellular pathogens, such as viruses, is controlled by classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ia molecules, and ideally, these antiviral T-cell populations are defined by the specific peptide and restricting MHC allele. Surprisingly, despite the utility of the cat in modeling human viral immunity, little is known about the Feline Leukocyte Antigen class I complex (FLAI). Only a few coding sequences with uncertain locus origin and expression patterns have been reported. Of 19 class I genes, 3 loci - FLAI-E, -H and -K – are predicted to encode classical molecules, and our objective was to evaluate their status by analyzing polymorphisms and tissue expression. Using locus-specific, PCR-based genotyping, we amplified 33 FLAI-E, -H, and -K alleles from 12 cats of various breeds, identifying, for the first time, alleles across 3 distinct loci in a feline species. Alleles shared the expected polymorphic and invariant sites in the α1/α2 domains, and full-length cDNA clones possessed all characteristic class Ia exons. Alleles could be assigned to a specific locus with reasonable confidence, although there was evidence of potentially confounding interlocus recombination between FLAI-E and -K. Only FLAI-E, -H and -K-origin alleles were amplified from cDNAs of multiple tissue types. We also defined hypervariable regions across these genes, which permitted the assignment of names to both novel and established alleles. As predicted, FLAI-E, -H, and -K fulfill the major criteria of class Ia genes. These data represent a necessary prerequisite for studying epitope-specific antiviral CD8+ T-cell responses in cats. PMID:23812210

  3. Indications and Results of Human Leukocyte Antigen-identical Sibling Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Mark C.; De Castro, Laura M.; Sullivan, Keith M.; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan; Kamani, Naynesh; Bredeson, Christopher; Neuberg, Donna; Hassell, Kathryn L.; Farnia, Stephanie; Campbell, Andrew; Petersdorf, Effie

    2016-01-01

    Although there are a number of published trials of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) – identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for sickle cell disease (SCD) that span 2 decades, when and for whom this therapy should be pursued is a subject of debate. Assessments of the risks of transplant-related complications that include infertility and debilitating graft-versus-host disease and long-term quality of life after successful HCT are difficult to perform without prospective trials in transplant and non-transplant cohorts. However, it is possible to assess the risk of mortality and to compare published rates of survival in individuals with sickle cell disease treated and not treated by HCT. In this brief review, projections about mortality risk based upon recent published reports are reviewed and summarized. The published data show overall survival and event-survival rates of 95% and 92%, respectively, in children treated by HLA-identical sibling HCT. The overall survival in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) (N=412) and European Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT) (N=487) registries was 91% and 95%, respectively. These results provide broad support for the therapeutic value of HLA-identical sibling HCT for children with sickle cell disease and serve as the basis for a strong recommendation in favor of the option of HCT when a suitable donor is available. The experience of HLA-identical sibling HCT in adults with SCD is limited but appears similar to results in children, and these preliminary observations warrant further investigation. PMID:26500093

  4. Complex preimplantation genetic diagnosis for beta-thalassaemia, sideroblastic anaemia, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing.

    PubMed

    Kakourou, Georgia; Vrettou, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Destouni, Aspasia; Poulou, Myrto; Moutafi, Maria; Kokkali, Georgia; Pantos, Konstantinos; Davies, Stephen; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sophia; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Traeger-Synodinos, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to select histocompatible siblings to facilitate curative haematopoeitic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is now an acceptable option in the absence of an available human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatible donor. We describe a case where the couple who requested HLA-PGD, were both carriers of two serious haematological diseases, beta-thalassaemia and sideroblastic anaemia. Their daughter, affected with sideroblastic anaemia, was programmed to have HSCT. A multiplex-fluorescent-touchdown-PCR protocol was optimized for the simultaneous amplification of: the two HBB-gene mutated regions (c.118C> T, c.25-26delAA), four short tandem repeats (STRs) in chr11p15.5 linked to the HBB gene, the SLC25A38 gene mutation (c.726C > T), two STRs in chr3p22.1 linked to the SLC25A38 gene, plus eleven informative STRs for HLA-haplotyping (chr6p22.1-21.3). This was followed by real-time nested PCR and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for the detection of HBB and SLC25A38 gene mutations, as well as the analysis of all STRs on an automatic genetic analyzer (sequencer). The couple completed four clinical in vitro fertilization (IVF)/PGD cycles. At least one matched unaffected embryo was identified and transferred in each cycle. A twin pregnancy was established in the fourth PGD cycle and genotyping results at all loci were confirmed by prenatal diagnosis. Two healthy baby girls were delivered at week 38 of pregnancy. The need to exclude two familial disorders for HLA-PGD is rarely encountered. The methodological approach described here is fast, accurate, clinically-validated, and of relatively low cost.

  5. Why natural killer cells are not enough: a further understanding of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor and human leukocyte antigen.

    PubMed

    Alecsandru, Diana; García-Velasco, Juan A

    2017-06-01

    The immune system's role in recurrent reproductive failure is a controversial issue in assisted reproduction. Most studies into immune system implication in reproduction have focused on finding markers of peripheral blood and less on the uterine environment. Peripheral blood natural killer cells have become an "immune study core" for women with recurrent miscarriage or recurrent implantation failure, based on the mistaken notion that they cause reproductive failure by killing or "rejecting" the embryo. Maternal-fetal tolerance begins at the uterine level, so successful adaptation to the fetus occurs after a complicated process. Insufficient uterine lining invasion by an invading extravillous trophoblast is the primary defect in pregnancy disorders such as recurrent miscarriage. This process is regulated by the interaction between maternal killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), expressed by uterine natural killer cells (uNK), and their ligand human leukocyte antigen (HLA) C, expressed by the extravillous trophoblast. Pregnancies are an increased risk of disorders in mothers with KIR AA when the fetus has paternal HLA-C2. A recent report has indicated that the expression of more than one paternal HLA-C by the extravillous trophoblast in assisted reproduction may affect placentation in mothers with KIR AA. This review provides insight into the immune system's role in assisted reproductive treatments. These insights can have an impact on the selection of single-embryo transfer and/or oocyte/sperm donor according to HLA-C in patients with recurrent implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage depending on their KIR haplotype. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 alleles as candidate markers for clinical mastitis resistance in Holstein x Zebu.

    PubMed

    Duangjinda, M; Buayai, D; Pattarajinda, V; Phasuk, Y; Katawatin, S; Vongpralub, T; Chaiyotvittayakul, A

    2009-02-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 alleles from Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (n = 409) were analyzed using the PCR-RFLP technique. Exon II of DRB3 was amplified using locus-specific primers (HLO30/HLO32), followed by digestion with 3 restriction enzymes (RsaI, BstyI, and HaeIII). Forty alleles were found with frequency ranging from 0.005 to 0.139. The most frequently detected alleles of Holstein x Zebu were DRB3*16, *51, *23, *11, *8, and *1, accounting for 61.12% of the alleles in the population. Detection of candidate alleles for clinical mastitis occurrence was performed by logistic regression. It was found that percentage of Holstein fraction in crossbred cows had a nonsignificant effect (P > 0.05). However, parity had a significant effect on mastitis occurrence. In addition, DRB3*1 and *52 were the most associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis, whereas *15, *51, and *22 were associated with resistance in crossbred populations. This is the first report of association of DRB3*15 and *51 with mastitis resistance. The association was validated by examining the candidate alleles in another commercial population. Highly susceptible (n = 43) and resistant (n = 42) groups of Holstein x Zebu cows were investigated. The result confirmed that DRB3*1 and *52 could be considered as susceptibility alleles, whereas *15, *51, and *22 could be considered as resistant alleles in Holstein x Zebu raised under tropical conditions. In addition, allele effects on 305-d milk production were estimated by BLUP. It was shown that most alleles associated with high clinical mastitis occurrence were related to increased milk yield. This study revealed that allele DRB3*10 had the greatest effect on increasing milk yield with moderate resistance to clinical mastitis, which could be used as a potential marker for selection in dairy genetic evaluation.

  7. Lack of an independent association between the human leukocyte antigen allele DQA1*0501 and Graves` disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cuddihy, R.M.; Bahn, R.S.

    1996-02-01

    The association between the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) serotype DR3 and Graves` disease (GD) in Caucasian populations is well known. However, an even stronger association has been reported recently, especially in the male population, between the closely linked HLA allele DQA1*0501 and GD. We postulated that the reported association between DQA1*0501 and GD may be a result of the linkage of this allele with DR3 and may not represent an independent association. Accordingly, we screened a population of North American Caucasians (n=218), including patients with GD (n=101, 32 males, 69 females) and individuals with documented normal thyroid function (n=117, 51 males, 66 females), for the presence of the DQA1*0501 allele and those alleles corresponding to the DR3 serotype (DRB1*03). Screening was accomplished using sequence specific PCR. A significant association was documented in the total study population between DR3 positivity and GD (P=0.0002), but not between DQA1*0501 positivity and GD(P=0.06). After gender stratification, significant associations were found only in the female population (DR3, P=0.0004; DQA1*0501, P=0.012) and not in the male population (DR3, P=1.0;DQA1*0501,P=.0). Additionally, in those DR3 negative female subjects (n=100), there was no independent association between DQA1*0501 positivity (n=26) and GD (P=0.82). P-values were corrected, where appropriate, for gender stratification and/or the number of HLA alleles tested. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a lack of independent association between the presence of the HLA allele DAQ1*0501 and GD. We suggest that the apparent association between this allele and GD in the female population may be the result of its` close linkage to DR3. 21 refs., 7 tabs.

  8. Computational and statistical study on the molecular interaction between antigen and antibody.

    PubMed

    Osajima, Tomonori; Suzuki, Masaaki; Neya, Saburo; Hoshino, Tyuji

    2014-09-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are one of the most successful bio-molecules utilized in the clinical scene of today. It is important to clarify general characteristics of the interaction between antigen and antibody and to draw a guide for enhancing their binding affinity in rational design of antibody drugs. In this study, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations for 20 kinds of antigen-antibody complexes. From the statistical analysis of the calculation results, the following findings were deduced. At complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the antibodies, the rates for the presence of serine (Ser) and tyrosine (Tyr) are high. The amino residues involved in direct hydrogen bonds between antigens and antibodies were examined by counting the numbers of the hydrogen bonds from the respective residues. The contribution of Tyr to the direct hydrogen bonding was the highest and that of Ser was the fourth. Furthermore, the short-distance hydrogen bonds, which is assumed to be so-called "low-barrier hydrogen bond", were observed at CDRs in three complexes. Interestingly, Ser is involved in the short-distance hydrogen bonding in two cases out of the three. This result suggests that these two unchanged polar amino acid residues play an important role for recognition of antigen. In almost all of the complexes (18/20), the contribution of the electrostatic energy (ΔEele) to the binding free energy was calculated to be larger than that of the van der Waals energy (ΔEvdw). This dominance of the electrostatic energy is in contrast to the case that low molecular-weight compounds are bound to their targets. The findings of this study will be helpful to design an antibody with a high specificity and a high affinity to the antigen.

  9. Vital transfusion in patients with multiple antibodies against common erythrocyte antigens.

    PubMed

    Grífols, Joan-Ramon; Serrano, Alfons; Ester, Anna; Juncà, Jordi; Muñiz, Eduard

    2009-04-01

    The transfusion of blood components could be needed in certain types of surgical procedures. Blood type components and the requested number of units will depend on the estimated loss of blood, type of surgery, surgical technique to be employed and risk factors for bleeding. Problems can appear when multiple antibodies against common erythrocyte antigens are detected in blood samples and this situation worsens if blood units are requested as quickly as possible. We report a case of a patient with a non frequent erythrocytic phenotype where multiple antibodies acting against high-frequency antigens were detected and who required urgent surgery.

  10. Development of a Monoclonal Antibody against a Tumor-Associated Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, W. W.; Bressler, J. P.; Tiffany-Castiglioni, E.; de Vellis, J.

    1982-02-01

    A monoclonal antibody-producing hybrid cell line was obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with C6 glioma cells. This antibody binds to a specific cell-surface antigen that is present on C6 rat glioma cells, transformed astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and a human glioma cell line but is absent on a normal glial cell line, fibroblasts, and primary cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The antigen also appears on tumor tissue of transformed oligodendrocytes but not on normal brain tissue.

  11. Procedures for Sxs antigen detection by antibody-mediated cytotoxicity tests. A comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Jiménez, R; Burgos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R

    1994-11-01

    Biological reagents used in the serological detection of Sxs antigen by antibody-mediated cytotoxicity tests were compared in order to optimize the method. Our analyses showed that: (a) red cell-free spleen cells are the best target cells, (b) rabbit serum used as the complement source should be obtained from females, and absorbed with female spleen cells before use, (c) antiserum obtained by immunizing females with repeated injections of syngenic male spleen cells provides the highest anti-Sxs antibody titer, and (d) of the different biological fluids investigated, testis supernatant has highest concentration of Sxs antigen.

  12. Deficiency of antibody responses to T-independent antigens in gerbils---Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Madhu Chhanda; Ravindran, Balachandran

    2002-05-01

    Meriones unguiculatus commonly known as gerbils are widely used as animal models for a variety of parasitic infections such as Brugia malayi, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, Toxoplasma gondi, Helicobacter pylori, Strongyloides stercoralis and Echinococcus multilocularis. Groups of BALB/c mice, gerbils and XID mice were studied for antibody responses to T-independent antigens. Gerbils were found to be significantly deficient in eliciting antibodies to both dextran and phosphorylcholine (PC) in comparison to BALB/c mice. The antibody response of gerbils to T-independent antigens was found to be similar to the response observed in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) deficient XID mice, which are known to be poor responders to T-independent antigens. Similar to XID mice, normal gerbil sera were found to be deficient in naturally occurring antibodies to single stranded DNA (SS-DNA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phospholipids. This raises the possibility of a deficiency of CD5+ B-lymphocytes (also known as B-1 cells) in gerbils, since deficiency of this sub-population of B-lymphocytes has been attributed to the absence of such naturally occurring antibodies in XID mice. These results indicate the need to study immunogenicity of parasite T-independent antigens and their relationship to protective immunity in parasitic infections in gerbils.

  13. Modelling the kinetics of antigen-antibody reactions at particle enhanced optical immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Quesada, M; Puig, J; Delgado, J M; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

    1998-01-01

    Functionalized latexes coated by antibodies are used in diagnostic tests for the detection of antigens in biological fluids. A simple kinetic model is presented which is related to the optical monitoring of the formation of specific complexes between antigen and antibody amplified by latex beads. The antibodies are chemically coupled onto chloromethylstyrene (CMST) particles. The kinetic model is able to describe the immunoprecipitin curves of immunolatex beads. The number of fitting parameters is relatively reduced (only three), and the meaning of these parameters can be interpreted in terms of the chemical equilibrium constant, the percentage of active IgG on the latex beads, and optical response. The model explains very well the optical response of immunolatex prepared by covalent coupling of antibodies on polymer carriers.

  14. Two distinct antigen systems in human B lymphocytes: identification of cell surface and intracellular antigens using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Takami, T; Yuasa, H; Takei, T; Kikuchi, K

    1984-01-01

    Two distinct antigen systems (L26 and L27) specifically expressed in human B lymphocytes were identified using TB2-2B3 (2B3) and T3-5B3 (5B3) monoclonal antibodies, respectively. Whereas L26 antigen defined by 2B3 were rarely expressed on the surface of B cells but abundant in the cytoplasm, 127 antigens detected by 5B3 was clearly expressed on the cell surface. These two antigens appeared to be restricted in their expression to B cells, as they were found in most B cells but not other cell types including thymocytes, T cells, monocytes and granulocytes. Functional studies demonstrated that L27 was more easily lost from B cells after activation with pokeweed mitogen than was L26. Likewise, plasma cell myeloma, as well as normal plasma cells, was devoid of both L26 and L27, whereas immunoblastic sarcoma of B cell type expressed L26 but not L27. These two antigens co-existed in the same B cell lines including Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cell lines, B cell type acute lymphatic leukaemia (B-ALL) cell line, Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and myeloma cell lines, but pre-B and common ALL cell lines were entirely negative for both L26 and L27. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that L26 consisted of at least two polypeptide chains with molecular weights of 30K and 33K daltons, which were clearly distinct from HLA-DR antigens. The antigen L27 is presently under study. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:6332692

  15. The interaction of antigen and antibody in agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Elek, S. D.; Smith, B. V. Kingsley; Highman, Wilma

    1964-01-01

    Flagellar fragments are thin cylinders that are particularly suitable for the study of agglutination by electron microscopy. Their shape leads to a characteristic pattern of agglutination and thus the early stages can be studied. Measurement of interflagellar distances under conditions of negative staining, suggest that the minimum length of the rabbit antibody molecules is about 180 Å. The molecules carry the specific sites at the ends of the long axis, and become attached radially to the surface of the flagella, resembling the bristles of a bottle-brush. To explain this orientation it is postulated that the antibody is inserted into the surface of the flagellum in such a manner that surrounding molecules give it a fixed direction. Geometrically this hypothesis corresponds to an insertion into pits. Pepsin-treated (5S) rabbit antibody behaves in a like manner, but the molecule appears to be shorter. No information could be obtained about the thickness and actual shape of antibody molecules by the techniques employed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 9FIG. 11FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15 PMID:14210767

  16. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-20

    Oriboca West Nile Dugbe Oropouche Sicilian sandfly fever Ganjam Piry Zika Germiston Qalyub Shuni Guaroa Quaranfil Catu b. Viruses were passaged...the following viruses was completed (liver was extracted in some cases): Virus Approximate volume (ml) Approximate volume Sucrose-acetone antigen...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Reagents were prepared for diagnosis by ELISA of 54 arthropod- borne viruses that cause human disease and are of potential

  17. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-20

    arboviruses and residual infectivity was inactivated with beta-propiolactone. An additional 10 viruses were passaged in mice and the mice vere stored...beta- propiolactone. An additional 10 viruses were passaged in mice and the mice were stored frozen awaiting sucrose-acetone extraction of the brains...35 314 VS-New Jersey Hazelhurst CEl8V4sml 1 58 422 Additionally, 10 viruses were passaged in baby mice awaiting preparation of antigen lots. These were

  18. Bioactive surfaces for antibody-antigen complex detection by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ierardi, Vincenzo; Ferrera, Francesca; Millo, Enrico; Damonte, Gianluca; Filaci, Gilberto; Valbusa, Ugo

    2013-06-01

    Recently there has been a great develop of new antibodies immobilization procedures, that keep antibodies to retain their orientation and functionality after the binding to a solid support. This allows the formation of immune-complexes useful for the detection of biomarkers from biological samples. We have developed a new method of functionalization for solid substrates that involves an initial surface activation, then a functionalization by means of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-followed by another functionalization step with a layer of very small peptides, which have a high affinity to the Antibody Fc portion, acting as antibody linkers. These antibody binding peptides can immobilize the antibodies with a proper configuration that allows an unambiguous detection of antibody-antigen complexes by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM can act as a powerful label free detection technique, which allows to detect, in principle, single molecule interactions, with the only limitation to use substrate with low-roughness surfaces; in this case, the roughness can be interpreted as background noise in the AFM analysis. Moreover, our functionalization method can be used to obtain bioactive surfaces on a wide range of solid supports, making them capable to suitably immobilize the antibodies for the antigenic binding.

  19. Masking of antigenic epitopes by antibodies shapes the humoral immune response to influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Ellebedy, Ali H.; Davis, Carl; Jacob, Joshy; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2015-01-01

    The immune responses to influenza, a virus that exhibits strain variation, show complex dynamics where prior immunity shapes the response to the subsequent infecting strains. Original antigenic sin (OAS) describes the observation that antibodies to the first encountered influenza strain, specifically antibodies to the epitopes on the head of influenza's main surface glycoprotein, haemagglutinin (HA), dominate following infection with new drifted strains. OAS suggests that responses to the original strain are preferentially boosted. Recent studies also show limited boosting of the antibodies to conserved epitopes on the stem of HA, which are attractive targets for a ‘universal vaccine’. We develop multi-epitope models to explore how pre-existing immunity modulates the immune response to new strains following immunization. Our models suggest that the masking of antigenic epitopes by antibodies may play an important role in describing the complex dynamics of OAS and limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA. Analysis of recently published data confirms model predictions for how pre-existing antibodies to an epitope on HA decrease the magnitude of boosting of the antibody response to this epitope following immunization. We explore strategies for boosting of antibodies to conserved epitopes and generating broadly protective immunity to multiple strains. PMID:26194761

  20. Immunological fingerprinting of group B streptococci: from circulating human antibodies to protective antigens.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Andreas L; Senn, Beatrice M; Visram, Zehra; Henics, Tamás Z; Minh, Duc Bui; Schüler, Wolfgang; Neubauer, Christina; Gelbmann, Dieter; Noiges, Birgit; Sinzinger, Jan; Hanner, Markus; Dewasthaly, Shailesh; Lundberg, Urban; Hordnes, Knut; Masoud, Helga; Sevelda, Paul; von Gabain, Alexander; Nagy, Eszter

    2010-10-08

    Group B streptococcus is one of the most important pathogens in neonates, and causes invasive infections in non-pregnant adults with underlying diseases. Applying a genomic approach that relies on human antibodies we identified antigenic GBS proteins, among them most of the previously published protective antigens. In vitro analyses allowed the selection of conserved candidate antigens that were further evaluated in murine lethal sepsis models using several GBS strains. In active and passive immunization models, we identified four protective GBS antigens, FbsA and BibA, as well as two hypothetical proteins, all shown to contribute to virulence based on gene deletion mutants. These protective antigens have the potential to be components of novel vaccines or targets for passive immune prophylaxis against GBS disease.

  1. Antibodies against Food Antigens in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Magistris, Laura; Picardi, Annarita; Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Cariello, Rita; Abbadessa, Salvatore; Medici, Nicola; Lammers, Karen M.; Schiraldi, Chiara; Iardino, Patrizia; Marotta, Rosa; Tolone, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio; Pascotto, Antonio; Bravaccio, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. Methods. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG), anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA)-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE); specific systemic antibodies: α-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG), deamidated–gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG), total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: α, β, γ, and ω), β-lactoglobulin IgG, α-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE, -lactoglobulin IgE, and α-lactalbumin IgE. Results. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Conclusions. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function. PMID:23984403

  2. Antibodies against food antigens in patients with autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    de Magistris, Laura; Picardi, Annarita; Siniscalco, Dario; Riccio, Maria Pia; Sapone, Anna; Cariello, Rita; Abbadessa, Salvatore; Medici, Nicola; Lammers, Karen M; Schiraldi, Chiara; Iardino, Patrizia; Marotta, Rosa; Tolone, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio; Pascotto, Antonio; Bravaccio, Carmela

    2013-01-01

    Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG), anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA)-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE); specific systemic antibodies: α-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG), deamidated-gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG), total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: α, β, γ, and ω), β-lactoglobulin IgG, α-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE,-lactoglobulin IgE, and α-lactalbumin IgE. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function.

  3. Prognostic Implications of Antibodies to Soluble Liver Antigen in Autoimmune Hepatitis: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Xian; Shao, Jian-Guo; Shen, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Hua, Yu; Wang, Lu-Jun; Qin, Gang

    2015-06-01

    Prognostic evaluation is important for the management of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Although some autoantibodies have been associated with disease activity and outcomes, the implication of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) remains controversial. To conduct a meta-analysis of observational studies which addressed differences in clinical characteristics by anti-SLA status in patients with AIH. Three databases PUBMED, EMBASE, and OVID were systemically searched up to January 2015 using the terms "soluble liver antigen" or "liver-pancreas antigen" and "autoimmune hepatitis" with restriction to English-language. Studies were included if at least 50 patients with objective diagnosis of AIH were enrolled, anti-SLA detection was performed for the patients, and prognostic outcomes and/or disease severity were reported. Two investigators independently reviewed retrieved literature and evaluated eligibility. Discrepancy was resolved by discussion and a third investigator. Quality of included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). Data were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effect models. Prognostic outcomes included death from hepatic failure or requirement for liver transplantation, and responses to immunosuppressive therapy regarding remission or relapse. Results were combined on the odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) scales. Eight studies were enrolled in this study, involving a total of 1297 AIH patients among whom 195 with anti-SLA. Pooled serum AST levels tended to be lower in anti-SLA seropositive patients. The presence of anti-SLA conferred 3.1-fold increased risk of hepatic death in AIH patients. The remission rates were comparable between anti-SLA seropositive and seronegative AIH patients, while anti-SLA positivity was associated with nearly 2-fold increased risk of relapse after drug withdrawal. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allotype DR3 was positively associated with anti

  4. Lymphocyte antigens targetable by monoclonal antibodies in non-systemic vasculitic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian; Wunderlich, Gilbert; Bleistein, Johannes; Fink, Gereon R; Deckert, Martina; Brunn, Anna; Lehmann, Helmar Christoph

    2017-09-01

    To identify the most relevant antigens for monoclonal antibodies in lymphocytic infiltrates in non-systemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN). Current immunosuppressive treatment for NSVN is insufficient. Monoclonal antibodies might be a treatment option, but the expression profile for targetable antigens on lymphocytic infiltrates in NSVN is unknown. Sural nerve biopsies from a cohort of patients with NSVN were immunohistochemically studied for the expression of potential candidate antigens in perivascular and intramural lymphocytic infiltrates and correlated with neurological and electrophysiological parameters. 20 patients with treatment naïve NSVN and 5 patients with idiopathic axonal neuropathy were included. The CD52, BAFF and CD49d antigens were expressed in epineurial, perivascular or intramural lymphocytes of all (20/20) patients. CD52 was most prominently expressed in 21.49% of all inflammatory infiltrates. BAFF and CD49d were detected in 11.25% and 10.99% of these lymphocytes, respectively. The CD20, CD25 and CD126 antigens were found less frequently and at low levels only (CD20: 10/20 patients, 5.84% of lymphocytes; CD25: 17/20 patients, 5.22% of lymphocytes; CD126: 3/20 patients, 0.15% of lymphocytes). This is the first study in NSVN that identifies antigens expressed by pathogenic lymphocytes, which are potential targets for future monoclonal antibody treatment. Our data suggest that NSVN is amenable to monoclonal antibodies and, moreover, that targeting CD52 may be particularly promising. Our results strongly warrant future clinical trials in NSVN with monoclonal antibodies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Detection of salivary antibodies to crude antigens of Opisthorchis viverrini in opisthorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Thuwajit, Chanitra; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2011-08-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini; known as human liver fluke) is a major health problem in the northeastern region of Thailand. Infection with O. viverrini is the cause of hepatobiliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Previous studies demonstrated specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens in serum from O. viverrini-infected patients. However, no studies have measured specific antibodies to O. viverrini antigens in saliva from patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA. The objective of the study was to detect specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens in saliva from patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA, and to evaluate their use for diagnosis of O. viverrini infection. Saliva samples from 23 control subjects, 30 opisthorchiasis patients, and 38 CCA patients were collected. ELISA was established for detection of salivary IgA and IgG to crude O. viverrini antigens. ANOVA was used to compare salivary IgA and IgG levels among groups. Salivary IgA to crude O. viverrini antigens in CCA patients was significantly higher than controls (p = 0.007). Salivary IgG in CCA patients was significantly higher than opisthorchiasis patients and controls (p = 0.010 and p < 0.001, respectively). The cut-off value from salivary IgG test demonstrated higher accuracy for positivity of O. viverrini infection than salivary IgA. In conclusion, specific antibodies to crude O. viverrini antigens were detected in saliva of patients with opisthorchiasis and CCA. Salivary antibodies reflect serum immune response to O. viverrini infection, and salivary IgG tends to be a good candidate for diagnosis of O. viverrini infection.

  6. Superposition-free comparison and clustering of antibody binding sites: implications for the prediction of the nature of their antigen

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzo, Lorenzo; Milanetti, Edoardo; Lepore, Rosalba; Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2017-01-01

    We describe here a superposition free method for comparing the surfaces of antibody binding sites based on the Zernike moments and show that they can be used to quickly compare and cluster sets of antibodies. The clusters provide information about the nature of the bound antigen that, when combined with a method for predicting the number of direct antibody antigen contacts, allows the discrimination between protein and non-protein binding antibodies with an accuracy of 76%. This is of relevance in several aspects of antibody science, for example to select the framework to be used for a combinatorial antibody library. PMID:28338016

  7. Superposition-free comparison and clustering of antibody binding sites: implications for the prediction of the nature of their antigen.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Lorenzo; Milanetti, Edoardo; Lepore, Rosalba; Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2017-03-24

    We describe here a superposition free method for comparing the surfaces of antibody binding sites based on the Zernike moments and show that they can be used to quickly compare and cluster sets of antibodies. The clusters provide information about the nature of the bound antigen that, when combined with a method for predicting the number of direct antibody antigen contacts, allows the discrimination between protein and non-protein binding antibodies with an accuracy of 76%. This is of relevance in several aspects of antibody science, for example to select the framework to be used for a combinatorial antibody library.

  8. Australia Antigen and Antibody in Transfused Children with Thalassaemia*

    PubMed Central

    Vierucci, A.; London, W. T.; Blumberg, B. S.; Sutnick, A. I.; Ragazzini, F.

    1972-01-01

    As a consequence of frequent transfusions, 10% of 169 Italian patients with thalassaemia developed Au(1) and 20% anti-Au(1). Au(1) persisted in the children in whom it was detected for the duration of the study (2-7 years) or until the patient died. Anti-Au(1) was less persistent. In these children, Au(1) or anti-Au(1) was detected, but not both, suggesting that patients with persistent Au(1) and antibody formers represent two distinct subgroups of the thalassaemia population. Au(1) was more common in males and in patients less than 7 years old, and was associated with earlier death; whereas antibody was more common in females, and in children older than 7 years, and was associated with longer survival. PMID:4628729

  9. Detection of serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and identification of related antigens in patients with vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M C; Liu, C G; Wang, D X; Zhan, Z

    2015-12-07

    We detected autoantibodies against melanocytes in serum samples obtained from 50 patients, including 4 with HBV, with vitiligo and identified the associated membrane antigens. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and anti-tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) antibody levels were analyzed. The associated antigens in normal human melanocyte were identified by immunofluorescence. Autoantibodies against melanocyte membrane and cytoplasmic proteins were detected by western blot. Membrane antigens with higher frequencies were identified by protein mass spectrometry. The HSP70 and anti-TRP-1 antibody levels (N = 70; 10 with HBV) were detected by ELISA. The specific antigens were detected in melanocyte cytoplasm and membrane (40/50; 80% incidence; western blot). The autoantibodies reacted with several membrane antigens with approximate molecular weights (Mr) of 86,000, 75,000, 60,000, 52,000, and 44,000 (strip positive rates: 36, 58, 22, 2, and 2%, respectively). Thirty percent of the patients showed the presence of cytoplasmic antigens (Mr: 110,000, 90,000, 75,000, 50,000, and 400,000; strip positive rates: 12, 4, 12, 10, and 2%, respectively). Fifteen and 5% of the healthy subjects showed positive expression of membrane and cytoplasmic antigens, respectively. Protein mass spectrometry predicted membrane proteins with Mr of 86,000 and 75,000 and 60,000 to be Lamin A /C and Vimentin X1, respective. High titers of anti-TRP-1 antibody were detected and showed positive correlation with HSP70 (r = 0. 927, P < 0. 01). This study identified a novel membrane antigen associated with vitiligo, which might assist future investigations into autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo and formation of autoantibodies. HBV infection was correlated to vitiligo.

  10. Invasion of erythrocytes in vitro by Plasmodium falciparum can be inhibited by monoclonal antibody directed against an S antigen.

    PubMed

    Saul, A; Cooper, J; Ingram, L; Anders, R F; Brown, G V

    1985-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody has been produced which binds to the heat stable S antigen present in the FCQ-27/PNG isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. This monoclonal antibody also inhibits the invasion in vitro of erythrocytes by malarial merozoites thus demonstrating that the S antigens of Plasmodium falciparum may be a target of protective immune responses.

  11. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-08

    were produced and standardized for use in the ELISA. Antigens were produced by sucrose- acetone extraction of suckling mouse brain for Oropouche ...RK-13 rabbit kidney cell line adapted tc grow in rabbit serun. Growth was obtained for Bunyamwera, Japanese encephalitis, Bwamba, Oropouche , Germiston...15537 sml3,Verol 8 183 Qalyub EgAr 370 sm4 8 163 Ross River AusT-48 strll 11 256 Oropouche TR 9760 sm7 11 241 Hazara JC 280 sml0 1 19 Bhanja IG 690 sm20

  12. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    PubMed

    Hart, Peter J; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Siggins, Matthew K; Bobat, Saeeda; Kingsley, Robert A; Goulding, David A; Crump, John A; Reyburn, Hugh; Micoli, Francesca; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  13. Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis: clinical-immunologic associations.

    PubMed

    Graus, F; Saiz, A; Lai, M; Bruna, J; López, F; Sabater, L; Blanco, Y; Rey, M J; Ribalta, T; Dalmau, J

    2008-09-16

    To report the frequency and type of antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (NSA-ab) in limbic encephalitis (LE). Analysis of clinical features, neuropathologic findings, and detection of NSA-ab using immunochemistry on rat tissue and neuronal cultures in a series of 45 patients with paraneoplastic (23) or idiopathic (22) LE. NSA-ab were identified in 29 patients (64%; 12 paraneoplastic, 17 idiopathic). Thirteen patients had voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-ab, 11 novel NSA (nNSA)-ab, and 5 NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-ab. nNSA-ab did not identify a common antigen and were more frequent in paraneoplastic than idiopathic LE (39% vs 9%; p = 0.03). When compared with VGKC-ab or NMDAR-ab, the nNSA associated more frequently with intraneuronal antibodies (11% vs 73%; p = 0.001). Of 12 patients (9 nNSA-ab, 2 VGKC-ab, 1 NMDAR-ab) with paraneoplastic LE and NSA-ab, concomitant intraneuronal antibodies occurred in 9 (75%). None of these 12 patients improved with immunotherapy. The autopsy of three of them showed neuronal loss, microgliosis, and cytotoxic T cell infiltrates in the hippocampus and amygdala. These findings were compatible with a T-cell mediated neuronal damage. In contrast, 13 of 17 (76%) patients with idiopathic LE and NSA-ab (8 VGKC-ab, 4 NMDAR-ab, 1 nNSA-ab) and 1 of 5 (20%) without antibodies had clinical improvement (p = 0.04). In paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), novel antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (nNSA-ab) occur frequently, coexist with antibodies against intracellular antigens, and these cases are refractory to immunotherapy. In idiopathic LE, the likelihood of improvement is significantly higher in patients with NSA-ab than in those without antibodies.

  14. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies recognize antigenic variants among isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.; Arakawa, C.N.; Lannan, C.N.; Fryer, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    eutralizing monoclonal antibodies were developed against strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from steelhead trout Salmo gairdneri in the Deschutes River of Oregon, chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Sacramento River of California, and rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri reared in the Hagerman Valley of Idaho, USA. These antibodies were tested for neutralization of 12 IHNV isolates obtained from salmonids in Japan, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Idaho. The antibodies recognized antigenic variants among the isolates and could be used to separate the viruses into 4 groups. The members of each group tended to be related by geographic area rather than by source host species, virulence, or date of isolation.

  15. Performance Assessment of Four Chimeric Trypanosoma cruzi Antigens Based on Antigen-Antibody Detection for Diagnosis of Chronic Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zanchin, Nilson Ivo Tonin; Brasil, Tatiana de Arruda Campos; Foti, Leonardo; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Silva, Edmilson Domingos; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Krieger, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The performance of serologic tests in chronic Chagas disease diagnosis largely depends on the type and quality of the antigen preparations that are used for detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. Whole-cell T. cruzi extracts or recombinant proteins have shown variation in the performance and cross-reactivity. Synthetic chimeric proteins comprising fragments of repetitive amino acids of several different proteins have been shown to improve assay performances to detect Chagasic infections. Here, we describe the production of four chimeric T. cruzi proteins and the assessment of their performance for diagnostic purposes. Circular Dichroism spectra indicated the absence of well-defined secondary structures, while polydispersity evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering revealed only minor aggregates in 50 mM carbonate-bicarbonate (pH 9.6), demonstrating that it is an appropriate buffering system for sensitizing microplates. Serum samples from T. cruzi-infected and non-infected individuals were used to assess the performance of these antigens for detecting antibodies against T. cruzi, using both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a liquid bead array platform. Performance parameters (AUC, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and J index) showed high diagnostic accuracy for all chimeric proteins for detection of specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies and differentiated seropositive individuals from those who were seronegative. Our data suggest that these four chimeric proteins are eligible for phase II studies. PMID:27517281

  16. CARbodies: Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Sánchez-Martín, David; Compte, Marta; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Diaz, Rosa M; Vile, Richard; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2013-01-01

    A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody library was expressed on the surface of human T cells after transduction with lentiviral vectors (LVs). The repertoire was fused to a first-generation T cell receptor ζ (TCRζ)-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We used this library to isolate antibodies termed CARbodies that recognize antigens expressed on the tumor cell surface in a proof-of-principle system. After three rounds of activation-selection there was a clear repertoire restriction, with the emergence dominant clones. The CARbodies were purified from bacterial cultures as soluble and active proteins. Furthermore, to validate its potential application for adoptive cell therapy, human T cells were transduced with a LV encoding a second-generation costimulatory CAR (CARv2) bearing the selected CARbodies. Transduced human primary T cells expressed significant levels of the CARbodies-based CARv2 fusion protein on the cell surface, and importantly could be specifically activated, after stimulation with tumor cells. This approach is a promising tool for the generation of antibodies fully adapted to the display format (CAR) and the selection context (cell synapse), which could extend the scope of current adoptive cell therapy strategies with CAR-redirected T cells. PMID:23695536

  17. DNA extraction for short tandem repeat typing from mixed samples using anti-human leukocyte CD45 and ABO blood group antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shizue; Honda, Katsuya; Kaminiwa, Junko; Nishi, Takeki; Iwabuchi, Yayoi; Sugano, Yukiko; Kurosu, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    DNA testing from mixed cell samples can be difficult to use successfully in criminal investigations. Here, we present a method for the extraction of DNA from mixed bloodstains involving plural contributors, after antibody-microbead captured cell separation. This method, together with the multiplex short tandem repeat typing presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles corresponding to the ABO blood type. Methodological steps include magnetic separation using leukocyte specific CD45 antibody-coated microbeads and centrifugal separation of leukocyte agglutination by ABO antibody. The detection results of variable mixed ratio showed that the target DNA was detected accurately as low as 1:512 mixed ratio, regardless of the large amount of the background DNA present. The method presented here is applicable to PCR-based identification for various kinds of mixed samples.

  18. Western blot analysis of antibody response to pneumococcal protein antigens in a murine model of pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Mouneimne, H; Juvin, M; Beretti, J L; Azoulay-Dupuis, E; Vallee, E; Geslin, P; Petitpretz, P; Berche, P; Gaillard, J L

    1997-01-01

    To detect new antigen candidates for serological tests, we studied the antibody response to pneumococcal protein antigens in mice infected intratracheally with various Streptococcus pneumoniae strains. Sera were tested by Western blotting against whole-cell protein extracts. Mice developed a detectable immunoglobulin G-type response against a small number of polypeptides. The antibody response was strain dependent: sera from individuals infected with the same strain gave similar banding patterns on immunoblots. The banding patterns varied with the strain used for infection. However, a band at 36 to 38 kDa was recognized by all reactive sera. This band appeared to correspond to a polypeptide that was antigenically well conserved among the different S. pneumoniae serotypes. An antibody response to this antigen developed in mice irrespective of the capsular type, the virulence, and the susceptibility to penicillin G of the infecting strain. Thus, this 36- to 38-kDa protein antigen may be of value for the development of a serological test for humans. PMID:9384307

  19. Preferential synthesis of asymmetric antibodies in rats immunized with paternal particulate antigens. Effect on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gentile, T; Borel, I M; Angelucci, J; Miranda, S; Margni, R A

    1992-08-01

    The effect of immunization of female Fischer rats with particulate (spleen cells) (group I) or soluble (supernatant of disintegrated spleen cells) (group II) paternal antigens previous to mating with Buffalo rats was investigated. The percentage of asymmetric IgG molecules in the serum of rats inoculated with particulate antigens was 38% while in those injected with soluble antigens it was 29% and 28% in non-immunized animals. These percentages further increased during pregnancy to 45%, 38% and 37%, respectively. The antipaternal antibody titres, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), was much higher in the animals immunized with particulate antigens but the effector activity, judged by complement fixation, was similar in both groups. The same values were observed at the time of mating (after 3 months of immunization) and at day 17 of pregnancy. Fetus and placenta weights and offspring survival were equally greater in group I than in group II or non-immunized rats (group III). The results obtained indicate the preferential synthesis of antipaternal IgG asymmetric antibodies in rats injected with particulate antigens previous to mating and suggests a beneficial effect of these antibodies in pregnancy.

  20. Kinetic analysis of monoclonal antibody-antigen interactions with a new biosensor based analytical system.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, R; Michaelsson, A; Mattsson, L

    1991-12-15

    An automated biosensor system for measuring molecular interactions has been used to study the kinetics of monoclonal antibody-antigen reactions. The system combines a microfluidic unit in contact with a sensor surface for surface plasmon resonance detection. The specificity of the surface is determined by the operator. Antibody or antigen is immobilised in a dextran matrix attached to the sensor surface. The interaction of matrix bound antibody or antigen with the corresponding partner in solution is monitored in real time. None of the interacting molecules needs to be labelled and it is not necessary to determine the concentration of the the matrix bound component in advance. Two systems were studied: matrix bound monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) interacting with HIV-1 core protein p24 and immobilised aminotheophylline reacting with MAbs. Control of the amount of immobilised ligand and reusable sensor surfaces permits the comparison of different MAbs reacting with antigen under almost identical conditions. Differences in affinity and reaction rates are immediately apparent. The calculated association rate constants for p24 MAbs ranged from 3 x 10(4) - 7.4 x 10(5) M-1 s-1 and for theophylline MAbs association rate constants as high as 1 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 were encountered. The calculated dissociation rate constants were in the region 2 x 10(-4) s-1 to 2 x 10(-2) s-1.

  1. MONITORING ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTIONS AT CONDUCTING POLYMER-BASED IMMUNOSENSORS USING IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The mechanisms of antibody¯antigen (Ab¯Ag) interactions at conducting polypyrrole electrodes have been investigated using impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of the variation in ion exchange, solution composition, and...

  2. Noncovalent mass spectrometry for the characterization of antibody/antigen complexes.

    PubMed

    Atmanene, Cédric; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Beck, Alain; Sanglier-Cianférani, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have taken on an increasing importance for the treatment of various diseases including cancers, immunological disorders, and other pathologies. These large biomolecules display specific structural features, which affect their efficiency and need therefore to be extensively characterized using sensitive and orthogonal analytical techniques. Among them, mass spectrometry (MS) has become the method of choice to study mAb amino acid sequences as well as their posttranslational modifications with the aim of reducing their chemistry, manufacturing, and control liabilities. This chapter will provide the reader with a description of the general approach allowing antibody/antigen systems to be characterized by noncovalent MS. In the present chapter, we describe how recent noncovalent MS technologies are used to characterize immune complexes involving both murine and humanized mAb 6F4 directed against human JAM-A, a newly identified antigenic protein (Ag) over-expressed in tumor cells. We will detail experimental conditions (sample preparation, optimization of instrumental parameters, etc.) required for the detection of noncovalent antibody/antigen complexes by MS. We will then focus on the type and the reliability of the information that we get from noncovalent MS data, with emphasis on the determination of the stoichiometry of antibody/antigen systems. Noncovalent MS appears as an additional supporting technique for therapeutic mAbs lead characterization and development.

  3. Immunoaffinity fractionation of Schistosoma mansoni worm antigens using human antibodies and its application for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Boctor, F N; Shaheen, H I

    1986-01-01

    A crude Schistosoma mansoni soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) was fractionated using an immunoaffinity column consisting of specific human anti-SWAP antibodies obtained from chronic S. mansoni-infected human sera and bound to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. The chromatographic separation resulted in three fractions: the unbound material (FW), and the eluted antigens with glycine-HCl (F1) and glycine-HCl-NaCl (F2). Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that the purified antigens F1 and F2 consisted of several bands when stained with Coomassie blue and silver stain, with molecular weights between 20 X 10(3) and 200 X 10(3). The F1 and F2 fractions in addition to FW and SWAP were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure antibody levels in sera from schistosomiasis patients. Each individual serum assessed with the purified F2 antigen gave 100% positivity and three to four times higher optical density in comparison to SWAP with only 88% positivity. No detectable cross-reactive antibodies against F2 were found when a limited number of sera from filariasis, fascioliasis and trichinellosis patients were screened. Furthermore, F2 was also used and found to be more sensitive generally in detecting anti-adult worm antibodies than SWAP in recently schistosomiasis-infected persons. Thus, F2 appears to be a highly sensitive and specific reagent for the serodiagnosis of schistosomiasis infection. Images Figure 3 Figure 7 PMID:3082749

  4. MONITORING ANTIBODY-ANTIGEN REACTIONS AT CONDUCTING POLYMER-BASED IMMUNOSENSORS USING IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The mechanisms of antibody¯antigen (Ab¯Ag) interactions at conducting polypyrrole electrodes have been investigated using impedance spectroscopy techniques. The effects of the variation in ion exchange, solution composition, and...

  5. Murine Monoclonal Antibodies for Antigenic Discrimination of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sealy, Robert E.; Jones, Bart G.; Surman, Sherri L.; Branum, Kristen; Howlett, Nanna M.; Flynn, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the influenza virus field, antibody reagents from research animals have been instrumental in the characterization of antigenically distinct hemagglutinin and neuraminidase membrane molecules. These small animal reagents continue to support the selection of components for inclusion in human influenza virus vaccines. Other cocktail vaccines against variant pathogens (e.g., polio virus, pneumococcus) are similarly designed to represent variant antigens, as defined by antibody reactivity patterns. However, a vaccine cocktail comprising diverse viral membrane antigens defined in this way has not yet been advanced to a clinical efficacy study in the HIV-1 field. In this study, we describe the preparation of mouse antibodies specific for HIV-1 gp140 or gp120 envelope molecules. Our experiments generated renewable reagents able to discriminate HIV-1 envelopes from one another. Monoclonals yielded more precise discriminatory capacity against their respective immunogens than did a small panel of polyclonal human sera derived from recently HIV-1-infected patients. Perhaps these and other