Sample records for leukocytosis

  1. Pertussis leukocytosis: mechanisms, clinical relevance and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetti, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    The significant and sometimes dramatic rise in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytosis) in infants suffering from pertussis (whooping cough) has been recognized for over a century. Although pertussis is a disease that afflicts people of all ages, it can be particularly severe in young infants, and these are the individuals in whom leukocytosis is most pronounced. Very high levels of leukocytosis are associated with poor outcome in infants hospitalized with pertussis and modern treatments are often aimed at reducing the number of leukocytes. Pertussis leukocytosis is caused by pertussis toxin, a soluble protein toxin released by Bordetella pertussis during infection, but the exact mechanisms by which this occurs are still unclear. In this minireview, I discuss the history of clinical and experimental findings on pertussis leukocytosis, possible contributing mechanisms causing this condition and treatments aimed at reducing leukocytosis in hospitalized infants. Since recent studies have detailed significant associations between specific levels of pertussis leukocytosis and fatal outcome, this is a timely review that may stimulate new thinking on how to understand and combat this problem. PMID:27609461

  2. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia predicts outcome in anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Schernberg, Antoine; Escande, Alexandre; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Ducreux, Michel; Nguyen, France; Goere, Diane; Chargari, Cyrus; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Leukocytosis and neutrophilia could be the tip of the iceberg in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. We aimed to validate their prognostic significance in a cohort of patients treated with definitive chemoradiation for anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Clinical records from all consecutive patients treated in a single institution between 2006 and 2016 with curative-intent radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia, defined as leukocyte or neutrophil count over 10,000 and 7500/mm 3 , respectively, were studied in terms of overall survival (OS), progression (PFS), locoregional (LFS) and distant (DFS)-free survival. We identified 103 non-metastatic HIV-negative patients, with concurrent chemotherapy use in 78%. Twelve and 8% displayed baseline leukocytosis and neutrophilia, respectively. Estimated 3-year OS and PFS were 88% and 67%, respectively. In univariate analysis, both leukocytosis and neutrophilia were strongly associated with inferior OS, PFS, LFS and DFS (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, leukocytosis and neutrophilia remained strongly associated with patient outcome (p<0.01), independently from tumor T and N-stage. Anemia was an independent predictor of worse OS and PFS, while chemoradiation overall treatment time below 50days improved PFS. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia are strong prognostic factors for OS, PFS, LFS and DFS in anal cancer treated with chemoradiation. These biomarkers could help identify patients with higher risk of tumor relapse that require treatment intensification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Baseline peripheral blood leukocytosis: Biological marker predicts outcome in oropharyngeal cancer, regardless of HPV-status.

    PubMed

    Gouw, Zeno A R; Paul de Boer, Jan; Navran, Arash; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim

    2018-03-01

    To study the prognostic value of abnormalities in baseline complete blood count in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) treated with (chemo) radiation. The prognostic value of baseline complete blood count on outcome in 234 patients with OPC treated between 2010 and 2015 was examined in multivariate analysis together with other conventional prognostic variables including HPV-status, tumor stage, tumor and nodal size. The 3-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant control (DC) of the whole group were 74%, 64%, 79%, and 88%, respectively. Leukocytosis and HPV-status were the only significant prognosticators for OS and DFS at the multivariate analysis. Patients without leukocytosis had a significantly better DC compared to those with leukocytosis (92% and 70%, respectively, p < 0.001). Patients with HPV-negative OPC had significantly worse LRC compared to HPV-positive patients (67% and 90%, respectively, p < 0.001). The 3-year OS in HPV-positive group with leukocytosis compared to those without leukocytosis were 69% and 95%, respectively (p < 0.001). The figures for HPV-negative patients were 41% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.010). This is the first study to date reporting the independent impact of leukocytosis and HPV-status on outcome of patients with OPC. The poor outcome of patients with leukocytosis is mainly caused by the worse DC. The significant impact of leukocytosis on outcome was even more pronounced in HPV-positive patients. These biomarkers could help identifying patients with poor prognosis at baseline requiring intensification of local and/or systemic treatment while treatment de-intensification might be offered to the low-risk group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and properties of the leukocytosis- and lymphocytosis- promoting factor of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The leukocytosis- and lymphocytosis-promoting factor (LPF) of Bordetella pertussis has been isolated to near homogeneity by physical, chemical, and electron microscopical criteria. LPF contains 14.5% nitrogen and is lipid and carbohydrate free. It is apparently composed of four polypeptide subunits. LPF caused leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in "nude" as well as in normal mice. In addition, purified LPF also induced histamine sensitization and hypoglycemia and refractoriness to the hyperglycemic effect of epinephrine. A monospecific LPF antiserum blocked these reactions as well as leukocytosis and lymphocytosis. LPF is clearly distinct from the hemagglutinating pili of B. pertussis. PMID:58054

  5. F3. A CASE OF LEUKOCYTOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH CLOZAPINE TREATMENT FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-Kyu; Bahk, Won-Myong; Kwon, Young Joon; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Jon, Duk-In; Park, Sung-Yong; Lim, Eunsung

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug with therapeutic efficacy through serotonin-dopamine antagonism. It has been used for the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia and reducing the risk of suicidal behavior. In addition to agranulocytosis and leukopenia, clozapine has also been reported to be associated with other types of blood dyscrasias, including leukocytosis. We wish to report a case of leukocytosis associated with clozapine treatment in a patient of chronic schizophrenia. Methods Our patient is a 48-year-old woman with a diagnosis of schizophrenia since the age of 22. She has a history of numerous hospitalizations and substantial treatment with conservative antipsychotics. We evaluated her medical and psychiatric history as well as mental status. Then We assumed that she might have treatment-resistant schizophrenia and accordingly commenced treatment with clozapine. At the time of admission, her WBC count was 8.01 × 109/L and ANC was 5110. Clozapine was started at 3rd hospital day. We stopped aripiprazole and gradually increased clozapine. Only 2mg of lorazepam was used in combination with clozapine. Remission was achieved with 450 mg/day of clozapine. WBC on the 1st day of treatment was 12.41 × 109/L (ANC; 9481) and clozapine was 300mg/day. WBC on the 18th day of treatment was 15.32 × 109/L (ANC; 12501), and at that time, her clozapine dosage was 450mg/day. At this point, her vital sign was within normal range and physical examination did not showed any infectious signs. On the 25th day of treatment, WBC count was 22.1 × 109/L and ANC was 17680. However, no general medical condition to explain the leukocytosis was found. We concluded that her leukocytosis was linked to clozapine, and decided to taper out clozapine despite there being no medical contraindication. After two weeks from starting blonanserin and olanzapine, WBC count normalized. Fortunately, despite replacing the medication, the remission was maintained

  6. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia predict outcome in locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Schernberg, Antoine; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Del Campo, Eleonor Rivin; Escande, Alexandre; Ducreux, Michel; Nguyen, France; Goere, Diane; Chargari, Cyrus; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the prognostic value of leukocyte and neutrophil count as biomarkers in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) undergoing exclusive chemoradiation. Results A total of 126 patients were identified. Respectively, 33% and 35% displayed baseline leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Estimated 3-year OS and PFS from chemoradiation completion were 31% and 25%, respectively. In univariate analysis, both leukocytosis and neutrophilia were associated with worse OS, PFS, and LRC (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, leukocytosis remained an independent risk factor associated with poorer OS, PFS and LRC (p < 0.05), independently from tumor stage and length, with higher prognostic value for OS compared with patients’ performance status (PS). Materials and Methods Bi-institutional clinical records from consecutive non-operable patients treated between 2003 and 2015 with definitive chemoradiation for locally advanced esophageal carcinoma were reviewed. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia were defined as a leukocyte or neutrophil count over 10 G/L and 7 G/L, respectively. These parameters were studied for their potential correlation with overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), locoregional control (LRC) and distant metastases control (DMC). Conclusions Leukocytosis and neutrophilia were independent prognostic factors of poor OS, PFS, and LRC in this bi-institutional series of locally advanced esophageal SCC treated with definitive chemoradiation. Although prospective confirmation is warranted, it is suggested that the leukocyte and neutrophil count parameters might be clinically relevant biomarkers to be considered for further clinical investigations. PMID:28086222

  7. External validation of leukocytosis and neutrophilia as a prognostic marker in anal carcinoma treated with definitive chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Schernberg, Antoine; Huguet, Florence; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Chargari, Cyrus; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Schlienger, Michel; Escande, Alexandre; Touboul, Emmanuel; Deutsch, Eric

    2017-07-01

    To validate the prognostic value of leukocyte disorders in anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients receiving definitive concurrent chemoradiation. Bi-institutional clinical records from consecutive patients treated between 2001 and 2015 with definitive chemoradiation for anal SCC were retrospectively reviewed. Prognostic value of pretreatment leukocyte disorders was examined, with focus on patterns of relapse and survival. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia were defined as leukocyte or neutrophil count exceeding 10G/L and 7G/L, respectively. We identified 133 patients, treated in two institutions. Eight% and 7% displayed baseline leukocytosis and neutrophilia, respectively. Estimated 3-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 88% and 77%, respectively. In univariate analysis, both leukocytosis and neutrophilia were associated with worse OS, PFS (p<0.01), locoregional control (LRC) and Distant Metastasis Control (DMC) (p<0.05), also after stratification by each institution. In multivariate analysis, leukocytosis and neutrophilia remained as independent risk factors associated with poorer OS, PFS, LRC and DMC (p<0.05). This study validates leukocytosis and neutrophilia as independent prognostic factors in anal SCC patients treated with definitive chemoradiation. Although prospective confirmation is warranted, it is suggested that the leukocyte and neutrophil count parameters are clinically relevant biomarkers to be considered for further clinical investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Leukocytosis due to markedly elevated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels in a patient with endometrial cancer: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leslie H; Moll, Stephan; Houghton, Damon; O'Connor, Siohban; Soper, John T

    2017-05-01

    •Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) secretion by gynecologic tumors is rare.•Elevations in serum GCSF can be seen in the absence of tumor GSCF secretion.•Extreme leukocytosis is associated with autocrine tumor growth and poor prognosis.

  9. Panic-attack-induced transient leukocytosis in a healthy male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Joseph W; Griffeth, Benjamin; Sapra, Mamta; Singh, Karamjit; Giugale, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The lifetime prevalence of panic attacks is 28.3% in American adults 18 years and older. The age of onset of panic attack extends throughout adulthood; however, it typically develops in early adulthood, with median age of onset of 22 years [Kessler R.C., Chiu W.T., Jin R., Ruscio A.M., Shear K., Walters E.E. The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;63(4):415-24.]. As reported in our case, panic attacks could induce transient leukocytosis in healthy adults. If practitioners recognize this association, expensive investigations and extensive hospital stays may be prevented, although prudent practice would likely still require some type of investigations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaplastic transformation of follicular thyroid carcinoma in a metastatic skeletal lesion presenting with paraneoplastic leukocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Robert; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Susa, Michiro; Hosaka, Seiichi; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kameyama, Kaori; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yabe, Hiroo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Morioka, Hideo

    2012-02-01

    Anaplastic transformation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a rare event with a poor clinical outcome. It usually occurs in the primary site or in regional lymph nodes, but rarely in distant metastatic lesions. A 55-year-old woman with persistent pain in the left hip joint visited our hospital. She had a history of DTC that had been surgically removed 12 years earlier. Clinical images showed a tumorous mass in the left pelvis, indicative of bone metastasis. The patient underwent surgery to remove the tumor and remained stable until local recurrence was found 5 weeks after the surgery. The patient subsequently underwent radiation therapy; however, she died of respiratory failure due to lung metastases 2 months after the surgery for the recurrent lesion. The surgical specimens were diagnosed as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, indicating that anaplastic transformation of thyroid follicular carcinoma occurred in the metastatic skeletal lesion. In addition, the patient had an unusually high white blood cell count throughout the course. Based on elevated serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels and positive immunostaining for G-CSF in the surgical specimens, the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic leukocytosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of anaplastic transformation of DTC arising in a metastatic bone lesion described in the literature. In addition, the present case also exhibited severe leukocytosis accompanied by elevated serum G-CSF levels. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of this occurring in their patients with DTC, as this development calls for a rapid change from observational follow-up to aggressive treatment.

  11. Leukocytosis and natural killer cell function parallel neurobehavioral fatigue induced by 64 hours of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Dinges, D F; Douglas, S D; Zaugg, L; Campbell, D E; McMann, J M; Whitehouse, W G; Orne, E C; Kapoor, S C; Icaza, E; Orne, M T

    1994-05-01

    The hypothesis that sleep deprivation depresses immune function was tested in 20 adults, selected on the basis of their normal blood chemistry, monitored in a laboratory for 7 d, and kept awake for 64 h. At 2200 h each day measurements were taken of total leukocytes (WBC), monocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes (RBC), B and T lymphocyte subsets, activated T cells, and natural killer (NK) subpopulations (CD56/CD8 dual-positive cells, CD16-positive cells, CD57-positive cells). Functional tests included NK cytotoxicity, lymphocyte stimulation with mitogens, and DNA analysis of cell cycle. Sleep loss was associated with leukocytosis and increased NK cell activity. At the maximum sleep deprivation, increases were observed in counts of WBC, granulocytes, monocytes, NK activity, and the proportion of lymphocytes in the S phase of the cell cycle. Changes in monocyte counts correlated with changes in other immune parameters. Counts of CD4, CD16, CD56, and CD57 lymphocytes declined after one night without sleep, whereas CD56 and CD57 counts increased after two nights. No changes were observed in other lymphocyte counts, in proliferative responses to mitogens, or in plasma levels of cortisol or adrenocorticotropin hormone. The physiologic leukocytosis and NK activity increases during deprivation were eliminated by recovery sleep in a manner parallel to neurobehavioral function, suggesting that the immune alterations may be associated with biological pressure for sleep.

  12. Leukocytosis and natural killer cell function parallel neurobehavioral fatigue induced by 64 hours of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, D F; Douglas, S D; Zaugg, L; Campbell, D E; McMann, J M; Whitehouse, W G; Orne, E C; Kapoor, S C; Icaza, E; Orne, M T

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that sleep deprivation depresses immune function was tested in 20 adults, selected on the basis of their normal blood chemistry, monitored in a laboratory for 7 d, and kept awake for 64 h. At 2200 h each day measurements were taken of total leukocytes (WBC), monocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes (RBC), B and T lymphocyte subsets, activated T cells, and natural killer (NK) subpopulations (CD56/CD8 dual-positive cells, CD16-positive cells, CD57-positive cells). Functional tests included NK cytotoxicity, lymphocyte stimulation with mitogens, and DNA analysis of cell cycle. Sleep loss was associated with leukocytosis and increased NK cell activity. At the maximum sleep deprivation, increases were observed in counts of WBC, granulocytes, monocytes, NK activity, and the proportion of lymphocytes in the S phase of the cell cycle. Changes in monocyte counts correlated with changes in other immune parameters. Counts of CD4, CD16, CD56, and CD57 lymphocytes declined after one night without sleep, whereas CD56 and CD57 counts increased after two nights. No changes were observed in other lymphocyte counts, in proliferative responses to mitogens, or in plasma levels of cortisol or adrenocorticotropin hormone. The physiologic leukocytosis and NK activity increases during deprivation were eliminated by recovery sleep in a manner parallel to neurobehavioral function, suggesting that the immune alterations may be associated with biological pressure for sleep. PMID:7910171

  13. A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck producing granulocyte-colony stimulating factor with marked leukocytosis.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Minoru; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki; Sakakura, Koichi; Fukuda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Katsumasa; Miyashita, Motoaki; Shimamura, Kazuo; Furuya, Nobuhiko

    2007-06-01

    In squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), tumor cells have been shown to secrete detectable amounts of various cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. These tumor-derived factors might be responsible for promoting malignancy. Here, we describe a SCCHN patient with tumor produced G-CSF and characterized by marked leukocytosis. In this 45-year-old man, severe leukocytosis developed in parallel with aggressive tumor growth. G-CSF production by the tumor was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Serum G-CSF levels were elevated. The leukocyte counts and the blood G-CSF level decreased following a course of radiotherapy. Tumor cells were also positive for G-CSF receptor, suggesting autocrine growth regulation by G-CSF. Moreover, the tumor cells were also investigated by IHC with anti-p53, anti-P-glycoprotein (P-gp), anti-thymidylate synthase (TS), and anti-dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), which molecules are thought to contribute the acquisition of therapeutic resistance. The tumor cells were positively stained for TS and DPD, but neither p53 nor P-gp. These results suggest that a variety of molecules may be responsible for acquisition of high malignancy.

  14. The association of JAK2V617F mutation and leukocytosis with thrombotic events in essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Yang, Ming-Yu; Liu, Yi-Chang; Lee, Ching-Ping; Yang, Wen-Chi; Liu, Ta-Chih; Chang, Chao-Sung; Lin, Sheng-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The Janus kinase 2 mutation, JAK2 (V617F), and megakaryocytic mutations, MPL (W515L/K), have been identified and correlated with a subtype of essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients. We investigated the frequency of mutations in ET patients and analyzed the relationship with their clinical features. Fifty-three ET patients were enrolled in the study. The amplification refractory mutation system was applied for the mutation survey of the JAK2V617F, while the polymerase chain reaction with sequencing was used for the mutation survey of MPLW515L/K. Thirty-five (66%) patients harboring the JAK2 (V617F) mutation, including 3 homozygous and 32 heterozygous changes, but no MPLW515L/K mutation, were found. During follow-up, 17 (32.1%) patients suffered from documented thrombotic events, with 15 having JAK2V617F mutations. Statistical analysis showed that patients with the JAK2 mutation had significantly higher leukocytes, hemoglobin level, and thrombotic event (p = 0.043, p = 0.001, and p = 0.029, respectively). Thrombotic events were also significantly correlated with leukocytosis and older age. The JAK2V617F mutation was noted in a certain population of ET patients and correlated with leukocytosis, high hemoglobin level, and thrombosis. Therefore, detection of the JAK2V617F mutation can affect not only the diagnosis, but also the management of ET patients.

  15. Leukocytosis is a risk factor for recurrent arterial thrombosis in young patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, Valerio; Za, Tommaso; Rossi, Elena; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Ruggeri, Marco; Elli, Elena; Micò, Caterina; Tieghi, Alessia; Cacciola, Rossella R; Santoro, Cristina; Gerli, Giancarla; Guglielmelli, Paola; Pieri, Lisa; Scognamiglio, Francesca; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Pogliani, Enrico M; Finazzi, Guido; Gugliotta, Luigi; Leone, Giuseppe; Barbui, Tiziano

    2010-02-01

    There is evidence that leukocytosis is associated with an increased risk of first thrombosis in patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). Whether it is a risk factor for recurrent thrombosis too is currently unknown. In the frame of a multicenter retrospective cohort study, we recruited 253 patients with PV (n = 133) or ET (n = 120), who were selected on the basis of a first arterial (70%) or venous major thrombosis (27.6%) or both (2.4%), and who were not receiving cytoreduction at the time of thrombosis. The probability of recurrent thrombosis associated with the leukocyte count recorded at the time of the first thrombosis was estimated by a receiver operating characteristic analysis and a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. Thrombosis recurred in 78 patients (30.7%); multivariable analysis showed an independent risk of arterial recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 95% CI 1.12-4.18) in patients with a leukocyte count that was >12.4 x 10(9)/L at the time of the first thrombotic episode. The prognostic role for leukocytosis was age-related, as it was only significant in patients that were aged <60 years (HR for arterial recurrence 3.35, 95% CI 1.22-9.19).

  16. Intradermal air pouch leukocytosis as an in vivo test for nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vandooren, Jennifer; Berghmans, Nele; Dillen, Chris; Van Aelst, Ilse; Ronsse, Isabelle; Israel, Liron Limor; Rosenberger, Ina; Kreuter, Jörg; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Michaeli, Shulamit; Locatelli, Erica; Franchini, Mauro Comes; Aiertza, Miren K; Sánchez-Abella, Laura; Loinaz, Iraida; Edwards, Dylan R; Shenkman, Louis; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    The need for test systems for nanoparticle biocompatibility, toxicity, and inflammatory or adaptive immunological responses is paramount. Nanoparticles should be free of microbiological and chemical contaminants, and devoid of toxicity. Nevertheless, in the absence of contamination, these particles may still induce undesired immunological effects in vivo, such as enhanced autoimmunity, hypersensitivity reactions, and fibrosis. Here we show that artificial particles of specific sizes affect immune cell recruitment as tested in a dermal air pouch model in mice. In addition, we demonstrate that the composition of nanoparticles may influence immune cell recruitment in vivo. Aside from biophysical characterizations in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, concentration, and atomic concentration of metals, we show that – after first-line in vitro assays – characterization of cellular and molecular effects by dermal air pouch analysis is straightforward and should be included in the quality control of nanoparticles. We demonstrate this for innate immunological effects such as neutrophil recruitment and the production of immune-modulating matrix metalloproteases such as MMP-9; we propose the use of air pouch leukocytosis analysis as a future standard assay. PMID:24379662

  17. Cardioprotective mIGF-1/SIRT1 signaling induces hypertension, leukocytosis and fear response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bolasco, Giulia; Calogero, Raffaele; Carrara, Matteo; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Bilbao, Daniel; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2012-01-01

    Locally acting insulin growth factor isoform (mIGF-1) and the NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 are implicated in life and health span. Heart failure is associated with aging and is a major cause of death. mIGF-1 protects the heart from oxidative stresses via SIRT1. SIRT1 subcellular localization and its genomic regulation by mIGF-1 are unknown. We show here that SIRT1 is located in the nuclei of a significant fraction of cardiomyocytes. Using high throughput sequencing approaches in mIGF-1 transgenic mice, we identified new targets of the mIGF-1/SIRT1 signaling. In addition to its potent cardioprotective properties, cardiac-restricted mIGF-1 transgene induced systemic changes such as high blood pressure, leukocytosis and an enhanced fear response, in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Cardiac mIGF-1/SIRT1 signaling may thus modulate disparate systemic functions. PMID:22691943

  18. LPS-induced microvascular leukocytosis can be assessed by blue-field entoptic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Kolodjaschna, Julia; Berisha, Fatmire; Lung, Solveig; Schaller, Georg; Polska, Elzbieta; Jilma, Bernd; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2004-08-01

    Administration of low doses of Escherichia coli endotoxin [a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] to humans enables the study of inflammatory mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the blue-field entoptic technique may be used to quantify the increase in circulating leukocytes in the ocular microvasculature after LPS infusion. In addition, combined laser Doppler velocimetry and retinal vessel size measurement were used to study red blood cell movement. Twelve healthy male volunteers received 20 IU/kg iv LPS as a bolus infusion. Outcome parameters were measured at baseline and 4 h after LPS administration. In the first protocol (n = 6 subjects), ocular hemodynamic effects were assessed with the blue-field entoptic technique, the retinal vessel analyzer, and laser Doppler velocimetry. In the second protocol (n = 6 subjects), white blood cell (WBC) counts from peripheral blood samples and blue-field entoptic technique measurements were performed. LPS caused peripheral blood leukocytosis and increased WBC density in ocular microvessels (by 49%; P = 0.036) but did not change WBC velocity. In addition, retinal venous diameter was increased (by 9%; P = 0.008), but red blood cell velocity remained unchanged. The LPS-induced changes in retinal WBC density and leukocyte counts were significantly correlated (r = 0.87). The present study indicates that the blue-field entoptic technique can be used to assess microvascular leukocyte recruitment in vivo. In addition, our data indicate retinal venous dilation in response to endotoxin.

  19. Anemia, leukocytosis and eosinophilia in a resource-poor population with helmintho-ectoparasitic coinfection.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Daniel; Heukelbach, Jörg; Diederichs, Alexander; Schlosser, Beate; Pereira Leite Costa Araújo, Cinthya; Keysers, Anne; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2011-04-26

    Eosinophilia and anemia are very common hematological alterations in the tropics but population-based studies scrutinizing their value for diagnosing parasitic infections are rare. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in northeast Brazil where parasitic infections are common. Stool and blood samples were collected and individuals were clinically examined for the presence of ectoparasites. In total, 874 individuals were examined. Infection with intestinal helminths occurred in 70% (95% CI 67 - 75), infestation with ectoparasites in 45% (95% CI 42 - 49) and co-infection with both helminths and ectoparasites was found in 33% (95% CI 29% - 36%) of all inhabitants. Eosinophil counts ranged from 40/µl to 13.800/µl (median: 900/µl). Haemoglobin levels ranged from 4.8 g/dl to 16.8 g/dl (median: 12.5 g/dl), and anemia was present in 24% of the participants. Leukocytosis was found in 13%, eosinophilia in 74%, and hypereosinophilia in 44% of the participants. Eosinophilia was more pronounced in individuals co-infected with intestinal helminths and ectoparasites (p < 0.001) and correctly predicted parasitic infection in 87% (95% CI 84%-90.7%) of all cases. Eosinophilia is strongly associated with the presence of intestinal helminthiases and accentuated by co-infestation with ectoparasites. Our study confirms in a population with high prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and ectoparasites that eosinophilia can be used to accurately diagnose current parasitic infection and initiate treatment.

  20. Hypotension, bedridden, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and elevated serum creatinine predict mortality in geriatric patients with fever.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Hsien; Chu, Feng-Yuan; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Guo, How-Ran; Vong, Si-Chon; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2015-07-01

    The geriatric population (aged ≥65 years) accounts for 12-24% of all emergency department (ED) visits. Of them, 10% have a fever, 70-90% will be admitted and 7-10% of will die within a month. Therefore, mortality prediction and appropriate disposition after ED treatment are of great concern for geriatric patients with fever. We tried to identify independent mortality predictors of geriatric patients with fever, and combine these predictors to predict their mortality. We enrolled consecutive geriatric patients visiting the ED between 1 June and 21 July 2010 with the following criteria of fever: a tympanic temperature ≥37.2°C or a baseline temperature elevated ≥1.3°C. We used 30-day mortality as the primary end-point. A total of 330 patients were enrolled. Hypotension, bedridden, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and serum creatinine >2 mg/dL, but not age, were independently associated with 30-day mortality. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 18.2% to 90.9%, 34.7% to 100%, 9.0% to 100% and 94.5% to 98.2%, respectively, depending on how many predictors there were. The 30-day mortality increased with the number of independent mortality predictors. With at least four predictors, 100% of the patients died within 30 days. With none of the predictors, just 1.8% died. These findings might help physicians make decisions about geriatric patients with fever. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. The kinetics of white blood cell and the predictive factors of leukocytosis under oral or intravenous arsenic as the first-line treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Jia, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Ting; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Hong-Hu

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to compare the kinetics of white blood cell (WBC) and explore predictive factors of leukocytosis in non-high-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), with oral arsenic plus all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or intravenous arsenic trioxide (ATO) plus ATRA as a first-line treatment. The absolute count, doubling time and peak time of WBC were analyzed in 64 newly diagnosed non-high-risk APL patients who were treated with different induction regimens containing either oral Realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) (n=35) or ATO (n=29). The end points were the dynamic changes of the WBC counts during induction. The time points started at day 1 and were selected over 3-day intervals for 28days. Among the 64 included patients, the median initial and peak WBC counts were 1.78×10 9 /L (range 0.31-9.89) and 12.16×10 9 /L (range 1.56-80.01), respectively. The incidence of differentiation syndrome was 9.38%. The dynamic changes in leukocytosis showed a single peak wave in all the patients, and the median time to peak was 10 (range 2-26) days. A higher WBC count was observed in the RIF group than in the ATO group after 10days of treatment (9.22×10 9 /L vs. 4.10×10 9 /L, p=0.015). Patients with the peak WBC count >10×10 9 /L had a shorter WBC doubling time compared to patients with a lower peak WBC (RIF group 4days vs. 7days, p=0.001; ATO group 4.5days vs. 23days, p=0.002). Univariate and multivariable analyses showed that the doubling time of WBC is an independent factor for the peak WBC count. Different kinetics of WBC proliferation were observed during induction with oral arsenic plus ATRA and ATO plus ATRA. The doubling time of WBC is an important independent factor for predicting the peak WBC count. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  3. Quantification of Adipose Tissue Leukocytosis in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ryan; Youm, Yun-Hee; Ravussin, Anthony; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2014-01-01

    Summary The infiltration of immune cell subsets in adipose tissue termed ‘adipose tissue leukocytosis’ is a critical event in the development of chronic inflammation and obesity-associated comorbidities. Given that a significant proportion of cells in adipose tissue of obese patients are of hematopoietic lineage, the distinct adipose depots represent an uncharacterized immunological organ that can impact metabolic functions. Here, we describe approaches to characterize and isolate leukocytes from the complex adipose tissue microenvironment to aid mechanistic studies to understand the role of specific pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as inflammasomes in adipose-immune crosstalk. PMID:23852606

  4. Comparison of the test characteristics of procalcitonin to C-reactive protein and leukocytosis for the detection of serious bacterial infections in children presenting with fever without source: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yo, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Pei-Shan; Lee, Si-Huei; Wu, Jiunn-Yih; Chang, Shy-Shin; Tasi, Kuang-Chau; Lee, Chien-Chang

    2012-11-01

    We determine the usefulness of the procalcitonin for early identification of young children at risk for severe bacterial infection among those presenting with fever without source. The design was a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies. Data sources were searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE in April 2011. Included were diagnostic studies that evaluated the diagnostic value of procalcitonin alone or compared with other laboratory markers, such as C-reactive protein or leukocyte count, to detect severe bacterial infection in children with fever without source who were aged between 7 days and 36 months. Eight studies were included (1,883 patients) for procalcitonin analysis, 6 (1,265 patients) for C-reactive protein analysis, and 7 (1,649 patients) for leukocyte analysis. The markers differed in their ability to predict serious bacterial infection: procalcitonin (odds ratio [OR] 10.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.9 to 16.0), C-reactive protein (OR 9.83; 95% CI 7.05 to 13.7), and leukocytosis (OR 4.26; 95% CI 3.22 to 5.63). The random-effect model was used for procalcitonin analysis because heterogeneity across studies existed. Overall sensitivity was 0.83 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.91) for procalcitonin, 0.74 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.82) for C-reactive protein, and 0.58 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.67) for leukocyte count. Overall specificity was 0.69 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.85) for procalcitonin, 0.76 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.81) for C-reactive protein, and 0.73 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.77) for leukocyte count. Procalcitonin performs better than leukocyte count and C-reactive protein for detecting serious bacterial infection among children with fever without source. Considering the poor pooled positive likelihood ratio and acceptable pooled negative likelihood ratio, procalcitonin is better for ruling out serious bacterial infection than for ruling it in. Existing studies do not define how best to combine procalcitonin with other clinical information. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Striking hematological abnormalities in patients with microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): a potential role of pericentrin in hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Unal, Sule; Alanay, Yasemin; Cetin, Mualla; Boduroglu, Koray; Utine, Eda; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Huber, Celine; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Kilic, Esra; Simsek Kiper, Ozlem Pelin; Gumruk, Fatma

    2014-02-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a rare primordial dwarfism that is similar to Seckel syndrome. Seckel syndrome is known to be associated with various hematological abnormalities; however, hematological findings in MOPD II patients have not been previously reported. The present study aimed to describe the hematological findings in a series of eight patients with MOPD II from a single center. The study included eight patients with MOPD II that were analyzed via molecular testing, and physical and laboratory examinations. Molecular testing showed that seven of the eight patients had pericentrin (PCNT) gene mutations. Hematological evaluation showed that 7 (87.5%) patients had thrombocytosis, 6 (75%) had leukocytosis, 5 (62.5%) had both leukocytosis and thrombocytosis, and 2 (25%) had anemia. We report leukocytosis and thrombocytosis as a common hematologic abnormality in patients with MOPD II. The present findings may improve our understanding of the potential function of the PCNT gene in hematopoietic cell proliferation and differentiation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. First report of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid) as the causative agent in a case of acute generalized exanthamous pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Rocci, Erin; Park, Kelly; Hutchens, Kelli; Winterfield, Laura

    2017-01-15

    Acute generalized exanthamous pustulosis (AGEP)is a rare eruption of non-follicular sterile pustuleson a diffuse background of erythema and edema,commonly associated with fever and leukocytosis.Antibiotics are implicated in most cases; however,other drugs have been reported to cause AGEP. Wereport a case of a 73-year-old man with a historyof ulcerative colitis who presented with a diffusepustular rash, renal failure, elevated liver functiontests, and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. A week priorto admission, the patient was started on mesalamineto treat colitis. Upon admission, a workup includinga skin biopsy was performed and was consistentwith AGEP. Mesalamine was discontinued, and thepatient's skin eruption, renal function, liver functiontests, and leukocytosis subsequently improved.Mesalamine has an unknown mechanism of action.However, it is thought to be an anti-inflammatoryagent that blocks the production of leukotrienesand prostaglandins and is an immunosuppressantthat increases the release of adenosine, whichinterferes with leukocyte function. The decrease inprostaglandin synthesis or deregulation of leukocytefunction caused by mesalamine may be the etiologyin this case. Discontinuation of the offending agentleads to resolution of AGEP, as it did in this patient.

  7. A Case of Familial Mediterranean Fever Having Intermittent Leukopenia.

    PubMed

    Beyitler, Ilke; Kavukcu, Salih

    2018-03-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetically inherited autoinflammatory disorder characterized by inflammatory attacks and may result in amyloidosis as a severe complication. Elevation of acute phase reactants, including leukocytosis, is seen during attack periods. Here we describe a 13-year-old female patient with a very rare clinical presentation of FMF, who would experience FMF attacks when she did not regularly take her colchicine. During these attacks she had leukopenia and neutropenia instead of leukocytosis. The leukocyte count returned to normal when she continued the medication and avoided attacks. Ethnicity and clinical signs are important in leukopenic patientsand should be investigated for FMF to avoid unnecessary procedures and complications.

  8. Diagnosis of Exclusion: A Case Report of Probable Glatiramer Acetate-Induced Eosinophilic Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Christopher J.; Bockheim, Heather M.; Daum, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Importance. Medication-induced eosinophilia is an acknowledged, often self-limiting occurrence. Glatiramer acetate, a biologic injection used in the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is widely regarded as a safe and effective medication and lists eosinophilia as an infrequent side effect in its package insert. Contrary to reports of transient, benign drug-induced eosinophilia, we describe a case of probable glatiramer acetate-induced eosinophilia that ultimately culminated in respiratory distress, shock, and eosinophilic myocarditis. Observations. A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital after routine outpatient labs revealed leukocytosis (43,000 cells/mm3) with pronounced hypereosinophilia (63%). This patient had been using glatiramer acetate without complication for over 10 years prior to admission. Leukocytosis and hypereosinophilia persisted as a myriad of diagnostic evaluations returned negative, ultimately leading to respiratory depression, shock, and myocarditis. Glatiramer acetate was held for the first time on day 6 of the hospital stay with subsequent resolution of leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, respiratory distress, and shock. Conclusions and Relevance. Glatiramer acetate was probably the cause of this observed hypereosinophilia and the resulting complications. Reports of glatiramer-induced eosinophilia are rare, and few case reports regarding medication-induced hypereosinophilia describe the severe systemic manifestations seen in this patient. PMID:25105037

  9. Diagnosis of exclusion: a case report of probable glatiramer acetate-induced eosinophilic myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Christopher J; Bockheim, Heather M; Nabeel, Muhammad; Daum, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Importance. Medication-induced eosinophilia is an acknowledged, often self-limiting occurrence. Glatiramer acetate, a biologic injection used in the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is widely regarded as a safe and effective medication and lists eosinophilia as an infrequent side effect in its package insert. Contrary to reports of transient, benign drug-induced eosinophilia, we describe a case of probable glatiramer acetate-induced eosinophilia that ultimately culminated in respiratory distress, shock, and eosinophilic myocarditis. Observations. A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital after routine outpatient labs revealed leukocytosis (43,000 cells/mm(3)) with pronounced hypereosinophilia (63%). This patient had been using glatiramer acetate without complication for over 10 years prior to admission. Leukocytosis and hypereosinophilia persisted as a myriad of diagnostic evaluations returned negative, ultimately leading to respiratory depression, shock, and myocarditis. Glatiramer acetate was held for the first time on day 6 of the hospital stay with subsequent resolution of leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, respiratory distress, and shock. Conclusions and Relevance. Glatiramer acetate was probably the cause of this observed hypereosinophilia and the resulting complications. Reports of glatiramer-induced eosinophilia are rare, and few case reports regarding medication-induced hypereosinophilia describe the severe systemic manifestations seen in this patient.

  10. Leukemoid reaction

    MedlinePlus

    Rice L, Jung M. Neutrophilic leukocytosis, neutropenia, monocytosis, and monocytopenia. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Heslop HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and ...

  11. Blast transformation and fibrotic progression in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: a literature review of incidence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Cerquozzi, S; Tefferi, A

    2015-01-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) constitute two of the three BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and are characterized by relatively long median survivals (approximately 14 and 20 years, respectively). Potentially fatal disease complications in PV and ET include disease transformation into myelofibrosis (MF) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The range of reported frequencies for post-PV MF were 4.9–6% at 10 years and 6–14% at 15 years and for post-ET MF were 0.8–4.9% at 10 years and 4–11% at 15 years. The corresponding figures for post-PV AML were 2.3–14.4% at 10 years and 5.5–18.7% at 15 years and for post-ET AML were 0.7–3% at 10 years and 2.1–5.3% at 15 years. Risk factors cited for post-PV MF include advanced age, leukocytosis, reticulin fibrosis, splenomegaly and JAK2V617F allele burden and for post-ET MF include advanced age, leukocytosis, anemia, reticulin fibrosis, absence of JAK2V617F, use of anagrelide and presence of ASXL1 mutation. Risk factors for post-PV AML include advanced age, leukocytosis, reticulin fibrosis, splenomegaly, abnormal karyotype, TP53 or RUNX1 mutations as well as use of pipobroman, radiophosphorus (P32) and busulfan and for post-ET AML include advanced age, leukocytosis, anemia, extreme thrombocytosis, thrombosis, reticulin fibrosis, TP53 or RUNX1 mutations. It is important to note that some of the aforementioned incidence figures and risk factor determinations are probably inaccurate and at times conflicting because of the retrospective nature of studies and the inadvertent labeling, in some studies, of patients with prefibrotic primary MF or ‘masked' PV, as ET. Ultimately, transformation of MPN leads to poor outcomes and management remains challenging. Further understanding of the molecular events leading to disease transformation is being investigated. PMID:26565403

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Women in Submarines: Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity Evaluation of Major Submarine Atmosphere Components (CO, CO2 and O2) in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) - Phase II (Neurological and Reproductive Performance Study)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-11

    exposed parents. Statistically significant increases in hematopoietic activity (mild polycythemia , leukocytosis and thrombocytosis) were...Tables 25 & 26). Polycythemia (increased red blood cells, with expected increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit) is an established effect of

  13. A rare cause of severe periorbital edema and dermonecrotic ulcer of the eyelid in a child: brown recluse spider bite.

    PubMed

    Taşkesen, Mustafa; Akdeniz, Sedat; Taş, Taşkin; Keklikçi, Uğur; Taş, Mehmet Ali

    2011-01-01

    Spider bites are a worldwide problem. Brown recluse spider bites can lead to severe local or systemic clinical effects, such as edema, necrotic ulcer, rashes, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, malaise, arthralgia, myalgia, hemolysis, leukocytosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal failure, and death. Eyelid bites from brown recluse spiders are rare. We report a child with severe facial edema and a dermonecrotic ulcer on the eyelid. Upon laboratory examination, leukocytosis with a significant left shift was detected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, systemic corticosteroid and conservative therapy that included saline compresses and ocular lubrication. No surgical excision was required. Vision was not impaired. A dermonecrotic ulcer is a severe complication of brown recluse spider bites. Since the diagnosis is difficult, clinical and epidemiological findings and a detailed history are important for an accurate diagnosis.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis).

    PubMed

    Nevitt, Benjamin N; Langan, Jennifer N; Adkesson, Michael J; Landolfi, Jennifer A; Wilson, Rand

    2014-12-15

    Severe lymphocytosis and leukocytosis were detected during examination of a 10-year-old sexually intact male bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) with regionally extensive alopecia. A CBC revealed severe leukocytosis (39,100 leukocytes/μL) and marked lymphocytosis (90%). A blood smear consisted predominantly of intermediate-sized lymphocytes and few large lymphocytes, with mild to moderate nuclear atypia. These findings were highly suggestive of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Cytologic evaluation of bone marrow aspirates revealed no evidence of overt malignancy, with 10% of all cells identified as small to intermediate-sized mature lymphocytes. Treatment with chlorambucil and prednisone administered orally over a 1.8-year period decreased the leukocyte and lymphocyte counts to within reference intervals with no adverse effects. Although repeated flow cytometry revealed evidence of residual disease, the fox remained free of clinical disease, and WBC counts were within reference intervals for this species. At 22 months after initial evaluation, the fox was euthanized because of debilitating arthritis. No evidence of CLL was detected grossly or histologically during necropsy. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first report of CLL in a bat-eared fox and first successful treatment in a nondomestic carnivore. Treatment in accordance with a chemotherapeutic protocol successfully resolved the leukocytosis and lymphocytosis with no serious adverse effects. Description of this fox and the treatment protocol should provide a valuable reference for future cases in this and other nondomestic canine species.

  15. Chronic neutrophilic leukemia 2014: Update on diagnosis, molecular genetics, and management.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Michelle A; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2014-06-01

    Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by sustained, mature neutrophilic leukocytosis, splenomegaly, and bone marrow granulocytic hyperplasia. Key diagnostic criteria include leukocytosis of >25 × 10(9) /l (of which >80% are neutrophils) with <10% and <1% circulating immature granulocytes and myeloblasts, respectively. There should be no dysplasia, monocytosis, molecular evidence of BCR-ABL1, PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGRF1 rearrangements and no identifiable cause for physiologic neutrophilia or, if present, demonstration of myeloid clonality. DEVELOPMENTS IN MOLECULAR GENETICS: Recently, CNL has been shown to be specifically driven by somatic activating mutations of CSF3R, most commonly CSF3R T618I. As such, the diagnosis of CNL will no longer be one of exclusion only, and revision of the current WHO classification is anticipated to include the molecular criterion of mutated CSF3R. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Orbital complications associated with paranasal sinus infections - A 10-year experience in Israel.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nili; Nissani, Roni; Kordeluk, Sofia; Holcberg, Meni; Hertz, Shay; Kassem, Firas; Mansour, Anwar; Segal, Avichai; Gluck, Ofer; Roth, Yehudah; Honigman, Tal; Ephros, Moshe; Cohen Kerem, Ranan

    2016-07-01

    Orbital involvement is the most common complication of sinus infections. The epidemiology of the disease is continuously changing in the antibiotic era. Data on patients who were hospitalized due to acute sinusitis and orbital complications were retrospectively collected and analyzed from four medical centers in Israel during the years 2002-2012. 288 patients were included in the study, the average age was 14.4 years, 180 were males, and 220 were children. No significant annual increase in the number of patients was noted. The lowest number of patients was found during the summer 19.4%. A linear direct correlation was found between older age and prolonged hospital stay. Children were presented with a significantly higher Chandler score than adults. No patient had cavernous sinus thrombosis. 101 (35%) patients received antibiotics before hospital admission. Their average hospital stay was similar to those who were not treated prior to admission. 106 patients (39.8%) had fever. A direct correlation was found between older age and the presence of fever. 102 (35.4%) patients had leukocytosis. The difference in white blood cell count between patients younger than two years of age to the other groups was statistically significant. Forty four (15.3%) patients underwent surgical intervention. A direct correlation was found between leukocytosis and older age to surgery. Periorbital cellulitis occurs mainly in children and males and is less frequent in the summer. Children tend to have worse orbital involvement with lower temperatures than adults. Older age and leukocytosis are associated with surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Delayed leukocytosis after hard strength and endurance exercise: Aspects of regulatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Risøy, Bjørn Audun; Raastad, Truls; Hallén, Jostein; Lappegård, Knut T; Bæverfjord, Kjersti; Kravdal, Astrid; Siebke, Else Marie; Benestad, Haakon B

    2003-01-01

    Background During infections, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMN) are mobilized from their bone marrow stores, travel with blood to the affected tissue, and kill invading microbes there. The signal(s) from the inflammatory site to the marrow are unknown, even though a number of humoral factors that can mobilize PMN, are well known. We have employed a standardized, non-infectious human model to elucidate relevant PMN mobilizers. Well-trained athletes performed a 60-min strenuous strength workout of leg muscles. Blood samples were drawn before, during and just after exercise, and then repeatedly during the following day. Cortisol, GH, ACTH, complement factors, high-sensitive CRP (muCRP), IL-6, G-CSF, IL-8 (CXCL8) and MIP-1β (CCL4) were measured in blood samples. PMN chemotaxins in test plasma was assessed with a micropore membrane technique. Results About 5 hr after the workout, blood granulocytosis peaked to about 150% of baseline. Plasma levels of GH increased significantly 30 min into and 5 min after the exercise, but no increase was recorded for the other hormones. No significant correlation was found between concentrations of stress hormones and the subjects' later occurring PMN increases above their individual baselines. Plasma G-CSF increased significantly – but within the normal range – 65 min after the workout. IL-6 increased very slightly within the normal range, and the chemokines IL-8 and MIP-1β did not increase consistently. However, we found a significant increase of hitherto non-identified PMN-chemotactic activity in plasma 35, 50, and 60 min after the exercise. No systemic complement activation was detected, and (mu)CRP was within the reference range at rest, 5 h and 23 h after the exercise. After endurance exercise, similar findings were made, except for a cortisol response, especially from non-elite runners. Conclusion Apparently, a multitude of humoral factors can – directly or indirectly – mobilize PMN from marrow to blood; some of the factors are, others are not known to be, chemotactic. Under different conditions, different selections of these mobilizers may be used. In the late granulocytosis after heavy, long-lasting exercise a number of factors thought capable of mimicking the granulocytosis of infectious diseases were apparently irrelevant. PMID:14667246

  18. [A case of lung cancer producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with a significantly high uptake in the bones observed by a FDG-PET scan].

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Dai; Koshizuka, Hiroaki; Hiyama, Junichiro; Nakatsubo, Seita; Ikeda, Koutarou; Hayashi, Akihiro; Fujii, Akiko; Sawamoto, Ryouko; Misumi, Yukihiro; Miyagawa, Yousuke

    2009-03-01

    A 57-year-old man complaining of right shoulder pain was admitted. Chest enhanced CT scanning showed a mass shadow in the right upper lobe with chest wall invasion. The laboratory data on admission showed marked leukocytosis. A CT-guided lung biopsy was performed, and a histological examination of the biopsy specimen showed a spindle cell type pleomorphic carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry staining using an anti-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) monoclonal antibody demonstrated many tumor cells containing G-CSF as well as an increased level of serum G-CSF. The diagnosis was determined to be lung cancer producing G-CSF. FDG-PET scanning showed a significantly high uptake in the right upper field and the bones throughout the body. After chemoradiation therapy, the patient underwent a right upper lobectomy with a chest wall resection. Since then, the leukocytosis and the high level of serum G-CSF normalized and the high uptake in the bones disappeared in the FDG-PET scan.

  19. Live Attenuated Pertussis Vaccine BPZE1 Protects Baboons Against Bordetella pertussis Disease and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Papin, James F.; Lecher, Sophie; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Thalen, Marcel; Solovay, Ken; Rubin, Keith; Mielcarek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Evidence suggests that the resurgence of pertussis in many industrialized countries may result from the failure of current vaccines to prevent nasopharyngeal colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the principal causative agent of whooping cough. Here, we used a baboon model to test the protective potential of the novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine candidate BPZE1. A single intranasal/intratracheal inoculation of juvenile baboons with BPZE1 resulted in transient nasopharyngeal colonization and induction of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A to all antigens tested, while causing no adverse symptoms or leukocytosis. When BPZE1-vaccinated baboons were challenged with a high dose of a highly virulent B. pertussis isolate, they were fully protected against disease, whereas naive baboons developed illness (with 1 death) and leukocytosis. Total postchallenge nasopharyngeal virulent bacterial burden of vaccinated animals was substantially reduced (0.002%) compared to naive controls, providing promising evidence in nonhuman primates that BPZE1 protects against both pertussis disease and B. pertussis infection. PMID:28535276

  20. Induction of colitis in young rats by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Vicario, María; Crespí, Mar; Franch, Angels; Amat, Concepció; Pelegrí, Carme; Moretó, Miquel

    2005-01-01

    Models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce experimental colitis in rodents have been performed mostly in adult animals. For this reason, we aimed to develop a model of colitis in young rats. DSS was administered to 30-day-old rats at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5% in drinking water. Young rats were remarkably sensitive to DSS since clinical symptoms rapidly rose with 5% DSS and most animals died after the fifth day. With 1 and 2% DSS, the severity of mucosal lesions was also high on day 7, the animals showing leukocytosis and anemia. At 0.5% DSS, leukocytosis and mild colonic lesions were induced. This concentration of DSS significantly increased myeloperoxidase activity and goblet cell number in the colon, indicating mucosal inflammation. Since food consumption was not reduced by 0.5% DSS, we suggest that this protocol can be used to study the effects of dietary supplements on intestinal inflammatory processes.

  1. Induction of Colitis in Young Rats by Dextran Sulfate Sodium.

    PubMed

    Vicario, María; Crespí, Mar; Franch, Àngels; Amat, Concepció; Pelegrí, Carme; Moretó, Miquel

    2005-01-01

    Models using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce experimental colitis in rodents have been performed mostly in adult animals. For this reason, we aimed to develop a model of colitis in young rats. DSS was administered to 30-day-old rats at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5% in drinking water. Young rats were remarkably sensitive to DSS since clinical symptoms rapidly rose with 5% DSS and most animals died after the fifth day. With 1 and 2% DSS, the severity of mucosal lesions was also high on day 7, the animals showing leukocytosis and anemia. At 0.5% DSS, leukocytosis and mild colonic lesions were induced. This concentration of DSS significantly increased myeloperoxidase activity and goblet cell number in the colon, indicating mucosal inflammation. Since food consumption was not reduced by 0.5% DSS, we suggest that this protocol can be used to study the effects of dietary supplements on intestinal inflammatory processes.

  2. [Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung with high serum granulocyte colony stimulating factor, suggested of pulmonary abscess by preoperative radiology; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Mikoto; Miyoshi, Tatsu; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Iwasaki, Akinori; Shirakusa, Takaho

    2006-08-01

    A 52-year-old man with a history of heavy smoking was hospitalized for evaluation of fever. Pulmonary abscess was initially suspected by computed tomography (CT) showing an ovoid, well-demarcated nodule of 61 mm in diameter with coarse calcification in S2a of the right lung. The patient was treated with antibiotics, but no improvement was seen in inflammatory reactions or lesion size. Marked leukocytosis and high level of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was shown by laboratory examination. To improve patient condition and ensure correct diagnosis, right upper lobectomy of the lung was performed. Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung was subsequently diagnosed. G-CSF producing tumor was suspected, since the normalization of serum G-CSF level followed by the improvement of both fever and inflammatory reaction was observed postoperatively. We also present herein a review of 22 Japanese cases of pleomorphic carcinoma producing G-CSF of the lung, characterized by leukocytosis.

  3. How We Identify and Manage Patients with Inadequately Controlled Polycythemia Vera.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Andreas; Harrison, Claire

    2016-10-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by an overactive Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway through mutations in JAK2 exons 12 or 14 (JAK2 V617F). The dominant clinical characteristics include erythrocytosis (with or without leukocytosis/thrombocytosis), thrombotic events, and symptoms. Increased risk of mortality is mainly caused by thrombotic events and progression to post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis (PPV-MF) or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). The most important prognostic factors include age and a history of thrombotic events, although recent evidence has indicated that leukocytosis and additional cytogenetic aberrations may also be of significant prognostic value. First-line therapies include aspirin and phlebotomies, which significantly reduce the incidence of thrombotic events and prolong survival. Cytoreductive treatment with hydroxyurea (approved) and conventional or pegylated interferon-α (effective, but not approved in many countries) is initiated for high-risk or inadequately controlled disease, e.g., uncontrolled hematocrit, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, thrombotic events, splenomegaly, or symptoms. However, some patients may not receive initial benefit from first-line therapy or may become resistant or intolerant in due course. Although second-line treatment options are limited, clinical trials have shown the efficacy of ruxolitinib toward improving blood counts, enlarged spleen, and symptoms and potentially reducing thrombotic events. Identification of patients with uncontrolled PV is important for clinical care, as such patients have a high risk of complications, and future studies with JAK inhibitors or other agents alone or in combination are needed to test their potential to reduce rates of thrombotic events and transformation to PPV-MF or sAML.

  4. Clinical features and prognosis of paraquat poisoning: a review of 41 cases

    PubMed Central

    Delirrad, Mohammad; Majidi, Mohammad; Boushehri, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Paraquat is a contact herbicide which is highly toxic to human. Deliberate self-poisoning with paraquat continues to be a major public health concern in many developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the data on cases of acute paraquat poisoning and to compare different variables between survivors and non-survivors. Methods: In this cross sectional study, medical records of all paraquat intoxicated patients were reviewed at Taleghani hospital of Urmia, Iran, from 2007 to 2013, retrospectively. Demographics, clinical features and laboratory findings were evaluated. The variables compared between survivors and non-survivors were the amount of paraquat ingested, occurrence of vomiting after ingestion, time and place of hospital admission, length of hospital stay, leukocytosis, serum creatinine level and the outcomes. Results: A total of 41 patients were evaluated. The mean ± standard deviation of patients’ age were 31.6±16.9 years. The Length of hospital stay was 5.75±4.6 days. Most poisonings occurred in spring and summer. The in-hospital fatality rate was 46.3%. Statistically significant associations were found between the outcome of patients and the amount ingested (P=0.001), vomiting (P=0.004), early need to intensive cares (P=0.009), leukocytosis (P=0.001), serum creatinine levels (P=0.001), manifestations of acute hepatic (P<0.001) and respiratory failure (P=0.007). Conclusion: Ingestion of more than 30 ml, prompt vomiting, early need to intensive cares, leukocytosis, and multi-organ failures are major determinants for fatal outcome of paraquat poisoning. It may be useful to educate health professionals and the general population about the serious consequences of exposure to paraquat. PMID:26221379

  5. Abnormal hematologic findings in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Helmer, P J

    2000-06-01

    A 4-year-old African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was examined for weight loss and hematochezia, and was subsequently diagnosed with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma. Abnormal hematological findings included marked leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and atypical circulating lymphocytes. This report represents the first documentation of hemogram abnormalities associated with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma in this species.

  6. Abnormal hematologic findings in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma.

    PubMed Central

    Helmer, P J

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year-old African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was examined for weight loss and hematochezia, and was subsequently diagnosed with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma. Abnormal hematological findings included marked leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and atypical circulating lymphocytes. This report represents the first documentation of hemogram abnormalities associated with gastrointestinal lymphosarcoma in this species. PMID:10857034

  7. Chemokine Receptor Ccr7 Restricts Fatal West Nile Virus Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Bardina, Susana V; Brown, Julia A; Michlmayr, Daniela; Hoffman, Kevin W; Sum, Janet; Pletnev, Alexander G; Lira, Sergio A; Lim, Jean K

    2017-05-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause debilitating encephalitis. To delineate the mechanisms behind this pathology, we studied Ccr7-deficient mice, which afforded us the capacity to study infection in mice with disrupted peripheral cellular trafficking events. The loss of Ccr7 resulted in an immediate pan-leukocytosis that remained elevated throughout the infection. This leukocytosis resulted in a significant enhancement of leukocyte accumulation within the central nervous system (CNS). Despite an excess of virus-specific T cells in the CNS, Ccr7-deficient mice had significantly higher CNS viral loads and mortality rates than wild-type animals. Mechanistically, the elevated trafficking of infected myeloid cells into the brain in Ccr7-deficient mice resulted in increased levels of WNV in the CNS, thereby effectively contributing to neuroinflammation and lowering viral clearance. Combined, our experiments suggest that during WNV infection, Ccr7 is a gatekeeper for nonspecific viral transference to the brain. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show that Ccr7 is required for the sufficient migration of dendritic cells and T cells into the draining lymph node immediately following infection and for the restriction of leukocyte migration into the brain. Further, the severe loss of dendritic cells in the draining lymph node had no impact on viral replication in this organ, suggesting that WNV may migrate from the skin into the lymph node through another mechanism. Most importantly, we found that the loss of Ccr7 results in a significant leukocytosis, leading to hypercellularity within the CNS, where monocytes/macrophages contribute to CNS viremia, neuroinflammation, and increased mortality. Together, our data point to Ccr7 as a critical host defense restriction factor limiting neuroinflammation during acute viral infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome complicated by infectious lymphoproliferation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Syrůcková, Z; Starý, J; Sedlácek, P; Smísek, P; Vavrinec, J; Komrska, V; Roubalová, K; Vandasová, J; Sintáková, B; Housková, J; Hassan, M

    1996-01-01

    The case of a 7-year-old boy with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) and serologically proven parvovirus B-19 infection is described. The patient with VAHS presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and hyperlipidemia type IV. After induction therapy with VP-16 and prednisone, partial remission was achieved. Despite maintenance therapy, reinductions, and the addition of cyclosporine A for 3 months, several relapses occurred. The therapy was stopped because of life-threatening complications (Klebsiella sepsis, neutropenic enterocolitis, and stercoral peritonitis). The complications were treated successfully. The patient status was stabilized after splenectomy. However, hepatomegaly progressed slowly and the hyperlipidemia endured. Ten months after the diagnosis leukocytosis with absolute T lymphocytosis appeared. Reactivation of VAHS was suspected and intravenous immunoglobin and then antilymphocyte immunoglobulin ALG therapy were started. The resultant decrease in leukocytosis was prompt, but lymphopenia did not occur. Virostatic treatment with foscarnet was introduced based on human herpesvirus-6 seroconversion. Twenty-six months after the diagnosis, the patient is well, without any sign of VAHS or lymphoproliferation.

  9. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B

    2009-03-01

    A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation.

  10. Immunotoxicology of JP-8 Jet Fuel: Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-20

    Leukocytosis, Lymphocytosis, Eosinophilia in some mice; Polycythemia ; high MCHC; SP mostly reversed Day 4: Monocytosis & Lymphocytosis; Eosinophilia...high MCHC; Polycythemia ; SP reversed some effects Day 7: Neutrophilia; Polycythemia ; high MCHC; Platelet number normal but low MPV; SP reversed...some effects [MCHC: indicates that hemolysis has occurred in vivo; could contribute to renal tubular nephrosis Polycythemia : occurs when both RBC

  11. Biological activities of crystalline pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, J J; Arai, H; Bergman, R K; Sadowski, P L

    1981-01-01

    We studied various biological activities of crystalline pertussigen and found that in mice as little as 0.5 ng of pertussigen induced hypersensitivity to histamine, 8 to 40 ng induced leukocytosis, 2 ng increased production of insulin, 0.1 ng increased production of immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G1 antibodies to hen egg albumin, 9.5 ng increased susceptibility to anaphylactic shock, and 0.5 ng increased the vascular permeability of striated muscle. We also found that in Lewis rats 20 ng of pertussigen promoted the induction of hyperacute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Pertussigen given intraperitoneally was toxic to mice at a dose of 546 ng. Treatment of pertussigen with glutaraldehyde eliminated this toxicity. Mice immunized with 1,700 ng of detoxified pertussigen were protected against intracerebral challenge with 3 x 10(4) viable Bordetella pertussis cells. When as little as 0.5 ng of pertussigen was given intravenously to mice, the increased susceptibility of the animals to histamine could still be detected 84 days later. The biological properties of crystalline pertussigen indicate its similarity to leukocytosis-promoting factor, Islet-activating protein, late-appearing toxic factor, and mouse-protective antigen of B. pertussis. PMID:6269999

  12. A Combination Therapy of JO-1 and Chemotherapy in Ovarian Cancer Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    stress , as it was mild and resolved quickly. Other minor histologic changes as stated are unlikely to have been clinically significant...in the hematology data, with WBC count of 25,440 on July 24th. Stress may be playing a role in the leukocytosis (but is not typically associated...multifactorial, with potential factors including nutritional, stress or possibly food intolerances or allergies. Other minor changes are interpreted to

  13. Medical Management of Chemical Toxicity in Pediatrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    as fever and leukocytosis. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) has been shown to be elevated in patients after mustard exposure (Motakallem, 1988...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hilmas, E, Hilmas, CJ 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...A). These unique anatomical and physiologic considerations described below cause the rates of absorp- tion, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

  14. A Novel Strategy to Prevent Advanced Atherosclerosis and Lower Blood Glucose in a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jenny E; Kramer, Farah; Barnhart, Shelley; Duggan, Jeffrey M; Shimizu-Albergine, Masami; Kothari, Vishal; Chait, Alan; Bouman, Stephan D; Hamerman, Jessica A; Hansen, Bo F; Olsen, Grith S; Bornfeldt, Karin E

    2018-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis is the leading cause of mortality associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Insulin therapy is often needed to improve glycemic control, but it does not clearly prevent atherosclerosis. Upon binding to the insulin receptor (IR), insulin activates distinct arms of downstream signaling. The IR-Akt arm is associated with blood glucose lowering and beneficial effects, whereas the IR-Erk arm might exert less desirable effects. We investigated whether selective activation of the IR-Akt arm, leaving the IR-Erk arm largely inactive, would result in protection from atherosclerosis in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome. The insulin mimetic peptide S597 lowered blood glucose and activated Akt in insulin target tissues, mimicking insulin's effects, but only weakly activated Erk and even prevented insulin-induced Erk activation. Strikingly, S597 retarded atherosclerotic lesion progression through a process associated with protection from leukocytosis, thereby reducing lesional accumulation of inflammatory Ly6C hi monocytes. S597-mediated protection from leukocytosis was accompanied by reduced numbers of the earliest bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and reduced IR-Erk activity in hematopoietic stem cells. This study provides a conceptually novel treatment strategy for advanced atherosclerosis associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. [Development of Ph negative acute myeloid leukemia in a patient with minor-BCR/ABL positive chronic myeloid leukemia achieving a partial cytogenetic response during tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Soichiro; Miura, Ikuo; Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-06-01

    A 78-year-old male, who had CKD and chronic heart failure, was referred to our hospital for evaluation of leukocytosis. His bone marrow contained 12% blast cells and chromosome analysis showed the Ph chromosome as well as other changes. The patient was diagnosed with the accelerated-phase CML because FISH and RT-PCR disclosed BCR/ABL fusion signals and minor BCR/ABL, respectively. Imatinib was administered, but the CML was resistant to this treatment. We gave him nilotinib employing a reduced and intermittent administration protocol because of the progression of anemia and heart failure. The patient achieved PCyR in 8 months, but, 12 months later, his WBC count increased and 83% of the cells were blasts. Because the probable diagnosis was the blast crisis of CML, we switched from nilotinib to dasatinib. However, leukocytosis worsened and he died of pneumonia. It was later revealed that he had a normal karyotype and both FISH and RT-PCR analysis of BCR/ABL were negative. His final diagnosis was Ph negative AML developing from Ph positive CML in PCyR. Since there were no dysplastic changes indicative of MDS, it was assumed that the AML was not secondary leukemia caused by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor but, rather, de novo AML.

  16. [The characteristics of urinary tract infection with urosepsis].

    PubMed

    Oshida, Yuki; Hirashima, Osamu; Tanaka, Takamasa; Fujimoto, Takushi

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently complicated with bacteremia. Many cases of this infection are diagnosed and treated by general practitioners. We retrospectively exam- ined the characteristics of UTIs presenting with urosepsis. We assigned 57 UTI patients into two groups according to the results of the blood cultures. Patients were admitted to the Department of General Practice at Sakai City Hospital from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011. We investigated the medical records retrospectively. 22 patients presented with urosepsis and 35 did not. Urosepsis in the patients was significantly associated with diabetes mellitus and ureteral stones (diabetes: 32 vs. 3%, p = 0.004; ureteral stone: 23 vs. 3%, p = 0.03). Nausea or vomiting and hydronephrosis were seen in about one half of the patients with urosepsis and were significantly more frequent (nausea or vomiting: 45 vs. 17%, p = 0.03; hydronephrosis: 36 vs. 11%, p = 0.04). Leukocytosis (white blood cell (WBC) count > 12,000/gL) or leukopenia (WBC count < 4,000 /μL) were significantly more frequent (68% vs. 29%) but no significant association was found between urosepsis and body temperature or C-reactive proteins. Nausea or vomiting, ureteral stones or hydronephrosis, diabetes mellitus and leukocytosis or leukopenia had significantly higher rates in the patients with urosepsis.

  17. Retro-orbital and disseminated B-cell lymphoma in a yellow-collared macaw (Primolius auricollis)

    PubMed Central

    Le, Kim; Beaufrère, Hugues; Brouwer, Emily; Bland, S. Karlyn; Wills, Sarah; MacKenzie, Shawn; Chalmers, Heather; Pinard, Chantale; Wood, R. Darren; DeLay, Josepha; Smith, Dale A.

    2017-01-01

    A yellow-collared macaw was presented with unilateral left exophthalmia. The complete blood cell count and biochemistry revealed a heterophilic leukocytosis and elevation in liver parameters, respectively. A computed tomography scan showed a contrast-enhancing retrobulbar mass and hepatomegaly. Cytology of the liver was consistent with a round cell tumor, most likely lymphoma. The bird died after 2 months of palliative care. Postmortem examination confirmed a retro-orbital and disseminated B-cell lymphoma. PMID:28698688

  18. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with severe dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Nasa, Prashant; Yadav, Rohit; Nagrani, S.K.; Raina, Sanjay; Gupta, Ankur; Jain, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old female diagnosed with sever dengue fever. She started showing recovery from dengue fever with medical management. On day 6 of admission, she had leukocytosis, altered mental sensorium, and hemoptysis. Chest tomography showed air space consolidation with multiple nodules in the left upper and middle lobe sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were positive for Aspergillus flavus. The patient showed improvement with voriconazole and therapy was continued for 6 weeks. PMID:24914263

  19. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with severe dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Nasa, Prashant; Yadav, Rohit; Nagrani, S K; Raina, Sanjay; Gupta, Ankur; Jain, Shakti

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old female diagnosed with sever dengue fever. She started showing recovery from dengue fever with medical management. On day 6 of admission, she had leukocytosis, altered mental sensorium, and hemoptysis. Chest tomography showed air space consolidation with multiple nodules in the left upper and middle lobe sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were positive for Aspergillus flavus. The patient showed improvement with voriconazole and therapy was continued for 6 weeks.

  20. Correlation of Physical Exam Findings with Fever in Patients with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    PubMed

    Mongelluzzo, Jillian; Tu, Brian; Grimes, Barbara; Ziyeh, Sharvina; Fortman, Jonathan; Neilson, Jersey; Rodriguez, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fever in adult ED patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and to determine which, if any, physical exam, radiograph and laboratory test findings were associated with fever. We conducted a prospective, observational study at an urban county trauma center of adults who presented to the ED for evaluation of suspected SSTI. ED providers measured area of erythema and induration using a tape measure, and completed data sheets indicating comorbid conditions and the presence or absence of physical exam findings. Fever was defined as any recorded temperature ≥ 38°C during the first six hours of ED evaluation. Of the 734 patients enrolled, 96 (13.1%) had fever. Physical and laboratory exam findings associated with the presence of a fever in multivariable logistic regression were the area of erythema, particularly the largest quartile of area of erythema, 144 - 5,000 cm 2 , (odd ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.6 - 5.2]) and leukocytosis (OR = 4.4, 95% CI [2.7 - 7.0]). Bullae, necrosis, streaks, adenopathy, and bone involvement on imaging were not associated with fever. Fever is uncommon in patients presenting to the ED for evaluation of suspected SSTI. Area of erythema and leukocytosis were associated with fever and should be considered in future decision rules for the evaluation and treatment of SSTI.

  1. Scorpion envenoming in Morona Santiago, Amazonian Ecuador: Molecular phylogenetics confirms involvement of the Tityus obscurus group.

    PubMed

    Román, Juan P; García, Fernanda; Medina, Doris; Vásquez, Manolo; García, José; Graham, Matthew R; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Pardal, Pedro P de Oliveira; Ishikawa, Edna A Y; Borges, Adolfo

    2018-02-01

    Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported. Leukocytosis and low serum potassium levels were detected in most patients. We observed a significant negative correlation between leukocytosis and hypokalemia. Scorpions involved in three accidents from Macuma, Taisha County, were identified as genetically related to Tityus obscurus from the Brazilian Amazonian region based on comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit I. These cases, along with previously reported envenoming from northern Manabí, reinforce the notion that scorpionism is a health hazard for children in Ecuador and emphasizes the need to supply effective antivenoms against local species, which are not currently available. The genetic affinity of the Ecuadorian specimens with T. obscurus may underlay toxinological, clinical, and venom antigenic relationships among Amazonian scorpions that deserves further exploration for designing therapeutic strategies to treat scorpionism in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Splenic infarction: an update on William Osler's observations.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Yaacov R; Pokroy, Russell; Berlowitz, Daniel; Aharoni, Dvora; Hain, Daniel; Breuer, Gabriel S

    2010-06-01

    Osler taught that splenic infarction presents with left upper abdominal quadrant pain, tenderness and swelling accompanied by a peritoneal friction rub. Splenic infarction is classically associated with bacterial endocarditis and sickle cell disease. To describe the contemporary experience of splenic infarction. We conducted a chart review of inpatients diagnosed with splenic infarction in a Jerusalem hospital between 1990 and 2003. We identified 26 cases with a mean age of 52 years. Common causes were hematologic malignancy (six cases) and intracardiac thrombus (five cases). Only three cases were associated with bacterial endocarditis. In 21 cases the splenic infarction brought a previously undiagnosed underlying disease to attention. Only half the subjects complained of localized left-sided abdominal pain, 36% had left-sided abdominal tenderness; 31% had no signs or symptoms localized to the splenic area, 36% had fever, 56% had leukocytosis and 71% had elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels. One splenectomy was performed and all patients survived to discharge. A post hoc analysis demonstrated that single infarcts were more likely to be associated with fever (20% vs. 63%, p < 0.05) and leukocytosis (75% vs. 33%, P = 0.06) The clinical presentation of splenic infarction in the modern era differs greatly from the classical teaching, regarding etiology, signs and symptoms. In patients with unexplained splenic infarction, investigation frequently uncovers a new underlying diagnosis.

  3. Clinical signs and clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with clinical spirocercosis: 39 cases (1996-2004).

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Rallis, Tim; Koutinas, Alexander F; Leontides, Leonidas S; Patsikas, Michail; Florou, Marianna; Papadopoulos, Elias; Fytianou, Anna

    2006-04-01

    To determine clinical signs and clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring clinical spirocercosis. Retrospective case series. 39 dogs with spirocercosis. Medical records were reviewed, and information on signalment, residence (rural vs urban), owner complaints, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic abnormalities, radiographic and endoscopic findings, and concurrent systemic diseases was recorded. Hellenic hounds and mixed-breed dogs were overrepresented, compared with a group of 117 control dogs without spirocercosis that were examined because of gastrointestinal tract disease, and mean body weight of dogs with spirocercosis was significantly higher than mean body weight of control dogs. Odynophagia (34 [87%]), regurgitation (24 [62%]), and excessive salivation (14 [36%]) were the most common clinical findings. The most common radiographic abnormalities were a mass in the caudodorsal aspect of the mediastinum (15/35 [43%]) and spondylitis of the caudal thoracic vertebrae (10 [29%]). Parasitic nodules were seen during esophagoscopy in all 39 dogs. Normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia; neutrophilic leukocytosis; hyperproteinemia; and high alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly more common in dogs with spirocercosis than in a control group of 56 healthy dogs. Concurrent systemic diseases, mainly leishmaniosis, dirofilariosis, and monocytic ehrlichiosis, were documented in 14 (36%) dogs. Results suggest that clinical spirocercosis occurs more often in young-adult, large-breed dogs. Nonregenerative anemia, neutrophilic leukocytosis, hyperproteinemia, and high alkaline phosphatase activity may be useful clinicopathologic indicators of this disease.

  4. Outcome in lacunar stroke: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mantero, V; Scaccabarozzi, C; Botto, E; Giussani, G; Aliprandi, A; Lunghi, A; Ciusani, E; Brenna, G; Salmaggi, A

    2018-05-16

    We evaluated a prospective cohort of 150 patients under observation in our centre for lacunar strokes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome at time of discharge and 6 months after lacunar stroke, as well as the correlation with cardiovascular risk factors and selected biochemical parameters already evaluated on admission. Focus was to identify possible prognostic factors, which might be targeted through appropriate intervention concentrating on reduction in the incidence and impact of early clinical deterioration. 150 patients with a lacunar stroke were included in the present study. A clinical 6-month follow-up was available for 98.7% of the patients. Infarcts were classified by size, shape and location. The most important predictors of high NIHSS score at time of discharge resulted NIHSS on admission (P < .001), leukocytosis (P = .013), in-hospital infections (P = .016) and size of lacunae (P = .005). Similarly, the most important predictors of poor outcome 6 months later were NIHSS on admission (P = .01), leukocytosis (P = .014), elevated CRP (P = .019), in addition to pre-admission Rankin (P < .001). Although infections are not causatively related to lacunar strokes, their prompt recognition and early treatment, control of inflammatory markers and fever are most important in influencing functional outcome in lacunar stroke. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Early Predictors of Fever in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rocha Ferreira da Silva, Ivan; Rodriguez de Freitas, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Fever is commonly observed in patients who have had aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and it has been associated with the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia and worse outcomes in previous studies. Frequently, fever is not the result of bacterial infections, and distinction between infection-related fever and fever secondary to brain injury (also referred as central fever) can be challenging. The current study aimed to identify risk factors on admission for the development of central fever in patients with SAH. Databank analysis was performed using information from demographic data (age, gender), imaging (transcranial Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, and cerebral angiogram), laboratory (white blood cell count, hemoglobin, renal function, and electrolytes), and clinical assessment (Hunt-Hess and modified Fisher scales on admission, occurrence of fever). A multivariate logistic regression model was created. Of 55 patients, 32 developed fever during the first 7 days of hospital stay (58%). None of the patients had identifiable bacterial infections during their first week in the neurocritical care unit. Hunt-Hess scale >2 and leukocytosis on admission were associated to the development of central fever, even after correction in a logistic regression model. Leukocytosis and a poor neurologic examination on admission might help predict which subset of patients with SAH are at higher risk of developing central fever early in their hospital stay. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A case of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection mimicking adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Fukushima, Hiroko; Ishii, Naomi; Kita, Akiko; Hanioka, Yusuke; Minami, Mieko; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamagami, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    An 83-year-old man was diagnosed with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) based on clinical and laboratory findings. However, glucocorticoid had little effect. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA was detected in peripheral blood, and autopsy findings confirmed a diagnosis of chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). CAEBV mimics AOSD, and the presence of articular involvement and leukocytosis does not exclude the possibility of CAEBV. CAEBV should be included in the differential diagnosis of AOSD, and measurement of EBV-DNA is essential.

  7. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-03-27

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature.

  8. A dog with acute myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hisasue, Masaharu; Nishimura, Tomomi; Neo, Sakurako; Nagashima, Naho; Ishikawa, Takefumi; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Yamada, Takatsugu

    2008-06-01

    A three-year-old dog with marked leukocytosis, lymphadenopathy, and diarrhea showed an increase in unidentified blasts in the peripheral blood, and they were proliferated in the bone marrow. The dog was diagnosed with myelomonocytic leukemia (M4) because the blast cells were demonstrated by cytochemical staining to be both myeloid and monocytic cells. Although the dog was treated with a multi-combination chemotherapy and induction therapy using vitamin K2, it died on day 47 after the first admission. This case is the first report of M4 in Japan.

  9. RUPTURE OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT—Dealing with Lesions Caused by Non-Penetrating Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kirtland, Howard B.

    1953-01-01

    The possibility of rupture of the gastrointestinal tract should be considered in every case of abdominal trauma, and the patient should be carefully observed for a period of 12 to 48 hours. There are many factors that may confuse diagnosis, but in the presence of persistent pain and tenderness, persistent or recurring shock, fever, leukocytosis, roentgen demonstration of free intra-abdominal air, or of other signs of peritonitis, operation should be carried out. The mortality rate is much higher when definitive treatment is delayed more than 12 hours. PMID:13106729

  10. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  11. Eastern equine encephalitis in children, Massachusetts and New Hampshire,USA, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael A; Misasi, John; Smole, Sandra; Feldman, Henry A; Cohen, Adam B; Santagata, Sandro; McManus, Michael; Ahmed, Asim A

    2013-02-01

    We describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiographic characteristics of 15 cases of eastern equine encephalitis in children during 1970-2010. The most common clinical and laboratory features were fever, headache, seizures, peripheral leukocytosis, and cerebrospinal fluid neutrophilic pleocytosis. Radiographic lesions were found in the basal ganglia, thalami, and cerebral cortex. Clinical outcomes included severe neurologic deficits in 5 (33%) patients, death of 4 (27%), full recovery of 4 (27%), and mild neurologic deficits in 2 (13%). We identify an association between a short prodrome and an increased risk for death or for severe disease.

  12. [Congenital syphilis: presenting as septic shock alter the neonatal period].

    PubMed

    Arriagada, Daniela; Donoso, Alejandro; Cruces, Pablo; Díaz, Franco

    2012-10-01

    Clinical spectrum of congenital syphilis ranges from asymptomatic infection to fulminant sepsis. Treponema pallidum is acquired crossing the placenta from the mother to the fetus during maternal spirochetemia or through direct contact of the child with an infected lesion at delivery. We report a 27 days-old previously healthy girl diagnosed with congenital syphilis. Her mother had an unremarkable previous history, adequate obstetric care and negative prenatal screening test for syphilis. The patient was brought to the ER due to development of skin lesions and fever in the last 24 h. She was admitted to pediatric ICU lethargic and poorly responsive, with hepa-tosplenomegaly and perioral, palmoplantar erythematous desquamative scaly lesions. Laboratory data revealed anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and C-reactive protein of 183 mg/l. Soon after admission she developed septic shock with leukocytosis up to 45,800/mm3 and exacerbation of thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia and metabolic acidosis. Congenital syphilis was diagnosed at the second day of admission with VDRL titers of 1:128 in serum and 1:8 in cerebrospinal fluid. Maternal serum VDRL was positive with titers of 1:32. The patient was treated with penicillin for three weeks with adequate clinical and laboratory response. Congenital syphilis is a life threatening infection, but cannot always be diagnosed at birth. Health care workers must be aware of the difficulties in obtaining a definitive diagnosis and must have a high index of suspicion, considering the possible errors of prenatal serology and the diverse possible clinical presentations, including neonatal sepsis during the first month of life.

  13. [Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lymph node with paraneoplastic thrombosis and eosinophilia].

    PubMed

    Behzad, Ali; Müller, Andrea; Rösler, Wolf; Amann, Kerstin; Linke, Rainer; Mackensen, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    A 52-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital because of progressive thrombosis despite therapeutic anticoagulation as well as leukocytosis with eosinophilia and thrombocytopenia. On examination, the patient presented with dyspnea and swelling oft her left leg and arm. The laboratory findings revealed leukocytosis (31,000/microl) with eosinophilia (54%), thrombocytopenia (58,000/microl), together with an increased C-reactive protein of 247 mg/dl (reference range < 5 mg/dl). Initial computed tomography scans showed pulmonary embolism and a slightly enlarged left inguinal lymph node. Histological examination of the lymph node biopsy revealed in part an epitheloid and spindle cell-like tumorous lesion with slightly increased tissue eosinophilia consistent with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Resection of the left inguinal lymph node resulted in an immediate regression of the paraneoplastic eosinophilia and thrombocytopenia. Anti-inflammatory medication with ibuprofen was subsequently initiated. Imaging and clinical examination at 3 months after discharge revealed no relapse and no signs of a paraneoplastic syndrome. The IMT is a rare soft-tissue tumor of intermediate dignity with a low tendency to metastasize. It is consistently accompanied by paraneoplastic syndromes. Therapy of choice is complete resection of the tumor. In nonresectable cases, corticosteroids and nonsteroidal antirheumatics have been shown to be effective. Because of the variable clinical course ranging from spontaneous regression to metastasis, IMTs might be separated into different entities (autoimmune, inflammatory, neoplastic subtype) which thus far cannot be classified on a histopathologic basis. A clinical assessment of the dignity is therefore important until further subclassifications of this rare disease become available.

  14. Dry Extract of Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomile) Prevents Ligature-Induced Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats via Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Interleukin-1β.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Mariana Vasconcelos; Melo, Iracema Matos; Adriano Araújo, Vilana Maria; Tenazoa Wong, Deizy Viviana; Roriz Fonteles, Cristiane Sá; Moreira Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida; Ribeiro, Ronaldo Albuquerque; Lima, Vilma

    2016-06-01

    Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. Accordingly, the ability of the Matricaria recutita extract (MRE) to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines and its influence on alveolar bone resorption (ABR) in rats. Wistar rats were subjected to ABR by ligature with nylon thread in the second upper-left molar, with contralateral hemiarcade as control. Rats received polysorbate TW80 (vehicle) or MRE (10, 30, and 90 mg/kg) 1 hour before ligature and daily until day 11. The periodontium was analyzed by macroscopy, histometry, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry for the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The gingival tissue was used to quantify the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Blood samples were collected to evaluate bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), leukogram, and dosages of aspartate and alanine transaminases, urea, and creatinine. Aspects of liver, kidneys, spleen, and body mass variations were also evaluated. The 11 days of ligature induced bone resorption, low levels of BALP, leukocyte infiltration; increase of MPO, TNF-α, and IL-1β; immunostaining increase for RANKL and TRAP; reduction of OPG and leukocytosis, which were significantly prevented by MRE, except for the low levels of BALP and the leukocytosis. Additionally, MRE did not alter organs or body weights of rats. MRE prevented the inflammation and ABR by reducing TNF-α and IL-1β, preventing the osteoclast activation via the RANKL-OPG axis, without interfering with bone anabolism.

  15. Evaluation of wound-healing formulation against sulphur mustard-induced skin injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lomash, V; Jadhav, S E; Ahmed, F; Vijayaraghavan, R; Pant, S C

    2012-06-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes cutaneous blisters in human and animals. Remedies to SM-induced dermatotoxicity are still in experimental stage. Due to inevitable requirement of a wound-healing formulation against SM-induced skin lesions, efficacy of formulations including povidone iodine, Aloe vera gel, betaine or framycetin sulphate was evaluated in present study. SM was applied percutaneously (5 mg/kg) once on back region of Swiss albino mice; and after 24 hours, DRDE/WH-02 (Defence Research and Development Establishment/ Wound Healant- 02, containing polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP], A. vera gel and betaine), Ovadine, Soframycin or A. vera gel were applied topically, daily for 3 or 7 days in different groups. Skin sections were subjected to histopathology, histomorphologic grading, tissue leukocytosis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers. DRDE/WH-02 treated mice received highest score on the basis of histomorphologic scale and lowest number of TUNEL-positive cells compared to other groups. DRDE/WH-02 showed better wound healing as evidenced by widespread re-epithelialization, homogenous fibroplasias well supported by the expression of transforming growth factor-α, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and fibroblast growth factor. Upregulation of interleukin 6 in DRDE/WH-02-treated mice skin resulted in increased tissue leukocytosis and an early removal of tissue debris that initiated reparative process at faster rate compared to other groups. In conclusion, DRDE/WH-02 provided better healing effect and can be recommended as an effective wound healant against SM-induced skin injury.

  16. Successful management of synchronous recurrent breast carcinoma with chronic myelogenous leukemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Elm'hadi, Choukri; Khmamouche, Mohamed Reda; Tanz, Rachid; Toreis, Mehdi; Mahtat, ElMehdi; Allaoui, Mohammed; Oukabli, Mohammed; Messaoudi, Nezha; Errihani, Hassan; Ichou, Mohammed

    2017-01-10

    Survival is increasing after early breast cancer revealing frequent relapses and possibility of developing secondary malignancies. The concomitant occurrence of these two events is exceptionally disastrous and lethal. We report a case of a Moroccan woman who was successfully managed for synchronous recurrent breast carcinoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia. A 42-year-old Moroccan woman was diagnosed with localized breast carcinoma in 2008. She received six cycles of an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy by tamoxifen. After completion of 5 years of tamoxifen our patient reported asthenia; a physical examination found hepatomegaly, massive splenomegaly measuring 21 cm and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. The staging showed lung and liver metastases. Morphology and immunohistochemical profile of this metastasis identified an adenocarcinoma of mammary origin. In parallel, the diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia was suspected because of the presence of a leukocytosis at 355 × 10 9 /L, with circulating blasts of 4%. Chronic myeloid leukemia was confirmed by a bone marrow biopsy with the presence of Ph chromosome on cytogenetical analysis. Daily imatinib was ordered concurrently with chemotherapy-type docetaxel. The metastases were stable after nine courses of chemotherapy. Due to breast cancer progression 4 months later, bevacizumab and capecitabine were introduced. A major molecular response was achieved after 12 and 18 months. She has now completed 2 years of follow-up, still on a major molecular response, and is undergoing imatinib and capecitabine treatment. Leukocytosis in breast cancer patients can reveal chronic myeloid leukemia. It may warrant a workup to find the underlying etiology, which could include a secondary hematological malignancy.

  17. Snake bite envenomation: experience at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Al-Durihim, H; Al-Hussaini, M; Bin Salih, S; Hassan, I; Harakati, M; Al Hajjaj, A

    2010-04-01

    We surveyed the records of 21 of the 28 snakebite victims seen at King Fahad National Guard Hospital in Riyadh over the 20-year period 1986-2005. The most common symptoms were local pain and swelling and the most common signs oedema and tenderness. Neurotoxicity was not noted in any case. Coagulopathy was recorded for 14/21 patients (66.7%) and 5/19 (26.4%) had leukocytosis. All patients were given tetanus toxoid (100%) and 20 (95.2%) received antivenom. Blood products were administered in 2 cases and prophylactic antibiotics in 10 (47.6%). No allergic reaction to antivenom was reported.

  18. Hematopoietic arginase 1 deficiency results in decreased leukocytosis and increased foam cell formation but does not affect atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baoyan; Van Kampen, Erik; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Van Eck, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Arginase1 (Arg1), an M2 macrophage marker, plays a critical role in a number of immunological functions in macrophages, which are the main cell type facilitating atherosclerotic lesion development. Arg1 uses the substrate l-arginine to create l-ornithine, a precursor molecule required for collagen formation and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation. By reducing l-arginine availability, Arg1 limits the production of nitric oxide (NO), a pro-atherogenic factor in macrophages. In endothelial cells, conversely, NO is strongly anti-atherogenic. However, until now, the role of Arg1 in atherosclerosis is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to specifically investigate the effect of Arg1 deletion in hematopoietic cells on atherosclerosis susceptibility. Ldlr KO mice were transplanted with Arg1 flox/flox ;Tie2-Cre (Arg1 KO) bone marrow (BM) or wildtype (WT) BM. After 8 weeks of recovery on chow diet, recipients mice were fed a Western-Type Diet (WTD) for 10 weeks to induce atherosclerosis. After 10-week WTD challenge, blood leukocyte counts were decreased by 25% (p < 0.001), and spleen leukocytes were decreased by 35% (p = 0.05) in Ldlr KO mice transplanted with Arg1 KO BM compared to mice transplanted with WT BM. The decrease in leukocytes was due to lower B lymphocyte counts. However, oxLDL-specific antibodies were increased in plasma of Ldlr KO mice transplanted with Arg1 KO BM compared to WT BM transplanted controls, whereas oxLDL-specific IgM was not affected. On the other hand, peritoneal foam cells in Arg1 KO BM recipients were increased 3-fold (p < 0.001) compared to WT BM recipients. No change in blood cholesterol was found. Despite changes in leukocyte counts and macrophage foam cell formation, we did not observe differences in atherosclerotic plaque size or plaque macrophage content in the aortic root. Surprisingly, there was also no difference in plaque collagen content, indicating that absence of macrophage Arg1 function does not reduce plaque stability. Deletion of Arg1 in hematopoietic cells adversely affects blood leukocyte counts and increases foam cell formation. However, no effects on atherosclerosis could be demonstrated, indicating that hematopoietic Arg1 function is not a decisive factor in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Evidence of Acute Mesoamerican Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rebecca S B; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Chavarria, Denis; Vangala, Chandan; Nolan, Melissa S; Garcia, Linda L; Palma, Lesbia; Garcia, Felix; García-Trabanino, Ramón; Murray, Kristy O

    2017-10-01

    Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN), an epidemic of unexplained kidney disease in Central America, affects mostly young, healthy individuals. Its etiology is a mystery that requires urgent investigation. Largely described as a chronic kidney disease (CKD), no acute clinical scenario has been characterized. An understanding of the early disease process could elucidate an etiology and guide treatment and prevention efforts. We sought to document the earliest clinical signs in patients with suspected MeN in a high-risk population in Nicaragua. Physicians at a local hospital identified suspect cases and documented clinical/laboratory data, demographics, and medical histories. Over a 1-year period, physicians identified 255 mostly young (median 29 years), male (89.5%) patients with elevated creatinine or reduced creatinine clearance. Mean serum creatinine (2.0 ± 0.6 mg/dL) revealed a 2-fold increase from baseline, and half had stage 2 or 3 acute kidney injury. Leukocyturia (98.4%), leukocytosis (81.4%), and neutrophilia (86.2%) predominated. Nausea (59.4%), back pain (57.9%), fever (54.6%), vomiting (50.4%), headache (47.3%), and muscle weakness (45.0%) were common. A typical case of acute MeN presented with elevated (or increased ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or ≥ 1.5-fold from baseline) creatinine, no hypertension or diabetes, leukocyturia, and at least two of fever, nausea or vomiting, back pain, muscle weakness, headache, or leukocytosis and/or neutrophilia. Rapid progression (median 90 days) to CKD was recorded in 8.5% of patients. This evidence can serve as the basis of a sensitive and urgently needed case definition for disease surveillance of early-stage, acute MeN.

  20. Clinical, biochemical, and hematological characteristics, disease prevalence, and prognosis of dogs presenting with neutrophil cytoplasmic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Aroch, Itamar; Klement, Eyal; Segev, Gilad

    2005-01-01

    Neutrophil cytoplasmic toxicity is manifested as an abnormality in cell size or the cytoplasmic content upon examination of Romanowsky-stained blood smears, and is traditionally associated with infection and inflammation. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the association of such changes with clinical and clinicopathologic characteristics, diseases, and prognoses in dogs. Dogs with neutrophil toxicity (n = 248) were compared with negative controls (n = 248). Statistical analyses included chi-square tests, independent t-tests, nonparametric Mann-Whitney tests, the chi-square trend test, and survival analysis. Dogs with neutrophil toxicity had a significantly higher prevalence of pale mucous membranes, tachycardia, fever, abdominal organomegaly, icterus, melena, and hematuria. Most mean hematologic variables were significantly different between groups. Dogs with neutrophil toxicity had a significantly (P < .05) higher prevalence of leukocytosis, leukopenia, neutrophilia, neutropenia, anemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypocalcemia. The prevalence of pyometra, parvovirus infection, acute renal failure, peritonitis, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pancreatitis, septicemia, and neoplastic disorders was significantly higher among these dogs. Case fatality, hospitalization length, and treatment cost were significantly (P < .001) higher in dogs with neutrophil toxicity. Neutrophil toxicity severity was significantly (P < .0035) and positively associated with neutropenia, and negatively associated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia. A significant trend (P = .05) toward increasing case fatality with an increase of neutrophil toxicity was observed. In the neutrophil toxicity group, dogs with leukopenia (<5.0 X 10(3)/mm3) had a significantly (P < .0001) higher case fatality compared to dogs with normal or high leukocyte counts. We conclude that evaluation of blood smears for

  1. [Clinico-pathological conference report: sudden deterioration of general condition, hypokalemia and diabetes in an elderly man].

    PubMed

    Metso, Saara; Arola, Johanna; Raade, Merja; Välimäki, Matti

    2012-01-01

    An elderly man had been treated for prostate cancer with radiation and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy. One year after the cessation of radiation therapy, the PSA value was found to be elevated. A non-steroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide was initiated to the patient. Due to poor treatment response the drug was changed for the GnRH agonist leuprorelin acetate, which upon injection caused a sudden deterioration of the patient's general condition. He was delirious and in pain, and was diagnosed with leukocytosis, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia and metabolic alkalosis. The patient was referred to the endocrinological clinic for evaluation of the metabolic-endocrinological problems. He succumbed to disseminated prostate cancer.

  2. Esophageal Candidiasis as the Initial Manifestation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Komeno, Yukiko; Uryu, Hideki; Iwata, Yuko; Hatada, Yasumasa; Sakamoto, Jumpei; Iihara, Kuniko; Ryu, Tomiko

    2015-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented with persistent dysphagia. A gastroendoscopy revealed massive esophageal candidiasis, and oral miconazole was prescribed. Three weeks later, she returned to our hospital without symptomatic improvement. She was febrile, and blood tests showed leukocytosis (137,150 /μL, blast 85%), anemia and thrombocytopenia. She was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). She received chemotherapy and antimicrobial agents. During the recovery from the nadir, bilateral ocular candidiasis was detected, suggesting the presence of preceding candidemia. Thus, esophageal candidiasis can be an initial manifestation of AML. Thorough examination to detect systemic candidiasis is strongly recommended when neutropenic patients exhibit local candidiasis prior to chemotherapy.

  3. Clostridium septicum aortitis with synchronous ascending colon and rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepanshu; Kistler, Andrew C; Kozuch, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium septicum ( C. septicum ) aortitis is a rare condition frequently associated with colon adenocarcinoma and carries a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 66-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, blood in the stool, fever and chills. Laboratory tests were significant for leukocytosis and microcytic anemia. Abdominal imaging revealed a right colon mass and aortitis. Colonoscopy confirmed the right colon mass and also discovered a rectal mass, both adenocarcinomas. Treatment consisted of antibiotics, aortic repair, right hemi-colectomy and later trans-anal excision of the rectal mass. Blood cultures and the aortic specimen grew C. septicum . The patient improved and was doing well in follow up.

  4. Exercise leukocyte profiles in healthy, type 1 diabetic, overweight, and asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Jaime S; Schwindt, Christina D; Oliver, Stacy R; Leu, Szu-Yun; Flores, Rebecca L; Galassetti, Pietro R

    2009-02-01

    Leukocytosis contributes to exercise-induced immune modulation, which is a mechanism of cardiovascular protection. However, this process is poorly defined in children. We therefore measured leukocytes in 45 healthy, 18 overweight, 16 type 1 diabetic, and 8 asthmatic children at pre, end-, and 30-min postexercise (30-min intermittent or 6-min continuous). In all groups, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes increased at end-exercise, but returned to baseline by 30-min postexercise, including neutrophils, previously reported to remain elevated for at least some exercise formats. This highly preserved pattern indicates the importance of the adaptive response to physical stress across multiple health conditions.

  5. Adult Onset Still’s Disease Presenting with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Anisha B.; Manadan, Augustine M.; Case, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by rash, leukocytosis, fevers, and arthralgias. Pulmonary involvement has been reported rarely in AOSD, but acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is extremely rare and potentially fatal and must be recognized as potential manifestation of underlying AOSD. Methods: We present a case of AOSD manifested by ARDS and review the previously reported cases in Medline/Pub med. Results: Including this case, 19 cases of AOSD complicated with ARDS have been reported in the literature. Conclusions: It is important to recognize ARDS as a manifestation of AOSD so that proper diagnostic and therapeutic management can be initiated promptly. PMID:24459537

  6. Does the CDC Definition of Fever Accurately Predict Inflammation and Infection in Persons With SCI?

    PubMed

    Trbovich, Michelle; Li, Carol; Lee, Shuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia and septicemia have the greatest impact on reduced life expectancy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Fever is often the first presenting symptom of infection or inflammation. Thermoregulatory dysfunction in persons with SCI may preclude a typical febrile response to infection or inflammation and thus delay diagnostic workup. Objective: To determine the core temperature of persons with SCI in the setting of infection or inflammation and the frequency with which it meets criteria for the CDC definition of fever (>100.4°F). Methods: Retrospective review of hospitalized SCI patients over 5 years with a diagnosis of infection or inflammation (DI), defined by serum leukocytosis. In this study, 458 persons with paraplegia (PP) and 483 persons with tetraplegia (TP) had 4,191 DI episodes. Aural temperatures (T au ) on the day of DI, 7 days prior, and 14 days afterwards were abstracted from medical records. Main outcome measures were average T au at DI, frequency of temperatures >100.4°F at DI, and average baseline temperatures before and after DI. Results: Average T au at DI was 98.2°F (±1.5) and 98.2°F (±1.4) in the TP and PP groups, respectively, with only 11.6% to 14% of DI resulting in T au >100.4°F. Baseline temperatures ranged from 97.9°F (±0.7) to 98.0°F (±0.8). Conclusion: SCI persons with leukocytosis infrequently mount a fever as defined by the CDC, and baseline temperatures were subnormal (<98.6°F). Thermoregulatory dysfunction likely accounts for these findings. T au >100.4°F is not a sensitive predictor of infection or inflammation in persons with SCI. Clinicians should be vigilant for alternative symptoms of infection and inflammation in these patients, so diagnostic workup is not delayed.

  7. Evaluation of antiallergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of ethanolic extract of Sanseveiria trifasciata leaves (EEST) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Andhare, Rohan N; Raut, Mayuresh K; Naik, Suresh R

    2012-08-01

    The leaves and rhizomes of Sansevieria trifasciata are used in folk medicine for treating bronchitis, asthma, cough, snake bite and insect bite etc. The ethanolic extract elicited analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity. Hence, it was decided to study the antiallergic activity of ethanolic extract of S. trifasciata (EEST) on various animal models as well as in vitro conditions, and also to understand possible mechanism of action. Ethanolic extract of S. trifasciata leaves (EEST) were prepared by cold maceration followed by concentration and evaporation under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator to obtain semisolid mass. The various phytoconstituents were analyzed. The acute toxicity study of EEST was carried out in mice. The antiallergic and anaphylactic activities were evaluated using animal models viz. milk induced eosinophilia and leukocytosis, compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation, active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and histamine induced pedal edema. In addition, EEST effect on Shultz-Dale reaction in sensitized guinea pig ileum in ex vivo and antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging by DPPH method (in vitro) were also studied. EEST treatment at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg p.o inhibited (a) milk-induced increased eosinophilia, leukocytosis, monocytes and neutrophils. (b) Prevented passive cutaneous and active anaphylactoid reactions. (c) Prevented compound 48/80 induced degranulation of sensitized mesenteric mast cells. (d) Inhibited histamine induced pedal edema formation significantly. EEST pretreatment inhibited Shultz-Dale reaction in guinea pig ileum and also elicited potent antioxidant activity. Experimental findings demonstrate promising antiallergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of EEST and also elicited potent antioxidant activity. The antiallergic and anti-anphylactic activity might be due to inhibition of release of chemical mediators from mast cells largely by phytoconstituents like steroidal saponins, triterpenoids

  8. West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Priscilla H; Kelly, Sean; Shreve, Allison A; Snead, Sarah E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Pettit, Denise A

    2006-04-01

    Sixty-one birds of prey admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to Virginia's Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (Richmond, Virginia, USA) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty birds of prey were positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Five avian families and nine species of raptors were represented, with great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) most frequently affected. Presenting clinical signs were consistent with previous reports of WNV infection in raptors; however, these differed between species. Of WNV positive birds, nonspecific signs of illness were the most common clinical findings, particularly in red-tailed hawks; signs included dehydration (n = 20), emaciation (n = 18), and depression (n = 15). Neurologic abnormalities were frequently identified, especially in great horned owls, and included head tremors (n = 17), ataxia (n = 13), head incoordination (n = 7), torticollis (n = 3), nystagmus (n = 3), and head tilt (n = 3). Great horned owls exhibited anemia and leukocytosis with heterophilia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis consistent with chronic inflammation. Red-tailed hawks were anemic with a heterophilic leukocytosis and regenerative left shift. The majority of WNV cases occurred during August and September; there was a marked increase in the number of raptors admitted to WCV during these months followed by a marked decrease during October, November, and December. This pattern differed from mean monthly admissions during the previous 10 years and suggests a negative impact on local raptor populations. The effects of WNV on avian populations are largely unknown; however, because of their ecological importance, further investigation of the effects of WNV on raptor populations is warranted.

  9. Does the CDC Definition of Fever Accurately Predict Inflammation and Infection in Persons With SCI?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Lee, Shuko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia and septicemia have the greatest impact on reduced life expectancy in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Fever is often the first presenting symptom of infection or inflammation. Thermoregulatory dysfunction in persons with SCI may preclude a typical febrile response to infection or inflammation and thus delay diagnostic workup. Objective: To determine the core temperature of persons with SCI in the setting of infection or inflammation and the frequency with which it meets criteria for the CDC definition of fever (>100.4°F). Methods: Retrospective review of hospitalized SCI patients over 5 years with a diagnosis of infection or inflammation (DI), defined by serum leukocytosis. In this study, 458 persons with paraplegia (PP) and 483 persons with tetraplegia (TP) had 4,191 DI episodes. Aural temperatures (Tau) on the day of DI, 7 days prior, and 14 days afterwards were abstracted from medical records. Main outcome measures were average Tau at DI, frequency of temperatures >100.4°F at DI, and average baseline temperatures before and after DI. Results: Average Tau at DI was 98.2°F (±1.5) and 98.2°F (±1.4) in the TP and PP groups, respectively, with only 11.6% to 14% of DI resulting in Tau >100.4°F. Baseline temperatures ranged from 97.9°F (±0.7) to 98.0°F (±0.8). Conclusion: SCI persons with leukocytosis infrequently mount a fever as defined by the CDC, and baseline temperatures were subnormal (<98.6°F). Thermoregulatory dysfunction likely accounts for these findings. Tau >100.4°F is not a sensitive predictor of infection or inflammation in persons with SCI. Clinicians should be vigilant for alternative symptoms of infection and inflammation in these patients, so diagnostic workup is not delayed. PMID:29339867

  10. Does this adult patient with suspected bacteremia require blood cultures?

    PubMed

    Coburn, Bryan; Morris, Andrew M; Tomlinson, George; Detsky, Allan S

    2012-08-01

    Clinicians order blood cultures liberally among patients in whom bacteremia is suspected, though a small proportion of blood cultures yield true-positive results. Ordering blood cultures inappropriately may be both wasteful and harmful. To review the accuracy of easily obtained clinical and laboratory findings to inform the decision to obtain blood cultures in suspected bacteremia. A MEDLINE and EMBASE search (inception to April 2012) yielded 35 studies that met inclusion criteria for evaluating the accuracy of clinical variables for bacteremia in adult immunocompetent patients, representing 4566 bacteremia and 25,946 negative blood culture episodes. Data were extracted to determine the prevalence and likelihood ratios (LRs) of findings for bacteremia. The pretest probability of bacteremia varies depending on the clinical context, from low (eg, cellulitis: 2%) to high (eg, septic shock: 69%). Elevated temperatures alone do not accurately predict bacteremia (for ≥38°C [>100.3°F], LR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.4]; for ≥38.5°C [>101.2°F], LR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1-2.0]), nor does isolated leukocytosis (LR, <1.7). The severity of chills graded on an ordinal scale (shaking chills, LR, 4.7; 95% CI, 3.0-7.2) may be more useful. Both the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a multivariable decision rule with major and minor criteria are sensitive (but not specific) predictors of bacteremia (SIRS, negative LR, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.03-0.26]; decision rule, negative LR, 0.08 [95% CI, 0.04-0.17]). Blood cultures should not be ordered for adult patients with isolated fever or leukocytosis without considering the pretest probability. SIRS and the decision rule may be helpful in identifying patients who do not need blood cultures. These conclusions do not apply to immunocompromised patients or when endocarditis is suspected.

  11. Host resistance of CD18 knockout mice against systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Huaizhu; Prince, Joseph E.; Brayton, Cory F.; Shah, Chirayu; Zeve, Daniel; Gregory, Stephen H.; Smith, C. Wayne; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2003-01-01

    Mice with targeted mutations of CD18, the common beta2 subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins, have leukocytosis, impaired transendothelial neutrophil emigration, and reduced host defense to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive extracellular bacterium. Previous studies using blocking monoclonal antibodies suggested roles for CD18 and CD11b in hepatic neutrophil recruitment and host innate response to Listeria monocytogenes, a gram-positive intracellular bacterium. We induced systemic listeriosis in CD18 knockout (CD18-ko) and wild-type (WT) mice by tail vein injection with Listeria. By 14 days postinjection (dpi), 8 of 10 WT mice died, compared with 2 of 10 CD18-ko mice (P < 0.01). Quantitative organ culture showed that numbers of Listeria organisms in livers and spleens were similar in both groups at 20 min postinfection. By 3, 5, and 7 dpi, however, numbers of Listeria organisms were significantly lower in livers and spleens of CD18-ko mice than in WT mice. Histopathology showed that following Listeria infection, CD18-ko mice had milder inflammatory and necrotizing lesions in both spleens and livers than did WT mice. Cytokine assays indicated that baseline interleukin-1beta and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels were higher in CD18-ko mice than in WT mice and that CD18-ko splenocytes produced higher levels of interleukin-1beta and G-CSF than WT splenocytes under the same amount of Listeria stimulation. These findings show that CD18 is not an absolute requirement for antilisterial innate immunity or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. We propose that the absence of CD18 in the mice results in the priming of innate immunity, as evidenced by elevated cytokine expression, and neutrophilic leukocytosis, which augments antilisterial defense.

  12. Impact of JAK2V617F Mutation Burden on Disease Phenotype in Chinese Patients with JAK2V617F-positive Polycythemia Vera (PV) and Essential thrombocythemia (ET).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shixiang; Zhang, Xiang; Xu, Yang; Feng, Yufeng; Sheng, Wenhong; Cen, Jiannong; Wu, Depei; Han, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and half of essential thrombocythemia (ET) possess an activating JAK2V617F mutation. The objective of this study was to better define the effect of JAK2V617F mutant allele burden on clinical phenotypes in Chinese patients, especially thrombosis. By real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the JAK2V617F mutation burden was detected in 170 JAK2V617F-positive patients, including 54 PV and 116 ET. The results showed that JAK2V617F allele burden was higher in PV than in ET (P< 0.001). Higher percentage of patients had JAK2V617F allele burden over 20% in PV than in ET (68.5% VS 26.7%) (P< 0.001). In PV patients, higher JAK2V617F allele burden was observed in female (P< 0.05) and leukocytosis patients (WBC above 10 × 10(9)/L) (P< 0.001). Meanwhile, ET patients showed increased JAK2V617F allele burden in the group with higher hemoglobin (HGB above 150 g/L) (P< 0.05), leukocytosis (WBC above 10 × 10(9)/L) (P< 0.001), splenomegaly (P< 0.05) and thrombosis (P< 0.05). In conclusion, the JAK2V617F mutation allele burden is higher in Chinese patients with PV than ET. In PV patients, JAK2V617F mutation burden had influence on WBC counts. And the clinical characteristics of ET patients, such as WBC counts, hemoglobin level, splenomegaly and thrombosis, were influenced by JAK2V617F mutation burden. Male, high hemoglobin (HGB above 150 g/L), and increased JAK2V617F mutation burden (JAK2V617F allele burden ≥ 16.5%) were risks of thrombosis (P< 0.05) for ET patients by Logistic Regression.

  13. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis. PMID:24862426

  14. A Rare Monocytic Crisis of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Presenting with Unusual Extramedullary Manifestations and an Atypical (14;22)(q24;q11.2) Translocation in the Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Morihiro; Hagihara, Masao; Uchida, Tomoyuki; Hua, Jian; Nakajima, Takeshi; Tajima, Shogo; Ota, Yasunori

    2017-01-01

    A 48-year-old man was admitted due to marked leukocytosis. Bone marrow examinations resulted in a diagnosis of Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia. One month later, massive muscle and bone invasion by leukemic cells was detected. After induction chemotherapy, he complained of a headache and visual loss, which was caused by a leukemic infiltration in the central nervous system. After temporary remission in response to chemotherapy, the disease relapsed in the form of an intracranial tumor. The unusual t(14;22)(q24;q11.2) translocation of the Ph-chromosome and the significant increase in monocytes observed might have contributed to the unique and aggressive clinical course. PMID:29021476

  15. Estrogen-induced myelotoxicity in dogs: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sontas, Hasan B.; Dokuzeylu, Banu; Turna, Ozge; Ekici, Hayri

    2009-01-01

    Exogenous estrogens used for therapeutic purposes or endogenous estrogen sources such as functional Sertoli cell or ovarian granulosa cell tumors may cause bone marrow toxicity in dogs. The condition is characterized by hematologic abnormalities including thrombocytopenia, anemia, and leukocytosis or leukopenia. Despite intensive therapy with blood or platelet-rich transfusions, broad-spectrum antibiotics, steroids, and bone marrow stimulants, prognosis is unfavorable. Due to the the risk of stimulating the development of uterine diseases and the potential for inducing aplastic anemia, estrogen use in dogs is best avoided where possible. This paper describes the causes of estrogen-induced myelotoxicity, the clinical presentation of the patients, the diagnosis, and the treatment options in the dog. PMID:20046604

  16. Clostridium septicum aortitis with synchronous ascending colon and rectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepanshu; Kistler, Andrew C.; Kozuch, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium septicum (C. septicum) aortitis is a rare condition frequently associated with colon adenocarcinoma and carries a poor prognosis. We report the case of a 66-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, blood in the stool, fever and chills. Laboratory tests were significant for leukocytosis and microcytic anemia. Abdominal imaging revealed a right colon mass and aortitis. Colonoscopy confirmed the right colon mass and also discovered a rectal mass, both adenocarcinomas. Treatment consisted of antibiotics, aortic repair, right hemi-colectomy and later trans-anal excision of the rectal mass. Blood cultures and the aortic specimen grew C. septicum. The patient improved and was doing well in follow up. PMID:28655990

  17. Myelogenous leukemia in a bearded dragon (Acanthodraco vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Tocidlowski, M E; McNamara, P L; Wojcieszyn, J W

    2001-03-01

    A 3-yr-old bearded dragon (Acanthodraco vitticeps) presented with lethargy, a swollen right elbow joint, inability to move its rear limbs normally, and marked leukocytosis. The majority of leukocytes were an abnormal mononuclear lymphoid-type cell with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, a slightly blue cytoplasm, nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin, and some nuclear clefts. Acute leukemia of lymphoid or myeloid origin was tentatively diagnosed. The abnormal mononuclear leukocyte cell population stained positively for the myeloid cytochemical stains: peroxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and L1-calprotectin. The abnormal cell population of the peripheral blood did not stain with the lymphoid cytochemical stains: alpha-naphthyl butyrate esterase, CD3, and CD79a.

  18. Hepatitis From Spiroplasma sp. in an Immunocompromised Patient.

    PubMed

    Mueller, N J; Tini, G M; Weber, A; Gaspert, A; Husmann, L; Bloemberg, G; Boehler, A; Benden, C

    2015-09-01

    A 70-year-old lung transplant recipient patient was admitted with fever, nausea, abdominal pain, peripheral edema and pronounced weakness. An initial work-up for presumed infection revealed cholestatic hepatitis, leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia, but failed to detect a pathogen. An increased glucose uptake exclusively in the liver was demonstrated by positron emission tomography. Liver biopsy showed basophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Broad- range 16S rRNA gene PCR followed by sequence analysis yielded Spiroplasma sp. in two independent blood samples and the liver biopsy, confirming Spiroplasma sp. as the causative agent. Antibiotic treatment with doxycycline and azithromycin led to complete recovery. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Intermediate-grade mammary gland adenocarcinoma in an 18-year-old female black leopard (Panthera pardus) with acute pancreatic necrosis and chronic interstitial nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Misato; Yoshida, Toshinori; Eguchi, Ayumi; Inohana, Mari; Nagahara, Rei; Shiraki, Ayako; Ito, Nanao; Shibutani, Makoto

    2018-03-02

    An 18-year-old female black leopard (Panthera pardus) showed renal failure, leukocytosis and presence of subcutaneous masses in the lower abdominal region and right shoulder; she eventually died. Histopathological observations included a mammary gland carcinoma with comedo, solid and tubulopapillary patterns in subcutaneous tissue, and highly proliferated tumor cells in systemic organs. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The mammary gland tumor was diagnosed as intermediate-grade adenocarcinoma, based on a previously reported histological grading system of feline mammary carcinomas. Chronic interstitial nephritis was estimated to have been ongoing for 5 years, whilst acute necrotic pancreatitis in relation to tumor metastasis could have been the cause of death.

  20. Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates in association with disseminated actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Dontfraid, F; Ramphal, R

    1994-07-01

    The most common infectious cause of bilateral upper-lobe pulmonary disease is tuberculosis. However, we recently encountered a patient with bilateral apical infiltrates and multiple soft-tissue abscesses caused by Actinomyces odontolyticus. Other findings included fever, weight loss, and leukocytosis, and the patient's only known source of immunosuppression was a long history of alcoholism. There was no history of diabetes, steroid use, or other chronic underlying disease. The diagnosis was made by culture of drainage fluid from one abscess. Therapy with intravenous penicillin G led to rapid clinical improvement and reduction in the infiltrates. To our knowledge, the presentation of pulmonary infection, with bilateral apical infiltrates due to A. odontolyticus has not been previously reported in the medical literature.

  1. [Effectiveness of systemic immunoglobulins in the treatment of the systemic variants of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, E I; Shakhbazian, I E; Zholobova, K B

    2001-01-01

    Preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin (sandoglobulin, pentaglobin, intraglobin F, octagam) were given daily or each other day in a course dose 0.3-1 g/kg to 43 patients aged 4 to 15 years. Eight of them had allergosepsis, 22--allergoseptic variant of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and 13--systemic JRA and generalized joint syndrome. The treatment induced remission in patients with allergosepsis, prednisolone was discontinued. JRA patients coped with fever, eruption, polyserositis, infection symptoms. Leukocyte count normalized. Preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin in low doses can be therapy of choice in patients with rheumatic-like diseases. In JRA patients it can be effectively used against fever, eruption, polyserositis, carditis, leukocytosis, intercurrent infection before or in the course of immunosuppressive therapy.

  2. [Diarrhea with malabsorption and exudative enteropathy caused by intestinal myeloid involvement in a patient with myeloproliferative syndrome].

    PubMed

    Molas, G; Ponsot, P; Solal-Celigny, P; Amar, M; Paolaggi, J A; Potet, F; Henin, D

    1992-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman with a myelodysplastic syndrome complained of diarrhea with malabsorption and protein-losing enteropathy after splenectomy. No cause was found and various therapeutic regimens were not effective. Pathological examination of biopsies from stomach, small intestine, and large bowel showed infiltrations interpreted as inflammatory on routine technics. Blast cell infiltration was found on electron microscopy. Treatment by citarabine induced normalization of leukocytosis, and diarrhea disappeared. Six months after the onset of illness, she developed acute myeloblastic leukemia and died of infectious pneumonia. Blastic infiltration of the lamina propria could be responsible for the determinism of symptoms, because of the lack of another etiology, the intensity of the blastic infiltration and the effect of cytotoxic therapy, even in the absence of new biopsies.

  3. Circulating T-Regulatory Cells, Exercise and the Elite Adolescent Swimmer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lori D.; Zaldivar, Frank P.; Schwindt, Christina D.; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Cooper, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    Brief high intensity exercise induces peripheral leukocytosis possibly leading to a higher incidence of allergic symptoms in athletes undergoing excessive training. We studied the exercise-induced alternation of circulating Tregs and FoxP3+ Tregs due to acute intense swim exercise in elite swimmers (n = 22, 12 males, age = 15.4 yrs). Twelve had prior or current rhinitis or asthma and 10 had no current or prior allergy or asthma. Circulating Tregs increased significantly (p < .001) following exercise (pre = 133 ± 11.2, post = 196 ± 17.6) as did FoxP3+ cells (pre = 44, post = 64 cells/µl). Increases in Tregs and FoxP3+ Tregs occurred to the same extent in both groups of adolescent swimmers. PMID:19827454

  4. Curvularia lunata, a rare fungal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD); a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Haritha; Elumalai, Ramprasad; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti; Periasamy, Soundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Peritonitis is an inflammation of the peritoneum that occurs in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated by peritoneal dialysis. Fungal peritonitis is a dreaded complication of peritoneal dialysis. Curvularia lunata is known to cause extra renal disease like endocarditis, secondary allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and endophthalmitis. This case report presents a case of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis peritonitis with this disease and its management. This case is of a 45-year-old man, presented with ESRD, secondary to diabetic nephropathy. After 3 months of hemodialysis the patient was put on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Local Examination at catheter site showed skin excoriation and purulent discharge. Further peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid analysis showed neutrophilic leukocytosis and diagnosis of Curvularia lunata PD peritonitis.

  5. Adult onset Still's disease accompanied by acute respiratory distress syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiao-Tu; Wang, Mao-Jie; Huang, Run-Yue; Ding, Bang-Han

    2016-09-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by rash, leukocytosis, fever and arthralgia/arthritis. The most common pulmonary manifestations associated with AOSD are pulmonary infiltrates and pleural effusion. The present study describes a 40-year-old male with AOSD who developed fever, sore throat and shortness of breath. Difficulty breathing promptly developed, and the patient was diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patient did not respond to antibiotics, including imipenem, vancomycin, fluconazole, moxifloxacin, penicillin, doxycycline and meropenem, but was sensitive to glucocorticoid treatment, including methylprednisolone sodium succinate. ARDS accompanied by AOSD has been rarely reported in the literature. In conclusion, in a patient with ARDS who does not respond to antibiotic treatment, the involvement of AOSD should be considered.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of beta blockers in a canine model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy: comparison between carvedilol and metoprolol

    PubMed Central

    Le, D. Elizabeth; Pascotto, Marco; Leong-Poi, Howard; Sari, Ibrahim; Micari, Antonio; Kaul, Sanjiv

    2013-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the superiority of carvedilol (C) over metoprolol (M) in congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that C is superior to M in chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy because of its better anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects. In order to test our hypothesis we used a chronic canine model of multivessel ischemic cardiomyopathy where myocardial microcatheters were placed from which interstitial fluid was collected over time to measure leukocyte count and cytokine levels. After development of left ventricular dysfunction, the animals were randomized into four groups: sham (n = 7), placebo (n = 8), M (n = 11), and C (n = 10), and followed for 3 months after treatment initiation. Tissue was examined for immunohistochemistry, oxidative stress, and capillary density. At 3 months both rest and stress wall thickening were better in C compared to the other groups. At the end of 3 months of treatment endsystolic wall stress also decreased the most in C. Similarly resting myocardial blood flow (MBF) improved the most in C as did the stress endocardial/epicardial MBF. Myocardial interstitial fluid showed greater attenuation of leukocytosis with C compared to M, which was associated with less fibrosis and oxidative stress. C also had higher IL-10 level and capillary density. In conclusion, in a chronic canine model of multivessel ischemic cardiomyopathy we found 3 months of C treatment resulted in better resting global and regional function as well as better regional function at stress compared to M. These changes were associated with higher myocardial levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and less myocardial oxidative stress, leukocytosis, and fibrosis. Capillary density and MBF were almost normalized. Thus in the doses used in this study, C appears to be superior to M in a chronic canine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy from beneficial effects on inflammation and angiogenesis. Further studies are required for comparing additional doses

  7. Reference values for maternal total and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period in western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sanci, Muzaffer; Töz, Emrah; Ince, Onur; Özcan, Aykut; Polater, Kevser; Inan, Abdurrahman Hamdi; Beyan, Emrah; Akkaya, Emrah

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in the leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts in different trimesters of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. The study population consisted of 40,325 pregnant women. A full blood count and automated differential leukocyte count were performed and all the haemogram results in the different trimesters of pregnancy were recorded. Percentiles were calculated using statistical software. A total of 82,786 complete blood count evaluations were performed in 40,325 subjects from the 6th to 41st week of pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period. The leukocyte counts increased from the 1st to the 3rd trimester and peaked in the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts may assist clinicians in distinguishing between leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood cell count during pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Impact statement Pregnancy requires profound adaptation by multiple systems to accommodate the demands of the developing foetus. Similar to all other systems, many haematological changes occur during pregnancy. Studies of normal variation in leukocyte counts were insufficient to distinguish normal from abnormal leukocyte counts during pregnancy and in the initial postpartum period, due to small numbers of patients and a lack of differential leukocyte counts. Without reference leukocyte levels, infections may be more difficult to assess during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. In this study, we report the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 50th, 95th and 99th percentile values for the total and differential leukocyte counts according to trimester in normal pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Our reference values for the total and differential leukocyte counts in each trimester and the initial postpartum period may assist clinicians in distinguishing between normal leukocytosis and pathological elevation of the white blood

  8. Inflammatory fibrous histiocytoma presenting leukemoid reaction.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Kimura, Y; Naito, M; Yoshimura, T; Uchida, H; Araki, S

    1989-05-01

    A case of inflammatory fibrous histiocytoma presenting leukemoid reaction is reported. A tumor had developed at the right scapular region 10 years ago and recurred twice with fever and leukocytosis, and finally with leukemoid reaction. Besides the histopathological features typical of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, this tumor showed prominent and diffuse infiltration of neutrophilic leukocytes. Hematologic examination of the bone marrow aspirates disclosed myeloid hyperplasia. Bacteriological examination revealed no pathogenic microorganisms in the tumor tissue. Chemotactic activity of the neutrophilic leukocytes was demonstrated in the extract obtained from the tumor, and subcutaneous injection of the extract into rats induced myeloid hyperplasia in the bone marrow and neutrophil infiltration in the liver and spleen of the animals. These results suggest the possibility of the case as a colony-stimulating factor-producing tumor.

  9. Lapatinib-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli; Pillai, Suma; Srinivas, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a pustular eruption, mainly drug induced often accompanied by fever and neutrophilic leukocytosis presenting as scarlatiniform erythema over the flexures evolving into numerous tiny non follicular pustules. We present a case report of a 56-year old woman, who had undergone mastectomy, treated with lapatinib for metastatic disease, and who presented with multiple erythematous papules and plaques with peripheral pustules. She also developed painful pyogenic granuloma-like lesions over the pulp of toe and over the proximal nail folds.All the lesions subsided following withdrawal of lapatinib. Although AGEP has been reported with imatinib (a multikinase inhibitor), there have been no reports of serious reactions with lapatinib, an EGFR inhibitor. This case could represent the first case report of AGEP to the EGFR inhibitor, lapatinib. PMID:23130185

  10. Pyometra in childhood.

    PubMed

    Barry, Carole

    2015-05-01

    Pyometra, an accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, occurs rarely in children but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intra-abdominal or pelvic abscess. A 10-month-old infant presented with an increasing abdominal mass. She had previous respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. She was underweight, febrile, and tachycardic with an 8×6-cm mobile tender mass in her lower abdomen. Investigations demonstrated leukocytosis and ultrasonogram confirmed a cystic mass. At laparotomy a pyometra was found. Needle aspiration and washout of the uterine cavity were performed but a second procedure was required to place a drain into the cavity. Pyometra occurs rarely in childhood. A review of cases associates a hypoestrogenized endometrium exposed to transient bacteremia with obstruction to uterine drainage. Treatment should include continuous drainage of the uterus.

  11. Tyzzer's disease in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens).

    PubMed

    Langan, J; Bemis, D; Harbo, S; Pollock, C; Schumacher, J

    2000-12-01

    A debilitated 9-yr-old female red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) with a recent history of corticosteroid administration displayed anorexia, depression, and diarrhea for 2 days. Blood work revealed a moderate nonregenerative anemia, leukocytosis, hypokalemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Serology was negative for occult heartworm, Toxoplasma gondii, feline leukemia virus, feline infectious peritonitis, feline immunodeficiency virus, and canine distemper virus. Electron microscopy of the feces demonstrated corona-like virus particles. The panda died 3 days after initial presentation. Histologic findings included multifocal, acute, hepatic necrosis and diffuse, necrotizing colitis. Liver and colon lesions contained intracellular, curved, spore-forming, gram-negative, silver-positive rods morphologically consistent with Clostridium piliforme. This panda most likely contracted Tyzzer's disease subsequent to having a compromised immune system after corticosteroid administration and concurrent disease.

  12. Necrotizing Fasciitis: Diagnostic Challenges in a Mute Bedridden Patient with Atypical Laboratory Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Lohiya, Ghan-Shyam; Tan-Figueroa, Lilia; Krishna, Vijay; Lohiya, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    A 27-year-old mute bedridden patient required parenteral corticosteroids and antibiotics, and hospitalization for an acute respiratory illness. After 2 days, staff noted a ~0.3 cm blister on the patient's right heel. Within 19 hours, blistering increased and the foot became partly gangrenous. The patient developed high fever (40.3°C), and leukocytosis (count: 13 × 109/L; was 6.5 × 109/L ten days earlier). Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) was diagnosed and treated with emergency leg amputation. Histopathology revealed necrosis of fascia, muscle, subcutaneous tissue, and skin. In bedridden patients, corticosteroids may particularly facilitate serious infections, and initial NF blistering may be mistaken for pressure ulcers. Vigilant and frequent whole body monitoring is necessary for all patients incapable of verbalizing their symptoms. PMID:23197984

  13. Necrotizing fasciitis: diagnostic challenges in a mute bedridden patient with atypical laboratory parameters.

    PubMed

    Lohiya, Ghan-Shyam; Tan-Figueroa, Lilia; Krishna, Vijay; Lohiya, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    A 27-year-old mute bedridden patient required parenteral corticosteroids and antibiotics, and hospitalization for an acute respiratory illness. After 2 days, staff noted a ~0.3 cm blister on the patient's right heel. Within 19 hours, blistering increased and the foot became partly gangrenous. The patient developed high fever (40.3°C), and leukocytosis (count: 13 × 10(9)/L; was 6.5 × 10(9)/L ten days earlier). Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) was diagnosed and treated with emergency leg amputation. Histopathology revealed necrosis of fascia, muscle, subcutaneous tissue, and skin. In bedridden patients, corticosteroids may particularly facilitate serious infections, and initial NF blistering may be mistaken for pressure ulcers. Vigilant and frequent whole body monitoring is necessary for all patients incapable of verbalizing their symptoms.

  14. Cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent child: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Othman, Norlijah; Abdullah, Nor Atiqah Ng; Wahab, Zubaidah Abdul

    2004-12-01

    An immunocompetent 5 year-old girl presented with pyrexia of unknown origin associated with headache. Initial investigations showed leukocytosis and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A Widal-Weil Felix test, blood film for malarial parasites, mycoplasma IgM antibody, cultures from blood and urine, full blood picture, Mantoux test, and chest x-ray were all negative. A lumbar puncture was done as part of a work-up for pyrexia of unknown origin. Cryptococcus neoformans was seen on India ink examination and confirmed on culture. She was treated with 10 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 weeks of fluconazole. Further immunological tests did not reveal any defect in the cell-mediated immune system. C. neoformans meningitis may present with non-specific symptoms and should be considered in a work-up for pyrexia of unknown origin.

  15. [A brief history of treatments for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia].

    PubMed

    Leverger, Guy; Baruchel, André; Schaison, Gérard

    2009-10-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the most frequent childhood malignancy. The first effective drugs, which provided only short-lived complete remission, started to be used in the 1950s. All the effective drugs currently in use were discovered in the 1960s, when the first multidrug chemotherapy regimens were shown to confer prolonged complete remission, raising the possibility of a cure. Simultaneously, progress in our knowledge of leukaemic cells, and the identification of prognostic factors such as leukocytosis, age, cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities, and the early therapeutic response of leukaemic cells, led to randomized multicenter national and international trials. As a result, the chance of cure increased gradually over the last three decades. In rich countries, the overall survival rate among children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia now reaches 85 to 90%.

  16. Siadenovirus infection in two psittacine bird species.

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Fleming, Gregory J; Stetter, Mark D; Childress, April L; Terrell, Scott P

    2009-10-01

    Consensus polymerase chain reaction was used to identify a novel adenovirus from two psittacine birds: a plum-headed parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) with lethargy, weight loss, and marked leukocytosis; and an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) with lethargy, weight loss, and feather abnormalities. Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analysis suggested that this virus is a member of the genus Siadenovirus, and is here termed psittacine adenovirus 2. This extends the characterized adenoviruses of psittacine birds beyond Aviadenovirus to include the genus Siadenovirus. Identification and further study of adenoviral types and species will provide useful diagnostic, prognostic, and epidemiologic information for the clinician. Like other known members of the genus Siadenovirus, Psittacine adenovirus 2 is AT-rich over the region sequenced, and it is hypothesized that this may be associated with shorter host-virus evolutionary association.

  17. Legionnaire's Disease and Acute Renal Failure: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Boucree, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    A case report is presented of a young man admitted to a general hospital with leukocytosis, elevated temperature, right lower lobe infiltrate, and confusion. A diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and Legionnaire's disease was made. The patient subsequently had a respiratory arrest and died on the 29th hospital day. This triad is currently an enigma in the field of internal medicine. The diagnosis of each entity is elusive, and in many cases must be made by the astute clinician. Diagnostic features along with early intervention measures and their expected outcomes are discussed. Recognition of the interrelationship of these diseases, risk factors, and vague clinical presentations might allow further prospective intervention methods and diagnostic procedures to be undertaken to avoid the fatal consequences seen in this disease triad. PMID:3074172

  18. Legionnaire's disease and acute renal failure: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Boucree, M C

    1988-10-01

    A case report is presented of a young man admitted to a general hospital with leukocytosis, elevated temperature, right lower lobe infiltrate, and confusion. A diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure, and Legionnaire's disease was made. The patient subsequently had a respiratory arrest and died on the 29th hospital day. This triad is currently an enigma in the field of internal medicine. The diagnosis of each entity is elusive, and in many cases must be made by the astute clinician. Diagnostic features along with early intervention measures and their expected outcomes are discussed. Recognition of the interrelationship of these diseases, risk factors, and vague clinical presentations might allow further prospective intervention methods and diagnostic procedures to be undertaken to avoid the fatal consequences seen in this disease triad.

  19. A role of NF-E2 in chronic inflammation and clonal evolution in essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis?

    PubMed

    Hasselbalch, Hans C

    2014-02-01

    A novel murine model for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) generated by overexpression of the transcription factor NF-E2 has recently been described. Sustained overexpression of NF-E2 in this model induced myeloid expansion with anemia, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis. Herein, it is debated if NF-E2 overexpression also might have induced a sustained state of in vivo leukocyte and platelet activation with chronic and self-perpetuating production of inflammatory products from activated leukocytes and platelets. If so, this novel murine model also may excellently describe the deleterious impact of sustained chronic NF-E2 overexpression during uncontrolled chronic inflammation upon the hematopoietic system--the development of clonal myeloproliferation. Accordingly, this novel murine model may also have delivered the proof of concept of chronic inflammation as a trigger and driver of clonal evolution in MPNs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sweet's Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Report.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Yasmeen J; Hassan, Iffat; Sajad, Peerzada; Akhtar, Saniya; Sheikh, Sheema

    2015-07-01

    Sweet's syndrome encompasses a variety of neutrophilic dermatosis characterized by acute onset of erythematous, edematous, painful papules, plaques and nodules associated with systemic symptoms, peripheral blood leukocytosis and histological findings of dense neutrophilic infiltrate. Ten patients were diagnosed during a period of one year. The patient population consisted of 7 females and 3 males with mean age of 47.6 years ranging from 32 to 60 years. An associated disorder was observed in 6 patients which were diabetes, hypothyroidism, hypertension and inflammatory bowel disease. Two cases of pregnancy associated disease were observed. Cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous plaques or nodules. Lesions were located mainly on the face, neck and upper extremities. All biopsy specimens demonstrated a dermal infiltrate composed predominantly of neutrophils. Seven patients were treated by oral corticosteroids and three by oral dapsone, all for a period of 6 weeks.

  1. Adrenal insufficiency secondary to tuberculosis: the value of telemedicine in the remote diagnosis of Addison's disease in Ebeye, Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Bush, Lisabeth A; Ruess, Lynne; Jack, Tom; Person, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    A young Marshallese woman presented with the insidious development of fever, cough, fatigue, profound weakness, massive weight loss, cachexia, alopecia, amenorrhea, and periumbilical hyperpigmentation. Limited laboratory studies revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and hyponatremia. Imaging studies, as well as digital photographs, transmitted over the Internet, using the secure Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP), store-and-forward telemedicine system, suggested the diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis, and antimycobacterial antibiotics were begun. Sputum cultures eventually grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on the constellation of clinical signs and symptoms, the transmitted images, and limited laboratory data, adrenal tuberculosis (Addison's disease) with adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed and corticosteroids were initiated. The patient responded dramatically This case underscores the utility of telemedicine in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with unusual conditions, rarely seen today in the United States, from remote sites in the Developing World.

  2. [Cavernous sinus thrombosis as a rare cause of exophthalmos in childhood : A case report].

    PubMed

    Kamawal, A; Schmidt, M A; Rompel, O; Gusek-Schneider, G C; Mardin, C Y; Trollmann, R

    2017-05-01

    Complications of acute bacterial sinusitis mostly occur in children and adolescents. In particular, intracranial spread of the infection can lead to severe even fatal courses of the disease. This article is a case report about a 13-year-old boy suffering from left-sided headache, meningismus and exophthalmos as presenting symptoms. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed merely right-sided sphenoid sinusitis; however, the diffusion-weighted MRI sequence indicated a left-sided cavernous sinus thrombosis, which could be confirmed by computed tomography (CT) angiography. Cerebrospinal fluid diagnostics showed significant leukocytosis confirming secondary meningitis. Finally, exophthalmos was explained by parainfectious cavernous sinus thrombosis and periorbital edema. This case report highlights the importance of extended and specific diagnostic imaging in cases of clinically suspected complications in children and adolescents with sinusitis and the diagnostic significance of diffusion-weighted MRI.

  3. Effect of simulated ambient particulate matter exposure on performance, rectal temperature, and leukocytosis of young Spanish goats with or without tilmicosin phosphate.

    PubMed

    Chirase, N K; Purdy, C W; Avampato, J M

    2004-04-01

    Dust is an environmental stressor and can become extensive in agricultural production systems. Thirty-six female, Spanish goats (average BW 21.1 kg, SEM = 1.31; age = 4 mo) were randomly assigned to simulated dust events or no dust, with or without tilmicosin phosphate treatment in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine effects on performance, rectal temperature, and leukocyte changes. All goats were fed a standard growing diet (13.6% CP) consisting of 37% roughage and 63% concentrate (DM basis). Feed intake was measured daily, and BW (unshrunk) measured individually every 7 d. The tilmicosin-treated group received tilmicosin phosphate (10 mg/kg BW s.c.) before starting the study. Goats exposed to dust were enclosed as a group inside a canvass tent for 4 h each day and ground feed yard manure dust (mean particle size 100 microm) was aerosolized inside the tent to simulate a dust event. There was one single dust event (Phase I) followed by rectal temperature measurement, and heparinized blood collection for complete cell counts at 0 (pretrial), 4, 12, 20, 44, 68, and 210 h after dust exposure. This was followed by 21 d of chronic dust events (Phase II). The sampling procedures for Phase II were exactly the same as in Phase I, except that samples were obtained daily at 0 (before dust application), 4, 8, and 12 h after each dust event. Dust treatment had no effect (P > 0.05) on feed intake or ADG, but the gain:feed (G:F) ratio was lower (P < 0.05) in the control goats than the dust exposed group. Tilmicosin phosphate-treated goats had a higher (P < 0.05) G:F ratio than untreated goats. Dust exposure increased (P < 0.002), but tilmicosin treatment decreased (P < 0.05) rectal temperature at 4 and 8 h. Dust exposure increased (P < 0.02) blood lymphocyte counts compared with controls. These results suggest that simulated dust events altered rectal temperature and leukocyte counts of goats.

  4. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS, RUPTURED APPENDICITIS AND THE LEVEL OF LEUKOCYTOSIS IN PAEDIATRIC SURGICAL PATIENTS OF NELSON MANDELA CENTRAL HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Mtimba, L; Dhaffala, A; Molaoa, S Z

    2017-06-01

    Appendicectomy is the most commonly performed operation worldwide. The diagnosis is predominantly based on clinical findings. Some patients will clinically be unclear if ruptured or acute inflamed appendicitis; the level of white cell count has been used as the predictor for ruptured appendicitis. This was a retrospective chart review of paediatric surgical patients admitted at Nelson Mandela Central Hospital, Mthatha South Africa. A total of 214 patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Overall, the ruptured appendicitis was 62% and 38% were inflamed appendicitis. Nature of the acute appendicitis: White cell count, Inflamed, Ruptured, Total p-value < 9.9 21 30 51 0.075, 10-14.9 28 54 82 0.0, 15-19.9 17 29 46 0.012, 20-29.9 5 26 31 0.0 > 30 0 4 4. This study has demonstrated that in patients who are diagnosed with acute appendicitis clinically, the normal white cell count does not necessarily rule out ruptured acute appendicitis. But the risks of ruptured acute appendicitis increase with the increase level of white cell count.

  5. [Laboratory findings in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Puljiz, Ivan; Kuzman, Ilija; Turcinov, Drago; Makek, Nikola; Markotić, Alemka

    2005-01-01

    To examine the frequency and distribution of hematologic and biochemical laboratory findings in 94 patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the epidemic year 2002. The following laboratory findings were retrospectively analyzed: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocyte count and differential percentage (segmented neutrophils, band neutrophils, atypical lymphocytes), platelet count, coagulation tests, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urine, potassium, bilirubin (BIL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum protein electrophoresis. The study included 94 HFRS patients treated at the Dr Fran Mihaljević University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb during 2002. ESR increase, mostly mild to moderate, was found in 86.2% of study patients. Increased CRP was recorded in 98.9% of study patients, however, one-fourth had CRP higher than 100 mg/L. Leukocytosis was recorded in 38.3% (10.1 +/- 4.2 x 10(9)/L), thrombocytopenia in 89.4% patients (68.2 +/- 48.3 x 10(9)/L), and severe thrombocytopenia (x 10(9)/L) in six patients. Three patients had abnormal coagulation tests. Increased values of BUN and creatinine were recorded in more than a half of patients, while only four patients had mild hyperkalemia. Only three patinets required hemodialysis. Mildly to moderately increased values of aminotransferases (AST, ALT, GT) were observed in more than 2/3; hypoalbuminaemia in nearly 1/3, and elevated alpha-2 fraction in more than 2/3 of patients. The majority of patients had pathologic urine findings. First laboratory abnormalities were usually found between day 5 and 7 of the disease (increased CRP level, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and elevation of hemoglobin and hematocrit). Biochemical abnormalities(elevation of cratinine and urea, increased levels of aminotransferases) usually occurred at

  6. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: predictive risk factors in the Emergency Department. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Giuseppe; Castelli, Matteo; Nazerian, Peiman; Vanni, Simone; Del Panta, Massimo; Gambassi, Francesco; Botti, Primo; Missanelli, Andrea; Grifoni, Stefano

    2011-03-17

    Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) commonly occur after recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The preventive role and the indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the acute setting are still controversial. Early identification of patients at risk in the Emergency Department might permit an improvement in quality of care. We conducted a retrospective study to identify predictive risk factors for DNS development in the Emergency Department. We retrospectively considered all CO-poisoned patients admitted to the Emergency Department of Careggi University General Hospital (Florence, Italy) from 1992 to 2007. Patients were invited to participate in three follow-up visits at one, six and twelve months from hospital discharge. Clinical and biohumoral data were collected; univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify predictive risk factors for DNS. Three hundred forty seven patients were admitted to the Emergency Department for acute CO poisoning from 1992 to 2007; 141/347 patients participated in the follow-up visit at one month from hospital discharge. Thirty four/141 patients were diagnosed with DNS (24.1%). Five/34 patients previously diagnosed as having DNS presented to the follow-up visit at six months, reporting a complete recovery. The following variables (collected before or upon Emergency Department admission) were associated to DNS development at one month from hospital discharge in the univariate analysis: CO exposure duration >6 hours, a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <9, seizures, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, elevated creatine phosphokinase concentration and leukocytosis. There was no significant correlation with age, sex, voluntary exposure, headache, transient loss of consciousness, GCS between 14 and 9, arterial lactate and carboxyhemoglobin concentration. The multivariate analysis confirmed as independent prognostic factors GCS <9 (OR 7.15; CI 95%: 1.04-48.8) and leukocytosis (OR 3.31; CI 95%: 1

  7. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: predictive risk factors in the Emergency Department. A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS) commonly occur after recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The preventive role and the indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the acute setting are still controversial. Early identification of patients at risk in the Emergency Department might permit an improvement in quality of care. We conducted a retrospective study to identify predictive risk factors for DNS development in the Emergency Department. Methods We retrospectively considered all CO-poisoned patients admitted to the Emergency Department of Careggi University General Hospital (Florence, Italy) from 1992 to 2007. Patients were invited to participate in three follow-up visits at one, six and twelve months from hospital discharge. Clinical and biohumoral data were collected; univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify predictive risk factors for DNS. Results Three hundred forty seven patients were admitted to the Emergency Department for acute CO poisoning from 1992 to 2007; 141/347 patients participated in the follow-up visit at one month from hospital discharge. Thirty four/141 patients were diagnosed with DNS (24.1%). Five/34 patients previously diagnosed as having DNS presented to the follow-up visit at six months, reporting a complete recovery. The following variables (collected before or upon Emergency Department admission) were associated to DNS development at one month from hospital discharge in the univariate analysis: CO exposure duration >6 hours, a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score <9, seizures, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, elevated creatine phosphokinase concentration and leukocytosis. There was no significant correlation with age, sex, voluntary exposure, headache, transient loss of consciousness, GCS between 14 and 9, arterial lactate and carboxyhemoglobin concentration. The multivariate analysis confirmed as independent prognostic factors GCS <9 (OR 7.15; CI 95%: 1.04-48.8) and leukocytosis (OR 3

  8. Coexistence of chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with antecedent chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abuelgasim, Khadega A; Rehan, Hinna; Alsubaie, Maha; Al Atwi, Nasser; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Alshieban, Saeed; Almughairi, Areej

    2018-03-11

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia are the most common types of adult leukemia. However, it is rare for the same patient to suffer from both. Richter's transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is frequently observed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Purine analog therapy and the presence of trisomy 12, and CCND1 gene rearrangement have been linked to increased risk of Richter's transformation. The coexistence of chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the same patient is extremely rare, with only nine reported cases. Here, we describe the first reported case of concurrent chronic myeloid leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a background of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A 60-year-old Saudi man known to have diabetes, hypertension, and chronic active hepatitis B was diagnosed as having Rai stage II chronic lymphocytic leukemia, with trisomy 12 and rearrangement of the CCND1 gene in December 2012. He required no therapy until January 2016 when he developed significant anemia, thrombocytopenia, and constitutional symptoms. He received six cycles of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab, after which he achieved complete remission. One month later, he presented with progressive leukocytosis (mostly neutrophilia) and splenomegaly. Fluorescence in situ hybridization from bone marrow aspirate was positive for translocation (9;22) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detected BCR-ABL fusion gene consistent with chronic myeloid leukemia. He had no morphologic or immunophenotypic evidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia at the time. Imatinib, a first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was started. Eight months later, a screening imaging revealed new liver lesions, which were confirmed to be diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, progressive leukocytosis and splenomegaly caused by emerging chronic myeloid leukemia can be easily overlooked. It is unlikely that chronic myeloid

  9. Factors predictive of complicated appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Pham, Xuan-Binh D; Sullins, Veronica F; Kim, Dennis Y; Range, Blake; Kaji, Amy H; de Virgilio, Christian M; Lee, Steven L

    2016-11-01

    The ability to predict whether a child has complicated appendicitis at initial presentation may influence clinical management. However, whether complicated appendicitis is associated with prehospital or inhospital factors is not clear. We also investigate whether hyponatremia may be a novel prehospital factor associated with complicated appendicitis. A retrospective review of all pediatric patients (≤12 y) with appendicitis treated with appendectomy from 2000 to 2013 was performed. The main outcome measure was intraoperative confirmation of gangrenous or perforated appendicitis. A multivariable analysis was performed, and the main predictors of interest were age <5 y, symptom duration >24 h, leukocytosis (white blood cell count >12 × 10 3 /mL), hyponatremia (sodium ≤135 mEq/L), and time from admission to appendectomy. Of 392 patients, 179 (46%) had complicated appendicitis at the time of operation. Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients with complicated appendicitis were younger, had a longer duration of symptoms, higher white blood cell count, and lower sodium levels than patients with noncomplicated appendicitis. Multivariable analysis confirmed that symptom duration >24 h (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5-8.9, P < 0.01), hyponatremia (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.0-4.9, P < 0.01), age <5 y (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-4.0, P < 0.01), and leukocytosis (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.5, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of complicated appendicitis. Increased time from admission to appendectomy was not a predictor of complicated appendicitis (OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.5-1.2, P = 0.2). Prehospital factors can predict complicated appendicitis in children with suspected appendicitis. Hyponatremia is a novel marker associated with complicated appendicitis. Delaying appendectomy does not increase the risk of complicated appendicitis once intravenous antibiotics are administered. This information may help guide

  10. [RS3PE syndrome or benign edematous polysynovitis in the elderly. Study of 8 cases].

    PubMed

    Cobeta García, J C; Martínez Burgui, J

    1999-12-01

    The RS3PE syndrome is a recently described uncommon disorder in the elderly patient; in the initial reports, it was characterized by an excellent prognosis with total remission. In contrast with rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatic, it has been related to HLA B7. Further works have questioned its benign nature and even that it is a new entity. Our objective was to study the clinico-biological characteristics, therapy, and clinical course in patients with RS3PE attended at our clinic. Retrospective descriptional study of patients with RS3PE attended in our clinic from January 1992 to December 1998 following the inclusion criteria proposed by Olivé et al. For all patients, the following determinations and studies were performed: complete blood count, ESR, serum biochemistry, two measurements of rheumatoid factor (RF), and X-ray. Class I HLA typing was determined in five cases. Eight patients were found (6 men and 2 women), with a mean age of 68.7 years. The arthritis was more common at MCP, wrists, shoulder, and PIF in hands. Four patients had tenosynovitis of the hand flexors. ESR (mean: 69.3) and RCP (mean: 49.7) were increased in most cases. Seven patients had leukocytosis. HLA B7 was positive for 4 out of five patients. All patients were treated with low-dose corticosteroids, with a mean length of 9.5 months. Three patients had relapses. During follow-up after therapy had been completed, none of the patients had other diseases. RS3PE syndrome involves elderly patients and its clinical course is characterized by sudden onset seronegative symmetrical polysynovitis, with pitting edema over the hand dorsum and less commonly over the pretibial region. In most cases, a marked acute-phase reaction and leukocytosis were observed. Therapy with low-dose corticosteroids is effective; sometimes however, it is necessary to add antimalarial agents. The three patients who relapsed had underlying diseases: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Sjögren's syndrome, and liver

  11. Clostridium sordellii toxic shock syndrome after medical abortion with mifepristone and intravaginal misoprostol--United States and Canada, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    2005-07-29

    On July 19, 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health advisory regarding the deaths of four women in the United States after medical abortions with Mifeprex (mifepristone, formerly RU-486; Danco Laboratories, New York, New York) and intravaginal misoprostol. Two of these deaths occurred in 2003, one in 2004, and one in 2005. Two of these U.S. cases had clinical illness consistent with toxic shock and had evidence of endometrial infection with Clostridium sordellii, a gram-positive, toxin-forming anaerobic bacteria. In addition, a fatal case of C. sordellii toxic shock syndrome after medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol was reported in 2001, in Canada. All three cases of C. sordellii infection were notable for lack of fever, and all had refractory hypotension, multiple effusions, hemoconcentration, and a profound leukocytosis. C. sordellii previously has been described as a cause of pregnancy-associated toxic shock syndrome.

  12. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the mesentery associated with high fever and positive Widal test.

    PubMed

    Chouairy, Camil J; Bechara, Elie A; Gebran, Sleiman J; Ghabril, Ramy H

    2008-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is associated in 15-30% of cases with systemic symptomatology, such as prolonged fever, weight loss, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), anemia, thrombocytosis, and leukocytosis. We report the case of a 4-year-old Lebanese boy who presented with high-grade fever of long duration, and a single (unpaired) positive Widal agglutination test. Blood culture was negative. A diagnosis of typhoid fever was made. An abdominal (mesenteric) IMT was incidentally discovered, 30 days after the fever had appeared. After surgery, the fever disappeared immediately, and the ESR returned to normal. We strongly favor the possibility of a false positive Widal test, due to polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins, which often occurs in IMT. We also think that IMT might be a mimicker of typhoid fever, both clinically and serologically. Physicians, especially pediatricians practicing in endemic areas, should probably be aware of this mimicry.

  13. [Morphological findings in fatal cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Report of 7 autopsies].

    PubMed

    Guzmán G, Pablo; Tapia E, Oscar; Villaseca H, Miguel; Araya O, Juan; Antonio P, Lilia; Lee O, Bolívar; Roa S, Juan

    2010-10-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an acute infectious disease characterized by sudden cardiorespiratory failure and high mortality, caused by a RNA virus of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae, 15% of Chilean cases have been detected in the Araucania Region. To determine in fatal cases of HCPS, clinical and morphological characteristics. Descriptive-retrospective analysis of seven fatal cases with postmortem study of HCPS, attended between 1997 and 2009 at the Hospital of Temuco, Chile. Cases were young patients from rural areas, and presented as an illness of progressive respiratory failure, with leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial pulmonary infiltrates. Main morphological findings were marked intersticial and intraalveolar pulmonary edema, with minimal epithelial injury and mononuclear cell intersticial infiltrate and mild edematous intersticial inflamatory process. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory background allow to suspect HCPS. In fatal cases, the autopsy makes possible to discard other similar pathologies and provide tissue for confirmation of the disease.

  14. Ruxolitinib for the Treatment of Patients With Polycythemia Vera

    PubMed Central

    Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Winton, Elliott F.; Talpaz, Moshe; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Polycythemia vera (PV) is a hematopoietic proliferative disorder associated with Janus-associated kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway dysregulation resulting in erythrocytosis and, possibly, leukocytosis and thrombocytosis. Patients diagnosed with PV experience a broad range of symptoms associated with a reduced quality of life, often develop splenomegaly, and have an increased risk of death compared to age-matched subjects without PV. Current treatment options, notably hydroxyurea, help with disease management; however, insufficient efficacy or progressive resistance occurs in some patients, highlighting the need for new treatment options. Ruxolitinib is an oral JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor that has been evaluated in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials in patients with PV who are intolerant of or resistant to hydroxyurea. In this setting, ruxolitinib treatment has demonstrated normalization of blood cell counts, reduction in splenomegaly, and improvements in PV-related symptom burden. PMID:25980454

  15. A case of hairy cell leukemia variant.

    PubMed

    Găman, Amelia Maria; Dobrea, Camelia Marioara; Găman, Mihnea Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia variant (HCLv) is a rare B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder with features of the classic HCL but presenting some particularities, a poor response to conventional therapy of classic HCL and a more aggressive course of disease with shorter survival than classic HCL. We present a case of a 52-year-old man hospitalized in July 2012 in the Clinic of Hematology of Craiova, Romania, having splenomegaly, leukocytosis with lymphocytosis, anemia and thrombocytopenia, without monocytopenia, which exposed, in the peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, intermediate morphology between hairy cells and prolymphocytes and immunophenotype of mature B-cell phenotype CD19, CD20, CD22, CD11c, CD103, low positive for CD25 and negative for CD3, diagnosed with HCL variant, with no response to conventional chemotherapy and interferon-alpha, an aggressive course of disease and a survival of less than a year from diagnosis.

  16. Eyes can See What Mind Can’t see

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Irfan, Ahsan, E-mail: irfanahsanrajpoot@gmail.com; Zulfiqar, Arif; Ali, Ghani

    A 55 year old Caucasian female with a history of Iron deficiency anemia with hemoglobin of 6.1 gm/dl was admitted from her hematologist office for a Venofer infusion. She had profound confusion on presentation. Physical examination was pertinent for fever of 101οF, and laboratory data pertinent for elevated blood sugars of 590 mg/dl, leukocytosis of 10.3 K/UL with bandemia of 13%, elevated AST 170 U/L, ALT 184 U/L, and normal alkaline phosphate and total bilirubin. She was subsequently found to have Strep. Viridian bacteremia and CT scan of Chestabdomen- pelvis revealed multiple hepatosplenic masses consistent with malignancy or abscesses. Livermore » biopsy showed benign liver cells with a background of acute and chronic inflammatory cells and abscess (*image shown). She was treated with long term course of Ceftriaxone via PICC line.« less

  17. Cefovecin (Convenia) for the treatment of septic peritonitis in a female lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Steeil, James; Schumacher, Juergen; Seibert, Rachel; Tobias, Karen

    2012-09-01

    An 8-yr-old intact female African lion (Panthera leo) presented with a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Hematologic and biochemical abnormalities included a leukocytosis, 41,700/microl (4,700-15,300) with a neutrophilia (37,530/microl; 2,000-9,200) and a left shift (1,250/microl bands; 0-300), and mild hypokalemia of 2.1 mEq/L (2.8-4.8). Abdominal radiographs revealed evidence of intestinal ileus, peritonitis, and the presence of effusion. An exploratory laparotomy was performed, and septic peritonitis due to a pyometra was diagnosed. The lion was treated with an ovariohysterectomy, abdominal lavage, fluid therapy, and a subcutaneous injection of cefovecin. The lion recovered, and clinical signs associated with septic peritonitis resolved within 36 hr. It was returned to conspecifics 3 wk later. Three months postoperatively, the lion showed no residual signs of septic peritonitis.

  18. Pyomyositis of tensor fascia lata: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Korhan; Unay, Koray; Ugutmen, Ender; Eren, Abdullah; Eceviz, Engin; Saygý, Baransel

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Pyomyositis is a disease in which an abscess is formed deep within large striated muscles. Case presentation We report the case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with fever and a painful hip and was subsequently diagnosed with pyomyositis of the tensor fascia lata. In children with clinical and laboratory findings of inflammation in the vicinity of the hip joint, the differential diagnosis includes transient synovitis, an early stage of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, infectious arthritis of the hip, rheumatologic diseases and extracapsular infection such as osteomyelitis. Conclusion To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of pyomyositis of the tensor fascia lata. Although pyomyositis is a rare disease and the differential diagnosis includes a variety of other commonly observed diseases, pyomyositis should be considered in cases where children present with fever, leukocytosis and localized pain. PMID:18652647

  19. Differentiation between intra-abdominal neoplasms and abscesses in horses, using clinical and laboratory data: 40 cases (1973-1988).

    PubMed

    Zicker, S C; Wilson, W D; Medearis, I

    1990-04-01

    The medical records of 25 horses with intra-abdominal neoplasms and 15 horses with intra-abdominal abscesses were reviewed. Common clinical signs of disease observed by owners of horses in both groups included anorexia, weight loss, fever, signs of colic, and depression. Clinical laboratory abnormalities included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypocalcemia. There was considerable overlap of laboratory test results within and between the 2 groups of horses. Peritoneal fluid was classified as an exudate in 12 of 15 horses with intra-abdominal abscesses and in 14 of 25 horses with intra-abdominal neoplasms. Cytologic examination of peritoneal fluid yielded an accurate diagnosis in 11 of 25 horses with neoplasia and in 3 of 15 horses with abscesses. A mean number of 1.45 cytologic analyses/horse was needed to diagnose neoplasms in the 11 horses in which the analysis was successful in definitively diagnosing the condition.

  20. Hematological measurements in rats flown on Spacelab shuttle, SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. D.; Andrews, R. B.; Gibson, L. A.; Congdon, C. C.; Wright, P.; Dunn, C. D.; Jones, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in red cell mass occurs in astronauts, and some studies indicate a leukocytosis occurs. A life science module housing young and mature rats was flown on shuttle mission Spacelab 3 (SL-3), and the results of hematology studies of flight and control rats are presented. Statistically significant increases in the hematocrit, red blood cell counts, and hemoglobin determinations, together with a mild neutrophilia and lymphopenia, were found in flight animals. No significant changes were found in bone marrow and spleen cell differentials or erythropoietin determinations. Clonal assays demonstrated an increased erythroid colony formation of flight animal bone marrow cells at erythropoietin doses of 0.02 and 1.0 U/ml but not 0.20 U/ml. These results agree with some but vary from other previously published studies. Erythropoietin assays and clonal studies were performed for the first time.

  1. Leukemoid reaction secondary to hypersensitivity syndrome to phenobarbital: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinghai; Wu, Yuanqiang; Zhan, Yi; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Yangmei; Yin, Jun; Fan, Fan; Zhang, Guiying; Lu, Qianjin; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The most important adverse effects of phenobarbital, an anticonvulsant drug, are behavior and cognitive alterations. Hypersensitivity syndrome caused by phenobarbital presenting with a leukemoid reaction is a rare side effect, which is rarely ever reported and needs to be known. We report on a 27-year-old Chinese woman who experienced hypersensitivity syndrome three weeks after the initiation of phenobarbital. The patient developed fever, skin rash, face swelling, lymphadenopathy, myalgia, hepatitis, eosinophilia, atypical lymphocytes and leukocytosis. Along with the pathological progress of the disease, the patient noticed a gradual exacerbation of her symptoms. And the highest leukocyte count was up to 127.2 x 10(9)/L. After discontinuing of phenobarbital and administration of methylprednisolone combined with the intravenous immunoglobulin shock therapy, all initial symptoms improved and the leukocyte count normalized. This case is reported because of its rarity of the leukemoid reaction secondary to hypersensitivity syndrome to phenobarbital.

  2. Cannabis Intoxication Case Series: The Dangers of Edibles Containing Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Vo, Kathy T; Horng, Howard; Li, Kai; Ho, Raymond Y; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis and its principal active constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are increasingly available as edibles resembling commercially available food products. In this case series, we describe a population of predominantly pediatric patients who were inadvertently exposed to a THC-containing product in San Francisco. Twelve children and 9 adults were identified, with 16 patients having detectable serum THC and THC metabolites. All patients presented to hospitals with a variety of constitutional symptoms and all were discharged home within 12 hours. In general, pediatric patients had more severe symptoms and longer hospital length of stay, and, uniquely, a majority presented with leukocytosis and elevated lactic acid levels. We recommend that efforts be made to increase general public awareness in regard to the potential hazards of THC-containing edibles resembling commercially available food products. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Hematologic, biochemical, and immunological tests in clinical practice of rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Yukawa, Naoichiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2013-07-01

    In clinical practice of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), various kinds of laboratory tests are required for diagnosis, assessment of the disease activity, assessment of complications and risk factors before starting therapy, and assessment of adverse effects during the therapy. Anemia, thrombocytosis, and leukocytosis are common in active RA. During RA therapies, liver function tests (including ALT and AST) and renal function tests (including serum creatinine and urinalysis) should be performed. Anti-CCP antibody is an especially useful marker for diagnosis of RA, and the presence of the antibody has been included in ACR/EULAR 2010 RA classification criteria. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) after immunosuppressive therapies is a potentially serious complication. HBc and/or HBs antibodies should be measured before starting the therapies even if HBs antigen is negative, and appropriate interventions including measurement of HBV-DNA and starting prophylaxis (entecavir is recommended) should be performed.

  4. A cocktail of humanized anti-pertussis toxin antibodies limits disease in murine and baboon models of whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Annalee W; Wagner, Ellen K; Laber, Joshua R; Goodfield, Laura L; Smallridge, William E; Harvill, Eric T; Papin, James F; Wolf, Roman F; Padlan, Eduardo A; Bristol, Andy; Kaleko, Michael; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2015-12-02

    Despite widespread vaccination, pertussis rates are rising in industrialized countries and remain high worldwide. With no specific therapeutics to treat disease, pertussis continues to cause considerable infant morbidity and mortality. The pertussis toxin is a major contributor to disease, responsible for local and systemic effects including leukocytosis and immunosuppression. We humanized two murine monoclonal antibodies that neutralize pertussis toxin and expressed them as human immunoglobulin G1 molecules with no loss of affinity or in vitro neutralization activity. When administered prophylactically to mice as a binary cocktail, antibody treatment completely mitigated the Bordetella pertussis-induced rise in white blood cell counts and decreased bacterial colonization. When administered therapeutically to baboons, antibody-treated, but not untreated control animals, experienced a blunted rise in white blood cell counts and accelerated bacterial clearance rates. These preliminary findings support further investigation into the use of these antibodies to treat human neonatal pertussis in conjunction with antibiotics and supportive care. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ross G.

    2008-01-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  6. Complications and total care of a child with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Vietti, T J; Ragab, A H

    1975-03-01

    The complications which occur in a child with acute leukemia depend on the stage of the disease and the therapeutic regiman. Most children will present with some manifestation of marrow failure. An occasional child will have marked leukocytosis and disturbance of organ function due to massive leukemic infiltrates. Metabolic disturbances such as hyperuricemia and hyperphosphatemia-hypocalcemia may develop, expecially after therapy is initiated. The myelosuppression and immunosuppression due to drug toxicity may result in opportunistic infections. Other toxicities which can occur with a chemotherapeutic regimen are numerois and varied, and the physician must be cognizant of them in order to minimize damage. Therapy to the central nervous system, either for subclinical or clinical disease, has been associated with a variety of symptoms ranging from meningismus to paraplegia and death. To prevent the development of these complications, and to manage them effectively if they occur, the physician must be knowlegeable about their etiology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and treatment.

  7. Chromobacterium violaceum infection in Taiwan: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chang, Choon Yuk; Lee, Yuan Ti; Liu, Ken Sen; Wang, Ya Li; Tsao, Shih Ming

    2007-06-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative bacillus which inhabits stagnant water in tropical and subtropical regions. We describe the case of an 80-year-old female patient with C. violaceum bacteremia due to traumatic wound infected by contaminated water and soil. She had persistent fever, hypotension and neutrophilic leukocytosis on admission. Two sets of blood cultures yielded C. violaceum. The patient was successfully treated with levofloxacin. Since the first case from Malaysia in 1927, about 150 cases have been reported in the world literature. To our knowledge, six other cases have been reported previously from Taiwan, including two children and four adults. Of the total of seven patients from Taiwan, four had a fatal outcome within several days, while the three survivors were apparently free of vital organ involvement. Although human infections caused by C. violaceum are rare, clinicians should be aware of this potentially fatal infection as part of the differential diagnosis of sepsis associated with a history of exposure to stagnant water.

  8. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia: report of seven cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Urs, Latha; Qualman, Stephen J; Kahwash, Samir B

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a rare, aggressive, clonal hematopoietic disorder of childhood with features of both myelodysplasia (thrombocytopenia, anemia) and myeloproliferation (leukocytosis, monocytosis). In most cases there is marrow hypercellularity, splenomegaly, and extramedullary involvement. In 1997 an international consensus on terminology was reached and guidelines/criteria for diagnosis were proposed. A recent World Health Organization classification described the current diagnostic criteria of JMML. Although the diagnosis of JMML has been facilitated, it can be challenging, especially in the early stages or when it 1st presents as an extramedullary tumor. We report a series of 7 cases diagnosed over a period of 10 years (from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2005). Two cases had interesting associated findings that would potentially lead to delay in diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Two other cases had extramedullary involvement with symptoms referable to the organs of involvement at presentation. Clinical and pathologic findings are summarized with a review of relevant literature.

  9. Eosinophilic Pleural Effusion: A Rare Manifestation of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Ndubuisi C.; Oso, Ayodeji A.; Oranu, Amanke C.; Wolff, Steven M.; Murray, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Several causes of eosinophilic pleural effusions have been described with malignancy being the commonest cause. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disease and very few cases have been reported of HES presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE). We report a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath. He had bilateral pleural effusions, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was exudative, with 25%–30% eosinophilis, and absence of neoplastic cells. Hypereosinophilic syndrome was diagnosed after other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. He continued to be dyspneic with persistent accumulation of eosinophilic pleural fluid, even after his peripheral eosinophil count had normalized in response to treatment. This patient represents a very unusual presentation of HES with dyspnea and pleural effusions and demonstrates that treatment based on response of peripheral eosinophil counts, as is currently recommended, may not always be clinically adequate. PMID:20111739

  10. Eosinophilic pleural effusion: a rare manifestation of hypereosinophilic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ndubuisi C; Oso, Ayodeji A; Oranu, Amanke C; Wolff, Steven M; Murray, John J

    2009-01-01

    Several causes of eosinophilic pleural effusions have been described with malignancy being the commonest cause. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a rare disease and very few cases have been reported of HES presenting as eosinophilic pleural effusion (EPE). We report a case of a 26-year-old male who presented with shortness of breath. He had bilateral pleural effusions, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and leukocytosis with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was exudative, with 25%-30% eosinophilis, and absence of neoplastic cells. Hypereosinophilic syndrome was diagnosed after other causes of eosinophilia were excluded. He continued to be dyspneic with persistent accumulation of eosinophilic pleural fluid, even after his peripheral eosinophil count had normalized in response to treatment. This patient represents a very unusual presentation of HES with dyspnea and pleural effusions and demonstrates that treatment based on response of peripheral eosinophil counts, as is currently recommended, may not always be clinically adequate.

  11. Regulation of hematopoiesis in the suspended rat as a model for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of studies was completed in which a variety of routine hematological and other parameters were obtained from sequential sampling of control and suspended rats. These data showed that, during suspension, the rats failed to gain weight at the same rate as the controls, ate and drank significantly less, demonstrated a transient increase in peripheral hematocrit and RBC count, a transient decrease in MCH, suppressed reticulocyte counts and a progressive decrease in MCV but no change in RBC shape. Leukocyte counts were variably decreased but no significant changes in platelet numbers were noted. Post-suspension, evidence of anemia was present from a reduced RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCV. A leukocytosis was also noted. Efforts directed to the collection of data aimed at understanding changes in blood volume during suspension are also discussed. As part of these studies the following parameters were investigated; RBC survival, in vitro leukocyte reactivity to PHA, bone marrow and spleen cellularity and morphology, ferrokinetics, and the hematopoietic inductive microenvironment.

  12. Coexistence of inversion 16 and the Philadelphia chromosome comprising P190 BCR/ABL in chronic myeloid leukemia blast crisis.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Soranobu; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Kasahara, Senji; Hara, Takeshi; Yamada, Toshiki; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2011-06-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with leukocytosis (278 × 10(9)/L) with 72% blasts. Bone marrow blast cells showed cytogenetic abnormality with 46,XX, t(9;22), inv(16). Despite achievement of hematological remission by induction chemotherapy, Philadelphia chromosome did not disappear; chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis (BC) was thus diagnosed. The P190 BCR/ABL fusion transcript was detected. Imatinib mesylate introduced a hematological remission of short duration; however, infiltration into the central nervous system occurred, and the patient died 7 months after presentation. Coexistence of inv(16) and t(9:22) has been described in CML-BC and de novo AML, and CML-BC patients always carry P210 BCR/ABL, while de novo AML patients usually have P190 BCR/ABL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CML-BC with inv(16) and P190 BCR/ABL. We discuss this case with reference to the literature.

  13. The natural history of West Nile virus infection presenting with West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a man with a prolonged illness: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mainali, Shraddha; Afshani, Mansoor; Wood, James B; Levin, Michael C

    2011-05-25

    Estimates indicate that West Nile virus infects approximately one and a half million people in the United States of America. Up to 1% may develop West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease, in which infected patients develop any combination of meningitis, encephalitis, or acute paralysis. A 56-year-old African-American man presented to our hospital with headache, restlessness, fever, myalgias, decreased appetite, and progressive confusion. A cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild leukocytosis and an elevated protein level. Testing for routine infections was negative. Brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans showed marked enlargement of caudate nuclei and increased intensity within the basal ganglia and thalami. A West Nile virus titer was positive, and serial brain magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolving abnormalities that paralleled his neurological examination. This report is unusual as it portrays the natural history and long-term consequences of West Nile virus meningoencephalitis diagnosed on the basis of serial brain images.

  14. Drug-Induced Hematologic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, David M.; Billet, Shira N.; Chmielewski, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Drugs can induce almost the entire spectrum of hematologic disorders, affecting white cells, red cells, platelets, and the coagulation system. This paper aims to emphasize the broad range of drug-induced hematological syndromes and to highlight some of the newer drugs and syndromes. Methods. Medline literature on drug-induced hematologic syndromes was reviewed. Most reports and reviews focus on individual drugs or cytopenias. Results. Drug-induced syndromes include hemolytic anemias, methemoglobinemia, red cell aplasia, sideroblastic anemia, megaloblastic anemia, polycythemia, aplastic anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, immune thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic syndromes, hypercoagulability, hypoprothrombinemia, circulating anticoagulants, myelodysplasia, and acute leukemia. Some of the classic drugs known to cause hematologic abnormalities have been replaced by newer drugs, including biologics, accompanied by their own syndromes and unintended side effects. Conclusions. Drugs can induce toxicities spanning many hematologic syndromes, mediated by a variety of mechanisms. Physicians need to be alert to the potential for iatrogenic drug-induced hematologic complications. PMID:19960059

  15. [Assessment of local and systemic inflammatory parameters of peripheral burn in an animal model].

    PubMed

    Torres, Wilmary; Mendoza, Liseth; Vicci, Hember; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio; Navarro, María

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the edema volume and leukocyte, platelet, and fibrinogen count of peripheral burn in an animal model. The back left leg of Rattus norvegicus (experimental group) was placed in water at 60 °C for 60 seconds or at room temperature (control group). An analysis was carried out before and after the induced burn (at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h). The edema volume was determined by an orthogonal photo, the leukocyte and platelet counts were determined using automated equipment, and the fibrinogen count was determined using the gravimetric method. The maximum value of the edema was recorded at 4 h and leukocytes at 24 h. The platelet count did not vary at different post-edema time intervals. The fibrinogen level increased at 4 h and 24 h. In this animal model we induced systemic inflammation characterized by leukocytosis and elevated fibrinogen levels, combined with edema located at the induction area.

  16. Mechanisms of Thrombogenesis in Polycythemia Vera

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Michael H.; Michaelis, Laura C.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    Thrombotic and cardiovascular events are among the leading causes of death for patients with polycythemia vera (PV), and thrombosis history is a key criterion for patient risk stratification and treatment strategy. Little is known, however, about mechanisms of thrombogenesis in patients with PV. This report provides an overview of thrombogenesis pathophysiology in patients with PV and elucidates the roles of conventional and nonconventional thrombosis risk factors. In addition to several conventional risk factors for thrombosis, clinical data have implicated increased hematocrit and red blood cell adhesiveness, activated platelets, leukocytosis, and elevated JAK2V617F allele burden in patients with PV. Furthermore, PV-related inflammation may exacerbate thrombogenesis through varied mechanisms, including endothelial damage, inhibition of natural anticoagulant pathways, and secretion of procoagulant factors. These findings suggest a direct link between myeloproliferation and thrombogenesis in PV, which is likely to provide new opportunities for targeted antithrombotic interventions aimed at decreasing PV-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25577686

  17. Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M; Guillaumot, P; Hernandez, J; Ragetly, G

    2014-09-01

    A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1 year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. [Contraction (retraction) of blood clots in patients with ischemic stroke].

    PubMed

    Peshkova, A D; Saikhunov, M V; Demin, T V; Lozhkin, A P; Panasyuk, M V; Litvinov, R I; Khasanova, D R

    2016-01-01

    To study a possible pathogenetic role of the blood clot contraction and its disturbances in the acute stage of ischemic stroke (IS). Using a new instrumental technique to study the dynamics of clot contraction in vitro, the authors have determined quantitative parameters of clot contraction (the extent and rate of contraction, duration of the lag-period) in the blood of 85 patients with acute IS. The contractile activity of blood clots was substantially reduced compared to the blood of healthy subjects. Correlations between hemostatic and contractile parameters suggest that the reduced clot contraction in stroke is due to the lower platelet count and impaired platelet functionality, higher levels of fibrinogen and antithrombin III as well as higher hematocrit and hemoglobin contents, leukocytosis, and changes in the biochemical blood composition. The results show that the reduced ability of clots may be a novel pathogenic mechanism that aggravates the course and outcomes of IS.

  19. Ectopic production of beta-HCG by a maxillary squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scholl, P D; Jurco, S; Austin, J R

    1997-12-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes of the head and neck are rare. Hypercalcemia and leukocytosis have been described. The literature was reviewed, and a case of a squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla producing beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) is presented. A 47-year-old white man with a T4N1M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the left maxilla was treated with a maxillectomy and neck dissection for an N1 positive neck. After completing his planned radiotherapy, he developed distant metastases, which included an axillary node that stained positive for human beta-HCG. Retrospective review of the primary specimen showed beta-HCG positivity in an anaplastic component of the tumor along with vascular invasion. The first case in the literature of a paraneoplastic syndrome with beta-HCG production in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla is presented. This case history fits the aggressive nature of beta HCG producing tumors elsewhere in the body.

  20. Recurrent skin eruption in patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphocytic infiltrates of the dermis resembling Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wawrzycki, B; Chodorowska, G; Pietrzak, A; Krasowska, D W; Wąsik, Sz; Dybiec, E; Lotti, T; Hercegova, J

    2011-12-01

    Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile dermatosis) is characterized by fever, peripheral neutrophil leukocytosis, acute onset of tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules or plaques), and histological findings of a dense infiltrate consisting predominantly of mature neutrophils. Malignancy-associated Sweet's syndrome constitutes approximately 21% of patients, the majority of whom suffer from hematologic disorder. We report the case of patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with recurrent eruptions of tender, pseudovesiculated nodules and plaques with good response to corticosteroid therapy, resembling Sweet's syndrome. However, histological examination revealed lymphocytic infiltrate in the dermis, which made impossible to establish diagnosis of acute febrile dermatosis according to diagnostic criteria. Association of the skin eruptions with leukemia was implied by improvement of skin lesions after chemotherapy. We present review of the literature reporting cases with atypical histopathological presentations which preceded classical histological appearances, that were mainly associated with hematological malignancies and discuss them in the context of our patient.

  1. Pyometra in captive large felids: a review of eleven cases.

    PubMed

    McCain, Stephanie; Ramsay, Ed; Allender, Matthew C; Souza, Carlos; Schumacher, Juergen

    2009-03-01

    Eleven cases of pyometra were diagnosed in a captive exotic felid collection over 3 yr in seven African lions (Panthera leo), two tigers (P. tigris), one liger (lion-tiger crossbreed), and one leopard (P. pardus). Clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy, vulvar discharge, and vomiting. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, complete blood cell counts, plasma biochemistry and electrolyte values, radiographs, and abdominal ultrasonography. The most common findings on complete blood count and biochemistry profiles were leukocytosis (>15,000/microL) and hyperproteinemia (>8.2 g/dL) due to increased globulins. Abdominal radiographic findings were largely nonspecific, but ultrasonography routinely showed a distended, fluid-filled uterus. Each case was treated with ovariohysterectomy and systemic antibiotic therapy. Lions were shown to be at an increased risk for developing pyometra compared with other species. Pyometra should be considered as a differential diagnosis in anorexic or lethargic intact female large felids, and ovariohysterectomy may be warranted in nonbreeding female lions.

  2. Pregnancy-associated Sweet's syndrome in an acute episode of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Best, J; Dechene, A; Esser, S; Gerken, G; Canbay, A

    2009-08-01

    A 33-year old pregnant patient (pregnancy week 15) with a past medical history of ulcerative colitis with onset of the disease following the birth of her first child was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of weight loss, pyrexia, leukocytosis and bloody and mucous diarrhoea. Total ileocolonoscopy revealed an acute flare of ulcerative colitis. Within a few days, tender erythematous skin lesions occurred and were histologically proven to be neutrophilic dermatosis. Treatment with highly-dosed prednisone led to a complete remission of both cutaneous and intestinal manifestations. Both pathogenic entities are associated with similar immunological alterations, such as comparable cytokine and chemokine release patterns and recruitment of inflammatory cells. Recent data also indicates that proinflammatory cytokine levels are elevated in pregnancy, which might be pivotal in the pathogenesis and the severity of intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. We present and discuss a diagnostic algorithm and an overall therapeutic rationale for Sweet's syndrome. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  3. [Effectiveness of azacitidine in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia harboring del(20q) - a case report].

    PubMed

    Manabe, Masahiro; Okita, Junya; Takakuwa, Teruhito; Harada, Naonori; Aoyama, Yasutaka; Kumura, Takeo; Ohta, Tadanobu; Furukawa, Yoshio; Mugitani, Atsuko

    2014-06-01

    A 7 1-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with leukocytosis and anemia. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)harboring del(20q)was diagnosed by peripheral blood examination and bone marrow aspiration. The patient was subsequently treated with azacitidine, which resulted in rapid disappearance of monocytosis and resolved his dependency on red cell transfusion. With regard to the chromosomal abnormality, although del(20q)is estimated to be encountered in approximately 0.7-1.0% of all CMML cases, its significance in prognosis has not been fully analyzed. Hence, more such cases need to be evaluated to elucidate the therapeutic outcome of CMML involving del(20q). In addition, the Wilms tumor-1(WT 1)level in the patient gradually decreased after the initiation of azacitidine therapy. This phenomenon of WT1 decrease synchronizing with the patient's clinical improvement might reflect therapeutic efficacy with regard to the clinical course, as had been observed in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

  4. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmelli, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have recently been the focus of tremendous advances in basic knowledge of disease pathophysiology following the recognition of mutations in JAK2 and MPL. These discoveries also led to refinement of the criteria employed for diagnosis. The prognostic roles of the JAK2 V617F mutation and of leukocytosis as independent risk factors for thrombosis, which represents the leading cause of death in patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia, are supported by retrospective studies. A new risk stratification approach to the patient with primary myelofibrosis allows clinicians to distinguish categories of patients with significantly different expected survival. Finally, new drugs are currently being tested for MPNs, and molecular discoveries could ultimately lead to the development of a specific targeted therapy. Overall, significant advances in diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment have taken place in the last couple of years in the field of MPNs. PMID:20948870

  5. Churg-Strauss syndrome and hemorrhagic vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Rui Moreira; Cabral, Ana Rita; Monteiro, Antonio; Henriques, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare syndrome characterized by sinusitis, asthma and peripheral eosinophilia. This vasculitic syndrome affects medium and small-sized vessels, the lung being the most commonly affected organ, followed by the skin. The authors report a case of a 59-year-old male with a past history of asthma and allergic rhinitis. He presented necrohemorragic lesions in the distal phalanx of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers of the left-hand and petechial lesions in the plant of both feet, accompanied by asthenia, anorexia and weight loss. The analytical study revealed leukocytosis with eosinophilia, elevated inflammatory parameters and p-ANCA positive antibodies. The diagnosis of CSS was established based on clinical and histopathological data. Cutaneous manifestations of hemorragic vasculitis are rare in CSS syndrome but can be the first manifestation of the disease. The recognition of this presentation is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome. PMID:25386301

  6. Metastrongyloid nematode (Otostrongylus circumlitus) infection in a stranded California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)--a new host-parasite association.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Greig, Denise; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Lowenstine, Linda J; Dailey, Murray; Gulland, Frances M; Haulena, Martin

    2005-07-01

    A stranded yearling male California sea lion was admitted to a rehabilitation center June 2003. On presentation, the sea lion was emaciated and had diarrhea and neutrophilia. Two weeks later, the animal became anorexic, blood and mucus were observed around the oral cavity, and corneal opacity was noted in the right eye. Hematology results at that time included leukocytosis consisting of neutrophilia with a left shift, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Despite supportive care, the sea lion died. On post mortem examination, there were multiple areas of hemorrhage scattered throughout all lung lobes, and pulmonary blood vessels were occluded by fibrin thrombi. Nematodes identified as immature forms of Otostrongylus circumlitus were found in the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries. Histologic findings in the lungs included severe suppurative and necrotizing arteritis with vascular thrombosis, interstitial pneumonia, and large areas of pulmonary hemorrhage. This report of O. circumlitus infection in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) might indicate a potentially new host-parasite association.

  7. Two cases of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis related to oral terbinafine and an analysis of the clinical reaction pattern.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Jennifer T; Squires, Stephen; Fraga, Garth R; Liu, Deede; Kestenbaum, Thelda

    2012-11-15

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a clinical reaction pattern characterized by the rapid appearance of widespread sterile, nonfollicular pustules arising within edematous erythematous skin. This aseptic pustular eruption is commonly accompanied by leukocytosis and fever and usually follows recent administration of oral or parenteral drugs. We report two cases of terbinafine-induced AGEP in male patients. Both patients developed a generalized erythroderma with scaling and pruritic pustules 7 and 14 days following initiation of oral terbinafine. With immediate discontinuation of terbinafine and various treatment protocols, both patients demonstrated recovery followed by skin desquamation during the subsequent weeks. Terbinafine is the most frequently used systemic antimycotic and antifungal medication, reflecting its superior efficacy for dermatophyte infections. Despite the appealing drug profile, an awareness of terbinafine-induced AGEP is important given the 5 percent mortality associated with AGEP. Additionally, distinguishing the characteristics of AGEP from those associated with toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and generalized pustular psoriasis allows for prompt dermatologic evaluation, accurate diagnosis, and appropriate treatment.

  8. Fatal disseminated cryptococcosis and concurrent ehrlichiosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Collett, M G; Doyle, A S; Reyers, F; Kruse, T; Fabian, B

    1987-12-01

    Laboratory findings in an adult bull terrier presented with a history of anorexia and weight loss included the following: severe anaemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, Ehrlichia canis morulae in monocytes, hypergammaglo-bulinaemia, a bleeding tendency, icterus and proteinuria. In addition, a high Haemobartonella canis parasitaemia, non-encapsulated yeasts on urinalysis and a localised Demodex canis infestation were present. Treatment for ehrlichiosis was initiated but the dog died. Lesions found were a severe cryptococcal granulomatous pneumonia and cryptococcal colonies in the lungs, bronchial lymph nodes, kidneys, liver, spleen, heart, meninges, eyes and thoracic cavity. In addition, hyphal forms resembling Filobasidiella neoformans, the teleomorph of Cryptococcus neoformans, were seen in lung fine needle aspiration smears, impression smears and lung sections. C. neoformans was cultured from urine, lung and liver. Lung and kidney also yielded Salmonella typhimureum. Cortical atrophy with T-cell depletion of lymph nodes as well as splenic lymphoid follicular atrophy, typical of chronic ehrlichiosis-induced cell mediated immunosuppression, could have predisposed to the fatal disseminated cryptococcis.

  9. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom (DRESS) induced by carbamazepine: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    EL Omairi, Nissrine; Abourazzak, Sanae; Chaouki, Sanae; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity or Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom (DRESS) is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction. Diagnosing DRESS is challenging due to the diversity of cutaneous eruption and organs involved. Most of the aromatic anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, can induce DRESS. Culprit drug withdrawal and corticosteroids constituted the mainstay of DRESS treatment. We describe a 6 year-old boy who presented fever and rash 4 weeks after starting carbamazepine. Investigation revealed leukocytosis, atypical lymphocytosis, and elevated serum transaminases. The diagnosis of DREES syndrome was made, Carbamazepine was stopped and replaced initially by Clobazam and by Valproic acid after discharge, no systemic corticotherapy was prescribed. Symptoms began to resolve within two weeks, and by one month later her laboratory values had returned to normal. The aim of this work is to raise awareness general practitioner and pediatricians to suspect Dress syndrome in patients who present with unusual complaints and skin findings after starting any antiepileptic drug. PMID:25360193

  10. CLINICAL INFECTION OF TWO CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 1B.

    PubMed

    Fuery, Angela; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    The ability of prior infection from one elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) type to protect against clinical or lethal infection from others remains an important question. This report describes viremia and subsequent shedding of EEHV1B in two juvenile 4-yr-old Asian elephants within 3 wk or 2 mo following significant infections caused by the rarely seen EEHV4. High levels of EEHV1B shedding were detected in the first elephant prior to emergence of infection and viremia in the second animal. The EEHV1B virus associated with both infections was identical to the strain causing infection in two herd mates previously. High EEHV viremia correlated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, which was followed by leukocytosis and thrombocytosis when clinical signs started to resolve. The observations from these cases should be beneficial for helping other institutions monitor and treat elephants infected with EEHV1, the most common virus associated with lethal hemorrhagic disease.

  11. [Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia presenting with trilineage dysplasia and IgG (lambda) type monoclonal gammopathy].

    PubMed

    Itoh, K; Kashimura, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yagasaki, F; Sakata, T; Kawai, N; Matsuda, A; Kusumoto, S; Fukuda, M; Ino, H; Murohashi, I; Jinnai, I; Yoshida, S; Bessho, M; Saitoh, M; Hirashima, K

    1999-02-01

    A 78-year-old man was diagnosed as leukocytosis in February 1994. Physical examination revealed marked hepatosplenomegaly. A peripheral blood examination disclosed 95,090/microliter leukocytes without hiatus leukemicus, 6.5 g/dl Hb, and 15.0 x 10(4)/microliter platelets. The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score was 27, and serum VB12 was above 1,600pg/ml. IgG was identified as monoclonal immunoglobulin of type lambda. Bone marrow specimens demonstrated marked granulocytic hyperplasia. Neither the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) nor BCR gene rearrangement was detected; hence, the diagnosis of Ph1 (-) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was made. The patient was treated with hydroxyurea and low-dose VP-16 with no improvement, and died of pneumonia and sepsis in June 1995. This case was considered to be consistent with atypical CML (aCML) according to the FAB classification because monocytosis was not observed. It seems likely and interesting that the coexistent monoclonal gammopathy and aCML might have arisen from common abnormal hematopoietic stem cells.

  12. MYCOBACTERIUM ABSCESSUS PNEUMONIA IN AN ATLANTIC BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN (TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS)

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Leigh Ann; Stamper, M. Andrew; Whitaker, Brent R.; Hadfield, Catherine A.; Simons, Brian; Mankowski, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus pneumonia was diagnosed antemortem in a 23-yr-old male Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Clinical signs included lethargy, hyporexia, coughing, and bloody respiratory discharge. Diagnostic findings included neutrophilic leukocytosis, anemia, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and repeated forceful exhaled breath (sputum) cytology, with acute inflammatory cells and acid-fast positive beaded rods. The bacteria were initially identified free in the sputum sample and subsequently were seen within neutrophils. A culture was positive for a rapidly growing, white, colony-forming organism confirmed as M. abscessus by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Clinical signs initially resolved with multidrug therapy. Concurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection complicated clinical management and contributed to terminal decline. The dolphin was euthanized 5 mo after initial diagnosis. Necropsy results demonstrated acid-fast positive bacteria in lung tissue and supported the diagnosis of M. abscessus pneumonia. Acid-fast stains and mycobacteria cultures should be considered when evaluating ill dolphins. PMID:23272373

  13. Hydroxyurea therapy of a murine model of sickle cell anemia inhibits the progression of pneumococcal disease by down-modulating E-selectin

    PubMed Central

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D.; Howard, Thad; Hu, Yunming; Pestina, Tamara I.; Gao, Geli; Johnson, Melissa; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Ware, Russell E.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.; Persons, Derek A.

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is characterized by chronic hemolysis coupled with extensive vascular inflammation. This inflammatory state also mechanistically promotes a high risk of lethal, invasive pneumococcal infection. Current treatments to reduce vaso-occlusive complications include chronic hydroxyurea therapy to induce fetal hemoglobin. Because hydroxyurea also reduces leukocytosis, an understanding of the impact of this treatment on pneumococcal pathogenesis is needed. Using a sickle cell mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis, administration of hydroxyurea was found to significantly improve survival. Hydroxyurea treatment decreased neutrophil extravasation into the infected lung coincident with significantly reduced levels of E-selectin in serum and on pulmonary epithelia. The protective effect of hydroxyurea was abrogated in mice deficient in E-selectin. The decrease in E-selectin levels was also evident in human sickle cell patients receiving hydroxyurea therapy. These data indicate that in addition to induction of fetal hemoglobin, hydroxyurea attenuates leukocyte–endothelial interactions in sickle cell anemia, resulting in protection against lethal pneumococcal sepsis. PMID:22130804

  14. Amebic Liver Abscess Diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction in 14 Returning Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Vallois, Dorothée; Epelboin, Loïc; Touafek, Feriel; Magne, Denis; Thellier, Marc; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Amebic liver abscesses (ALA) are not commonly described in travelers. The ALA diagnosis is usually based on serology and Entamoeba histolytica polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a new tool. We retrospectively reviewed all ALA cases diagnosed by PCR on the liver abscess pus aspirate of patients admitted in French hospitals between 2007 and 2011. Fourteen cases (10 male, median age 48 years) were included. The median lag time between return and onset of symptoms was 23 days (interquartile range [IQ] 18–24). All patients had an elevated cardiopulmonary resuscitation level, and 11 had leukocytosis. The ALA was multiple in five patients, localized in the right lobe in 12, and higher than 5 cm in 11. Serology was initially negative in one patient, whereas PCR was positive. There was bacterial co-infection in one patient. The outcome was good. Liver puncture allows a rapid diagnosis of ALA with PCR and helps identify the association with a bacterial dual infection. PMID:23033402

  15. Pathology in rabbits treated with leukocyte-degraded meningococci in combination with meningococcal endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, I W; Gilka, F; Gilchrist, J E; Yu, E

    1977-01-01

    The effects of a preparative dose of the leukocyte egesta containing degraded meningococci and a provocative dose of the meningococcal lipopolysaccharide on development of pathological lesions associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation were studied in tissues of 32 rabbits. These effects were compared with effects of a single dose of meningococcal lipopolysaccharide as well as leukocyte egesta containing degraded Staphylococcus epidermidis. Rabbits injected subcutaneously with egesta containing degraded meningococci followed after 12 h with meningococcal endotoxin (intravenously) exhibited heterophilic leukocytosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation mainly in the pulmonary capillaries and venules; focal necroses occurred in myocardium, lungs, and liver, whereas, cortical renal necrosis developed in lethal cases. Similar lesions, however, but less severe and with less frequency, developed even after a single dose of meningococcal endotoxin or after endotoxin that followed a dose of supernatant fluid from normal leukocytes. Our findings suggest that meningococcal material from polymorphonuclear degradation plays a role in the pathology characteristic of meningococcal septicemia. Images PMID:406202

  16. Retrospective Study of Salinomycin Toxicosis in 66 Cats

    PubMed Central

    Pakozdy, Akos; Challande-Kathman, Iris; Doherr, Marcus; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Wheeler, Simon J.; Oevermann, Anna; Jaggy, Andre

    2010-01-01

    We examined 66 cats with salinomycin intoxication. Salinomycin caused different LMN signs of varying degrees of severity in all cases. Changes in blood work were unspecific, with the most frequent being increased serum creatine kinase activity, leukocytosis, and increased liver enzymes. Pathological electrodiagnostic findings: fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves were detected in 10 cases, motor nerve conductance velocity was mildly decreased in 8/12 cats, and sensory nerve conductance velocity and repetitive nerve stimulation were normal in all examined cases. In five cases the peripheral neuropathy was confirmed by pathohistology. Fluid therapy and supportive care were used as therapy and 52 cats recovered completely. The probability for complete remission was significantly different between mildly and severely affected cases. It seems that the severity of clinical signs and prognosis correlate well with the amount of toxin ingested. We conclude that early recognition and decontamination combined with supportive care results in complete recovery. PMID:20445777

  17. Abscess of residual lobe after pulmonary resection for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ligabue, Tommaso; Voltolini, Luca; Ghiribelli, Claudia; Luzzi, Luca; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gotti, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Abscess of the residual lobe after lobectomy is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Between January 1975 and December 2006, 1,460 patients underwent elective pulmonary lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer at our institution. Abscess of the residual lung parenchyma occurred in 5 (0.3%) cases (4 bilobectomies and 1 lobectomy). Postoperative chest radiography showed incomplete expansion and consolidation of residual lung parenchyma. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed persistent bronchial occlusion from purulent secretions and/or bronchial collapse. Computed tomography in 3 patients demonstrated lung abscess foci. Surgical treatment included completion right pneumonectomy in 3 patients and a middle lobectomy in one. Complications after repeat thoracotomy comprised contralateral pneumonia and sepsis in 1 patient. Residual lobar abscess after lobectomy should be suspected in patients presenting with fever, leukocytosis, bronchial obstruction and lung consolidation despite antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy and bronchoscopy. Computed tomography is mandatory for early diagnosis. Surgical resection of the affected lobe is recommended.

  18. Atypical desquamation in a 2.5-year-old boy with Kawasaki disease: A case report.

    PubMed

    Adib, Ali; Fazel, Ali; Nabavizadeh, Seyed Hesamedin; Alyasin, Sohaila; Kashef, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis that mostly affects children under 5 years of age. This article presents a 2.5-year-old boy who presented with 6 days of fever, generalized maculopapular rash, bilateral non-exudative conjunctivitis, cracked lips, right cervical lymphadenopathy, erythematous extremities, and perianal desquamation. Laboratory studies showed leukocytosis and sterile pyuria. Because diagnosis of KD was proved, oral acetylsalicylic acid with the anti-inflammatory dose and intravenous immunoglobulin were started for him. On the seventh day of admission time, he developed desquamation and erythema on the site of his right cervical lymphadenopathy as well as periungual scaling. About three weeks after starting the treatment, scaling of the cervical lymphadenopathy and periungual area stopped. Echocardiography was performed for him three times: at the time of diagnosis, four weeks, and 6 months later and revealed normal coronary arteries. We report this sign, desquamation on the site of cervical lymphadenopathy, as a new finding.

  19. A cocktail of humanized anti-pertussis toxin antibodies limits disease in murine and baboon models of whooping cough

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Annalee W.; Wagner, Ellen K.; Laber, Joshua R.; Goodfield, Laura L.; Smallridge, William E.; Harvill, Eric T.; Papin, James F.; Wolf, Roman F.; Padlan, Eduardo A.; Bristol, Andy; Kaleko, Michael; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of wide-spread vaccination, pertussis rates are rising in industrialized countries and remain high world-wide. With no specific therapeutics to treat disease, pertussis continues to cause considerable infant morbidity and mortality. The pertussis toxin is a major contributor to disease, responsible for local and systemic effects including leukocytosis and immunosuppression. Here, we humanized two murine monoclonal antibodies that neutralize pertussis toxin and expressed them as human IgG1 molecules with no loss of affinity or in vitro neutralization activity. When administered prophylactically to mice as a binary cocktail, antibody treatment completely mitigated the B. pertussis-induced rise in white blood cell count and decreased bacterial colonization. When administered therapeutically to baboons, antibody-treated but not control animals experienced a blunted rise in white blood cell count and accelerated bacterial clearance rates. These preliminary findings support further investigation into the use of these antibodies to treat human neonatal pertussis in conjunction with antibiotics and supportive care. PMID:26631634

  20. Pathophysiology of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Friederike; Haddock, Elaine; Rosenke, Rebecca; Okumura, Atsushi; Brining, Douglas; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F; Ebihara, Hideki; Scott, Dana P; Hjelle, Brian; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-05-13

    The pathophysiology of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) remains unclear because of a lack of surrogate disease models with which to perform pathogenesis studies. Nonhuman primates (NHP) are considered the gold standard model for studying the underlying immune activation/suppression associated with immunopathogenic viruses such as hantaviruses; however, to date an NHP model for HPS has not been described. Here we show that rhesus macaques infected with Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the primary etiological agent of HPS in North America, propagated in deer mice develop HPS, which is characterized by thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and rapid onset of respiratory distress caused by severe interstitial pneumonia. Despite establishing a systemic infection, SNV differentially activated host responses exclusively in the pulmonary endothelium, potentially the mechanism leading to acute severe respiratory distress. This study presents a unique chronological characterization of SNV infection and provides mechanistic data into the pathophysiology of HPS in a closely related surrogate animal model. We anticipate this model will advance our understanding of HPS pathogenesis and will greatly facilitate research toward the development of effective therapeutics and vaccines against hantaviral diseases.

  1. Atypical clinical presentation of meningococcal meningitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Ilaria; Pileri, Paola; Merello, Maria; Gnesin, Paolo; Cogi, Enrico; Aggiusti, Carlo; Giacomelli, Laura; Ettori, Stefano; Colombini, Paolo; Collidá, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    A young woman was examined in the Emergency Department for fever, pharyngitis and widespread petechial rash. Physical examination, including neurological evaluation, did not show any other abnormalities. Chest X-ray was negative. Blood exams showed leukocytosis and CPR 20 mg/dL (nv<0.5 mg/dL). On the basis of these results and petechial rash evidence, lumbar puncture was performed. CSF was opalescent; physico-chemical examination showed: total proteins 2.8 (nv 0.15-0.45), glucose 5 (nv 59-80), WBC 7600/μL (nv 0-4/ μL). In the hypothesis of meningococcal meningitis, antimicrobial therapy was started. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for N. meningitidis. During the first hours the patient experienced hallucinations and mild psychomotor agitation, making a spontaneous recovery. A brain MRI showed minimal extra-axial inflammatory exudates. She was discharged after 10 days in good condition. We underline the need to consider meningococcal meningitis diagnosis when any suggestive symptom or sign is present, even in the absence of the classic meningitis triad, to obtain earlier diagnosis and an improved prognosis.

  2. MULTICENTRIC T-CELL LYMPHOMA AND CUTANEOUS HEMANGIOSARCOMA IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana M; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Gonzalez, Estehela; Hallman, Mackenzie; Hause, Ben M

    2015-12-01

    A 13-yr-old intact male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) presented for evaluation after a 4-mo history of intermittent lethargy and increased expiratory effort. The clinical signs were initially noted after the diagnosis and death of its 13-yr-old male sibling with solitary hepatic T-cell lymphoma. Physical examination findings included thin body condition, harsh lung sounds, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and a cutaneous mass on the right medial tarsus and scrotum. Excisional biopsies diagnosed well-differentiated cutaneous hemangiosarcomas. Thoracic radiographs revealed a cranial mediastinal mass. Complete blood count and serum biochemical analyses showed a leukocytosis with persistent lymphocytosis, progressive azotemia, and markedly elevated alkaline phosphatase. Because of the cheetah's declining quality of life, euthanasia was elected. Postmortem examination, histopathology, and immunohistochemical staining revealed multicentric T-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, FeLV polymerase chain reaction (whole blood), and viral metagenomic analysis were negative. This is the first case of cutaneous hemangiosarcoma and multicentric T-cell lymphoma reported in a FeLV-negative cheetah.

  3. Clostridium sordellii Toxic Shock Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Beverley A.; Vaccarello, Luis

    1996-01-01

    Background: Since the 1980s, there have been isolated reports of a toxic shock syndrome associated with Clostridium sordellii necrotizing subcutaneous infections during the puerperium. Relatively localized fascial and muscle necrosis is noted at the surgical incision sites. However, circulating toxins produce marked edema, resulting in shock and cardiovascular collapse. Despite aggressive surgical and supportive therapy, all postpartum cases thus far have been fatal. Case: A 24-year-old primipara developed an episiotomy infection which progressed to involve the underlying fascia and muscle. Despite early and adequate debridement of the devitalized tissue, she developed anasarca, marked leukocytosis, refractory hypotension, hypothermia, and a persistent coagulopathy, and expired on postpartum day 5. The cultures from the excised tissue grew C. sordellii All blood cultures were negative. Conclusion: Treatment modalities aimed solely at the eradication of the microbe and removal of necrotic tissue, although essential components of therapy, have proved inadequate. Future efforts should be directed toward neutralization or elimination of the circulating exotoxins responsible for the systemic shock. PMID:18476062

  4. Notes from the field: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome --- Maine, April 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-06-17

    On April 25, 2011, the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of a suspected case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in a man aged 70 years with no recent out-of-state travel. The Maine resident went to a community hospital in early April with a 5-day history of fatigue, decreased appetite, weakness, chills, myalgias, and progressive shortness of breath. On examination, he was hypoxic and tachypneic. The patient was admitted with laboratory evidence of acute renal insufficiency, leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia, and appearance of diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph. Two days later, he was transferred to a tertiary-care facility for management of respiratory failure with hypoxemia and worsening renal insufficiency. The next day, he was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Serum specimens demonstrated high titers of hantavirus reactive immunoglobulin M (1:6,400) and immunoglobulin G (1:1,600) antibodies. Hantavirus RNA was detected in the patient's blood. The patient was discharged to a skilled nursing facility 1 month after admission and is recovering with extensive rehabilitation.

  5. Activity of single-agent decitabine in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Heidi; Bhatt, Vijaya R; Yuan, Ji; Maness, Lori J; Ganti, Apar K

    2016-12-01

    Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia is a rare entity that presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Traditionally utilized therapeutic agents such as hydroxyurea or interferon result in a median survival of approximately two years, thus warranting identification of better options. We report a 49-year-old Caucasian female, who presented with extreme leukocytosis (white blood cells of 148,300/µL) with left shift, severe anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Following a diagnosis of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, she was started on intravenous decitabine. She subsequently developed paraneoplastic vasculitis of large arteries, which responded to high-dose glucocorticoid. Decitabine therapy resulted in an excellent hematologic response, transfusion independence, and successful transition to an allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation. However, the patient subsequently succumbed to the complications of acute graft-versus-host-disease. This case illustrates an association between atypical chronic myeloid leukemia and steroid-responsive paraneoplastic vasculitis and highlights the single-agent disease activity of decitabine in atypical chronic myeloid leukemia, which may be utilized as a bridging therapy to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. An 11-Year Analysis of Emergency Presentations of Melioidosis in Northeastern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yazid, Mohd Boniami; Fauzi, Mohd Hashairi; Hasan, Habsah; Md Noh, Abu Yazid; Deris, Zakuan Zainy

    2017-06-01

    A neglected tropical disease, melioidosis is known to have variability in clinical presentations. Here, we described clinical features that should alert the physicians on the possibility of melioidosis. In this review of 86 cases from 2001 to 2011, the common presentations of melioidosis in the Emergency Department (ED), Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia were; male gender (79.1 %), in working age group (47.8 ± 15.2 year-old), worked in contact with soil (73.3 %), presented with fever (91.9 %), in rainy season (55.8 %), have underlying diabetes mellitus (79.1 %), have leukocytosis (67.4 %) and high blood glucose (62.8 %) during presentation. In 34.9 % of cases, the antimicrobials were initiated at the ED and only 10.5 % include antimelioid drugs. Thirty-one patients (36.0 %) died due to melioidosis and 51.6 % of this were within 48 h of admission. Despite high mortality rate, the clinical awareness on the possibility of melioidosis among emergency physicians is still low and need to be strengthened.

  7. Leukopenia in familial Mediterranean fever: case series and literature review with special emphasis on pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Deniz

    2014-03-01

    Leukopenia is a blood disease in which the number of circulating white blood cells diminishes. All underlying causes of leukopenia are not yet known. The subjects of this study are 15 leukopenic patients who were assessed by a systemic workup, including physical examination, blood tests, and molecular analysis. A common and unusual cause was revealed in all patients. This cause was a disorder with a laboratory characteristic of leukocytosis, namely familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). It was discussed that leukopenia arising in the context of FMF is mainly due to autophagy and apoptosis processes. These two pathophysiological characteristics of FMF were thought to explain the particular (episodic and self-limited) leukopenia in this disorder. Based on the results of this study in conjunction with the currently existing literature data, we suggest that FMF causes leukopenia. Leukopenic cases should be investigated for FMF, particularly if the leukopenia is episodic in nature. Early recognition of FMF would help to skip unnecessary invasive procedures and to prevent the development of amyloidosis, the devastating complication of FMF.

  8. Foreign Body Emboli following Cerebrovascular Interventions: Clinical, Radiographic, and Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, M; Ollenschleger, M D; Baccin, C; Becske, T; Spiegel, G R; Wang, Y; Song, X; Raz, E; Zumofen, D; Potts, M B; Nelson, P K

    2015-11-01

    Foreign material emboli following cerebral, cardiac, and peripheral catheterizations have been reported since the mid-1990s. Catheter coatings have been frequently implicated. The most recent surge of interest in this phenomenon within the neurointerventional community is associated with procedures using flow-diversion devices for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Following coil-supported Pipeline embolization in 4 cases and stent-supported coiling in 1, 5 patients developed multiple subcentimeter enhancing lesions, usually with surrounding edema and variable magnetic susceptibility in the vascular territories of the treated aneurysms. Conventional angiography findings were unrevealing. Laboratory work-up showed mild CSF protein elevation with no leukocytosis. Brain biopsy in 2 cases revealed granulomatous angiitis encasing foreign material, identical in stain appearance to a polyvinylpyrrolidone catheter coating. Corticosteroid administration typically produced clinical improvement. A heterogeneous radiographic and clinical course was noted, with rise and fall in the number of enhancing lesions in 2 patients and persistence in others. The etiology may be related to widespread adoption of increasingly sophisticated catheterization techniques. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTIC CORRELATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH SLIGHT ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    MUNHOZ-FILHO, Clewis Henri; BATIGÁLIA, Fernando; FUNES, Hamilton Luiz Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas due to enzymatic autodigestion which can cause necrosis or multiple organ failure; its pathophysiology is not fully known yet. Aim To evaluate the correlation between clinical and therapeutic data in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. Methods A retrospective study in 55 medical records of patients admitted with acute mild pancreatitis was realized to analyze the association between age, leukocytosis, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, antibiotics, time admission and Ranson´s scores. Results There was a positive association between less intensive care (strict hydration, analgesia and monitoring of vital signs), early antibiotic therapy (monotherapy), early return to diet after 48 hours and laboratory control of the serum amylase and lipase (high in the first week and decreasing after 10 days, without any prognostic value). Conclusions Changes in the management of patients with mild acute pancreatitis, such as enteral nutrition, rational use of lower spectrum antibiotics and intensive care, have contributed significantly to the reduction of hospitalization time and mortality. PMID:25861064

  10. Atypical Presentation of C. Difficile Infection: Report of a Case with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Towheed, Arooge; Tul Llah, Sibghat; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Tilson-Mallett, Nancy R; Salkind, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a gram-positive, obligate, anaerobic spore-forming bacillus first reported by Hall and O'Toole in 1935. It occurs mostly after antibiotic use and invariably presents with watery diarrhea. We describe an atypical presentation of C. difficile in a 64-year-old Caucasian female who presented to the our emergency department with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting for one day. A complete blood count revealed leukocytosis 30 x 109/L and a subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and the pelvis, showed fluid filled small bowel loops consistent with enteritis. Her presentation was unusual for lack of diarrhea, the hallmark of C. difficile infection. She was admitted and treated with oral vancomycin. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) value in the stool for C. difficile was positive. The patient responded very well: her abdominal pain resolved and leukocyte count normalized after a few doses of vancomycin (125 mg po qid). The patient's progress was followed in our clinic for the last three months. PMID:27190728

  11. Afebrile Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome associated with Fluphenazine decanoate: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Marzieh

    2010-01-01

    Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is unusual but could be a lethal reaction associated with neuroleptic drugs. It occurs in almost 0.07-2.2% of patients under treatment with neuroleptics. There are some medical treatments that may also be helpful for its treatment, including dopamine agonists, muscle relaxants, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We present this case to alert the clinicians to the potential for inducing afebrile NMS. Our case is a 41-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia showing signs and symptoms in accordance with NMS, 2 weeks after receiving one dose of 12.5 mg fluphenazine decanoate, abruptly following the 3rdsession of ECT. The patient presented with decreased level of consciousness, muscular rigidity, waxy flexibility, mutism, generalized tremor, sever diaphoresis and tachycardia which progressed during the previous 24 h. Laboratory data indicated primarily leukocytosis, an increasing level of creatinine phosphokinase and hypokalemia during the next 72h. In patients receiving antipsychotics, any feature of NMS should carefully be evaluated whether it is usual or unusual particularly in patients receiving long acting neuroleptics. PMID:22952496

  12. [A case of loxoprofen sodium-induced bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazue; Sakamoto, Osamu; Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu; Suga, Moritaka

    2003-12-01

    A 78-year-old man was referred to our department because of an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph and liver dysfunction after lung resection for lung cancer. Following the operation, loxoprofen sodium was administered to control his chest pain. A chest radiograph on admission showed airspace consolidation in the right lower lung field. In addition, leukocytosis and elevation of CRP were observed. Although piperacillin sodium was given to him, airspace consolidation on a chest radiograph was increased. A bronchoalveolar lavage fluid study showed that total cell counts and proportion of lymphocytes were increased, and the CD4/CD8 ratio was 1.77. A transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed organizing pneumonia with Masson bodies. Furthermore, a lymphocyte stimulation test for loxoprofen sodium was positive. From the clinical course, laboratory data and pathologic findings, we considered this case to be loxoprofen sodium-induced BOOP. Withdrawal of loxoprofen sodium and treatment with corticosteroid resulted in marked improvement of the clinical findings. Although a rare occurrence, it is important to recognize that BOOP can be caused by loxoprofen sodium.

  13. Enhancement of committed hematopoietic stem cell colony formation by nandrolone decanoate after sublethal whole body irradiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gallicchio, V.S.; Chen, M.G.; Watts, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    The ability of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone decanoate, to increase committed topoietic stem cell (CFU-gm, CFU-e, and BFU-e) colony formation after sublethal irradiation was evaluated. Immediately after receiving whole body irradiation and on the next two days, each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with nandrolone decanoate (1.25 mg) in propylene glycol. Irradiated control mice received only propylene glycol. Compared to controls, drug-treated mice showed marked peripheral blood leukocytosis and more stable packed red cell volume. Drug-treated mice also demonstrated increased erythropoiesis, as CFU-e/BFU-e concentrations from both marrow (9% to 581%) and spleen (15% to 797%) were elevated. Granulopoiesis was increased similarly,more » as CFU-gm concentrations from marrow (38% to 685%) and spleen (9% to 373%) were elevated. These results demonstrate that nandrolone decanoate enhances hematopoietic stem cell recovery after sublethal whole body irradiation. This suggests that following hematopoietic suppression, nandrolone decanoate may stimulate the recovery of hematopoiesis at the stem cell level and in peripheral blood.« less

  14. Agrobacterium radiobacter bacteremia in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Yu, W L; Wang, D Y; Lin, C W

    1997-08-01

    Agrobacterium radiobacter is a gram-negative bacillus, which is recognized as an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. To our knowledge, there have been only 25 cases of A. radiobacter bacteremia reported. In most of these, A. radiobacter was associated with long-term indwelling plastic central venous catheters. We describe a 78-year-old man who had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with long-term use of a corticosteroid. He was admitted to the China Medical College Hospital with pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens. His general condition gradually improved after initiation of appropriate treatment. Unfortunately, he developed A. radiobacter bacteremia while hospitalized in the medical intensive care unit. With the onset of this infection, the patient had a high fever, leukocytosis, raised C-reactive protein level, and positive blood cultures for A. radiobacter. A central venous catheter-related infection was suspected because of redness and localized tenderness at the catheter site. The patient gradually recovered after removal of the catheter and appropriate antimicrobial treatment with latamoxef 1.5 g intravenously every 8 hours for 10 days.

  15. Genetic factors of Ebola virus virulence in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Subbotina, Ekaterina; Dadaeva, Alexandra; Kachko, Alla; Chepurnov, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, whereas in guinea pigs it induces a nonlethal infection with a mild fever and subsequent recovery. We performed 7 selective passages in guinea pigs resulted in obtaining of guinea pig-adapted strain (GPA-P7) strain. By the 7th passage, the infection with EBOV induced a lethal disease in animals accompanied by the characteristic hematological changes: leukocytosis (primarily due to neutrophilia) as well as pronounced deficiencies in platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes and significant decrease of blood neutrophils phagocytic capacity. Increasing of virulence correlated with appearance of several nucleotide substitutions: in the genes NP, A2166G (N566S), VP24, U10784C (L147P), G10557A (M71I), G10805U (R154L), and L, G12286A (V236I). It has been theoretically calculated that the mutations associated with an increase in EBOV virulence can confer characteristic secondary structure on the proteins NP (C-terminal region) and full-sized VP24. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Acute Ph-negative lymphoblastic leukemias in adults: Risk factors in the use of the ALL-2009 protocol].

    PubMed

    Parovichnikova, E N; Sokolov, A N; Troitskaya, V V; Klyasova, G A; Rusinov, M A; Akhmerzaeva, Z Kh; Kuzmina, L A; Bondarenko, S N; Baranova, O Yu; Kaporskaya, T S; Zotina, E N; Zinina, E E; Samoilova, O S; Gavrilova, L V; Kaplanov, K D; Konstantinova, T S; Lapin, V A; Kravchenko, S K; Gribanova, E O; Zvonkov, E E; Gavrilina, O A; Baskhaeva, G A; Galstyan, G M; Obukhova, T N; Galtseva, I V; Kulikov, S M; Savchenko, V G

    to analyze well-known risk factors (RFs), such as age, immunophenotype, baseline leukocytosis, enhanced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, time to achieve complete remission, a risk group, and cytogenetic abnormalities) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the use of the ALL-2009 protocol. The protocol covered 298 patients (137 women (including 13 pregnant women) and 161 men) aged 15 to 55 years (median age 28 years) with Ph-negative ALL. The phenotype was unknown in 6 patients. Three (1%) were ascertained to have a biphenotypic variant. 182 (62.4%) patients were found to have B-cell ALL (early pre-B ALL (n=51); common ALL (n=92), and pre-B ALL (n=39); 107 (36.6%) patients had T-cell ALL (early T-ALL (n=56); thymic T-ALL (n=41), and mature T-ALL (n=10). According to the baseline clinical and laboratory parameters (leukocytosis of 30·109/l and more for B-ALL; and that of 100·109/l and more for T-ALL; phenotype В-I for B-ALL, phenotype Т-I-II-IV for T-ALL; LDH activity was more than twice the normal values; the presence of translocation t(4;11)), the high-risk group included most patients with B-ALL (n=110 (72.8%)) and T-ALL (n=76 (76%)). Thirty-five patients with T-ALL underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Allogeneic BMT was performed in 18 (7%) of the 258 patients who had undergone an induction phase. Five-year overall survival for all the patients included in the investigation was 59%; relapse-free survival was 65%, which was significantly different in the patients with B-ALL and in those with T-ALL: the overall survival rates were 53.3 and 67.5% (p=0.1); the relapse-free survival was 56 and 79% (p=0.005), respectively. Multivariate analysis including the well-known RFs demonstrated that the latter for T-ALL were of no independent prognostic value and only the patient's age was identified for B-ALL (p=0.013). A lower chemotherapeutic load and a small number of allogeneic BMTs did not affect total positive treatment

  17. Administration of anesthetic and analgesic prevent the suppression of many leukocyte responses following surgical castration and physical dehorning.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Sutherland, M A; Brooks, T A; Hulbert, L E; Davis, B L; Cobb, C J

    2013-02-15

    The objectives of the current research were to determine the physiological effects and responses of many leukocytes following surgical castration and/(or) physical dehorning and the influence of anesthetics and analgesics in 3-month-old calves. Eighty 3-month-old Holstein bull calves were completely randomized to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with castration, dehorning, and anesthetic/analgesic as the main effects. Peripheral blood samples were collected just before (0) and 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 24, and 72 h after the respective procedure(s) and analyzed for total leukocyte and differential counts, as well as plasma cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations. Blood from the 0, 0.5 and 24h collections were analyzed for many ex vivo leukocyte responses. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with the fixed effects of treatment, time, and the interaction of treatment × time. Pre-planned contrasts were performed to determine the effect of (1) management procedure (castration and/(or) dehorning), (2) anesthetic/analgesic, and (3) were the management procedures additive. There were treatment × time interactions (P<0.05) on plasma cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations as well as for total leukocyte and neutrophil concentrations in blood. Castration and dehorning increased cortisol concentrations and the effect of the procedures was additive (P<0.02). Dehorning alone elicited a greater (P<0.05) cortisol response than castration alone. In contrast, the leukocytosis and neutrophilia was greater (P<0.01) among castrated calves. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations at 24h after castration were elevated (P<0.01) in calves that were castrated. Both castration and dehorning suppressed (P=0.04) many leukocyte responses including the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α when whole blood cultures were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, surface expression of L-selectin on peripheral blood neutrophils, and the oxidative burst

  18. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration. PMID:23730562

  19. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Sushma; Uppal, Sanjeev Kumar; Singla, Lachhman Das

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination of H. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration.

  20. [Choice of urinary tract drainage in different age groups of patients with urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Trapeznikova, M F; Dutov, V V; Rumiantsev, A A; Rusanova, E V; Zlobin, A N; Beliaev, V V

    2011-01-01

    Retro- and prospective analyses of 802 case histories of patients with nephrostomic drainage (n=272), ureteral catheter (n=27) and ureteral stent (n=503) treated for urolithiasis in the urological department of M.F. Vladimirsky Moscow Region Research Clinical Institute and Zhukovsky city hospital hospitalized in 1995 to 2009 made it possible to develop algorithms of choice of upper urinary tract drainage depending on clinical and laboratory indices. Nephrostomic drainage is preferable in a single functioning kidney, acute obstructive pyelonephritis, anuria, hyperthermia above 38 degrees C, marked supravesical urodynamic disorder, in renal failure, serum creatinine over 200 mcmol/l, urea over 10 mmol/l, blood potassium over 5 mmol/l, uric acid over 380 mcmol/l and leukocytosis over 8 x 10(9) l. Draining with ureteral stent was used primarily in elective surgery--extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and transurethral operations. Stenting was better tolerated and entailed less frequent complications. In the rest cases choice of drain method should be made by the urologist. In active inflammation, before getting antibioticogram, the drain should be followed by antibiotic treatment with fluoroquinolones, cephalosporines of the third or forth generation, aminoglycosides, carbapenems in standard doses.

  1. [Choice of an upper urinary tract drainage method in urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Doronchuk, D N; Trapeznikova, M F; Dutov, V V

    2010-01-01

    We made a retrospective (290) and a prospective (131) analysis of the evidence obtained on 421 patients with nephrostomic drainage (251) and an ureteral stent (170) treated for urolithiasis in the urological department of the Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute from 1995 to 2008. Assessment of clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients with nephrostomic drainage and an ureteral stent allowed the following conclusions: puncture nephrostomy (p < 0.05) for upper urinary tract drainage is preferable in a solitary functioning kidney, acute obstructive pyelonephritis, anuria, hyperthermia 380 and higher, marked supravesical urodynamic disorder, renal failure, plasmic creatinine level over 200 mcmol/l, azotemia over 10 mmol/l, blood potassium over 5.0 mmol/l, uric acid over 380 mcmol/l and leukocytosis over 8.0 x 10(9)/l. In the other cases a drainage method can be chosen by a physician. Cephalosporines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and carbapenems in standard doses are recommended in active inflammation when antibioticograms are not obtained yet. Significant differences are seen in drainage with nephrostoma and ureteral stent. Recommendations on nephrostomic drain and ureteral stent installation depending on clinical and laboratory findings are presented.

  2. [Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in infants may result intractable stridor].

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Y; Kawashima, H; Takekuma, K; Hoshika, A; Nozaki-Renaud, J

    2000-08-01

    We found ten cases of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection who were intractable stridor. Their symptoms were not improved by the treatment with aminophyllin nor beta stimulants. They were admitted repeatedly complaining of stridor, fever and diarrhea. In two cases, the immunological findings showed a decrease of bacterial sterilizing activity of the neutrophils. Additionally, blood count showed leukocytosis more than 15,000/ul in all cases. Total serum IgE and specific IgE antibodies to many antigens were not elevated. Transaminase was elevated. Chest X-p findings of interstitial pneumonia or atelectasis continued for a long time in some cases. Virological examinations revealed high concentrations of specific IgM or CF antibodies against CMV in all cases. CMV DNA in saliva were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primer sets for the immediate early (IE) region of CMV and showed positive in seven cases. CMV in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was isolated in two cases, and CMV PCR in BAL was positive in three cases. The sequence of the CMV-PCR products showed almost same sequence except one point mutation in bp 1203. We considered that CMV infections in infants may induce stridor for a long period.

  3. Microgranular variant of acute promyelocytic leukemia with der(17) ins(17;15): A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    GUAN, HONGZAI; LIU, JING; GUO, XIAOFANG; WU, CHUNMEI; YU, HUAWEI

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with variant translocations is rare. The patient of the present case report, a 2-year-old male with a microgranular variant of APL carrying der(17) ins(17;15) translocation, exhibited fever and epistaxis. The complete blood count showed marked leukocytosis with 72% atypical promyelocytes, anemia and thrombocytopenia. Conventional cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow cells revealed a karyotype of 47, XY, add(3)(q29), −7, ins(17;15)(q12;q14q22),+21,+mar. The promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) rearrangement and insertion were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The PML/RARα transcripts were not detected by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the patient was diagnosed with microgranular variant M3 APL. The patient achieved remission after a 30-day treatment and was still in remission during a recent follow-up. The present findings suggest that the ins(17;15) variant in APL may not be associated with an unfavorable prognosis. In summary, we reported an extremely rare case of APL with der(17) ins(17;15) abnormality in a pediatric patient and reviewed the literature. PMID:26622430

  4. Detection of Hepatozoon sp. in a Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica).

    PubMed

    Khoshnegah, Javad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Mirshahi, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Javad

    2012-07-01

    A free-ranging, adult, male Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) was found at Geloul-Sarani protected zone, province of North-Khorasan, Iran and transported to the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The leopard had normal temperature and respiratory and cardiac frequency, but was significantly dehydrated and had elevated capillary perfusion. The animal also was cachectic, with pale mucus membranes, third-eyelid protrusion, and bilaterally enlarged submandibular lymph nodes. The leopard was stabilized by intensive fluid and electrolyte therapy and hospitalized. In 2 days, the leopard had improved clinically but had severe ataxia and head pressing. Blood smears revealed gamonts of Hepatozoon sp. within some neutrophils. Hematologic and plasma chemistry abnormalities included moderate anemia, leukocytosis, hypocholestrolemia, and hypophosphatemia. In radiographic evaluations, no sign of periosteal reactions or new bone formation was seen on the skull, spine, long bones, pelvis, or vertebrae. The leopard was treated successfully with Tazocin and clindamycin for 1 mo. This is the first detection of a Hepatozoon sp. in wild Felidae in Iran. Because most Iranian wild felids and canids are endangered, knowing whether Hepatozoon infection represents a threat for these animals is important.

  5. Hemoadsorption in a Case of Severe Septic Shock and Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Nontraumatic Renal Rupture due to Pyelonephritis with Obstructive Uropathy.

    PubMed

    Kousoulas, Lampros; Wittel, Uwe; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Utzolino, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Nontraumatic renal rupture due to pyelonephritis with obstructive uropathy is an uncommon but life-threatening situation. A 25-year-old female presented to the emergency department with acute worsening of abdominal pain that began four weeks earlier. She was found to have peritonitis, leukocytosis, severe lactic acidosis, and a pronounced anemia and imaging was consistent with nontraumatic renal rupture with retroperitoneal abscess, perforation of the colon, and severe necrotizing fasciitis of the right lower limb. She underwent a right nephrectomy, a right hemicolectomy, surgical debridement of the retroperitoneum, and an upper thigh amputation. Due to severe septic shock and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure we performed a combined treatment of hemoadsorption using a Cytosorb hemoadsorber and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD). Subsequently the patient recovered and was discharged home with no signs of infections and with normal renal function. We present a case of pyelonephritis with nontraumatic renal rupture leading to necrotizing fasciitis with osteomyelitis of the lower limb. The early treatment of the patient with a Cytosorb hemoadsorber led to a rapid hemodynamic and metabolic stabilization and preservation of the renal function, suggesting that hemoadsorption might be a rescue therapy in patients with severe septic shock and traumatic rhabdomyolysis.

  6. First report of Trypanosoma vivax outbreak in dairy cattle in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Alves; André, Marcos Rogério; Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidélis Junior, Otávio Luiz; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Marques, Luiz Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This is the first description of a Trypanosoma vivax outbreak in the state of São Paulo (municipality of Lins). Fever, jaundice, decreased milk production, weight loss, profuse diarrhea, abortion, anemia, leukocytosis and hyperfibrinogenemia were observed in the affected animals. Thirty-one cows and calves died out of a total of 1080 in the herd. Three cows showed neurological symptoms like dysmetria, ataxia, muscle weakness, ptyalism, lymph node enlargement and submandibular edema. Flagellated hemoparasites were observed in blood smears. The species was diagnosed as T. vivax by means of PCR. This T.vivax strain showed resistance to diaminazene aceturate and the infection spread quickly at the herd. From the ELISA test, 599 serum samples (98.36%) were positive for anti-T.vivax IgG antibodies. This outbreak occurred during a very dry period, which indicates that other factors were involved in the outbreak, such as absence of tabanids and large populations of Haematobia irritans and Stomoxys calcitrans. The increases in these populations may have been due to the use of biosolid waste from sugar and ethanol plants in the sugarcane plantations surrounding the dairy farm.

  7. Carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) expression in macrophages is dispensable for nutrient stress sensing and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Emily L; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2017-02-01

    Fatty acid oxidation in macrophages is thought to regulate inflammatory status and insulin-sensitivity. An important unanswered question in this field is whether carnitine acetyl-transferase (CrAT) that regulates fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial acetyl-CoA balance is required to integrate nutrient stress sensing to inflammatory response in macrophages. Mice with myeloid lineage-specific Crat deletion were subjected to several metabolic stressors, including high-fat diet-induced obesity, fasting, and LPS-induced endotoxemia. Their metabolic homeostasis was compared to that of Crat-sufficient littermate controls. Inflammatory potential of Crat-deficient and Crat-sufficient macrophages were measured both in vitro and in vivo . Our studies revealed that ablation of CrAT in myeloid lineage cells did not impact glucose homeostasis, insulin-action, adipose tissue leukocytosis, and inflammation when animals were confronted with a variety of metabolic stressors, including high-fat diet, fasting, or LPS-induced acute endotoxemia. These findings demonstrate that unlike muscle cells, substrate switch mechanisms that control macrophage energy metabolism and mitochondrial short-chain acyl-CoA pools during nutrient stress are controlled by pathways that are not solely reliant on CrAT.

  8. Transplantable, STH-producing and diabetogenic pituitary adenoma of the BD IX-strain of rats.

    PubMed

    Stekar, J

    1976-03-19

    A chromophobic pituitary adenoma induced on BD IX-rats has been grafted on animals of the same strain. The transplanted tumour takes in 90-100%; it grows at a slow rate (in 7 months after grafting a weight of 7-20 g is attained). Tumour-bearing animals display gigantism and hypertrophy of adrenals; moreover, in 33% of cases, diabetes is observed. With non-diabetic animals, splenomegaly and marked leukocytosis are observed; immature white and red cells are present in the peripheral blood. Spontaneous regression of the tumour never occurs. After surgical removal, tumour regrowth and the formation of metastases are observed. Diabetes is characterised by pronounced hyperglycaemia, glucosuria, polyphagia and polydipsia. Histochemically, insulin cannot be detected in pancreas. Splenomegaly is never observed in diabetic animals. Transplanted adenoma frequently tends to stop growing. No recurrence is observable after extirpation. Spontaneous regression of the tumour sometimes occurs. Gigantism, hypertrophy of adrenals and diabetes are considered as consequences of growth hormone- and ACTH-secretion of the transplanted adenoma. At present the tumour is running in the 8th passage. It did not change its characteristics over a period of 5 years.

  9. Necrotizing retinitis of multifactorial etiology

    PubMed Central

    Pirvulescu, Ruxandra Angela; Popa, Cherecheanu Alina; Romanitan, Mihaela Oana; Obretin, Dana; Iancu, Raluca; Vasile, Danut

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. We present the case of a 73-year-old woman with osteoporosis, who presented to the emergency room with a sudden vision loss and ocular pain in the right eye, which appeared two days before. The patient mentioned loss of appetite, weight loss for three months and low fever for two weeks. Materials and methods. Among the ophthalmological findings, the most important were panuveitis, and large confluent necrotic areas in the peripheral retina. The patient was diagnosed with RE Panuveitis and acute necrotizing retinitis. Results. Blood exams showed leukocytosis and monocytosis, thrombocytosis and anemia. Further investigations showed high levels of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) anti IgG and Herpes Simplex (HS) type 1 virus anti IgM, urinary infection, and secondary hepatic cytolysis. The CT and MRI of the thorax and abdomen showed no sign of neoplastic disease, and no explanation for the CMV infection was found. The patient received general corticotherapy and antiviral therapy, and, after one month, RE BCVA was 20/ 30. Particularity of the case. Acute necrotizing retinitis in an old patient with CMV and HSV type 1, associated with secondary hepatic cytolysis, without any other immunosuppressive disease and very good outcome. PMID:29450371

  10. The pathological anatomy of acute experimental baryllium poisoning peripheral blood changes resulting from intravenous administration of beryllium sulphate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Scott, J.E.

    1947-09-01

    The lesions produced in the organs following a single intravenous administration of hydrated beryllium sulfate are described. The lesions of the lungs and eyes of animals exposed to the above compound are reviewed. When the baryllium sulfate is given intravenously, midsonal focal necrosis of the liver cells, necrosis of cells of the distal one-third of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney and generative changes in the cells of the hemopoietic system are produced. Following exposure of animals to beryllium sulfate dust (100 mg/m{sup 3}, 8 hours daily for eleven days), inflammatory pulmonary lesions are produced which vary in intensitymore » with different species. Pulmonary edema, a terminal bronchitis, and focal atelectasis are the most commonly observed lesions. The eyes of some species exposed to this dust develop conjunctivitis, heratitis, and corneal ulcers. Following a single intravenous administration of beryllium sulfate, rather sharp changes occur in the elements of the peripheral blood. These consist of a secondary anemia (probably resulting from intravascular lysis of red cells), a leukocytosis, and an increase in the number of circulating platelets. 29 figs.« less

  11. A Rare and Severe Complication Following Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration: Retropharyngeal Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Cesareo, Roberto; Naciu, Anda; Barberi, Antonio; Pasqualini, Valerio; Pelle, Giuseppe; Manfrini, Silvia; Tabacco, Gaia; Pantano, Angelo Lauria; Campagna, Giuseppe; Cianni, Roberto; Palermo, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Fine needle aspiration (FNA) is the most accurate and cost-effective method for evaluating thyroid nodules. We have reported a rare complication related to the procedure: severe retropharyngeal cellulitis. Case Presentation A thirty-five-year-old female was admitted to hospital with hoarseness, laryngeal stridor and dyspnea without fever that emerged about 3 days after a first diagnostic FNA. After the procedure, the patient felt her voice became hoarse and 1 day before presentation began to have dyspnea, without fever. It had become difficult for her to swallow solids, and she felt as if food was sticking in her throat. In the emergency room, hematochemical tests and CT scan of the neck/mediastinum had been performed. This showed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and a severe cellulitis framework with involvement of the laterocervical neck area and in particular, the invasion of the retropharynx and the upper part of the mediastinum. The patient was admitted in hospital for an anti-inflammatory therapy with cortisone and antibiotic therapy. Conclusions For the first time to our knowledge, we have reported a severe retropharyngeal and upper mediastinum cellulitis, probably due to the FNA procedure in an immunocompetent young woman. PMID:28123438

  12. Renovascular hypertension associated with JAK2 V617F positive myeloproliferative neoplasms treated with angioplasty: 2 cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Eikan; Suzuki, Takehiro; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Seiji, Kazumasa; Fukuhara, Noriko; Takase, Kei; Harigae, Hideo; Abe, Takaaki; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2018-04-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) with Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation are associated with a high risk for occlusive vascular diseases. We report 2 cases of renovascular hypertension associated with JAK2 V617F mutation-positive MPNs and provide a literature review. In Case 1, a 63-year-old woman had resistant hypertension, massive proteinuria, and erythrocytosis. Evaluations revealed right renal artery stenosis causing renovascular hypertension and polycythemia vera with JAK2 V617F mutation. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and subsequent angioplasty controlled the blood pressure and the proteinuria resolved. In Case 2, a 74-year-old woman had resistant hypertension and thrombocytosis. Evaluations confirmed left renal artery stenosis and essential thrombocythemia with JAK2 V617F. Angioplasty cured the hypertension. A literature review of 18 cases revealed the following as the most common characteristics of MPN-associated renovascular hypertension: manifests primarily in women; is associated with untreated polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia, concomitant leukocytosis, and JAK2 mutation positivity; and is responsive to angioplasty. This report demonstrates that JAK2 mutation-positive MPNs are a less common but important underlying cause of adult renovascular hypertension. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Toxicities associated with NBOMe ingestion, a novel class of potent hallucinogens: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Joji; Dekker, Michael A.; Valenti, Erin S.; Arbelo Cruz, Fabiola A.; Correa, Ady M.; Poklis, Justin L.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    Objective A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged as drugs of abuse. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of published reports of toxicities associated with NBOMe ingestion. Methods We searched the PubMed for relevant English language citations that described adverse effects from analytically confirmed human NBOMe ingestion. Demographic and clinical data were extracted. Results Ten citations met criteria for inclusion, representing 20 individual patients. 25I-NBOMe was the most common analog identified, followed by 25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe. Fatalities were reported in 3 (15%) cases. Seven (35%) were discharged after a period of observation, while 8 (40.0%) required admission to an intensive care unit. The most common adverse effects were agitation (85.0%), tachycardia (85.0%), and hypertension (65.0%). Seizures were reported in 8 (40.0%) patients. The most common laboratory abnormalities were elevated creatine kinase (45.0%), leukocytosis (25.0%), and hyperglycemia (20.0%). Conclusion NBOMe ingestion is associated with severe adverse effects. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of hallucinogens. PMID:25659919

  14. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Field, Cara L; Beaufrère, Hugues; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Rademacher, Nathalie; MacLean, Robert

    2012-12-01

    A 22-year-old female African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus), housed indoors with other African and rockhopper penguins, was presented acutely with lethargy, ataxia, and hind limb weakness after a molt. The penguin would assume a hunched position and, when resting, sat on its hocks or lay on its keel. Physical and neurologic examination revealed hind limb paraparesis, proprioceptive deficits, and tiptoe walking. Results of a complete blood cell count and biochemical analysis revealed mild heterophilic leukocytosis, anemia, mild hypoalbuminemia, hypokalemia, and hyperuricemia. Results of whole-body radiographs and coelioscopy were unremarkable. Two computed tomographies of the spine at a 3-month interval revealed a lesion at the mobile thoracic vertebra proximal to the synsacrum with associated spinal cord compression. The penguin was treated with itraconazole, doxycycline, and meloxicam, and it initially improved with return to near normal gait and behavior. However, 5 months after the onset of clinical signs, the penguin was euthanatized after a relapse with worsening of the neurologic signs. Postmortem and histopathologic examination revealed focal granulomatous discospondylitis at the penultimate mobile thoracic vertebra, with intralesional bacteria from which Staphylococcus aureus was cultured.

  16. The first human case of Trichinella spiralis infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Mo; Chung, Dong-Il; Yee, Sung Tae

    2000-01-01

    Three cases of human infection by Trichinella spiralis were first confirmed by detecting encysted larvae in the biopsied muscle in December 1997, in Korea. The patients were one 35- and two 39-year-old males residing in Kochang-gun, Kyongsangnam-do. They had a common past history of eating raw liver, spleen, blood and muscle of a badger, Meles meles melanogenys, and complained of high fever, facial and periorbital edema, and myalgia. Hematologic and biochemical examinations revealed leukocytosis and eosinophilia, and highly elevated levels of GOT, GPT, LDH and CPK. In the gastrocnemius muscle of a patient, roundly coiled nematode larvae were detected. The larvae measured 0.775-1.050 (av. 0.908) mm in length, and 0.026-0.042 (av. 0.035) mm in maximum width. The specific IgG antibody levels in three patients' sera were significantly higher when compared with those of normal controls. The patients were treated with flubendazole and albendazole for 15-30 days, and discharged at 13-34 days post-admission. From the above findings, it was confirmed that T. spiralis is present in Korea, and the badger plays a role of as the natural host. PMID:10905075

  17. Superiority of a functional leukocyte adhesiveness/aggregation test over the white blood cell count to discriminate between mild and significant inflammatory response in patients with acute bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, Ori; Rotstein, Rivka; Zeltzer, David; Misgav, Sarit; Justo, Daniel; Avitzour, Daniel; Mardi, Tamar; Serov, Jacob; Arber, Nadir; Berliner, Shlomo; Shapira, Itzhak

    2002-01-01

    Electronic cell counters may underestimate the white blood cell count (WBCC) in the presence of aggregated leukocytes. In the present study we focused on the possibility of using a functional, as opposed to an anatomic, count to circumvent this eventual underestimation. A model of bacterial infection was used because of the importance of leukocytosis in the physician's clinical decision-making process. There were 35 patients with low C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (0.5-4.9 mg/dL), 45 with intermediate (5-9.9 mg/dL), and 120 with relatively high (>10 mg/dL) CRP concentrations. A significant (P=0.008) difference was noted between the state of leukocyte adhesiveness/aggregation in the peripheral blood of individuals with low CRP concentrations (3.5%+/-4.3%) and those with high CRP concentrations (7.4%+/-8%), while there was no significant difference in the respective number of WBCs per cubic millimeter (cmm) (11,600 +/- 5,500 and 14,000 +/- 7,200, respectively). We raise the possibility that a functional test might be superior over an anatomic count in patients with acute bacterial infection and a significant acute phase response. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. [Levonorgestrel intrauterine device associated with ureterpyelocaliceal ectasia].

    PubMed

    Gálvez-Valdovinos, Ramiro; Hernández-López, Rogelio; López-Ambriz, Gustavo; Ramme-Cruzat, Christian

    2015-10-01

    In 2010, Health Canada, the equivalent to the FDA, reported that the risk of uterine perforation caused by levonorgestrel intrauterine device (IUD) is very serious, warning that its use had increased the number of uterine perforation. A 33 years old patient in who was placed three years before a levonorgestrel IUD; She presented evolution of 10 days with pain in hypogastric and both flanks and chronic constipation of two years; in exploration: moderate abdominal distention, IUD strings were not visible in uterine cervix. With translocated IUD diagnosis, a tomography was performed, finding IUD in abdominal cavity and ureter pyelocalyceal bilateral ectasia; preoperative plasma concentration of levonorgestrel 5.1 nmol/L, leukocytosis of 11,000 cells/mm3, and 20-30 erythrocytes in urine exam. Laparoscopic resection of omentum attached to IUD translocated was performed. One month after surgery plasma levonorgestrel in 0.3 nmol/L, normal urinalysis and hematic cytometry and resolution of the urinary tract ectasia. devices translocated with levonorgestrel, must be removed because the inflammatory reaction caused and the perforation of hollow viscera likelihood, with possibility to produce digestive tract and urinary tract ectasia by its pharmacologic action on smooth muscle.

  19. [Bladder rupture caused by spontaneous perforation of an infected urachal cyst].

    PubMed

    Maruschke, M; Kreutzer, H J; Seiter, H

    2003-06-01

    Anomalies of the fetal urachus are rare. Normally, the postnatal urachus presents as a fibrous band extending from the bladder to the umbilicus. Urachal cysts may occur in postnatal life. Spontaneous perforation of urachal cysts is a very rare condition, which clinically may not be distinguishable from other acute abdominal conditions. We report a case of a 63-year-old male with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections and a bladder rupture caused by a spontaneous perforation of an infected urachal cyst. The symptomatology showed abdominal rigidity and pain, a palpable mass in the lower abdomen, and hematuria. Laboratory findings showed leukocytosis and an increased CRP level. The bladder rupture was confirmed by cystography. Bacteriologic examination identified Proteus vulgaris, Corynebacterium species, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Most of the published cases in the literature report about intraperitoneal perforation of infected urachal cysts. In the present case, we found a spontaneous perforation of an infected urachal cyst leading to an extraperitoneal bladder rupture with an extraperitoneal limitation of the infection. The definitive therapy was complete surgical excision including a cuff of the bladder, drainage, and systemic broad-spectrum and local application of antibiotics. The further course was uneventful.

  20. The association between body mass index and severe biliary infections: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lygia; Griffiss, J McLeod; Jarvis, Gary A; Way, Lawrence W

    2012-11-01

    Obesity has been associated with worse infectious disease outcomes. It is a risk factor for cholesterol gallstones, but little is known about associations between body mass index (BMI) and biliary infections. We studied this using factors associated with biliary infections. A total of 427 patients with gallstones were studied. Gallstones, bile, and blood (as applicable) were cultured. Illness severity was classified as follows: none (no infection or inflammation), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (fever, leukocytosis), severe (abscess, cholangitis, empyema), or multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (bacteremia, hypotension, organ failure). Associations between BMI and biliary bacteria, bacteremia, gallstone type, and illness severity were examined using bivariate and multivariate analysis. BMI inversely correlated with pigment stones, biliary bacteria, bacteremia, and increased illness severity on bivariate and multivariate analysis. Obesity correlated with less severe biliary infections. BMI inversely correlated with pigment stones and biliary bacteria; multivariate analysis showed an independent correlation between lower BMI and illness severity. Most patients with severe biliary infections had a normal BMI, suggesting that obesity may be protective in biliary infections. This study examined the correlation between BMI and biliary infection severity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Carcinocythemia: First report in a cat and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sá E Lemos, Eva; Lima de Carvalho, Hugo; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Pinto da Cunha, Nazaré

    2018-03-01

    A 6-year-old female neutered European Shorthair cat was presented with a 2-day history of lethargy and hyporexia. On physical examination, the cat was slightly depressed and had a 2.5 cm nodule in the left 3 rd mammary gland. The hemogram revealed mild leukocytosis with mature neutrophilia and moderate thrombocytopenia. On blood smear evaluation, rare pleomorphic cells, possibly of epithelial origin, were observed mainly at the feathered edge. The animal died about 12 hours after presentation, and a necropsy was performed. On histopathology, the mammary nodule was diagnosed as a tubulopapillary adenocarcinoma with vascular invasion and widespread metastases. Immunocytochemical tests for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3) confirmed the epithelial phenotype of the neoplastic cells observed on the blood smear. The present report describes a feline mammary carcinoma with widespread metastases and the presence of malignant epithelial cells in the peripheral blood referred to as carcinocythemia. This condition has been previously described in people and dogs. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported case of feline carcinocythemia. As in other species, the phenomenon was associated with a terminal phase of systemic malignancy. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Pseudomembranous Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Priya D.; Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Tang, Derek M.; von Rosenvinge, Erik C.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammatory condition of the colon characterized by elevated yellow-white plaques that coalesce to form pseudomembranes on the mucosa. Patients with the condition commonly present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and leukocytosis. Because pseudomembranous colitis is often associated with C. difficile infection, stool testing and empiric antibiotic treatment should be initiated when suspected. When results of C. difficile testing are negative and symptoms persist despite escalating empiric treatment, early gastroenterology consultation and lower endoscopy would be the next step in the appropriate clinical setting. If pseudomembranous colitis is confirmed endoscopically, colonic biopsies should be obtained, as histology can offer helpful clues to the underlying diagnosis. The less common non-C. difficile causes of pseudomembranous colitis should be entertained, as a number of etiologies can result in this condition. Examples include Behcet’s disease, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemic colitis, other infections organisms (e.g. bacteria, parasites, viruses), and a handful of drugs and toxins. Pinpointing the correct underlying etiology would better direct patient care and disease management. Surgical specialists would be most helpful in colonic perforation, gangrenous colon, or severe disease. PMID:25769243

  3. Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis in association with asinine herpesvirus type 5 and equine herpesvirus type 5: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A standardbred gelding with a history of 10 days pyrexia and lethargy was referred to the Equine Hospital at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden. The horse had tachypnea with increased respiratory effort and was in thin body condition. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia and hypoxemia. Thoracic radiographs showed signs of pneumonia with a multifocal nodular pattern, which in combination with lung biopsy findings indicated Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis (EMPF). EMPF is a recently described disease in adult horses with clinical signs of fever, weight loss and respiratory problems. The pathological findings include loss of functional pulmonary parenchyma due to extensive nodular interstitial fibrosis which has been related to infection with the equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5). In this case, lung biopsy and tracheal wash samples tested positive for both asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AHV-5) and EHV-5 using PCR assays. The horse failed to respond to treatment and was euthanized for humane reasons. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of EMPF. This case suggests that not only EHV-5 alone should be considered in association with the development of this disease. PMID:23009194

  4. Lung abscess predicts the surgical outcome in patients with pleural empyema.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hung-Che; Chen, Heng-Chung; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Yi-Chieh; Wu, Chin-Yen; Cheng, Ching-Yuan

    2010-10-20

    Most cases of pleural empyema are caused by pulmonary infections, which are usually combined with pneumonia or lung abscess. The mortality of patients with pleural empyema remains high (up to 20%). It also contributes to higher hospital costs and longer hospital stays. We studied pleural empyema with combined lung abscess to determine if abscess was associated with mortality. From January 2004 to December 2006, we retrospectively reviewed 259 patients diagnosed with pleural empyema who received thoracscopic decortications of the pleura in a single medical center. We evaluated their clinical data and analyzed their chest computed tomography scans. Outcomes of pleural empyema were compared between groups with and without lung abscess. Twenty-two pleural empyema patients had lung abscesses. Clinical data showed significantly higher incidences in the lung abscess group of pre-operative leukocytosis, need for an intensive care unit stay and mortality. Patients with pleural empyema and lung abscess have higher intensive care unit admission rate, higher mortality during 30 days and overall mortality than patients with pleural empyema. The odds ratio of lung abscess is 4.685. Physician shall pay more attention on high risk patient of lung abscess for early detection and management.

  5. Closed cervix is associated with more severe illness in dogs with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Jitpean, Supranee; Ambrosen, Aime; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hagman, Ragnvi

    2017-01-05

    Pyometra, a life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus, is classified as open or closed depending on the functional patency of the cervix i.e. presence or absence of vaginal discharge. In closed cervix pyometra, pus and bacterial products accumulate in the uterus, which is thought to induce a more severe illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease severity or outcome differed in dogs with open or closed cervix pyometra. Prospectively collected data from 111 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra at the University Animal Hospital, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, intermittently during 2005-2012 was analyzed. Seventy-two dogs (65%) had open cervix, whereas 39 dogs (35%) had closed cervix. Differences between the two groups were explored by Wilcoxon Two Sample Test for continuous variables and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. P < 0.05 was considered significant. In dogs with open cervix the median age was 9.0 years and the median weight 26.0 kg. In dogs with closed cervix the median age was 9.6 years and the median weight 25.0 kg, with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.69 and 0.24, respectively). Five dogs (4.5%) died, all with open cervix, and 16 dogs (14%) had complications. The general physical condition was moderately or severely depressed in 30% (21/71) of dogs with open cervix (severely depressed in 4 dogs, moderately depressed in 17 dogs) and in 56% (22/39) of dogs with closed cervix (severely depressed in 3 dogs, moderately depressed in 19 dogs). The general physical condition was mildly depressed in 41 dogs with open cervix and 16 dogs with closed cervix, whereas it was normal in nine dogs with open cervix and one dog with closed cervix. None of the included dogs had very severely depressed general physical condition or were non-responsive. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis and moderately to severely depressed general condition was more commonly

  6. Suppression of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammatory responses in a mouse model of asthma by Mimosa pudica extract.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ji-Sook; Yun, Chi-Young; Ryang, Yong Suk; Kim, Jong-Bae; Kim, In Sik

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease. The pathogenic mechanisms of asthma include the infiltration of leukocytes and release of cytokines. Mimosa pudica (Mp) has been used traditionally for the treatment of insomnia, diarrhea and inflammatory diseases. Although Mp extract has various therapeutic properties, the effect of this extract on asthma has not yet been reported. This study investigated the suppressive effects of Mp extract on asthmatic responses both in vitro and in vivo. Mp extract was acquired from dried and powdered whole plants of M. pudica using 80% ethanol. BALB/c mice were used for the mouse model of asthma induced by ovalbumin. Mp extract significantly inhibited the HMC-1 cell migration induced by stem cell factor and blocked the release of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in EoL-1 cells. Leukocytosis, eosinophilia and mucus hypersecretion in asthmatic lung were significantly suppressed by Mp extract. The release of ovalbumin-specific IgE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum was also decreased. Mp extract treatment resulted in no liver cytotoxicity. The Mp extract has inhibitory properties on asthma and may be used as a potent therapeutic agent for allergic lung inflammation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Experimental Infections of Bluegill with the Trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae (Digenea: Cathaemasiidae): Histopathology and Hematological Response

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Dana M.; Schaffer, Paula A.; Gregory, Jacklyn R.; Hardy, Katherine M.; Johnson, Pieter T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Infections by the digenetic trematode, Ribeiroia ondatrae, cause severe limb malformations in many North American amphibians. Ribeiroia ondatrae also infects fishes as second intermediate hosts, but less is known about the pathology and immune responses initiated in infected fish, even though reports of infected fish date back to early 1900s. To this end, we experimentally exposed juvenile Bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to three doses of R. ondatrae cercariae and monitored the pathology, parasite infection success, and humoral responses over 648 h. All exposed fish became infected with metacercariae, and the average infection load increased with exposure dose. Histologically, infection was associated with acute hemorrhages in the lateral line and local dermis at 36 h, followed by progressive granulomatous inflammation that led to the destruction of encysted metacercariae. Correspondingly, over the course of 648 h we observed an 85% decline in average infection load among hosts, reflecting the host’s clearance of the parasite. Infection was not associated with changes in fish growth or survival, but did correlate with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in circulating host blood. Understanding the physiological responses of R. ondatrae in Bluegill will help to clarify the ecological effects of this parasite and provide a foundation for subsequent comparisons into its effects on behavior, individual health, and population dynamics of Bluegill. PMID:26587684

  8. Experimental Infections of Bluegill with the Trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae (Digenea: Cathaemasiidae): Histopathology and Hematological Response.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Dana M; Schaffer, Paula A; Gregory, Jacklyn R; Hardy, Katherine M; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2015-12-01

    Infections by the digenetic trematode, Ribeiroia ondatrae, cause severe limb malformations in many North American amphibians. Ribeiroia ondatrae also infects fishes as second intermediate hosts, but less is known about the pathology and immune responses initiated in infected fish, even though reports of infected fish date back to early 1900s. To this end, we experimentally exposed juvenile Bluegills Lepomis macrochirus to three doses of R. ondatrae cercariae and monitored the pathology, parasite infection success, and humoral responses over 648 h. All exposed fish became infected with metacercariae, and the average infection load increased with exposure dose. Histologically, infection was associated with acute hemorrhages in the lateral line and local dermis at 36 h, followed by progressive granulomatous inflammation that led to the destruction of encysted metacercariae. Correspondingly, over the course of 648 h we observed an 85% decline in average infection load among hosts, reflecting the host's clearance of the parasite. Infection was not associated with changes in fish growth or survival, but did correlate with leukocytosis and neutrophilia in circulating host blood. Understanding the physiological responses of R. ondatrae in Bluegill will help to clarify the ecological effects of this parasite and provide a foundation for subsequent comparisons into its effects on behavior, individual health, and population dynamics of Bluegill.

  9. Soluble HLA-G Molecules Are Increased during Acute Leukemia, Especially in Subtypes Affecting Monocytic and Lymphoid Lineages1

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Frédéric; Sebti, Yasmine; de Guibert, Sophie; Branger, Bernard; Bernard, Marc; Fauchet, Renée; Amiot, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) molecules corresponding to nonclassic class I genes of the major histocompatibility complex exhibit immunomodulatory properties. They are either membrane-bound or solubly expressed during certain tumoral malignancies. Soluble human leukocyte antigen G (sHLA-G) molecules seem more frequently expressed than membrane-bound isoforms during hematologic malignancies, such as lymphoproliferative disorders. Assay of these molecules by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients suffering from another hematologic disorder (acute leukemia) highlights increased sHLA-G secretion. This increased secretion seems more marked in acute leukemia subtypes affecting monocytic and lymphoid lineages such as FABM4 and FABM5, as well as both B and T acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Moreover, this study uses in vitro cytokine stimulations and reveals the respective potential roles of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interferon-γ in increasing this secretion in FABM4 and ALL. Correlations between sHLA-G plasma level and clinical biologic features suggest a link between elevated sHLA-G level and 1) the absence of anterior myelodysplasia and 2) high-level leukocytosis. All these findings suggest that sHLA-G molecules could be a factor in tumoral escape from immune survey during acute leukemia. PMID:16611416

  10. Broken heart syndrome triggered by an obstructive goiter not associated with thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Bui, Helen; Schricker, Thomas; Backman, Steven B

    2013-08-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is described as transient ventricular dysfunction following emotional or physical trauma. A few reports have described patients with TC in association with various circumstances of thyrotoxicosis. We report an unusual case of TC in a patient with a large retrosternal goiter and normal thyroid function. We speculate that TC was triggered by compromise of tracheal flow induced by the goiter. A 68-yr-old woman without primary heart disease presented with cardiorespiratory collapse requiring ventilatory and cardiovascular support, including placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump. She was diagnosed with a severe form of TC based on characteristic echocardiography findings and clinical course. Within less than a week, her myocardial function completely normalized. The patient was later found to have a large retrosternal goiter compressing her trachea, though her thyroid function was normal. A total thyroidectomy was eventually performed, and she made a full recovery. Subsequently, the patient was found to have a positive JAK2 mutation for a myeloproliferative disorder. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy may be regarded as the final common pathway of cardiac dysfunction triggered by various stress conditions, in this case, a large retrosternal goiter not associated with thyrotoxicosis and likely exacerbated by severe leukocytosis related to a myeloproliferative disorder.

  11. Immune Response and Function: Exercise Conditioning Versus Bed-Rest and Spaceflight Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Lawless, D.

    1994-01-01

    Immune responses measured at rest immediately or some hours after exercise training (some with and some without increase in maximal oxygen uptake) gave variable and sometimes conflicting results; therefore, no general conclusions can be drawn. On the other hand, most immune responses were either unchanged (immunoglobulin, T cells, CD4+, and natural killer activity) or decreased (blood properdin, neutrophil phagocytic activity, salivary lysozymes, brain immunoglobulin A and G, and liver B lymphocytes and phytohemagglutinin activity) during prolonged bed rest. Some data suggested that exercise training during bed rest may partially ameliorate the decreased functioning of the immune system. Exercise and change in body position, especially during prolonged bed rest with plasma fluid shifts and diuresis, may induce a change in plasma protein concentration and content, which can influence drug metabolism as well as immune function. Leukocytosis, accompanied by lymphopenia and a depressed lymphocyte response, occurs in astronauts on return to Earth from spaceflight; recovery may depend on time of exposure to microgravity. It is clear that the effect of drugs and exercise used as countermeasures for microgravity deconditioning should be evaluated for their effect on an astronaut's immune system to assure optimal health and performance on long-duration space missions.

  12. [SOME CLINICAL AND CYTOKINE FEATURES OF THE CLINICAL COURSE OF RECURRENT RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DISEASES IN CHILDREN WITH THE TOXOCARIASIS INVASION].

    PubMed

    Dralova, A; Usachova, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical and cytokine features of recurrent respiratory system diseases in children with toxocariasis. 50 children aged 1 to 17 years (mean age - 10±5 years) with recurrent current of respiratory system disorders were studied. During the survey such clinical manifestations of the respiratory system disorders as obstructive bronchitis (50%), bronchial asthma (30%), pneumonia (10%) and laryngotracheitis (10%) have been revealed. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the software package STATISTICA 6.1 (SNANSOFT). We have shown that the disorders of respiratory system in case of toxocariasis invasion often occur with severe intoxication and bronchial obstruction syndromes, temperature reaction, respiratory insufficiency and hepatomegaly. A prolonged course of the disease has been noted. "Inflammatory" indicators of general blood analysis, such as leukocytosis and increased of ESR have been recorded in patients with respiratory system disorders in children with T.canis infection significantly more often, significant "allergic" laboratory changes were in the form of eosinophilia. High average levels of pro-inflammatory IL-6, as well as low levels of IL 5 have been determined in children suffering from the respiratory system disorders and with toxocariasis invasion in the anamnesis. The obtained findings require further study.

  13. Vaginal rupture and evisceration in a dog.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, Nikitas N; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Ververidis, Haralabos N; Anagnostou, Tilemachos L; Kladakis, Stefanos E

    2010-09-01

    A 1.5-year-old German Shepherd mixed breed dog was admitted with mild haemorrhage from the vulva and a perineal mass of 24-hour duration, which had been first observed immediately after parturition. Parturition had occurred at low ambient temperature, and only one puppy survived out of the seven oversized fetuses. The dog was in poor body condition, dehydrated, hypothermic, depressed, non-ambulatory and in a state of shock. Intestinal loops, the urinary bladder and the uterine horns and body were protruding from the vulva. A true vaginal prolapse was also observed. The abdominal viscera were flushed with warm sterile saline solution, protected and maintained wet. The laboratory findings included moderate anaemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminaemia, azotaemia and elevated liver enzyme activities. Stabilisation of the dog's general condition was attempted before surgery. Antimicrobial and analgesic drugs were also administered. After exploratory laparotomy the protruding organs, which were in good condition, were reduced. A recent rupture in the vaginal wall, approximately 6 cm long, was observed. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy were performed. The preoperative course of therapy was continued, but the bitch died 12 hours later. The probable cause of vaginal rupture and evisceration in this bitch was tenesmus and/or trauma due to the oversized fetuses.

  14. Acute appendicitis-like symptoms as initial presentation of ovarian vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Nieto, M I; Perez-Robledo, J P; Rodriguez-Montes, J A; Garci-Sancho-Martin, L

    2004-07-01

    Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare condition, with an incidence rate being 1/600 deliveries. It most often arises in the right ovarian vein. A 33-year-old patient who had had normal vaginal delivery presented with fever, pain in the right iliac fossa, and leukocytosis on the sixth day after delivery. An antibiotic course was instituted but 3 days later symptoms reappeared. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis was made. At surgery through a McBurney incision, a woody tumoration consistent with ovarian vein thrombosis was found. Anticoagulation therapy with heparin and antibiotics were instituted. Phlebography and color Doppler sonography confirmed the presence of thrombosis of both the common femoral iliac and inferior vena cava. Fribrolysis with urokinase was performed. The patient has remained stable and symptom-free over a 4-year follow-up. Ovarian vein thrombosis typically presents with symptoms suggestive of acute appendicitis, as was the case in our patient. Color Doppler sonography is the favored diagnostic procedure, with CT being a supplementary tool. Surgery is not necessary and treatment consists of anticoagulants and antibiotics. Even though postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis is rare, early recognition of the condition is of paramount importance to institute the adequate treatment and avoid potential serious sequelae.

  15. Hemoadsorption in a Case of Severe Septic Shock and Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Nontraumatic Renal Rupture due to Pyelonephritis with Obstructive Uropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wittel, Uwe; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Utzolino, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Background Nontraumatic renal rupture due to pyelonephritis with obstructive uropathy is an uncommon but life-threatening situation. Case Presentation A 25-year-old female presented to the emergency department with acute worsening of abdominal pain that began four weeks earlier. She was found to have peritonitis, leukocytosis, severe lactic acidosis, and a pronounced anemia and imaging was consistent with nontraumatic renal rupture with retroperitoneal abscess, perforation of the colon, and severe necrotizing fasciitis of the right lower limb. She underwent a right nephrectomy, a right hemicolectomy, surgical debridement of the retroperitoneum, and an upper thigh amputation. Due to severe septic shock and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure we performed a combined treatment of hemoadsorption using a Cytosorb hemoadsorber and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD). Subsequently the patient recovered and was discharged home with no signs of infections and with normal renal function. Conclusion We present a case of pyelonephritis with nontraumatic renal rupture leading to necrotizing fasciitis with osteomyelitis of the lower limb. The early treatment of the patient with a Cytosorb hemoadsorber led to a rapid hemodynamic and metabolic stabilization and preservation of the renal function, suggesting that hemoadsorption might be a rescue therapy in patients with severe septic shock and traumatic rhabdomyolysis. PMID:29854478

  16. Recurrent lipoatrophic panniculitis of children.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, A; Noguera-Morel, L; Hernández-Martín, A; Clemente, D; Barja, J M; Buzón, L; Azorín, D; de Jesús, A A; López-Robledillo, J C; Colmenero, I; Kutzner, H; Goldbach-Mansky, R; Requena, L

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent panniculitis in children with lipoatrophy has been loosely described and reported under different names, but has never been systematically evaluated by immunohistochemical stains. To depict the profile of children with recurrent idiopathic panniculitis. Study of clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features in five cases with recurrent idiopathic panniculitis. Five children with repeated attacks of painful subcutaneous nodules in association with fever, malaise and abdominal pain or arthralgia, with subsequent lipoatrophy were reviewed. In two patients, extensive involvement led to loss of the cutaneous fatty tissue. Laboratory abnormalities included increased acute phase reactants, leukocytosis with mild neutrophilia, microcytic anaemia and elevated liver enzymes. Histopathology showed lobar panniculitis without vasculitis and with a mixed infiltrate, composed of neutrophils, mononuclear cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and myeloid cells. Neutrophils and myeloid cells were more prominent in early lesions, whereas macrophages predominated in late stages, leading to lipophagia and lipoatrophy. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for myeloperoxidase around the necrotic adipocytes in early stages and CD68/PGM1 macrophages in late stages. Intense STAT1 staining was observed in the inflammatory infiltrate. All patients improved with methotrexate and corticosteroids. We present five cases of lobar panniculitis and lipoatrophy in childhood. The clinico-pathologic presentation shares features with other autoinflammatory diseases. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Moderate acute pancreatitis with pleural effusion and impaired kidney functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbantoruan, O. H.; Dairi, L. B.

    2018-03-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a pancreatic inflammatory reaction that is clinically characterized by acute abdominal pain accompanied by elevated amylase and lipase enzymes. A 57-year-old female patient came to the emergency department with the main complaint of localized pain in the epigastric region within the last three days. Blood pressure 130/90mmHg, pulse 90x/i, RR 20x/i, temperature 37°C, sub-icteric on the eyes and tenderness in the epigastric region. Laboratory findings were leukocytosis, increased amylase, and lipase, elevated liver enzymes, hypoalbuminemia, elevated Kidney Functions, acidosis, and hypoglycemia. Abdominal CT-Scan revealed a partially lobulated edge with solid and necrotic components of the caput pancreas and widespread suspicion to the pancreatic corpus. The mass appeared to cause widening of the biliary and intrahepatic systems with minimal right pleural effusion. The liverwas slightly enlarged. The patient was with acute pancreatitis and treated with the installation of an open nasogastric tube, and resuscitated with ringer lactate fluid followed by IVFD D5%. Patients fasted for three days before giving a low fat, protein diet, antibiotic and proton pump inhibitors for seven days. After nine days, amylase and lipase levels decreased with significant clinical improvement. The next three days, the patient was discharged.

  18. Case report: patient with Weil’s disease, chest pain, hepatitis b, hepatorenal syndrome, and electrolyte imbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustopa; Susilo, R. S. B.; Arifin; Redhono, D.; Sumandjar, T.

    2018-03-01

    A 48-years-old man was hospitalized due to febrile for 5 days accompanied by headache and left chest pain radiating into the back. Pain calf, abdominal pain and tea color urine has occured since 1 week before admission. Physical examination revealed temperature 38.5° C, conjungtival suffusion, jaundice sclera, irregularheart sound, hepatomegaly, gastrocnemius tenderness, Faine score 23. Laboratory tests showed leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, elevated transaminase enzyme, ureum 181 mg/dl, creatinine 4.3 mg/dl, albumin 2.4 g/dl, sodium 110 mmol/L, potassium 2.3 mmol/L, reactive HbsAg, CKMB 68.06 ng/ml, increased HBV-DNA, negative IgM anti Leptospira. MAT demonstrated 4 positive serovar. Electrocardiography revealed AF rapid ventrikel response. Chest x-ray showed cardiomegaly. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatomegaly with chronic parenchimal liver disease, renal insuficiency. Fibroscan showed severe fibrosis. Patient was diagnosed with Weil’s disease and hepatorenal syndrome as complication. Patient was given clavulanate amoxicillin injections. This patient was not dialysis, only fluid balance monitoring and checked ureum-creatinine per 3 days, and there was improvement of ureum-creatinine. Hepatorenal syndrome in Weil’s disease contributed to electrolyte imbalance. In addition, chronic hepatitis B on this patient was treated with tenofovir.

  19. Radical esophagectomy for a 92-year-old woman with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kitani, Mari; Yamagata, Yukinori; Tanabe, Asami; Yagi, Kouichi; Aikou, Susumu; Kiyokawa, Takashi; Nishida, Masato; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Mori, Kazuhiko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-13

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been considered to have a poor prognosis. We successfully treated a case of G-CSF-producing ESCC in a 92-year-old woman. A 92-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of choking while swallowing and dysphagia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a type 2 esophageal cancer located 26-35 cm from the dental arch, with no distant metastasis. The patient was diagnosed with G-CSF-producing ESCC based on remarkable leukocytosis and high G-CSF levels. The patient underwent radical subtotal esophagectomy. Subsequently, the level of neutrophils (from 23,500/μL to 5000/μL) and the level of G-CSF (from 131 to <19.5 pg/mL) decreased significantly. Immunohistochemistry analysis of the resected tissue specimen showed positive staining for G-CSF in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Although the patient developed aspiration pneumonitis, after antibiotic treatment, she promptly recovered and was discharged. Herein, we describe a case of successfully treated G-CSF-producing ESCC in a 92-year-old woman. Precise detection and safely performed immediate radical operation are considered essential to achieve a good clinical course.

  20. Adipose tissue as an immunological organ

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ryan W.; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review will focus on the immunological aspects of adipose tissue and its potential role in development of chronic inflammation that instigates obesity-associated co-morbidities. Design and Methods The review utilized PubMed searches of current literature to examine adipose tissue leukocytosis. Results The adipose tissue of obese subjects becomes inflamed and contributes to the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Numerous immune cells including B cells, T cells, macrophages and neutrophils have been identified in adipose tissue, and obesity influences both the quantity and the nature of immune cell subtypes which emerges as an active immunological organ capable of modifying whole body metabolism through paracrine and endocrine mechanisms. Conclusion Adipose tissue is a large immunologically active organ during obesity that displays hallmarks of both and innate and adaptive immune response. Despite the presence of hematopoietic lineage cells in adipose tissue, it is presently unclear whether the adipose compartment has a direct role in immune-surveillance or host defense. Understanding the interactions between leukocytes and adipocytes may reveal the clinically relevant pathways that control adipose tissue inflammation and is likely to reveal mechanism by which obesity contributes to increased susceptibility to both metabolic and certain infectious disease. PMID:25612251

  1. Leukogram Profile and Clinical Status in vivax and falciparum Malaria Patients from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Tobón-Castaño, Alberto; Mesa-Echeverry, Esteban; Miranda-Arboleda, Andrés Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hematological alterations are frequent in malaria patients; the relationship between alterations in white blood cell counts and clinical status in malaria is not well understood. In Colombia, with low endemicity and unstable transmission for malaria, with malaria vivax predominance, the hematologic profile in malaria patients is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize the leukogram in malaria patients and to analyze its alterations in relation to the clinical status. Methods. 888 leukogram profiles of malaria patients from different Colombian regions were studied: 556 with P. falciparum infection (62.6%), 313 with P. vivax infection (35.2%), and 19 with mixed infection by these species (2.1%). Results. Leukocyte counts at diagnosis were within normal range in 79% of patients and 18% had leucopenia; the most frequent alteration was lymphopenia (54%) followed by monocytosis (11%); the differential granulocyte count in 298 patients revealed eosinophilia (15%) and high basophil counts (8%). Leukocytosis, eosinopenia, and neutrophilia were associated with clinical complications. The utility of changes in leukocyte counts as markers of severity should be explored in depth. A better understanding of these hematological parameters will allow their use in prompt diagnosis of malaria complications and monitoring treatment response. PMID:26664413

  2. Toxicities associated with NBOMe ingestion-a novel class of potent hallucinogens: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Joji; Dekker, Michael A; Valenti, Erin S; Arbelo Cruz, Fabiola A; Correa, Ady M; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    A new class of synthetic hallucinogens called NBOMe has emerged as drugs of abuse. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of published reports of toxicities associated with NBOMe ingestion. We searched PubMed for relevant English-language citations that described adverse effects from analytically confirmed human NBOMe ingestion. Demographic and clinical data were extracted. A total of 10 citations met the criteria for inclusion, representing 20 individual patients. 25I-NBOMe was the most common analogue identified, followed by 25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe. Fatalities were reported in 3 (15%) cases. Of all the patients, 7 (35%) were discharged after a period of observation, whereas 8 (40.0%) required admission to an intensive care unit. The most common adverse effects were agitation (85.0%), tachycardia (85.0%), and hypertension (65.0%). Seizures were reported in 8 (40.0%) patients. The most common abnormalities reported on laboratory tests were elevated level of creatinine kinase (45.0%), leukocytosis (25.0%), and hyperglycemia (20.0%). NBOMe ingestion is associated with severe adverse effects. Clinicians need to have a high index of suspicion for NBOMe ingestion in patients reporting the recent use of hallucinogens. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adverse effects of long-term administration of fluvoxamine on haematology, blood biochemistry and fertility in male albino rats: a possible effect of cessation.

    PubMed

    Galal, A A A; Alam, R T M; Abd El-Aziz, R M

    2016-11-01

    Fluvoxamine is recommended as first-line treatment for a number of obsessive-compulsive disorders, anxiety disorders, social phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder and panic disorder. The adverse effects of prolonged oral administration of fluvoxamine on haematology, biochemical parameters and fertility in male rats were evaluated in this study. Sixty adult male rats were allocated into 5 equal groups and orally treated with fluvoxamine 9 mg kg -1 b.wt. (low therapeutic dose, LTD) and 27 mg kg -1 b.wt. (high therapeutic dose, HTD), while the control rats received 0.5 ml distilled water for a period of 8 weeks. The 4 th and 5 th groups were gavaged with LTD and HTD of fluvoxamine for 8 weeks and then left untreated for another 8 weeks (recovery groups). HTD of fluvoxamine induced leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and monocytosis. LTD and HTD of fluvoxamine evoked hepatic, renal and cardiac dysfunction. Moreover, fluvoxamine treatment might lead to the risk of male infertility, which is indicated by its deleterious impacts on spermiogram and steroidogenesis hormones. They also induced oxidative stress, apoptosis in testicular tissue. Fortunately, the previous alterations were mostly reversed during the recovery period. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, osteopetrosis, lymphedema, and immunodeficiency in an infant with multiple opportunistic infections.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, Valerie M; Lofgren, Sabra M; Mann, Julianne A; Austin, Jared P; Nolt, Dawn; Shereck, Evan B; Davila-Saldana, Blachy; Zonana, Jonathan; Krol, Alfons L

    2014-01-01

    Osteopetrosis, lymphedema, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-HED-ID) is a rare X-linked disorder with only three reported prior cases in the English-language literature. We describe a case of OL-HED-ID in a male infant who initially presented with congenital lymphedema, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia of unknown etiology at 7 days of age. He subsequently developed gram-negative sepsis and multiple opportunistic infections including high-level cytomegalovirus viremia and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The infant was noted to have mildly xerotic skin, fine sparse hair, and periorbital wrinkling, all features suggestive of ectodermal dysplasia. Skeletal imaging showed findings consistent with osteopetrosis, and immunologic investigation revealed hypogammaglobulinemia and mixed T- and B-cell dysfunction. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation in the nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-KB) essential modulator (NEMO) gene, confirming the diagnosis of OL-HED-ID. Mutations in the NEMO gene have been reported in association with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (HED-ID), OL-HED-ID, and incontinentia pigmenti. In this case, we report a novel mutation in the NEMO gene associated with OL-HED-ID. This article highlights the dermatologic manifestations of a rare disorder, OL-HED-ID, and underscores the importance of early recognition and prompt intervention to prevent life-threatening infections. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Phosphatidylserine index as a marker of the procoagulant phenotype of acute myelogenous leukemia cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Recht, Olivia; Gruber, András; Levine, Ross L.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are at risk for thrombotic complications. Risk to develop thrombosis is closely tied to leukemia subtype, and studies have shown an association between leukocytosis and thrombosis in AML M3. We evaluated the relative roles of cell count and the surface expression of tissue factor (TF) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the procoagulant phenotype of AML cell lines. The TF-positive AML M3 cell lines, NB4 and HL60, and AML M2 cell line, AML14, exhibited both extrinsic tenase and prothrombinase activity in a purified system and promoted experimental thrombus formation. In contrast, the TF-negative AML cell line, HEL, exhibited only prothrombinase activity and did not affect the rate of occlusive thrombus formation. In plasma, NB4, HL60 and AML14 shortened clotting times in a cell-count, PS- and TF-dependent manner. Exposure of cultured NB4, HL60, and AML14 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent daunorubicin increased their extrinsic tenase activity and PS expression. Clot initiation time inversely correlated with logarithm of PS index, defined as the product of multiplying leukocyte count with cell surface PS exposure. We propose that leukemia cell PS index may serve as a biomarker for procoagulant activity.

  6. Impact of induction regimen and stem cell transplantation on outcomes in double-hit lymphoma: a multicenter retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Petrich, Adam M; Gandhi, Mitul; Jovanovic, Borko; Castillo, Jorge J; Rajguru, Saurabh; Yang, David T; Shah, Khushboo A; Whyman, Jeremy D; Lansigan, Frederick; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Lee, Lisa X; Barta, Stefan K; Melinamani, Shruthi; Karmali, Reem; Adeimy, Camille; Smith, Scott; Dalal, Neil; Nabhan, Chadi; Peace, David; Vose, Julie; Evens, Andrew M; Shah, Namrata; Fenske, Timothy S; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Landsburg, Daniel J; Howlett, Christina; Mato, Anthony; Jaglal, Michael; Chavez, Julio C; Tsai, Judy P; Reddy, Nishitha; Li, Shaoying; Handler, Caitlin; Flowers, Christopher R; Cohen, Jonathon B; Blum, Kristie A; Song, Kevin; Sun, Haowei Linda; Press, Oliver; Cassaday, Ryan; Jaso, Jesse; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Sohani, Aliyah R; Abramson, Jeremy S

    2014-10-09

    Patients with double-hit lymphoma (DHL), which is characterized by rearrangements of MYC and either BCL2 or BCL6, face poor prognoses. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of the impact of baseline clinical factors, induction therapy, and stem cell transplant (SCT) on the outcomes of 311 patients with previously untreated DHL. At median follow-up of 23 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates among all patients were 10.9 and 21.9 months, respectively. Forty percent of patients remain disease-free and 49% remain alive at 2 years. Intensive induction was associated with improved PFS, but not OS, and SCT was not associated with improved OS among patients achieving first complete remission (P = .14). By multivariate analysis, advanced stage, central nervous system involvement, leukocytosis, and LDH >3 times the upper limit of normal were associated with higher risk of death. Correcting for these, intensive induction was associated with improved OS. We developed a novel risk score for DHL, which divides patients into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups. In conclusion, a subset of DHL patients may be cured, and some patients may benefit from intensive induction. Further investigations into the roles of SCT and novel agents are needed. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Outcome of metronidazole therapy for Clostridium difficile disease and correlation with a scoring system.

    PubMed

    Belmares, Jaime; Gerding, Dale N; Parada, Jorge P; Miskevics, Scott; Weaver, Frances; Johnson, Stuart

    2007-12-01

    To determine the response rate of Clostridium difficile disease (CDD) to treatment with metronidazole and assess a scoring system to predict response to treatment with metronidazole when applied at the time of CDD diagnosis. Retrospective review of patients with CDD who received primary treatment with metronidazole. We defined success as diarrhea resolution within 6 days of therapy. A CDD score was defined prospectively using variables suggested to correlate with disease severity. Among 102 evaluable patients, 72 had a successful response (70.6%). Twenty-one of the remaining 30 patients eventually responded to metronidazole, but required longer treatment, leaving 9 'true failures'. The mean CDD score was higher among true failures (2.89+/-1.4) than among all metronidazole responders (0.77+/-1.0) (p<.0001). The score was greater than 2 in 67% of true failures and 2 or less in 94% of metronidazole responders. Leukocytosis and abnormal CT scan findings were individual factors associated with a higher risk of metronidazole failure. Only 71% of CDD patients responded to metronidazole within 6 days, but the overall response rate was 91%. A CDD score greater than 2 was associated with metronidazole failure in 6 of 9 true failures. The CDD score will require prospective validation.

  8. Establishment and characterization of a novel dedifferentiated liposarcoma cell line, NDDLS-1.

    PubMed

    Ariizumi, Takashi; Ogose, Akira; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hotta, Tetsuo; Li, Guidong; Xu, Yongjun; Hirose, Takanori; Endo, Naoto

    2011-08-01

    We established a dedifferentiated liposarcoma cell line (NDDLS-1) that produces interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The parental tumor showed high leukemoid reactions. The NDDLS-1 cell line was established from a pleural effusion associated with a lung metastasis. Pleomorphic tumor cells arranged in a haphazard growth pattern were seen in xenograft tumors. Numerous inflammatory cells including neutrophils or eosinophils were present throughout the tumor cells. This finding resembled the dedifferentiated area of the parental tumor. The mice bearing NDDLS-1 showed marked leukocytosis. In addition, the NDDLS-1 cells expressed IL-6 and G-CSF at both the mRNA and protein levels, while the NDDLS-1 cells produced near normal levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In the cytogenetic analysis, both the parental tumor and the NDDLS-1 cells showed a ring or giant marker chromosomes. The NDDLS-1 cell line demonstrated the amplification and expression of both MDM2 and CDK4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis. The NDDLS-1 cell line is consistent with the parental dedifferentiated liposarcoma, and it should therefore be useful for further investigations of human dedifferentiated liposarcomas. © 2011 The Authors. Pathology International © 2011 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. First case of Propionibacterium acnes urinary tract infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-12-21

    Propionibacterium acnes has been rarely isolated as a commensal from dogs, but there is little evidence of pathogenicity. Urinary tract infections are common in dogs and are typically caused by various commensal bacteria. Here we present the first case report of a urinary tract infection caused by P. acnes. A 6-year-old female Japanese Shiba Inu was hospitalized for polyuria, polydipsia, and severe hematuria. At admission, blood tests revealed leukocytosis, slight anemia, decreased albumin, and slightly elevated blood urea nitrogen. Computerized tomography showed gas accumulation on the inner side of the bladder wall. Urinalysis revealed proteinuria and bilirubinuria without glycosuria. The urine sediment contained large numbers of erythrocytes and leukocytes. Additionally, rod-shaped bacteria were detected by Diff-Quik staining. Enrofloxacin and metronidazole were administered empirically; however, the renal function declined sharply and the patient died 2 days later. Bacteriological examination revealed that the causative agent was Propionibacterium acnes, which was identified as sequence type 53 via multilocus sequence typing. This isolate showed high susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and enrofloxacin, but was resistant to metronidazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a dog with urinary tract infection caused by P. acnes.

  10. Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta/Increta after Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, S.; Reinhard, J.; Reitter, A.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to show that conservative management with preservation of the uterus and of fertility is possible in patients with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery. Method: A retrospective analysis of patients with placental attachment disorders after vaginal delivery was done in a perinatal centre between November 2009 and April 2011. The patient collective was identified using the ICD-10 codes for placenta accreta/increta/percreta, and patient records were analysed for risk factors, maternal morbidity, preservation of the uterus and of fertility, and neonatal outcome. Results: Three cases of placenta increta were identified in the last 1.5 years out of a total of 1457 vaginal deliveries, and all 3 cases were treated conservatively. Mean maternal age was 35.3 years; gestational age ranged from 39 to 41 weeks, and mean duration between delivery of the child and delivery of the placenta was 44.67 days (range: 14–100 days). Two patients developed symptoms of endomyometritis, including fever, leukocytosis and increased CRP levels. All 3 women were successfully managed with preservation of the uterus. Conclusion: In selected cases with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery, it is possible to avoid surgical procedures, particularly hysterectomy procedures, and successfully manage these patients conservatively with preservation of the uterus. PMID:25308979

  11. Novel Biliary Reconstruction Techniques During Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Ian C.; Romano, John; Bohorquez, Humberto; Bugeaud, Emily; Bruce, David S.; Cohen, Ari J.; Seal, John; Reichman, Trevor W.; Loss, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biliary complications remain a significant problem following liver transplantation. Several surgical options can be used to deal with a significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient bile ducts during the biliary anastomosis. We compared biliary transposition to recipient biliary ductoplasty in cadaveric liver transplant. Methods: A total of 33 reconstructions were performed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013. In the biliary transposition group (n=23), 5 reconstructions were performed using an internal stent (5 or 8 French pediatric feeding tube), and 18 were performed without. Of the 10 biliary ductoplasties, 2 were performed with a stent. All patients were managed with standard immunosuppression and ursodiol. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 5 years. Results: No patients in the biliary transposition group required reoperation; 1 patient had an internal stent removed for recurrent unexplained leukocytosis, and 2 patients required endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and stent placement for evidence of stricture. Three anastomotic leaks occurred in the biliary ductoplasty group, and 2 patients in the biliary ductoplasty group required reoperation for biliary complications. Conclusion: Our results indicate that biliary reconstruction can be performed with either biliary transposition or biliary ductoplasty. These techniques are particularly useful when a significant mismatch in diameter exists between the donor and recipient bile ducts. PMID:28331447

  12. Infection, inflammation and exercise in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Regular exercise is positively associated with health. It has also been suggested to exert anti-inflammatory effects. In healthy subjects, a single exercise session results in immune cell activation, which is characterized by production of immune modulatory peptides (e.g. IL-6, IL-8), a leukocytosis and enhanced immune cell functions. Upon cessation of exercise, immune activation is followed by a tolerizing phase, characterized by a reduced responsiveness of immune cells. Regular exercise of moderate intensity and duration has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects and is associated with a reduced disease incidence and viral infection susceptibility. Specific exercise programs may therefore be used to modify the course of chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF suffer from severe and chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation, leading to obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disease, exercise intolerance and muscle cachexia. Inflammation is characterized by a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Patients are encouraged to engage in exercise programs to maintain physical fitness, quality of life, pulmonary function and health. In this review, we present an overview of available literature describing the association between regular exercise, inflammation and infection susceptibility and discuss the implications of these observations for prevention and treatment of inflammation and infection susceptibility in patients with CF. PMID:23497303

  13. Complicated acute appendicitis presenting as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall: a case report.

    PubMed

    Beerle, Corinne; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan; Staerkle, Ralph F

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a rare complication of acute appendicitis with perforation through the abdominal wall. The case points out that an intraabdominal origin should be considered in patients presenting with rapidly spreading soft tissue infections of the trunk. A 58-year-old European woman presented to our hospital with a 1-week history of severe abdominal pain accompanied by rapidly spreading erythema and emphysema of the lower abdomen. On admission, the patient was in septic shock with leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein. Among other diagnoses, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected. Computed tomography showed a large soft tissue infection with air-fluid levels spreading through the lower abdominal wall. During the operation, we found a perforated appendicitis breaking through the fascia and causing a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall. Appendicitis was the origin of the soft tissue infection. The abdominal wall was only secondarily involved. Even though perforated appendicitis as an etiology of a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal wall cellulitis. The distinction between rapidly spreading subcutaneous infection with abscess formation and early onset of necrotizing fasciitis is often difficult and can be confirmed only by surgical intervention.

  14. Treatment of pyonephrosis with a subcutaneous ureteral bypass device in four cats.

    PubMed

    Cray, Megan; Berent, Allyson C; Weisse, Chick W; Bagley, Demetrius

    2018-03-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION 4 cats were examined because of ureteral obstruction. CLINICAL FINDINGS Clinical and clinicopathologic abnormalities were nonspecific and included anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and azotemia. A diagnosis of pyonephrosis was made in all cats. The presence of bacteriuria was confirmed by means of urinalysis in 2 cats, bacterial culture of a urine sample obtained by means of preoperative cystocentesis in 2 cats, and bacterial culture of samples obtained from the renal pelvis intraoperatively in 3 cats. Ureteral obstruction was caused by a urolith in 3 cats; ureteral stricture associated with a circumcaval ureter was identified in 1 cat. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME All 4 cats underwent renal pelvis lavage and placement of a subcutaneous ureteral bypass (SUB) device for treatment of obstructive pyonephrosis. Postoperatively, the cystostomy tube became occluded with purulent material in 1 cat, requiring exchange. The procedure was successful in relieving the obstruction and pyonephrosis in all cats. Three of 4 cats had documented resolution of urinary tract infection. One cat had persistent bacteriuria without clinical signs 1 month after SUB device placement. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this small series suggested that renal pelvis lavage with placement of an SUB device may be a treatment option for cats with obstructive pyonephrosis.

  15. [Complicated jejunoileal diverticular disease: a 12 cases' serie and literature review].

    PubMed

    López Marcano, Aylhin Joana; Ramia, José Manuel; De la Plaza Llamas, Roberto; Alonso, Soledad; Gonzales Aguilar, Johnny David; Kühnhardt Barrantes, Andree Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    To perform a retrospective analysis of a series of complicated JID (jejunoileal diverticulitis) cases surgically treated in our service during the period from 2002 to 2015. We treated 12 cases of jejunoileal complicated diverticulosis. 7 women and 5 men. The mean age was 76 years. The clinical presentation in all cases was acute abdominal pain, one with gastrointestinal bleeding. All cases had leukocytosis, neutrophilia and increased acute phase reactants. All patients underwent emergency abdominal CT. In 11 cases, there was consistency between imaging studies and surgical findings. Diverticula were located: jejunum (9) and ileum (3). Urgent exploratory laparotomy was always done and findings were: diverticular perforation with peritonitis (7 cases), diverticular perforation with abscess (4 cases) and in one case an ischemic area with diverticular perforation after embolization. Intestinal resection and anastomosis was performed in all cases. There were no patients, in which the diagnosis of diverticulosis jejunoileal was previously known. Complications were: Clavien I (2), Clavien IIIa (1), Clavien IVb (1), Clavien V (1). Jejunoileal diverticulitis is a rare entity, usually the first sign of onset of diverticular disease not previously known. Abdominal CT is of great diagnostic value. Resection of the affected segment is the treatment of choice.

  16. [Spontaneous bile duct perforation: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain during childhood].

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Tunç; Akgül, Ahsen Karagözlü; Arpaz, Yağmur; Arikan, Ahmet

    2008-07-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the bile duct (SPBD) is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain during childhood. Pancreatico-biliary malfunction has been postulated to contribute to its etiology. Factors related to diagnosis and treatment and difference from the other common causes of acute abdominal pain are emphasized. Five patients (3 boys, 2 girls, mean age 4.6) were admitted with peritonitis and operated with initial diagnosis of perforated appendicitis. During laparotomy, SPBD was detected. Presentation, laboratory findings and operative technique of the patients were evaluated retrospectively. Common complaints were abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. Abdominal distention was present in all patients. Leukocytosis and mild hyperbilirubinemia were detected in 5, elevated serum transaminase levels in 4, hyperglycemia in 1 and constipation in 1 patient(s). Abdominal ultrasonography showed a large amount of free fluid. During laparotomy, sterile bile peritonitis was detected initially. After exploration, SPBD was seen. T-tube drainage of the bile duct was carried out. Patients were discharged after removal of the T-tubes. Pancreatico-biliary malfunction was detected in 4 of 5 patients. In patients with generalized peritonitis, elevated transaminase levels and hyperbilirubinemia, SPBD must be considered. Even though the T-tube drainage is the treatment of choice, Roux-en-Y hepatico-portoenterostomy may be mandatory in certain patients.

  17. Intraarticular expression of biologically active interleukin 1-receptor-antagonist protein by ex vivo gene transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Bandara, G; Mueller, G M; Galea-Lauri, J; Tindal, M H; Georgescu, H I; Suchanek, M K; Hung, G L; Glorioso, J C; Robbins, P D; Evans, C H

    1993-01-01

    Gene therapy offers a radical different approach to the treatment of arthritis. Here we have demonstrated that two marker genes (lacZ and neo) and cDNA coding for a potentially therapeutic protein (human interleukin 1-receptor-antagonist protein; IRAP or IL-1ra) can be delivered, by ex vivo techniques, to the synovial lining of joints; intraarticular expression of IRAP inhibited intraarticular responses to interleukin 1. To achieve this, lapine synoviocytes were first transduced in culture by retroviral infection. The genetically modified synovial cells were then transplanted by intraarticular injection into the knee joints of rabbits, where they efficiently colonized the synovium. Assay of joint lavages confirmed the in vivo expression of biologically active human IRAP. With allografted cells, IRAP expression was lost by 12 days after transfer. In contrast, autografted synoviocytes continued to express IRAP for approximately 5 weeks. Knee joints expressing human IRAP were protected from the leukocytosis that otherwise follows the intraarticular injection of recombinant human interleukin 1 beta. Thus, we report the intraarticular expression and activity of a potentially therapeutic protein by gene-transfer technology; these experiments demonstrate the feasibility of treating arthritis and other joint disorders with gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8248169

  18. Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Patient with Pernicious Anemia.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Dahal, Sumit; Fadlalla, Kamal Fadlalla El Jack; Bhagat, Shambhu; Bhattarai, Bikash

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has been associated with different autoimmune disorders. However, its association with pernicious anemia is rarely reported. Case Report . A 46-year-old male presented with blood in sputum and urine for one day. The vitals were stable. The physical examination was significant for icterus. Lab tests' results revealed leukocytosis, macrocytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. He had an elevated LDH, low haptoglobin levels with many schistocytes, nucleated RBCs, and reticulocytes on peripheral smear. Low ADAMTS13 activity (<10%) with elevated ADAMTS13 antibody clinched the diagnosis of severe acquired TTP, and plasmapheresis was started. There was an initial improvement in his hematological markers, which were however not sustained on discontinuation of plasmapheresis. For his refractory TTP, he was resumed on daily plasmapheresis and Rituximab was started. Furthermore, the initial serum Vitamin B12 and reticulocyte index were low in the presence of anti-intrinsic factor antibody. So with the concomitant diagnosis of pernicious anemia, Vitamin B12 was supplemented. The rest of the immunological workups were negative. Subsequently, his symptoms resolved and his hematological parameters improved. Discussion . While pernicious anemia can masquerade as TTP, an actual association between the two can also occur and needs further evaluation and characterization.

  19. Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Patient with Pernicious Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Shambhu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has been associated with different autoimmune disorders. However, its association with pernicious anemia is rarely reported. Case Report. A 46-year-old male presented with blood in sputum and urine for one day. The vitals were stable. The physical examination was significant for icterus. Lab tests' results revealed leukocytosis, macrocytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. He had an elevated LDH, low haptoglobin levels with many schistocytes, nucleated RBCs, and reticulocytes on peripheral smear. Low ADAMTS13 activity (<10%) with elevated ADAMTS13 antibody clinched the diagnosis of severe acquired TTP, and plasmapheresis was started. There was an initial improvement in his hematological markers, which were however not sustained on discontinuation of plasmapheresis. For his refractory TTP, he was resumed on daily plasmapheresis and Rituximab was started. Furthermore, the initial serum Vitamin B12 and reticulocyte index were low in the presence of anti-intrinsic factor antibody. So with the concomitant diagnosis of pernicious anemia, Vitamin B12 was supplemented. The rest of the immunological workups were negative. Subsequently, his symptoms resolved and his hematological parameters improved. Discussion. While pernicious anemia can masquerade as TTP, an actual association between the two can also occur and needs further evaluation and characterization. PMID:28473932

  20. Demographic features and antibiotic resistance among children hospitalized for urinary tract infection in northwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Ziaaedin; Ghorashi, Sona; Soltani-Ahari, Hassan; Nezami, Nariman

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection during infancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate demographic characteristics, clinical presentations and findings, and antimicrobial resistance among infants and children hospitalized in Tabriz Children's Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. In this descriptive observational study, 100 children who had been admitted with UTI diagnosis to Tabriz Children's Hospital from March 2003 to March 2008 were studied. Demographic characteristics, chief complaints, clinical presentations and findings, urine analysis and cultures, antimicrobial resistance, and sonographic and voiding cystourethrographic reports were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 35.77 ± 39.86 months. The male to female ratio was 0.26. The mean white blood cell count was 12,900 ± 5226/mm(3). Sixty-two percent of patients had leukocytosis. The most common isolated pathogen was Escherichia coli spp (77%) followed by Klebsiella spp (10%), Enterobacter spp (9%), and Enterococcus spp (4%). Isolated pathogens were highly resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and cephalexin (71%-96%), intermediate sensitivity to third-generation cephalosporins, and highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin (84.4%), amikacin (83.8%), and nitrofurantoin (82.8%). The most common pathogen of UTI in the hospitalized children was E. coli spp. The isolated pathogens were extremely resistant to ampicillin, and highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin and amikacin.

  1. Still's Disease in a Pediatric Patient after Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Meza, Juan-Carlos; Muñoz-Buitrón, Evelyn; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Cañas, Carlos Alberto; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2013-01-01

    Still's disease (SD) is a multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by persistent arthritis and in many cases with fever of unknown origin. Diagnosis of SD is challenging because of nonspecific characteristics and especially in the case of a patient with solid organ transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy where multiple causes of fever are possible. There is no diagnostic test for SD, even though some useful diagnostic criteria or laboratory findings, such as serum ferritin levels, have been proposed, and useful imaging studies for the diagnosis or followup of SD have not been developed. We report the case of a 9-year-old child who presented with high grade fever associated with joint pain after a history of liver transplantation and immunosuppressive therapy. Laboratory tests showed increased acute phase reactants, elevated ferritin, and leukocytosis. An 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) was performed identifying abnormal hypermetabolic areas localized in spleen, transplanted liver, and bone marrow secondary to inflammatory process. All infectious, autoimmune, and malignant causes were ruled out. A diagnosis of SD was performed and a steroid-based regimen was initiated with adequate response and no evidence of recurrence. To our knowledge this is the first case of SD following a solid organ transplant.

  2. Lung abscess predicts the surgical outcome in patients with pleural empyema

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Most cases of pleural empyema are caused by pulmonary infections, which are usually combined with pneumonia or lung abscess. The mortality of patients with pleural empyema remains high (up to 20%). It also contributes to higher hospital costs and longer hospital stays. We studied pleural empyema with combined lung abscess to determine if abscess was associated with mortality. Methods From January 2004 to December 2006, we retrospectively reviewed 259 patients diagnosed with pleural empyema who received thoracscopic decortications of the pleura in a single medical center. We evaluated their clinical data and analyzed their chest computed tomography scans. Outcomes of pleural empyema were compared between groups with and without lung abscess. Results Twenty-two pleural empyema patients had lung abscesses. Clinical data showed significantly higher incidences in the lung abscess group of pre-operative leukocytosis, need for an intensive care unit stay and mortality. Conclusion Patients with pleural empyema and lung abscess have higher intensive care unit admission rate, higher mortality during 30 days and overall mortality than patients with pleural empyema. The odds ratio of lung abscess is 4.685. Physician shall pay more attention on high risk patient of lung abscess for early detection and management. PMID:20961413

  3. Mutant calreticulin knockin mice develop thrombocytosis and myelofibrosis without a stem cell self-renewal advantage.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Prins, Daniel; Park, Hyun Jung; Grinfeld, Jacob; Gonzalez-Arias, Carlos; Loughran, Stephen; Dovey, Oliver M; Klampfl, Thorsten; Bennett, Cavan; Hamilton, Tina L; Pask, Dean C; Sneade, Rachel; Williams, Matthew; Aungier, Juliet; Ghevaert, Cedric; Vassiliou, George S; Kent, David G; Green, Anthony R

    2018-02-08

    Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calreticulin (CALR) are detected in approximately 40% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Multiple different mutations have been reported, but all result in a +1-bp frameshift and generate a novel protein C terminus. In this study, we generated a conditional mouse knockin model of the most common CALR mutation, a 52-bp deletion. The mutant novel human C-terminal sequence is integrated into the otherwise intact mouse CALR gene and results in mutant CALR expression under the control of the endogenous mouse locus. CALR del/+ mice develop a transplantable ET-like disease with marked thrombocytosis, which is associated with increased and morphologically abnormal megakaryocytes and increased numbers of phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Homozygous CALR del/del mice developed extreme thrombocytosis accompanied by features of MF, including leukocytosis, reduced hematocrit, splenomegaly, and increased bone marrow reticulin. CALR del/+ HSCs were more proliferative in vitro, but neither CALR del/+ nor CALR del/del displayed a competitive transplantation advantage in primary or secondary recipient mice. These results demonstrate the consequences of heterozygous and homozygous CALR mutations and provide a powerful model for dissecting the pathogenesis of CALR-mutant ET and PMF. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    PubMed

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pre-procedural antibiotics for endoscopic urological procedures: Initial experience in individuals with spinal cord injury and asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Chong, Julio T; Klausner, Adam P; Petrossian, Albert; Byrne, Michael D; Moore, Jewel R; Goetz, Lance L; Gater, David R; Grob, B Mayer

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy, quality-of-life impact, and costs of a single dose or a longer course of pre-procedural antibiotics prior to elective endoscopic urological procedures in individuals with spinal cord injury and disorders (SCI/D) and asymptomatic bacteriuria. A prospective observational study. Hunter Holmes McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Sixty persons with SCI/D and asymptomatic bacteriuria scheduled to undergo elective endoscopic urological procedures. A single pre-procedural dose of antibiotics vs. a 3-5-day course of pre-procedural antibiotics. Objective and subjective measures of health, costs, and quality of life. There were no significant differences in vital signs, leukocytosis, adverse events, and overall satisfaction in individuals who received short-course vs. long-course antibiotics. There was a significant decrease in antibiotic cost (33.1 ± 47.6 vs. 3.6 ± 6.1 US$, P = 0.01) for individuals in the short-course group. In addition, there was greater pre-procedural anxiety (18 vs. 0%, P < 0.05) for individuals who received long-course antibiotics. SCI/D individuals with asymptomatic bacteriuria may be able to safely undergo most endoscopic urological procedures with a single dose of pre-procedural antibiotics. However, further research is required and even appropriate pre-procedural antibiotics may not prevent severe infections.

  6. Platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Demers, Melanie; Herr, Nadine; Carbo, Carla; Brill, Alexander; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Mauler, Maximilian; Cicko, Sanja; Bader, Michael; Idzko, Marco; Bode, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The majority of peripheral serotonin is stored in platelets, which secrete it on activation. Serotonin releases Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) and we asked whether absence of platelet serotonin affects neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory responses. Tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)1–deficient mice, lacking non-neuronal serotonin, showed mild leukocytosis compared with wild-type (WT), primarily driven by an elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, 50% fewer leukocytes rolled on unstimulated mesenteric venous endothelium of Tph1−/− mice. The velocity of rolling leukocytes was higher in Tph1−/− mice, indicating fewer selectin-mediated interactions with endothelium. Stimulation of endothelium with histamine, a secretagogue of WPBs, or injection of serotonin normalized the rolling in Tph1−/− mice. Diminished rolling in Tph1−/− mice resulted in reduced firm adhesion of leukocytes after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Blocking platelet serotonin uptake with fluoxetine in WT mice reduced serum serotonin by > 80% and similarly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Four hours after inflammatory stimulation, neutrophil extravasation into lung, peritoneum, and skin wounds was reduced in Tph1−/− mice, whereas in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis was independent of serotonin. Survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock was improved in Tph1−/− mice. In conclusion, platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils in acute inflammation, supporting an important role for platelet serotonin in innate immunity. PMID:23243271

  7. [Comparison of two methods for rapid determination of C-reactive protein with the Tina-quant].

    PubMed

    Oremek, G M; Luksaite, R; Bretschneider, I

    2008-03-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) as an acute phase protein is an important diagnostic marker for the presence and course of human processes. Out of the acute phase proteins it is one of those the concentrations increase most rapidly with its sensitivity being superior to other markers of inflammation, such as leukocytosis, erythrocytic sedimentation rate, and fever. This study compared two-point-of-care assays with the standard laboratory method Tina-quant CRP processed on a Hitachi 917: the immunofiltration assay NycoCard CRP Whole Blood and the turbidimetric immunoassay Micros CRP. Both methods are carried in the presence of a patient, by using capillary or venous blood. Seventy-eight blood samples were analyzed first in the standard laboratory routine and then by both rapid test assays. The precision of both assays was determined from the confidence interval. The results were statistically analyzed by arithmetic standard deviation mean method, variation coefficient, Spearman correlation index, Wilcoxon and Bland-Altman tests, and Passing-Bablock regression. NycoCard CRP Whole Blood showed a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9838; the precision had a coefficient of variation of CV = 1.8759% while As compared with Tina-quant CRP had R = 0.9934 and CV = 0.9160%. Both assays indicated the same results as Tina-quant CRP. Both Tina-quant CRP and NycoCard CRP Whole Blood give the best fit for the rapid determination of CRP.

  8. Carbamazepine-Induced Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Skalli, Saadia; Barret, Pierre; Villier, Céline; Bussières, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    A 15-year-old adolescent was admitted to the hospital for management of a generalized pruritic skin rash, which had appeared 10 days prior to admission. Carbamazepine (CBZ) and insulin were initiated 44 and 23 days prior to the onset of the skin rash (day 44), respectively. Clinical examination showed bluish lesions on the tongue and bilateral keratoconjunctivitis. His skin was very erythematous and pruritic without edema and covered with hundreds of nonfollicular pustules mainly on the trunk and skin folds. Laboratory assessment revealed leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia. A sample of superficial pus from a pustule on the trunk showed a significant number of leukocytes as well as a significant number of Staphylococcus aureus and Lancefield Group B β-hemolytic streptococci strains. An abdominal skin biopsy revealed acute to subacute folliculocentric spongiotic dermatitis with subcorneal pustules. All of these observations were consistent with a diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). Although we could not exclude with certainty the role of insulin initiated on day 21 and discontinued on day 55 with substitution to oral metformin and repaglinide, no cases of AGEP have ever been published with insulin, and skin lesions were not related to injection sites. This article describes a probable case of CBZ-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis in a 15-year-old adolescent. PMID:22477826

  9. Current trends in the diagnosis and treatment of tuboovarian abscess

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Landers, D.V.; Sweet, R.L.

    Tuboovarian abscess is a well-recognized complication of acute salpingitis and has been reported in as many as one third of hospital admissions for acute salpingitis. The incidence of tuboovarian abscess is expected to increase as a result of the current epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases and their sequelae. Patients with tuboovarian abscess most commonly present with lower abdominal pain and an adnexal mass(es). Fever and leukocytosis may be absent. Ultrasound, computed tomographic scans, laparoscopy, or laparotomy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Tuboovarian abscess may be unilateral or bilateral regardless of intrauterine contraceptive device usage. Tuboovarian abscess is polymicrobialmore » with a preponderance of anaerobic organisms. An initial conservative antimicrobial approach to the management of the unruptured tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if the antimicrobial agents used can penetrate abscesses, remain active within the abscess environment, and are active against the major pathogens in tuboovarian abscess, including the resistant gram-negative anaerobes such as Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides bivius. However, if the patient does not begin to show a response within a reasonable amount of time, about 48 to 72 hours, surgical intervention should be undertaken. Suspicion of rupture should remain an indication for immediate operation. Once operation is undertaken, a conservative approach with unilateral adnexectomy for one-side tuboovarian abscess is appropriate if future fertility or hormone production is desired.« less

  10. Splanchnic vein thrombosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms: risk factors for recurrences in a cohort of 181 patients

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, V; Vannucchi, A M; Ruggeri, M; Cervantes, F; Alvarez-Larrán, A; Iurlo, A; Randi, M L; Pieri, L; Rossi, E; Guglielmelli, P; Betti, S; Elli, E; Finazzi, M C; Finazzi, G; Zetterberg, E; Vianelli, N; Gaidano, G; Nichele, I; Cattaneo, D; Palova, M; Ellis, M H; Cacciola, E; Tieghi, A; Hernandez-Boluda, J C; Pungolino, E; Specchia, G; Rapezzi, D; Forcina, A; Musolino, C; Carobbio, A; Griesshammer, M; Barbui, T

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 181 patients with polycythaemia vera (n=67), essential thrombocythaemia (n=67) or primary myelofibrosis (n=47), who presented a first episode of splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT). Budd–Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosis were diagnosed in 31 (17.1%) and 109 (60.3%) patients, respectively; isolated thrombosis of the mesenteric or splenic veins was detected in 18 and 23 cases, respectively. After this index event, the patients were followed for 735 patient years (pt-years) and experienced 31 recurrences corresponding to an incidence rate of 4.2 per 100 pt-years. Factors associated with a significantly higher risk of recurrence were BCS (hazard ratio (HR): 3.03), history of previous thrombosis (HR: 3.62), splenomegaly (HR: 2.66) and leukocytosis (HR: 2.8). Vitamin K-antagonists (VKA) were prescribed in 85% of patients and the recurrence rate was 3.9 per 100 pt-years, whereas in the small fraction (15%) not receiving VKA more recurrences (7.2 per 100 pt-years) were reported. Intracranial and extracranial major bleeding was recorded mainly in patients on VKA and the corresponding rate was 2.0 per 100 pt-years. In conclusion, despite anticoagulation treatment, the recurrence rate after SVT in myeloproliferative neoplasms is high and suggests the exploration of new avenues of secondary prophylaxis with new antithrombotic drugs and JAK-2 inhibitors. PMID:27813534

  11. Vaginal fold prolapse in a dog with pyometra and ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zedda, Maria-Teresa; Bogliolo, Luisa; Ariu, Federica; Ledda, Mauro; Falchi, Laura; Pinna-Parpaglia, Maria-Luisa; Pau, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    A 7-year-old 42-kg (92.4-lb) sexually intact nulliparous female Italian Mastiff was examined because of a history of vaginal prolapse during diestrus. A physical examination revealed vaginal fold prolapse. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged uterus with hypoechogenic content, corpora lutea in the ovaries, and a cyst in the right ovary. Hematologic abnormalities included leukocytosis, neutrophilia, mild anemia, and low Hct. Progesterone and estradiol concentrations were 9.36 ng/mL and 30.42 pg/mL, respectively, in serum and 72.72 ng/mL and 792 pg/mL, respectively, in the ovarian cystic fluid. Ovariohysterectomy was performed; the prolapsed tissue was repositioned by external manipulation and maintained in situ by temporary apposition of the vulvar lips with a retention suture. Anatomic and histologic examinations of the excised tissues revealed pyometra and papillary cystadenocarcinoma in the right ovary. The vaginal hyperplasia completely regressed at 35 days after surgery; 5 months after surgery, the dog's general condition was considered good. Findings in this case were indicative of a hormonally active ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma in a female dog in diestrus. Hormone production by the cystadenocarcinoma was the predisposing factor that induced pyometra, mucosal hyperplasia, and vaginal fold prolapse in the dog. On the basis of these concurrent disorders, ovariohysterectomy was an appropriate treatment.

  12. How I treat polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Passamonti, Francesco

    2012-07-12

    Polycythemia vera (PV) is a clonal disorder characterized by unwarranted production of red blood cells. In the majority of cases, PV is driven by oncogenic mutations that constitutively activate the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway, such as JAK2 V617F, or exon 12 mutations or LNK mutations. Diagnosis of PV is based on the WHO criteria. Diagnosis of post-PV myelofibrosis is established according to the International Working Group for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Research and Treatment criteria. Different clinical presentations of PV are discussed. Prognostication of PV is tailored to the most frequent complication during follow-up, namely, thrombosis. Age older than 60 years and prior history of thrombosis are the 2 main risk factors for disease stratification. Correlations are emerging between leukocytosis, JAK2(V617F) mutation, BM fibrosis, and different outcomes of PV, which need to be confirmed in prospective studies. In my practice, hydroxyurea is still the "gold standard" when cytoreduction is needed, even though pegylated IFN-alfa-2a and ruxolitinib might be useful in particular settings. Results of phase 1 or 2 studies concerning these latter agents should however be confirmed by the ongoing randomized phase 3 clinical trials. In this paper, I discuss the main problems encountered in daily clinical practice with PV patients regarding diagnosis, prognostication, and therapy.

  13. Continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics in severe infections: a review of its role.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason A; Paratz, Jennifer; Paratz, Elizabeth; Krueger, Wolfgang A; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2007-07-01

    Continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics has been widely promoted to optimise their time-dependent activity. Increasing evidence is emerging suggesting potential benefits in patient populations with altered pathophysiology, such as seriously ill patients. From a pharmacokinetic viewpoint, much information supports higher trough concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics when administered by continuous infusion. This advantage of continuous infusion translates into a superior ability to achieve pharmacodynamic targets, particularly when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the pathogen is >or=4 mg/L. One drawback of continuous infusion may be limited physicochemical stability. This issue exists particularly for carbapenem antibiotics whereby prolonged infusions (i.e. >3h) can be used to improve the time above the MIC compared with conventional bolus dosing. Few studies have examined clinical outcomes of bolus and continuous dosing of beta-lactam antibiotics in seriously ill patients. No statistically significant differences have been shown for: mortality; time to normalisation of leukocytosis or pyrexia; or duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay or hospital stay. Some evidence suggests improved clinical cure and resolution of illness with continuous infusion in seriously ill patients. Pharmacoeconomic advantages of continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics are well characterised. Available data suggest that seriously ill patients with severe infections requiring significant antibiotic courses (>or=4 days) may be the subgroup that will achieve better outcomes with continuous infusion.

  14. Multiple, targeted deficiencies in selectins reveal a predominant role for P-selectin in leukocyte recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen D.; Frenette, Paul S.; Rayburn, Helen; Cummiskey, Marge; Ullman-Culleré, Mollie; Wagner, Denisa D.; Hynes, Richard O.

    1999-01-01

    We extend our previous analyses of mice deficient in selectins by describing the generation and comparative phenotype of mice lacking one, two, or three selectins after sequential ablation of the murine genes encoding P-, E-, and L-selectins. All mice deficient in selectins are viable and fertile as homozygotes. However, mice missing both P- and E-selectins (PE−/−), and mice missing all three selectins (ELP−/−) develop mucocutaneous infections that eventually lead to death. Mice deficient in multiple selectins display varying degrees of leukocytosis, resulting in part from alterations in leukocyte rolling and recruitment. PE−/− mice, ELP−/− mice, and mice missing both P- and L-selectins (PL−/−) show drastic reductions in leukocyte rolling and in extravasation of neutrophils in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis. In a separate inflammatory model (ragweed-induced peritoneal eosinophilia), we demonstrate P-selectin to be both necessary and sufficient for the recruitment of eosinophils. The phenotype of mice missing both E- and L-selectins (EL−/−) is less severe than those seen in the other double knockouts. Comparisons among the double knockouts suggest that P-selectin normally cooperates with both E- and L-selectins. Our results indicate a preeminent role for P-selectin in regulating leukocyte behavior in mice. Data from the ELP−/− mice indicate, however, that all three selectins are important to leukocyte homeostasis and efficient neutrophil recruitment. PMID:10500197

  15. Clinical and hematological presentation of children and adolescents with polycythemia vera.

    PubMed

    Cario, Holger; McMullin, Mary Frances; Pahl, Heike L

    2009-08-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) in children and adolescents is very rare. Data on clinical and laboratory evaluations as well as on treatment modalities are sparse. Here, we report the long-term clinical course of a PV patient first diagnosed more than 40 years ago at age 12. In addition, after a systematic review of the scientific medical literature, clinical and hematological data of 35 patients (19 female and 17 male) from 25 previous reports are summarized. Three patients developed PV following antecedent hematological malignancies. Budd-Chiari syndrome was diagnosed in seven patients indicating a particular risk of young patients of developing this disorder. One patient presented with ischemic stroke, one patient with gangrene, and three patients with severe hemorrhage. Three patients died from disease-related complications. Hematocrit levels and platelet counts were not correlated with disease severity. Leukocytosis >15 x 10(9)/L was present in 9/35 patients and associated with a thromboembolic or hemorrhagic complication in seven patients. The few available data on molecular genetics and endogenous erythroid colony growth indicate changes comparable to those detectable in adult patients. Treatment varied enormously. It included aspirin, phlebotomy, hydroxycarbamide, busulfan, melphalan, pyrimethamine, and interferon-alpha. Two patients successfully underwent stem cell transplantation. Currently, it is impossible to treat an individual pediatric PV patient with an evidence-based regimen.

  16. Clinical analysis of Enterobacter bacteremia in pediatric patients: a 10-year study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Lu, Jen-Her; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Chun-Jen; Wu, Keh-Gong; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Enterobacter species has emerged as an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of bacteremia in pediatric patients. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients (under the age of 18 years) having Enterobacter bacteremia who were treated at Taipei the Veterans General Hospital from January 2001 to June 2011. In total, 853 positive blood cultures were obtained from 620 patients during the study period. Among them, 96 episodes of Enterobacter bacteremia were found in 83 patients, accounting for 11.3% of all bacteremia. Eighty-two cases (98.8%) were nosocomial infections. Most of the cases were neonates (62 cases, 74.7%) and premature infants (51 cases, 61.5%). The common sources of bacteremia were the respiratory tract (53.0%), followed by intravascular catheter (10.8%), multiple sources (10.8%), and the gastrointestinal tract (8.4%). The overall case fatality rate was 18.1%, with the highest rate being reported among premature infants. The factors responsible for the deaths were leukocytosis and a higher median number of underlying diseases. Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that Enterobacter species are probably an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia in premature neonates. The number of underlying diseases should be considered a major factor influencing the prognosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Severe community-acquired Enterobacter pneumonia: a plea for greater awareness of the concept of health-care-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with Enterobacter community-acquired pneumonia (EnCAP) were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Our primary aim was to describe them as few data are available on EnCAP. A comparison with CAP due to common and typical bacteria was performed. Methods Baseline clinical, biological and radiographic characteristics, criteria for health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) were compared between each case of EnCAP and thirty age-matched typical CAP cases. A univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with ENCAP. Their outcome was also compared. Results In comparison with CAP due to common bacteria, a lower leukocytosis and constant HCAP criteria were associated with EnCAP. Empiric antibiotic therapy was less effective in EnCAP (20%) than in typical CAP (97%) (p < 0.01). A delay in the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy (3.3 ± 1.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.6 days; p < 0.01) and an increase in duration of mechanical ventilation (8.4 ± 5.2 vs. 4.0 ± 4.3 days; p = 0.01) and ICU stay were observed in EnCAP patients. Conclusions EnCAP is a severe infection which is more consistent with HCAP than with typical CAP. This retrospectively suggests that the application of HCAP guidelines should have improved EnCAP management. PMID:21569334

  18. In vivo effect of staphylococcal enterotoxin A on peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zehavi-Willner, T; Shenberg, E; Barnea, A

    1984-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) administration to monkeys produced an initial lymphocytic leukopenia lasting approximately 24 h. Lymphocytes isolated from blood circulation (PBL) during this stage had normal or decreased [3H]thymidine incorporating activity. After 48 h, however, a significant increase (five- to sixfold) in [3H]thymidine incorporating activity into PBL was apparent. The peak of incorporating activity (seven- to eightfold) was reached 3 to 4 days after SEA administration, followed by a gradual decline, reaching the baseline after 2 weeks. The increased levels of [3H] thymidine incorporation in PBL were concomitant with the conversion of lymphopenia into lymphocytosis, accompanied by the release of many immature cells into the circulation. Lymphocytes isolated 24 h after SEA administration in vivo did not respond to the mitogenic action of SEA in vitro. Lymphocytes isolated at later stages after SEA challenge were fully activated by toxin. From a series of studies, it was concluded that SEA administered to monkeys caused, during the initial 24 h, the removal of a great proportion of lymphocytes from the circulation, followed by the release of new immature cells with augmented DNA synthesis activity. The lymphocytic leukocytosis state declined gradually and reached normal levels between 3 and 4 weeks after the SEA challenge. The biological implications of the hematological changes occurring after SEA challenge in vivo are discussed. PMID:6715041

  19. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae Infection in Patients With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vivek; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Pabbathi, Smitha; Greene, John N

    2017-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer is infection. Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the United States in the 1990s, invasive H influenzae infection has become less common. We report on 5 patients with cancer and invasive H influenzae infection. A literature review was also performed of the dominant Haemophilus subtype and the clinical features associated with the infection and concomitant cancer. Of the 17 cases found in the literature, had hematological malignancies and 1 case each had thymoma, schwannoma, teratoma, and pancreatic, Merkel cell, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and rectal carcinomas. Two cases occurred with AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma. Pneumonia with bacteremia was seen in 8 cases, whereas pleuritis, neck cellulitis, septic arthritis, meningitis, and mediastinitis were diagnosed in the others. No focus of infection was identified in 2 cases. Nontypable H influenzae (NTHi) occurred in 4 cases, and Hib was isolated in 2 cases; serotyping was not reported in the others. Leukocytosis occurred in 7 cases and lymphopenia in 3; no cases presented with neutropenia. Four isolates were positive for beta-lactamase. Susceptibility data were unavailable in 5 case patients. Among serotyped cases, 67% were of the NTHi strain - a finding consistent with the change in the epidemiology of H influenzae since the introduction of the Hib vaccine.

  20. [Essential thrombocythemia: baseline characteristics and risk factors for survival and thrombosis in a series of 214 patients].

    PubMed

    Angona, Anna; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Martínez-Avilés, Luz; Garcia-Pallarols, Francesc; Longarón, Raquel; Ancochea, Àgueda; Besses, Carles

    2015-03-15

    Two prognostic models to predict overall survival and thrombosis-free survival have been proposed: International Prognostic Score for Essential Thrombocythemia (IPSET) and IPSET-Thrombosis, respectively, based on age, leukocytes count, history of previous thrombosis, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and the JAK2 mutational status. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical and biological characteristics at diagnosis and during evolution in essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients as well as the factors associated with survival and thrombosis and the usefulness of these new prognostic models. We have evaluated the clinical data and the mutation status of JAK2, MPL and calreticulin of 214 ET patients diagnosed in a single center between 1985 and 2012, classified according to classical risk stratification, IPSET and IPSET-Thrombosis. With a median follow-up of 6.9 years, overall survival was not associated with any variable by multivariate analysis. Thrombotic history and leukocytes>10×10(9)/l were associated with thrombosis-free survival (TFS). In our series, IPSET prognostic systems of survival and thrombosis did not provide more clinically relevant information regarding the classic risk of thrombosis stratification. Thrombotic history and leukocytosis>10×10(9)/l were significantly associated with lower TFS, while the prognostic IPSET-Thrombosis system did not provide more information than classical thrombotic risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. T-cell involvement in drug-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

    PubMed Central

    Britschgi, Markus; Steiner, Urs C.; Schmid, Simone; Depta, Jan P.H.; Senti, Gabriela; Bircher, Andreas; Burkhart, Christoph; Yawalkar, Nikhil; Pichler, Werner J.

    2001-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an uncommon eruption most often provoked by drugs, by acute infections with enteroviruses, or by mercury. It is characterized by acute, extensive formation of nonfollicular sterile pustules on erythematous background, fever, and peripheral blood leukocytosis. We present clinical and immunological data on four patients with this disease, which is caused by different drugs. An involvement of T cells could be implied by positive skin patch tests and lymphocyte transformation tests. Immunohistochemistry revealed a massive cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils in pustules and T cells in the dermis and epidermis. Expression of the potent neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 was elevated in keratinocytes and infiltrating mononuclear cells. Drug-specific T cells were generated from the blood and skin of three patients, and phenotypic characterization showed a heterogeneous distribution of CD4/CD8 phenotype and of T-cell receptor Vβ-expression. Analysis of cytokine/chemokine profiles revealed that IL-8 is produced significantly more by drug-specific T cells from patients with AGEP compared with drug-specific T cells from patients that had non-AGEP exanthemas. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the involvement of drug-specific T cells in the pathomechanism of this rather rare and peculiar form of drug allergy. In addition, they indicate that even in some neutrophil-rich inflammatory responses specific T cells are engaged and might orchestrate the immune reaction. PMID:11390425

  2. Histologic findings in skin biopsy in a JMML rash: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajib K; Qureshi, Amna; Choi, John K

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), belonging to the category of myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndromes, is a rare pediatric hematologic malignancy with frequent skin manifestations commonly in the form of rashes. However, these rashes are not always biopsied and their immunophenotype studied in details. We report one such case in a 2-year-old boy who presented with a 1-month history of nonresolving fever, fatigue, and pallor along with a generalized maculopapular skin rash. The child also had mild hepatomegaly. A complete blood count with differential revealed a hemoglobin value of 8.6 g/L, leukocytosis (white blood cell count of 55.3 × 109/L), absolute monocytosis (27 × 109/L), immature granulocytes, and a platelet count of 126 × 109/L. The bone marrow aspirate showed a hypercellular marrow with trilineage hematopoiesis, 10% blasts (including promonocytes), increased monocytes (46%), and dysplastic changes in the erythroid and myeloid cell lines. These findings along with absence of a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and a hemoglobin F level of 3.4% were consistent with the diagnosis of JMML, which was confirmed by subsequent positive granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor hypersensitivity and NRAS mutation studies. A skin biopsy of the rash revealed a dermal infiltrate composed predominantly of atypical monocytic cells that were positive for CD68, myeloperoxidase, and lysozyme and negative for CD117, CD1a, and S100, consistent with JMML.

  3. HPV16 induces a wasting syndrome in transgenic mice: Amelioration by dietary polyphenols via NF-κB inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, Rui M; Aragão, Sofia; Moutinho, Magda; Alvarado, Antonieta; Carmo, Diogo; Casaca, Fátima; Silva, Sandra; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo; Ferreira, Rita; Nogueira-Ferreira, Rita; Pires, Maria João; Colaço, Bruno; Medeiros, Rui; Venâncio, Carlos; Oliveira, Maria Manuel; Bastos, Margarida M S M; Lopes, Carlos; Oliveira, Paula A

    2017-01-15

    Cancer patients often show a wasting syndrome for which there are little therapeutic options. Dietary polyphenols have been proposed for treating this syndrome, but their usefulness in cases associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers is unknown. We characterized HPV16-transgenic mice as a model of cancer cachexia and tested the efficacy of long-term oral supplementation with polyphenols curcumin and rutin. Both compounds were orally administered to six weeks-old HPV16-transgenic mice showing characteristic multi-step skin carcinogenesis, for 24weeks. Skin lesions and blood, liver and spleen inflammatory changes were characterized histologically and hematologically. Hepatic oxidative stress, skeletal muscle mass and the levels of muscle pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB were also assessed. Skin carcinogenesis was associated with progressive, severe, systemic inflammation (leukocytosis, hepatitis, splenitis), significant mortality and cachexia. Curcumin and rutin totally suppressed mortality while reducing white blood cells and the incidence of splenitis and hepatitis. Rutin prevented muscle wasting more effectively than curcumin. Preservation of muscle mass and reduced hepatic inflammation were associated with down-regulation of the NF-κB canonical pathway and with reduced oxidative stress, respectively. These results point out HPV16-transgenic mice as a useful model for studying the wasting syndrome associated with HPV-induced cancers. Dietary NF-κB inhibitors may be useful resources for treating this syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on the alterations in haematological indices, micronuclei induction and pathological marker enzyme activities in Channa punctatus (spotted snakehead) perciformes, channidae exposed to thermal power plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Ajaz; Usmani, Nazura; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of thermal power plant effluent containing heavy metals (Fe > Cu > Zn > Mn > Ni > Co > Cr) on haematological indices, micronuclei, lobed nuclei and activity of pathological marker enzymes [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK)] in Channa punctatus. Total erythrocyte count (-54.52 %), hemoglobin (-36.98 %), packed cell volume (-36.25 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (-1.41 %) and oxygen (O2) carrying capacity (-37.04 %) declined significantly over reference fish, however total leukocyte count (+25.43 %), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (+33.52 %) and mean corpuscular volume (+35.49 %) showed elevation. High frequency of micronuclei (1133.3 %) and lobed nuclei (150 %) were observed in exposed fish which may indicate mutagenesis. Activities of pathological marker enzymes ALP, AST, ALT and CK increased significantly in serum of exposed fish. The ratio of ALT: AST in exposed fish was beyond 1 which indicates manifestation of pathological processes. These biomarkers show that fish have macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis showed general defence response against heavy metal toxicity and marker enzymes showed tissue degeneration. In conclusion, thermal power plant effluent has strong potential to induce micronuclei, tissue pathology, making the fish anemic, weak, stressed and vulnerable to diseases.

  5. Elevated vaginal pH in the absence of current vaginal infection, still a challenging obstetrical problem.

    PubMed

    Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Javadian, Pouya; Shariat, Mamak; Amini, Elaheh; Abdollahi, Alireza; Kashanian, Maryam

    2014-04-01

    To assess the association of vaginal pH ≥ 5 in the absence of vaginal infection with systemic inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcome. Four-hundred sixty pregnant women completed the study, upon enrollment Vaginal pH was measured for all women, maternal and umbilical sera were obtained for determining C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid levels. Umbilical blood was tested for gas parameters, 1 and 5 min Apgar scores, the need for neonatal resuscitation and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were recorded. Elevated vaginal pH was significantly associated with preterm birth (odds ratio (OR), 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-4.76), emergency cesarean section (OR 2.57; 95% CI 1.32-5), neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room (OR 2.85; 95% CI 1.1-7.38), elevated cord base deficit (OR 8.01; 95% CI 1.61-39.81), low cord bicarbonate (OR 4.16, 95% CI 1.33-12.92) and NICU admission (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.12-3.66). Increased vaginal pH was also significantly associated with maternal leukocytosis, hyperuricemia and elevated CRP levels in maternal and umbilical sera. Elevated vaginal pH in the absence of current vaginal infection still constitutes a risk for adverse pregnancy outcome which is mediated by systemic inflammatory response.

  6. Early detection of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in the genesis of Mesoamerican nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Rebecca S B; Vangala, Chandan; Truong, Luan; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Chavarria, Denis; Granera Llanes, Orlando M; Fonseca Laguna, Marcos U; Guerra Baez, Alvaro; Garcia, Felix; García-Trabanino, Ramón; Murray, Kristy O

    2018-03-01

    Mesoamerican nephropathy is a devastating disease of unknown etiology that affects mostly young agricultural workers in Central America. An understanding of the mechanism of injury and the early disease process is urgently needed and will aid in identification of the underlying cause and direct treatment and prevention efforts. We sought to describe the renal pathology in Mesoamerican nephropathy at its earliest clinical appearance in prospectively identified acute case patients in Nicaragua. We considered those with elevated (or increased at least 0.3 mg/dL or 1.5-fold from baseline) serum creatinine, leukocyturia, and either leukocytosis or neutrophilia for inclusion in this biopsy study. Renal tissue was obtained by ultrasound-guided biopsy for examination by light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy. All 11 individuals who underwent renal biopsy showed tubulointerstitial nephritis, with varying degrees of inflammation and chronicity. Interstitial cellular infiltrates (predominantly T lymphocytes and monocytes), mostly in the corticomedullary junction; neutrophilic accumulation in the tubular lumens; largely preserved glomeruli; few mild ischemic changes; and no immune deposits were noted. The acute components of tubulointerstitial nephritis were acute tubular cell injury, interstitial edema, and early fibrosis. Chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis included severe tubular atrophy, thickened tubular basement membrane, and interstitial fibrosis. Thus, renal histopathology in Mesoamerican nephropathy reveals primary interstitial disease with intact glomeruli. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Acute myeloid leukemia with monosomy 7 and inv(3)(q21q26.2) complicated with central diabetes insipidus].

    PubMed

    Nanno, Satoru; Hagihara, Kiyoyuki; Sakabe, Manami; Okamura, Hiroshi; Inaba, Akiko; Nagata, Yuki; Nishimoto, Mitsutaka; Koh, Hideo; Nakao, Yoshitaka; Nakane, Takahiko; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Shimono, Taro; Hino, Masayuki

    2013-04-01

    A 20-year-old female presented with thirst, polyposia, and polyuria and was referred to our hospital because of leukocytosis and anemia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed 66.8% myeloperoxidase-positive blasts and trilineage myelodysplasia. The karyotype was 45, XX, inv(3)(q21q26.2), -7[19]. Therefore, a diagnosis of AML with inv(3)(q21q26.2) complicated by -7 was made. Moreover, hyposthenuria and a low anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) level were observed. Although cerebrospinal fluid analysis was normal, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the absence of hyperintensity in the neurohypophysis in T1-weighted images. Therefore, she was also diagnosed with diabetes insipidus. After she was administered a desmopressin nasal spray, the volume of urine produced decreased. Following treatment with second induction therapy containing high-dose cytarabine for AML, she achieved complete remission in the bone marrow. Moreover, when the abnormality on MRI and the volume of urine were normalized, she discontinued desmopressin. Although diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of AML, the majority of AML patients who have diabetes insipidus have the abnormal karyotypes with inv(3)(q21q26.2)/t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) and monosomy 7. Further study is required to clarify the pathogenesis and develop a strategy for the treatment of this category of AML.

  8. Splenic abscess: report of six cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Green, B T

    2001-01-01

    Splenic abscesses are rare but appear to be increasing in frequency. Recent advances in radiologic techniques have affected the diagnosis and management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these effects. The medical records of one institution were retrospectively reviewed and six cases of splenic abscesses seen between 1989 and 1999 were identified. All patients had predisposing conditions with metastatic hematogenous infection in three and one each with trauma, immunodeficiency, and a contiguous site of infection. Fever was present in all patients with chills and vomiting in five and three patients, respectively. Left upper quadrant tenderness appeared in four patients and leukocytosis was found in every patient except one with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Chest roentgenograms were abnormal in five patients with a left pleural effusion most common. Ultrasound revealed the defect in both patients it was utilized in and computed tomography was diagnostic in all cases. The causative organisms were anaerobes in two cases and Candida albicans, Streptococcus viridans, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii each present in one case. Radiology guided percutaneous drainage was attempted in four patients but was only successful in one. Splenectomy with antibiotics was curative in the remainder with a 100 per cent survival. These data suggest that percutaneous drainage may be appropriate for certain patients initially, but the high failure rate demonstrates that splenectomy remains the standard treatment.

  9. Construction of a new, objective prognostic score for terminally ill cancer patients: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang-Yeon; Choi, Youn Seon; Shim, Jae Yong; Kim, Young Sung; Yeom, Chang Hwan; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Shin Ae; Kim, Sooa; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Su Hyun; Kim, Daegyeun; Choi, Sung-Eun; Ahn, Hong-Yup

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a new, objective prognostic score (OPS) for terminally ill cancer patients based on an integrated model that includes novel objective prognostic factors. A multicenter study of 209 terminally ill cancer patients from six training hospitals in Korea were prospectively followed until death. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to adjust for the influence of clinical and laboratory variables on survival time. The OPS was calculated from the sum of partial scores obtained from seven significant predictors determined by the final model. The partial score was based on the hazard ratio of each predictor. The accuracy of the OPS was evaluated. The overall median survival was 26 days. On the multivariate analysis, reduced oral intake, resting dyspnea, low performance status, leukocytosis, elevated bilirubin, elevated creatinine, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were identified as poor prognostic factors. The range of OPS was from 0.0 to 7.0. For the above cutoff point of 3.0, the 3-week prediction sensitivity was 74.7%, the specificity was 76.5%, and the overall accuracy was 75.5%. We developed the new OPS, without clinician's survival estimates but including a new prognostic factor (LDH). This new instrument demonstrated accurate prediction of the 3-week survival. The OPS had acceptable accuracy in this study population (training set). Further validation is required on an independent population (testing set).

  10. Type V hypertriglyceridemia in children, a therapeutic challenge in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Dobreanu, Minodora; Mărginean, Maria Oana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hypertriglyceridemia is defined as a level of triglycerides above 150 mg/dL. The complex causes and classification of hypertriglyceridemia lead to difficulties in the diagnosis and management of this condition. Patient concerns: We present the case of a 15 years and 6 months old female teenager, admitted in our clinic for the following complaints: severe abdominal pain predominantly in the lateral left quadrant, nausea, vomiting, and the lack of stools for 2 days. The clinical exam showed: impaired general status, painful abdomen at superficial and deep palpation in the left and upper abdominal quadrants, the absence of stools for 2 days. Diagnoses: The laboratory parameters revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, high level of serum amylase and triglycerides, and increased inflammatory biomarkers. The imagistic investigations showed ascites and paralytic ileus. Interventions: The management was burdened by the side-effects of hypolipidemic drugs impairing the liver function and leading to rhabdomyolysis, but eventually the patient's outcome was good. Outcomes: Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare condition accounting for approximately 5% of the cases. The risk for acute pancreatitis is well-known to be associated with hypertriglyceridemia, even though in rare cases. Lessons: The prognosis of hypertriglyceridemia is pediatrics is burdened not only by the long-term risk factors associated to the diseases itself, but also by the negative effects of long-term hypolipidemic treatment. PMID:29390422

  11. Synthetic nickel-containing superoxide dismutase attenuates para-phenylenediamine-induced bladder dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Bing-Juin; Chen, Tien-Wen; Chung, Shiu-Dong; Lee, Way-Zen; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Para (p)-phenylenediamine and its toxic metabolites induce excess reactive oxygen species formation that results in bladder voiding dysfunction. We determined the effects of synthetic Ni-containing superoxide dismutase mimics and the role of oxidative stress in p-phenylenediamine-induced urinary bladder dysfunction. P-phenylenediamine (60 μg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally administered for 4 weeks to induce bladder injury in female Wistar rats. Synthetic Ni-containing superoxide dismutase mimics, WCT003 (1.5 mg/kg) and WCT006 (1.5 mg/kg), were then intraperitoneally administered for 2 weeks. Transcystometrograms were performed in urethane-anesthetized rats. The in vitro and in vivo reactive oxygen species levels and pathological changes in formalin-fixed bladder sections were evaluated. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis. P-phenylenediamine increased voiding frequency, blood and urinary bladder levels of reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil and mast cell infiltration. It also upregulated biomarkers of autophagy (LC3 II), apoptosis (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), and pyroptosis (Caspase 1). WCT003 and WCT006 ameliorated reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, and bladder hyperactivity. P-phenylenediamine increased oxidative stress, inflammatory leukocytosis, autophagy, apoptosis, and pyroptosis formation within the urinary bladder. Novel synthetic nickel-containing superoxide dismutase mimics relieved p-phenylenediamine-induced bladder inflammation and voiding dysfunction. PMID:29285288

  12. Clinical and hematological presentation of children and adolescents with polycythemia vera

    PubMed Central

    McMullin, Mary Frances; Pahl, Heike L.

    2014-01-01

    Polycythemia vera (PV) in children and adolescents is very rare. Data on clinical and laboratory evaluations as well as on treatment modalities are sparse. Here, we report the long-term clinical course of a PV patient first diagnosed more than 40 years ago at age 12. In addition, after a systematic review of the scientific medical literature, clinical and hematological data of 35 patients (19 female and 17 male) from 25 previous reports are summarized. Three patients developed PV following antecedent hematological malignancies. Budd–Chiari syndrome was diagnosed in seven patients indicating a particular risk of young patients of developing this disorder. One patient presented with ischemic stroke, one patient with gangrene, and three patients with severe hemorrhage. Three patients died from disease-related complications. Hematocrit levels and platelet counts were not correlated with disease severity. Leukocytosis >15×109/L was present in 9/35 patients and associated with a thromboembolic or hemorrhagic complication in seven patients. The few available data on molecular genetics and endogenous erythroid colony growth indicate changes comparable to those detectable in adult patients. Treatment varied enormously. It included aspirin, phlebotomy, hydroxycarbamide, busulfan, melphalan, pyrimethamine, and interferon-alpha. Two patients successfully underwent stem cell transplantation. Currently, it is impossible to treat an individual pediatric PV patient with an evidence-based regimen. PMID:19468728

  13. [Pyothorax in 26 cats: clinical signs, laboratory results and therapy (2000-2007)].

    PubMed

    Ottenjann, Mareike; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Linzmann, Helge; Brunnberg, Leo; Kohn, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Common historical findings in 26 cats with pyothorax were dyspnea (85%), lethargy (65%), and anorexia (62%), common clinical findings were dyspnea (89%), tachypnea (73%), fever (39%), and hypothermia (27%). Frequent laboratory abnormalities were leukocytosis (68%) with a left shift (100%), anemia (65%), hypoalbuminemia (91%), hyperglobulinemia (86%), hyperbilirubinemia (60%) as well as azotemia (52%). The thoracic effusion was purulent in all cats, the thoracic fluid evaluation (n = 19) met the criteria for an inflammatory exudate (protein 32-63 g/l, median 44; cell count 54.4-390 x 10(9)/l, median 100). Cytological analysis revealed bacteria in 21 of 24 cats. From 16 cats 13 different genera were isolated, 5 cultures were without bacterial growth. In 12.5% of the cats a single population of bacteria was identified, and in 87.5% a mixture of 2-4 different bacterial species were cultured. Obligate anaerobic bacteria were the most common isolates (70%) followed by facultative anaerob (22.5%) and aerob growing (7.5%) bacteria. Bacterial culture most often yielded Fusobacteria spp., Prevotella spp., Pasteurella spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Bacteroides spp. Three cats were euthanized at the day of presentation. A thoracic lavage was performed in 22 cats; mechanical complications with the chest tubes occured in 4 cats. Thoracotomy was performed in 2 cats. Of the 23 treated cats 17 survived (74%).

  14. Prognosis of neonatal tetanus in the modern management era: an observational study in 107 Vietnamese infants

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Phung Khanh; Trieu, Huynh T.; Lubis, Inke Nadia D.; Loan, Huynh T.; Thuy, Tran Thi Diem; Wills, Bridget; Parry, Christopher M.; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Qui, Phan T.; Yen, Lam Minh; Thwaites, C. Louise

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives Most data regarding the prognosis in neonatal tetanus originate from regions where limited resources have historically impeded management. It is not known whether recent improvements in critical care facilities in many low- and middle-income countries have affected indicators of a poor prognosis in neonatal tetanus. We aimed to determine the factors associated with worse outcomes in a Vietnamese hospital with neonatal intensive care facilities. Methods Data were collected from 107 cases of neonatal tetanus. Clinical features on admission were analyzed against mortality and a combined endpoint of ‘death or prolonged hospital stay’. Results Multivariable analysis showed that only younger age (odds ratio (OR) for mortality 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48–0.98) and lower weight (OR for mortality 0.06, 95% CI 0.01–0.54) were significantly associated with both the combined endpoint and death. A shorter period of onset (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–0.99), raised white cell count (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02–1.35), and time between first symptom and admission (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.14–12.51) were also indicators of mortality. Conclusions Risk factors for a poor outcome in neonatal tetanus in a setting with critical care facilities include younger age, lower weight, delay in admission, and leukocytosis. PMID:25499039

  15. Prognosis of neonatal tetanus in the modern management era: an observational study in 107 Vietnamese infants.

    PubMed

    Lam, Phung Khanh; Trieu, Huynh T; Lubis, Inke Nadia D; Loan, Huynh T; Thuy, Tran Thi Diem; Wills, Bridget; Parry, Christopher M; Day, Nicholas P J; Qui, Phan T; Yen, Lam Minh; Thwaites, C Louise

    2015-04-01

    Most data regarding the prognosis in neonatal tetanus originate from regions where limited resources have historically impeded management. It is not known whether recent improvements in critical care facilities in many low- and middle-income countries have affected indicators of a poor prognosis in neonatal tetanus. We aimed to determine the factors associated with worse outcomes in a Vietnamese hospital with neonatal intensive care facilities. Data were collected from 107 cases of neonatal tetanus. Clinical features on admission were analyzed against mortality and a combined endpoint of 'death or prolonged hospital stay'. Multivariable analysis showed that only younger age (odds ratio (OR) for mortality 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.98) and lower weight (OR for mortality 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.54) were significantly associated with both the combined endpoint and death. A shorter period of onset (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-0.99), raised white cell count (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.35), and time between first symptom and admission (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.14-12.51) were also indicators of mortality. Risk factors for a poor outcome in neonatal tetanus in a setting with critical care facilities include younger age, lower weight, delay in admission, and leukocytosis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Elimination of interleukin 6 attenuates coagulation activation in experimental endotoxemia in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The role of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the toxic sequelae of sepsis is controversial. To assess the part of IL-6 in inflammatory responses to endotoxin, we investigated eight chimpanzees after either a bolus intravenous injection of Escherichia coli endotoxin (n = 4; 4 ng/kg) or after the same dose of endotoxin with a simultaneous bolus intravenous injection of an anti-IL-6 mAb (30 mg; n = 4). Anti-IL-6 did not affect the induction of the cytokine network (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], soluble TNF receptors types I and II, and IL-8) by endotoxin, nor did it influence the occurrence of a neutrophilic leukocytosis and neutrophil degranulation, as monitored by the measurement of elastase- alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes. In contrast, anti-IL-6 markedly attenuated endotoxin-induced activation of coagulation, monitored with the plasma levels of the prothrombin fragment F1+2 and thrombin- antithrombin III complexes, whereas activation of fibrinolysis, determined with the plasma concentrations of plasmin-alpha 2- antiplasmin complexes, remained unaltered. We conclude that IL-6 does not have a feedback effect on the release of other cytokines after injection of endotoxin, and that it is not involved in endotoxin- induced neutrophilia or neutrophil degranulation. IL-6 is, however, an important intermediate factor in activation of coagulation in low grade endotoxemia in chimpanzees. PMID:8145042

  17. Risk factors for vascular complications and treatment patterns at diagnosis of 2389 PV and ET patients: Real-world data from the Swedish MPN Registry.

    PubMed

    Abdulkarim, Khadija; Samuelsson, Jan; Johansson, Peter; Andréasson, Björn

    2017-06-01

    The study mainly aimed at investigating possible correlations between peripheral blood counts, erythropoietin (EPO), JAK2 V617F mutation, and vascular complications prior to diagnosis of a population-based cohort of newly diagnosed patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). The study comprises 1105 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and 1284 patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) registered in the Swedish MPN Registry. Vascular complications, prior to diagnosis, were registered in 37% of PV patients. In multivariate analysis, low hemoglobin was the only significant risk factor (P=.0120). Among ET patients, 35% had encountered a vascular complication. Risk factors for thromboembolic complications in ET were identified as age>65 years, white cell count>12×10 9 /L, and the presence of JAK2 V617F mutation (P=.0004, P=.0038, and P=.0016, respectively). A JAK2 V617F mutation was present in 71% of ET patients with vascular complications, compared to 60% in patients without. A majority of complications were thromboembolic, in both PV and ET. We conclude that vascular complications among newly diagnosed patients had affected more than one-third of our study population. Risk factors for vascular complications prior to diagnosis were lower hemoglobin in PV, and the presence of JAK2 V617F mutation, higher age, and leukocytosis in ET. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Surgical versus pharmacologic treatment of intraspinal gout.

    PubMed

    Chang, I-Chang

    2005-04-01

    A controversy between pharmacologic and surgical treatment of intraspinal gout exists in the literature. If gout is diagnosed timely, pharmacologic therapy may avert the need of surgery. The lack of readily available synovial fluid makes the diagnosis particularly difficult. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging features in rapid differentiations of intraspinal gout. I retrospectively evaluated lumbar intraspinal tophaceous gout without the classic radiographic punched-out lesions. Four patients (average age, 65 years) had a history of hyperuricemia with multiple tophaceous deposits in the joints or visceral organs or both. The common presentations were low back pain with or without inflammatory reaction (fever, elevated C-reactive protein level, and mild leukocytosis). The patients also presented with intermittent claudication or radiculopathy of variable duration or both. The gouty tophi yielded homogeneous and hypointense masses on T1- and T2-weighted images, with multiple hypointense speckles. The masses were located in bilateral lumbar facet joints in all patients, with additional midline extension along the ligamentum flavum in three. All patients had uneventful outcomes after surgical decompression and pharmacologic treatment. Rapid deposition of tophi may aggravate nerve compression. If neurologic deficits are found, surgical decompression can provide a satisfactory outcome. Therapeutic study, Level IV. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. [Clinical analysis of 247 children with whooping cough and the risk factors of severe cases].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunge; Liu, Quanbo

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics of whooping cough in children and analyze the risk factors for severe whooping cough. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 247 children with whooping cough in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University between Jan 2013 and Dec 2014. Of these patients, 126 were male, 121 were female, the median age was 3.1 months (23 days-4 years and eight months old). The patients were divided into two groups, group 1 had infants less than 3 months of age (n=120) and group 2 had infants and young children older than 3 months (n=127) according to their age. On the other hand, the patients were also divided into two groups according to vaccination status: vaccinated group (received diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis, DTP) (n=31) and unvaccinated group (n=188). Pure Bordetella pertussis infection was seen in 106 cases, and 141 cases had mixed infection. Severe disease was seen in 13 cases, and the other 234 cases had the modest disease. Clinical data were retrospectively analyzed and compared. (1) Bordetella pertussis was identified in 57/680 cases (8.4%) in 2013, and 190/1 856 cases (10.2%) in 2014. The disease could be seen throughout the year, but 182 cases (73.7%) occurred in summer or autumn; 202 cases (81.8%) were less than 6 months. (2) Paroxysmal cough was seen in 238 cases (96.4%) , 61 cases (24.7%) had inspiratory whoop. Infants in group 1 often had episodes of cyanosis, apnea and suffocation (χ² = 19.999, 12.081, 6.508, P<0.05), persistent cough was often seen in group 2 (χ² = 9.885, P<0.05). Complications such as severe pneumonia, pulmonary consolidation and encephalopathy were more common in the group 1 than in group 2 (χ² = 17.340, 6.080, 11.030, 23.545, P<0.05). (3) The length of stay of group 1, and of unvaccinated group was significantly longer than that of group 2 and of vaccinated group (t=19.331, 26.741, P<0.05). (4) Leukocytosis was found in 224 cases (90.7%), 182

  20. Targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway in murine MDS/MPN driven by hyperactive Ras.

    PubMed

    Akutagawa, J; Huang, T Q; Epstein, I; Chang, T; Quirindongo-Crespo, M; Cottonham, C L; Dail, M; Slusher, B S; Friedman, L S; Sampath, D; Braun, B S

    2016-06-01

    Chronic and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML and JMML) are myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasia (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Aberrant Ras activation because of NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11, CBL and NF1 mutations is common in CMML and JMML. However, no mechanism-based treatments currently exist for cancers with any of these mutations. An alternative therapeutic strategy involves targeting Ras-regulated effector pathways that are aberrantly activated in CMML and JMML, which include the Raf/MEK/ERK and phosphoinositide-3'-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascades. Mx1-Cre, Kras(D12) and Mx1-Cre, Nf1(flox/)(-) mice accurately model many aspects of CMML and JMML. Treating Mx1-Cre, Kras(D12) mice with GDC-0941 (also referred to as pictilisib), an orally bioavailable inhibitor of class I PI3K isoforms, reduced leukocytosis, anemia and splenomegaly while extending survival. However, GDC-0941 treatment attenuated activation of both PI3K/Akt and Raf/MEK/ERK pathways in primary hematopoietic cells, suggesting it could be acting through suppression of Raf/MEK/ERK signals. To interrogate the importance of the PI3K/Akt pathway specifically, we treated mice with the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206. This compound had no effect on Raf/MEK/ERK signaling, yet it also induced robust hematologic responses in Kras and Nf1 mice with MPN. These data support investigating PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy in JMML and CMML patients.

  1. Predictive value of clinical and laboratory variables for vesicoureteral reflux in children.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Alper; Kasap, Belde; Demir, Korcan; Türkmen, Mehmet; Kavukçu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    We aimed to determine the predictability of clinical and laboratory variables for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with urinary tract infection (UTI). Data of children with febrile UTI who underwent voiding cystoureterography between 2002 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively for clinical (age, gender, fever > or = 38.5 degrees C, recurrent UTI), laboratory [leukocytosis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), pyuria, serum creatinine (S(Cr))] and imaging (renal ultrasonography) variables. Children with VUR (group 1) vs. no VUR (group 2) and children with high-grade (III-V) VUR (group 3) vs. no or low-grade (I-II) VUR (group 4) were compared. Among 88 patients (24 male), 38 had VUR and 21 high-grade VUR. Fever > or = 38.5 degrees C was associated with VUR [odds ratio (OR): 7.5]. CRP level of 50 mg/l was the best cut-off level for predicting high-grade VUR (OR 15.5; discriminative ability 0.89 +/- 0.05). Performing voiding cystourethrography based on this CRP level would result in failure to notice 9% of patients with high-grade VUR, whereas 69% of children with no/low-grade VUR would be spared from this invasive test. In conclusion, fever > or = 38 degrees C and CRP > 50 mg/l seem to be potentially useful clinical predictors of VUR and high-grade VUR, respectively, in pediatric patients with UTI. Further validation of these findings could limit unnecessary voiding cystourethrography.

  2. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia mimicking Wilms tumor at presentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amitabh; Mandal, Anirban; Guru, Vijay; Seth, Rachna

    2016-09-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the commonest malignancy of childhood, is known to manifest with a myriad of atypical presentations. Nephromegaly is a rare presentation of childhood ALL with hepatic mass being even rarer. We present a 3 year-old child with unilateral renal mass and hepatic mass lesion with normal blood counts, initially suspected to have metastatic Wilms tumor based on clinical, radiological and WT1 positivity on immunocytochemistry of renal mass. He was later diagnosed as ALL with peripheral blood flowcytometry and bone marrow examination. Renomegaly at presentation of acute leukemia is not necessarily due to leukemic infiltration and rarely leads to renal impairment. The radiological differential of such a renal mass includes both benign and malignant entities including metastasis. Over-expression of WT1 mRNA has been found in a number of solid tumors and hematological malignancies and is far from being diagnostic of Wilms tumor. Again, a small number of children with acute leukemia may have a deceptively normal complete blood count at presentation. Though, initial all (clinical, radiological, hematological, and immunocytological) parameters pointed towards a diagnosis of Wilms tumor in our case, the subsequent development of thrombocytopenia and lymphocytic leukocytosis prompted further investigation and final diagnosis of ALL. WT1 positivity is a known phenomenon in childhood ALL and undifferentiated lymphoblasts may be positive for WT1 and negative for Leucocyte common antigen. Acute leukemia with renal and hepatic mass with normal blood counts at presentation is a diagnostic challenge.

  3. Host- and microbe-related risk factors for and pathophysiology of fatal Rickettsia conorii infection in Portuguese patients.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Rita de; França, Ana; Dória Nòbrega, Sónia; Belo, Adelaide; Amaro, Mario; Abreu, Tiago; Poças, José; Proença, Paula; Vaz, José; Torgal, Jorge; Bacellar, Fátima; Ismail, Nahed; Walker, David H

    2008-08-15

    The pathophysiologic mechanisms that determine the severity of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) and the host-related and microbe-related risk factors for a fatal outcome are incompletely understood. This prospective study used univariate and multivariate analyses to determine the risk factors for a fatal outcome for 140 patients with Rickettsia conorii infection admitted to 13 Portuguese hospitals during 1994-2006 with documented identification of the rickettsial strain causing their infection. A total of 71 patients (51%) were infected with the Malish strain of Rickettsia conorii, and 69 (49%) were infected with the Israeli spotted fever (ISF) strain. Patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (40 [29%]), hospitalized as routine inpatients (95[67%]), or managed as outpatients (5[4%]). Death occurred in 29 adults (21%). A fatal outcome was significantly more likely for patients infected with the ISF strain, and alcoholism was a risk factor. The pathophysiology of a fatal outcome involved significantly greater incidence of petechial rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, obtundation and/or confusion, dehydration, tachypnea, hepatomegaly, leukocytosis, coagulopathy, azotemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated levels of hepatic enzymes and creatine kinase. Some, but not all, of these findings were observed more often in ISF strain-infected patients. Although fatalities and similar clinical manifestations occurred among both groups of patients, the ISF strain was more virulent than the Malish strain. Multivariate analysis revealed that acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia were most strongly associated with a fatal outcome.

  4. [Choledocholithiasis and pregnancy. Hybrid laparo-endoscopic treatment in one step].

    PubMed

    Valadez-Caballero, David; González-Santamaría, Roberto; Soto-Mendoza, Héctor; Alberto Blanco-Figueroa, Jorge; Flores-Pantoja, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Complications associated with choledocholithiasis are uncommon during pregnancy. However, when it occurs, the morbidity and mortality related for the product and the mother increases, so a proper treatment is imperative in these patients. A 25-year-old pregnant woman on her second trimester. The current condition was started four days prior to the hospital admission with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant with nausea and vomit.Twenty-four hours later jaundice and dark urine is observed. Physical examination shows scleral jaundice, right upper quadrant abdominal pain without peritoneal irritation. Uterus at umbilicus level without uterine activity. Uterus at umbilicus level without uterine activity. Laboratory tests showed elevated bilirubin and transaminases without leukocytosis; ultrasound reported live intrauterine unique product, with a heart rate of 128 beats per minute, gallbladder with multiple images inside that cast acoustic shadowing, and a 10 mm common bile duct dilated bile duct with dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. It was perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiography and placement of a transcystic jaguar guide for selective cannulation of the common bile duct. Intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed with endoscopic stone extraction. The outcome was satisfactory with a hospital discharge at 48 hours. Current evidence has shown that the combined use of laparoscopy and therapeutic endoscopic cholangiography in one step is effective for the treatment of choledocholithiasis, decreasing the risk of complications associated with cannulation of the bile duct.

  5. Relationship between platelet count and hemodialysis membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Rabih; Saifan, Chadi; Barakat, Iskandar; Azzi, Yorg Al; Naboush, Ali; Saad, Marc; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2013-01-01

    Background One factor associated with poor outcomes in hemodialysis patients is exposure to a foreign membrane. Older membranes are very bioincompatible and increase complement activation, cause leukocytosis by activating circulating factors, which sequesters leukocytes in the lungs, and activates platelets. Recently, newer membranes have been developed that were designed to be more biocompatible. We tested if the different “optiflux” hemodialysis membranes had different effects on platelet levels. Methods Ninety-nine maintenance hemodialysis patients with no known systemic or hematologic diseases affecting their platelets had blood drawn immediately prior to, 90 minutes into, and immediately following their first hemodialysis session of the week. All patients were dialyzed using a Fresenius Medical Care Optiflux polysulfone membrane F160, F180, or F200 (polysulfone synthetic dialyzer membranes, 1.6 m2, 1.8 m2, and 2.0 m2 surface area, respectively, electron beam sterilized). Platelet counts were measured from each sample by analysis using a CBC analyzer. Results The average age of the patients was 62.7 years; 36 were female and 63 were male. The mean platelet count pre, mid, and post dialysis was 193 (standard deviation ±74.86), 191 (standard deviation ±74.67), and 197 (standard deviation ±79.34) thousand/mm3, respectively, with no statistical differences. Conclusion Newer membranes have no significant effect on platelet count. This suggests that they are, in fact, more biocompatible than their predecessors and may explain their association with increased survival. PMID:23983482

  6. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@tin.it; Lagana, Domenico; Cotta, Elisa

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous ultrasound (US)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICCA) in a small, nonrandomized series. From February 2004 to July 2008, six patients (four men and two women; mean age 69.8 years [range 48 to 83]) with ICCA underwent percutaneous US-guided RFA. Preintervetional transarterial embolization was performed in two cases to decrease heat dispersion during RFA in order to increase the area of ablation. The efficacy of RFA was evaluated using contrast-enhanced dynamic computed tomography (CT) 1 month after treatment and then every 3 monthsmore » thereafter. Nine RFA sessions were performed for six solid hepatic tumors in six patients. The duration of follow-up ranged from 13 to 21 months (mean 17.5). Posttreatment CT showed total necrosis in four of six tumors after one or two RFA sessions. Residual tumor was observed in two patients with larger tumors (5 and 5.8 cm in diameter). All patients tolerated the procedure, and there with no major complications. Only 1 patient developed post-RFA syndrome (pain, fever, malaise, and leukocytosis), which resolved with oral administration of acetaminophen. Percutaneous RFA is a safe and effective treatment for patients with hepatic tumors: It is ideally suited for those who are not eligible for surgery. Long-term follow-up data regarding local and systemic recurrence and survival are still needed.« less

  7. Clinical and hematologic variables in ponies with experimentally induced equine ehrlichial colitis (Potomac horse fever).

    PubMed

    Ziemer, E L; Whitlock, R H; Palmer, J E; Spencer, P A

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and hematologic variables of 10 ponies with experimentally induced equine ehrlichial colitis (EEC; syn: Potomac horse fever) were studied for a 30-day period (6 ponies) or until death (4 ponies). The earliest clinical sign indicative of EEC was fever (rectal temperature exceeding 39 C). All ponies became depressed (CNS) at various times during the disease, and 90% of the ponies developed diarrhea between 9 and 15 days after infection was induced. The most significant hematologic change was an increase in plasma protein concentration after the onset of fever (P less than 0.05). The PCV in all ponies became increased above base line during the diarrheic phase of EEC. Forty percent of the ponies developed anemia (PCV less than or equal to 23%) during the study. White blood cell counts were highly variable, with 80% of the ponies developing leukopenia (WBC less than 5,000/microliters) during the illness and 60% of the ponies developing leukocytosis (WBC greater than 14,000/microliters) after leukopenia was observed. Differential WBC changes varied widely and included neutropenia with a left shift, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia. Serial thrombocyte counts, which were done for only 1 pony, identified the development of marked thrombocytopenia. Some hematologic changes in ponies with EEC were similar to those reported in canine monocytic and equine granulocytic ehrlichioses. These data are discussed in the context of the pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of EEC.

  8. Right-heart infective endocarditis: a propos of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Simon Antoine; Jobe, Modou; Bodian, Malick; Sy, Mbaye; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou Bamba; Kane, Adama; Mbaye, Alassane; Diao, Maboury; Sarr, Moustapha; Abdou Ba, Serigne

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of right heart endocarditis in Africa are not well known. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profiles of patients with right-heart infective endocarditis. This was a 10-year retrospective study conducted in 2 cardiology departments in Dakar, Senegal. All patients who met the diagnosis of right heart infective endocarditis according to the Duke's criteria were included. We studied the epidemiological, clinical as well as their laboratory profiles. There were 10 cases of right-heart infective endocarditis representing 3.04% of cases of infective endocarditis. There was a valvulopathy in 3 patients, an atrial septal defect in 1 patient, parturiency in 2 patients and the presence of a pacemaker in one patient. Anaemia was present in 9 patients whilst leukocytosis in 6 patients. The port of entry was found to be oral in three cases, ENT in one case and urogenital in two cases. Apart from one patient with vegetations in the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, the rest had localized vegetation only at the tricuspid valve. However, blood culture was positive in only three patients. There was a favorable outcome after antibiotic treatment in 4 patients with others having complications; three cases of renal impairment, two cases of heart failure and one case of pulmonary embolism. There was one mortality. Right heart infective endocarditis is rare but associated with potentially fatal complications.

  9. Merogonic stages of Theileria cervi in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jason; Johnson, Eileen M; Allen, Kelly E; Campbell, Gregory A; Rezabek, Grant; Bradway, Daniel S; Pittman, Louis L; Little, Susan E; Panciera, Roger J

    2013-09-01

    In February 2012, 12 farmed mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) were moved from a facility in southwestern Oklahoma to a facility in southeastern Oklahoma that housed 100 farmed white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between the third and fifth weeks, 9 of the 12 mule deer had died, 4 of which were submitted for necropsy. The deer were heavily infested with Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). Hematologic data from 1 deer revealed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and intraerythrocytic hemoparasites consistent with Theileria spp. Microscopically, the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen contained multifocally distributed, enlarged monocytic cells whose cytoplasm was replaced by developing meronts in various stages of merogony. It appears that, upon arrival, the Theileria cervi-naïve mule deer became infested with large numbers of Theileria-infected lone star ticks leading to massive exposure of the mule deer to sporozoites of the protozoan, resulting in an acute hemolytic crisis and fatalities. The merogonic stages of T. cervi are also described. The lack of earlier reports of merogony may be due to the fact that only a single, short-lived, merogonic cycle follows exposure to sporozoites and thus merogonic stages are demonstrable for only a short period. Polymerase chain reaction testing of paraffin-embedded tissue yielded a 507-bp amplicon sequence that was 100% identical with the sequence of T. cervi previously reported from white-tailed deer in Oklahoma and from elk in Wisconsin and Indiana.

  10. Guidelines for the management and treatment of periodic fever syndromes: Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (cryopyrinopathies - CAPS).

    PubMed

    Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Len, Claudio Arnaldo; da Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida; de Magalhães, Cristina Medeiros Ribeiro; Sacchetti, Silvana B; Ferriani, Virgínia Paes Leme; Piotto, Daniela Gerent Petry; Cavalcanti, André de Souza; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Sztajnbok, Flavio Roberto; de Oliveira, Sheila Knupp Feitosa; Campos, Lucia Maria Arruda; Bandeira, Marcia; Santos, Flávia Patricia Sena Teixeira; Magalhães, Claudia Saad

    2016-01-01

    To establish guidelines based on cientific evidences for the management of cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes. The Guideline was prepared from 4 clinical questions that were structured through PICO (Patient, Intervention or indicator, Comparison and Outcome), to search in key primary scientific information databases. After defining the potential studies to support the recommendations, these were graduated considering their strength of evidence and grade of recommendation. 1215 articles were retrieved and evaluated by title and abstract; from these, 42 articles were selected to support the recommendations. 1. The diagnosis of CAPS is based on clinical history and clinical manifestations, and later confirmed by genetic study. CAPS may manifest itself in three phenotypes: FCAS (mild form), MWS (intermediate form) and CINCA (severe form). Neurological, ophthalmic, otorhinolaryngological and radiological assessments may be highly valuable in distinguishing between syndromes; 2. The genetic diagnosis with NLRP3 gene analysis must be conducted in suspected cases of CAPS, i.e., individuals presenting before 20 years of age, recurrent episodes of inflammation expressed by a mild fever and urticaria; 3. Laboratory abnormalities include leukocytosis and elevated serum levels of inflammatory proteins; and 4. Targeted therapies directed against interleukin-1 lead to rapid remission of symptoms in most patients. However, there are important limitations on the long-term safety. None of the three anti-IL-1β inhibitors prevents progression of bone lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. RAPID DIAGNOSIS OF PNEUMOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA AMONG HIV-INFECTED ADULTS WITH URINE ANTIGEN DETECTION

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R; Daley, Charles L.; Merrifield, Cynthia; Hopewell, Philip C.; Janoff, Edward N.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and associated bacteremia during HIV infection. Rapid diagnostic assays may limit inappropriate therapy. Methods Clinical signs and symptoms and sera and urine were collected prospectively from 70 adults with pneumococcal pneumonia, including 47 with HIV co-infection. Pneumococcal C-polysaccharide antigen was detected in urine using the Binax® immunochromatographic test (ICT). A systematic review of 24 published studies was conducted. Results Clinical symptoms, signs, and laboratory parameters except leukocytosis, were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-seronegative pneumonia. The performance of the urine antigen ICT was independent of HIV-status (sensitivity 81%, specificity 98%, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) 98%, and 82%, respectively). The sensitivity of sputum Gram’s stain was 58% [34/59] with sputum unable to be provided by 16%. The CRP response was identical in HIV-infected (mean ± SD) 133 ± 88 vs. seronegative 135 ± 104 mg/L (p=0.9). In the systematic review, the ICT performance revealed 74% sensitivity (95% CI: 72% to 77%) and 94% specificity (95% CI: 93% to 95%). Urine antigen testing increases etiologic diagnosis by 23% (Range: 10% –59%) when testing adults with community acquired pneumonia of unknown etiology. Conclusions Urinary antigen detection provides a credible rapid diagnostic test for pneumococcal pneumonia regardless of HIV-status. CRP response to acute infection is similar in HIV co-infection and increases diagnostic certainty. PMID:17692384

  12. [Differential patterns of the number and proportion of blood leukocytes following endurance exercise of moderate, strenuous and severe conditions].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Naganuma, S; Mochizuki, M; Shiraishi, M; Nakaji, S; Sugawara, K; Totsuka, M; Sato, K

    1995-06-01

    A study was conducted to elucidate the acute effects of endurance exercise on white blood cells by setting three conditions of different intensity and duration; (a) an upper limit of aerobic exercise for health promotion and (b) superior limits within endurance exercise tolerance for untrained persons were prescribed separately for the same healthy untrained male student volunteers (n = 10) at intensities of 85% and 95% of the individual anaerobic threshold (AT) values for 1 h and 1.5 h, respectively, on a bicycle ergometer. In addition, (c) participants in a 100-km marathon race (n = 20) who continued running for 10-13 h were examined. Every condition caused significant leukocytosis due to predominant neutrophilia and, to a minor degree, a significant increase in monocyte number, the magnitude of which depended on the severity of endurance workload and persisted even 1 h after the termination of exercise. Simultaneously, microscopic evaluation of blood smears revealed the occurrence of an increased proportion of band neutrophils and a decreased proportion of hypersegmented neutrophils (shift to the left) following exercise in condition (b) but not in (a), suggesting that neutrophils are mobilized partly from the bone marrow reserve to the circulation. On the other hand, peripheral lymphopenia was observed after the termination of endurance exercise. These phenomena closely mimicked the known effects of exogenous glucocorticoid administration, suggesting an association with endogenous stress hormone (cortisol) secretion following strenuous exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Pediatric invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serogroup A in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: case series.

    PubMed

    Roaa, Zailaie; Abdulsalam, Alawfi; Shahid, Ghazi; Kamaldeen, Baba; Tariq, Al Fawaz

    2016-05-31

    We describe the first two cases of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae serotype A in Saudi Arabia. This is the first known reported invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype A from Saudi Arabia. A ten-month-old and three-month-old male not known to have any past history of any medical illness and who had received H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine presented to our hospital mainly with fever of few days' duration. A provisional diagnosis of meningitis with sepsis was made and laboratory tests were requested. The chest radiograph was normal. The laboratory results revealed leukocytosis, but leukopenia was noticed in the younger infant. Blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid specimens yielded a pure culture of Haemophilus influenzae and serotyping showed the isolates to be serogroup A. Both patients were started on vancomycin and third-generation cephalosporin. On receiving the blood culture result, vancomycin was stopped. Fever subsided after 48 hours, while in the second case, it continued for 12 days from the admission date. The repeat blood cultures were negative. Antibiotic therapy was given for 10 days for the first case with an unremarkable hospital course, while the second case was complicated by seizure and received a longer duration of antibiotics. Both infants were discharged home in good condition. Invasive non-typeable H. influenzae strains are emerging and there is a need for surveillance of this disease. This has implications in future vaccine development.

  14. In vivo regulation of the heme oxygenase-1 gene in humanized transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghyun; Zarjou, Abolfazl; Traylor, Amie M.; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Jaimes, Edgar A.; Hull, Travis D.; George, James F.; Mikhail, Fady M.; Agarwal, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme degradation producing equimolar amounts of carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. Induction of HO-1 is a beneficial response to tissue injury in diverse animal models of diseases including acute kidney injury. In vitro analysis has shown that the human HO-1 gene is transcriptionally regulated by changes in chromatin conformation but whether such control occurs in vivo is not known. To enable such analysis, we generated transgenic mice, harboring an 87-kb bacterial artificial chromosome expressing human HO-1 mRNA and protein and bred these mice with HO-1 knockout mice to generate humanized BAC transgenic mice. This successfully rescued the phenotype of the knockout mice including reduced birth rates, tissue iron overload, splenomegaly, anemia, leukocytosis, dendritic cell abnormalities and survival after acute kidney injury induced by rhabdomyolysis or cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Transcription factors such as USF1/2, JunB, Sp1, and CTCF were found to associate with regulatory regions of the human HO-1 gene in the kidney following rhabdomyolysis. Chromosome Conformation Capture and ChIP-loop assays confirmed this in the formation of chromatin looping in vivo. Thus, these bacterial artificial chromosome humanized HO-1 mice are a valuable model to study the human HO-1 gene providing insight to the in vivo architecture of the gene in acute kidney injury and other diseases. PMID:22495295

  15. Splenic abscess owing to cancer at the splenic flexure

    PubMed Central

    Awotar, Gavish K.; Luo, Fuwen; Zhao, Zhengdong; Guan, Guoxin; Ning, Shili; Ren, Jinshuai; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Guangzhi; Liu, Pixu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The cancer of the splenic flexure of the colon is a rare medical entity with severe morbidity because of its insidious onset. Methods: We present the case of a 59-year-old male patient with dull left upper quadrant pain, leukocytosis, and anemia. A splenic abscess described as an air-fluid level with splenocolic fistula was found on CT scan imaging. Surgery was done for splenic pus drainage. He was again admitted 2 months later for intestinal obstruction. Results: An exploratory laparotomy showed multiple hard, gray liver nodules as well as a hard mass in the small bowel. Owing to extensive adhesions and a late stage of cancer involvement, the splenic flexure tumor was not resected. A loop transverse colostomy was done and a ColoplastTM Colostomy bag placed. We also reviewed the literature-linking colon cancer and splenic abscess with specific attention to the carcinoma of the splenic flexure. As the latter invades through the spleen matter, there is the creation of a splenocolic fistula, which allows the migration of normal gut flora into the spleen. This leads to the formation of the splenic abscess. Conclusion: This is the 13th case report pertaining to invading colonic cancer causing a splenic abscess. Although the treatment for splenic abscesses is shifting from splenectomy to image-guided percutaneous pus drainage, the few reported cases make the proper management of such complication still unclear. PMID:27661050

  16. Pneumonia as comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Differences between acute exacerbation of COPD and pneumonia in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Boixeda, Ramon; Bacca, Sandra; Elias, Lorena; Capdevila, Josep Anton; Vilà, Xavier; Mauri, Montserrat; Almirall, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    Pneumonia is considered an independent entity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), to be distinguished from an infectious exacerbation of COPD. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and progress of the exacerbation of COPD (ECOPD) compared to pneumonia in COPD (PCOPD) patients requiring hospitalization. Prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study including 124 COPD patients requiring hospital admission for lower respiratory tract infection. Patients were categorized according to presence of ECOPD (n=104) or PCOPD (n=20), depending on presence of consolidation on X-ray. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, microbiological and progress variables were collected. Patients with ECOPD showed more severe respiratory disease according to the degree of obstruction (P<.01) and need for oxygen therapy (P<.05). PCOPD patients showed increased presence of fever (P<.05), lower blood pressure (P<.001), more laboratory abnormalities (P<.05; leukocytosis, elevated CRP, low serum albumin) and increased presence of crepitus (P<.01). Microbiological diagnosis was achieved in 30.8% of cases of ECOPD and 35% of PCOPD; sputum culture yielded the highest percentage of positive results, predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Regarding the progress of the episode, no differences were found in hospital stay, need for ICU or mechanical ventilation. Our data confirm clinical and analytical differences between ECOPD and PCOPD in patients who require hospital admission, while there were no differences in subsequent progress. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Features of 294 Turkish Patients with Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Andıç, Neslihan; Ünübol, Mustafa; Yağcı, Eren; Akay, Olga Meltem; Yavaşoğlu, İrfan; Kadıköylü, Vefki Gürhan; Bolaman, Ali Zahit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) share common clonal stem cells but show significant differences in their clinical courses. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications, JAK2 status, gastrointestinal and cardiac changes, treatment modalities, and survival in MPNs in Turkish patients. Materials and Methods: Medical files of 294 patients [112 essential thrombocythemia (ET), 117 polycythemia vera (PV), 46 primary myelofibrosis, and 19 unclassified MPN cases] from 2 different universities in Turkey were examined. Results: Older age, higher leukocyte count at diagnosis, and JAK2 mutation positivity were risk factors for thrombosis. Platelet count over 1000x109/L was a risk factor for hemorrhagic episodes. Hydroxyurea treatment was not related to leukemic transformation. Median follow-up time was 50 months (quartiles: 22.2-81.75) in these patients. Patients with primary myelofibrosis had the shortest survival of 137 months when compared with 179 months for ET and 231 months for PV. Leukemic transformation, thromboembolic events, age over 60 years, and anemia were found to be the factors affecting survival. Conclusion: Thromboembolic complications are the most important preventable risk factors for morbidity and mortality in MPNs. Drug management in MPNs is done according to hemoglobin and platelet counts. Based on the current study population our results support the idea that leukocytosis and JAK2 positivity are more important risk factors for thrombosis than hemoglobin and platelet values. PMID:27094255

  18. Clinical effect of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, or MPL in primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Guglielmelli, Paola; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Casetti, Ilaria; Colomer, Dolors; Pieri, Lisa; Pratcorona, Marta; Rotunno, Giada; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Bellini, Marta; Cavalloni, Chiara; Mannarelli, Carmela; Milanesi, Chiara; Boveri, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Astori, Cesare; Rosti, Vittorio; Cervantes, Francisco; Barosi, Giovanni; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Cazzola, Mario

    2014-08-14

    We studied the impact of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, (calreticulin gene) or MPL on clinical course, leukemic transformation, and survival of patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Of the 617 subjects studied, 399 (64.7%) carried JAK2 (V617F), 140 (22.7%) had a CALR exon 9 indel, 25 (4.0%) carried an MPL (W515) mutation, and 53 (8.6%) had nonmutated JAK2, CALR, and MPL (so-called triple-negative PMF). Patients with CALR mutation had a lower risk of developing anemia, thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis compared with other subtypes. They also had a lower risk of thrombosis compared with patients carrying JAK2 (V617F). At the opposite, triple-negative patients had higher incidence of leukemic transformation compared with either CALR-mutant or JAK2-mutant patients. Median overall survival was 17.7 years in CALR-mutant, 9.2 years in JAK2-mutant, 9.1 years in MPL-mutant, and 3.2 years in triple-negative patients. In multivariate analysis corrected for age, CALR-mutant patients had better overall survival than either JAK2-mutant or triple-negative patients. The impact of genetic lesions on survival was independent of current prognostic scoring systems. These observations indicate that driver mutations define distinct disease entities within PMF. Accounting for them is not only relevant to clinical decision-making, but should also be considered in designing clinical trials. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Contraction of Blood Clots Is Impaired in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Tutwiler, Valerie; Peshkova, Alina D; Andrianova, Izabella A; Khasanova, Dina R; Weisel, John W; Litvinov, Rustem I

    2017-02-01

    Obstructive thrombi or thrombotic emboli are the pathogenic basis of ischemic stroke. In vitro blood clots and in vivo thrombi can undergo platelet-driven contraction (retraction), resulting in volume shrinkage. Clot contraction can potentially reduce vessel occlusion and improve blood flow past emboli or thrombi. The aim of this work was to examine a potential pathogenic role of clot contraction in ischemic stroke. We used a novel automated method that enabled us to quantify time of initiation and extent and rate of clot contraction in vitro. The main finding is that clot contraction from the blood of stroke patients was reduced compared with healthy subjects. Reduced clot contraction correlated with a lower platelet count and their dysfunction, higher levels of fibrinogen and hematocrit, leukocytosis, and other changes in blood composition that may affect platelet function and properties of blood clots. Platelets from stroke patents were spontaneously activated and displayed reduced responsiveness to additional stimulation. Clinical correlations with respect to severity and stroke pathogenesis suggest that the impaired clot contraction has the potential to be a pathogenic factor in ischemic stroke. The changeable ability of clots and thrombi to shrink in volume may be a novel unappreciated mechanism that aggravates or alleviates the course and outcomes of ischemic stroke. The clinical importance of clot or thrombus transformations in vivo and the diagnostic and prognostic value of this blood test for clot contraction need further exploration. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Cutaneous manifestations associated with adult-onset Still's disease: important diagnostic values.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2012-08-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory condition, characterized by a high spiking fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, arthralgia, and skin rash. Typical skin rash is an evanescent, salmon-pink erythema predominantly involving extremities, which is included as one of the diagnostic criteria; however, recent findings show that not only typical evanescent rash but also various skin lesions are associated with AOSD. The representative characteristic skin lesion among the non-classical skin rash is called persistent pruritic papules and plaques, which presents erythematous, slightly scaly papules with linear configuration on the trunk. Interestingly, persistent pruritic papules and plaques show unique histological features such as peculiar, distinctive distribution of dyskeratotic keratinocytes in the cornified layers as well as in the epidermis. Other non-classical skin lesions include urticaria. Current insights suggest that several inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-18, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) play a pathogenic role in AOSD. In particular, IL-18 is suggested to play a crucial role in activating macrophages, favoring Th1 type cytokine production. IL-18 induces IFN-γ, IL-17, and TNF-α, which may play an important pathogenic role in AOSD. It is important to recognize the common and/or uncommon skin conditions of AOSD for early correct diagnosis. In this review, various skin lesions are introduced, and the complication with histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis (Kikuchi disease) is further discussed.

  1. Acute Radiation Disease : Cutaneous Syndrome and Toxic properties of Radiomimetics -Radiation Neurotoxins and Hematotoxins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Cutaneous injury is an important complication of a general or local acute irradiation. A type of a skin and tissues lesions depends on a type, intensity, and period of irradiation. Also, the clinical picture, signs, and manifestations of the cutaneous syndrome depend on a type of the radiation toxins circulated in lymph and blood of irradiated mammals. Radiation Toxins were isolated from lymph of the mammals that were irradiated and developed different forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) -Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestinal, and Hematopoietic. Radiation Toxins can be divided into the two important types of toxins (Neu-rotoxins and Hematotoxins) or four groups. The effects of Radiation Neurotoxins include severe damages and cell death of brain, heart, gastrointestinal tissues and endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. The hematotoxicity of Hematotoxic Radiation Toxins includes lym-phopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in the blood circulation and transitory lymphocytosis and leukocytosis in the Central Lymphatic System. In all cases, administration of the Radiomimetics (Radiation Toxins) intramuscularly or intravenously to healthy, radiation naive mammals had induced and developed the typical clinical manifestations of the ARS. In all cases, administration of Radiomimetics by subtoxic doses had demonstrated development of typical clinical signs of the cutaneous syndrome such as hair loss, erythema, swelling, desqua-mation, blistering and skin necrosis. In animal-toxic models, we have activated development of the local skin and tissue injury after injection of Radiation Toxins with cytoxic properties.

  2. Contraction of Blood Clots is Impaired in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tutwiler, Valerie; Peshkova, Alina D.; Andrianova, Izabella A.; Khasanova, Dina R.; Weisel, John W.; Litvinov, Rustem I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obstructive thrombi or thrombotic emboli are the pathogenic basis of ischemic stroke. In vitro blood clots and in vivo thrombi can undergo platelet-driven contraction (retraction), resulting in volume shrinkage. Clot contraction can potentially reduce vessel occlusion and improve blood flow past emboli or thrombi. The aim of this work was to examine a potential pathogenic role of clot contraction in ischemic stroke. Approach and Results We employed a novel automated method that enabled us to quantify time of initiation, extent and rate of clot contraction in vitro. The main finding is clot contraction from the blood of stroke patients was reduced compared to healthy subjects. Reduced clot contraction correlated with a lower platelet count and their dysfunction, higher levels of fibrinogen and hematocrit, leukocytosis and other changes in blood composition that may affect platelet function and properties of blood clots. Platelets from stroke patents were spontaneously activated and displayed reduced responsiveness to additional stimulation. Clinical correlations with respect to severity and stroke etiology suggest that the impaired clot contraction has the potential to be a pathogenic factor in ischemic stroke. Conclusions The changeable ability of clots and thrombi to shrink in volume may be a novel unappreciated mechanism that aggravates or alleviates the course and outcomes of ischemic stroke. The clinical importance of clot or thrombus transformations in vivo and the diagnostic and prognostic value of this blood test for clot contraction needs further exploration. PMID:27908894

  3. Blastomycosis in nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Storms, Timothy N; Clyde, Victoria L; Munson, Linda; Ramsay, Edward C

    2003-09-01

    Blastomycosis was diagnosed in six nondomestic felids from eastern Tennessee, including two Asian lions (Panthera leo persicus), one African lion (Panthera leo), one Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris), one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), and one snow leopard (Panthera uncia). Clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, dyspnea, sneezing. ataxia, and paresis. Variable nonspecific changes included leukocytosis, monocytosis, moderate left shift of neutrophils, moderate hypercalcemia, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Thoracic radiographs revealed interstitial and alveolar changes, consolidation or collapse of a lung lobe, bullae formation, and a pulmonary mass. Agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) serology for Blastomyces dermatitidis was performed in five felids and was positive in three. The tiger had cerebral blastomycosis and was positive for AGID serologic tests of both cerebrospinal fluid and serum. One percutaneous lung aspirate in the snow leopard and one bronchial aspirate in an Asian lion demonstrated B. dermatitidis organisms. whereas tracheal wash samples and a nasal discharge were nondiagnostic in others. Treatment with itraconazole was attempted in four cats. The tiger improved before euthanasia, whereas the others did not survive beyond initial treatments. In four felids, B. dermatitidis was found in the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes associated with a florid pyogranulomatous reaction; the tiger had a pyogranulomatous encephalomyelitis, and the cheetah had a single pulmonary granuloma. Thoracic radiography, cytologic examination of lung lesion aspirates, and B. dermatitidis AGID serology should be performed on clinically ill zoo felids in endemic areas to rule out blastomycosis.

  4. Percutaneous Treatment of Renal Cysts with OK-432 Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soung Yong; Cho, Kang Su; Lee, Dong Hoon; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to demonstrate OK-432 sclerotherapy efficacy for treatment of simple renal cysts. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with 25 symptomatic or large simple cysts were treated by ultrasonography (US)-guided percutaneous aspiration and injection of OK-432 (8 men and 12 women, mean age 63.6 years, SD 9.5). Six patients presented with flank pain, 14 presented with renal mass; renal cyst location was right, left, or bilateral sided in 9, 8, and 8 kidneys, respectively. Patients were evaluated by clinical assessment, US, or CT scan 3 months following the procedure. Complete and partial success was defined as symptom resolution with either total cyst ablation or greater than 70% reduction, respectively. Failure was defined as 30% of cyst size recurrence and/or persistent symptoms. Results Average reduction was 93.0%. Complete and partial resolution occurred in 11 (44.0%) and 13 (52.0%) cysts, respectively. One case was defined as failure, with a 64.2% size reduction from 10.9cm to 3.9cm (volume reduction rate 95.4%). Renal pain improved in all patients, regardless of complete or partial resolution. Minor complications occurred in 3 patients, 2 developed leukocytosis and 1 had mild fever (< 38.5℃) following aspiration and sclerotherapy. Successful treatment was achieved with conservative measures and NSAID therapy. Conclusion Percutaneous treatment of simple renal cysts with OK-432 sclerotherapy was found to be a safe, effective and minimally invasive procedure. PMID:17461526

  5. Derivation and Validation of a Biomarker-Based Clinical Algorithm to Rule Out Sepsis From Noninfectious Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome at Emergency Department Admission: A Multicenter Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mearelli, Filippo; Fiotti, Nicola; Giansante, Carlo; Casarsa, Chiara; Orso, Daniele; De Helmersen, Marco; Altamura, Nicola; Ruscio, Maurizio; Castello, Luigi Mario; Colonetti, Efrem; Marino, Rossella; Barbati, Giulia; Bregnocchi, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio; Lupia, Enrico; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Di Somma, Salvatore; Avanzi, Gian Carlo; Biolo, Gianni

    2018-05-07

    To derive and validate a predictive algorithm integrating a nomogram-based prediction of the pretest probability of infection with a panel of serum biomarkers, which could robustly differentiate sepsis/septic shock from noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Multicenter prospective study. At emergency department admission in five University hospitals. Nine-hundred forty-seven adults in inception cohort and 185 adults in validation cohort. None. A nomogram, including age, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, recent antimicrobial therapy, hyperthermia, leukocytosis, and high C-reactive protein values, was built in order to take data from 716 infected patients and 120 patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome to predict pretest probability of infection. Then, the best combination of procalcitonin, soluble phospholypase A2 group IIA, presepsin, soluble interleukin-2 receptor α, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 was applied in order to categorize patients as "likely" or "unlikely" to be infected. The predictive algorithm required only procalcitonin backed up with soluble phospholypase A2 group IIA determined in 29% of the patients to rule out sepsis/septic shock with a negative predictive value of 93%. In a validation cohort of 158 patients, predictive algorithm reached 100% of negative predictive value requiring biomarker measurements in 18% of the population. We have developed and validated a high-performing, reproducible, and parsimonious algorithm to assist emergency department physicians in distinguishing sepsis/septic shock from noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

  6. Concurrence of B-lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasm with copy neutral loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 1p harboring a MPL W515S mutation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jiangchuan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Lancet, Jeffrey; Bennett, John M; Cai, Li; Papenhausen, Peter; Moscinski, Lynn; Zhang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a neoplasm of precursors committed to B-cell lineage, whereas myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) is a clonal proliferation derived from myeloid stem cells. Concurrent B-ALL with MPN is uncommon except in the presence of abnormalities of the PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1 genes or the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. Herein, we describe a rare concurrence, B-ALL with MPN without the aforementioned genetic aberrations, in a 64-year-old male patient. The patient was initially diagnosed with B-ALL with normal karyotype and responded well to aggressive chemotherapy but had sustained leukocytosis and splenomegaly. The posttreatment restaging bone marrow was free of B-ALL but remained hypercellular with myeloid predominance. Using a single nucleotide polymorphism microarray study, we identified a copy neutral loss of heterozygosity at the terminus of 1p in the bone marrow samples taken at diagnosis and again at remission, 49% and 100%, respectively. Several additional genetic abnormalities were present in the initial marrow sample but not in the remission marrow samples. Retrospective molecular studies detected a MPL W515S homozygous mutation in both the initial and remission marrows for B-ALL, at 30-40% and 80% dosage effect, respectively. In summary, we present a case of concurrent B-ALL and MPN and demonstrate a stepwise cytogenetic and molecular approach to the final diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Full recovery from a potentially lethal dose of mercuric chloride.

    PubMed

    Beasley, D Michael G; Schep, Leo J; Slaughter, Robin J; Temple, Wayne A; Michel, Jonathan M

    2014-03-01

    Mercuric chloride poisoning is rare yet potentially life-threatening. We report a case of poisoning with a potentially significant amount of mercuric chloride which responded to aggressive management. A 19-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department with nausea, abdominal discomfort, vomiting of blood-stained fluid, and diarrhea following suicidal ingestion of 2-4 g of mercuric chloride powder. An abdominal radiograph showed radio-opaque material within the gastric antrum and the patient's initial blood mercury concentration was 17.9 μmol/L (or 3.58 mg/L) at 3 h post-ingestion. Given the potential toxicity of inorganic mercury, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit and chelation with dimercaprol was undertaken. Further clinical effects included mild hemodynamic instability, acidosis, hypokalemia, leukocytosis, and fever. The patient's symptoms began to improve 48 h after admission and resolved fully within a week. Mercuric chloride has an estimated human fatal dose of between 1 and 4 g. Despite a reported ingestion of a potentially lethal dose and a high blood concentration, this patient experienced mild to moderate poisoning only and she responded to early and appropriate intervention. Mercuric chloride can produce a range of toxic effects including corrosive injury, severe gastrointestinal disturbances, acute renal failure, circulatory collapse, and eventual death. Treatment includes close observation and aggressive supportive care along with chelation, preferably with 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate or 2,3-meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid.

  8. Efficacy of NS-018, a potent and selective JAK2/Src inhibitor, in primary cells and mouse models of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Y; Shide, K; Niwa, T; Homan, J; Sugahara, S; Horio, T; Kuramoto, K; Kotera, T; Shibayama, H; Hori, K; Naito, H; Shimoda, K

    2011-07-01

    Aberrant activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) caused by somatic mutation of JAK2 (JAK2V617F) or the thrombopoietin receptor (MPLW515L) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), suggesting that inhibition of aberrant JAK2 activation would have a therapeutic benefit. Our novel JAK2 inhibitor, NS-018, was highly active against JAK2 with a 50% inhibition (IC(50)) of <1 n, and had 30-50-fold greater selectivity for JAK2 over other JAK-family kinases, such as JAK1, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2. In addition to JAK2, NS-018 inhibited Src-family kinases. NS-018 showed potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines expressing a constitutively activated JAK2 (the JAK2V617F or MPLW515L mutations or the TEL-JAK2 fusion gene; IC(50)=11-120 n), but showed only minimal cytotoxicity against most other hematopoietic cell lines without a constitutively activated JAK2. Furthermore, NS-018 preferentially suppressed in vitro erythropoietin-independent endogenous colony formation from polycythemia vera patients. NS-018 also markedly reduced splenomegaly and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with Ba/F3 cells harboring JAK2V617F. In addition, NS-018 significantly reduced leukocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis, improved nutritional status, and prolonged survival in JAK2V617F transgenic mice. These results suggest that NS-018 will be a promising candidate for the treatment of MPNs.

  9. Type V hypertriglyceridemia in children, a therapeutic challenge in pediatrics: A case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Dobreanu, Minodora; Mărginean, Maria Oana

    2017-12-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is defined as a level of triglycerides above 150 mg/dL. The complex causes and classification of hypertriglyceridemia lead to difficulties in the diagnosis and management of this condition. We present the case of a 15 years and 6 months old female teenager, admitted in our clinic for the following complaints: severe abdominal pain predominantly in the lateral left quadrant, nausea, vomiting, and the lack of stools for 2 days. The clinical exam showed: impaired general status, painful abdomen at superficial and deep palpation in the left and upper abdominal quadrants, the absence of stools for 2 days. The laboratory parameters revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, high level of serum amylase and triglycerides, and increased inflammatory biomarkers. The imagistic investigations showed ascites and paralytic ileus. The management was burdened by the side-effects of hypolipidemic drugs impairing the liver function and leading to rhabdomyolysis, but eventually the patient's outcome was good. Type V hyperlipoproteinemia is a rare condition accounting for approximately 5% of the cases. The risk for acute pancreatitis is well-known to be associated with hypertriglyceridemia, even though in rare cases. The prognosis of hypertriglyceridemia is pediatrics is burdened not only by the long-term risk factors associated to the diseases itself, but also by the negative effects of long-term hypolipidemic treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical effect of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, or MPL in primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Guglielmelli, Paola; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Casetti, Ilaria; Colomer, Dolors; Pieri, Lisa; Pratcorona, Marta; Rotunno, Giada; Sant’Antonio, Emanuela; Bellini, Marta; Cavalloni, Chiara; Mannarelli, Carmela; Milanesi, Chiara; Boveri, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Astori, Cesare; Rosti, Vittorio; Cervantes, Francisco; Barosi, Giovanni; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the impact of driver mutations of JAK2, CALR, (calreticulin gene) or MPL on clinical course, leukemic transformation, and survival of patients with primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Of the 617 subjects studied, 399 (64.7%) carried JAK2 (V617F), 140 (22.7%) had a CALR exon 9 indel, 25 (4.0%) carried an MPL (W515) mutation, and 53 (8.6%) had nonmutated JAK2, CALR, and MPL (so-called triple-negative PMF). Patients with CALR mutation had a lower risk of developing anemia, thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis compared with other subtypes. They also had a lower risk of thrombosis compared with patients carrying JAK2 (V617F). At the opposite, triple-negative patients had higher incidence of leukemic transformation compared with either CALR-mutant or JAK2-mutant patients. Median overall survival was 17.7 years in CALR-mutant, 9.2 years in JAK2-mutant, 9.1 years in MPL-mutant, and 3.2 years in triple-negative patients. In multivariate analysis corrected for age, CALR-mutant patients had better overall survival than either JAK2-mutant or triple-negative patients. The impact of genetic lesions on survival was independent of current prognostic scoring systems. These observations indicate that driver mutations define distinct disease entities within PMF. Accounting for them is not only relevant to clinical decision-making, but should also be considered in designing clinical trials. PMID:24986690

  11. A novel decontaminant and wound healant formulation of N,N'-dichloro-bis[2,4,6-trichlorophenyl]urea against sulfur mustard-induced skin injury.

    PubMed

    Lomash, Vinay; Pant, Satish C

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM)-induced dermatotoxicity can be prevented by an immediate use of decontamination agents. However, practically due to the time lapse between decontamination and exposure, there is always a possibility of wound formation. In view of this, a hydrophilic decontamination formulation of CC-2 (DRDE/WH-03) was fortified with Aloe vera gel and betaine (DRDE/WH-01) for improving its wound healing ability. Swiss albino mice were exposed to SM percutaneously (5 mg/kg) once, and after 24 hours, DRDE/WH-01, DRDE/WH-03, framycetin, and aloe gel were applied topically, daily for 7 days. Skin sections were subjected to histopathology, histomorphologic grading, tissue leukocytosis, and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers on 3 and 7 days, respectively. DRDE/WH-01, framycetin, and aloe gel showed better reepithelialization, angiogenesis, and fibroplasia compared with DRDE/WH-03 and SM control. On the basis of histomorphologic scale, DRDE/WH-01, framycetin, and aloe gel were found to be equally efficacious. Up-regulation of interleukin-6 and infiltrating leukocytes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiogenesis, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-alpha with fibroplasia and reepithelialization were well correlated at various stages of the healing process. DRDE/WH-01 was equally effective as framycetin and has shown improved wound healing efficacy compared with DRDE/WH-03. Thus, DRDE/WH-01 can be recommended as a universal decontaminant and wound healant against vesicant-induced skin injury. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  12. Time course pathogenesis of sulphur mustard-induced skin lesions in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lomash, Vinay; Jadhav, Sunil E; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan; Pant, Satish C

    2013-08-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes cutaneous blistering in humans and animals. In this study, we have presented closer views on pathogenesis of SM-induced skin injury in a mouse model. SM diluted in acetone was applied once dermally at a dose of 5 or 10 mg/kg to Swiss albino mice. Skin was dissected out at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 168 hours, post-SM exposure for studying histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry of inflammatory-reparative biomarkers, namely, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and interlukin 6 (IL-6). Histopathological changes were similar to other mammalian species and basal cell damage resembled the histopathological signs observed with vesication in human skin. Inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of injury was supported by differential expressions of IL-6 at various stages. Time-dependent expressions of eNOS played pivotal roles in all the events of wound healing of SM-induced skin lesions. TGF-α and FGF were strongly associated with keratinocyte migration, re-epithelialisation, angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation and cell differentiation. Furthermore, quantification of the tissue leukocytosis and DNA damage along with semiquantitative estimation of re-epithelialisation, fibroplasia and neovascularisation on histomorphologic scale could be efficiently used for screening the efficacy of orphan drugs against SM-induced skin injury. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  13. Comparison of epidemiology and clinical characteristics of infections by human parechovirus vs. those by enterovirus during the first month of life.

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo, María; Trallero, Gloria; Pena, María José; Cilla, Amaia; Megias, Gregoria; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Del Amo, Eva; Roda, Diana; Mensalvas, Ana Isabel; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; García-Costa, Juan; Rabella, Nuria; Omeñaca, Manuel; Romero, María Pilar; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Santos-Muñoz, María José; Calvo, Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Human parechoviruses (HPeV) have been recently recognized as important viral agents in paediatric infections. The aims of this study were to investigate the HPeV infection prevalence in infants <1 month in Spain and, secondly, to analyse the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the infected patients compared with those infected by enterovirus (EV). Infants <1 month with neurological or systemic symptoms were included in a multicentre prospective study. EV and HPeV detection by RT-PCR and genotyping were performed in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF), sera or throat swabs. Out of the total of 84 infants studied during 2013, 32 were EV positive (38 %) and 9 HPeV positive (11 %). HPeV-3 was identified in eight cases and HPeV-5 in one. Mean age of HPeV-positive patients was 18 days. Diagnoses were fever without source (FWS) (67 %), clinical sepsis (22 %) and encephalitis (11 %). Leukocytes in blood and CSF were normal. Pleocytosis (p = 0.03) and meningitis (p = 0.001) were significantly more frequent in patients with EV infections than with HPeV. Although HPeV-3 infections were detected less frequently than EV, they still account for approximately 10 % of the cases analysed in infants younger than 1 month. HPeV-3 was mainly associated with FWS and without leukocytosis and pleocytosis in CSF. In these cases, HPeV screening is desirable to identify the aetiologic agent and prevent unnecessary treatment and prolonged hospitalization.

  14. Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA) on Exercise Capacity and Endothelial Response in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Przyborowski, Kamil; Wojewoda, Marta; Sitek, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Wandzel, Krystyna; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), which was initially considered to be a biologically inactive endogenous metabolite of nicotinamide, has emerged as an anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to release prostacyclin (PGI2). In the present study, we characterized the effects of MNA on exercise capacity and the endothelial response to exercise in diabetic mice. Eight-week-old db/db mice were untreated or treated with MNA for 4 weeks (100 mg·kg-1), and their exercise capacity as well as NO- and PGI2-dependent response to endurance running were subsequently assessed. MNA treatment of db/db mice resulted in four-fold and three-fold elevation of urine concentrations of MNA and its metabolites (Met-2PY + Met-4PY), respectively (P<0.01), but did not affect HbA1c concentration, fasting glucose concentration or lipid profile. However, insulin sensitivity was improved (P<0.01). In MNA-treated db/db mice, the time to fatigue for endurance exercise was significantly prolonged (P<0.05). Post-exercise Δ6-keto-PGF1α (difference between mean concentration in the sedentary and exercised groups) tended to increase, and post-exercise leukocytosis was substantially reduced in MNA-treated animals. In turn, the post-exercise fall in plasma concentration of nitrate was not affected by MNA. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that MNA improves endurance exercise capacity in mice with diabetes, and may also decrease the cardiovascular risk of exercise.

  15. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 and the diagnosis of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Barati, Mitra; Bashar, Farshid Rahimi; Shahrami, Reza; Zadeh, Mohammad Hossein Jarrah; Taher, Mahshid Talebi; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2010-06-01

    Early diagnosis and assessment of the systemic inflammatory response to infection are difficult with usual markers (fever, leukocytosis, C-reactive protein [CRP]). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) expression on phagocytes is up-regulated by microbial products. We studied the ability of soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) to identify patients with sepsis. Plasma samples were obtained on intensive care unit admission from patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome for sTREM-1 measurement. Soluble TREM-1, CRP concentrations and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were higher in the sepsis group (n = 52) than in the non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome group (n = 43; P = .00, .02, and .001, respectively). Soluble TREM-1, CRP concentrations, white blood cell count and ESR were higher in the sepsis group than in the non SIRS group (n = 37; P = .04, .00, .01, and .00, respectively). In a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, ESR, CRP and sTREM-1 had an area under the curve larger than 0.65 (P = .00), in distinguishing between septic and non-infectious SIRS patients. CRP, ESR, sTREM-1 had a sensitivity of 60%, 70% and 70% and a specificity of 60%, 69% and, 60% respectively in diagnosing infection in SIRS. C-reactive protein and ESR performed better than sTREM-1 and white blood cell count in diagnosing infection. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Risk factors of electrocoagulation syndrome after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dae Won; Youn, Young Hoon; Jung, Da Hyun; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Park, Hyojin

    2018-01-01

    AIM To investigate post endoscopic submucosal dissection electrocoagulation syndrome (PEECS) of the esophagus. METHODS We analyzed 55 consecutive cases with esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial esophageal squamous neoplasms at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Esophageal PEECS was defined as “mild” meeting one of the following criteria without any obvious perforation: fever (≥ 37.8 °C), leukocytosis (> 10800 cells/μL), or regional chest pain more than 5/10 points as rated on a numeric pain intensity scale. The grade of PEECS was determined as “severe” when meet two or more of above criteria. RESULTS We included 51 cases without obvious complications in the analysis. The incidence of mild and severe esophageal PEECS was 47.1% and 17.6%, respectively. Risk factor analysis revealed that resected area, procedure time, and muscle layer exposure were significantly associated with PEECS. In multivariate analysis, a resected area larger than 6.0 cm2 (OR = 4.995, 95%CI: 1.110-22.489, P = 0.036) and muscle layer exposure (OR = 5.661, 95%CI: 1.422-22.534, P = 0.014) were independent predictors of esophageal PEECS. All patients with PEECS had favorable outcomes with conservative management approaches, such as intravenous hydration or antibiotics. CONCLUSION Clinicians should consider the possibility of esophageal PEECS when the resected area exceeds 6.0 cm2 or when the muscle layer exposure is noted. PMID:29563758

  17. PYOMYOSITIS IN ATHLETES AFTER THE USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS - CASE REPORTS.

    PubMed

    Filho, Nivaldo Souza Cardozo; Gaspar, Eric Figueirido; Siqueira, Karina Levy; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    To report on the management of five cases of pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids. Over the past 10 years, five cases of athletes who developed pyomyositis after using anabolic steroids were attended at the Sports Trauma Center (CETE), EPM-UNIFESP. All the patients were diagnosed clinically and through laboratory and imaging tests. Surgical treatment was carried out (with collection of material for culturing) and antibiotic therapy was administered. In four cases, the injection sites were in the upper limbs and in one case, in the gluteus muscles bilaterally as well as in the upper limbs. In all five cases, occurrences of leukocytosis and neutrophilia were observed in the hemogram. After debridement, the germs of normal skin (S. aureus and S. viridans) were found in cultures on the secretions. Demarcation of the abscess and examination of the muscle plane in which the abscess was located were performed using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. All the patients responded to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Two cases required more than one surgical procedure because of the appearance of more than one abscess site with different evolution times. The use of anabolic steroids by some athletes may have grave consequences. Rapid, energetic and multidisciplinary intervention is necessary in such cases in order to avoid undesirable results. The right treatment healed the athletes completely, and they returned to their sports at the same level.

  18. PYOMYOSITIS IN ATHLETES AFTER THE USE OF ANABOLIC STEROIDS - CASE REPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Nivaldo Souza Cardozo; Gaspar, Eric Figueirido; Siqueira, Karina Levy; Monteiro, Gustavo Cará; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report on the management of five cases of pyomyositis in athletes after the use of anabolic steroids. Method: Over the past 10 years, five cases of athletes who developed pyomyositis after using anabolic steroids were attended at the Sports Trauma Center (CETE), EPM-UNIFESP. Results: All the patients were diagnosed clinically and through laboratory and imaging tests. Surgical treatment was carried out (with collection of material for culturing) and antibiotic therapy was administered. In four cases, the injection sites were in the upper limbs and in one case, in the gluteus muscles bilaterally as well as in the upper limbs. In all five cases, occurrences of leukocytosis and neutrophilia were observed in the hemogram. After debridement, the germs of normal skin (S. aureus and S. viridans) were found in cultures on the secretions. Demarcation of the abscess and examination of the muscle plane in which the abscess was located were performed using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. All the patients responded to broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Two cases required more than one surgical procedure because of the appearance of more than one abscess site with different evolution times. Conclusion: The use of anabolic steroids by some athletes may have grave consequences. Rapid, energetic and multidisciplinary intervention is necessary in such cases in order to avoid undesirable results. The right treatment healed the athletes completely, and they returned to their sports at the same level. PMID:27026995

  19. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  20. Targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway in murine MDS/MPN driven by hyperactive Ras

    PubMed Central

    Akutagawa, Jon; Huang, Tannie Q.; Epstein, Inbal; Chang, Tiffany; Quirindongo-Crespo, Maricel; Cottonham, Charisa L.; Dail, Monique; Slusher, Barbara S.; Friedman, Lori S.; Sampath, Deepak; Braun, Benjamin S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML and JMML) are myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasia (MDS/MPN) overlap syndromes that respond poorly to conventional treatments. Aberrant Ras activation due to NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11, CBL, and NF1 mutations is common in CMML and JMML. However, no mechanism-based treatments currently exist for cancers with any of these mutations. An alternative therapeutic strategy involves targeting Ras-regulated effector pathways that are aberrantly activated in CMML and JMML, which include the Raf/MEK/ERK and phosphoinositide-3´-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascades. Mx1-Cre, KrasD12 and Mx1-Cre, Nf1flox/− mice accurately model many aspects of CMML and JMML. Treating Mx1-Cre, KrasD12 mice with GDC-0941 (also referred to as pictilisib), an orally bioavailable inhibitor of class I PI3K isoforms, reduced leukocytosis, anemia, and splenomegaly while extending survival. However, GDC-0941 treatment attenuated activation of both PI3K/Akt and Raf/MEK/ERK pathways in primary hematopoietic cells, suggesting it could be acting through suppression of Raf/MEK/ERK signals. To interrogate the importance of the PI3K/Akt pathway specifically, we treated mice with the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206. This compound had no effect on Raf/MEK/ERK signaling, yet it also induced robust hematologic responses in Kras and Nf1 mice with MPN. These data support investigating PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy in JMML and CMML patients. PMID:26965285

  1. Red Wine Prevents the Acute Negative Vascular Effects of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Viktoria; Bachelier, Katrin; Schirmer, Stephan H; Werner, Christian; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with fewer cardiovascular events. We investigated whether red wine consumption counteracts the adverse vascular effects of cigarette smoking. Participants smoked 3 cigarettes alone or after drinking a titrated volume of red wine. Clinical chemistry, blood counts, plasma cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunomagnetic separation of CD14 + monocytes for gene expression analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microparticles, and isolation of circulating mononuclear cells to measure telomerase activity were performed, and urine cotinine levels were quantified. Compared with baseline, leukocytosis (P = .019), neutrophilia (P <.001), lymphopenia (P <.001), and eosinopenia (P = .008) were observed after only smoking. Endothelial and platelet-, monocyte-, and leukocyte-derived microparticles (P <.001 each) were elevated. In monocytes, messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (2.6- ± 0.57-fold), tumor necrosis factor alpha (2.2- ± 0.62-fold), and IL-1b (2.3- ± 0.44-fold) were upregulated, as was IL-6 (1.2 ± 0.12-fold) protein concentration in plasma. Smoking acutely inhibited mononuclear cell telomerase activity. Markers of endothelial damage, inflammation, and cellular aging were completely attenuated by red wine consumption. Cigarette smoke results in acute endothelial damage, vascular and systemic inflammation, and indicators of the cellular aging processes in otherwise healthy nonsmokers. Pretreatment with red wine was preventive. The findings underscore the magnitude of acute damage exerted by cigarette smoking in "occasional lifestyle smokers" and demonstrate the potential of red wine as a protective strategy to avert markers of vascular injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical characteristics of children with group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome admitted to pediatric intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Nuñez, Antonio; Dosil-Gallardo, Silvia; Jordan, Iolanda

    2011-05-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a very rare and severe form of group A streptococcal infection whose clinical characteristics, therapy, morbidity, and mortality in children are not well known. Our objective was to describe the clinical characteristics of STSS in a series of children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICU). A multicenter, retrospective study of children with STSS admitted to 14 PICUs between January 1998 and December 2009 was conducted. Clinical information was obtained retrospectively by chart review. Data from 41 children were collected, 90% corresponding to the second half of the study period. Initial symptoms and signs were nonspecific. All patients developed shock and organ dysfunction, 78.0% developed coagulopathy, 70.7% neurologic dysfunction, and 68.3% respiratory failure. Rapid pharyngeal test for Streptococcus was positive in 78.0%. Initial leukocyte count was quite variable, with leukopenia present in 51.2% of patients and leukocytosis in 31.7%. Children were treated with antibiotics against group A Streptococcus (GAS), usually G penicillin or cephalosporin plus clindamycin. After a median PICU stay of 7 days (range 0-41), 65.8% of patients survived, 26.8% with sequelae. The cause of death of the 11 non-survivors was refractory shock and multi-organ failure. STSS is a very severe condition secondary to invasive GAS infection. It can occur at any age, but especially in young children. Due to the lack of specific symptoms and signs and its very rapid progression to shock and organ dysfunction, pediatricians and emergency physicians must be aware of this possibility and immediately initiate aggressive treatment when suspected.

  3. Management of mastitis and abscessation of mammary glands secondary to fibroadenomatous hyperplasia in a primiparturient cat.

    PubMed

    Burstyn, Uri

    2010-02-01

    A 1-year-old sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an 8-week history of pronounced mammary gland hyperplasia that had progressed to mastitis and abscessation of the mammary glands since parturition 7 days earlier. The cat was anorectic, was febrile, and had signs of discomfort. Its kittens were weak and appeared to have difficulty nursing. Physical examination revealed pyrexia, mastitis with abscessation in the 6 caudal mammary glands, skin ulceration over the nipples, and areas of skin necrosis over the abscessed mammary glands. A CBC revealed nonregenerative anemia and leukocytosis with a left shift (2.160 x 10(9) band cells/L) and toxic changes. Mastitis and incipient septicemia were considered the most likely causes. The history of mammary gland hyperplasia since the second week of pregnancy suggested a diagnosis of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia that predisposed the cat to subsequent mastitis. Surgical drainage of the abscessed mammary glands, debridement of necrotic skin, and placement of a Penrose drain resulted in rapid improvement in clinical status. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid) was prescribed, and the cat was discharged from the hospital. Mastitis and fibroadenomatous mammary gland hyperplasia resolved rapidly afterward. Management of abscessed mammary glands through surgical drainage and drain placement is an option for treatment of cats with complications of fibroadenomatous hyperplasia. In the cat of this report, the treatment approach resulted in rapid resolution of mastitis, was less invasive than mastectomy, and avoided the potential complications of treatment with a progesterone-receptor antagonist.

  4. Clinical characteristics of ceftriaxone plus metronidazole in complicated intra-abdominal infection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Empirical antibiotics in complicated intra-abdominal infection (c-IAI), such as secondary peritonitis are a first step of treatment. Empirical antibiotic regimen is very diverse. Ceftriaxone plus metronidazole regimen (CMR) is one of the empirical antibiotic regimens used in treatment of c-IAI. However, although CMR is a widely used empirical antibiotic regimen, study regarding success, failure or efficacy of CMR has been poorly understood. This retrospective study is conducted to compare the clinical efficacy of this regimen in c-IAI according to clinical characteristics. Methods The subjects were patients in this hospital who were diagnosed as secondary peritonitis between 2009 and 2013. Retrospective analysis was performed based on the records made after surgery regarding clinical characteristics including albumin level, blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, smoking, age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin, coexisting disease, leukocytosis, and APACHE (acute physiology and chronic health evaluation) II score. Results A total of 114 patients were enrolled. In univariated analysis, the success and failure of CMR showed significant association with preoperative low albumin, old age, and preoperative tachycardia. In multivariated analysis, low albumin and preoperative tachycardia were significant. Conclusion It is thought that an additional antibiotic treatment plan is necessary in patients with low albumin and tachycardia when the empirical antibiotic regimen is CMR in c-IAI. Conduct of research through well-designed prospective randomized clinical study is also necessary in order to evaluate the appropriateness of CMR and decide on a proper empirical antibiotic regimen between many regimens in c-IAI based on our country. PMID:26131444

  5. Risk Factors of Post-Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Electrocoagulation Syndrome for Colorectal Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Ito, Sayo; Hotta, Kinichi; Imai, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Kishida, Yoshihiro; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Yoshida, Masao; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-04

    Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is used for the treatment of large colorectal superficial neoplasms. However, there have been no large studies on electrocoagulation syndrome developing after colorectal ESD. The aim of this study was to clarify the incidence and clinical risk factors of post-ESD electrocoagulation syndrome (PECS). A total of 692 patients (median age, 70 years; 395 men) with 692 lesions, who underwent colorectal ESD at a tertiary cancer center between July 2010 and December 2015 were eligible. PECS was clinically diagnosed based on the presence of localized abdominal tenderness matching the ESD enforcement site, and fever (>37.5°C) or an inflammatory response (C-reactive protein level >0.5 mg/dL or leukocytosis >10000 cells/μL), without obvious findings of perforation, which developed at >6 h post-ESD. Outcomes of the procedure, the incidence of PECS, and risk factors associated with PECS were assessed. The incidence of PECS was 4.8% (33 patients), and all patients improved by conservative treatment. On multivariate analysis, the female sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-5.7), tumor location at the cecum (OR 14.5; 95% CI: 3.7-53.7 vs rectum), and the presence of submucosal fibrosis (OR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1-7.5) were found to be independent risk factors of PECS. This study identified the risk factors for PECS. Patients with high risk factors of PECS require careful management after colorectal ESD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. CytoSorb, a novel therapeutic approach for patients with septic shock: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Burkhard; Jauch, Oliver; Noky, Toralf; Friesecke, Sigrun; Abel, Peter; Kaiser, Rolf

    2015-08-01

    Hemoadsorption using CytoSorb has gained attention as a potential immunotherapy to control systemic inflammation and sepsis. We report on a patient with septic shock, successfully treated with CytoSorb therapy. A 72-year-old male with periodically recurring infectious episodes was admitted with the suspicion of urosepsis. In the following hours his hemodynamic situation deteriorated markedly, exhibiting respiratory-metabolic acidosis, elevated inflammatory marker plasma levels, a severely disturbed coagulation, increased retention parameters, liver dysfunction, and confirmation of bacteria and leucocytes in urine. After admission to the ICU in a state of septic shock the patient received renal support with additional hemoadsorption using CytoSorb. Three CytoSorb sessions were run during the following days. The first and consecutive second session resulted in a reduction of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and bilirubin and a markedly reduced need for vasopressors while hemodynamics improved significantly (i.e., cardiac index, extravascular lung water). Due to a recurring inflammatory "second hit" episode, another session with CytoSorb was run, resulting in a marked decrease in leukocytosis and liver (dys)function parameters. The rapid hemodynamic stabilization with reduction of vasopressor needs within hours and reduction of the capillary leakage as well as a quick reduction in infection markers were the main conclusions drawn from the use of CytoSorb in this patient. Additionally, treatment appeared to be safe and was well tolerated. Despite the promising results of CytoSorb application in this patient, further studies are necessary to elucidate to what extent these favorable consequences are attributable to the adsorber itself.

  7. Sepsis induced by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) alters nucleotidase activities in platelets of rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata S; Bertoncheli, Claudia M; Adefegha, Stephen A; Castilhos, Lívia G; Silveira, Karine L; Rezer, João Felipe P; Doleski, Pedro H; Abdalla, Fátima H; Santos, Karen F; Leal, Claudio A M; Santos, Roberto C V; Casali, Emerson A; Moritz, Cesar E J; Stainki, Daniel R; Leal, Daniela B R

    2017-10-01

    Sepsis is a potentially lethal condition, and it is associated with platelet alterations. The present study sought to investigate the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), E-5'-nucleotidase, and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) in the platelets of rats that were induced with sepsis. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten animals each: a negative control group (normal; NC); a group that underwent surgical procedures (sham); and a group that underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). The induction of sepsis was confirmed by bacteremia, and the causative pathogen identified was Escherichia coli. Hematological parameters showed leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia in animals in the septic group. The results also revealed that there were significant (p < 0.05) increases in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) hydrolyses, and in the deamination of adenosine in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Conversely, ADP hydrolysis was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Purine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in serum samples from control, sham, and CLP groups. Increased concentrations of ATP, adenosine, and inosine were found in the CLP group compared to the sham and control groups. Conversely, the concentrations of ADP and AMP in the CPL group were not significantly altered. We suggest that alterations in hematological parameters, nucleotide hydrolysis in platelets, and nucleotide concentrations in serum samples of rats with induced sepsis may be related to thromboembolic events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute toxic effects of single dose dacarbazine: hematological and histological changes in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Milijašević, B; Stefanović, D; Lalić-Popović, M; Tomić, Z; Kolarović, J; Lalošević, D; Mikov, M

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma usually includes dacarbazine (DTIC), an alkylating agent that methylates DNA and is active during all phases of the cell cycle. Common side effects of DTIC include nausea, vomiting, impaired liver and kidney function, myelosuppression, and pneumonia. There are no accounts, however, of histological and hematological changes caused by DTIC. We investigated acute hematological and morphological changes in different organs and in tumors that were caused by a single dose of DTIC. Adult Syrian golden hamsters were inoculated with a suspension of tumorigenic baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells by subcutaneous injection. On day 14 after inoculation, doses of 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 or 2.0 g/m(2) DTIC were injected intraperitoneally into the hamsters. Hamsters in the control group were injected with physiological saline in the same way. Seven days after drug or saline injection the animals were sacrificed and samples of blood, heart, kidney, liver, lungs, spleen, small intestine and tumor were excised, processed and analyzed. Mitoses were counted using an ocular extension with engraved frame. Anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were found in the control group of hamsters with fibrosarcoma, whereas animals with fibrosarcoma treated with DTIC developed anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Severe pneumonia and moderate hepatitis were detected in all DTIC treated groups. Effects of DTIC on tumor cells included rounding and enlargement of nuclei and rarefaction of chromatin. The number of mitoses was reduced with increasing doses of DTIC. Hepatitis, myelosuppression, pneumonia, and dose-related inhibition of tumor cell proliferation were observed after a single dose of DTIC.

  9. Levofloxacin Cures Experimental Pneumonic Plague in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Brasel, Trevor L.; Barr, Edward B.; Gigliotti, Andrew P.; Koster, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Background Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. Methods and Results Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops) were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3–145 (mean = 65) 50% lethal (LD50) doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39°C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a “humanized” dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53–165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. Conclusion Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen. PMID:21347450

  10. Extreme lymphocytosis with myelomonocytic morphology in a horse with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Meichner, Kristina; Kraszeski, Blaire H; Durrant, Jessica R; Grindem, Carol B; Breuhaus, Babetta A; Moore, Peter F; Neel, Jennifer A; Linder, Keith E; Borst, Luke B; Fogle, Jonathan E; Tarigo, Jaime L

    2017-03-01

    An 11-year-old, 443-kg Haflinger mare was presented to the North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 2-week history of lethargy and a 3-day duration of anorexia, pyrexia, tachycardia, and ventral edema. Severe pitting edema, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and a caudal abdominal mass were noted on physical examination. An extreme leukocytosis (154.3 × 10 3 /μL) and microscopic hematologic findings suggestive of myelomonocytic leukemia were observed. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal gammopathy and urine protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal light chain proteinuria. Necropsy and histopathology confirmed widespread neoplastic infiltration in many organs with a heterogenous population of cells; there was no apparent evidence of bone marrow involvement. Immunohistochemistry confirmed presence of a majority of B cells with a limited antigen expression, admixed with a lower number of T cells. Molecular clonality analysis of IgH2, IgH3, and kappa-deleting element (KDE, B cell) on whole blood and KDE on infiltrated tissues revealed clonal rearrangements, and the KDE intron clones that amplified in blood and in infiltrated tissue were identical. In contrast, the clonality analysis of T-cell receptor γ revealed no clonality on blood cells and infiltrated tissues. In conjunction with the histopathologic changes, the lesion was interpreted to be composed of neoplastic B cells with a reactive T-cell population. Polymerase chain reaction testing for equine herpes virus 5 was negative. The final diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a marked hematogenous component. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome: diagnostic challenges and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Antic, Darko A; Vukovic, Vojin M; Milosevic Feenstra, Jelena D; Kralovics, Robert; Bogdanovic, Andrija D; Dencic Fekete, Marija S; Mihaljevic, Biljana S

    2016-01-01

    8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS) is a very rare clinicopathological entity which is characterized by the appearance of a myeloproliferative neoplasm in the bone marrow, peripheral lymphadenopathy, usually caused by T or B lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia, and a reciprocal translocation involving chromosome 8p11. Herein we describe a 22-year-old male patient with unusual clinical presentation of EMS. Namely, he initially presented with prolonged epistaxis. Complete blood count showed elevated hemoglobin (17.7g/dl), thrombocytopenia (98x109/l) and leukocytosis (57x109/l). Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy findings corresponded with the presence of a myeloproliferative neoplasm while cytogenetic analysis revealed t(8;13)(p11q12). After that ZMYM2-FGFR1 in-frame fusion was confirmed at the molecular level. Immediately after establishing the diagnosis of a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) generalized lymphadenopathy was developed. Histopathologic examination of lymph node sample confirmed the diagnosis of a T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma without bone marrow involvement. Four cycles of Hyper CVAD chemotherapy were administered with complete morphological and cytogenetic remission. Four weeks after evaluation, patient developed peripheral blood monocytosis and eosinophilia without bone marrow criteria for acute leukemia. Cytogenetic analysis showed t(8;13) accompanied by complex numerical and structural aberrations. The patient underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) from HLA matched sister and he subsequently achieved complete remission. In conclusion, patients with MPN and translocations involving chromosome 8 need to be carefully evaluated for EMS. However, having in mind the very aggressive clinical course of EMS allo-SCT is the only potential curative option.

  12. Necrotizing fasciitis following venomous snakebites in a tertiary hospital of southwest Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yao-Hung; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yu, Pei-An; Chen, Chi-Lung; Kuo, Liang Tseng

    2017-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis following venomous snakebites is uncommon. The purpose of this study was to describe the initial clinical features of necrotizing fasciitis after snakebites, and to identify the risk factors for patients with cellulitis who later developed necrotizing fasciitis. Sixteen patients with surgically confirmed necrotizing fasciitis and 25 patients diagnosed with cellulitis following snakebites were retrospectively reviewed over a 6-year period. Differences in patient characteristics, clinical presentations, snake species and laboratory data were compared between the necrotizing fasciitis and the cellulitis groups. None of the 41 patients died after being bitten by a snake. Twenty-nine patients (70.7%) were bitten by a cobra. Enterococcus species and Morganella morganii were the most common pathogens identified in wound cultures. Relative to the cellulitis group, the necrotizing fasciitis group had significantly higher rates of hemorrhagic bullae (p=0.000), patients with underlying chronic disease (p=0.019), white blood cell counts (p=0.035), segmented white cell counts (p=0.02), and days of hospitalization (p=0.001). Victims of venomous snakebites should be admitted for close monitoring of secondary wound infections. The risk factors of developing necrotizing fasciitis from cellulitis following snakebites were associated with chronic underlying diseases and leukocytosis (total white blood-cell counts ≥10000cells/mm 3 and ≥80% of segmented leukocyte forms). Physicians should be alert to a worsening wound condition after a snakebite, and surgical interventions should be performed for established necrotizing fasciitis with the empirical use of third-generation cephalosporins plus other regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs of mice acutely exposed to amorphous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Yasin, Javed; Kazzam, Elsadig E; Ali, Badreldin H

    2016-01-01

    The use of amorphous silica (SiO2) in biopharmaceutical and industrial fields can lead to human exposure by injection, skin penetration, ingestion, or inhalation. However, the in vivo acute toxicity of amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles (SiNPs) on multiple organs and the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 hours) effects of intraperitoneally administered 50 nm SiNPs (0.25 mg/kg) on systemic toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and brain of mice. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased by SiNPs in the lung, liver, kidney, and brain, but was not changed in the heart. Similarly, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly affected by SiNPs in all organs studied. While the concentration of tumor necrosis factor α was insignificantly increased in the liver and brain, its increase was statistically significant in the lung, heart, and kidney. SiNPs induced a significant elevation in pulmonary and renal interleukin 6 and interleukin-1 beta in the lung, liver, and brain. Moreover, SiNPs caused a significant increase in DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, in all the organs studied. SiNPs caused leukocytosis and increased the plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine aminotranferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. These results indicate that acute systemic exposure to SiNPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in several major organs, and highlight the need for thorough evaluation of SiNPs before they can be safely used in human beings.

  14. Severe scrub typhus infection: Clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management

    PubMed Central

    Peter, John Victor; Sudarsan, Thomas I; Prakash, John Anthony J; Varghese, George M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus infection is an important cause of acute undifferentiated fever in South East Asia. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset fever with chills and non-specific symptoms that include headache, myalgia, sweating and vomiting. The presence of an eschar, in about half the patients with proven scrub typhus infection and usually seen in the axilla, groin or inguinal region, is characteristic of scrub typhus. Common laboratory findings are elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. About a third of patients admitted to hospital with scrub typhus infection have evidence of organ dysfunction that may include respiratory failure, circulatory shock, mild renal or hepatic dysfunction, central nervous system involvement or hematological abnormalities. Since the symptoms and signs are non-specific and resemble other tropical infections like malaria, enteric fever, dengue or leptospirosis, appropriate laboratory tests are necessary to confirm diagnosis. Serological assays are the mainstay of diagnosis as they are easy to perform; the reference test is the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of IgM antibodies. However in clinical practice, the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay is done due to the ease of performing this test and a good sensitivity and sensitivity when compared with the IFA. Paired samples, obtained at least two weeks apart, demonstrating a ≥ 4 fold rise in titre, is necessary for confirmation of serologic diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is the tetracycline group of antibiotics or chloramphenicol although macrolides are used alternatively. In mild cases, recovery is complete. In severe cases with multi-organ failure, mortality may be as high as 24%. PMID:26261776

  15. Passing the anaerobic threshold is associated with substantial changes in the gene expression profile in white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Sakharov, Dmitry A; Maltseva, Diana V; Riabenko, Evgeniy A; Shkurnikov, Maxim U; Northoff, Hinnak; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Grigoriev, Anatoly I

    2012-03-01

    High and moderate intensity endurance exercise alters gene expression in human white blood cells (WBCs), but the understanding of how this effect occurs is limited. To increase our knowledge of the nature of this process, we investigated the effects of passing the anaerobic threshold (AnT) on the gene expression profile in WBCs of athletes. Nineteen highly trained skiers participated in a treadmill test with an incremental step protocol until exhaustion (ramp test to exhaustion, RTE). The average total time to exhaustion was 14:40 min and time after AnT was 4:50 min. Two weeks later, seven of these skiers participated in a moderate treadmill test (MT) at 80% peak O(2) uptake for 30 min, which was slightly below their AnTs. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after both tests. RTE was associated with substantially greater leukocytosis and acidosis than MT. Gene expression in WBCs was measured using whole genome microarray expression analysis before and immediately after each test. A total of 310 upregulated genes were found after RTE, and 69 genes after MT of which 64 were identical to RTE. Both tests influenced a variety of known gene pathways related to inflammation, stress response, signal transduction and apoptosis. A large group of differentially expressed previously unknown small nucleolar RNA and small Cajal body RNA was found. In conclusion, a 15-min test to exhaustion was associated with substantially greater changes of gene expression than a 30-min test just below the AnT.

  16. Clinical profile, morbidity, and outcome of adult-onset generalized pustular psoriasis: analysis of 102 cases seen in a tertiary hospital in Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Choon, Siew Eng; Lai, Nai Ming; Mohammad, Norshaleyna A; Nanu, Nalini M; Tey, Kwee Eng; Chew, Shang Fern

    2014-06-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a severe but rare variant of psoriasis. Our objective is to review the clinical profile, comorbidities, and outcome of patients with GPP. A retrospective note review of all patients with adult-onset GPP. A total of 102 patients with adult-onset GPP were diagnosed between 1989 and November 2011, with a female to male ratio of 2 : 1. The mean age at onset of GPP was 40.9 years (range: 21-81 years). Acute GPP was the most common variant seen (95 cases), followed by four localized variants of GPP and three with annular pustular psoriasis. Fever and painful skin were present in 89% of patients, arthritis in 34.7%, and leukocytosis in 78.4%. Common triggers were systemic steroids (45 cases), pregnancy (17 cases), and upper respiratory tract infections (16 cases). A positive family history of psoriasis and GPP was present in 29% and 11%, respectively. Comorbidities included obesity (42.9%), hypertension (25.7%), hyperlipidemia (25.7%), and diabetes mellitus (23.7%). The mean duration of admission and pustular flare for acute GPP was 10.3 days (range: 3-44 days) and 16 days (range: 7-60 days), respectively. Fifty-four patients responded to systemic retinoid, 21 to methotrexate, eight to cyclosporine, and one to adalimumab, but recurrences were common. Our study confirms the poor response of GPP to currently available anti-psoriatic agents, with frequent flare-ups. There is a need for a more effective targeted therapy for this condition. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative surgical site infections in gastrointestinal fistula patients undergoing bowel resections.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiongyuan; Wang, Gefei; Ren, Jianan; Ren, Huajian; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Ranran; Guo, Kun; Deng, Youming; Li, Yuan; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Lei; Li, Jieshou

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have implied a prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in postoperative septic complications of elective colorectal surgeries. However, the evaluation of PNI in contaminated surgeries for gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients is lack of investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive value of PNI in surgical site infections (SSIs) for GI fistula patients undergoing bowel resections.A retrospective review of 290 GI patients who underwent intestinal resections between November 2012 and October 2015 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for SSIs, and receiver operating characteristic cure was used to quantify the effectiveness of PNI.SSIs were diagnosed in 99 (34.1%) patients, with incisional infection identified in 54 patients (18.6%), deep incisional infection in 13 (4.5%), and organ/space infection in 32 (11.0%). receiver operating characteristic curve analysis defined a PNI cut-off level of 45 corresponding to postoperative SSIs (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72, 76% sensitivity, 55% specificity). Furthermore, a multivariate analysis indicated that the PNI < 45 [odd ratio (OR): 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-4.61, P = 0.029] and leukocytosis (OR: 3.70, 95% CI: 1.02-13.42, P = 0.046) were independently associated with postoperative SSIs.Preoperative PNI is a simple and useful marker to predict SSIs in GI fistula patients after enterectomies. Measurement of PNI is therefore recommended in the routine assessment of patients with GI fistula receiving surgical treatment.

  18. Risk Factors and Stroke Characteristic in Patients with Postoperative Strokes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi; Cao, Wenjie; Cheng, Xin; Fang, Kun; Zhang, Xiaolong; Gu, Yuxiang; Leng, Bing; Dong, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    Intravenous thrombolysis and intra-arterial thrombectomy are now the standard therapies for patients with acute ischemic stroke. In-house strokes have often been overlooked even at stroke centers and there is no consensus on how they should be managed. Perioperative stroke happens rather frequently but treatment protocol is lacking, In China, the issue of in-house strokes has not been explored. The aim of this study is to explore the current management of in-house stroke and identify the common risk factors associated with perioperative strokes. Altogether, 51,841 patients were admitted to a tertiary hospital in Shanghai and the records of those who had a neurological consult for stroke were reviewed. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, in-hospital complications and operations, and management plans were prospectively studied. Routine laboratory test results and risk factors of these patients were analyzed by multiple logistic regression model. From January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015, over 1800 patients had neurological consultations. Among these patients, 37 had an in-house stroke and 20 had more severe stroke during the postoperative period. Compared to in-house stroke patients without a procedure or operation, leukocytosis and elevated fasting glucose levels were more common in perioperative strokes. In multiple logistic regression model, perioperative strokes were more likely related to large vessel occlusion. Patients with perioperative strokes had different risk factors and severity from other in-house strokes. For these patients, obtaining a neurological consultation prior to surgery may be appropriate in order to evaluate the risk of perioperative stroke. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Temporal Characterization of Marburg Virus Angola Infection following Aerosol Challenge in Rhesus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kenny L; Twenhafel, Nancy A; Connor, John H; Cashman, Kathleen A; Shamblin, Joshua D; Donnelly, Ginger C; Esham, Heather L; Wlazlowski, Carly B; Johnson, Joshua C; Honko, Anna N; Botto, Miriam A; Yen, Judy; Hensley, Lisa E; Goff, Arthur J

    2015-10-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) infection is a lethal hemorrhagic fever for which no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are available. Development of appropriate medical countermeasures requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the host and the pathogen and the resulting disease course. In this study, 15 rhesus macaques were sequentially sacrificed following aerosol exposure to the MARV variant Angola, with longitudinal changes in physiology, immunology, and histopathology used to assess disease progression. Immunohistochemical evidence of infection and resulting histopathological changes were identified as early as day 3 postexposure (p.e.). The appearance of fever in infected animals coincided with the detection of serum viremia and plasma viral genomes on day 4 p.e. High (>10(7) PFU/ml) viral loads were detected in all major organs (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, brain, etc.) beginning day 6 p.e. Clinical pathology findings included coagulopathy, leukocytosis, and profound liver destruction as indicated by elevated liver transaminases, azotemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Altered cytokine expression in response to infection included early increases in Th2 cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-5 and late-stage increases in Th1 cytokines such as IL-2, IL-15, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This study provides a longitudinal examination of clinical disease of aerosol MARV Angola infection in the rhesus macaque model. In this study, we carefully analyzed the timeline of Marburg virus infection in nonhuman primates in order to provide a well-characterized model of disease progression following aerosol exposure. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Exercise and the Regulation of Immune Functions.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard J; Kunz, Hawley; Agha, Nadia; Graff, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Exercise has a profound effect on the normal functioning of the immune system. It is generally accepted that prolonged periods of intensive exercise training can depress immunity, while regular moderate intensity exercise is beneficial. Single bouts of exercise evoke a striking leukocytosis and a redistribution of effector cells between the blood compartment and the lymphoid and peripheral tissues, a response that is mediated by increased hemodynamics and the release of catecholamines and glucocorticoids following the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Single bouts of prolonged exercise may impair T-cell, NK-cell, and neutrophil function, alter the Type I and Type II cytokine balance, and blunt immune responses to primary and recall antigens in vivo. Elite athletes frequently report symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) during periods of heavy training and competition that may be due to alterations in mucosal immunity, particularly reductions in secretory immunoglobulin A. In contrast, single bouts of moderate intensity exercise are "immuno-enhancing" and have been used to effectively increase vaccine responses in "at-risk" patients. Improvements in immunity due to regular exercise of moderate intensity may be due to reductions in inflammation, maintenance of thymic mass, alterations in the composition of "older" and "younger" immune cells, enhanced immunosurveillance, and/or the amelioration of psychological stress. Indeed, exercise is a powerful behavioral intervention that has the potential to improve immune and health outcomes in the elderly, the obese, and patients living with cancer and chronic viral infections such as HIV. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists on response to fidaxomicin or vancomycin in patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Karl; Louie, Thomas; Miller, Mark A; Mullane, Kathleen; Crook, Derrick W; Gorbach, Sherwood L

    2015-01-01

    Objective It has been established that use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with an increased risk of acquiring Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). However, it is not known whether the use of PPIs or histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) concurrently with CDAD-targeted antibiotic treatment affects clinical response or recurrence rates. Design In two phase 3 trials, patients with toxin-positive CDAD were randomised to receive fidaxomicin 200 mg twice daily or vancomycin 125 mg four times daily for 10 days. Only inpatients with CDAD (due to complete medication record availability) were included in this post hoc analysis: 701 patients, of whom 446 (64%) used PPIs or H2RAs during study drug treatment or follow-up. Baseline factors that were statistically significant in univariate analyses were analysed in multivariate analyses of effects on clinical response and recurrence. Results Multivariate analysis showed that leukocytosis, elevated creatinine and hypoalbuminemia, but not PPI or H2RA use, were significant factors associated with poor clinical responses. Treatment group was the single significant predictor of recurrence; the probability of recurrence after fidaxomicin therapy was half that following vancomycin therapy. Conclusions Acid-suppressing drugs, used by nearly two-thirds of inpatients with CDAD, did not worsen clinical response or recurrence when used concurrently with fidaxomicin or vancomycin. Therefore, development of CDAD does not require discontinuation of anti-acid treatment in patients who have an indication for continuing PPI or H2RA therapy, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and risk of gastrointestinal bleed. PMID:26462279

  2. Two cases of bacterial meningitis accompanied by thalidomide therapy in patients with multiple myeloma: is thalidomide associated with bacterial meningitis?

    PubMed

    Pasa, Semir; Altintas, Abdullah; Cil, Timucin; Ustun, Cemal; Bayan, Kadim; Danis, Ramazan; Urakci, Zuhat; Tuzun, Yekta; Ayyildiz, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality in multiple myeloma is often attributed to life-threatening infections. A defect in humoral immunity has been proposed for the predisposition to bacterial infections. Most of the infections are of bacterial origin, and the most serious are septicemia, meningitis, and pneumonia. Thalidomide is a drug with pleiotropic effects. The immunomodulatory effects of thalidomide are at least partially mediated through its ability to down-regulate the pathogenic over-production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). TNF-alpha is a cytokine that plays a central role in the regulation of the host immune and inflammatory response to infection. In the central nervous system, TNF-alpha is involved in induction of a fever response and triggers the release of other cytokines, and may also influence transport of compounds into the brain, leading to cerebrospinal fluid leukocytosis, increased protein influx, and lactate accumulation. Thalidomide has been shown to down-regulate the production of TNF-alpha. On the other hand, knowledge of the effects of thalidomide on granulocyte functions is limited. Thalidomide has been shown to attenuate neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis. We present herein two cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterial meningitis that developed soon after the initiation of thalidomide treatment, and discuss the effect of thalidomide on the immune system. Although, it is not clear whether thalidomide caused the development of the bacterial infections and meningitis, or what its pathogenetic mechanisms are, physicians should be alert for signs and symptoms of meningitis in patients with multiple myeloma who are treated with thalidomide, especially those in neutropenic states.

  3. Effect of Prototheca zopfii on neutrophil function from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Luciane T; Pugine, Silvana P; Valle, Claudia R; Ribeiro, Andrea R; Costa, Ernane J X; De Melo, Mariza P

    2006-12-01

    This study was carried to investigate neutrophil function in the presence of Prototheca zopfii. For this purpose, bovine milk neutrophils were incubated in the absence (control) of and presence of P. zopfii, and then they were examined hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, antioxidant enzyme activities, and phagocytic capacity. Milk was collected from negative "California Mastitis Test" (CMT) quarter from three lactating Holstein cows after induction of leukocytosis with an intramammary infusion of oyster glycogen. H(2)O(2) production was measured using the phenol red method. Catalase activity was measured following H(2)O(2) reduction at 240 nm and the activity of glutathione reductase was determined by measuring the rate of NADPH oxidation at 340 nm. P. zopfii death was assessed by fluorescent microscopy using acridine orange assay and by colony forming units (CFUs). Comparisons between the groups were initially performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were then compared using Tukey's test with a significance coefficient of 0.05. Hydrogen peroxide production, catalase and glutathione reductase activities by neutrophils incubated in presence of P. zopfii were stimulated five times, 21% and 27% respectively, compared to the unstimulated-neutrophils. Neutrophils did not affect P. zopfii death as shown by microscopy and CFUs. These observations led to the conclusion that the P. zopfii promote a high increase of H(2)O(2) production by neutrophils from bovine milk during algae exposition accompanied by increase of antioxidant enzyme activities; however, this process did not affect P. zopfii death.

  4. Neonatal septic arthritis in a tertiary care hospital: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, T; Nataraj, A R; Kumar, Anand; Menon, Jagdish

    2016-07-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate clinical and microbiological profile of neonates with septic arthritis and also to assess changing epidemiology in the microbial etiology. Twenty-nine neonates (1-28 days of life) presenting to the Department of Orthopaedics with acute septic arthritis were included in the study. This was a descriptive study, and the data were collected during the time of hospital admission. History and clinical examination of the neonates were taken, and diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory parameters. Emergency arthrotomy was performed to prevent catastrophic sequelae in all the cases given antibiotics as per the culture results. Female children predominated in our study. The children were brought to the OPD with an average of 2.7 days of fever. Thirty-four joints were involved in 29 neonates, out of whom five had more than one joint involvement. Joint effusion or subperiosteal abscess was found in 22 patients by USG. All children had leukocytosis with neutrophilic predominance. Twenty-one of twenty-nine patients had hip-joint involvement followed by knee in seven patients. Gram-negative organisms had grown more commonly, among which Klebsiella pneumonia was grown in nine patients. Prematurity and anemia still appear to be important risk factors for neonatal septic arthritis. As there is changing trend toward gram-negative infections, attention has to be given toward preventing nosocomial and community-acquired infections. This is very important in premature infants who are susceptible for infection when they are kept in resuscitative units in hospitals.

  5. A novel (S)-(+)-decursin derivative, (S)-(+)-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acrylic acid 2,2-dimethyl-8-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrano[3,2-g]chromen-3-yl-ester, inhibits ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun Ju; Song, Gyu-Yong; Lee, Ji-Sook; Yun, Chi-Young; Kim, In Sik

    2009-03-01

    (S)-(+)-Decursin is a coumarin compound present in herbal extracts that has various biological activities. (S)-(+)-Decursin attenuates pathophysiologic progression in cancer, bacterial infection and neuropathy. Asthma is an inflammatory disease associated with increased infiltration of leukocytes, especially eosinophils, and secretion of mucus into the airways. Although (S)-(+)-decursin, as well as (S)-(+)-decursin analogues, have various pharmacological properties, the effect of these compounds on asthma is not known. In the present study, we synthesized (S)-(+)-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-acrylic acid 2,2-dimethyl-8-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrano[3,2-g]chromen-3-yl-ester (compound 6, C6) from (S)-(+)-decursin and examined if C6 had any inhibitory effects on lung inflammation in a mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. C6 significantly inhibited the leukocytosis (p < 0.01) and eosinophilia (p < 0.05) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Examination of lung tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff reagents showed that C6 suppressed the increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and elevated mucus hypersecretion. Protein levels of interleukin (IL)-5 (p < 0.05) and eotaxin (p < 0.01) were significantly reduced in BAL fluid by C6. C6 also significantly reduced total and ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in BAL fluid (p < 0.01) as well as that in serum (p < 0.05). C6 may have pharmacological effects for asthma and may be a potent therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic airway diseases.

  6. Eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome with markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Iwase, Takashi; Kadota, Muneyuki; Bando, Mika; Ogasawara, Kozue; Bando, Sachiko; Ise, Takayuki; Niki, Toshiyuki; Ueda, Yuka; Tomita, Noriko; Taketani, Yoshio; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Sata, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with asthma visited our hospital with increasing dyspnea and new-onset paresthesia and purpura in her legs. Physical examination showed a wheeze, pretibial edema, and surrounding purpura. Chest X-rays showed cardiac decompensation and an electrocardiogram revealed a new ST-T change. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia (10,450/μL), troponin T(+), elevated BNP, and markedly elevated eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) (> 150 ng/mL). Echocardiography revealed diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis (ejection fraction 30%) with increased wall thickness. Coronary angiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging implied diffuse myocardial edema and subendocardial late gadolinium enhancement. Skin biopsy of purpura showed superfi cial perivascular dermatitis with remarkable eosinophilic infiltrations. No evidence of drug allergies, parasitic infection, or myeloproliferative disorder was detected. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome was considered. She was administered prednisolone at a dose of 1 mg/kg, cyclophosphamide, and diuretics. Several markers of eosinophilic myocarditis and heart failure gradually improved, including ECP. She was discharged 30 days later with no cardiac event. Eosinophilic myocarditis is characterized by predominantly eosinophilic infi ltration. Eosinophilic granule proteins, such as ECP and major basic protein, play important roles in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic myocarditis. We experienced a rare case of eosinophilic myocarditis due to Churg-Strauss syndrome. Markedly elevated ECP played an important role in the early diagnosis and subsequent reduction in ECP served as a marker of monitoring. In an asthmatic patient with dyspnea, hypereosinophilia, and vasculitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome with eosinophilic myocarditis should be considered.

  7. Performance evaluation of the Sysmex(®) XP-300 in an oncology setting: evaluation and comparison of hematological parameters with the Sysmex(®) XN-3000.

    PubMed

    van Dievoet, M A; Louagie, H; Ghys, T

    2016-10-01

    The Sysmex XP-300(®) (XP-300) is a new, fully automated hematology analyzer, designed to generate complete blood counts (CBC) with 3-part differential. In our study, the XP-300 was evaluated as a point-of-care (POC) analyzer in an oncology setting. In which blood samples from patients with different pathologies and treatments, affecting hematopoiesis, were analyzed. Performance was evaluated according to the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) guidelines and CLSI protocol H20-A2 . Beside precision, linearity and carry-over, a comparison study with the Sysmex(®) XN-3000 (XN-3000) and a manual reference leukocyte differential was performed. Flagging performance was also evaluated. XP-300 showed excellent precision and linearity results. For within- and between-run precision, the criteria, according to Ricos et al. , were met for all parameters tested, except for platelets in the low level. Less than or equal to 0.5% carry-over was seen for all parameters tested. Comparison studies showed an acceptable correlation with both XN-3000 and the manual reference leukocyte count. A suboptimal flagging performance was demonstrated. In the context of diagnosing cytopenia due to myelosuppressing agents or leukocytosis due to infection, the XP-300 showed good analytical performance. However, in the thrombocytopenic range, precision was suboptimal. In follow-up of hematological malignancies with the occurrence of abnormal cells, we advise verification with a more advanced analyzer or with microscopic review, although further studies with a higher prevalence of abnormal cells are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Management of preterm labor].

    PubMed

    Kayem, G; Lorthe, E; Doret, M

    2016-12-01

    To define the management of preterm labor (MAP). The literature search was conducted using computer databases Medline and the Cochrane Library for a period from 1969 to March 2016. Leukocytosis screening may be useful in case of hospitalization for Preterm labor (PTL). Its use is not routine (professional consensus). Screening for urinary tract infection by urine culture should be systematic and antibiotic treatment should be performed in cases of bacterial colonization or urinary tract infection for a period of 7 days (grade A). The vaginal swab is useful to detect a strep B and was prescribed antibiotics during labor if positive (grade A). Routine antibiotic therapy is not recommended in case of PTL (grade A). Prolonged hospitalization does not reduce the risk of preterm delivery (NP3) and is not recommended (grade B). Bed rest does not reduce the risk of PTL (NP3), increases the risk of thromboembolism (NP3), and is not recommended (grade C). After hospitalization for PTL, a regular visit by a caregiver at home may be helpful when patients belong to a precarious environment or are psychologically vulnerable (Professional consensus). The benefit of monitoring home uterine activity repeated in the aftermath of hospitalization for PTL is not shown (NP3). It is not recommended to follow-up uterine activity systematically after hospitalization for PTL (grade C). The management of PTL should be individualized, include searching and treatment of infection and avoid prolonged hospitalization or bed rest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis.

    PubMed

    Ferronato, Angela E; Gilio, Alfredo E; Vieira, Sandra E

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the frequency of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and to analyze their characteristics at hospital admission and clinical outcomes. a historical cohort study was performed in a reference service for pertussis, in which the research of respiratory viruses was also a routine for infants hospitalized with respiratory problems. All infants reported as suspected cases of pertussis were included. Tests for Bordetella pertussis (BP) (polymerase chain reaction/culture) and for respiratory viruses (RVs) (immunofluorescence) were performed. Patients who received macrolides before hospitalization were excluded. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Among the 67 patients studied, BP tests were positive in 44%, and 26% were positive for RV. There was no etiological identification in 35%, and RV combined with BP was identified in 5%. All patients had similar demographic characteristics. Cough followed by inspiratory stridor or cyanosis was a strong predictor of pertussis, as well as prominent leukocytosis and lymphocytosis. Rhinorrhea and dyspnea were more frequent in viral infections. Macrolides were discontinued in 40% of patients who tested positive for RV and negative for BP. the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. [A rare case of myeloproliferative disease with t(8;13)(p11;q12) associated with eosinophilia and lymphadenopathy].

    PubMed

    Tsyba, N N; Turkina, A G; Chelysheva, E Yu; Nemchenko, I S; Kovrigina, A M; Obukhova, T N; Urnova, E S; Kuzmina, L A; Savchenko, V G

    Myeloproliferative disease associated with FGFR1 rearrangement (8p11), which is included in the 2008 WHO Classification of Myeloid Neoplasms, is a rare and extremely aggressive abnormality. The paper describes a clinical case of a 39-year-old female patient who was detected to have leukocytosis (as high as 47.2·109/l), absolute eosinophilia (as high as 3.1·109/l), and enlarged peripheral lymph nodes during her visit to a doctor. The bone marrow (BM) showed the changes typically encountered in myeloproliferative disease with eosinophilia. The patient was found to have t(8;13)(p11;q12) translocation associated with the rearrangement of the FGFR1 gene located at the 8p11 locus. Molecular and cytogenetic examinations failed to reveal BCR-ABL chimeric transcript, Jak2 V617F mutation, and deletions and translocations involving PDGFRA (4q12) and PDGFRB (5q32-33). The similar changes in the karyotype were also found in the lymph node cells. The undertaken treatment with hydroxyurea and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib turned out to be ineffective. The patient underwent allogeneic BM transplantation from a HLA-identical sibling. Graft rejection occurred 6 months later. Allogeneic BM transplantation from the same donor (100% donor chimerism; FGFR1/8р11 translocation was not detected), which was complicated by the development of chronic graft-versus-host reaction, was performed again in March 2015. The patient is being followed up and continues to receive immunosuppressive therapy.

  11. The role of CT-guided percutaneous drainage of loculated air collections: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavik N; Morgan, Madeline; Tyler, Douglas; Paulson, Erik; Jaffe, Tracy A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with the role of CT-guided percutaneous drainage of loculated intra-abdominal collections consisting entirely of gas. An IRB-approved retrospective study analyzing patients with air-only intra-abdominal collections over an 8-year period was undertaken. Seven patients referred for percutaneous drainage were included. Size of collections, subsequent development of fluid, and microbiological yield were determined. Clinical outcome was also analyzed. Out of 2835 patients referred for percutaneous drainage between 2004 and 2012, seven patients (5M, 2F; average age 63, range 54-85) met criteria for inclusion with CT showing air-only collections. Percutaneous drain placement (five 8 Fr, one 10 Fr, and one 12 Fr) using Seldinger technique was performed. Four patients (57%) had recently undergone surgery (2 Whipple, 1 colectomy, 1 hepatic resection) while two (29%) had a remote surgery (1 abdominoperineal resection, 1 sigmoidectomy). Despite the lack of detectable fluid on the original CT, 6 patients (86%) had air and fluid aspirated at drainage, 5 (83%) of the aspirates developed positive microbacterial cultures. Four patients (57%) presented with fever at the time of the initial scan, all of whom had positive cultures from aspirated fluid. Four patients (57%) had leukocytosis, all of whom had positive cultures from aspirated fluid. Although relatively rare in occurrence, patients with air-only intra-abdominal collections with signs of infection should be considered for percutaneous management similar to that of conventional infected fluid collections. Although fluid is not visible on CT, these collections can produce fluid that contains organisms.

  12. [Pneumoperitoneum due to splenic abscess: a diagnostic challenge. Case Report].

    PubMed

    Peña-Ros, Emilio; Méndez-Martínez, Marcelino; Vicente-Ruiz, María; Sánchez-Cifuentes, Ángela; Martínez-Sanz, Nuria; Albarracín Marín-Blázquez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Splenic abscess is a rare clinic entity, its incidence has increased due to the rising number of clinical conditions involving immunosuppression. Endocarditis is the most frequent cause, and gram-positive aerobes are the main causal agents. Its clinical presentation is non-specific and delays diagnosis. Computed tomography scan is the method of choice, and the treatment is based on antibiotics and drainage, radiological or surgical, involving splenectomy in special cases that require it. A 55-year-old man with abdominal pain and fever. The analysis revealed leukocytosis 14,000/mm3, prothrombin activity 53%, and metabolic acidosis. Computed tomography scan showed a peri-hepatic pneumoperitoneum, liquid fluid, and peri-splenic bubbles, and slight trabeculation of fat around the duodenal bulb with pneumoperitoneum in this area. Patient underwent a median laparotomy, finding a purulent peritonitis due to a ruptured abscess in the spleen, splenectomy was performed. Fluid culture showed polymorphonuclears, with no microorganisms identified. The patient progressed and was discharged on the 5th post-operative day. Splenic abscess is an uncommon condition, in which the diagnosis is delayed and mortality, in untreated patients, is high. Its association with pneumoperitoneum may confuse the diagnosis towards viscera perforation. Thus it must be suspected in the finding of unknown cause of pneumoperitoneum by complementary examinations. The treatment of choice is splenectomy, because the capsular rupture is the norm in all of them. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. [Inhalation of gasoline and damage to health in workers at gas stations].

    PubMed

    Pranjić, Nurka; Mujagić, H; Pavlović, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to made assessment of chronic health effects in 37 workers exposed to gasoline, and its constituents at gasoline stations between 1985 and 1996. By the study we have involved thirty-seven persons who had been exposed to gasoline for more than five years were examined. The evaluation included a medical/occupational history, hematological and biochemical examination, a physical exam, standardized psychological tests, and ultrasound examination of kidneys and liver. The groups were identical in other common parameters including age, gender (all men), and level of education (P < 0.05). The data were compared to two control groups: 61 gasoline unexposed controls and 25 workers at gasoline stations exposed to organic lead for only nine months. Peripheral smear revealed basophilic punctuated eritrocytes and reticulocytosis. We found in chronic exposed gasoline workers haematological disorders: mild leukocytosis (7 of 37), lymphocytosis (20 of 37), mild lymhocytopenia (3 of 37), decrease of red blood cells count (11 of 37). Results indicated that they have suffered from liver disorders: lipoid degeneration of liver (14 of 37), chronic functional damages of liver (3 of 37), cirrhosis (1 of 37). Ultrasound examination indicated chronic kidney damages (8 of 37). These results significantly differed from those of controls (P < 0.05). In 13 out of 37 workers at gasoline stations exposed to gasoline for more than 5 years the symptom of depression and decreased reaction time and motor abilities were identified. The summary of diseases of workers exposed to organic lead and gasoline are discussed.

  14. Small bowel obstruction caused by Anisakis and Meckel's diverticulum: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Carbotta, G; Laforgia, R; Milella, Michele; Sederino, M G; Minafra, M; Fortarezza, F; Piscitelli, D; Palasciano, N

    2016-01-01

    Anisakiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the ingestion of raw fish contaminated by larval nematodes of Anisakis species. Intestinal or extraintestinal manifestations are rated to > 4% and >1% respectively. A 61-year old patient was admitted to our General Surgical and Emergency Unit because of sudden abdominal pain, vomit and constipation. He had eaten raw fish 3 days before admission. Laboratory data showed high levels of WBC and PCR. CT scanning showed "dilation of jejunum and ileum loops, thickening of the terminal ileum and cecum and signs of inflammation of the intestinal wall and mesentery". The following emergency surgical procedure was performed: laparotomy with evidence of obstruction of the small bowels, a giant Meckel's diverticulum, resection of terminal ileum and cecum and ileocolonic anastomosis. At the microscopic examination, the intestinal wall appeared occupied by a transmural inflammatory infiltrate, mainly eosinophilic, edema and nematode larvae, referable to Anisakis, surrounded by necrotic-inflammatory material. Moreover, there was evidence of giant a Meckel's diverticulum. Normally, enteric anisakiasis exhibits leukocytosis with eosinophilia and high CRP levels. There are cases of successful medical treatment and other cases of endoscopic treatment avoiding surgical procedure. In our case, enteric Anisakias had not been taken into consideration at the moment of the operation and only histopathology could reveal Anisakis larvae inside the intestinal wall. Our surgical approach is considered in literature as the best one for this clinical presentation. Those patients need to be better studied and more attention should be paid to their history.

  15. The effect of acute pre-exercise dark chocolate consumption on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Davison, Glen; Callister, Robin; Williamson, Gary; Cooper, Karen A; Gleeson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Acute antioxidant supplementation may modulate oxidative stress and some immune perturbations that typically occur following prolonged exercise. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of acutely consuming dark chocolate (high polyphenol content) on plasma antioxidant capacity, markers of oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise. Fourteen healthy men cycled for 2.5 h at ~60% maximal oxygen uptake 2 h after consuming 100 g dark chocolate (DC), an isomacronutrient control bar (CC) or neither (BL) in a randomised-counterbalanced design. DC enhanced pre-exercise antioxidant status (P = 0.003) and reduced by trend (P = 0.088) 1 h post-exercise plasma free [F₂-isoprostane] compared with CC (also, [F₂-isoprostane] increased post-exercise in CC and BL but not DC trials). Plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher pre-exercise (P = 0.012) and 1 h post-exercise (P = 0.026) in the DC compared with the CC trial. There was a better maintenance of plasma glucose concentration on the DC trial (2-way ANOVA trial × time interaction P = 0.001), which decreased post-exercise in all trials but was significantly higher 1 h post-exercise (P = 0.039) in the DC trial. There were no between trial differences in the temporal responses (trial × time interactions all P > 0.05) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress hormones, plasma interleukin-6, the magnitude of leukocytosis and neutrophilia and changes in neutrophil function. Acute DC consumption may affect insulin, glucose, antioxidant status and oxidative stress responses, but has minimal effects on immunoendocrine responses, to prolonged exercise.

  16. Efficacy of NS-018, a potent and selective JAK2/Src inhibitor, in primary cells and mouse models of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Y; Shide, K; Niwa, T; Homan, J; Sugahara, S; Horio, T; Kuramoto, K; Kotera, T; Shibayama, H; Hori, K; Naito, H; Shimoda, K

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) caused by somatic mutation of JAK2 (JAK2V617F) or the thrombopoietin receptor (MPLW515L) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), suggesting that inhibition of aberrant JAK2 activation would have a therapeutic benefit. Our novel JAK2 inhibitor, NS-018, was highly active against JAK2 with a 50% inhibition (IC50) of <1 n, and had 30–50-fold greater selectivity for JAK2 over other JAK-family kinases, such as JAK1, JAK3 and tyrosine kinase 2. In addition to JAK2, NS-018 inhibited Src-family kinases. NS-018 showed potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines expressing a constitutively activated JAK2 (the JAK2V617F or MPLW515L mutations or the TEL–JAK2 fusion gene; IC50=11–120 n), but showed only minimal cytotoxicity against most other hematopoietic cell lines without a constitutively activated JAK2. Furthermore, NS-018 preferentially suppressed in vitro erythropoietin-independent endogenous colony formation from polycythemia vera patients. NS-018 also markedly reduced splenomegaly and prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with Ba/F3 cells harboring JAK2V617F. In addition, NS-018 significantly reduced leukocytosis, hepatosplenomegaly and extramedullary hematopoiesis, improved nutritional status, and prolonged survival in JAK2V617F transgenic mice. These results suggest that NS-018 will be a promising candidate for the treatment of MPNs. PMID:22829185

  17. Validation of the Intensive Care Unit Early Warning Dashboard: Quality Improvement Utilizing a Retrospective Case-Control Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Michael J; So, Joanne D; Park, Peter J; Davis, Konrad L

    2017-02-01

    Risk stratification with the Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) or electronic cardiac arrest trigger (eCART) has been utilized with ward patients to preemptively identify high-risk patients who might benefit from enhanced monitoring, including early intensive care unit (ICU) transfer. In-hospital mortality from cardiac arrest is ∼80%, making preventative interventions an important focus area. ICUs have lower patient to nurse ratios than wards, resulting in less emphasis on the development of ICU early warning systems. Our institution developed an early warning dashboard (EWD) identifying patients who may benefit from earlier interventions. Using the adverse outcomes of cardiac arrest, ICU mortality, and ICU readmissions, a retrospective case-control study was performed using three demographic items (age, diabetes, and morbid obesity) and 24 EWD measured items, including vital signs, laboratory values, ventilator information, and other clinical information, to validate the EWD. Ten statistically significant areas were identified for cardiac arrest and 13 for ICU death. Identified items included heart rate, dialysis, leukocytosis, and lactate. The ICU readmission outcome was compared to controls from both ICU patients and ward patients, and statistical significance was identified for respiratory rate >30. With several statistically significant data elements, the EWD parameters have been incorporated into advanced clinical decision algorithms to identify at-risk ICU patients. Earlier identification and treatment of organ failure in the ICU improve outcomes and the EWD can serve as a safety measure for both at-risk in-house patients and also extend critical care expertise through telemedicine to smaller hospitals.

  18. Diagnostic challenges of celiac disease in a young child: A case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Stefănuţ Săsăran, Vlăduţ; Mărginean, Cristian Dan; Mărginean, Maria Oana

    2018-06-01

    Celiac disease is a chronic, immune-mediated, multiorgan disorder that affects susceptible individuals, and it is triggered by gluten and other prolamins. We present the case of a 1-year-old male child, with a history of idiopathic pericardial effusion, admitted in our clinic for severe abdominal bloating, irritability, loss of appetite and intermittent diarrheic stools. The clinical findings were: influenced general status, irritability, distended abdomen, and diffuse abdominal tenderness. The initial laboratory tests revealed anemia, leukocytosis, increased inflammatory biomarkers, high levels of transaminases, and hypoalbuminemia. The stool culture identified an enterocolitis with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). We initiated antibiotic treatment, substitution therapy with human albumin and probiotics with initial favorable evolution, but after 1 month, the patient was re-admitted for the persistence of intermittent diarrheic stools and abdominal bloating, when we established the diagnosis of cow's milk protein allergy. We initiated diary-free diet. Unfortunately, the patient was re-admitted after another 8 months, presenting the same clinical and laboratory findings as during the initial admission. We repeated the serology for celiac disease and we performed an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies, which established the diagnosis of celiac disease. After 1 month of gluten-free diet, the patient's evolution improved considerably. Enterocolitis with E. coli could be considered as trigger for CD in our case. The diagnosis of CD in small children can be hindered by an insufficient gluten-exposure, and can lead to a delay in the diagnosis as in the case presented above.

  19. Exploring the potential of variola virus infection of cynomolgus macaques as a model for human smallpox.

    PubMed

    Jahrling, Peter B; Hensley, Lisa E; Martinez, Mark J; Leduc, James W; Rubins, Kathleen H; Relman, David A; Huggins, John W

    2004-10-19

    Smallpox virus (variola) poses a significant threat as an agent of bioterrorism. To mitigate this risk, antiviral drugs and an improved vaccine are urgently needed. Satisfactory demonstration of protective efficacy against authentic variola will require development of an animal model in which variola produces a disease course with features consistent with human smallpox. Toward this end, cynomolgus macaques were exposed to several variola strains through aerosol and/or i.v. routes. Two strains, Harper and India 7124, produced uniform acute lethality when inoculated i.v. in high doses (10(9) plaque-forming units). Lower doses resulted in less fulminant, systemic disease and lower mortality. Animals that died had profound leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum creatinine levels. After inoculation, variola was disseminated by means of a monocytic cell-associated viremia. Distribution of viral antigens by immunohistochemistry correlated with the presence of replicating viral particles demonstrated by electron microscopy and pathology in the lymphoid tissues, skin, oral mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, reproductive system, and liver. These particles resembled those seen in human smallpox. High viral burdens in target tissues were associated with organ dysfunction and multisystem failure. Evidence of coagulation cascade activation (D dimers) corroborated histologic evidence of hemorrhagic diathesis. Depletion of T cell-dependent areas of lymphoid tissues occurred, probably as a consequence of bystander apoptotic mechanisms initiated by infected macrophages. Elaboration of cytokines, including IL-6 and IFN-gamma, contribute to a cytokine storm formerly known as "toxemia." A more precise understanding of disease pathogenesis should provide targets for therapeutic intervention, to be used alone or in combination with inhibitors of variola virus replication.

  20. Flow meter urine testing: a practical proposition in patients attending for urodynamics?

    PubMed

    Hashim, Hashim; Abrams, Paul

    2006-05-01

    To find a practical way of detecting urinary tract infection (UTI) before invasive urodynamic testing, as UTIs after urodynamics are well documented, but there are no standard guidelines about when urine should be analysed before urodynamics. Before urodynamics all patients are asked to provide a free urine flow; the patient is then catheterized to obtain a catheter-specimen of urine that is tested for infection by a urine dipstick. If the dipstick is found positive for nitrites and/or leukocytes, the test is abandoned and the sample sent for microscopy, culture and sensitivity. In the present study, patients were asked to provide a free urine flow into the flowmeter as usual. Between patients, the flowmeter was washed with soap and water and dried, so that there would be no cross-contamination between patients' urine results. Urine was collected as usual and tested using a dipstick, the patient was then catheterized and another dipstick test done on the catheter specimen of urine (CSU), to compare results. Pairs of urine samples, when positive for nitrite were 100% consistent, and 89% of pairs positive for leukocytes were the same before and after catheterization. The remaining 11% (all women) of the positive leukocyte group had leukocytosis on testing the flowmeter urine but not on the CSU, possibly due to contamination from the vagina. Testing urine by dipstick in the sample from the flowmeter is a feasible option, thus saving the patient an inappropriate catheterization, with the risk of bacteraemia during urodynamics, and allowing the flowrate to be measured.

  1. Melanoma induced immunosuppression is mediated by hematopoietic dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Neha; Li, Youping; Sierra, Maria; Alghamri, Mahmoud S; Kadiyala, Padma; Appelman, Henry D; Edwards, Marta; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2018-01-01

    Tumors are associated with expansion of immunosuppressive cells such as tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These cells promote tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune escape. Cancer patients frequently present symptoms such as anemia, leukocytosis and/or cytopenia; associated with poor prognosis. To uncover tumor-mediated hematopoietic abnormalities and identify novel targets that can be harnessed to improve tumor-specific immune responses, we investigated the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartment in melanoma bearing mice. We show that melanoma growth results in expansion of myeloid lineages such as MDSCs, macrophages and DCs along with a reduction in mature RBCs and platelets. Mature B lymphocytes in the blood and BM of melanoma mice were also reduced. Mice bearing melanoma showed extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Increased expansion of myeloid lineages occurred directly at the level of stem and progenitor cells. The reduction in mature B lymphocytes resulted from a block at the Pro-B cell stage in the bone marrow. Addition of recombinant IL-3 to bone marrow cells resulted in the expansion of committed myeloid progenitors including common myeloid precursors, granulocyte-monocyte precursors and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte precursors. In vivo , IL-3 receptor stimulation in melanoma bearing mice using an IL-3 antibody also resulted in a robust expansion of committed myeloid progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells. Collectively our findings demonstrate that tumor growth plays a pivotal role in reprogramming the host immune system by impacting hematopoiesis directly at the level of stem cell compartment.

  2. Clinical characteristics of lung abscess in children: 15-year experience at two university hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi Suk; Chun, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyung Suk; Rha, Yeong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Information on the clinical features of lung abscess, which is uncommon in children, at hospitalizationis helpful to anticipate the disease course and management. There is no report concerning lung abscess in Korean children. We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of pediatric lung abscess and compare the difference between primary and secondary abscess groups. Methods The medical records of 11 lung abscess patients (7 males and 4 females) from March 1998 to August 2011 at two university hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics, symptoms, underlying disease, laboratory and radiologic findings, microbiological results, and treatments were examined. Results Six patients had underlying structural-related problems (e.g., skeletal anomalies). No immunologic or hematologic problem was recorded. The mean ages of the primary and secondary groups were 2.4 and 5.3 years, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean length of hospital stay was similar in both groups (22.8 days vs. 21.4 days). Immunologic studies were performed in 3 patients; the results were within the normal range. Most patients had prominent leukocytosis. Seven and 4 patients had right and left lung abscess, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and antimycoplasma antibodies were detected in both groups. Two patients with primary lung abscess were administered antibiotics in the absence of other procedures, while 8 underwent interventional procedures, including 5 with secondary abscess. Conclusion The most common symptoms were fever and cough. All patients in the primary group were younger than 3 years. Structural problems were dominant. Most patients required interventional procedures and antibiotics. PMID:26770223

  3. Clinical characteristics of lung abscess in children: 15-year experience at two university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi Suk; Chun, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyung Suk; Rha, Yeong Ho; Choi, Sun Hee

    2015-12-01

    Information on the clinical features of lung abscess, which is uncommon in children, at hospitalizationis helpful to anticipate the disease course and management. There is no report concerning lung abscess in Korean children. We aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of pediatric lung abscess and compare the difference between primary and secondary abscess groups. The medical records of 11 lung abscess patients (7 males and 4 females) from March 1998 to August 2011 at two university hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical characteristics, symptoms, underlying disease, laboratory and radiologic findings, microbiological results, and treatments were examined. Six patients had underlying structural-related problems (e.g., skeletal anomalies). No immunologic or hematologic problem was recorded. The mean ages of the primary and secondary groups were 2.4 and 5.3 years, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean length of hospital stay was similar in both groups (22.8 days vs. 21.4 days). Immunologic studies were performed in 3 patients; the results were within the normal range. Most patients had prominent leukocytosis. Seven and 4 patients had right and left lung abscess, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and antimycoplasma antibodies were detected in both groups. Two patients with primary lung abscess were administered antibiotics in the absence of other procedures, while 8 underwent interventional procedures, including 5 with secondary abscess. The most common symptoms were fever and cough. All patients in the primary group were younger than 3 years. Structural problems were dominant. Most patients required interventional procedures and antibiotics.

  4. Systemic lupus erythematosus pancreatitis: an uncommon presentation of a common disease.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A; Sussman, Daniel A; Rodriguez, Vanessa R

    2014-11-17

    Acute pancreatitis is uncommon in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). When recognized early and properly treated with IV steroids and hydration, the course may be benign, as exemplified in the following report. A 21-year-old woman with history of SLE and stage IV lupus nephritis, was admitted to the Sergio Bernales Hospital ICU (Lima, Peru), complaining of worsening epigastric pain radiating to the back, and nausea and vomiting for 1 week. She denied prior cholelithiasis, alcohol use, or recent medication changes. On examination, she was tachycardic and normotensive, with a slightly distended abdomen and epigastric tenderness on deep palpation, without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory results demonstrated leukocytosis without left shift, creatinine of 2.26 mg/dL, amylase of 750 U/L, and lipase of 1038 U/L. Liver chemistries, calcium, lactic acid, triglycerides, and IgG4 were normal and alcohol level was undetectable. Ultrasound did not show cholelithiasis, biliary sludge, or common bile duct dilation. CT of the abdomen showed pancreas head (parenchyma) stranding with uniform enhancement consistent with interstitial pancreatitis. Despite receiving IV fluids, opiates, anti-emetics, and nothing by mouth, her clinical condition deteriorated, prompting the use of IV methylprednisolone. After completing 1 week of IV steroids, she was transferred to the medical floor clinically improved. The patient was discharged with an oral steroid taper and complete resolution of symptoms. After ruling out common causes, such as hepatobiliary pathology or toxin-related insults like alcohol, hypercalcemia, hypertriglyceridemia or medications, steroids may be used in SLE pancreatitis because they might improve the overall prognosis.

  5. Selenium Pretreatment for Mitigation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Cardiovascular Surgery: Influence on Acute Organ Damage and Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Bilgic, Esra; Pinto, Antonio; Engels, Melanie; Wollschläger, Lena; Döhrn, Laura; Kellermann, Kristine; Boeken, Udo; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Multi-organ damage is associated with substantial decreases of blood selenium (Se) levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. We compared the influence of a dietary surplus of Se and pretreatment with ebselen, a mimic of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, on IRI-induced tissue damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed either a Se-adequate diet containing 0.3 ppm Se or supplemented with 1 ppm Se (as sodium selenite) for 5 weeks. Two other groups of Se-adequate rats received intraperitoneal injection of ebselen (30 mg/kg) or DMSO (solvent control) before surgery. The animals were connected to a heart-lung-machine and underwent 45 min of global ischemia during circulatory arrest at 16 °C, followed by re-warming and reperfusion. Selenite and ebselen suppressed IRI-induced leukocytosis and the increase in plasma levels of tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, LDH, troponin) during surgery but did not prevent the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). Both Se compounds affected phosphorylation and expression of proteins related to stress response and inflammation: Ebselen increased phosphorylation of STAT3 transcription factor in the heart and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in the lungs. Selenite decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HSP-70 expression in the heart. Pretreatment with selenite or ebselen protected against acute IRI-induced tissue damage during CPB and DHCA. Potential implications of their different actions with regard to molecular stress markers on the recovery after surgery represent promising targets for further investigation.

  6. Experimental infection in Cavia porcellus by infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain).

    PubMed

    Brustolin, Joice Magali; da Silva Krawczak, Felipe; Alves, Marta Elena Machado; Weiller, Maria Amélia; de Souza, Camila Lopes; Rosa, Fábio Brum; Cadore, Gustavo Cauduro; Dos Anjos Lopes, Sônia Terezinha; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2018-03-01

    This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests. For histopathological analysis and rickettsial DNA detection, fragments of the spleen, lung, brain, and liver were harvested after euthanasia. The average feeding period for nymphs was 6.6 days for G1 and 6 days for G2. Hemolymph and PCR assays, performed to detect the causative agent in ticks, indicated that in G1, all ticks were negative, and in G2, all nymphs were positive by PCR and 80% (8/10) was positive by hemolymph tests. The only clinical change was skin scarring at the tick attachment site. Hematological parameters indicated leukopenia and total plasma protein (TPP) increased with decreased platelets in G1. In G2, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, an increase in platelets, and reduced TPP were observed. Only G2 guinea pigs were seroconverted (80%; 8/10). Histopathology tests indicated mild, diffuse hemosiderosis and mild, multifocal, follicular hyperplasia in the spleen. Molecular analysis did not detect Rickettsia sp. DNA in C. porcellus tissues. We demonstrated the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain) to guinea pigs.

  7. Clinico-hematological and micronuclear changes induced by cypermethrin in broiler chicks: Their attenuation with vitamin E and selenium.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Summaira; Khan, Ahrar; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Aslam, Faiza; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Mahmood, Fazal

    2010-07-01

    This study was carried out on 90 one-day-old broiler chicks to know clinico-hematological alterations, DNA damage caused by cypermethrin (CY), and attenuation of toxic effects by vitamin E (Vit E) and selenium (Se). Birds were randomly divided into five equal groups. Groups 1-4 received CY (600mlkg(-1)b.wt) daily for 30 days by crop tubing. In addition to CY, groups 2, 3 and 4 received Vit E (150mgkg(-1)b.wt), Se (0.25mgkg(-1)b.wt), and Vit E (150mgkg(-1)b.wt)+Se (0.25mgkg(-1)b.wt), respectively. Group 5 served as control. Birds were monitored twice daily for clinical signs. They were weighed and blood samples were collected at experimental days 10, 20 and 30 for hematological studies. CY-treated birds showed more prominent signs of toxicity compared to CY+Vit E, CY+Se and CY+Vit E+Se birds. Body weight in groups 1-3 was significantly (P<0.05) smaller at days 20 and 30 when compared with the control group. Significantly (P<0.001) higher numbers of micronuclei appeared in chicks treated with CY compared to CY+Vit E- and CY+Se-treated birds. Significantly decreased total erythrocyte counts (TEC), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) in all treated groups were recorded. Treated birds suffered from macrocytic hypochromic anemia. Leukocytosis in early stage and later leucopenia was seen in treated birds. It can be concluded that CY induces toxic effects in broilers chicks; however, these toxic effects can be ameliorated by Vit E or Se. Combination of Vit E and Se was more effective to ameliorate toxic effects of cypermethrin.

  8. Timing and Predictors of Fever and Infection after Craniotomy for Epilepsy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Phung, Jennifer; Mathern, Gary W.; Krogstad, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Fevers and leukocytosis after pediatric craniotomy trigger diagnostic evaluation and antimicrobial therapy for possible brain infection. This study determined the incidence and predictors of infection in infants and children undergoing epilepsy neurosurgery. Methods We reviewed the postoperative course of 100 consecutive surgeries for pediatric epilepsy, comparing those with and without infections for clinical variables and daily maximum temperatures, blood WBC and differential, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies. Results Infections were the most common adverse events following these surgeries. Four patients (4%) had CSF infections and 12 had non-CSF infections (including one with distinct CSF and bloodstream infections). Most (88%) infections occurred before postoperative day 12 and were associated with larger resections involving ventriculostomies. Fevers (T ≥38.5°C) were observed in the first 12-days postsurgery in 43 % of cases, and were associated with patients undergoing hemispherectomy and multilobar resections. Fevers in the first three days postsurgery identified infections with 73% sensitivity, 69% specificity, and 70% accuracy; two (13%) patients with infections never developed fevers. Peripheral blood WBC >15,000 was found in 49% of patients and 5 cases of infections never had elevated WBC counts. WBC differential, CSF protein, RBC, WBC, and RBC/WBC ratios were poor predictors of infections. Longer hospital stays were associated with infections and hemispherectomy and multilobar resections. Patients with and without infections were equally likely to be seizure free after surgery. Conclusions Fevers and elevated blood WBC counts were common after pediatric epilepsy surgery, but CSF infections were uncommon. Positive cultures and other confirmatory microbiologic tests should drive changes in antimicrobial therapy after surgery. PMID:23348815

  9. Pseudomonas mendocina native valve infective endocarditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rapsinski, Glenn J; Makadia, Jina; Bhanot, Nitin; Min, Zaw

    2016-10-04

    Gram-negative microorganisms are uncommon pathogens responsible for infective endocarditis. Pseudomonas mendocina, a Gram-negative water-borne and soil-borne bacterium, was first reported to cause human infection in 1992. Since then, it has rarely been reported as a human pathogen in the literature. We describe the first case of native valve infective endocarditis due to P. mendocina in the USA. A 57-year-old white man presented with bilateral large leg ulcers, fever, and marked leukocytosis. His past medical history included gout and chronic alcohol use. P. mendocina was isolated from his blood cultures. A comprehensive review of P. mendocina infection in the literature was performed. A total of eight cases of P. mendocina infection were reported in the literature. More than two-thirds of the cases of P. mendocina septicemia were associated with native valve infective endocarditis. Thus, an echocardiogram was performed and demonstrated mitral valve endocarditis with mild mitral insufficiency. His leg wounds were debrided and were probably the source of P. mendocina bacteremia. Unlike Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. mendocina is susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. Our patient received a 6-week course of antimicrobial therapy with a favorable clinical outcome. Our reported case and literature review illuminates a rare bacterial cause of infective endocarditis secondary to P. mendocina pathogen. Native cardiac valves were affected in all reported cases of infective endocarditis, and a majority of affected heart valves were left-sided. The antibiotics active against P. mendocina are different from those that are active against P. aeruginosa, and they notably include third-generation cephalosporins. The outcome of all reported cases of P. mendocina was favorable and no mortality was described.

  10. [Satisfactory evolution of a patient diagnosed in childhood with Bruton's disease].

    PubMed

    Román Jiménez, María Guadalupe; Yamazaki Nakashimada, Marco Antonio; Blancas Galicia, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Bruton's agammaglobulinemia is a primary immunodeficiency with a disease onset during the first months of age, when the maternal serum immunoglobulin levels decrease. It is characterized by recurrent infections and agammaglobulinemia. We report the case of a 6-year-old male patient with third-degree consanguinity, product of a third pregnancy and complete immunization scheme. He had a history of oral candidiasis at the age of 3 months, chicken pox at the age of 7 months, and two episodes of complicated bronchopneumonia at the age of 1 year and 6 years. He was admitted to the hospital because of fever and cough. Examination of the chest showed rales and right basilar hypoventilation, and a blood cell count revealed leukocytosis and neutrophilia. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made. He was treated with IV antibiotics. Serum immunoglobulins were reported to be low (IgM 55 mg/dL, IgA 0.9 mg/dL, and IgG 199 mg/dL). With these findings the clinical diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (ALX) was concluded. A molecular test was performed fining a BTK gene confirming the diagnosis of Bruton's disease. Therapy with intravenous IgG was started every 21 days. During his evolution, he presented three episodes of rhinosinusitis, one of suppurative otitis media, and four events of pneumonia that required 37 days of hospitalization. After hospital discharge, the patient was free of infections and he returned to his daily activities. In cases of recurrent and severe respiratory infections in children, we must consider primary immunodeficiency disease in the differential diagnosis, mainly antibiotic deficiency. Early diagnosis and treatment improves the survival and quality of life in these patients.

  11. [Comparative diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV positive patients].

    PubMed

    Horo, K; Koné, A; Koffi, M-O; Ahui, J M B; Brou-Godé, C V; Kouassi, A B; N'Gom, A; Koffi, N G; Aka-Danguy, E

    2016-01-01

    Immunodepression induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modifies the clinical, radiological and microbiological manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis; leading to similarities between pulmonary tuberculosis and acute community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. A consequence is the high proportion of discordant pre- and post-mortem diagnoses of pneumonia. The aim of our study was to contribute to the improvement in the diagnosis of acute bacterial pneumonia in HIV positive patients in areas where tuberculosis is endemic. This retrospective study in HIV positive patients has compared 94 cases of positive smear cases pulmonary tuberculosis and 78 cases of acute community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Using logistic regression, the following features were positively associated with bacterial pneumonia: the sudden onset of signs (OR=8.48 [CI 95% 2.50-28.74]), a delay in the evolution of symptoms of less than 15 days (OR=3.70 [CI 95% 1.11-12.35]), chest pain (OR=2.81 [CI 95% 1.10-7.18]), radiological alveolar shadowing (OR=12.98 [CI 95% 4.66-36.12) and high leukocytosis (OR=3.52 [CI 95% 1.19-10.44]). These five variables allowed us to establish a diagnostic score for bacterial pneumonia ranging from 0 to 5. The area under the ROC curve was 0.886 [CI 95% 0.84-0.94, P<0.001]). Its specificity was >96.8% for a score of greater than or equal to 4. The diagnostic score for acute community-acquired pneumonia may improve the management of bacterial pneumonia in areas where tuberculosis is endemic. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Anne Lenore; Parameshwar, Pooja S; Anger, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    We reviewed the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, treatment options and outcomes of prostatic abscess in the post-antibiotic era, focusing on how patient risk factors and the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms influence management of the condition. A MEDLINE search for "prostate abscess" or "prostatic abscess" was carried out. Prostate abscess is no longer considered a consequence of untreated urinary infection; now, men with prostatic abscess are typically debilitated or immunologically compromised, with >50% of patients having diabetes. In younger men, prostatic abscess can be the initial presentation of such chronic conditions. In older men, prostatic abscess is increasingly a complication of benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate biopsy. Diagnosis is based on a physical examination, leukocytosis, leukocyturia and transrectal ultrasound, with magnetic resonance imaging serving as the preferred confirmatory imaging modality. Treatment of prostatic abscess is changing as a result of the emergence of atypical and drug-resistant organisms, such as extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. As many as 75% of infections are resistant to first-generation antibiotics, necessitating aggressive therapy with broad-spectrum parenteral antibiotics, such as third-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam or antibiotic combinations. A total of 80% of patients require early surgical drainage, frequently through a transurethral approach. In the post-antibiotic era, prostatic abscess is evolving from an uncommon complication of urinary infection to a consequence of immunodeficiency, growing antibiotic resistance and urological manipulation. This condition, primarily affecting patients with chronic medical conditions rendering them susceptible to atypical, drug-resistant organisms, requires prompt aggressive intervention with contemporary antibiotic therapy and surgical drainage. © 2017 The Japanese

  13. Trauma-related Infections in Battlefield Casualties From Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kyle; Riddle, Mark S.; Danko, Janine R.; Blazes, David L.; Hayden, Richard; Tasker, Sybil A.; Dunne, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe risks for, and microbiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of, war trauma associated infections from Operation Iraqi Freedom. Background: The invasion of Iraq resulted in casualties from high-velocity gunshot, shrapnel, and blunt trauma injuries as well as burns. Infectious complications of these unique war trauma injuries have not been described since the 1970s. Methods: Retrospective record review of all trauma casualties 5 to 65 years of age evacuated from the Iraqi theatre to U.S. Navy hospital ship, USNS Comfort March to May 2003.War trauma-associated infection was defined by positive culture from a wound or sterile body fluid (ie, blood, cerebrospinal fluid) and at least two of the following infection-associated signs/symptoms: fever, dehiscence, foul smell, peri-wound erythema, hypotension, and leukocytosis. A comparison of mechanisms of injury, demographics, and clinical variables was done using multivariate analysis. Results: Of 211 patients, 56 met criteria for infection. Infections were more common in blast injuries, soft tissue injuries, >3 wound sites, loss of limb, abdominal trauma, and higher Injury Severity Score (ISS). Wound infections accounted for 84% of cases, followed by bloodstream infections (38%). Infected were more likely to have had fever prior to arrival, and had higher probability of ICU admission and more surgical procedures. Acinetobacter species (36%) were the predominant organisms followed by Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas species (14% each). Conclusions: Similar to the Vietnam War experience, gram-negative rods, particularly Acinetobacter species, accounted for the majority of wound infections cared for on USNS Comfort during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Multidrug resistance was common, with the exception of the carbapenem class, limiting antibiotic therapy options. PMID:17457175

  14. Gram-negative diabetic foot osteomyelitis: risk factors and clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose L

    2013-03-01

    Osteomyelitis frequently complicates infections in the feet of patients with diabetes. Gram-positive cocci, especially Staphylococcus aureus, are the most commonly isolated pathogens, but gram-negative bacteria also cause some cases of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO). These gram-negatives require different antibiotic regimens than those commonly directed at gram-positives. There are, however, few data on factors related to their presence and how they influence the clinical picture. We conducted a retrospective study to determine the variables associated with the isolation of gram-negative bacteria from bone samples in cases of DFO and the clinical presentation of these infections. Among 341 cases of DFO, 150 had a gram-negative isolate (alone or combined with a gram-positive isolate) comprising 44.0% of all patients and 50.8% of those with a positive bone culture. Compared with gram-positive infections, wounds with gram-negative organisms more often had a fetid odor, necrotic tissue, signs of soft tissue infection accompanying osteomyelitis, and clinically severe infection. By multivariate analysis, the predictive variables related to an increased likelihood of isolating gram-negatives from bone samples were glycated hemoglobin <7% (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.5) and a wound caused by traumatic injury (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0-3.9). Overall, patients whose bone samples contained gram-negatives had a statistically significantly higher prevalence of leukocytosis and higher white blood cell counts than those without gram-negatives. In conclusion, gram-negative organisms were isolated in nearly half of our cases of DFO and were associated with more severe infections, higher white blood cell counts, lower glycated hemoglobin levels, and wounds of traumatic etiology.

  15. Actinomyces-Related Tubo-Ovarian Abscess in a Poorly Controlled Type II Diabetic With a Copper Intrauterine Device.

    PubMed

    Sawtelle, Ashley L; Chappell, Nicole P; Miller, Caela R

    2017-03-01

    The historic association of Actinomyces israelii infection with intrauterine devices (IUDs) has long been recognized. In recent years, the risk of developing pelvic inflammatory disease with a copper or levonorgestrel IUD has been less than 1% in women who are low risk for sexually transmitted infections. IUD-related pelvic infections secondary to actinomyces have largely vanished from contemporary practice. A 49-year-old using a copper IUD for contraception with poorly controlled type II diabetes mellitus was admitted for suspected tubo-ovarian abscess on the basis of abdominopelvic pain, leukocytosis, and computed tomography findings. After she was treated with intravenous and outpatient antibiotics with clinical improvement, repeat imaging 1 month later revealed a persistent complex left adnexal mass. Tumor markers were negative but given the persistence and complex nature of the mass, surgical management was recommended. A robotic-assisted hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Adhesiolysis, profuse irrigation, and ureteral stenting were required. Pathology revealed bilateral tubo-ovarian abscesses with actinomyces species identified on intraoperative culture. The patient had a total of 10 days of postoperative antibiotics and improved glucose control with no further signs of infection. Although actinomyces-related IUD PID is considered an outdated diagnosis, there are intermittent case reports of bizarre presentations in older women, often mimicking malignancy. Actinomyces should be a consideration in tubo-ovarian abscesses or pelvic inflammatory disease in patients with an IUD in place, particularly those who have poor glucose control or are otherwise immunosuppressed. Early identification and treatment of actinomyces tubo-ovarian abscesses may reduce surgical morbidity and overall improve patient outcomes and safety. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Binary toxin and its clinical importance in Clostridium difficile infection, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Pilate, T; Verhaegen, J; Van Ranst, M; Saegeman, V

    2016-11-01

    Binary toxin-producing Clostridium difficile strains such as ribotypes 027 and 078 have been associated with increased Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) severity. Our objective was to investigate the association between presence of the binary toxin gene and CDI severity and recurrence. We performed a laboratory-based retrospective study including patients between January 2013 and March 2015 whose fecal samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of the genes for toxin B and binary toxin and a deletion in the tcdC gene, specific for ribotype 027. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were compared between 33 binary toxin-positive CDI patients and 33 binary toxin-negative CDI patients. Subsequently, the characteristics of 66 CDI patients were compared to those of 66 diarrhea patients who were carriers of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains. Fifty-nine of 1034 (5.7 %) fecal samples analyzed by PCR were binary toxin-positive, belonging to 33 different patients. No samples were positive for ribotype 027. Binary toxin-positive CDI patients did not differ from binary toxin-negative CDI patients in terms of disease recurrence, morbidity, or mortality, except for a higher peripheral leukocytosis in the binary toxin-positive group (16.30 × 10 9 /L vs. 11.65 × 10 9 /L; p = 0.02). The second part of our study showed that CDI patients had more severe disease, but not a higher 30-day mortality rate than diarrhea patients with a non-toxicogenic C. difficile strain. In our setting with a low prevalence of ribotype 027, the presence of the binary toxin gene is not associated with poor outcome.

  17. Probable fenofibrate-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Power, Anna E; Graudins, Linda V; McLean, Catriona A; Hopper, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    The case of a patient who experienced a severe adverse reaction requiring emergency treatment after a single dose of fenofibrate is described. A 58-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes was hospitalized for treatment of an extensive blistering rash on the buttocks and trunk accompanied by fever, hypotension, tachycardia, neutrophilia, impaired renal function, and liver enzyme abnormalities. She reported that two days previously she had developed fever and vomiting four hours after taking her first dose of fenofibrate (145 mg). The patient required vasopressor support and was initially treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 3 days and a course of immune globulin. On hospital day 4, histopathology returned results consistent with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and the patient was subsequently treated with topical steroids. Gradual resolution of AGEP was noted at the time of her discharge from the hospital on day 7 and at one-week follow-up. Analysis of the case using the adverse drug reaction probability scale of Naranjo et al. yielded a score of 5, indicating a probable association between fenofibrate use and AGEP development. AGEP is a predominantly drug-induced condition but is not typically associated with fenofibrate use. Cutaneous eruptions in AGEP are often accompanied by systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, leukocytosis), and the disorder can also be associated with impaired creatinine clearance and elevated aminotransaminase levels. A woman with type 1 diabetes developed AGEP after taking a single dose of fenofibrate. Her cutaneous symptoms began to resolve within days of discontinuation of fenofibrate use. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ILEAL HERNIATION THROUGH THE FORAMEN OF WINSLOW: OVEREATING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR INTERNAL HERNIATION.

    PubMed

    Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Nikolić, Marko; Kruljac, Ivan; Marjan, Domagoj; Penavić, Ivan; Ljubicić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Internal hernias have an overall incidence of less than 1% and are difficult to diagnose clinically due to their nonspecific presentation. Most internal hernias present as strangulating closed-loop obstruction and delay in surgical intervention is responsible for a high mortality rate (49%). We present a case of ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. A 29-year-old previously healthy female presented with acute onset right upper quadrant pain, abdominal fullness, and nausea. The pain was sudden in onset and began shortly after a dinner party where she consumed larger portions of food. Laboratory investigations revealed mild leukocytosis with left shift. Dual-phase multi-detector computed tomography disclosed herniation of the small bowel into the lesser sac. The patient underwent an emergency median laparotomy that revealed ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. Adhesiolysis and manual reduction of the bowel was performed, and the reduced bowel showed only congestive changes. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Risk factors for internal herniation still remain unclear, although excessively mobile bowel loops and an enlarged foramen of Winslow have been described. Our case demonstrated that overeating could be an additional risk factor for internal herniation. We describe our clinical and radiology findings, as well as surgical management. Due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality, it is imperative that clinicians be aware of the possible risks factors for internal herniation. Internal hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction so that appropriate steps can be made in the work-up of these patients, followed by timely surgical intervention.

  19. Patient characteristics and outcomes in adolescents and young adults with classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Boddu, Prajwal; Masarova, Lucia; Verstovsek, Srdan; Strati, Paolo; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cortes, Jorge; Estrov, Zeev; Pierce, Sherry; Pemmaraju, Naveen

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the outcomes of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in adolescents and young adults (AYA). We reviewed all patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF) treated at our institution from 1988 to 2016 who were aged 16 to 39 years (AYA) and described their outcomes in comparison to older MPN population. Of 2206 patients, 185 (8.3%) were identified as AYA: 105 (57%) ET, 43 (23%) PV, and 37 (20%) MF. The median age was 33 years [range, 16-39], and median follow-up time 3 years [range, 0.04-25]. JAK2 allele burdens were significantly lower among AYA JAK2V617F-mutated patients in both PV (p = 0.001) and MF (p = 0.005). Seven percent of MPN AYA patients were diagnosed with a thrombotic event at, or prior to, diagnosis. Over the short median follow-up, 4 thrombotic (PV = 1, MF = 3) and 3 leukemia (ET = 2, MF = 1) events occurred. In multivariate analysis, AYA did not predict for thrombotic or transformational events across three cohorts. In the MF cohort, there was a reduced frequency of negative prognostic variables of anemia (p = 0.011) and leukocytosis (p = 0.048) in AYA when compared with non-AYA. Overall survival was significantly superior in the AYA cohorts in all three MPN groups, namely MF (p < 0.001), PV (p < 0.001), and ET (p = 0.002). Our findings suggest that MPN AYA patients exhibit an indolent clinical phenotype characterized by favorable survival outcomes.

  20. Detection and management of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bond, W S

    1984-01-01

    Two patients who developed the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) are described, and pertinent literature is reviewed. A 30-year-old man developed NMS, apparently as a result of haloperidol treatment of chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia. Treatment with cooling blankets, acetaminophen, dantrolene sodium, and bromocriptine mesylate decreased abnormal vital signs, but catatonia continued. After 30 treatments with electroconvulsive therapy over a one-month period, the patient's catatonia was resolved, and he was discharged on no medication with the schizophrenia in remission. The second patient was a 22-year-old woman who developed NMS after five weeks of therapy with haloperidol and thiothixene for an acute episode of abnormal behavior. She did not respond to therapy with cooling blankets, acetaminophen, antibiotics, and amobarbital sodium. Dantrolene sodium therapy produced no improvement except for some relief of muscular rigidity. Electroconvulsive therapy (22 treatments over one month) successfully decreased the patient's elevated liver enzymes and leukocyte count, but periodic temperature elevations and catatonia continued. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of NMS are essential, as the mortality rate is 20%. Acute lethal catatonia and malignant hyperthermia are considered in differential diagnosis. Both central and peripheral pathophysiologic mechanisms are probably involved in NMS, and most cases are seen in patients with psychiatric illness. Onset of NMS does not seem related to duration of neuroleptic therapy and, in susceptible persons, additional factors may be required to trigger onset of NMS. Symptoms, including diffuse muscular rigidity, akinesia, and fever, develop within 24-72 hours. Neurologic symptoms may develop or worsen, and leukocytosis and elevated levels of liver enzymes occur. Death can result from respiratory or cardiovascular failure, and rhabdomyolysis can lead to acute renal failure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. A retrospective study of 40 dogs with polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jacques, David; Cauzinille, Laurent; Bouvy, Bernard; Dupre, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings from dogs with polyarthritis (PA). Retrospective clinical study. Forty dogs. Medical records of 40 dogs with a diagnosis of PA were reviewed. Retrieved data included breed, age at admission, sex, weight, clinical signs, and the results of synovial fluid analysis, complete blood count, serum chemistry profile, urinalysis, serologic screening tests for infectious diseases, and radiographic examination of affected joints. The incidence of PA was 0.37%. Twenty-nine breeds were represented; 16 dogs were male, and 24 were female. Mean body weight was 20.1 +/- 15 kg. The mean age at admission was 5.6 +/- 4 years. Eighty percent of dogs with PA had difficulty or reluctance walking, 35% were lame, 33% had spontaneous vocalization without any obvious reason, 20% had exercise intolerance, 18% were febrile, and 7.5% had an inability to rise or move. Joint pain was identified in 40% of dogs. Synovial fluid color varied from colorless (36%) to yellow-tinged (36%) or hemorrhagic (28%). Synovial fluid mean cell count varied from 10 cells (400x) to 50 cells (1,000x). Leukocytosis occurred in 59% of the dogs and was more frequently identified in dogs with very severe synovial inflammation. Thirty-one percent of affected dogs were anemic. Serum biochemical profiles were considered abnormal in 13% of the dogs. Joint radiography did not identify erosive arthritis. PA is a common cause of locomotor abnormalities in dogs; however, true lameness and articular pain are not common clinical findings in dogs with PA. PA should be considered in the differential diagnosis for all dogs with difficulty walking. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  2. G-CSF Induces Membrane Expression of a Myeloperoxidase Glycovariant that Operates as an E-selectin Ligand on Human Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silvescu, Cristina I.; Sackstein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The host defense response critically depends on the production of leukocytes by the marrow and the controlled delivery of these cells to relevant sites of inflammation/infection. The cytokine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is commonly used therapeutically to augment neutrophil recovery following chemo/radiation therapy for malignancy, thereby decreasing infection risk. Although best known as a potent inducer of myelopoiesis, we previously reported that G-CSF also promotes the delivery of leukocytes to sites of inflammation by stimulating expression of potent E-selectin ligands, including an uncharacterized ∼65-kDa glycoprotein. To identify this ligand, we performed integrated biochemical analysis and mass spectrometry studies of G-CSF–treated primary human myeloid cells. Our studies show that this novel E-selectin ligand is a glycoform of the heavy chain component of the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), a well-known lysosomal peroxidase. This specialized MPO glycovariant, referred to as “MPO–E-selectin ligand” (MPO–EL), is expressed on circulating G-CSF–mobilized leukocytes and is naturally expressed on blood myeloid cells in patients with febrile leukocytosis. In vitro biochemical studies show that G-CSF programs MPO–EL expression on human blood leukocytes and marrow myeloid cells via induction of N-linked sialofucosylations on MPO, with concomitant cell surface display of the molecule. MPO–EL is catalytically active and mediates angiotoxicity on human endothelial cells that express E-selectin. These findings thus define a G-CSF effect on MPO chemical biology that endows unsuspected functional versatility upon this enzyme, unveiling new perspectives on the biology of G-CSF and MPO, and on the role of E-selectin receptor/ligand interactions in leukocyte migration and vascular pathology. PMID:25002508

  3. [PECULIARITIES OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN WITH NEUROLOGICAL PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Zubarenko, O; Kopiyka, G; Kravchenko, T; Koval, L; Gurienko, K

    2017-06-01

    Neurological disorders in children highly affect the course of pneumonia, its outcome and the development of possible complications. The aim of the study was to reveal clinical and paraclinical features of community-acquired pneumonia in younger children with neurologic pathology infantile cerebral palsy. Under observation were 37 children with community-acquired pneumonia aged 1 to 3 years that suffered from spastic forms of infantile cerebral palsy. The comparison group consisted of 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia without any concomitant neurological pathology. The age of the children in the comparison and study groups was the same. The results of the study show that the presence of infantile cerebral palsy allow to relate the child to the risk group of respiratory pathology development. The course of community-acquired pneumonia in children affected by infantile cerebral palsy is characterized by rapid progression of symptoms and severity of the condition, and the clinical picture also has a number of characteristic features. Thus, cough, local physical data, classical laboratory signs of inflammation in the form of leukocytosis with neutrophil shift were noticed significantly less often in children with infantile cerebral palsy. The debut of the disease was often accompanied by bronchial obstruction, the inflammatory process was localized in the lower parts of the lungs and often matched the side of the neurologically affected part of the body. Children with cerebral palsy required a longer hospital-stay and a prolonged course of antibiotic therapy. Therefore, the risk of pneumonia in children with infantile cerebral palsy should be taken into account at the primary stage of medical care for the creation of preventive programs.

  4. Risk factors of occult malignancy in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Robin, Philippe; Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Tromeur, Cécile; Planquette, Benjamin; Prévot-Bitot, Nathalie; Lavigne, Christian; Pastre, Jean; Merah, Adel; Couturaud, Francis; Le Gal, Grégoire; Salaun, Pierre-Yves

    2017-11-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can occur as the first manifestation of an underlying occult malignancy. It remains unclear whether or not a better selection of high risk patients might lead to more efficient occult cancer screening strategies. Our aim was to assess the predictors of occult malignancy diagnosis in patients with unprovoked VTE. Univariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of candidate predictors on occult cancer detection in patients enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled study (MVTEP study) whose primary aim was to compare a limited screening strategy with a strategy combining limited screening and FDG PET/CT in patients with unprovoked VTE. This trial is completed and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00964275. Between March 3, 2009, and August 18, 2012, 399 patients were included. Five patients withdrew consent and refused the use of their data, and no VTE was confirmed in 2 patients who were excluded from this analysis. A total of 25 (6.4%) out of the 392 analysed patients received a new diagnosis of malignancyduring the 2-years follow-up. Age≥50years (p=0.01), male gender (p=0.04), leukocytes count (p=0.01), and platelets count (p=0.03) were associated with occult cancer detection. Patients with leukocytosis or thrombocytosis had a risk of cancer way above 10%. Previous VTE and smoker status (combining previous and current smokers) were not associated with occult cancer diagnosis (p>0.05). Demographic characteristics (age and sex), and laboratory tests (high platelets and leukocytes counts) may be associated with cancer detection in patients withunprovoked VTE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biocompatibility and tissue interactions of a new filler material for medical use.

    PubMed

    Zarini, Elena; Supino, Rosanna; Pratesi, Graziella; Laccabue, Diletta; Tortoreto, Monica; Scanziani, Eugenio; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Tunesi, Gianfranco; Nava, Maurizio

    2004-09-15

    Filler materials for medical use present limits, such as the induction of chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In the search for synthetic materials with improved biocompatible properties, a new polyacrylamide hydrogel, Aquamid (Contura SA, Montreux, Switzerland), has been investigated in preclinical systems. In cell cultures (endothelial cells and fibroblast), no or only transient biological effects were associated with 10% Aquamid exposure. The Aquamid-host interactions were examined in mice (10 mice per group) implanted subcutaneously or in the mammary fat pad with a very large volume (1.5 ml) of the material. Blood analysis, performed after 15 and 94 days (five mice per time for each group) to detect acute or late manifestations of toxicity, did not reveal relevant abnormalities in either group of Aquamid-bearing mice compared with control mice, except for a transient thrombocytopenia and a mild leukocytosis. Histological analysis of the pellet showed the presence of a thin, poorly vascularized cyst wall in implants. Only mild mesenchymal reparative and inflammatory processes were observed, even at longer observation times (more than 400 days). No alterations in any organ were detected. Despite the large volume implanted (approximately 5 percent of mouse body weight), the Aquamid pellet maintained its original size and shape without spreading or sticking to surrounding tissues. In conclusion, the study indicated a good tolerability of the new biopolymer in preclinical systems. The clinical utility of this new compound, if confirmed by clinical randomized trials showing its atoxic properties, could be in the field of aesthetic plastic surgery as a filler material for body contouring and in reconstructive surgery and above all in cancer patients to restore surgical defects.

  6. Risk factors for fatal candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Yang, Yun-Liang; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Lin, Chin-Yu; Liu, Jih-Shin; Tang, Ran-Bin; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Fan, Yu-Hua; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Ho, Monto; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40%) but also extends the length of hospital stay and increases the costs of medical care. Sepsis caused by Candida species is clinically indistinguishable from bacterial infections. Although, the clinical presentations of the patients with candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NAC) are indistinguishable, the susceptibilities to antifungal agents of these species are different. In this study, we attempted to identify the risk factors for candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC in the hope that this may guide initial empiric therapy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted during 1996 to 1999 at the Veterans General Hospital-Taipei. Results There were 130 fatal cases of candidemia, including 68 patients with C. albicans and 62 with NAC. Candidemia was the most likely cause of death in 55 of the 130 patients (42.3 %). There was no significant difference in the distribution of Candida species between those died of candidemia and those died of underlying conditions. Patients who had one of the following conditions were more likely to have C. albicans, age ≧ 65 years, immunosuppression accounted to prior use of steroids, leukocytosis, in the intensive care unit (ICU), and intravascular and urinary catheters. Patients who had undergone cancer chemotherapy often appeared less critically ill and were more likely to have NAC. Conclusion Clinical and epidemiological differences in the risk factors between candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC may provide helpful clues to initiate empiric therapy for patients infected with C. albicans versus NAC. PMID:15813977

  7. Recommendations of the SFH (French Society of Haematology) for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Edouard; Delmer, Alain; Feugier, Pierre; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Ghez, David; Leblond, Véronique; Levy, Vincent; Maloisel, Frédéric; Re, Daniel; Zini, Jean-Marc; Troussard, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a rare haematological malignancy, with approximately 175 new incident cases in France. Diagnosis is based on a careful examination of the blood smear and immunophenotyping of the tumour cells, with a panel of four markers being used specifically to screen for hairy cells (CD11c, CD25, CD103 and CD123). In 2011, the V600E mutation of the BRAF gene in exon 15 was identified in HCL; being present in HCL, it is absent in the variant form of HCL (HCL-v) and in splenic red pulp lymphoma (SRPL), two entities related to HCL. The management of patients with HCL has changed in recent years. A poorer response to purine nucleoside analogues (PNAs) is observed in patients with more marked leukocytosis, bulky splenomegaly, an unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy chain (IgVH) gene profile, use of VH4-34 or with TP53 mutations. We present the recommendations of a group of 11 experts belonging to a number of French hospitals. This group met in November 2013 to examine the criteria for managing patients with HCL. The ideas and proposals of the group are based on a critical analysis of the recommendations already published in the literature and on an analysis of the practices of clinical haematology departments with experience in managing these patients. The first-line treatment uses purine analogues: cladribine or pentostatin. The role of BRAF inhibitors, whether or not combined with MEK inhibitors, is discussed. The panel of French experts proposed recommendations to manage patients with HCL, which can be used in a daily practice.

  8. Pneumonia risks in bedridden patients receiving oral care and their screening tool: Malnutrition and urinary tract infection-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Matsusaka, Kaoru; Kawakami, Genichiro; Kamekawa, Hatsumi; Momma, Haruki; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Itoh, Jun; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2018-05-01

    Pneumonia develops in bedridden patients even when they are receiving oral care. However, the pneumonia risk in bedridden patients remains unclear, and no screening tool has been developed to assess this risk by using daily hospital data. We retrospectively examined pneumonia risk factors by analyzing the records of 102 bedridden patients receiving oral care. Body mass index, peripheral blood hemoglobin, and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, total cholesterol and uric acid in the pneumonia group (n = 51; mean age 73.4 years) were lower than those in the non-pneumonia group (n = 51; mean age 68.1 years). In the univariate analysis, body mass index; leukocytosis; high C-reactive protein; low levels of hemoglobin, total protein and albumin (<3.5 g/dL); and urine bacteria were associated with the development of pneumonia. Furthermore, in the multivariate analysis, low levels of albumin and urine bacteria were independently associated with pneumonia. We developed a bedridden patient pneumonia risk (BPPR) score using these two risk factors to assess pneumonia risk. We applied scores of zero (0) or one (1) according to the absence or presence of the two risk factors and summed the scores in each patient. The proportion of pneumonia patients increased with increasing BPPR score when the patients were divided into three groups - low, moderate and high risk - according to the BPPR score (0, 1 or 2, respectively). Malnutrition, urinary tract infection-induced inflammation and anemia were associated with pneumonia in bedridden patients. BPPR scoring might be useful for assessing pneumonia risk and managing affected patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 714-722. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. A 7-Gene Signature Depicts the Biochemical Profile of Early Prefibrotic Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Skov, Vibe; Burton, Mark; Thomassen, Mads; Stauffer Larsen, Thomas; Riley, Caroline H.; Brinch Madelung, Ann; Kjær, Lasse; Bondo, Henrik; Stamp, Inger; Ehinger, Mats; Dahl-Sørensen, Rasmus; Brochmann, Nana; Nielsen, Karsten; Thiele, Jürgen; Jensen, Morten K.; Weis Bjerrum, Ole; Kruse, Torben A.; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that a large proportion of patients classified as essential thrombocythemia (ET) actually have early primary prefibrotic myelofibrosis (prePMF), which implies an inferior prognosis as compared to patients being diagnosed with so-called genuine or true ET. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 classification, bone marrow histology is a major component in the distinction between these disease entities. However, the differential diagnosis between them may be challenging and several studies have not been able to distinguish between them. Most lately, it has been argued that simple blood tests, including the leukocyte count and plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) may be useful tools to separate genuine ET from prePMF, the latter disease entity more often being featured by anemia, leukocytosis and elevated LDH. Whole blood gene expression profiling was performed in 17 and 9 patients diagnosed with ET and PMF, respectively. Using elevated LDH obtained at the time of diagnosis as a marker of prePMF, a 7-gene signature was identified which correctly predicted the prePMF group with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 89%. The 7 genes included MPO, CEACAM8, CRISP3, MS4A3, CEACAM6, HEMGN, and MMP8, which are genes known to be involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation. Evaluation of bone marrow biopsies and the 7-gene signature showed a concordance rate of 71%, 79%, 62%, and 38%. Our 7-gene signature may be a useful tool to differentiate between genuine ET and prePMF but needs to be validated in a larger cohort of “ET” patients. PMID:27579896

  10. RESULTS OF YEAR-LONG RADIOPHOSPHORUS ADMINISTRATION IN POLYCYTHEMIA VERA (in German)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stecher, G.

    1961-10-01

    The results of treating 140 cases of polycythemia vera with P/sup 32/ over the last 9 yr are described. Oral doses of 4 to 5 mc P/sup 32/ or intravenous doses of 3 to 8 mc were given. Two-thirds of the patients experienced remission of the disease after the 1st P/sup 32/ dose, the remissions lasting 8 months or longer. The remainder of the patients required a 2nd dose. The average duration of remission was 20 months with over haif exceeding 1 yr. The mean dose to obtain remission was 4.4 mc/yr. The required dose was directly related to themore » degree of splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and duration of the disease. The higher the initial circulating erythrocyte count before P/sup 32/ treatment, the greater the drop after treatment. The average drop in erythrocyte count was 1.8, 2.4, and 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ after P/sup 32/ doses of 3-5, 5-7, and 7 mc, respectively. In cases with initial counts of 7.5 x 10/sup 6//cu mm the respective decrements in the counts were resulted in transitory anemia, leukopenia, or thrombopenia. Five patients died of leukemia but the infiuence of the P/sup 32/ dose, if any, on this complication could not be determined. Twenty other patients died from the complications of polycythemia, such as thrombosis and hemorrhage. The recommended single dose is 4-5 mc P/sup 32/, which should be repeated after 3 to 4 months if there is an inadequate response to the 1st dose. (H.H.D.)« less

  11. Genetic diminution of circulating prothrombin ameliorates multiorgan pathologies in sickle cell disease mice.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Paritha I; Mullins, Eric S; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Monia, Brett P; Loberg, Anastacia; Shaw, Maureen A; Rizvi, Tilat; Wansapura, Janaka; Degen, Jay L; Malik, Punam

    2015-10-08

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) results in vascular occlusions, chronic hemolytic anemia, and cumulative organ damage. A conspicuous feature of SCD is chronic inflammation and coagulation system activation. Thrombin (factor IIa [FIIa]) is both a central protease in hemostasis and a key modifier of inflammatory processes. To explore the hypothesis that reduced prothrombin (factor II [FII]) levels in SCD will limit vaso-occlusion, vasculopathy, and inflammation, we used 2 strategies to suppress FII in SCD mice. Weekly administration of FII antisense oligonucleotide "gapmer" to Berkeley SCD mice to selectively reduce circulating FII levels to ∼10% of normal for 15 weeks significantly diminished early mortality. More comprehensive, long-term comparative studies were done using mice with genetic diminution of circulating FII. Here, cohorts of FII(lox/-) mice (constitutively carrying ∼10% normal FII) and FII(WT) mice were tracked in parallel for a year following the imposition of SCD via hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This genetically imposed suppression of FII levels resulted in an impressive reduction in inflammation (reduction in leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and circulating interleukin-6 levels), reduced endothelial cell dysfunction (reduced endothelial activation and circulating soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule), and a significant improvement in SCD-associated end-organ damage (nephropathy, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary inflammation, liver function, inflammatory infiltration, and microinfarctions). Notably, all of these benefits were achieved with a relatively modest 1.25-fold increase in prothrombin times, and in the absence of hemorrhagic complications. Taken together, these data establish that prothrombin is a powerful modifier of SCD-induced end-organ damage, and present a novel therapeutic target to ameliorate SCD pathologies. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Black esophagus: Acute esophageal necrosis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E

    2010-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), commonly referred to as “black esophagus”, is a rare clinical entity arising from a combination of ischemic insult seen in hemodynamic compromise and low-flow states, corrosive injury from gastric contents in the setting of esophago-gastroparesis and gastric outlet obstruction, and decreased function of mucosal barrier systems and reparative mechanisms present in malnourished and debilitated physical states. AEN may arise in the setting of multiorgan dysfunction, hypoperfusion, vasculopathy, sepsis, diabetic ketoacidosis, alcohol intoxication, gastric volvulus, traumatic transection of the thoracic aorta, thromboembolic phenomena, and malignancy. Clinical presentation is remarkable for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Notable symptoms may include epigastric/abdominal pain, vomiting, dysphagia, fever, nausea, and syncope. Associated laboratory findings may reflect anemia and leukocytosis. The hallmark of this syndrome is the development of diffuse circumferential black mucosal discoloration in the distal esophagus that may extend proximally to involve variable length of the organ. Classic “black esophagus” abruptly stops at the gastroesophageal junction. Biopsy is recommended but not required for the diagnosis. Histologically, necrotic debris, absence of viable squamous epithelium, and necrosis of esophageal mucosa, with possible involvement of submucosa and muscularis propria, are present. Classification of the disease spectrum is best described by a staging system. Treatment is directed at correcting coexisting clinical conditions, restoring hemodynamic stability, nil-per-os restriction, supportive red blood cell transfusion, and intravenous acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Complications include perforation with mediastinal infection/abscess, esophageal stricture and stenosis, superinfection, and death. A high mortality of 32% seen in the setting of AEN syndrome is usually related to the underlying medical co

  13. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome associated with Hirschsprung's Disease: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Renata Lazari; Zaconeta, Carlos Moreno; Margotto, Paulo Roberto; Cardoso, Maria Teresinha de Oliveira; França, Evely Mirella Santos; Medina, Cristina Touguinha Neves; Canó, Talyta Matos; Faria, Aline Saliba de

    2016-09-01

    To report the case of a newborn with recurrent episodes of apnea, diagnosed with Congenital Central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) associated with Hirschsprung's disease (HD), configuring Haddad syndrome. Third child born at full-term to a non-consanguineous couple through normal delivery without complications, with appropriate weight and length for gestational age. Soon after birth he started to show bradypnea, bradycardia and cyanosis, being submitted to tracheal intubation and started empiric antibiotic therapy for suspected early neonatal sepsis. During hospitalization in the NICU, he showed difficulty to undergo extubation due to episodes of desaturation during sleep and wakefulness. He had recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, abdominal distension, leukocytosis, increase in C-reactive protein levels, with negative blood cultures and suspected inborn error of metabolism. At 2 months of age he was diagnosed with long-segment Hirschsprung's disease and was submitted to segment resection and colostomy through Hartmann's procedure. A genetic research was performed by polymerase chain reaction for CCHS screening, which showed the mutated allele of PHOX2B gene, confirming the diagnosis. This is a rare genetic, autosomal dominant disease, caused by mutation in PHOX2B gene, located in chromosome band 4p12, which results in autonomic nervous system dysfunction. CCHS can also occur with Hirschsprung's disease and tumors derived from the neural crest. There is a correlation between phenotype and genotype, as well as high intrafamilial phenotypic variability. In the neonatal period it can simulate cases of sepsis and inborn errors of metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. VAV1-Cre mediated hematopoietic deletion of CBL and CBL-B leads to JMML-like aggressive early-neonatal myeloproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    An, Wei; Mohapatra, Bhopal C.; Zutshi, Neha; Bielecki, Timothy A.; Goez, Benjamin T.; Luan, Haitao; Iseka, Fany; Mushtaq, Insha; Storck, Matthew D.; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    CBL and CBL-B ubiquitin ligases play key roles in hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and their aberrations are linked to leukemogenesis. Mutations of CBL, often genetically-inherited, are particularly common in Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML), a disease that manifests early in children. JMML is fatal unless corrected by bone marrow transplant, which is effective in only half of the recipients, stressing the need for animal models that recapitulate the key clinical features of this disease. However, mouse models established so far only develop hematological malignancy in adult animals. Here, using VAV1-Cre-induced conditional CBL/CBL-B double knockout (DKO) in mice, we established an animal model that exhibits a neonatal myeloproliferative disease (MPD). VAV1-Cre induced DKO mice developed a strong hematological phenotype at postnatal day 10, including severe leukocytosis and hepatomegaly, bone marrow cell hypersensitivity to cytokines including GM-CSF, and rapidly-progressive disease and invariable lethality. Interestingly, leukemic stem cells were most highly enriched in neonatal liver rather than bone marrow, which, along with the spleen and thymus, were hypo-cellular. Nonetheless, transplantation assays showed that both DKO bone marrow and liver cells can initiate leukemic disease in the recipient mice with seeding of both spleen and bone marrow. Together, our results support the usefulness of the new hematopoietic-specific CBL/CBL-B double KO animal model to study JMML-related pathogenesis and to further understand the function of CBL family proteins in regulating fetal and neonatal hematopoiesis. To our knowledge, this is the first mouse model that exhibits neonatal MPD in infancy, by day 10 of postnatal life. PMID:27449297

  15. LED therapy or cryotherapy between exercise intervals in Wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and ergogenic effects.

    PubMed

    da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Milanez, Vinícius Flávio; Corrêa, Julio Cesar Molina; de Andrade Alves, Rubens Igor; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test, between two bouts of exercise, the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy and cryotherapy regarding muscle damage, inflammation, and performance. Male Wistar rats were allocated in four groups: control, passive recovery (PR), cryotherapy (Cryo), and LED therapy. The animals were submitted to 45 min of swimming exercise followed by 25 min of recovery and then a second bout of either 45 min of exercise (muscle damage analysis) or time to exhaustion (performance). During the rest intervals, the rats were kept in passive rest (PR), submitted to cold water immersion (10 min, 10 °C) or LED therapy (940 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) of the gastrocnemius muscle. Blood samples were collected to analyze creatine kinase activity (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte counts. The soleus muscles were evaluated histologically. Time to exhaustion was recorded during the second bout of exercise. After a second bout of 45 min, the results demonstrated leukocytosis in the PR and Cryo groups. Neutrophil counts were increased in all test groups. CK levels were increased in the Cryo group. CRP was increased in PR animals. The PR group presented a high frequency of necrosis, but the LED group had fewer necrotic areas. Edema formation was prevented, and fewer areas of inflammatory cells were observed in the LED group. The time to exhaustion was greater in both the LED and Cryo groups, without differences in CK levels. CRP was decreased in LED animals. We conclude that LED therapy and cryotherapy can improve performance, although LED therapy is more efficient in preventing muscle damage and local and systemic inflammation.

  16. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells with the novel CXCR4 antagonist POL6326 (balixafortide) in healthy volunteers-results of a dose escalation trial.

    PubMed

    Karpova, Darja; Bräuninger, Susanne; Wiercinska, Eliza; Krämer, Ariane; Stock, Belinda; Graff, Jochen; Martin, Hans; Wach, Achim; Escot, Christophe; Douglas, Garry; Romagnoli, Barbara; Chevalier, Eric; Dembowski, Klaus; Hooftman, Leon; Bonig, Halvard

    2017-01-03

    Certain disadvantages of the standard hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) mobilizing agent G-CSF fuel the quest for alternatives. We herein report results of a Phase I dose escalation trial comparing mobilization with a peptidic CXCR4 antagonist POL6326 (balixafortide) vs. G-CSF. Healthy male volunteer donors with a documented average mobilization response to G-CSF received, following ≥6 weeks wash-out, a 1-2 h infusion of 500-2500 µg/kg of balixafortide. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were assessed. Balixafortide was well tolerated and rated favorably over G-CSF by subjects. At all doses tested balixafortide mobilized HSPC. In the dose range between 1500 and 2500 µg/kg mobilization was similar, reaching 38.2 ± 2.8 CD34 + cells/µL (mean ± SEM). Balixafortide caused mixed leukocytosis in the mid-20 K/µL range. B-lymphocytosis was more pronounced, whereas neutrophilia and monocytosis were markedly less accentuated with balixafortide compared to G-CSF. At the 24 h time point, leukocytes had largely normalized. Balixafortide is safe, well tolerated, and induces efficient mobilization of HSPCs in healthy male volunteers. Based on experience with current apheresis technology, the observed mobilization at doses ≥1500 µg/kg of balixafortide is predicted to yield in a single apheresis a standard dose of 4× 10E6 CD34+ cells/kg from most individuals donating for an approximately weight-matched recipient. Exploration of alternative dosing regimens may provide even higher mobilization responses. Trial Registration European Medicines Agency (EudraCT-Nr. 2011-003316-23) and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01841476).

  17. Factors Associated with Persistent Sputum Positivity at the End of the Second Month of Tuberculosis Treatment in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Diktanas, Saulius; Vasiliauskiene, Edita; Polubenko, Katazyna; Danila, Edvardas; Celedinaite, Indre; Boreikaite, Evelina; Misiunas, Kipras

    2018-06-19

    Non-conversion of sputum smear and culture prolongs the infectivity of the patient and has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of two months of treatment of new case pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Data of 87 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with culture-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB admitted to local university hospital between September 2015 and September 2016 were reviewed. Factors associated with sputum smear and/or culture positivity at the end of the second month of treatment were analyzed. Twenty-two patients (25.3%) remained smear and/or culture-positive. Male sex, lower body mass index (BMI), unemployment, alcohol abuse, higher number of lobes involved and cavities on chest X-rays, shorter time to detection (TTD) on liquid cultures, higher respiratory sample smear grading and colony count in solid cultures, higher C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and anemia were all significantly associated with persistent sputum positivity. However, in the logistic regression analysis only male sex, lower BMI, alcohol abuse, higher radiological involvement, cavitation, higher smear grading, higher colony count in solid cultures and shorter TTD were determined as independent factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of 2 months of treatment. In conclusion, higher sputum smear and culture grading at diagnosis, shorter TTD, higher number of lobes involved, cavitation, male sex, alcohol abuse, and lower BMI were independently associated with persistent sputum positivity. These factors should be sought when distinguishing which patients will remain infectious longer and possibly have worse outcomes. Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

  18. A Case of Pneumonia Caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii Resistant to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sung, Yon Mi; Chung, Dong Hae; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Park, Jeong-Woong; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2015-06-01

    A 50-year-old male visited the outpatient clinic and complained of fever, poor oral intake, and weight loss. A chest X-ray demonstrated streaky and fibrotic lesions in both lungs, and chest CT revealed multifocal peribronchial patchy ground-glass opacities with septated cystic lesions in both lungs. Cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lymphocyte-dominant leukocytosis, and further analysis of lymphocyte subsets showed a predominance of cytotoxic T cells and few T helper cells. Video-assisted wedge resection of the left upper lobe was performed, and the histologic examination was indicative of a Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was orally administered for 3 weeks; however, the patient complained of cough, and the pneumonia was aggravated in the follow-up chest X-ray and chest CT. Molecular studies demonstrated mutations at codons 55 and 57 of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene, which is associated with the resistance to TMP-SMX. Clindamycin-primaquine was subsequently administered for 3 weeks replacing the TMP-SMX. A follow-up chest X-ray showed that the pneumonia was resolving, and the cough was also alleviated. A positive result of HIV immunoassay and elevated titer of HCV RNA indicated HIV infection as an underlying condition. This case highlights the importance of careful monitoring of patients with P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) during the course of treatment, and the molecular study of DHPS mutations. Additionally, altering the anti-PCP drug utilized as treatment must be considered when infection with drug-resistant P. jirovecii is suspected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of TMP-SMX-resistant PCP described in Korea.

  19. Ts6 and Ts2 from Tityus serrulatus venom induce inflammation by mechanisms dependent on lipid mediators and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. New functional aspects of lipid mediators have recently been described. Here, we examine the unreported role of lipid mediators in cell recruitment to the peritoneal cavity after an injection with Ts2 or Ts6 toxins isolated from the T. serrulatus scorpion venom. In this report, we demonstrate that following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Ts2 or Ts6 (250 μg/kg) in mice, there was an induction of leukocytosis with a predominance of neutrophils observed at 4, 24, 48 and 96 h. Moreover, total protein, leukotriene (LT)B(4), prostaglandin (PG)E(2) and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were increased. We also observed an increase of regulatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-10, after the Ts2 injection. Finally, we observed that Ts2 or Ts6 injection in 5-lipoxygenase (LO) deficient mice and in wild type (WT) 129sv mice pre-treated with LTs and PGs inhibitors (MK-886 and celecoxib, respectively) a reduction the influx of leukocytes occurs in comparison to WT. The recruitment of these cells demonstrated a phenotype characteristic of neutrophils, macrophages, CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes expressing GR1+, F4/80+, CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+, respectively. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Ts2 and Ts6 induce inflammation by mechanisms dependent on lipid mediators and cytokine production. Ts2 may play a regulatory role whereas Ts6 exhibits pro-inflammatory activity exclusively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Etiology, clinical profile, and outcome of liver disease in pregnancy with predictors of maternal mortality: A prospective study from Western India.

    PubMed

    Solanke, Dattatray; Rathi, Chetan; Pandey, Vikas; Patil, Mallanagoud; Phadke, Aniruddha; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to study the etiology, clinical profile, and prognostic factors related to maternal and fetal health in pregnant patients with liver disease in Western India. This study included 103 consecutive pregnant patients with liver dysfunction from August 2013 to July 2015, who underwent regular biochemical tests, viral markers, ultrasound of abdomen, etc. and were followed up for 6 weeks postpartum or until death. Pregnancy-specific causes of liver dysfunction were found in 39 % (40/103) patients. Liver diseases were most frequent in third trimester 69.9 % (72/103). Etiologies in third trimester were viral hepatitis 36.1 % (26/72), pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) 30.5 % (22/72), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy 11.1 % (8/72), acute fatty liver of pregnancy (2/72), etc. Hepatitis E was the commonest agent among viral hepatitis 71.8 % (28/39). Causes of maternal mortality (n = 25) were hepatitis E 40 % (10/25), PIH 32 % (8/25), and tropical diseases 20 % (5/25). Fetal mortality (n = 31) was 38.7 % (12/31) in hepatitis E. Maternal mortality was significantly associated with presence of jaundice, fever, abdominal pain, oliguria, anemia, leukocytosis, and coagulopathy. Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score >21 predicted maternal mortality with 80 % sensitivity and 91 % specificity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.878 and p < 0.001). Liver disease was most common in the third trimester of pregnancy. Hepatitis E was the most common cause of liver disease in pregnant women in western India with significant maternal mortality, predicted by high MELD score.

  1. Diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia in intubated, intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Salata, R A; Lederman, M M; Shlaes, D M; Jacobs, M R; Eckstein, E; Tweardy, D; Toossi, Z; Chmielewski, R; Marino, J; King, C H

    1987-02-01

    The clinical distinction between bacterial colonization of the tracheobronchial tree and nosocomial pneumonia is difficult, especially in intubated patients. We studied 51 intubated, intensive care unit patients prospectively by serial examinations of tracheal aspirates for elastin fibers, graded Gram's stains, and quantitative bacterial cultures in conjunction with clinical and radiologic observations in an attempt to develop criteria for the early detection of pulmonary infection. Patients with infection had new or progressive pulmonary infiltrates plus 1 of the following: positive blood culture results, radiographic evidence of cavitation, or histologic evidence of pneumonia, or 2 or more of the following: new fever, new leukocytosis, or grossly purulent tracheal aspirates. Twenty-one patients developed infection, 22 remained colonized, and 8 had an uncertain status. Infiltrates developed in 34 patients (21 infected, 8 colonized, 5 uncertain status). Gram-negative bacilli were most commonly isolated and were more frequent in infected patients (81 versus 47%, p less than 0.05); Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were most often associated with infection. No differences were observed between infected and colonized patients in demographic features, smoking history, underlying disease, previous antibiotic therapy, days in hospital before intubation, preexisting pneumonia upon intubation, or highest temperature or leukocyte count during course. By univariate analysis, infected patients had a longer duration of intubation (p less than 0.05), higher Gram's stain grading for neutrophils (p less than 0.05) or bacteria (p less than 0.005), higher bacterial colony counts (p less than 0.05), and more frequent detection of elastin fibers in tracheal aspirates (p less than 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Geriatric Fever Score: A New Decision Rule for Geriatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Vong, Si-Chon; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Chen, Kuo-Tai; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluating geriatric patients with fever is time-consuming and challenging. We investigated independent mortality predictors of geriatric patients with fever and developed a prediction rule for emergency care, critical care, and geriatric care physicians to classify patients into mortality risk and disposition groups. Materials and Methods Consecutive geriatric patients (≥65 years old) visiting the emergency department (ED) of a university-affiliated medical center between June 1 and July 21, 2010, were enrolled when they met the criteria of fever: a tympanic temperature ≥37.2°C or a baseline temperature elevated ≥1.3°C. Thirty-day mortality was the primary endpoint. Internal validation with bootstrap re-sampling was done. Results Three hundred thirty geriatric patients were enrolled. We found three independent mortality predictors: Leukocytosis (WBC >12,000 cells/mm3), Severe coma (GCS ≤ 8), and Thrombocytopenia (platelets <150 103/mm3) (LST). After assigning weights to each predictor, we developed a Geriatric Fever Score that stratifies patients into two mortality-risk and disposition groups: low (4.0%) (95% CI: 2.3–6.9%): a general ward or treatment in the ED then discharge and high (30.3%) (95% CI: 17.4–47.3%): consider the intensive care unit. The area under the curve for the rule was 0.73. Conclusions We found that the Geriatric Fever Score is a simple and rapid rule for predicting 30-day mortality and classifying mortality risk and disposition in geriatric patients with fever, although external validation should be performed to confirm its usefulness in other clinical settings. It might help preserve medical resources for patients in greater need. PMID:25340811

  3. Geriatric Fever Score: a new decision rule for geriatric care.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Hsien; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Vong, Si-Chon; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Chen, Kuo-Tai; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Su, Shih-Bin; Guo, How-Ran; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating geriatric patients with fever is time-consuming and challenging. We investigated independent mortality predictors of geriatric patients with fever and developed a prediction rule for emergency care, critical care, and geriatric care physicians to classify patients into mortality risk and disposition groups. Consecutive geriatric patients (≥65 years old) visiting the emergency department (ED) of a university-affiliated medical center between June 1 and July 21, 2010, were enrolled when they met the criteria of fever: a tympanic temperature ≥37.2°C or a baseline temperature elevated ≥1.3°C. Thirty-day mortality was the primary endpoint. Internal validation with bootstrap re-sampling was done. Three hundred thirty geriatric patients were enrolled. We found three independent mortality predictors: Leukocytosis (WBC >12,000 cells/mm3), Severe coma (GCS ≤ 8), and Thrombocytopenia (platelets <150 10(3)/mm3) (LST). After assigning weights to each predictor, we developed a Geriatric Fever Score that stratifies patients into two mortality-risk and disposition groups: low (4.0%) (95% CI: 2.3-6.9%): a general ward or treatment in the ED then discharge and high (30.3%) (95% CI: 17.4-47.3%): consider the intensive care unit. The area under the curve for the rule was 0.73. We found that the Geriatric Fever Score is a simple and rapid rule for predicting 30-day mortality and classifying mortality risk and disposition in geriatric patients with fever, although external validation should be performed to confirm its usefulness in other clinical settings. It might help preserve medical resources for patients in greater need.

  4. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF CAPTIVE PSITTACINE SPECIES IN PRERELEASE PROGRAMS AT COSTA RICAN RESCUE CENTERS.

    PubMed

    Mora-Chavarría, Esteban; Umaña-Castro, Rodolfo; Abou-Madi, Noha; Solano-González, Stefany; Retamosa-Izaguirre, Mónica; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Blanco-Peña, Kinndle

    2017-12-01

    With stricter laws regulating the capture and possession of wild animals in Costa Rica, local wildlife-rescue centers have been overwhelmed by an influx of confiscated or relinquished illegal pets, specifically of psittacine species. As part of a nationwide health-assessment program targeting these centers, 122 birds representing five psittacine species ( Ara macao, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona auropalliata, Amazona farinosa, Aratinga finschi) and one hybrid macaw ( Ara macao × Ara ambiguus) were examined and tested between January 2011 and October 2012. Physical examination, hematology, and serum biochemical analyses were performed. Blood and feathers were tested for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) and avian polyomavirus (APV) via PCR. A DNA-based prevalence and sequence analysis characterized the strains of PBFDV and APV isolated. Physical abnormalities observed in 36% of the 122 birds examined were limited to thin body condition and poor feather quality. None of the feather abnormalities were characteristic of disease caused by either PBFDV or APV. Results of hematological and biochemical analyses were within normal limits except for five birds with leukocytosis and heterophilia, three birds with uric acid values above 16 mg/dl, and two additional birds with AST values above 400 IU/L. No hemoparasites were detected during blood smear examination. Overall prevalences of 9.8% (12/122) for PBFDV and 3.3% (4/122) for APV were documented, with only one bird testing positive for both PBFDV and APV. Birds from two of the eight centers were negative for both viruses. Findings from this study constitute the beginning of a standardized surveillance program for Costa Rican rescue centers, targeting the management of avian species enrolled in propagation and reintroduction programs and expanding of the spectrum of pathogen surveillance and husbandry recommendations in prerelease centers.

  5. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh in the Absence of Trauma.

    PubMed

    Javedani, Parisa P; Ratnabalasuriar, Radhika; Grall, Kristi J H

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome occurs when an increase in pressure results in vascular and functional impairment of the underlying nerve and muscles. Thigh compartment syndrome (TCS) is uncommon, but clinical suspicion warrants emergent surgical consultation and fasciotomy. We present a 42-year-old man evaluated for right lateral thigh pain, without a history of trauma, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), previous surgery, or intravenous drug use. He was febrile, tachycardic, with a mild leukocytosis, an elevated C-reactive protein level, and an elevated creatinine kinase level. Radiographs showed no abnormality and right lower extremity duplex ultrasound showed no DVT. A computed tomography scan of the right lower extremity was concerning for compartment syndrome. Surgical consultation was obtained, and the patient was taken to the operating room for fasciotomy. He was diagnosed with compartment syndrome intraoperatively. The patient was discharged on hospital day 10. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: TCS is exceedingly rare, especially in the absence of underlying traumatic and nontraumatic etiologies. The diagnosis is challenging because more elastic fascia with larger space in the thigh allows for accommodation of acute increases in pressure. Consequently, there may not be the expected acute rise in compartment pressures; increased compartment pressure may only be a late sign, when underlying neurovascular damage has already occurred. TCS is complicated by high morbidity and mortality. Emergent surgical consultation should be obtained when there is a high clinical suspicion for TCS, and limb-saving fasciotomy should not be delayed. This case shows the importance of a high level of suspicion for TCS in patients with no identifiable etiology and no historical risk factors for development of compartment syndrome, because TCS may not present with classic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of CD64 on Circulating Neutrophils Favoring Systemic Inflammatory Status in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Rhana Berto da Silva; Barbosa, Mayara Garcia de Mattos; Mendes, Mayara Abud; Brandão, Sheila Santos; Amadeu, Thaís Porto; Rodrigues, Luciana Silva; Ferreira, Helen; Costa, Fabrício da Mota Ramalho; dos Santos, Jessica Brandão; Pacheco, Fabiana dos Santos; Machado, Alice de Miranda; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea; Sales, Anna Maria; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1) Lepromatous leprosy, (2) Borderline leprosy, (3) Reversal reaction, (4) ENL, and (5) ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates—a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64, presumably

  7. Clostridial collagenase aggravates the systemic inflammatory response in rats with partial-thickness burns.

    PubMed

    Dokumcu, Zafer; Ergun, Orkan; Celik, Handan Ak; Aydemir, Sohret; Sezak, Murat; Ozok, Geylani; Celik, Ahmet

    2008-11-01

    Clostridial collagenase A (CCA) has been shown effective in degrading collagen in eschar tissue and promoting healing in partial-thickness burns. As there are also reports of fever, leukocytosis, increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and septic complications during treatment with CCA, we aimed to determine in rats whether CCA aggravates the systemic inflammatory response. Rats with partial-thickness burns were randomly divided into groups with either no dressing (ND), povidone-iodine dressing (PID) or CCA dressing (CCAD). Body weights and temperatures, blood leukocyte counts, and serum levels of CRP, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were measured at 0, 3, and 24h and days 3 and 7 from burn. Wounds were cultured on days 1, 3 and 7 and burn depth was evaluated on day 1. Body weights for all groups were significantly lower after burn, with highest loss (25.5%) in the CCAD group. At 3h a significant drop in rectal temperature was noted in all groups. The CCAD group had higher rectal temperature levels than the PID group on days 3 and 7 (p<0.05). Changes in serum levels of CRP, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were not significant in the ND and PID groups; the CCAD group showed a significant rise in serum levels of CRP on day 1, of IL-6 on day 3 and of TNF-alpha on day 7. Wound infection was more common in CCAD group and increased on days 3 and 7, but this was insignificant. CCA aggravated the systemic inflammatory response in rats with partial-thickness burns, which is accompanied by a higher risk of infection.

  8. High frequency of CD34+CD38-/low immature leukemia cells is correlated with unfavorable prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Plesa, Adriana; Dumontet, Charles; Mattei, Eve; Tagoug, Ines; Hayette, Sandrine; Sujobert, Pierre; Tigaud, Isabelle; Pages, Marie Pierre; Chelghoum, Youcef; Baracco, Fiorenza; Labussierre, Helene; Ducastelle, Sophie; Paubelle, Etienne; Nicolini, Franck Emmanuel; Elhamri, Mohamed; Campos, Lydia; Plesa, Claudiu; Morisset, Stéphane; Salles, Gilles; Bertrand, Yves; Michallet, Mauricette; Thomas, Xavier

    2017-12-26

    To evaluate the importance of the CD34+CD38- cell population when compared to the CD34+CD38+/low and CD34+CD38+/high leukemic cell sub-populations and to determine its correlations with leukemia characteristics and known prognostic factors, as well as with response to therapy and survival. Two hundred bone marrow samples were obtained at diagnosis from 200 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were studied between September 2008 and December 2010 at our Institution (Hematology Department, Lyon, France). The CD34/CD38 cell profile was analyzed by multiparameter flowcytometry approach using 8C panels and FACS CANTO and Diva software (BD Bioscience). We analyzed CD34 and CD38 expression in bone marrow samples of 200 AML patients at diagnosis, and investigated the prognostic value of the most immature CD34+CD38- population. Using a cut-off value of 1% of CD34+CD38- from total "bulk leukemic cells" we found that a high (> 1%) level of CD34+CD38- blasts at diagnosis was correlated with advanced age, adverse cytogenetics as well as with a lower rate of complete response after induction and shorter disease-free survival. In a multivariate analysis considering age, leukocytosis, the % of CD34+ blasts cells and the standardized cytogenetic and molecular risk subgroups, a percentage of CD34+CD38- leukemic cells > 1% was an independent predictor of DFS [HR = 2.8 (1.02-7.73), P = 0.04] and OS [HR = 2.65 (1.09-6.43), P = 0.03]. Taken together, these results show that a CD34/CD38 "backbone" for leukemic cell analysis by multicolour flowcytometry at diagnosis provides useful prognostic information.

  9. Umbelliferone prevents oxidative stress, inflammation and hematological alterations, and modulates glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP signaling in hyperammonemic rats.

    PubMed

    Germoush, Mousa O; Othman, Sarah I; Al-Qaraawi, Maha A; Al-Harbi, Hanan M; Hussein, Omnia E; Al-Basher, Gadh; Alotaibi, Mohammed F; Elgebaly, Hassan A; Sandhu, Mansur A; Allam, Ahmed A; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2018-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric complication that occurs as a result of liver failure. Umbelliferone (UMB; 7-hydroxycoumarin) is a natural product with proven hepatoprotective activity; however, nothing has yet been reported on its protective effect against hyperammonemia, the main culprit behind the symptoms of HE. Here, we evaluated the effect of UMB against ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl)-induced hyperammonemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and hematological alterations in rats. We demonstrated the modulatory role of UMB on the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathways in the cerebrum of rats. Rats received intraperitoneal injections of NH 4 Cl (3 times/week) for 8 weeks and concomitantly received 50 mg/kg UMB. NH 4 Cl-induced rats showed significantly elevated blood ammonia and liver function markers. Lipid peroxidation and NO were increased in the liver and cerebrum of rats while the antioxidant defenses were declined. UMB significantly reduced blood ammonia, liver function markers, lipid peroxidation and NO, and enhanced the antioxidant defenses in NH 4 Cl-induced rats. UMB significantly prevented anemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and prolongation of PT and aPTT. Hyperammonemic rats showed elevated levels of cerebral TNF-α, IL-1β and glutamine as well as increased activity and expression of Na + /K + -ATPase, effects that were significantly reversed by UMB. In addition, UMB down-regulated nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase in the cerebrum of hyperammonemic rats. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that UMB protects against hyperammonemia via attenuation of oxidative stress and inflammation. UMB prevents hyperammonemia associated hematological alterations and therefore represents a promising protective agent against the deleterious effects of excess ammonia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Ghrelin Pre-treatment Attenuates Local Oxidative Stress and End Organ Damage During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Anesthetized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Fujii, Yutaka; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Pearson, James T.

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induced systemic inflammation significantly contributes to the development of postoperative complications, including respiratory failure, myocardial, renal and neurological dysfunction and ultimately can lead to failure of multiple organs. Ghrelin is a small endogenous peptide with wide ranging physiological effects on metabolism and cardiovascular regulation. Herein, we investigated the protective effects of ghrelin against CPB-induced inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress and acute organ damage. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats randomly received vehicle (n = 5) or a bolus of ghrelin (150 μg/kg, sc, n = 5) and were subjected to CPB for 4 h (protocol 1). In separate rats, ghrelin pre-treatment (protocol 2) was compared to two doses of ghrelin (protocol 3) before and after CPB for 2 h followed by recovery for 2 h. Blood samples were taken prior to CPB, and following CPB at 2 h and 4 h. Organ nitrosative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) was measured by Western blotting. CPB induced leukocytosis with increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 indicating a potent inflammatory response. Ghrelin treatment significantly reduced plasma organ damage markers (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) and protein levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, particularly in the brain, lung and liver, but only partly suppressed inflammatory cell invasion and did not reduce proinflammatory cytokine production. Ghrelin partially attenuated the CPB-induced elevation of epinephrine and to a lesser extent norepinephrine when compared to the CPB saline group, while dopamine levels were completely suppressed. Ghrelin treatment sustained plasma levels of reduced glutathione and decreased glutathione disulphide when compared to CPB saline rats. These results suggest that even though ghrelin only partially inhibited the large CPB induced increase in catecholamines and organ macrophage infiltration, it reduced oxidative

  11. High reticulocyte count is an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular disease in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Silva, Célia Maria; Giovani, Poliana; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2011-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is an important way of detecting risk of ischemic stroke in children with sickle cell anemia. A random sample of 262 FS-hemoglobin children from a newborn screening inception cohort in Brazil (1998-2005) was followed up to May 2009. Pulsed TCD followed STOP protocol. Children with mean blood flow velocity < 170 cm/sec in cerebral arteries were classified as low risk; between 170 and 184, low conditional risk; between 185 and 199, high conditional risk; and ≥ 200, high risk. Median age, 6.2 years (2-11.2 years); 147 female; 13 children (5%) had ischemic stroke prior to TCD; 186/249 (74.7%) were classified as low risk; 19 (7.6%) as low conditional; 7 (2.8%) as high conditional; and 8 (3.2%) as high risk; inadequate tests, 11.6%. The probability of ischemic stroke at 10 years was 8.3% (SEM 2.3%); of stroke or high-risk TCD 15.6% (3.5%). Children with stroke or altered TCD (conditional and high risk) were compared to children with normal examinations. They were younger (P = 0.03), with lower hemoglobin (P = 0.003), higher leukocytosis (P = 0.015), and higher reticulocytosis (P < 0.001). Episodes per year of acute chest syndrome were also higher in that group, but not significantly (P = 0.09). Reticulocytosis remained the only significant variable upon multivariate analysis (P = 0.004). Basilar and middle cerebral artery velocities were significantly correlated (R = 0.55; P < 0.001). Probability of stroke was similar to international reports; of belonging to high-risk group, lower. High-reticulocyte count was the most important factor associated with cerebrovascular disease. Basilar artery velocity > 130 cm/sec seems to be an indirect sign of an underlying cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Analytic errors in Sysmex-generated hematology results in blood from a dog with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Martini, Valeria; Grande, Carmen; Comazzi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    A blood sample from a 14-year-old dog was submitted to the veterinary diagnostic laboratory of the University of Milan for marked leukocytosis with atypical cells. A diagnosis of chronic T-cell lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was made based on blood smear evaluation and flow cytometric phenotyping. A CBC by Sysmex XT-2000iV revealed a moderate normocytic normochromic anemia. Red blood cells counted by optic flow cytometry (RBC-O) resulted in a higher value than using electrical impedance (RBC-I). The relative reticulocyte count based on RNA content and size was 35.3%, while the manual reticulocyte count was < 1%. The WBC count of 1,562,680 cells/μL was accompanied by a flag. Manual counts for RBC and WBC using the Bürker chamber confirmed the Sysmex impedance results. Finally the manual PCV was lower than HCT by Sysmex. While Sysmex XT can differentiate between RBC and WBC by impedance, even in the face of extreme lymphocytosis due to CLL, RBC-O can be affected by bias, resulting in falsely increased RBC and reticulocyte numbers. Overestimation of RBC-O may be due to incorrect Sysmex classification of leukemic cells or their fragments as reticulocytes. This phenomenon is known as pseudoreticulocytosis and can lead to misinterpretation of regenerative anemia. On the other side PCV can be affected by bias in CLL due to the trapping of RBC in the buffy coat, resulting in a pink hue in the separation area. As HGB concentration is not affected by flow cytometric or other cell-related artifacts it may represent the most reliable variable to assess the degree of anemia in cases of CLL. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Unique characteristics of pyogenic liver abscesses of biliary origin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shaohua; Xia, Weiliang; Guo, Haijun; Kong, Haishen; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-05-01

    Pyrogenic liver abscesses (PLA) can be caused by cholangitis associated with hepatolithiasis and cholangitis related to an abnormal bilioenteric communication, such as a hepaticojejunostomy or the presence of indwelling biliary stents. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of PLA of biliary origin. We compared patients with PLA related to biliary tract disease (PLA-B; n = 125) with patients with PLA not related to biliary tract disease (PLA-NB; n = 444). We also separated the patients with PLA-B into PLA related to biliary tract disease that involved an abnormal bilioenteric communication, including hepaticojejunostomy and indwelling biliary stents (PLA-B-AC; n = 38), and PLA-B not related to abnormal communication (n = 87), and compared them. Among the 569 patients with PLA from 2008 to 2013, the most common etiologies were cryptogenic (n = 341; 60%) and biliary (n = 125; 22%). Patients with PLA-B tended to have a higher maximum body temperature and a greater leukocytosis. The incidences of bacteremia, septic shock, death, and postdischarge recurrence were greater in the PLA-B group when compared with the PLA-NB group. The most commonly isolated pathogenic bacteria in PLA-B group were Escherichia coli (36%) and Klebsiella pneumonia (23%). In contrast, in the PLA-NB group, the most common pathogen was K pneumonia (64%), whereas E coli was uncommon (only 5%). Independent risk factors for the occurrence of PLA-B were isolates with multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria, bacteremia, E coli, and polymicrobial infection. In the group of PLA-B-AC, risk factors included MDR bacteria and a history of malignancy. The occurrences of PLA-B are often infected with MDR bacteria and mixed infections caused mainly by E coli and other isolates and associated with bacteremia; PLA-B-AC are associated with MDR bacteria and a history of malignancy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [Once-daily gentamicin dosing versus thrice-daily dosing in infants with acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Calvo Rey, C; García Díaz, B; Nebreda Pérez, V; García García, M L; Maderuelo Sánchez, A I; Cilleruelo Pascual, M L; García Lacalle, C

    2003-03-01

    Once-daily dosing (ODD) of gentamicin is advocated as an effective and safe treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections in adults. There are insufficient data in the literature to justify its use in infants. To compare the efficacy of ODD of gentamicin with that of classical thrice-daily (t.i.d.) administration in infants with acute pyelonephritis. We performed a quasi-experimental study comparing 33 infants who received ODD of gentamicin with a historical control group of 25 infants treated with gentamicin t.i.d. Leukocytosis, C-reactive protein, creatinine, gentamicin dose, peak and trough values, time required for disappearance of fever, and outcome were analyzed. The mean doses of gentamicin (mg/kg/day) were higher in the t.i.d. group (6.4 1.14) than in the ODD group (5.06 0.22; p < 0.001). Peak serum gentamicin concentrations (micro g/ml) were significantly higher in the ODD group (9.32 1.4) than in the t.i.d. group (5.09 1.15; p < 0.001). Mean trough gentamicin concentrations (micro g/ml) were lower in the ODD group than in the t.i.d. group (0.23 0.26 vs 0.78 0.45; p 0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of fever between the groups (30.64 32 hours in the t.i.d. group vs. 28.57 32 hours in the ODD group). Serum creatinine levels were normal during treatment in both groups. In all patients outcome was good and no adverse effects were noted. Treatment with ODD of gentamicin in our population of infants with acute pyelonephritis was as effective as traditional administration t.i.d. and possibly was equally safe or safer.

  15. Detection of JAK2 V617F mutation increases the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHU-PENG; LI, HUI; LAI, REN-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    The Janus kinase (JAK)2 gene, which is located on chromosome 9p24, is involved in the signaling transduction pathways of the hematopoietic and immune system. Mutations in the JAK2 gene have served as disease markers for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of the JAK2 gene mutation in 140 clinical samples, and to evaluate its clinical significance in MPNs and other hematological diseases. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood leukocytes or bone marrow karyocytes of 140 clinical samples, which included 130 patients with various types of hematological disease and 10 control patients. In addition, exons 12 and 14 of the JAK2 gene were analyzed by direct sequencing and the mutation rates of various MPN subtypes were evaluated. Of the 140 samples, exons 12 and 14 were tested in 74 samples, however, exon 14 only was tested in 66 samples. No mutations were identified in exon 12. The V617F mutation rate in polycythemia vera was 82.1% (23/28), and the mutation rates in essential thrombocythemia histiocytosis, primary myelofibrosis and other MPNs were 53.1% (17/32), 40.0% (4/10) and 60.0% (6/10), respectively. Therefore, the total mutation rate of the JAK2 gene in MPN was 62.5% (50/80). For non-MPN hematological diseases, four V617F mutations were detected in samples of leukocytosis of unknown origin (4/12), however, no JAK2 V617F mutations were identified in the 10 controls. Therefore, JAK2 V617F mutations may present a novel marker for diagnosis of MPNs. Furthermore, the direct sequencing method appeared to be satisfactory for the clinical gene testing of hematological samples. PMID:25624900

  16. [Hemogram profile and interest of pre-donation hemoglobin measurement in blood donors in the northwest region of Morocco].

    PubMed

    Bakrim, S; Ouarour, A; Jaidann, K; Benajiba, M; Masrar, A

    2018-02-01

    Blood donation in Morocco and more particularly in the northwest region is carried out without prior determination of the pre-donation hemoglobin. In addition, we note the lack of scientific research that reports data on the red blood cells, leukocytes and platelet lines in donated blood at the regional or even national level. To study hemogram profile in blood donors taken from the Northwest region of Morocco in order to provide decision makers of the National Center of Blood Transfusion and Hematology with valid scientific arguments to complete the criteria to donate whole blood, by the hemogram. Prospective study, conducted in 15797 volunteer blood donors (BD) aged between 18 and 60 years, collected during mobile or fixed collections carried out by the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Tangier and Tetouan from November 2014 to May 2016. The hemogram was performed using a Sysmex KX21N ® and the analysis of the data was done by the software SPSS 20.0. According to the World Health Organization, anemia corresponds to a hemoglobin level less than 12g/dL in women and less than 13g/dL in men. We found that 14.5 % of women (n=1054) and 3.0 % of men (n=245) were anemic and anemia was hypochromic microcytic in 58,66 % of these BD. Analysis of the white line showed leucopenia in 2.05 % of BD and 807 cases of leukocytosis (5.27 % of BD). Platelet study showed thrombocytopenia in 3.97 % of BD and thrombocytosis in 151BD (0.99 % of cases). This study shows the interest of systematic pre-donation hemoglobin measurement and periodic realization of the hemogram among BD in the Northwest region of Morocco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A Comparison of Phenotypic Traits Related to Trypanotolerance in Five West African Cattle Breeds Highlights the Value of Shorthorn Taurine Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Berthier, David; Peylhard, Moana; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Flori, Laurence; Sylla, Souleymane; Bolly, Seydou; Sakande, Hassane; Chantal, Isabelle; Thevenon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ) or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT), considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N’Dama (NDA), has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds. Methodology/Principal Findings This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG) and Baoulé (BAO) breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU) and the Borgou (BOR), an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU. Conclusions We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge

  18. A comparison of phenotypic traits related to trypanotolerance in five west african cattle breeds highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds.

    PubMed

    Berthier, David; Peylhard, Moana; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Flori, Laurence; Sylla, Souleymane; Bolly, Seydou; Sakande, Hassane; Chantal, Isabelle; Thevenon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ) or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT), considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N'Dama (NDA), has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds. This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG) and Baoulé (BAO) breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU) and the Borgou (BOR), an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU. We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge of host-pathogen interactions and, furthermore, for

  19. Characterization of alpha(4)beta(1) (CD49d/CD29) on equine leukocytes: potential utility of a potent alpha(4)beta(1) (CD49d/CD29) receptor antagonist in the treatment of equine heaves (recurrent airway obstruction).

    PubMed

    Treonze, Kelly M; Alves, Kenneth; Fischer, Paul; Hagmann, William K; Hora, Donald; Kulick, Alison; Vakerich, Ken; Smith, Nicholas D; Lingham, Russell B; Maniar, Salony; Reger, Thomas S; Zunic, Jasmine; Munoz, Benito; Prasit, Peppi; Nicholson, Donald; Si, Qian; Judd, Keith; Nicolich, Susan; Kellerhouse, Patricia; Thompson, Donald; Mumford, Richard A

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the alpha(4)beta(1) receptor (CD49d/CD29, very late antigen-4, VLA-4) on circulating equine leukocytes and to evaluate the intrinsic potency of an alpha(4)beta(1) receptor antagonist (Compound B) in the horse. Ultimately, these studies would allow us to determine the suitability of treating recurrent airway obstruction (RAO; heaves) affected horses by blocking the cellular recruitment of lymphocytes and neutrophils into the lung. The data demonstrates the alpha(4)beta(1) integrin is present on horse lymphocytes and neutrophils (fluorescence-assisted cell sorter, FACS) and can bind low molecular weight alpha(4)beta(1) antagonists (Compounds A and B) with high affinity. K(D) values for the binding of Compound A to non-activated alpha(4)beta(1) on isolated horse PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and activated neutrophils were 17 pM and 27 pM, respectively. Compound B was identified as a suitable antagonist for performing a series of in vivo experiments. Compound B was found to possess excellent potency in horse whole blood, possessing IC(50) and IC(90) values of 39 pM and 172 pM, respectively. This represents a 3.9-fold molar excess of drug over the alpha(4)beta(1) concentration in blood. Following oral administration of Compound B (5 mg/kg) to beagle dogs and rhesus monkeys, rapid and sustained alpha(4)beta(1) receptor occupancy (>80%) was achieved and maintained for a period of 24 h. When Compound B was administered intravenously to the horse, by either a slow or rapid infusion at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg, receptor blockade of >80% was observed out to 24 h with a concomitant leukocytosis. We believe that Compound B possesses suitable intrinsic and pharmacological properties to be evaluated clinically in horses affected by RAO.

  20. Changes in serial laboratory test results in snakebite patients: when can we safely exclude envenoming?

    PubMed

    Ireland, Graham; Brown, Simon G A; Buckley, Nicholas A; Stormer, Jeff; Currie, Bart J; White, Julian; Spain, David; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2010-09-06

    To determine which laboratory tests are first associated with severe envenoming after a snakebite, when (ie, how long after the bite) the test results become abnormal, and whether this can determine a safe observation period after suspected snakebite. Prospective cohort study of 478 patients with suspected or confirmed snakebite recruited to the Australian Snakebite Project from January 2002 to April 2009, who had at least three sets of laboratory test results and at least 12 hours of observation in hospital after the bite. Severe envenoming was defined as venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC), myotoxicity, neurotoxicity or thrombotic microangiopathy. International normalised ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), creatine kinase (CK) level, and neurological examination. There were 240 patients with severe envenoming, 75 with minor envenoming and 163 non-envenomed patients. Of 206 patients with VICC, 178 had an INR > 1.2 (abnormal) on admission, and the remaining 28 had an INR > 1.2 within 12 hours of the bite. Of 33 patients with myotoxicity, a combination of CK > 250 U/L and an abnormal aPTT identified all but two cases by 12 hours; one of these two was identified within 12 hours by leukocytosis. Nine cases of isolated neurotoxicity had a median time of onset after the bite of 4 hours (range, 35 min - 12 h). The combination of serial INR, aPTT and CK tests and repeated neurological examination identified 213 of 222 severe envenoming cases (96%) by 6 hours and 238 of 240 (99%) by 12 hours. Laboratory parameters (INR, aPTT and CK) and neurological reassessments identified nearly all severe envenoming cases within 12 hours of the bite, even in this conservative analysis that assumed normal test results if the test was not done.

  1. The Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Clostridium difficile Infection in Liver Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Timothy; Weinberg, Alan; Rana, Meenakshi; Patel, Gopi; Huprikar, Shirish

    2016-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common after liver transplantation (LT); however, few studies have examined the risk factors, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of CDI in this population. A retrospective study of adults who underwent LT between January 1, 2011, and April 4, 2013, at The Mount Sinai Hospital was conducted. Potential risk factors were evaluated via univariate and multivariable analysis to determine predictors of CDI in this population. The clinical manifestations of CDI and patient outcomes were also reviewed. Clostridium difficile infection occurred in 27 (14%) of 192 patients after LT. In multivariable analysis, CDI was associated with having a model for end-stage liver disease score of 20 or greater (hazards ratio, 2.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-6.52; P = 0.010), and receiving a LT from a living donor (hazards ratio, 3.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-9.67; P = 0.006). Forty-one percent of CDI cases occurred within 1 week of LT. Seven percent of patients with CDI had a serum white blood cell count greater than 12 000 cells per μL, and 26% had a temperature greater than 38.0°C. After treatment 6 (22%) patients developed CDI relapse, and all were successfully treated. No patients died of CDI after a mean follow-up time of 1.8 years; however, overall survival was significantly lower among those with CDI (78% vs 92%; P = 0.033). Clostridium difficile infection after LT was associated with higher model for end-stage liver disease scores and receiving a LT from a living donor. Clostridium difficile infection often occurred soon after LT and was infrequently associated with leukocytosis or fever. Clostridium difficile infection in LT recipients was associated with lower overall survival.

  2. [A clinical analysis of 16 patients with maternal listeriosis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Yingqian; Wang, Huanling; Yang, Shuang; Xu, Yingchun; Li, Taisheng

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcome of maternal listeriosis so as to improve the understanding of disease and the level of diagnosis and treatment. Retrospectively, 16 cases of maternal listeriosis, who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between March 2007 and December 2014 were reviewed. Maternal listeriosis is defined when a pregnant woman presents with symptoms as listeriosis, meanwhile Listeria monocytogenes is isolated from sterile tissue or peripheral blood, or from a non-sterile site (uterus swab) or pathological evidence of chorioamnionitis. The neonatal listeriosis is diagnosed as acute listeria sepsis. The mean age of these 16 patients was (30.0 ± 3.9) years old. There were 1, 8, 7 patients with listeriosis diagnosed in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, respectively. All had an acute onset of illness (≤ 2 weeks), the median time from onset to presentation was 2.5 days. Clinical manifestations included fever (93.8%, 15/16), leukocytosis (78.6%, 11/14), chorioamnionitis (77.8%, 7/9), gastrointestinal symptoms (37.5%, 6/16) and fetal movement decrease (31.3%, 5/16). Listeria monocytogenes were isolated from blood (6 cases), uterus swab (6 cases), blood plus uterus swab (1 case), and neonates (3 cases). All maternal cases recovered well after the termination of pregnancy, even none of them had received empiric antibiotics sensitive to listeria. A very high proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes occurred (15/16, 93.8%). There were 8 fetal losses. Seven neonates were complicated with listeria sepsis and treated successfully. The patients with maternal listeriosis commonly presented with acute fever and an extremely high incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, however empiric antibiotics can hardly cover this pathogenic bacterium. So both pregnant women and clinicians should maintain a high level of vigilance against listeriosis and pay more attention to dietetic hygiene.

  3. Resurgence of leptospirosis in dogs in Ontario: recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, John F.; McEwen, Beverly; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J. Paul; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony; Wilcock, Brian

    2002-01-01

    A marked increase in leptospirosis in dogs was observed in 2000, part of an increasing trend observed in previous years in Ontario. The highest frequency of seropositive cases occurred from September to December 2000, with the peak in November. Large breed dogs were particularly affected. Clinical and clinicopathological data for 31 dogs admitted between 1998 and 2000 to the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital were analyzed. Major clinical presenting features were acute onset of anorexia, depression, fever, and vomiting. Ninety percent of dogs, on admission, showed biochemical evidence of injury to several organs, notably combinations in the order of kidney, muscle, pancreas, and liver. Almost all dogs showed increased serum urea and creatinine levels, and the majority had increased total creatine kinase, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. One-third were thrombocytopenic. Of dogs with liver-related abnormalities, most had evidence of cholestasis, with or without hepatocellular damage. Based on serologic studies, in the year 2000, the major serovar involved was autumnalis, but bratislava, grippotyphosa, and pomona were also implicated. The microscopic agglutination test often gave a confusing pattern of reactivities to the serovars that were tested. The high reactivity to serovar autumnalis may represent an erroneous or “paradoxical” reaction typical of early leptospiral serology. The year 2000 was the warmest in Ontario in each of the 4 fall months (September–December) of the previous decade, as well as being the third wettest in the fall period in the last decade. The increase in canine leptospirosis, therefore, may, in part, reflect climate change. The number of positive cases declined in 2001 by about one-third of those in 2000, but the number of submissions of sera for diagnosis increased markedly over previous years. Further work is required to isolate and to identify definitively serovars involved in

  4. Chemopreventive Effects of Dietary Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation in Experimental Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Emily R; Kudva, Avinash K; Quickel, Michael D; Goodfield, Laura L; Kennett, Mary J; Whelan, Jay; Paulson, Robert F; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-10-01

    Current therapies for treatment of myeloid leukemia do not eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC), leading to disease relapse. In this study, we supplemented mice with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5), a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid, at pharmacologic levels, to examine whether the endogenous metabolite, cyclopentenone prostaglandin delta-12 PGJ3 (Δ(12)-PGJ3), was effective in targeting LSCs in experimental leukemia. EPA supplementation for 8 weeks resulted in enhanced endogenous production of Δ(12)-PGJ3 that was blocked by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. Using a murine model of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) induced by bone marrow transplantation of BCR-ABL-expressing hematopoietic stem cells, mice supplemented with EPA showed a decrease in the LSC population, and reduced splenomegaly and leukocytosis, when compared with mice on an oleic acid diet. Supplementation of CML mice carrying the T315I mutation (in BCR-ABL) with EPA resulted in a similar effect. Indomethacin blocked the EPA effect and increased the severity of BCR-ABL-induced CML and decreased apoptosis. Δ(12)-PGJ3 rescued indomethacin-treated BCR-ABL mice and decreased LSCs. Inhibition of hematopoietic-prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) by HQL-79 in EPA-supplemented CML mice also blocked the effect of EPA. In addition, EPA supplementation was effective in a murine model of acute myeloid leukemia. EPA-supplemented mice exhibited a decrease in leukemia burden and a decrease in the LSC colony-forming unit (LSC-CFU). The decrease in LSCs was confirmed through serial transplantation assays in all disease models. The results support a chemopreventive role for EPA in myeloid leukemia, which is dependent on the ability to efficiently convert EPA to endogenous COX-derived prostanoids, including Δ(12)-PGJ3. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Regulation of HDL on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in atherosclerosis requires SR-BI expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mingming; Zhao, Dong; Schouteden, Sarah; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Eggermont, Kristel; Liu, George; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Feng, Yingmei

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recently we demonstrated that scavenger receptor type BI (SR-BI), a HDL receptor, was expressed on murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) and infusion of reconstituted HDL and purified human apoA-I suppressed HSPC proliferation. We hypothesized that SR-B1 expression is required for the observed anti-proliferative effects of HDL on HSPC. Approach and Results SR-BI deficient (SR-BI−/−) mice and wild type (WT) controls were fed on chow or HFD (HFD) for 8–10 weeks. Under chow diet, a significant increase in Lin-Sca1+cKit+ cells (LSK cells, so called HSPC) was found in the BM of SR-BI−/− mice compared with WT mice. HFD induced a further expansion of CD150+CD48− LSK cells (HSCs), HSPCs, and granulocyte monocyte progenitors (GMPs) in SR-BI−/− mice. Injection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetylcysteine attenuated HFD-induced HSPC expansion, leukocytosis and atherosclerosis in SR-BI−/− mice. ApoA-I infusion inhibited HSPC cell proliferation, Akt phosphorylation and ROS production in HSPC and plaque progression in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr−/−) apoA-I−/− mice on HFD but had no effect on SR-BI−/− mice on HFD. Transplantation of SR-BI−/− BM cells into irradiated LDLr−/− recipients resulted in enhanced white blood cells (WBC) reconstitution, inflammatory cell production and plaque development. In patients with coronary heart disease, HDL levels were negatively correlated with WBC count and HSPC frequency in the peripheral blood. By flow cytometry, SR-BI expression was detected on human HSPC. Conclusions SR-BI plays a critical role in the HDL-mediated regulation HSPC proliferation and differentiation which is associated with atherosclerosis progression. PMID:24969774

  6. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pediatric Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Zundel, Sabine; Lemaréchal, Angela; Kaiser, Philipp; Szavay, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Introduction  Pediatric necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare but severe, life-threatening infection. Early diagnosis is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality, but initial symptoms are nonspecific. Little sound data exists on factors aiding clinicians to recognize NF in children. With a systematic literature review, we aimed to better characterize pediatric NF. We focused on triggers, symptoms, and laboratory and microbiological findings and differences between pediatric adult patients. Materials and Methods  A literature research was conducted according to the guidance of the "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses." Articles published between January 2010 and October 2015 were included. Data extraction was performed as an iterative process. Results  A total of 32 articles describing 53 pediatric patients with NF were included in the analysis. Overall mortality was 15.4%. Frequency peaks were found for neonates and children aged between 1 and 2 years. These two age groups were predominantly affected on the torso. Another frequency peak was found in patients aged around 10 years of age. These patients were predominantly affected on the extremities and face. In general, early symptoms were found to be fever, erythema, localized selling, and tenderness or pain. "Pain out of proportion" was not mentioned as a typical symptom. Fever and leukocytosis were more common in teenage patients. Monomicrobial necrotizing (type 2) fasciitis was much more common than polymicrobial (type 1) fasciitis. Next to Streptococci and Staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was often isolated. Early aggressive surgical treatment was the treatment of choice. Conclusions  Pediatric NF has distinguishing features that differ from adult NF. Knowledge of these details should increase early diagnosis and improve treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Impact of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus on systemic and coagulation vulnerability in mice acutely exposed to diesel exhaust particles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence indicates that diabetic patients have increased susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes related to acute increases in exposures to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Methods To evaluate the possible mechanisms underlying these actions, we assessed the systemic effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in control mice, and mice with streptozotocin–induced type 1 diabetes. Four weeks following induction of diabetes, the animals were intratracheally instilled (i.t.) with DEP (0.4 mg/kg) or saline, and several cardiovascular endpoints were measured 24 h thereafter. Results DEP caused leukocytosis and a significant increase in plasma C-reactive protein and 8-isoprostane concentrations in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. The arterial PO2 as well as the number of platelets and the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles assessed in vivo were significantly decreased following the i.t. instillation of DEP in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. Both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase activities, as well as the plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor and von Willebrand factor were significantly increased in DEP-exposed diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or DEP-exposed non-diabetic mice. The in vitro addition of DEP (0.25-1 μg/ml) to untreated mouse blood significantly and dose-dependently induced in vitro platelet aggregation, and these effects were exacerbated in blood of diabetic mice. Conclusion This study has shown that systemic and coagulation events are aggravated by type 1 diabetes in mice, acutely exposed to DEP and has described the possible mechanisms for these actions that may also be relevant to the exacerbation of cardiovascular morbidity accompanying particulate air pollution in

  8. Prevalence of Toxin Genes among the Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and its Clinical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Deodhar, Divya; Varghese, George; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; John, James; Rebekah, Grace; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Jeyaraman, Ranjith; Jasmine, Sudha; Mathews, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes a variety of infections, ranging from a mild skin infection to blood stream infections and deep seated infections. As Stapylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) has the tendency to cause endovascular and metastatic infections, complications can occur at almost all sites of the body. Hence, SAB is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in spite of appropriate antimicrobial treatment. The virulence in S. aureus is determined by the presence of adhesins and toxins, which behave like superantigens (SAgs) and leads to a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines causing overwhelming inflammatory response leading to endothelial leakage, hemodynamic shock, multiorgan failure, and possibly death. Materials and Methods: One year prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in southern part of India included all patients with SAB. Clinical details were filled according to. All isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for enterotoxin profiling. Results: A total of 101 patients of SAB were identified which comprises of 61 (60.4%) patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 40 (39.6%) patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Most common predictors of mortality were prior hospitalization and antibiotic intake, severe organ dysfunction, shock, tachycardia, and leukocytosis. Two-third of the isolates had at least one enterotoxin, most prevalent was sea; 28% and 27% (P - value = 0.001) MSSA isolates had seg and sei; whereas, 38.6% (P - value < 0.001) of MRSA isolates were found to have sea. The most common enterotoxin associated with mortality was sei, which comprised of 38% of all mortality. Conclusion: In SAB, the significant predictors of mortality were prior hospitalization and antibiotic intake, presence of multiorgan dysfunction, and shock. Although overall significance between the enterotoxin and shock could not be demonstrated, it successfully demonstrated

  9. Prevalence of Toxin Genes among the Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and its Clinical Impact.

    PubMed

    Deodhar, Divya; Varghese, George; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; John, James; Rebekah, Grace; Janardhanan, Jeshina; Jeyaraman, Ranjith; Jasmine, Sudha; Mathews, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) causes a variety of infections, ranging from a mild skin infection to blood stream infections and deep seated infections. As Stapylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) has the tendency to cause endovascular and metastatic infections, complications can occur at almost all sites of the body. Hence, SAB is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in spite of appropriate antimicrobial treatment. The virulence in S. aureus is determined by the presence of adhesins and toxins, which behave like superantigens (SAgs) and leads to a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines causing overwhelming inflammatory response leading to endothelial leakage, hemodynamic shock, multiorgan failure, and possibly death. One year prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in southern part of India included all patients with SAB. Clinical details were filled according to. All isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for enterotoxin profiling. A total of 101 patients of SAB were identified which comprises of 61 (60.4%) patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 40 (39.6%) patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Most common predictors of mortality were prior hospitalization and antibiotic intake, severe organ dysfunction, shock, tachycardia, and leukocytosis. Two-third of the isolates had at least one enterotoxin, most prevalent was sea; 28% and 27% (P - value = 0.001) MSSA isolates had seg and sei; whereas, 38.6% (P - value < 0.001) of MRSA isolates were found to have sea. The most common enterotoxin associated with mortality was sei, which comprised of 38% of all mortality. In SAB, the significant predictors of mortality were prior hospitalization and antibiotic intake, presence of multiorgan dysfunction, and shock. Although overall significance between the enterotoxin and shock could not be demonstrated, it successfully demonstrated the difference of enterotoxin between MSSA and MRSA.

  10. Phenotypic variability within the JAK2 V617F-positive MPD: The roles of progenitor cell and neutrophil allele burdens

    PubMed Central

    Moliterno, Alison R.; Williams, Donna M.; Rogers, Ophelia; Isaacs, Mary Ann; Spivak, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    (1) Objective The myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) differ phenotypically but share the same JAK2V617F mutation. We examined the relationship of the quantitative JAK2V617F allele burden to MPD disease phenotype among the three MPD classes and within PV. (2) Methods We measured the JAK2V617F allele percentage in genomic DNA from neutrophils, CD34+ cells, and cloned progenitors in 212 JAK2V617F –positive MPD patients and correlated the allele burdens to both disease class and disease features. (3) Results In ET and PV, the mean CD34+ cell JAK2V617F allele burdens were lower than the corresponding neutrophil allele burdens, but these were equivalent in PMF. JAK2WT progenitors were present in ET and PV when the CD34+ JAK2V617F allele burden was lower than the neutrophil allele burden, but not in PV and PMF subjects in whom the CD34+ cell and neutrophil allele burdens were similar. CD34+ cell JAK2V617F clonal dominance, defined as coherence between the CD34+ cell and neutrophil JAK2V617F allele burdens, was present in 24% of ET, 56% of PV and 93% of PMF patients, and was independent of the CD34+ cell JAK2V617F genotype. Clonally-dominant PV patients had significantly longer disease durations, higher white cell counts and larger spleens than nondominant PV patients. (4) Conclusions We conclude that the extent of JAK2V617F CD34+ cell clonal dominance is associated with disease phenotype within the MPD, and in PV, is associated with extramedullary disease, leukocytosis and disease duration. PMID:18723264

  11. Juvenile generalized pustular psoriasis is a chronic recalcitrant disease: an analysis of 27 patients seen in a tertiary hospital in Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Bi-Wen; Lim, Dee-Zhen; Capon, Francesca; Barker, Jonathan N; Choon, Siew-Eng

    2017-04-01

    Limited information exists regarding juvenile generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP). We aim to determine the clinical profile and outcome of Malaysians with juvenile GPP. Review of hospital case notes on patients with juvenile GPP. Twenty-seven patients with juvenile GPP were identified. Female to male ratio was 1.4:1. The median age at onset of GPP was 6.5 years. Ten patients had prior psoriasis with a median pre-pustular duration of 2.7 years. Onset of GPP was earlier in patients without prior psoriasis (5.1 years vs. 12.0 years, P = 0.002). Precipitating factors identified included stress, upper respiratory tract infection, systemic steroid use, vaccination, and pregnancy. A positive family history of psoriasis and GPP was present in six and one patient(s), respectively. Twenty-one patients had acute, five annular, and one localized variant of GPP. Arthritis was present in 22.2%. Fever, leukocytosis, and transaminitis were mainly seen in patients with acute GPP at 80.9, 72.2, and 11.1%, respectively. Among 20 patients screened, eight carry IL36RN variants and one has CARD14 mutation. IL36RN-positive patients have more severe disease characterized by early onset, low prevalence of prior plaque psoriasis, high prevalence of systemic inflammation, and need for continuous long-term systemic therapy. Acitretin and cyclosporine were effective in aborting acute GPP in 100% of 16 and 66.7% of six patients treated, respectively. However, relapses were common. Only three of the 17 patients whose initial acute GPP was controlled with systemic agents were successfully weaned off treatment. Juvenile GPP is a chronic recalcitrant disease. IL36RN-positive patients have more severe disease. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Characterization and Prognosis Significance of JAK2 (V617F), MPL, and CALR Mutations in Philadelphia-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed

    Singdong, Roongrudee; Siriboonpiputtana, Teerapong; Chareonsirisuthigul, Takol; Kongruang, Adcharee; Limsuwanachot, Nittaya; Sirirat, Tanasan; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba

    2016-10-01

    Background: The discovery of somatic acquired mutations of JAK2 (V617F) in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has not only improved rational disease classification and prognostication but also brings new understanding insight into the pathogenesis of diseases. Dosage effects of the JAK2 (V617F) allelic burden in Ph-negative MPNs may partially influence clinical presentation, disease progression, and treatment outcome. Material and Methods: Pyrosequencing was performed to detect JAK2 (V617F) and MPL (W515K/L) and capillary electrophoresis to identify CALR exon 9.0 mutations in 100.0 samples of Ph-negative MPNs (38.0 PV, 55 ET, 4 PMF, and 3 MPN-U). Results: The results showed somatic mutations of JAK2 (V617F) in 94.7% of PV, 74.5% of ET, 25.0% of PMF, and all MPN-U. A high proportion of JAK2 (V617F) mutant allele burden (mutational load > 50.0%) was predominantly observed in PV when compared with ET. Although a high level of JAK2 (V617F) allele burden was strongly associated with high WBC counts in both PV and ET, several hematological parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count) were independent of JAK2 (V617F) mutational load. MPL (W515K/L) mutations could not be detected whereas CALR exon 9.0 mutations were identified in 35.7% of patients with JAK2 negative ET and 33.3% with JAK2 negative PMF. Conclusions: The JAK2 (V617F) allele burden may be involved in progression of MPNs. Furthermore, a high level of JAK2 (V617F) mutant allele appears strongly associated with leukocytosis in both PV and ET. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. A Population-Based Acute Meningitis and Encephalitis Syndromes Surveillance in Guangxi, China, May 2007- June 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Wu, Xinghua; Bi, Fuyin; Hadler, Stephen C.; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Lin, Mei; Quan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Acute meningitis and encephalitis (AME) are common diseases with the main pathogens being viruses and bacteria. As specific treatments are different, it is important to develop clinical prediction rules to distinguish aseptic from bacterial or fungal infection. In this study we evaluated the incidence rates, seasonal variety and the main etiologic agents of AME, and identified factors that could be used to predict the etiologic agents. Methods A population-based AME syndrome surveillance system was set up in Guigang City, Guangxi, involving 12 hospitals serving the study communities. All patients meeting the case definition were investigated. Blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid were tested for bacterial pathogens using culture or RT-PCR and serological tests for viruses using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Laboratory testing variables were grouped using factor analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict the etiology of AME. Results From May 2007 to June 2012, the annual incidence rate of AME syndrome, and disease specifically caused by Japanese encephalitis (JE), other viruses, bacteria and fungi were 12.55, 0.58, 4.57, 0.45 and 0.14 per 100,000 population, respectively. The top three identified viral etiologic agents were enterovirus, mumps virus, and JE virus, and for bacteria/fungi were Streptococcus sp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Staphylococcus sp. The incidence of JE and other viruses affected younger populations and peaked from April to August. Alteration of consciousness and leukocytosis were more likely to be caused by JE, bacteria and fungi whereas CSF inflammation was associated with bacterial/fungal infection. Conclusions With limited predictive validity of symptoms and signs and routine laboratory tests, specific tests for JE virus, mumps virus and enteroviruses are required to evaluate the immunization impact and plan for further intervention. CSF bacterial culture cannot be omitted in guiding clinical decisions

  14. Predictors of Urgent Findings on Abdominopelvic CT in Patients with Crohn's Disease Presenting to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Dong Il; Hong, Sung Noh; Kim, Eun Ran; Kim, Young Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee; Eun, Chang Soo; Han, Dong Soo; Lee, Chang Kyun; Kim, Jae Hak; Huh, Kyu Chan; Yoon, Soon Man; Song, Hyun Joo; Shin, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Seong Ran

    2015-04-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are frequently exposed to diagnostic radiation, mainly as a result of abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) examinations. However, there are limited data on the impact of APCT on clinical management in this population. To investigate clinical predictors of urgent findings on APCT in patients with CD who presented to the emergency department (ED). A retrospective study was performed among patients with CD presenting to 11 EDs with a gastrointestinal complaint. The primary outcome, OPAN (obstruction, perforation, abscess, or non-CD-related urgent findings), included new or worsening CD-related urgent findings or non-CD-related urgent findings that required urgent or emergency treatment. Variables with P < 0.1 in univariate analyses were included in a multivariable logistic regression model. Of the 266 APCTs performed, 103 (38.7 %) had OPAN and 113 (42.5 %) required changes in treatment plan. Stricturing or penetrating disease (odds ratio [OR] 2.72, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.21-6.13), heart rate >100 beats/min (OR 2.33, 95 % CI 1.10-4.93), leukocyte count >10,000/mm(3) (OR 4.38, 95 % CI 2.10-9.13), and CRP >2.5 mg/dL (OR 3.11, 95 % CI 1.23-7.86) were identified as the independent predictors of OPAN, whereas biologic agent use (OR 0.37; 95 % CI 0.15-0.90) was identified as the negative predictor in patients with CD. Only 39 % of the APCTs performed in the ED among patients with CD showed urgent findings. Stricturing or penetrating disease, tachycardia, leukocytosis, and high CRP level were predictors of urgent CT findings, while biologic agent use was a negative predictor. To reduce unnecessary radiation exposure, the selection process for CD patients referred for APCT must be improved.

  15. Hematological and biochemical investigations on the effect of vitamin E and C on Oreochromis niloticus exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Alkaladi, Ali; El-Deen, Nasr A M Nasr; Afifi, Mohamed; Zinadah, Osama A Abu

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the LC50 of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on Oreochromis niloticus and to investigate the effect of vitamin E and C on hematological and biochemical alterations induced by two sublethal concentrations (1 and 2 mg/L) of ZnONPs. One hundred and eighty fish were used for studying the lethal concentrations of ZnONPs. For sublethal study two hundred and twenty-five males of O. niloticus were equally divided into five groups, control, the second and the third were treated with 1 and 2 mg/L ZnONPs respectively. The fourth and fifth were exposed to the same concentrations of ZnONPs plus vitamins E and C. The results revealed that the 96 h LC50 of ZnONPs was 3.1 ± 0.4 mg/L. The sublethal study revealed the presence of normocytic normochromic anemia in groups (2, 3 and 5) along the experiment period. The 4th group showed normocytic normochromic anemia at the 7th day and microcytic hypochromic anemia at the 15th day. Leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were recorded at the 7th day in all treated groups compared with the normal control. At the 15th day heteropenia, lymphopenia and monocytopenia were reported in all treated groups. A significant increase in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, urea, creatinine and erythrocytic nuclear and morphological abnormalities along the experimental periods in all treated groups compared with the normal control. Serum total protein and albumin levels were significantly decreased at the same period in the same groups. Addition of vitamin E and C to the diet (groups 4 and 5) significantly improved all measured parameters compared with groups (2 and 3) which treated with ZnONPs only.

  16. Surgical management of colonic diverticular disease: discrepancy between right- and left-sided diseases.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2014-08-07

    To compare the outcome of the surgical management of left-sided and right-sided diverticular disease. The medical records of 77 patients who were surgically treated for diverticular disease between 1999 and 2010 in a tertiary referral hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The study population was limited to cases wherein the surgical specimen was confirmed as diverticulosis by pathology. Right-sided diverticula were classified as those arising from the cecum, ascending colon, and transverse colon, and those from the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum were classified as left-sided diverticulosis. To assess the changing trend of occurrence of diverticulosis, data were compared with two previous studies of 51 patients. The proportion of left-sided disease cases was significantly increased compared to the results of our previous studies in 1994 and 2001, (27.5% vs 48.1%, P < 0.05). Moreover, no differences in gender, body mass index, multiplicity of the diverticula, fever, or leukocytosis were noted between patients with right-sided and left-sided disease. However, patients with right-sided disease were significantly younger (50.9 year vs 64.0 year, P < 0.01). Furthermore, left-sided disease was significantly associated with a higher incidence of complicated diverticulitis (89.2% vs 57.5%, P < 0.01), combined resection due to extensive inflammation (21.6% vs 5.0%, P < 0.05), operative complications (51.4% vs 27.5%, P < 0.05), and in-hospital mortality (10.8% vs 0%, P < 0.05), along with longer post-operative hospitalization duration (21.3 ± 10.2 d vs 10.6 ± 8.1 d, P < 0.05). Compared with right-sided diverticular disease, the incidence of left-sided disease in Korea has increased since 2001 and is associated with worse surgical outcomes.

  17. Surgical management of colonic diverticular disease: Discrepancy between right- and left-sided diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Heung-Kwon; Han, Eon Chul; Ha, Heon-Kyun; Choe, Eun Kyung; Moon, Sang Hui; Ryoo, Seung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the outcome of the surgical management of left-sided and right-sided diverticular disease. METHODS: The medical records of 77 patients who were surgically treated for diverticular disease between 1999 and 2010 in a tertiary referral hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The study population was limited to cases wherein the surgical specimen was confirmed as diverticulosis by pathology. Right-sided diverticula were classified as those arising from the cecum, ascending colon, and transverse colon, and those from the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum were classified as left-sided diverticulosis. To assess the changing trend of occurrence of diverticulosis, data were compared with two previous studies of 51 patients. RESULTS: The proportion of left-sided disease cases was significantly increased compared to the results of our previous studies in 1994 and 2001, (27.5% vs 48.1%, P < 0.05). Moreover, no differences in gender, body mass index, multiplicity of the diverticula, fever, or leukocytosis were noted between patients with right-sided and left-sided disease. However, patients with right-sided disease were significantly younger (50.9 year vs 64.0 year, P < 0.01). Furthermore, left-sided disease was significantly associated with a higher incidence of complicated diverticulitis (89.2% vs 57.5%, P < 0.01), combined resection due to extensive inflammation (21.6% vs 5.0%, P < 0.05), operative complications (51.4% vs 27.5%, P < 0.05), and in-hospital mortality (10.8% vs 0%, P < 0.05), along with longer post-operative hospitalization duration (21.3 ± 10.2 d vs 10.6 ± 8.1 d, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with right-sided diverticular disease, the incidence of left-sided disease in Korea has increased since 2001 and is associated with worse surgical outcomes. PMID:25110438

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of green versus black tea aqueous extract in a rat model of human rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Talaat, Roba M; Abd El-Ghffar, Eman A

    2017-02-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in tea (Camellia sinensis) as a protective agent against inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluated/compared the anti-inflammatory activity of two different doses (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg body weight) of green tea aqueous extract (GTE, rich in catechins) and black tea aqueous extract (BTE, rich in theaflavins and thearubigins) in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model received orally/daily distilled water as vehicle, indomethacin (1.0 mg/kg body weight; a non-steroidal/anti-inflammatory drug), or tea aqueous extracts (for 28 or 14 consecutive days starting from day 0 or 14 of arthritis induction, respectively). The present study showed that only the high dose of GTE (from day 0) significantly alleviated (P < 0.05-0.001) all complications shown in arthritic rats, including synovial joint inflammation, elevation in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood leukocytosis (due to lymphocytosis and neutrocytosis), and changes in weight/cellularity of lymphoid organs. The anti-arthritic activity of the high dose of GTE (from day 0) was comparable (P > 0.05) with that of indomethacin (12.9-53.8 vs. 9.5-48.4%, respectively) and mediated by significantly decreasing and down-regulating (P < 0.001) the systemic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the expression of chemokine receptor-5 in synovial tissues, respectively. Moreover, the anti-arthritic activity of tea aqueous extracts was in the following order: high dose of GTE > low dose of GTE ≥ high dose of BTE > low dose of BTE. The present study proved the anti-inflammatory activity of GTE over BTE and equal to that of indomethacin in AIA rat model. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Extracorporeal life support in the treatment of colchicine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Rahmani, Hassène; Stiel, Laure; Tournoud, Christine; Sauder, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Ingestions of Colchicum autumnale may lead to severe poisoning. It begins with gastrointestinal symptoms and leukocytosis, followed by multi-organ failure with shock and a possible late recovery phase. Mortality is highly dependent on the ingested dose. We report a case of accidental C. autumnale poisoning with refractory cardiogenic shock and eventual survival after extracorporeal life support (ECLS). A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) on day 3 after ingestion of C. autumnale in a meal. She first suffered from nausea and vomiting leading to severe dehydration. She then developed multi-organ failure and refractory cardiogenic shock, with a mean arterial pressure nadir of 50 mmHg despite high doses of catecholamines and a left ventricular ejection fraction at 5-10%. Venous-arterial ECLS was therefore started at an initial rate of 3.5 L/min and 3,800 rev/min. Her symptoms also included pancytopenia on day 4 with diffuse bleeding requiring iterative blood product transfusion. Platelet and leukocyte count nadirs were 13 × 10(9)/L (normal range: 150-400 × 10(9)/L) and 0.77 × 10(9)/L (normal range: 4.2-10.7 × 10(9)/L), respectively. ECLS allowed good cardiac contractility recovery within a few days, with complications including bleeding made controllable. Indeed, because of hemostasis disorders, the patient presented hemoptysis and hematuria. She was treated with tranexamic acid and transfused with blood products. She received 15 erythrocyte concentrates, 13 platelet concentrates, and 7 fresh frozen plasma. ECLS was removed by day 10, with subsequent weaning from mechanical ventilation as well as from hemodialysis in the following days. This patient survives after the use of ECLS in Colchicum poisoning, with controllable complications. Thus, ECLS might be indicated to overcome the potentially refractory cardiogenic shock phase.

  20. Postoperative Central Nervous System Infection After Neurosurgery in a Modernized, Resource-Limited Tertiary Neurosurgical Center in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Swathi; Nair, M Nathan; Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Cai, Ling; Gu, Weiling; Vasudevan, Madabushi Chakravarthy

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative central nervous system infections (PCNSIs) are rare but serious complications after neurosurgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and causative pathogens of PCNSIs at a modernized, resource-limited neurosurgical center in South Asia. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the medical records of all 363 neurosurgical cases performed between June 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013, at a neurosurgical center in South Asia. Data from all operative neurosurgical cases during the 13-month period were included. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated that 71 of the 363 surgical cases had low CSF glucose or CSF leukocytosis. These 71 cases were categorized as PCNSIs. The PCNSIs with positive CSF cultures (9.86%) all had gram-negative bacteria with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5), Escherichia coli (n = 1), or Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). The data suggest a higher rate of death (P = 0.031), a higher rate of CSF leak (P < 0.001), and a higher rate of cranial procedures (P < 0.001) among the infected patients and a higher rate of CSF leak among the patients with culture-positive infections (P = 0.038). This study summarizes the prevalence, causative organism of PCNSI, and antibiotic usage for all of the neurosurgical cases over a 13-month period in a modernized yet resource-limited neurosurgical center located in South Asia. The results from this study highlight the PCNSI landscape in an area of the world that is often underreported in the neurosurgical literature because of the paucity of clinical neurosurgical research undertaken there. This study shows an increasing prevalence of gram-negative organisms in CSF cultures from PCNSIs, which supports a trend in the recent literature of increasing gram-negative bacillary meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Infections with the tick-borne bacterium "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" mimic noninfectious conditions in patients with B cell malignancies or autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Grankvist, Anna; Andersson, Per-Ola; Mattsson, Mattias; Sender, Monica; Vaht, Krista; Höper, Linnea; Sakiniene, Egidija; Trysberg, Estelle; Stenson, Martin; Fehr, Jan; Pekova, Sona; Bogdan, Christian; Bloemberg, Guido; Wennerås, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis is a newly discovered noncultivatable bacterium spread among ticks and rodents in Europe and Asia that can infect humans, particularly immunocompromised patients. We compiled clinical and laboratory data from 11 patients with hematological malignances or autoimmune diseases who were diagnosed with Candidatus N. mikurensis infection in Europe 2010-2013. Both published (6) and unpublished cases (5) were included. The patients had a median age of 67, were mostly male (8/11), and resided in Sweden, Switzerland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. All but one had ongoing or recent immune suppressive treatment and a majority were splenectomized (8/11). Less than half of them recalled tick exposure. The most frequent symptoms were fever (11/11), localized pain afflicting muscles and/or joints (8/11), vascular and thromboembolic events (6/11), that is, deep vein thrombosis (4), transitory ischemic attacks (2), pulmonary embolism (1), and arterial aneurysm (1). Typical laboratory findings were elevated C-reactive protein, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and anemia. Median time from onset of symptoms to correct diagnosis was 2 months. In at least 4 cases, the condition was interpreted to be due to the underlying disease, and immunosuppressive therapy was scheduled. All patients recovered completely when doxycycline was administered. Candidatus N. mikurensis is an emerging tick-borne pathogen that may give rise to a systemic inflammatory syndrome in persons with hematologic or autoimmune diseases that could be mistaken for recurrence of the underlying disease and/or unrelated arteriosclerotic vascular events. Awareness of this new pathogen is warranted among rheumatologists, hematologists, oncologists, and infectious disease specialists. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Impact of experimental type 1 diabetes mellitus on systemic and coagulation vulnerability in mice acutely exposed to diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Yasin, Javed; Ali, Badreldin H

    2013-04-15

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diabetic patients have increased susceptibility to adverse cardiovascular outcomes related to acute increases in exposures to particulate air pollution. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. To evaluate the possible mechanisms underlying these actions, we assessed the systemic effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in control mice, and mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. Four weeks following induction of diabetes, the animals were intratracheally instilled (i.t.) with DEP (0.4 mg/kg) or saline, and several cardiovascular endpoints were measured 24 h thereafter. DEP caused leukocytosis and a significant increase in plasma C-reactive protein and 8-isoprostane concentrations in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. The arterial PO2 as well as the number of platelets and the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles assessed in vivo were significantly decreased following the i.t. instillation of DEP in diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or non-diabetic mice exposed to DEP. Both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase activities, as well as the plasma concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor and von Willebrand factor were significantly increased in DEP-exposed diabetic mice compared to diabetic mice exposed to saline or DEP-exposed non-diabetic mice. The in vitro addition of DEP (0.25-1 μg/ml) to untreated mouse blood significantly and dose-dependently induced in vitro platelet aggregation, and these effects were exacerbated in blood of diabetic mice. This study has shown that systemic and coagulation events are aggravated by type 1 diabetes in mice, acutely exposed to DEP and has described the possible mechanisms for these actions that may also be relevant to the exacerbation of cardiovascular morbidity accompanying particulate air pollution in diabetic patients.

  3. Chronic Granulomatous Disease Presenting as Aspergillus Fumigatus Pneumonia in a Previously Healthy Young Woman.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Kadaria, Dipen; Sodhi, Amik; Fox, Roy; Williams, Glenn; Threlkeld, Stephen

    2017-04-05

    BACKGROUND Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare immunodeficiency disease caused by a genetic defect in the NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase enzyme, resulting in increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. The inheritance can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Patients usually present with repeated infections early in life. We present an unusual case of a 23-year-old patient diagnosed with CGD. CASE REPORT A 23-year-old white woman with no previous history of recurrent infections presented with complaints of fever, shortness of breath, and diffuse myalgia. She had been treated twice for similar complain