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Sample records for levator anguli oris

  1. Intramuscular haemangioma of the levator anguli oris: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Koltsidopoulos, P; Tsea, M; Kafki, S; Skoulakis, C

    2013-10-01

    Intramuscular haemangiomas are benign malformations of blood vessels occurring in skeletal muscles. Because of the rarity of these lesions, their deep location and variable clinical presentation, they often pose diagnostic difficulties. We herein present the first reported case of intramuscular haemangioma occurring in the levator anguli oris muscle. A 26-year-old man was referred to our Department for evaluation and management of a progressive swelling of the right cheek. Based mainly on the imaging findings, a preoperative diagnosis of intramuscular haemangioma was made and surgery was performed. During intervention, a highly vascular soft tissue mass was identified within the levator anguli oris muscle. The lesion was completely removed via an intraoral approach, and histopathological examination showed an intramuscular haemangioma.

  2. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  3. Evaluation of the levator ani and pelvic wall muscles in levator ani syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hull, Margaret; Corton, Marlene M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a difficult problem to evaluate and treat. Knowledge of the pelvic floor and pelvic wall muscles may enable the provider to identify levator ani spasm syndrome, a possible cause of chronic pelvic pain.

  4. Surgical repair of bilateral levator ani muscles with ultrasound guidance.

    PubMed

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2013-07-01

    Separation of the levator ani muscles from pubic bone is a common major levator trauma that may occur in vaginal delivery and is associated with pelvic floor dysfunctions. We describe a novel ultrasound-guided technique to repair these muscles. A 33-year-old woman presented with a history of difficult vaginal delivery and complaint of numbness and weakness of the vagina. In evaluation, bilateral levator defects were diagnosed by physical examination, three-dimensional endovaginal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. With ultrasound guidance the detached ends of muscles were tagged and sutured to their insertion points at the pubic bone. The patient's normal anatomy was restored with the return to normal pelvic floor tone. A follow-up ultrasound showed restored levator anatomy at 3 months.

  5. The Levator Claviculae Muscle Presenting as a Neck Mass.

    PubMed

    Schlarb, Haley C; Williams, Daniel W; Schlarb, Alexander C; Judhan, Rudy; Schlarb, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    The levator claviculae muscle is an uncommonly encountered muscle variant, occurring in 1% to 2% of the human population. Most accounts of the levator claviculae muscle have been reported in association with routine cadaveric examination and as an incidental finding by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We report a case of this variant muscle presenting as a soft-tissue mass within the neck of a young male. Furthermore, we discuss the embryologic origin, imaging features and clinical implication.

  6. Prevalence of Levator Ani Defects in Urogynecological Patients

    PubMed Central

    Albrich, S.; Rommens, K.; Steetskamp, J.; Weyer, V.; Hoffmann, G.; Skala, C.; Zahn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Defects of the levator ani muscle complex could represent a pathophysiological link between vaginal birth trauma and urogynecological symptoms many years later. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of levator ani muscle defects using 3D or 4D ultrasound and palpation in urogynecological patients. Material and Methods: Urogynecological patients were retrospectively investigated using 3D or 4D ultrasound. Clinical examination consisted of palpation and 3D or 4D imaging of the levator ani muscle. Results: A total of 319 women were included in the analysis. Mean age was 64.9 years, average parity was 2.1. Stress incontinence was present in 50.8 %, overactive bladder symptoms in 69.3 % and pelvic organ prolapse in 42.3 % of patients. A levator ani defect was found on ultrasound in 76 patients (23.8 %) and on palpation in 64 women (20.0 %). In the group of patients with pelvic organ prolapse, levator ani defects were found in 32.6 % of patients using ultrasound and in 26.7 % of patients using palpation. The odds ratio (OR) for levator ani defects in women with pelvic organ prolapse was 2.3 (95 % CI [CI: confidence interval]: 1.36–3.88], p = 0.002). Conclusion: In a cohort of urogynecological patients seen at a tertiary urogynecological unit, the prevalence of levator ani defects was significantly higher in women with pelvic organ prolapse compared to women with stress incontinence or urge symptoms. PMID:27635090

  7. Levator Ani Muscle Stretch Induced by Simulated Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Kuo-Cheng; Mooney, Brian; DeLancey, John O. L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a three-dimensional computer model to predict levator ani muscle stretch during vaginal birth. METHODS: Serial magnetic resonance images from a healthy nulliparous 34-year-old woman, published anatomic data, and engineering graphics software were used to construct a structural model of the levator ani muscles along with related passive tissues. The model was used to quantify pelvic floor muscle stretch induced during the second stage of labor as a model fetal head progressively engaged and then stretched the iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles. RESULTS: The largest tissue strain reached a stretch ratio (tissue length under stretch/original tissue length) of 3.26 in medial pubococcygeus muscle, the shortest, most medial and ventral levator ani muscle. Regions of the ileococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles reached maximal stretch ratios of 2.73, 2.50, and 2.28, respectively. Tissue stretch ratios were proportional to fetal head size: For example, increasing fetal head diameter by 9% increased medial pubococcygeus stretch by the same amount. CONCLUSION: The medial pubococcygeus muscles undergo the largest stretch of any levator ani muscles during vaginal birth. They are therefore at the greatest risk for stretch-related injury. PMID:14704241

  8. Levator Ani Muscle Anatomy Evaluated by Origin-Insertion Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Rohna; Sawhney, Raja; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the published literature and suggest a resolution to the confusion that exists in levator ani muscle descriptions and terminology. DATA SOURCES A MEDLINE search was performed using the keyword “levator ani,” limited to human studies in women. References found in these articles were reviewed to identify research reported before 1966 and articles not included in the search. STUDY SELECTION Studies were accepted if they contained direct observations of female specimens. Only those that contained specific descriptions or illustrations of the muscle origins and insertions in more than 5 female specimens were included. Review of 265 human studies yielded 9 qualifying articles, and reference tracing disclosed 3 additional reports. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS The literature review identified 5 origin-insertion pairs consistently described in studies directly examining the levator ani muscle in women, but 16 terms were used by authors for these 5 components of the muscle. Labeled illustrations often provided more precise information than was provided in the text. Terms were reviewed for inconsistencies of usage and appropriateness of term choice. The terms puboperineal, pubovaginal, and puboanal (for components of the pubovisceral [“pubococcygeal”] muscle), along with puborectal and iliococcygeal, are sufficient to describe the divisions of the levator ani muscle. CONCLUSION Although there was great diversity and conflict in terms chosen among the original articles, the number of origin and insertion pairs was relatively consistent among authors and confusion can be avoided by standardizing terminology. PMID:15229017

  9. Levator ani deformation during the second stage of labour.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Mario; Martinez-Romero, Oscar; Elías-Zúñiga, Alex; Rodríguez, Mauricio; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Fiorentino, Antonio; Donzella, Giorgio; Avanzini, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A very important medical problem for females is urinary incontinence, sometimes associated with faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. One of the most common reasons these issues are increasing is clearly the muscle damage during childbirth. This article focusses on understanding the complex behaviour of the levator ani muscles involved in the second stage of labour. A geometrical model obtained from a 23-year-old nulliparous woman was used to simulate childbirth. Several assumptions were introduced in order to simplify the problem without significantly affecting the global response of the system. An anisotropic hyperelastic model was used to characterize the material behaviour; the muscle fibres were assumed to be mostly orientated circumferentially. In addition, particular attention was also put to the boundary conditions of the model. The introduction of the constraints imposed by the coccyx bone in the central area of the levator ani group represents one the most important improvement compared to previous computational models. The maximum deformation and stress were found in the pubococcygeus muscle of the levator ani group. A stretch value close to 2.2 was determined by considering different material parameters. The results seem convincing with respect to medical observation and previous analysis. However, there are still some limitations concerning the material definition and the geometry and trajectory of the head that can be further improved.

  10. Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery: Bone and Levator Ani Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Janis M.; Low, Lisa Kane; Zielinski, Ruth; Smith, Ms. Abigail R.; DeLancey, John O.L.; Brandon, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe occurrence, recovery, and consequences of musculoskeletal injuries in women at-risk for childbirth-related pelvic floor injury at first vaginal birth. Study Design Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery (EMRLD) is a longitudinal cohort design study of women recruited early post-birth and followed over time. We report here on 68 women who had birth-related risk factors for levator ani muscle injury, including long second stage, anal tears, and/or older maternal age, and who were evaluated by musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging at both 7-weeks and 8-months postpartum. We categorized magnitude of injury by extent of bone marrow edema, pubic bone fracture, levator ani muscle edema, and levator ani muscle tear. We also measured the force of levator ani muscle contraction, urethral pressure, pelvic organ prolapse, and incontinence. Results In this higher-risk sample, 66% (39/59) had pubic bone marrow edema, 29% (17/59) had subcortical fracture, 90% (53/59) levator ani muscle edema, and 41% (28/68) low-grade or greater levator ani tear 7-weeks postpartum. The magnitude of levator ani muscle tear did not substantially change by 8-months postpartum (p=0.86), but levator ani muscle edema and bone injuries showed total or near total resolution (p<.05). The magnitude of unresolved musculoskeletal injuries correlated with magnitude of reduced levator ani muscle strength and posterior vaginal wall descent (p<.05) but not with urethral pressure, volume of demonstrable stress incontinence, nor self-report of incontinence severity (p>.05). Conclusion Pubic bone edema and subcortical fracture and levator ani muscle injury are common when studied in women with certain risk factors. The bony abnormalities resolve, but levator tear does not, and is associated with levator weakness and posterior-vaginal wall descent. PMID:25957022

  11. Surgical correction of blepharoptosis using a modified levator aponeurosis-Müller muscle complex reinsertion technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haipeng; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Duo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes after ptosis correction surgery using a modified levator aponeurosis-Müller muscle complex reinsertion technique. In this clinical study, 75 eyelids of 49 patients with congenital blepharoptosis were treated with the modified technique. The results, including complications, were followed up and evaluated. Operation was performed via anterior transcutaneous incision. After separating the preseptal orbicularis oculi muscle, the levator complex, including Müller muscle and the levator aponeurosis, was visualized. The levator complex was cut into 2 parts at the top of the conjunctival fornix to create an upper portion and a lower portion. The detached lower portion of the complex flap combined with the tarsal plate was advanced superiorly and reinserted into the posterior aspect of the upper portion of the complex flap by using 3 horizontal mattress sutures. Preoperative ptosis severity was compared with the degree of ptosis correction using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test. Preoperative levator function was compared with the degree of ptosis correction and the postoperative levator function using Fisher exact test for paired data. Sufficient postoperative correction of ptosis was achieved in 78.7% of eyelids. Postoperative levator function of more than 4 mm was achieved in 82.7% of all eyelids that underwent surgery. We conclude that the modified levator aponeurosis-Müller muscle complex reinsertion technique is effective for correcting congenital blepharoptosis, especially in patients with fair to good (>4 mm) preoperative levator function.

  12. Double-eyelid operation: orbicularis oculi-levator aponeurosis fixation technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung I; Park, Min S

    2007-08-01

    Incision techniques in the past focused on fixing the pretarsal skin to either the tarsal plate or to the levator aponeurosis. High relapse rate remains one of the main concerns in double-eyelid surgery. To address these issues, the author developed a pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle-levator aponeurosis fixation technique. This technique results in better fixation between the skin and the levator aponeurosis by recruiting a bulky, pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle in the fixation mechanism. This technique provides for a solidly fixed, tightly stretched pretarsal skin when the eyes are open with significantly reduced chances of relapse.

  13. The Lesser Palatine Nerve Innervates the Levator Veli Palatini Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Yoshitaka; Kawai, Katsuya; Yamada, Shigehito; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2016-01-01

    Summary: When the lesser palatine nerve (LPN) is supposed to be a branch of the trigeminal nerve and innervate sensation of the soft palate, whether the LPN contains motor fibers is unclear. In this study, we monitored the electromyogram of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle on stimulating the LPN during palatoplasty in 3 patients. The electromyogram of the muscles showed the myogenic potential induced by electrostimulation of the LPN. Taken together with the finding from our previous anatomical study that the motor fibers come from the facial nerve, this result supports the double innervation theory of the LVP, which posits that both the pharyngeal plexus and the facial nerve innervate it. Identifying and preserving the LPN during palatoplasty might improve postoperative speech results. PMID:27757354

  14. How well can levator ani muscle morphology on 3D pelvic floor ultrasound predict the levator ani muscle function?

    PubMed Central

    Rostaminia, G.; Peck, J. D.; Quiroz, L. H.; Shobeiri, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis The aim of our study was to assess the performance of levator ani muscle deficiency (LAD) evaluated by 3D endovaginal ultrasound (EVUS) to detect pelvic floor muscle function as assessed by digital examination. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 77 patients referred to our urogynecology clinic for pelvic floor dysfunction symptoms. Patients underwent physical examinations including digital pelvic muscle strength assessment using the Modified Oxford scale (MOS). EVUS volumes were evaluated and levator ani muscles were scored according to a validated LAD scoring system. MOS scores were categorized as nonfunctional (scores 0–1) and functional (scores 2–5). Results Mean age of participants was 56 (SD± 12.5) and 71% were menopausal. Overall, 32.5% had nonfunctional muscle strength and 44.2% were classified as having significant LAD. LAD identified by ultrasound had a sensitivity of 60% (95% CI 41%–79%) for detecting nonfunctional muscle and a specificity of 63% (95% CI 50%–77%) for detecting functional muscle. Overall, LAD demonstrated fair ability to discriminate between patient with and without poor muscle function (area under the ROC curve = 0.70 (95% CI 0.58–0.83). Among patients with an LAD score of 16–18, representing almost total muscle avulsion, 70% had nonfunctional MOS scores. Whereas, in patients with normal/minimal LAD (scores of 0–4), 89.5% had functional MOS scores Conclusions LAD and MOS scales were moderately negatively correlated Among patients with normal morphology or the most severe muscle deficiency, LAD scores can identify the majority of patients with functional or non-functional MOS scores, respectively. PMID:25246297

  15. Application of levator veli palatini retropositioning combined with Buccinator myomucosal island flap for congenital cleft palate

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Y. J.; Zhang, H. C.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, Y. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cleft palate causes a serious obstacle to children with regard to language and eating function. The aim of the current study was to examine the clinical application of a type of palatoplasty that has a reduced impact on the maxillary growth and good function in velopharyngeal competence. A total of 37 patients with cleft palate were treated with levator veli palatini retropositioning combined with Buccinator myomucosal island flap. The patients were successfully treated in the first phase and were followed up for 1–3 years. Speech intelligibility was satisfactory and no fistula occurred. In conclusion, the results suggested that levator veli palatini retropositioning combined with the Buccinator myomucosal island flap may restore normal anatomic structure and location of the levator veli palatini, obtain good velopharyngeal competence, and decrease the incidence rate thereof. Thus, levator veli palatini retropositioning combined with the Buccinator myomucosal island flap is a functional procedure for cleft palate repair. PMID:27698756

  16. Androgen-estrogen synergy in rat levator ani muscle Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Max, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of castration and hormone administration on the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the rat levator ani muscle were studied. Castration caused a decrease in enzyme activity and in wet weight of the levator ani muscle. Chronic administration of testosterone propionate increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the levator ani muscle of castrated rats; the magnitude of the recovery of enzyme activity was related to the length of time of exposure to testosterone propionate after castration as well as to the length of time the animals were castrated. The longer the period of castration before exposure to testosterone propionate, the greater the effect. This result may be related to previously reported castration-mediated increases in androgen receptor binding in muscle. Dihydrotestosterone was less effective than testosterone propionate in enhancing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the levator ani muscle from castrated rats; estradiol-17-beta alone was ineffective. Combined treatment with estradiol-17-beta and dihydrotestosterone, however, was as effective as testosterone alone. Thus, androgens and estrogens may exert synergistic effects on levator ani muscle.

  17. Influences of swallowing volume and viscosity on regulation of levator veli palatini muscle activity during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Okuno, K; Tachimura, T; Sakai, T

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the aspect of the regulation of velum movement in the transition from the oral to pharyngeal phases of swallowing in relation to changes in the swallowing volume and viscosity by means of measurment of levator veli palatini muscle activity. The subjects were nine normal adults, ranging in age from 24 to 30 years. The swallowing volume was set at 1/4, 1/2 and 1 volume of the optimum volume of green tea for swallowing determined in each subject, and the viscosity was adjusted to 0, 2·0 and 4·6 Pa·s by mixing with thickener. Nine test foods were prepared in total. The electromyographic activity of the levator veli palatini muscle was monitored using bipolar hooked wire electrodes. The levator veli palatini muscle activity was defined as the integrated electromyographic wave. The mean in swallowing each test food was determined in each subject. The levator veli palatini muscle activity increased with the swallowing volume for all subjects (P < 0·05) and decreased inversely with the viscosity for six subjects (P < 0·05), but no change with the increase in the viscosity was noted for three subjects. This study clarified the aspect of the regulation of velar movement with regard to the involvement of the levator veli palatini muscle in swallowing activity with changes in the swallowing volume and viscosity.

  18. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA. This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry. Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of

  19. Predictive images of postoperative levator resection outcome using image processing software

    PubMed Central

    Mawatari, Yuki; Fukushima, Mikiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of processed images to predict postoperative appearance following levator resection. Methods Analysis involved 109 eyes from 65 patients with blepharoptosis who underwent advancement of levator aponeurosis and Müller’s muscle complex (levator resection). Predictive images were prepared from preoperative photographs using the image processing software (Adobe Photoshop®). Images of selected eyes were digitally enlarged in an appropriate manner and shown to patients prior to surgery. Results Approximately 1 month postoperatively, we surveyed our patients using questionnaires. Fifty-six patients (89.2%) were satisfied with their postoperative appearances, and 55 patients (84.8%) positively responded to the usefulness of processed images to predict postoperative appearance. Conclusion Showing processed images that predict postoperative appearance to patients prior to blepharoptosis surgery can be useful for those patients concerned with their postoperative appearance. This approach may serve as a useful tool to simulate blepharoptosis surgery. PMID:27757008

  20. Long-term orbital period behaviour of contact binaries V343 Ori and FZ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, Muhammed Faruk; Soydugan, Faruk

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated orbital period variations of two contact binaries V343 Ori and FZ Ori based on published minima times. Using the O-C analysis, it was found that both systems indicate orbital period increase. Mass transfer from less massive component to more massive component was used to explain increases in the orbital periods. On the other hand, the secular changes in their periods can be a sign of the thermal relaxation oscillation. In the O-C diagram of FZ Ori, periodic variations also exist. Cyclic periodic changes can be explained as being the result of a light-travel time effect via a tertiary body around the eclipsing pair. The minimum mass of probable tertiary component around FZ Ori was found to be 0.63 M⊙. In addition, the cyclic variation may be evidence of magnetic activity of the components, which are late-type stars.

  1. Width of the levator aponeurosis is broader than the tarsal plate.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Dae Joong; Huan, Fan; Han, Seung Ho; Hwang, Se Won

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the width of the levator aponeurosis and tarsal plate in different levels grossly and histologically. Twelve eyelids of 6 Korean adult cadavers were used. Ten eyelids were dissected, and 2 were prepared for histologic study. Widths of the tarsal plate at its lower border, midheight, and upper border were 21.8 ± 1.8, 16.2 ± 1.6, and 8.3 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. The widths of the levator aponeurosis at the lower border, midheight, and upper border of the tarsal plate were 32.0 ± 2.2, 29.2 ± 3.5, and 27.2 ± 3.9 mm, respectively. Its width was 19.9 ± 4.3 mm at the anterior border of the superior transverse ligament. The width of the levator aponeurosis was broader than tarsal plate at all 3 levels. The medial brims of the levator aponeurosis at the lower border, midheight, and upper border of the tarsal plate were 3.6 ± 1.1, 5.1 ± 1.0, and 6.2 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The lateral brims of the levator aponeurosis at the lower border, midheight, and upper border of the tarsal plate were 6.6 ± 0.9, 7.9 ± 2.6, and 12.7 ± 3.7 mm, respectively. The width of the levator aponeurosis is broader than the tarsal plate at all levels. This result might be useful in upper-eyelid surgery.

  2. Optical monitoring of T Ori requested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-08-01

    Dr. William Herbst (Wesleyan University) and Rachel Pedersen (Bates College) have requested AAVSO assistance in monitoring the Orion variable T Ori in support of spectroscopy they will be obtaining during September 2013. AAVSO nightly coverage (visual or electronic, not time series) of this star is crucial throughout the month of September. T Ori is one of the first variable stars discovered and varies by up to several magnitudes, but the cause of its variability is not fully known more than a century after its discovery. The project goal is to observe spectral changes accompanying the brightness variations that will shed light on their cause. It is critical to be able to assign a magnitude to each spectrum, so amateur astronomers could make a terrific contribution to this project by more intensively monitoring the star during September. Because of the nebulosity associated with the area around T Ori, observations need to be made very carefully and consistently. When the variable is relatively bright, as in the case of T Ori, a filtered observation is always preferred to an unfiltered one as it is much easier to integrate with data from other observers. Visual observers: be sure to use AAVSO charts. An accuracy of 0.1 or even 0.2 mag as can be achieved by (careful!) visual observers will be sufficient. CCD observers: V magnitude or even unfiltered observations will be most useful. Multicolor photometry could be helpful, but the primary need is for a magnitude estimate. Observations in the AAVSO International Database show T Ori with a visual range of magnitude 9.3-~12.6; recent visual and V magnitudes show it between ~9.7 and 11.9. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  3. [Isaac Newton's Anguli Contactus method].

    PubMed

    Wawrzycki, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the geometrical method for calculating the curvature of a class of curves from the third Book of Isaac Newton's Principia. The method involves any curve which is generated from an elementary curve (actually from any curve whose curvature we known of) by means of transformation increasing the polar angular coordinate in a constant ratio, but unchanging the polar radial angular coordinate.

  4. Modified lip repositioning: A surgical approach to treat the gummy smile

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Aditya Gopinath; Koganti, Vijay Prasad; Prabhakar, Ashok Kodangala; Soni, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Gummy smile has been an esthetic concern for many patients. This clinical report describes a successful surgical coverage obtained by modified lip repositioning, thus surgically treating the gummy smile. The technique was performed to limit the retraction of elevator muscles (e.g., zygomaticus minor, orbicularis oris, leviator anguli oris and levator labi oris.) The technique is fulfilled by removing two strips of mucosa from maxillary buccal vestibule on both the sides leaving the frenum untouched and creating a partial thickness flap between mucogingival junction and upper lip musculature, and suturing the lip mucosa with mucogingival junction, resulting in a narrow vestibule and restricted muscle pull, thereby reducing gingival display. This technique is different from the conventional surgical lip repositioning as labial frenum is left untouched over here as it helps in maintain Litton the midline for lip repositioning and reduces the morbidity associated with it. PMID:26229285

  5. Analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 OriS sequence: mapping of functional domains.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D W; Deb, S P; Klauer, J S; Deb, S

    1991-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) OriS region resides within a 90-bp sequence that contains two binding sites for the origin-binding protein (OBP), designated sites I and II. A third presumptive OBP-binding site (III) within OriS has strong sequence similarity to sites I and II, but no sequence-specific OBP binding has yet been demonstrated at this site. We have generated mutations in sites I, II, and III and determined their replication efficiencies in a transient in vivo assay in the presence of a helper virus. Mutations in any one of the sites reduced DNA replication significantly. To study the role of OriS sequence elements in site I and the presumptive site III in DNA replication, we have also generated a series of mutations that span from site I across the presumptive binding site III. These mutants were tested for their ability to replicate and for the ability to bind OBP by using gel shift analyses. The results indicate that mutations across site I drastically reduce DNA replication. Triple-base-pair substitution mutations that fall within the crucial OBP-binding domain, 5'-YGYTCGCACT-3' (where Y represents C or T), show a reduced level of OBP binding and DNA replication. Substitution mutations in site I that are outside this crucial binding sequence show a more detrimental effect on DNA replication than on OBP binding. This suggests that these sequences are required for initiation of DNA replication but are not critical for OBP binding. Mutations across the presumptive OBP-binding site III also resulted in a loss in efficiency of DNA replication. These mutations influenced OBP binding to OriS in gel shift assays, even though the mutated sequences are not contained within known OBP-binding sites. Replacement of the wild-type site III with a perfect OBP-binding site I results in a drastic reduction of DNA replication. Thus, our DNA replication assays and in vitro DNA-binding studies suggest that the binding of the origin sequence by OBP is not the only

  6. Multiple sclerosis in New Zealand Māori.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John F; Alla, Sridhar; Clarke, Glynnis; Taylor, Bruce V; Miller, David H; Richardson, Ann; Mason, Deborah F

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of MS in New Zealand in 2006 was 73.2 (age standardized per 100,000) while for those with indigenous Māori ancestry it was 3.6 times lower at 20.6. Earlier regional surveys (1968-2001) all reported much lower, or zero, prevalence for Māori than European. There was no evidence for differences in MS between those with and without Māori ancestry in either clinical features or latitude, confirming that Māori ancestry does not produce the reported increase in prevalence with latitude. It is likely that prevalence is increasing in low risk Māori; however, MS prognosis is independent of Māori ancestry.

  7. Comparison of upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually.

  8. Constriction of the levator hiatus during instruction of pelvic floor or transversus abdominis contraction: a 4D ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari; Braekken, Ingeborg H; Majida, Memona; Engh, Marie E

    2009-01-01

    A new theory claims that the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) can be trained via the transversus abdominis (TrA). The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of instruction of PFM and TrA contraction on constriction of the levator hiatus, using 4D perineal ultrasonography. Thirteen women with pelvic organ prolapse participated in the study. Perineal ultrasound in standing position was used to assess constriction of the levator hiatus. Analyses were conducted off-line with measurements in the axial plane of minimal hiatal dimensions. The reduction of all the hiatal dimensions was significantly greater during PFM than TrA contraction. All patients had a reduction of the levator hiatus area during PFM contraction (mean reduction 24.0%; range 6.1-49.2%). In two patients, there was an increase of the levator hiatus area during TrA contraction. Instruction of PFM contraction is more effective than TrA contraction.

  9. Analysis of Ori-S sequence of HSV-1: identification of one functional DNA binding domain.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Deb, S P

    1989-01-01

    Using gel retardation assays, we have detected an Ori-S binding activity in the nuclear extract of HSV-1 infected Vero cells. The sequence-specific DNA binding activity seems to be identical to that described by Elias et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 6322-6326, 1986). This activity fails to retard a mutant origin DNA that has a 5 bp deletion in the reported protein binding site along with an A to T substitution at a position 16 base-pairs away from the site. This mutant also failed to replicate in a transient replication assay, thus correlating binding of the factor on the origin to replication efficiency. Using crude nuclear extracts as the source of the factor and with the help of footprint and gel retardation analyses, we confirmed that protection is only observed on the preferred site of binding on and near the left arm of the Ori-S palindrome. In order to analyze the sequence specificity of the binding we have generated a set of binding site mutants. Competition experiments with these mutant origins indicate that the sequence 5'-TTCGCACTT-3' is crucial for binding. Images PMID:2541411

  10. ori identity signatures: A latent profile analysis of the types of Māori identity.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Lara M; Houkamau, Carla; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    ori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. However, the term 'Māori' can refer to a wide range of people of varying ethnic compositions and cultural identity. We present a statistical model identifying 6 distinct types, or 'Māori Identity Signatures,' and estimate their proportion in the Māori population. The model is tested using a Latent Profile Analysis of a national probability sample of 686 Māori drawn from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We identify 6 distinct signatures: Traditional Essentialists (22.6%), Traditional Inclusives (16%), High Moderates (31.7%), Low Moderates (18.7%), Spiritually Orientated (4.1%), and Disassociated (6.9%). These distinct Identity Signatures predicted variation in deprivation, age, mixed-ethnic affiliation, and religion. This research presents the first formal statistical model assessing how people's identity as Māori is psychologically structured, documents the relative proportion of these different patterns of structures, and shows that these patterns reliably predict differences in core demographics. We identify a range of patterns of Māori identity far more diverse than has been previously proposed based on qualitative data, and also show that the majority of Māori fit a moderate or traditional identity pattern. The application of our model for studying Māori health and identity development is discussed.

  11. Upper eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy: a new surgical technique and a study of the abnormal levator muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Small, R G

    1988-01-01

    A new surgical procedure, the proximal levator technique, achieves recession of the retracted upper eyelid in Graves' ophthalmopathy by sectioning the levator muscle proximal to Whitnall's ligament and fixing eyelid position with sutures that permit postoperative adjustment. This technique deserves further study. Enlargement of the proximal levator muscle in Graves' eye disease is shown on orbital CT scans and is found at surgery when the proximal levator technique is employed. Histologic and morphometric studies demonstrate increased levator muscle fiber size as well as increased extracellular volume. These findings suggest that levator muscle hypertrophy is important in the pathogenesis of upper eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 3 D FIGURE 4 A,B FIGURE 4 C,D,E FIGURE 4 F,G FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 17 A FIGURE 17 B FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 19 A FIGURE 19 B FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:2979032

  12. Evidence of ancillary trigeminal innervation of levator palpebrae in the general population.

    PubMed

    Lehman, A M; Dong, C C; Harries, A M; Patel, A; Honey, C R; Patel, M S

    2014-02-01

    The cranial synkineses are a group of disorders encompassing a variety of involuntary co-contractions of the facial, masticatory, or extraocular muscles that occur during a particular volitional movement. The neuroanatomical pathways for synkineses largely remain undefined. Our studies explored a normal synkinesis long observed in the general population - that of jaw opening during efforts to open the eyelids widely. To document this phenomenon, we observed 186 consecutive participants inserting or removing contact lenses to identify jaw opening. Seeking electrophysiological evidence, in a second study we enrolled individuals undergoing vascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm, without a history of jaw-winking, ptosis, or strabismus, to record any motor responses in levator palpebrae superioris (LPS) upon stimulation of the trigeminal motor root. Stimulus was applied to the trigeminal motor root while an electrode in levator recorded the response. We found that 37 participants (20%) opened their mouth partially or fully during contact lens manipulation. In the second study, contraction of LPS with trigeminal motor stimulation was documented in two of six patients, both undergoing surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We speculate these results might provide evidence of an endogenous synkinesis, indicating that trigeminal-derived innervation of levator could exist in a significant minority of the general population. Our observations demonstrate plasticity in the human cranial nerve innervation pattern and may have implications for treating Marcus Gunn jaw-winking.

  13. A possible role for endogenous glucocorticoids in orchiectomy-induced atrophy of the rat levator ani muscle - Studies with RU 38486, a potent and selective antiglucocorticoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konagaya, Masaaki; Max, Stephen R.

    1986-01-01

    RU38486, a potent and selective antiglucocorticoid, was employed to study a possible role for endogenous glucocorticoids in atrophy of the levator ani muscle secondary to castration of male rats. RU38486 was shown to block (3H) triamcinolone acetonide binding to cytosol from levator ani muscle. Daily oral administration of RU38486 to castrated rats partially prevented atrophy of the levator ani muscle, as well as a decrease in RNA concentration. In a control group receiving RU38486 alone, the levator ani underwent significant 20 percent hypertrophy. Administration of exogenous dexamethasone also caused pronounced atrophy of the levator ani muscle. This atrophy was prevented, to a significant degree, by simultaneous oral administration of Ru38486. It is concluded that endogenous glucocorticoids, the actions of which are blocked by RU38486, may be involved in regulation of the mass of the levator ani muscle in intact rats.

  14. A possible role for endogenous glucocorticoids in orchiectomy-induced atrophy of the rat levator ani muscle: Studies with RU38486, a potent and selective antiglucocorticoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konagaya, M.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    RU38486, a potent and selective antiglucocorticoid, was employed to study a possible role for endogenous glucocorticoids in atrophy of the levator ani muscle secondary to castration of male rats. RU38486 was shown to block (3H) triamcinolone acetonide binding to cytosol from levator ani muscle. Daily oral administration of RU38486 to castrated rats partially prevented atrophy of the levator ani muscle, as well as a decrease in RNA concentration. In a control group receiving RU38486 alone, the levator ani underwent significant (20%) hypertrophy. Administration of exogenous dexamethasone also caused pronounced atrophy of the levator ani muscle. This atrophy was prevented, to a significant degree, by simultaneous oral administration of RU38486. It is concluded that endogenous glucocorticoids, the actions of which are blocked by RU38486, may be involved in regulation of the mass of the levator ani muscle in intact rats.

  15. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.402 ORI allegation assessments. (a) When ORI receives an allegation of research misconduct directly or becomes aware of an allegation or apparent instance of research misconduct, it...

  16. An oral health intervention for the Māori indigenous population of New Zealand: oranga niho Māori (Māori oral health) as a component of the undergraduate dental curriculum in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Broughton, John

    2010-06-01

    ori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand having migrated across the Pacific from Hawaiki over a 500 year period from 800AD to 1300AD establishing a society based on whānau (family), hapū (subtribe) and iwi (tribe). Today, like other Indigenous populations throughout the world, New Zealand Māori do not enjoy the same oral health status as non-Māori across all age groups. An intervention strategy to improve Māori oral health and to reduce disparities is to develop a dental health workforce that has an understanding of contemporary Māori society and Māori oral health. The Faculty of Dentistry (Te Kaupeka Pūniho) of the University of Otago has a well developed undergraduate programme in Māori culture and Māori oral health. This programme has been reinforced by the adoption of a new Māori Strategic Framework (MSF) which has been designed to be "a vibrant contributor to Māori development and the realisation of Māori aspirations." Goal 5 of the MSF, Ngā Whakahaerenga Pai (Quality Programmes) has the objective to develop and integrate Māori content in the undergraduate course. This paper will discuss the oranga niho Māori (Māori oral health) component of the undergraduate dental curriculum.

  17. Breast cancer inequities between Māori and non-Māori women in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, R; Seneviratne, S; Scott, N; Peni, T; Brown, C; Campbell, I

    2016-03-01

    ori women have one of the highest incidences of breast cancer in the world. This high incidence is generally unexplained although higher rates of obesity and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors that may be important. Māori women are less likely to attend mammographic breast screening and are likely to be diagnosed with more advanced disease. This is one of the reasons for the excess mortality. Another factor is differences in the treatment pathway. Māori women are more likely to experience delay in receiving treatment, are less likely to receive radiotherapy, are more likely to be treated with a mastectomy and are less likely to adhere to long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, genetic factors in Māori women do not seem to impact significantly on mortality. This review looks at the inequity between Māori and non-Māori women and addresses the causes. It proposes ways of reducing inequity through primary prevention, increased participation in breast screening and greater standardisation of the treatment pathway for women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. We believe that health system improvements will decrease barriers to health care participation for Māori women and suggest that further research into identifying and modifying obstacles within health systems is required.

  18. Management of morderate-to-severe Marcus-Gunn syndrome by anastomosis of levator and frontal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Nan; Hu, Wei-Kun; Li, Bin; Liu, Rong

    2010-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of clinical management of moderate-to-severe Marcus-Gunn syndrome (MGS) by anastomosis of levator and frontal muscles. METHODS The medical records of 13 patients with moderate-to-severe MGS who underwent surgeries in our institute between 2000 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. They underwent unilateral anastomosis of levator and frontal muscles under local anesthesia. RESULTS Postoperative follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 36 months, with an average of 12 months. All eyelids (100%) showed complete resolution of jaw-winking, ten eyelids (76.9%) had good correction of ptosis, with equal plapebral apertures and symmetrical contours, three (23.1%) showed residual mild ptosis (<2mm). CONCLUSION For moderate-to-severe MGS, unilateral anastomosis of levator and frontal muscles provides satisfied correction of jaw-winking and ptosis. PMID:22553588

  19. Alcohol Use and Older Māori in Aotearoa.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Sarah; Stephens, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated alcohol use, hazardous and binge drinking prevalence, and their relationships to socio-demographic variables in community dwelling older Māori adults in New Zealand. Alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and binge drinking were assessed with the AUDIT-C in a cross-sectional postal survey of 1042 older Māori people randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. A total of 41.2% of all participants reported drinking at hazardous levels. Odds ratios from binomial logistic regression showed hazardous drinking was significantly more likely to occur among males, current smokers, and those with higher local self-contained network scores. Binge drinking was reported by 19.6% of the sample, with odds ratios indicating that males, current smokers, and those with higher Māori cultural identification scores were significantly more likely to report binge drinking. The high rates of hazardous and binge drinking prevalence reported in the current study raise issues of concern when considering the health of older Māori people. Results indicate that social networks, gender, smoking status, and Māori cultural identification may influence hazardous and binge drinking alcohol use. However, limitations of the present study also highlight the need for more focused and in-depth research to be conducted with older Māori people to understand the sociocultural context in which alcohol use occurs.

  20. Application of ultrasound imaging of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Hao; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liao, Xin-Hong; Du, Yang-Chun; Gao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aim to understand the morphology and structure of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, and to provide clinical evidence for evaluating the effect of repair operation in cleft lip. Subjects included 106 healthy people and 36 postoperative patients of unilateral cleft lip. The upper lip orbicularis oris muscle was scanned using ultrasound in natural closure and pout states. Our results showed that the hierarchical structure of upper lip tissue was demonstrated clearly in ultrasonic images. After reconstruction of unilateral cleft lip, the left and right philtrum columns were still obviously asymmetric, their radian displayed clearly and showed better continuity. In the place of cleft lip side equivalent to philtrum columns, orbicularis oris muscle showed discontinuity and unclear hierarchical structure, which was replaced by hyperechoic scar tissue. The superficial layer would become thicker when pouting. In reconstructed unilateral cleft lip, the superficial layer was thinner than that of healthy controls. In normal upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, the superficial layer thickness was no less than 2.89 mm in philtrum dimple and no less than 3.92 mm in philtrum column, and the deep layer thickness was no less the 1.12 mm. Otherwise, the layer thickness less than above reference values may be considered as diagnostic criteria for dysplasia of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle. In conclusions, ultrasound imaging is able to clearly show the hierarchical structure of upper lip orbicularis oris muscle, and will be beneficial in guiding the upper lip repair and reconstruction surgery.

  1. Key informant views on biobanking and genomic research with Māori.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Maui; Southey, Kim; Uerata, Lynley; Beaton, Angela; Milne, Moe; Russell, Khyla; Smith, Barry; Wilcox, Phillip; Toki, Valmaine; Cheung, Melanie

    2016-12-16

    The aim of the Te Mata Ira project was to explore Māori views on biobanking and genomic research, and to identify ways to address Māori concerns over the collection and use of human tissue. Key informant interviews and workshops were conducted with Māori to identify Māori views in relation to biobanking and genomic research; and, informed by these views, interviews and workshops were conducted with Māori and non-Māori key informants (Indigenous Advisory Panel (IAP) members and science communities) to explore key issues in relation to Māori participation in biobanking and genomic research. Māori key informants identified the following as key deliberations: (1) the tension for Māori between previous well-publicised negative experiences with genomic research and the potential value for whānau and communities as technologies develop, (2) protection of Māori rights and interest, (3) focus on Māori health priorities, (4) control of samples and data, (5) expectations of consultation and consent and (6) a desire for greater feedback and communication. Māori and non-Māori key informants highlighted the need to enhance levels of Māori participation in the governance of genomic research and biobanking initiatives, and acknowledged that only by increasing the level of transparency and accountability in relation to these activities will Māori communities feel that their whakapapa, rights and interests are being appropriately protected.

  2. X-ray in Zeta-Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-García, M. A.; López-Santiago, J. L.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-05-01

    Nearby star-forming regions are ideal laboratories to study high-energy emission processes but they usually present high absorption what makes difficult to detect the stellar population inside the molecular complex. As young late-type stars show high X-ray emission and X-ray photons are little absorbed by interstellar material, X-ray dedicated surveys are an excellent tool to detect the low-mass stellar population in optically absorbed regions. In this work, we present a study of the star-forming region Zeta-Ori and its surroundings. We combine optical, infrared and X-ray data. Properties of the X-ray emiting plasma and infrared features of the young stellar objects detected in the XMM-Newton observation are determined. The southern part of the Orion B giant molecular cloud complex harbor other star forming regions, as NGC 2023 and NGC 2024, we use this regions to compare. We study the spectral energy distribution of X-ray sources. Combining these results with infrared, the X-ray sources are classified as class I, class II and class III objects. The X-ray spectrum and ligth curve of detected X-ray sources is analyzed to found flares. We use a extincion-independent index to select the stars with circumstellar disk, and study the relationship between the present of disk and the flare energy. The results are similar to others studies and we conclude that the coronal properties of class II and class III objects in this region do not differ significantly from each other and from stars of similar infrared class in the ONC.

  3. Levator Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Clostridium difficile -induced colitis is an inflammation of ... Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge . Merck Manuals About Disclaimer Permissions Privacy Contributors Terms ...

  4. Repair of a submucous cleft palate by W-pushback and levator repositioning without incision to the nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2012-03-01

    The author created an innovative method of W-pushback and levator repositioning without having to make an incision to the nasal mucosa for submucous cleft palate repair.The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is outlined where the 2 peaks of W are the alveolar processes of both canine teeth and the midpoint of W is the anterior limit of the cleft notch of the hard palate. A short incision, medial to and behind the maxillary tuberosity and curved forward onto the palate and extended forward just medial to the alveolar process, is joined by a second incision from the apex of the cleft to the region of the canine tooth. The W-shaped mucoperiosteal flap is raised until the midline notch of the hard palate is exposed. The nasal mucosa and abnormally inserted levator veli palatini muscle to the posterior border of the hard palate bone are detached. By leaving the nasal mucosa intact, the detached levator veli palatini muscle is approximated at the midline and so the zona pellucida is obliterated. The cleft uvulas are cut in half and closed. The approximated W-flap is joined to the small anterior flap by 1 or more sutures (the W-pushback).Three patients were operated on with this technique without serious complications.The author believes that this method can make the levator sling and increase the length of the soft palate without making an incision to the nasal mucosa.

  5. Interaction between Apical Supports and Levator Ani in Anterior Vaginal Support: Theoretical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Luyun; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Hsu, Yvonne; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To use a biomechanical model to explore how impairment of the pubovisceral portion of the levator ani muscle and/or the apical vaginal suspension might interact to affect anterior vaginal wall prolapse severity. Method A biomechanical model of the anterior vaginal wall and its support system was developed and implemented. The anterior vaginal wall and main muscular and connective tissue support elements, namely the levator plate, pubovisceral muscle, cardinal and uterosacral ligaments, were included and their geometry based on mid-sagittal plane magnetic resonance scans. Material properties were based on published data. The change in the sagittal profile of the anterior vaginal wall during a maximum Valsalva was then simulated when different combinations of muscle and connective tissue impairment were present. Results Under raised intra-abdominal pressure, the magnitude of anterior vaginal wall prolapse was shown to be a combined function of both pubovisceral muscle and uterosacral and/or cardinal ligament (“apical supports”) impairment. Once a certain degree of pubovisceral impairment was reached, the genital hiatus opened and a prolapse developed. The larger the pubovisceral impairment, the larger the anterior wall prolapse became. A 90% impairment of apical support led to an increase in anterior wall prolapse from 0.3 cm to 1.9 cm (a 530% increase) at 60% pubovisceral muscle impairment, and from 0.7 cm to 2.4 cm (a 240% increase) at 80% pubovisceral muscle impairment. Conclusions These results suggest that a prolapse can develop as a result of impairment of the muscular and apical supports of the anterior vaginal wall. PMID:16880302

  6. THE HERBIG BE STAR V1818 ORI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Reipurth, Bo; Hillenbrand, Lynne E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2015-03-15

    The little-studied Herbig Be star V1818 Ori is located in the direction of the southern L1641 cloud and the Mon R2 star-forming complex, and is most likely associated with the latter at a distance of ∼900 pc. A high-resolution spectrum is consistent with a spectral type around B7 V, with lines of Hα, the red Ca ii triplet, and several forbidden lines in emission. An All Sky Automated Survey V-band light curve spanning 9 yr reveals major variability with deep absorption episodes reminiscent of the UX Orionis stars. We have searched for additional young stars clustering around V1818 Ori using grism images and the 2MASS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs, and have found almost two dozen fainter stars with evidence of youth. Direct images show that the bright star IRAS 05510–1025, only about 3 arcmin from V1818 Ori, is surrounded by a reflection nebula, indicating its association with a molecular cloud. A spectrum of the star shows no emission-lines, and it is found to be a close binary with late B and early G type components. Its radial velocity indicates that it is an interloper, accidentally passing through the cloud and not physically associated with V1818 Ori.

  7. Rapid variability of the EXor star NY Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a rapid brightness variability of the classical EXor star NY Ori observed with the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of our program EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056).

  8. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  9. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  10. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  11. 42 CFR 93.402 - ORI allegation assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI allegation assessments. 93.402 Section 93.402 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  12. The Herbig Be Star V1818 Ori and Its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Reipurth, Bo; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    The little-studied Herbig Be star V1818 Ori is located in the direction of the southern L1641 cloud and the Mon R2 star-forming complex, and is most likely associated with the latter at a distance of ˜900 pc. A high-resolution spectrum is consistent with a spectral type around B7 V, with lines of Hα, the red Ca ii triplet, and several forbidden lines in emission. An All Sky Automated Survey V-band light curve spanning 9 yr reveals major variability with deep absorption episodes reminiscent of the UX Orionis stars. We have searched for additional young stars clustering around V1818 Ori using grism images and the 2MASS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs, and have found almost two dozen fainter stars with evidence of youth. Direct images show that the bright star IRAS 05510-1025, only about 3 arcmin from V1818 Ori, is surrounded by a reflection nebula, indicating its association with a molecular cloud. A spectrum of the star shows no emission-lines, and it is found to be a close binary with late B and early G type components. Its radial velocity indicates that it is an interloper, accidentally passing through the cloud and not physically associated with V1818 Ori.

  13. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.403 ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. ORI may conduct...

  14. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) origin of DNA replication oriS influences origin-dependent DNA replication and flanking gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Sommer, Marvin H; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T; Arvin, Ann M

    2015-07-01

    The VZV genome has two origins of DNA replication (oriS), each of which consists of an AT-rich sequence and three origin binding protein (OBP) sites called Box A, C and B. In these experiments, the mutation in the core sequence CGC of the Box A and C not only inhibited DNA replication but also inhibited both ORF62 and ORF63 expression in reporter gene assays. In contrast the Box B mutation did not influence DNA replication or flanking gene transcription. These results suggest that efficient DNA replication enhances ORF62 and ORF63 transcription. Recombinant viruses carrying these mutations in both sites and one with a deletion of the whole oriS were constructed. Surprisingly, the recombinant virus lacking both copies of oriS retained the capacity to replicate in melanoma and HELF cells suggesting that VZV has another origin of DNA replication.

  15. Progressive tightening of the levator veli palatini muscle improves velopharyngeal dysfunction in early outcomes of primary palatoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dennis C.; Patel, Kamlesh B.; Skolnick, Gary B.; Skladman, Rachel; Grames, Lynn M.; Stahl, Mary B.; Marsh, Jeffrey L.; Woo, Albert S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Velopharyngeal dysfunction is a major morbidity associated with a cleft palate diagnosis. Management of the levator veli palatini with intravelar veloplasty (IVV) has been shown to improve speech resonance. The senior author (ASW) has introduced a more aggressive procedure where the levator is separately dissected, overlapped and tightened. This study compares speech resonance results from 4 separate levator management protocols: Non-IVV, Kriens-IVV, Radical-IVV, and Overlapping-IVV. Methods Retrospective chart review was conducted on 252 patients who underwent primary palatoplasty with speech follow-up at 3 years of age. Postoperative velopharyngeal function was evaluated with perceptual speech examinations, and subjects were scored on a 4-point scale (0 = normal resonance; 1 = occasional hypernasality/nasal emission/turbulence/grimacing – no further assessment warranted; 2 = mild hypernasality/intermittent nasal turbulence/grimacing – velopharyngeal imaging suggested; 3 = severe hypernasality – surgical intervention recommended). Fisher's exact test was used to compare outcomes. Results A single surgeon performed all the Non-IVV (n=92), Kriens-IVV (n=103) and Radical-IVV (n=31) procedures while the senior author performed the Overlapping-IVV technique (n=26). Cleft severity proportions were equivalent across the four methods (p = 0.28). Patients who underwent Overlapping-IVV demonstrated significantly better velopharyngeal function and none required further velopharyngeal imaging or secondary surgery when compared to the other three procedures (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusions Speech resonance outcomes at 3 years of age are improved and the need for secondary VPD management is reduced with more aggressive levator dissection and reconstruction during primary one-stage palatoplasty. Results were best when the muscle was overlapped. Level of Evidence III – Retrospective cohort/comparative study. PMID:26111318

  16. Ipsilateral omovertebral bones in the levator scapulae muscle and the rhomboid muscle in a Sprengel deformity: case report.

    PubMed

    Baulot, E; Trouilloud, P; Giroux, E A; Grammont, P M

    1998-03-01

    Our interest was stimulated by the uncommon case of a 4-year-old girl who presented a Sprengel deformity associated with two omovertebral bones on the same side. The first omovertebral bone was situated in the levator scapulae muscle and the second omovertebral bone was lying in the rhomboid muscle. The removal of these two bones was combined with a Woodward procedure to obtain a good correction.

  17. Biotechnology: the language of multiple views in Māori communities.

    PubMed

    Te Momo, O H Fiona

    2007-09-01

    In Aotearoa (New Zealand), the government funded studies on communicating biotechnology to different sectors in the community from 2003 to 2006. Subsequently, a researcher covering the Māori sector performed a content analysis of data gathered in the community. Qualitative analysis methods included examining text from participant interviews, focus groups, government documents, newspapers, Internet sites, and current literature. Content was coded by identifying common themes in the English and the Māori language. Words like genetic modification (GM), genetic engineering (GE), and biotechnology were explained to provide a basic understanding between the communities and researcher. The terminology applied in the research was essential to achieve communication between the researcher and the community. The resultant themes represented seven views to interpret the communities association with biotechnology: purist Māori, religious Māori, anti Māori, pro Māori, no Māori, uncertain Māori, and middle Māori views. The themes are taken from the analysis of data compiled after 3 years of completing different stages of a research project. The views indicate that a common understanding can be achieved in the diverse range of Māori tribal communities providing those communicating biotechnology can identify the view and interpretations communities associate with biotechnology. This knowledge is essential for government agencies, researchers, community practitioners, scientist, and businesses that desire to dialogue with Māori communities in the language of biotechnology.

  18. Levator scapulae and rhomboid transfer for paralysis of trapezius. The Eden-Lange procedure.

    PubMed

    Romero, J; Gerber, C

    2003-11-01

    Spinal accessory nerve palsy leads to painful disability of the shoulder, carrying an uncertain prognosis. We reviewed the long-term outcome in 16 patients who were treated for pain, weakness of active elevation and asymmetry of the shoulder and the neck due to chronic paralysis of the trapezius muscle, as a result of nerve palsy. Of four patients who were treated conservatively, none regained satisfactory function, although two became pain-free. The other 12 patients were treated operatively with transfer of the levator scapulae to the acromion and the rhomboid muscles to the infraspinatus fossa (the Eden-Lange procedure). At a mean follow-up of 32 years, the clinical outcome of the operatively treated patients was excellent in nine, fair in two, and poor in one patient, as determined by the Constant score. Pain was adequately relieved in 11 and overhead function was restored in nine patients. Pre-operative electromyography had been carried out in four patients. In two, who eventually had a poor outcome, a concomitant long thoracic and dorsal scapular nerve lesion had been present. The Eden-Lange procedure gives very satisfactory long-term results for the treatment of isolated paralysis of trapezius. In the presence of an additional serratus anterior palsy or weak rhomboid muscles, the procedure is less successful in restoring shoulder function.

  19. The Urethral Rhabdosphincter, Levator Ani Muscle, and Perineal Membrane: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Gen

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the rhabdosphincter and adjacent tissues is mandatory during urologic surgery to ensure reliable oncologic and functional outcomes. To characterize the levator ani (LA) function for the urethral sphincter, we described connective tissue morphology between the LA and urethral rhabdosphincter. The interface tissue between the LA and rhabdosphincter area in males contained abundant irregularly arrayed elastic fibers and smooth muscles. The male rhabdosphincter was positioned alongside the LA to divide the elevation force and not in-series along the axis of LA contraction. The male perineal membrane was thin but solid and extends along the inferior margin or bottom of the rhabdosphincter area. In contrast, the female rhabdosphincter, including the compressor urethrae and urethrovaginal sphincter muscles, was embedded in the elastic fiber mesh that is continuous with the thick, multilaminar perineal membrane. The inferomedial edge of the female LA was attached to the upper surface of the perineal membrane and not directly attached to the rhabdosphincter. We presented new diagrams showing the gender differences in topographical anatomy of the LA and rhabdosphincter. PMID:24877147

  20. Fecal Incontinence in Older Women: Are Levator Ani Defects a Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Brincat, Cynthia; Yousuf, Aisha; Patel, Divya A.; DeLancey, John O.L.; Fenner, Dee E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare pelvic floor structure and function between older women with and without fecal incontinence (FI) and young continent women. Study Design Young (YC, n=9) and older (OC, n=9) continent women were compared to older women with FI (OI, n=8). Patients underwent a POP-Q, measurement of levator ani (LA) force at rest (FLAR) and with maximum contraction (FLAC), and MRI. Displacement of structures and LA defects were determined on dynamic MRI. Results LA defects were more common in the OI v. the YC (75% v. 11%, p=0.01) and OC groups (22%, p=0.14); women with FI were more likely to have LA defects than women without (OR 14.0, 95% CI: 1.8-106.5). OI women generated 27.0% and 30.1% less FLAC v. the OC group (p=0.13) and YC groups (p=0.04). During Kegel, OI absolute structural displacements were smaller than in the OC group (p=0.01). Conclusions OI women commonly have LA defects, and cannot augment pelvic floor strength. PMID:20452496

  1. Androgen receptor expression in satellite cells of the neonatal levator ani of the rat.

    PubMed

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Monks, D Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Androgens are thought to mediate sexual differentiation of spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) motoneurons via actions on androgen receptors (ARs) within their target muscles bulbocavernosus and levator ani (LA). However, the cells within these muscles which mediate masculinization of the SNB remain undefined. Until recently, myocytes were thought to be the most likely candidate cell type. However, genetic tests of AR function in myocytes have failed to support a sufficient role for these cells in producing masculine SNB morphology, suggesting the involvement of other cell types. To identify other candidate cell types in the LA, we evaluated whether satellite cells or fibroblasts express AR. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate whether satellite cells and fibroblasts express AR in neonatal male and female rats in the LA and an adjacent sexually monomorphic control muscle (CM). We found that a small proportion of satellite cells in the LA express AR and that this proportion is significantly greater in the LA compared to the CM. No sex differences were found between the proportions of satellite cells expressing AR in either muscle. Less colocalization of satellite cells and AR was seen in postnatal day 3 muscle than in postnatal day 1 muscle. In contrast, only negligible amounts of fibroblasts labeled with S100A4 express AR in either the LA or the CM. Together, findings support satellite cells, but not fibroblasts, as a candidate cell type involved in the sexual differentiation of the SNB neuromuscular system.

  2. Navigation: process of building relationships with kaumātua (Māori leaders).

    PubMed

    Dyall, Lorna; Skipper, Te Kaanga; Kēpa, Mere; Hayman, Karen; Kerse, Ngaire

    2013-01-25

    In the article the authors depict relations in sociocultural navigation by Māori researchers conducting research embedded in mutual trust; rather than instrumental navigation in linear time. A longitudinal study of Māori and non Māori men and women ageing successfully was planned; this feasibility stage tested whether engaging with kōroua/older Māori men and kuia/older Māori women was possible. We document the process undertaken with Ngā Pae o te Maramatanga New Zealand's Indigenous Centre of Research Excellence (hosted by the University of Auckland) to involve Māori people in the research, engaging with kōroua and kuia aged 75 to 79 years old, developing focus groups to discuss questions specific to te reo Māori me ngā tikanga/Maori language and culture, and building research capacity in Māori tribal and primary health organisations in the Bay of Plenty. In addition, engaging with Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori/ Māori Language Commission to translate the questions; recruiting the RopuKaitiaki o Ngā Tikanga Māori/Protectors of Principles of Conduct in Māori Research, and naming the study will be discussed. The involvement of the kaumātua/older Māori people has been fundamental in laying the foundation of the Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ), Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu to study a group of Māori aged 80 to 90 years old.

  3. Oak Ridge Graph Analytics for Medical Innovation (ORiGAMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Larry W.; Lee, Sangkeun

    2016-01-01

    In this era of data-driven decisions and discovery where Big Data is producing Bigger Data, data scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are leveraging unique leadership infrastructure (e.g., Urika XA and Urika GD appliances) to develop scalable algorithms for semantic, logical and statistical reasoning with Big Data (i.e., data stored in databases as well as unstructured data in documents). ORiGAMI is a next-generation knowledge-discovery framework that is: (a) knowledge nurturing (i.e., evolves seamlessly with newer knowledge and data), (b) smart and curious (i.e. using information-foraging and reasoning algorithms to digest content) and (c) synergistic (i.e., interfaces computers with what they do best to help subject-matter-experts do their best. ORiGAMI has been demonstrated using the National Library of Medicine's SEMANTIC MEDLINE (archive of medical knowledge since 1994).

  4. THE GRADED LEVATOR HINGE PROCEDURE FOR THE CORRECTION OF UPPER EYELID RETRACTION (AN AMERICAN OPHTHALMOLOGICAL SOCIETY THESIS)

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Many surgical techniques have been developed to address eyelid retraction with varying results. Identifying and evaluating the anatomical and pathophysiological factors involved will assist in its surgical treatment. This prospective study evaluated the graded levator hinge procedure, in combination with a Müllerectomy and/or lateral canthoplasty when indicated, in an attempt to precisely and selectively target the pathophysiology responsible for the various causes of eyelid retraction in only one surgical session. Methods This is a clinical, prospective study of patients with moderate to severe eyelid retraction due to various causes who underwent the graded levator hinge procedure, in combination with a Müllerectomy and/or lateral canthoplasty when indicated. The exact amount of hinging of the levator aponeurosis, and combination with a Müllerectomy and/or lateral canthoplasty, was determined by the clinical operative findings with active cooperation from the conscious patient. Results Thirty-two consecutive patients (48 eyelids) with varying degrees of upper eyelid retraction underwent the graded levator hinge procedure in combination with a Müllerectomy and or lateral canthoplasty when indicated. The mean (± standard deviation) preoperative palpebral vertical fissure height was 12.4 mm (± 0.45 mm), and the mean postoperative palpebral fissure height was 9.0 mm (±0.20 mm). The mean preoperative asymmetry in the palpebral fissure height was 2.41 (± 0.29) mm, and the mean postoperative asymmetry was 0.59 mm (± 0.09), and this difference was statistically significant (P <.001). The mean reduction in the palpebral fissure height was 4.6 mm (± 0.29 mm) (range, 1–10 mm). The graded levator hinge procedure in combination with a Müllerectomy and or lateral canthoplasty when indicated, led to a statistically significant (P <.001) reduction in mean palpebral fissure height for all patients, the bilateral subset of patients, the unilateral subset of

  5. Homology of the jaw muscles in lizards and snakes-a solution from a comparative gnathostome approach.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Homology or shared evolutionary origin of jaw adductor muscles in lizards and snakes has been difficult to establish, although snakes clearly arose within the lizard radiation. Lizards typically have temporal adductors layered lateral to medial, and in snakes the muscles are arranged in a rostral to caudal pattern. Recent work has suggested that the jaw adductor group in gnathostomes is arranged as a folded sheet; when this theory is applied to snakes, homology with lizard morphology can be seen. This conclusion revisits the work of S.B. McDowell, J Herpetol 1986; 20:353-407, who proposed that homology involves identity of m. levator anguli oris and the loss of m. adductor mandibulae externus profundus, at least in "advanced" (colubroid) snakes. Here I advance the folded sheet hypothesis across the whole snake tree using new and literature data, and provide a solution to this homology problem.

  6. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Study of V1647 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Sean D.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Simon, Theodore; Gibb, Erika L.; Liskowsky, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    We present new high-resolution infrared echelle spectra of V1647 Ori, the young star that illuminates McNeil's nebula. From the start, V1647 Ori has been an enigmatic source that has defied classification, in some ways resembling eruptive stars of the FUor class and in other respects the EXor variables. V1647 Ori underwent an outburst in 2003 before fading back to its pre-outburst brightness in 2006. In 2008, it underwent a new outburst. In this paper, we present high-resolution K-band and M-band spectra from the W. M. Keck Observatory that were acquired during the 2008 outburst. We compare the spectra to spectra acquired during the previous outburst and quiescent phases. We find that the luminosity and full width at half maximum power of Br γ increased as the star has brightened and decreased when the star faded, indicating that these phases are driven by variations in the accretion rate. We also show that the temperature of the CO emission has varied with the stellar accretion rate, confirming suggestions from modeling of the heating mechanisms of the inner disk. Finally, we find that the lowest energy blueshifted CO absorption lines originally reported in 2007 are no longer detected. The absence of these lines confirms the short-lived nature of the outflow launched at the start of the quiescent phase in 2006.

  7. Can Abdominal Hypopressive Technique Change Levator Hiatus Area?: A 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Torelli, Luiza; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna IIona Katalin; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Araujo Júnior, E; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levator hiatus area (LHA) at rest and during the performance of maximal pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, during the abdominal hypopressive technique (AHT), and during the combination of PFM contractions (PFMCs) and the AHT. The study included 17 healthy nulliparous women who had no history of pelvic floor disorders. The LHA was evaluated with the patients in the lithotomy position. After a physiotherapist instructed the patients on the proper performance of the PFM and AHT exercises, 1 gynecologist performed the 3-dimensional translabial ultrasound examinations. The LHA was measured with the patients at rest. The PFMC alone, the AHT alone or the AHT in combination with a PFMC with 30 seconds of rest between the evaluations were performed. Each measurement was performed 2 times, and the mean value was used for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was used to test the differences between the 2 maneuvers. Similar values were observed when comparing the LHA of the PFM at rest (12.2 ± 2.4) cm and during the AHT (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.227). The AHT+ PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm demonstrated lower values compared with AHT alone (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.002). When comparing the PFMC (10.4 ± 2.1) cm with the AHT + PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm, no significant difference (P = 0.551) was observed. During PFMC, the constriction was 1.8 cm; during the AHT, the constriction was 0.5 cm; and during the AHT + PFMC, it was 2 cm. The LHA assessed by 3-dimensional ultrasound did not significantly change with AHT. These results support the theory that AHT does not strengthen PFM.

  8. A review of Māori astronomy in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Pauline; Matamua, Rangi; Smith, Takirirangi; Kerr, Hoturoa; Waaka, Toa

    2013-11-01

    Across the world indigenous people are seeking to reclaim their traditional knowledge. Within the last fifty years the Māori of Aotearoa-New Zealand have made significant efforts to reclaim their language, arts and science. Part of this renaissance includes a growing Māori movement to reclaim their astronomical knowledge. Māori astronomical understanding was infused throughout much of pre-colonial Māori life, culture and belief. The Sun, Moon and stars were an integral part of practices pertaining to agriculture, architecture, fishing, calendrical systems and exploration. Although early ethnographers attempted to record this knowledge, their works seem to only reflect a somewhat superficial level of understanding. Thus this paper highlights some of the current research being conducted on Māori astronomy, which seeks a greater understanding of how the ancestors of the Māori perceived the heavens.

  9. Levator Ani Necrosis: An Exceptional Complication Occurring after “High Intensity Focused Ultrasound” of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Van Velthoven, Roland

    2016-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a minimally invasive treatment option that might be considered in the management of localized prostate cancer. It is a well-tolerated treatment with few minor urologic complications and no major toxicities. In this paper, we report to our knowledge the first case of levator ani necrosis in a patient treated with HIFU, manifesting as sturdy perineal pain, which took years of NSAID intake and serial MRIs to demonstrate partial improvement. Therefore, we regard HIFU as a serious potential treatment option that still requires longer follow-up data before its approval in the personalized treatment panel of prostate cancer. PMID:27672474

  10. Differences in survival between Māori and New Zealand Europeans with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lao, C; Obertová, Z; Brown, C; Scott, N; Edlin, R; Gilling, P; Holmes, M; Tyrie, L; Lawrenson, R

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the survival disparity between Māori men and New Zealand (NZ) Europeans diagnosed with prostate cancer. We identified men aged 40+ years in the Midland Cancer Network region registered with prostate cancer in 2007-2010 in the Cancer Registry. Data were extracted from patient notes of all Māori men and a sample of NZ Europeans. The survival disparity between Māori men and Europeans was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards regression models after adjusting for other factors. This study included 535 men with prostate cancer (135 Māori men and 400 Europeans). The 5-year cancer-specific survival was 98.6% for men diagnosed with localised cancer, 88.8% for locally advanced disease and 19.1% for metastatic cancer. The all-cause survival and the cancer-specific survival were both significantly poorer for Māori men than for NZ Europeans (log rank test: P = 0.004, 0.006 respectively). The hazard ratio of cancer-specific survival for Māori men was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.21-3.36) compared with NZ Europeans. Māori men with prostate cancer had poorer all-cause survival and cancer-specific survival than NZ Europeans. Māori men were at risk of having more advanced disease at diagnosis, which explains most of the survival inequity between Māori men and NZ Europeans.

  11. Relative rates of RNA synthesis across the genome of Epstein-Barr virus are highest near oriP and oriLyt.

    PubMed Central

    Metzenberg, S

    1989-01-01

    The rates of Epstein-Barr virus transcription were measured in isolated nuclei from marmoset and human lymphoblasts transformed in vitro. In B95-8, a marmoset B-lymphoid cell line, the most frequently transcribed viral genes are the EBERs (small nuclear RNAs) and BHLF-1 (encoding a lytic-phase gene product). The EBERs and BHLF-1 genes are separated by nearly 50 kilobase pairs on the Epstein-Barr virus genome and lie adjacent to (less than 300 base pairs from) oriP and oriLyt, respectively. oriP and oriLyt are putative origins of viral DNA replication, and each is associated with a transcriptional enhancer element. Among the human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines tested, only the transcription of EBERs predominates. Images PMID:2552173

  12. Dissonant roles: The experience of Māori in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Dew, Kevin; Signal, Louise; Davies, Cheryl; Tavite, Huia; Hooper, Carolyn; Sarfati, Diana; Stairmand, Jeannine; Cunningham, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Indigenous peoples have poorer health outcomes than their non-indigenous counterparts and this applies to cancer outcomes for Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Differential access to and quality of healthcare contributes to poorer survival rates for Māori. This research provides insight into some of the mechanisms that hinder and facilitate care access. Thirty four people who had undergone cancer treatment (19 Māori and 15 non-Māori) were interviewed by two Māori researchers. The analysis of the interview transcripts was informed by membership categorization analysis. This form of analysis attends to the categories that are used and the activities and characteristics associated with those categories. From this analysis it is argued that the classical patient role, or sick role, inadequately captures the kind of role that some Māori take in relation to their healthcare. Māori can also have culturally specific family (whānau) influences and a greater draw towards alternative approaches to healthcare. Dissonant roles contribute to a different experience for Māori. A better understanding of the categories and roles that are relevant to those who have cancer provides opportunities to attenuate the monocultural impacts of healthcare.

  13. Premature mortality resilience and wellbeing within urban Māori communities.

    PubMed

    Waa, Andrew M; Pearson, Amber L; Ryks, John L

    2017-01-01

    ori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) experience of colonisation has negatively affected access to many of the resources (e.g. income, adequate housing) that enable health and well-being. However Māori have actively responded to the challenges they have faced. With the majority of the Māori population now living in urban settings this exploratory study aimed to understand factors contributing to mortality resilience despite exposure to socio-economic adversity with reference to Māori well-being. Resilient urban neighborhoods were defined as those that had lower than expected premature mortality among Māori residents despite high levels of socio-economic adversity. Selected resilience indicators theoretically linked to a Māori well-being framework were correlated with the novel Māori_RINZ resilience index. Of the selected indicators, only exposure to crime showed a clear gradient across the resilience index as predicted by the Māori well-being framework. Future research is needed as unclear trends for other indicators may reflect limitations in the indicators used or the need to develop a more comprehensive measure of well-being.

  14. Near-IR photometric monitoring of FU Ori Type Object 2MASS J06593158-0405277

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varricatt, W. P.; Carroll, T.; Moore, E.; Benigni, S.

    2015-05-01

    Maehara, Kojima, and Fujii (ATel #6770) discovered a recent FU Ori-type outburst in 2MASS J06593158-0405277. High resolution spectroscopic follow up by Hillenbrand (ATel #6797) confirmed its FU Ori nature, and discovered P-Cygni profile for H alpha line and blue-shifted absorption for other hydrogen lines.

  15. The complexities of designing therapy for Māori living with stroke-related communication disorders.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Karen M

    2016-05-27

    Stroke-related communication disorders can have a substantial impact on Māori whānau (extended family). Timely and appropriate speech-language therapy is required, but there are many challenges in providing this. In this article we discuss the need for a kaupapa Māori approach to speech-language therapy that is designed by Māori for Māori, and undertaken in a Māori way. We report the results of a literature review that revealed a small but significant body of literature describing Māori experiences of stroke, aphasia and speech-language therapy, and evidence that a Māori-specific therapy programme can improve outcomes for people with stroke. We then consider the social and political context that impacts the design and delivery of such an approach. Informed by the literature, we propose a hierarchy of skill and resource acquisition for speech-language therapists, in which they learn why to be culturally safe, how to be culturally safe, and how to interact before creating resources to build relationships, resources for education and for therapy. The creation of a kaupapa Māori speech-language therapy approach should bring together people with stroke, whānau members and service providers to create therapy that crosses sectors and disciplines and acknowledges the wider social and political context.

  16. In vivo mutagenesis reveals that OriL is essential for mitochondrial DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Miralles Fusté, Javier; Stewart, James B; Wanrooij, Paulina H; Samuelsson, Tore; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Gustafsson, Claes M; Falkenberg, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of mitochondrial DNA replication have been hotly debated for a decade. The strand-displacement model states that lagging-strand DNA synthesis is initiated from the origin of light-strand DNA replication (OriL), whereas the strand-coupled model implies that OriL is dispensable. Mammalian mitochondria cannot be transfected and the requirements of OriL in vivo have therefore not been addressed. We here use in vivo saturation mutagenesis to demonstrate that OriL is essential for mtDNA maintenance in the mouse. Biochemical and bioinformatic analyses show that OriL is functionally conserved in vertebrates. Our findings strongly support the strand-displacement model for mtDNA replication. PMID:23090476

  17. Cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator muscle are located in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kenya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Kawagishi, Kyutaro; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2012-12-01

    Since the levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles despite being antigravity mixed muscles to involuntarily sustain eyelid opening and eyebrow lifting, this study has proposed a hypothetical mechanism to compensate for this anatomical defect. The voluntary contraction of fast-twitch fibres of the levator muscle stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to evoke proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study confirmed the presence of cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons that transmit reflex contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles. After confirming that severing the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induced ipsilateral eyelid ptosis, Fluorogold was applied as a tracer to the proximal stump of the trigeminal proprioceptive nerve in rats. Fluorogold labelled the cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons, not in any regions of the rat brain including the trigeminal ganglion, but in the ipsilateral mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus neighbouring the locus ceruleus. Some Fluorogold particles accumulated in the area of the locus ceruleus. The trigeminal proprioceptive neurons could be considered centrally displaced ganglion cells to transmit afferent signal from the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to the mesencephalon, where they may be able to make excitatory synaptic connections with both the oculomotor neurons and the frontalis muscle motoneurons for the involuntary coordination of the eyelid and eyebrow activities, and potentially to the locus ceruleus.

  18. The photometric variability of ζ Ori Aa observed by BRITE* **

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buysschaert, B.; Neiner, C.

    2016-12-01

    Using BRITE photometry, we investigated the photometric variability of the magnetic O-type supergiant ζOri Aa. We found two independent frequencies, leading to several higher harmonics and simple linear combinations. One frequency is related to the rotation period, f_{rot} = 0.15±0.02 d^{-1}. The derived rotation period from this frequency and its higher harmonics, P_{rot} = 6.65±0.28 d, is compatible with the literature value (P_{rot} = 6.83±0.08 d). Thanks to simultaneous CHIRON spectroscopy, we locate the origin of the second frequency, f_{env} = 0.10±0.02 d^{-1}, at the circumstellar environment. We propose mass-loss events as the underlying origin.

  19. Mechanics of Miura-ori Origami Lattice Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, Jesse; McLeod, Lauren; Evans, Arthur; Ginepro, Jessica; Santangelo, Christian; Hull, Thomas; Cohen, Itai

    2014-03-01

    The mechanical properties of origami-inspired materials show remarkable potential for responsive, tunable next-generation materials. For example, the Miura-ori fold is predicted to have negative Poisson ratio and anisotropic compressive properties. Using a custom mechanical testing device and 3D laser profilometry, we investigate the moduli and the role of curvature in setting these material properties. Because defects are known to dramatically alter the bulk properties in other periodic materials, we introduce defects into the folding pattern to investigate their effects on the macroscopic mechanical properties. Interestingly, we find that a single defect increases the overall material stiffness, but the introduction of a second defect in the opposite direction can cancel out the first, tending to restore the original material properties. Moreover, these defect pairs can be arranged to form edge dislocations, grain boundaries, and many other topological configurations familiar from the study of crystallographic lattice defects.

  20. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Stephanie S L; Ghadiali, Larissa K; Brannagan Iii, Thomas H; Moonis, Gul; Faust, Phyllis L; Odel, Jeffrey G

    2017-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES) was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM) as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient's diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis.

  1. Sagging Eye Syndrome or Nemaline Rod Myopathy? Divergence Insufficiency with Levator Dehiscence as an Overlapping Symptom between Two Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Ghadiali, Larissa K.; Brannagan III, Thomas H.; Moonis, Gul; Faust, Phyllis L.; Odel, Jeffrey G.

    2017-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman complained of gradual, painless onset of horizontal binocular diplopia associated with progressive axial weakness. Physical examination revealed esotropia that was greater at distance than at near vision, bilateral levator dehiscence, and normal abducting saccadic speeds. Given the age of the patient and compatible clinical findings, the diagnosis of Sagging Eye Syndrome (SES) was made. However, further work-up with a muscle biopsy suggested Sporadic Late-Onset Nemaline Myopathy (SLONM) as the cause of her progressive muscle weakness. Although rare, external ophthalmoplegia has been described in the literature as a presenting symptom in SLONM. To elucidate the pathological mechanism for the patient's diplopia, an MRI of the orbits was performed, which revealed findings consistent with SES. This case aims to highlight the importance of integrating clinical findings during the diagnostic process and serves as a reminder that diplopia can be a common symptom for an uncommon diagnosis. PMID:28182120

  2. Multiple brain parenchymal neurocysticercosis with extraocular muscle cysticercosis affecting levator palpebral superioris and superior rectus complex: an unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented to the neurology department with a complaint of insidious onset of left-sided ptosis and restricted elevation of the left eye. A CT scan orbit and brain revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the levator palpebral superioris (LPS) and superior rectus (SR) muscle complex of the left eye and left parietal and right temporal region. She was started on steroid, followed by albendazole with improvement. The LPS/SR complex is the least common site of involvement among extraocular muscles in ocular cysticercosis. Specially, with brain neurocysticercosis (NCC), it is extremely rare. We report an unusual association of multiple brain NCC with ocular cysticercosis involving LPS and SR muscle. PMID:23355567

  3. Intra-eyebrow frontalis suspension using inverted Y-shaped short autogenous fascia lata for blepharoptosis with poor levator function.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shido, Hirokazu; Fujii, Takako; Kato, Tatsuya; Aoki, Marie; Takada, Keiko; Kishi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Frontalis suspension using autogenous fascia lata is a common procedure for blepharoptosis with poor levator function. However, donor-site morbidity associated with fascia lata harvest cannot be ignored. In conventional procedures, the required length of the fascia lata is usually >5-12 cm with a lateral thigh skin incision of approximately 5 cm or more. The present study introduces a new frontalis suspension procedure in which the required size (length and width) of the fascia lata and length of lateral thigh incision is much smaller. The harvested fascia lata is tailored to an inverted Y shape and the separated caudal legs are fixed to the tarsus while the cephalic end is grafted inside the eyebrow through a suborbital septum tunnel. In the present study, 11 patients who underwent the new procedure with a minimum of 6 months of follow-up were evaluated. The average length and width of the harvested fascia lata in unilateral ptosis cases were 2.85 and 0.89 cm, respectively. The average length of the lateral thigh incision was 1.25 cm. The margin reflex distance improved in all cases at 6 months postoperatively. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in most of the patients. Trichiasis, widened donor scar, and eyebrow notch were noted as complications. The present method is a good alternative for the treatment of blepharoptosis with poor levator function. It potentially reduces donor-site morbidity as compared with conventional frontalis muscle suspension procedures using autogenous fascia lata.

  4. Differential polarization direct imaging of FU Ori type YSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangwei; Takami, Michihiro; Scicluna, Peter; Karr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    FU Orionis objects (FUors) are distinguished from other young stellar objects due to their outbursts. They can surge in brightness by multiple magnitudes in a short time. Thus FUors have always been considered the strongest evidence which suggests unsteady accretion process in low mass young stellar objects (YSO). However the accreting process of FUors are not well understood. We present high resolution (~0.1 arcseconds) observations of 5 FUors (FU Ori, V1057cyg, V1515cyg, V1735cyg, Z Cma) in near infrared bandpasses (J,H,K) using the Subaru telescope. Through using polarization differential imaging and coronagraphy techniques, we were able to obtain high contrast images of circumstellar environment around central young stars. After image processing, we found interesting structures (stream, tail, fragment, etc) in the circumstellar disks. These structures are indications for dynamical interaction, potential outflow cavities and disk fragmentation. More importantly, these disk features can provide us with insight into the accretion process and where outbursts originate.

  5. Dependence on place: A source of autonomy in later life for older Māori.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Elizabeth; Breheny, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Attachment to place is an important component of ageing. Although the importance of place for older people's well-being is known, the ways in which different conceptions of place and expectations for what later life may hold depend upon cultural beliefs, values, and expectations is underexplored. This study examined the ways that place influences experiences of ageing for older Māori in New Zealand. Eight interviews with older Māori were analysed thematically alongside field notes from a research visit. Attachment to place provided the foundation for experiences of ageing for older Māori. Through their connection to place, the participants drew on a comforting and comfortable dependence on land and family to enable autonomy in later life. Rather than seeking to maintain independence in terms of avoiding reliance on others, older Māori conceptualised older age through autonomy and freedom to live in accordance with Māori values encapsulated by whakawhanaungatanga. A good old age depended on balancing competing demands of living in wider society with attachment to place and Māori identity in later life.

  6. Evaluation of Long-term Outcomes of Correction of Severe Blepharoptosis with Advancement of External Levator Muscle Complex: Descriptive Statistical Analysis of the Results

    PubMed Central

    INNOCENTI, ALESSANDRO; MORI, FRANCESCO; MELITA, DARIO; DREASSI, EMANUELA; CIANCIO, FRANCESCO; INNOCENTI, MARCO

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of long-term results after aponeurotic blepharoptosis correction with external levator muscle complex advancement. Patients and Methods: We carried out a retrospective study with medical record review of 20 patients (40 eyes) affected by bilateral aponeurotic moderate and severe ptosis who underwent primary surgery between January 2010 and December 2013. Criteria for outcome evaluations included 3-year postoperative follow-up of upper margin reflex index (uMRD) and symmetry. Results: 3-Year postoperative follow-up showed 17 (85%) cases of successful correction of ptosis and three cases (15%) showed partial success. Two eyes showed hypocorrection, while one eye was overcorrected. The symmetry was maintained in all patients except for the oldest. Conclusion: External superior levator advancement is an effective procedure for moderate and severe aponeurotic blepharoptosis correction, and establishes good long-term eyelid position and symmetry. PMID:28064228

  7. Fu Ori outbursts and the planet-disc mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayakshin, Sergei; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    It has been recently proposed that giant protoplanets migrating inwards through the disc more rapidly than they contract could be tidally disrupted when they fill their Roche lobes ˜0.1 au away from their parent protostars. Here we consider the process of mass and angular momentum exchange between the tidally disrupted planet and the surrounding disc in detail. We find that the planet's adiabatic mass-radius relation and its ability to open a deep gap in the disc determine whether the disruption proceeds as a sudden runaway or a balanced quasi-static process. In the latter case, the planet feeds the inner disc through its Lagrangian L1 point like a secondary star in a stellar binary system. As the planet loses mass, it gains specific angular momentum and normally migrates in the outward direction until the gap closes. Numerical experiments show that planet disruption outbursts are preceded by long 'quiescent' periods during which the disc inward of the planet is empty. The hole in the disc is created when the planet opens a deep gap, letting the inner disc to drain on to the star while keeping the outer one stalled behind the planet. We find that the mass-losing planet embedded in a realistic protoplanetary disc spawns an extremely rich set of variability patterns. In a subset of parameter space, there is a limit cycle behaviour caused by non-linear interaction between the planet mass-loss and the disc hydrogen ionization instability. We suggest that tidal disruptions of young massive planets near their stars may be responsible for the observed variability of young accreting protostars such as FU Ori, EXor and T Tauri stars in general.

  8. Predictors of academic success for Māori, Pacific and non-Māori non-Pacific students in health professional education: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Wikaire, Erena; Curtis, Elana; Cormack, Donna; Jiang, Yannan; McMillan, Louise; Loto, Rob; Reid, Papaarangi

    2017-05-01

    Tertiary institutions internationally aim to increase student diversity, however are struggling to achieve equitable academic outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students and detailed exploration of factors that impact on success is required. This study explored the predictive effect of admission variables on academic outcomes for health professional students by ethnic grouping. Kaupapa Māori and Pacific research methodologies were used to conduct a quantitative analysis using data for 2686 health professional students [150 Māori, 257 Pacific, 2279, non-Māori non-Pacific (nMnP)]. The predictive effect of admission variables: school decile; attending school in Auckland; type of admission; bridging programme; and first-year bachelor results on academic outcomes: year 2-4 grade point average (GPA); graduating; graduating in the minimum time; and optimal completion for the three ethnic groupings and the full cohort was explored using multiple regression analyses. After adjusting for admission variables, for every point increase in first year bachelor GPA: year 2-4 GPA increased by an average of 0.46 points for Māori (p = 0.0002, 95% CI 0.22, 0.69), 0.70 points for Pacific (p < 0.0001, CI 0.52, 0.87), and 0.55 points for nMnP (p < 0.0001, CI 0.51, 0.58) students. For the total cohort, ethnic grouping was consistently the most significant predictor of academic outcomes. This study demonstrated clear differences in academic outcomes between both Māori and Pacific students when compared to nMnP students. Some (but not all) of the disparities between ethnic groupings could be explained by controlling for admission variables.

  9. oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication

    PubMed Central

    Wolański, Marcin; Donczew, Rafał; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Replication of the bacterial chromosome initiates at a single origin of replication that is called oriC. This occurs via the concerted action of numerous proteins, including DnaA, which acts as an initiator. The origin sequences vary across species, but all bacterial oriCs contain the information necessary to guide assembly of the DnaA protein complex at oriC, triggering the unwinding of DNA and the beginning of replication. The requisite information is encoded in the unique arrangement of specific sequences called DnaA boxes, which form a framework for DnaA binding and assembly. Other crucial sequences of bacterial origin include DNA unwinding element (DUE, which designates the site at which oriC melts under the influence of DnaA) and binding sites for additional proteins that positively or negatively regulate the initiation process. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge and understanding of the information encoded in bacterial origins of chromosomal replication, particularly in the context of replication initiation and its regulation. We show that oriC encoded instructions allow not only for initiation but also for precise regulation of replication initiation and coordination of chromosomal replication with the cell cycle (also in response to environmental signals). We focus on Escherichia coli, and then expand our discussion to include several other microorganisms in which additional regulatory proteins have been recently shown to be involved in coordinating replication initiation to other cellular processes (e.g., Bacillus, Caulobacter, Helicobacter, Mycobacterium, and Streptomyces). We discuss diversity of bacterial oriC regions with the main focus on roles of individual DNA recognition sequences at oriC in binding the initiator and regulatory proteins as well as the overall impact of these proteins on the formation of initiation complex. PMID:25610430

  10. ORBITAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE σ Ori Aa, Ab, B TRIPLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Simón-Díaz, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Dorda, R.; Marco, A.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Barbá, R. H.; Montes, D.; Pellerin, A.; Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Sota, A.

    2015-02-01

    We provide a complete characterization of the astrophysical properties of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B hierarchical triple system and an improved set of orbital parameters for the highly eccentric σ Ori Aa, Ab spectroscopic binary. We compiled a spectroscopic data set comprising 90 high-resolution spectra covering a total time span of 1963 days. We applied the Lehman-Filhés method for a detailed orbital analysis of the radial velocity curves and performed a combined quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the σ Ori Aa, Ab, B system by means of the stellar atmosphere code FASTWIND. We used our own plus other available information on photometry and distance to the system for measuring the radii, luminosities, and spectroscopic masses of the three components. We also inferred evolutionary masses and stellar ages using the Bayesian code BONNSAI. The orbital analysis of the new radial velocity curves led to a very accurate orbital solution of the σ Ori Aa, Ab pair. We provided indirect arguments indicating that σ Ori B is a fast-rotating early B dwarf. The FASTWIND+BONNSAI analysis showed that the Aa, Ab pair contains the hottest and most massive components of the triple system while σ Ori B is a bit cooler and less massive. The derived stellar ages of the inner pair are intriguingly younger than the one widely accepted for the σ Orionis cluster, at 3 ± 1 Ma. The outcome of this study will be of key importance for a precise determination of the distance to the σ Orionis cluster, the interpretation of the strong X-ray emission detected for σ Ori Aa, Ab, B, and the investigation of the formation and evolution of multiple massive stellar systems and substellar objects.

  11. The nurse's role in improving health disparities experienced by the indigenous Māori of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Katherine Evelyn

    2011-10-01

    Many countries across the globe experience disparities in health between their indigenous and non-indigenous people. The indigenous Māori of New Zealand are the most marginalized and deprived ethnic group with the poorest health status overall. Factors including the historical British colonization, institutional discrimination, healthcare workforce bias and the personal attitudes and beliefs of Māori significantly contribute to disparities, differential access and receipt of quality health services. Māori experience more barriers towards accessing health services and as a result achieve poorer health outcomes. Contradicting translations of Te Tiriti o Waitangi have created much debate regarding social rights as interpreted by Oritetanga (equal British citizenship rights) and whether or not Māori are entitled to equal opportunities or equal outcomes. Inconsistent consideration of Māori culture in the New Zealand health system and social policy greatly contributes to the current health disparities. Nurses and healthcare professionals alike have the gifted opportunity to truly change attitudes toward Māori health and move forward in adopting culturally appropriate care practices. More specifically the nursing workforce provides 80% of direct patient care, thus are in a unique position to be the forefront of change in reducing health disparities experienced by Māori. Incorporating cultural safety, patient advocacy, and Māori-centred models of care will support nurses in adopting a new approach toward improving Māori health outcomes overall.

  12. A Star-forming Ring around κ Ori 250 pc from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250-280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5-8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  13. A STAR-FORMING RING AROUND κ Ori 250 pc FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Megeath, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    X-rays are a powerful probe of activity in early stages of star formation. They allow us to identify young stars even after they have lost the IR signatures of circumstellar disks and provide constraints on their distance. Here, we report on XMM-Newton observations that detect 121 young stellar objects (YSOs) in two fields between L1641 S and κ Ori. These observations extend the Survey of Orion A with XMM and Spitzer (SOXS). The YSOs are contained in a ring of gas and dust apparent at millimeter wavelengths, and in far-IR and near-IR surveys. The X-ray luminosity function of the YSOs detected in the two fields indicates a distance of 250–280 pc, much closer than the Orion A cloud and similar to distance estimates of κ Ori. We propose that the ring is a 5–8 pc diameter shell that has been swept up by κ Ori. This ring contains several groups of stars detected by Spitzer and WISE including one surrounding the Herbig Ae/Be stars V1818 Ori. In this interpretation, the κ Ori ring is one of several shells swept up by massive stars within the Orion Eridanus Superbubble and is unrelated to the southern portion of Orion A/L1641 S.

  14. GHRS Observations of the Interstellar Medium toward 23 ORI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, D. E.; Hobbs, L. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.; Morton, D. C.; Spitzer, L.; York, D. G.

    1996-05-01

    High-resolution optical spectra, GHRS echelle and G160M spectra, and Copernicus spectra are combined to study the abundances and physical conditions in the diffuse interstellar clouds seen toward 23 Ori. High-resolution (0.3--2.0 km s(-1) ) spectra of Na I, Ca I, Ca II, and K I are used to define the underlying component structure that is unresolved in the UV spectra, enabling more accurate individual cloud abundances and physical conditions to be derived from the numerous transitions found in the UV. Multiple absorption components are present for each of several distinct types of gas. Strong low-velocity (SLV) absorption, due to cool, moderately dense neutral gas, is seen for neutral and singly ionized species at 20 km s(-1) la vsun la 30 km s(-1) . Weaker low-velocity (WLV) absorption, probably due to warmer gas, is seen primarily for singly ionized species at 0 km s(-1) la vsun la 20 km s(-1) . Weak absorption from C II, Mg II, and Si III is seen at -45 km s(-1) la vsun la 0 km s(-1) , and from more highly ionized species at -5 km s(-1) la vsun la 25 km s(-1) . Absorption from singly and doubly ionized species is seen at -110 km s(-1) la vsun la -80 km s(-1) ; this apparently shock-ionized gas is not in collisional ionization equilibrium, having cooled more quickly than it could recombine. The various types of gas present along this line of sight are characterized by different relative abundance / depletion patterns; these depletion patterns are compared with the physical conditions derived for the different components. For the SLV components, most typically depleted species are less depleted by factors of 2--4, compared to the ``cold, dense cloud'' pattern found, for example, toward zeta Oph. The depletions in the WLV gas are typically another factor of 2--3 less than in the SLV gas, similar to the ``warm cloud'' pattern seen in less reddened lines of sight. While there is some uncertainty, due to unobserved ionization stages, as to the depletions in the high

  15. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L. Computer Sciences Corp., Seabrook, MD Iowa State Univ., Ames )

    1989-12-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs.

  16. The experience and impact of gout in Māori and Pacific people: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Dalbeth, Nicola; House, Meaghan E; Horne, Anne; Te Karu, Leanne; Petrie, Keith J; McQueen, Fiona M; Taylor, William J

    2013-02-01

    Although high prevalence of gout in Māori and Pacific people is well-documented, the experience of disease in these groups has not been explored in detail. The aim of this analysis was to describe the experience and impact of gout in Māori and Pacific people. Patients with gout for <10 years were recruited from primary and secondary care settings into a prospective observational study (n = 291; 37 Māori, 35 Pacific, and 219 not Māori or Pacific). Participants attended a baseline study visit which included a comprehensive clinical assessment. Serum urate, flare frequency and activity limitation were recorded at baseline and after 1 year. Māori and Pacific participants had earlier age of onset (by 9 years), higher flare frequency and more features of joint inflammation. Serum urate concentrations were higher in the Māori and Pacific patients at baseline, despite greater use of allopurinol. Māori and Pacific patients reported greater pain and activity limitation and lower health-related quality of life. The cost of gout treatment was more than three times higher in the Māori and Pacific patients. After 1 year, the higher flare frequency and activity limitation persisted in the Māori and Pacific patients. Māori and Pacific people with gout experience early onset, severe disease with frequent flares and poorly controlled hyperuricaemia. Māori and Pacific ethnicity should be recognised as a prognostic factor for more severe outcomes in this disease, and intensive efforts should be made to work with these patients to control serum urate and prevent flares.

  17. Pounamu: E Hine: access to contraception for indigenous Mãori teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Beverley; Makowharemahihi, Charrissa; Cram, Fiona; Robson, Bridget; Ngata, Tina

    2016-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Timely and equitable access to contraception enables teenage mothers to make informed choices about their sexual and reproductive health. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to contraception for Māori teenagers who become mothers. METHODS 'E Hine' is a longitudinal qualitative Kaupapa Māori (by Māori for Māori) study involving Māori women (aged 14-19 years), following them through pregnancy (n = 44) and the birth of their babies until their babies' first birthdays (n = 41). This analysis focusses on contraception access pre-and post-pregnancy. FINDINGS Pre-pregnancy most participants accessed contraception or advice. Contraception use was compromised by a lack of information, negative side effects, and limited follow up. All reported their subsequent pregnancies as unplanned. Participants gave considerable thought to post-pregnancy contraception. Despite this many experienced clinical and service delays, financial barriers, and negative contraceptive side effects. There was little focus on contraception initiation and a lack of integrated care between midwives and other primary care services, leaving many participants without timely effective contraception. The system worked well when there was a contraception plan that included navigation, free access, and provision of contraception. CONCLUSION The majority of participants actively sought contraception pre- and post-conception. Despite a publicly funded system, a lack of health sector integration resulted in multiple missed opportunities to meet the needs of these teenagers for effective contraception. Health service funding formulas should define the goal as initiation of contraception rather than advice and provide funding to improve timely access to long acting reversible contraception. KEYWORDS Indigenous teenage pregnancy; contraception; barriers to contraception; Māori mothers.

  18. Topography and landmarks for the nerve supply to the levator ani and its relevance to pelvic floor pathologies.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Joseph, Shamfa; Etienne, Denzil; Linganna, Sanjay; Hallner, Barry; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the anatomical variations of the nerve to the levator ani (LA) and to relate these findings to LA dysfunction. One hundred fixed human female cadavers were dissected using transabdominal, gluteal, and perineal approaches, resulting in two hundred dissections of the sacral plexus. The pudendal nerve and the sacral nerve roots were traced from their origin at the sacral foramina to their termination. All nerves contributing to the innervation of the LA were considered to be the nerve to the LA. Based on the spinal nerve components, the nerve to the LA was classified into the following categories: 50% (n = 100) originated from S4 and S5 (type I); 19% (n = 38) originated from S5 (type II); 16% (n = 32) originated from S4 (type III); 11% (n = 22) originated from S3 and S4 (type IV); 4% (n = 8) originated from S3, S4, and S5 (type V). Two patterns of nerve termination were observed. In 42% of specimens, the nerve to the LA penetrated the coccygeus muscle and assumed an external position along the inferior surface of the LA muscle. In the remaining 58% of specimens, the nerve crossed the superior surface of the coccygeus muscle and continued along the superior surface of the iliococcygeus muscle. Damage to the nerve to LA has been associated with various pathologies. In order to minimize injuries during surgical procedures, a thorough understanding of the course and variations of the nerve to the LA is extremely important.

  19. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects: A live gross anatomy and cadaveric histological study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA.This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry.Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of blepharoplasty.

  20. 78 FR 49507 - OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission OriGen Energy LLC ; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of OriGen Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. Looking Māori Predicts Decreased Rates of Home Ownership: Institutional Racism in Housing Based on Perceived Appearance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand’s home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori. PMID:25738961

  2. New Zealand youth that sexually offend: improving outcomes for Māori rangatahi and their whānau.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stacey; Lambie, Ian; Cooper, Erana

    2012-10-01

    ori youth are overrepresented in criminal justice statistics and youth forensic services. Māori youth that engage in sexual offending behaviors have a higher risk of dropping out of treatment than Pākehā(1) youth. Research into Māori mental health is important to inform ongoing service development and is essential to strive for equity in mental health outcomes and offending rates among Māori. In this study, the researchers investigated the coexisting emotional and behavioral problems and victimization histories of an age-matched sample of Māori (n = 75) and Pākehā (n = 75) youth who were referred to a community treatment program for sexual offending in Auckland between 1996 and 2008. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to investigate ethnic differences. After controlling for socioeconomic deprivation, Māori youth scored significantly higher than Pākehā youth on the Delinquent Behaviors syndrome scale. Māori youth were also more likely than Pākehā youth to have a background of physical abuse. Implications of these findings are discussed, with regard to the unique needs of Māori youth and appropriate interventions.

  3. ORNL’s ORiGAMI Uses Big Data to Help Solve Age-Old Medical Mysteries in Seconds

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Rangan

    2016-06-17

    ORiGAMI is a tool for discovering and evaluating potentially interesting associations and creating novel hypothesis in medicine. ORiGAMI will help you “connect the dots” across 70 million knowledge nuggets published in 23 million papers in the medical literature.

  4. Looking Māori predicts decreased rates of home ownership: institutional racism in housing based on perceived appearance.

    PubMed

    Houkamau, Carla A; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national postal sample of 561 self-identified Māori collected as part of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. As predicted, our analyses indicated that self-reported appearance as Māori, or the extent to which people thought they personally displayed features which visibly identified them as Māori to others, significantly predicted decreased rates of home ownership. This association held when adjusting for numerous demographic covariates, such as education, level of deprivation of the immediate area, household income, age, relationship status, region of residence, and so forth. Our analyses suggest there is, or at least has been in the recent past, institutional racism against Māori in New Zealand's home lending industry based on merely appearing more Māori.

  5. Thermal imaging of the FU Ori type object 2MASS J06593158-0405277 = V960 Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varricatt, W. P.; Kerr, T. H.; Carroll, T.; Moore, E.; Milne, P.

    2015-10-01

    A FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 (V960 Mon) was discovered by Maehara, Kojima and Fujii (ATel #6770). Further observational studies (ATel #6797, #6838, #6862, #6901, #7025, #7578) and archival data research (Jurdana- & #138;epi & #263; & Munari, 2016, NewA, 43, 87) confirmed the FU Ori nature of this object.

  6. The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement: item response theory analysis of scale properties.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A

    2013-01-01

    We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.

  7. Neoliberalism and indigenous knowledge: Māori health research and the cultural politics of New Zealand's "National Science Challenges".

    PubMed

    Prussing, Erica; Newbury, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    In 2012-13 the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE) in New Zealand rapidly implemented a major restructuring of national scientific research funding. The "National Science Challenges" (NSC) initiative aims to promote greater commercial applications of scientific knowledge, reflecting ongoing neoliberal reforms in New Zealand. Using the example of health research, we examine the NSC as a key moment in ongoing indigenous Māori advocacy against neoliberalization. NSC rhetoric and practice through 2013 moved to marginalize participation by Māori researchers, in part through constructing "Māori" and "science" as essentially separate arenas-yet at the same time appeared to recognize and value culturally distinctive forms of Māori knowledge. To contest this "neoliberal multiculturalism," Māori health researchers reasserted the validity of culturally distinctive knowledge, strategically appropriated NSC rhetoric, and marshalled political resources to protect Māori research infrastructure. By foregrounding scientific knowledge production as an arena of contestation over neoliberal values and priorities, and attending closely to how neoliberalizing tactics can include moves to acknowledge cultural diversity, this analysis poses new questions for social scientific study of global trends toward reconfiguring the production of knowledge about health. Study findings are drawn from textual analysis of MBIE documents about the NSC from 2012 to 2014, materials circulated by Māori researchers in the blogosphere in 2014, and ethnographic interviews conducted in 2013 with 17 Māori health researchers working at 7 sites that included university-based research centers, government agencies, and independent consultancies.

  8. ori experiences of aphasia therapy: "But I'm from Hauiti and we've got shags".

    PubMed

    McLellan, Karen M; McCann, Clare M; Worrall, Linda E; Harwood, Matire L N

    2014-10-01

    This study explored Māori experiences of aphasia therapy, with a view to ascertaining what makes a service culturally safe as well as "accessible to and culturally appropriate for" Māori with aphasia and their whānau (extended family). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. This study incorporated interpretive description (a qualitative methodology) within kaupapa Māori research (a Māori approach to research). In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 Māori with aphasia and 23 of their nominated whānau members. They reported a wide variety of experiences of aphasia therapy, in six themes: We're happy to do the work, but we can't do it alone; Relationship; Our worldview; The speech-language therapy setting; Aphasia resources; and Is this as good as it gets? While some Māori with aphasia reportedly received an accessible and culturally appropriate service, others did not. It is concluded that, for Māori with aphasia, a strong therapeutic relationship is central. The success of this relationship is shaped by the SLP's appreciation of the worldview of the person with aphasia and whānau, the setting of the therapy, and the resources used. Successful therapy will involve collaboration between clinician and whānau, and therapy resources that affirm the identity of the person with aphasia.

  9. Refined distribution of myelinated trigeminal proprioceptive nerve fibres in Mueller's muscle as the mechanoreceptors to induce involuntary reflexive contraction of the levator and frontalis muscles.

    PubMed

    Yuzuriha, Shunsuke; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Hirasawa, Chihiro; Moriizumi, Tetsuji

    2009-11-01

    Stretching of mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle induces reflexive contraction of not only the levator muscle but also the frontalis muscle as two different eyelid-opening muscles. Previously, we reported that fine neural myelinated structures, acting as mechanoreceptors, were found in the proximal Mueller's muscle. Since there is a risk of misunderstanding that the middle and distal Mueller's muscle does not contain mechanoreceptors and can be invalidated or resected, the accurate distribution of myelinated trigeminal proprioceptive nerve fibres as mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle was refined horizontally in this study. We explored 10 whole Mueller's muscles between the levator muscle and the tarsus of the upper eyelids obtained from five Japanese cadavers. The specimens were serially sliced along the horizontal plane and stained with HE, S-100 protein to determine the presence of Schwann cells, and smooth muscle actin antibody to determine the presence of Mueller's smooth muscle fibres. Although all myelinated nerve fibres in the intermuscular connective tissues among the sympathetically innervated Mueller's multi-unit smooth muscle fibres may not correspond to the proprioceptive nerve fibres, the nerve bundles consisting of multiple myelinated nerve fibres were well distributed in the proximal Mueller's muscle, and single myelinated nerve fibres were well distributed in the middle and distal Mueller's muscle. We believe that the mechanoreceptors in Mueller's muscle consist of myelinated proprioceptive nerve fibres with nerve endings possibly attached to collagen fibres in the intermuscular connective tissues present among Mueller's smooth muscle fibres. As the myelinated nerve fibres innervate the middle and distal Mueller's muscle to a greater extent than those in the proximal Mueller's muscle, the former may be more important as mechanoreceptors than the latter and should not be invalidated or excised during surgery for treatment of blepharoptosis to

  10. Interest of retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy in selected cases of descending perineum syndrome with positive anti-sagging test

    PubMed Central

    Beco, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Background Levator plate sagging (LPS), usually called descending perineum syndrome, is one of the main defects encountered in perineology. This defect is classically associated with colo-proctologic functional troubles (dyschesia and anal incontinence) but can also induce perineodynia, gynaecological and lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods A retrospective case series of nine female patients (mean age: 44.3) underwent an isolated retro-anal levator plate myorrhaphy (RLPM) to treat symptomatic LPS confirmed by rectal examination and/or Perineocaliper®. An anti-sagging test (support of the posterior perineum) must significantly improve the symptoms that were resistant to conservative treatment. The effect of the procedure on the symptoms of the 3 axes of the perineum (urological, colo-proctologic and gynecological) and on perineodynia was evaluated during a follow up consultation more than 9 months after surgery. The effect of RLPM on the position of the anal margin and on the levator plate angle was studied using rectal examination, Perineocaliper® and retro-anal ultrasound. Results Before surgery, anti-sagging tests were positive for dyschesia, urinary urgency and pain. After a mean follow-up of 16.1 months, RLPM resolved or improved 2/2 cases of stress urinary incontinence, 3/5 of urinary urgency, 3/4 of dysuria, 3/3 of anal incontinence, 7/8 of dyschesia, 3/4 of cystocele, 4/5 of rectocele, 5/8 of dyspareunia and 6/7 of perineodynia. Rectal examination showed a complete suppression of sagging in 4 patients and an improvement in the 5 others. The mean reduction of perineal descent was 1.08 cm (extremes: 0–1.5). Using retro-anal ultrasound of the levator plate, the mean reduction of sagging was 12.67 degrees (extremes: 1 – 21). Conclusion Anti-sagging tests can be used before surgery to simulate the effect of RLPM. This surgical procedure seems to improve stress urinary incontinence, frequency, nocturia, urgency, dysuria, anal incontinence, dyschesia

  11. Insanity and ethnicity in New Zealand: Māori encounters with the Auckland Mental Hospital, 1860-1900.

    PubMed

    Barry, Lorelle; Coleborne, Catharine

    2011-09-01

    This article examines Māori patients at the Auckland Mental Hospital between 1860 and 1900.We argue that the patient case notes reveal 'European' categories in which Māori were situated, and demonstrate the extent to which the authorities at the hospital grappled with their appearance, their language and their culture, all of which were elements of their ethnicity. We argue that the use of institutional case records is highly suggestive of some of the historical meanings of insanity for Māori, including the lack of detailed or sustained collection of information about patients' tribal affiliations, the interest shown in their rights to land in maintenance payment inquiries, the experiences of cultural alienation or mate Māori, and the sad outcomes for Māori.

  12. Differentiation of the DnaA-oriC subcomplex for DNA unwinding in a replication initiation complex.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Shogo; Noguchi, Yasunori; Hayashi, Yasuhisa; Miyazaki, Erika; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2012-10-26

    In Escherichia coli, ATP-DnaA multimers formed on the replication origin oriC promote duplex unwinding, which leads to helicase loading. Based on a detailed functional analysis of the oriC sequence motifs, we previously proposed that the left half of oriC forms an ATP-DnaA subcomplex competent for oriC unwinding, whereas the right half of oriC forms a distinct ATP-DnaA subcomplex that facilitates helicase loading. However, the molecular basis for the functional difference between these ATP-DnaA subcomplexes remains unclear. By analyzing a series of novel DnaA mutants, we found that structurally distinct DnaA multimers form on each half of oriC. DnaA AAA+ domain residues Arg-227 and Leu-290 are specifically required for oriC unwinding. Notably, these residues are required for the ATP-DnaA-specific structure of DnaA multimers in complex with the left half of oriC but not for that with the right half. These results support the idea that the ATP-DnaA multimers formed on oriC are not uniform and that they can adopt different conformations. Based on a structural model, we propose that Arg-227 and Leu-290 play a crucial role in inter-ATP-DnaA interaction and are a prerequisite for the formation of unwinding-competent DnaA subcomplexes on the left half of oriC. These residues are not required for the interaction with DnaB, nucleotide binding, or regulatory DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, which further supports their important role in inter-DnaA interaction. The corresponding residues are evolutionarily conserved and are required for unwinding in the initial complexes of Thermotoga maritima, an ancient hyperthermophile. Therefore, our findings suggest a novel and common mechanism for ATP-DnaA-dependent activation of initial complexes.

  13. Observing the Circumstellar Environment of the Eruptive FUor/EXor Protostar V1647 Ori with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principe, David; Cieza, Lucas A.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fu Ori (FUor) and EXor objects represent a short-lived stage of protostellar evolution characterized by intense mass accretion events which cause extreme variability in the form of outbursts. While it is well demonstrated that these objects exhibit sudden outbursts (ΔV~2-6), the mechanism causing such variability is not well understood. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the circumstellar environment of these objects are essential to distinguish between different outbursting mechanisms. We present ALMA observations of the FUor/EXor object V1647 Ori as part of an ALMA campaign, which has observed a combined eight FUor and EXor type objects. Deeply embedded in the dark cloud LDN 1630 (L1630), V1647 Ori is one of a few FUor/EXor objects to have been extensively studied at multiple wavelengths before, during and after an outburst. We present preliminary results derived from ALMA 12CO, 13CO, C18O and continuum observations of the circumstellar environment of V1647 Ori. By measuring gas/dust masses and gas kinematics of the circumstellar disk, we investigate the potential mechanisms producing variability in these eruptive protostars during an essential, yet rarely observed, stage of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

  14. 42 CFR 93.217 - Office of Research Integrity or ORI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office of Research Integrity or ORI. 93.217 Section 93.217 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  15. OrysPSSP: a comparative Platform for Small Secreted Proteins from rice and other plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bohu; Sheng, Jia; Sun, Weining; Zhao, Yinhong; Hao, Pei; Li, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Plants have large diverse families of small secreted proteins (SSPs) that play critical roles in the processes of development, differentiation, defense, flowering, stress response, symbiosis, etc. Oryza sativa is one of the major crops worldwide and an excellent model for monocotyledonous plants. However, there had not been any effort to systematically analyze rice SSPs. Here, we constructed a comparative platform, OrysPSSP (http://www.genoportal.org/PSSP/index.do), involving >100 000 SSPs from rice and 25 plant species. OrysPSSP is composed of a core SSP database and a dynamic web interface that integrates a variety of user tools and resources. The current release (v0530) of core SSP database contains a total of 101 048 predicted SSPs, which were generated through a rigid computation/curation pipeline. The web interface consists of eight different modules, providing users with rich resources/functions, e.g. browsing SSP by chromosome, searching and filtering SSP, validating SSP with omics data, comparing SSP among multiple species and querying core SSP database with BLAST. Some cases of application are discussed to demonstrate the utility of OrysPSSP. OrysPSSP serves as a comprehensive resource to explore SSP on the genome scale and across the phylogeny of plant species. PMID:23203890

  16. FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Tadashi; Fujii, Mitsugu

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of an FU Ori-type outburst of 2MASS J06593158-0405277. The outburst was discovered by T. Kojima from the survey image obtained with a 85mm f/2.8 lens and Canon EOS 60D DSLR camera on 2014-11-03.821 UT at mag 11.0.

  17. Indigenous Māori perspectives on urban transport patterns linked to health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Raerino Ngāti Awa Te Arawa, K; Macmillan, Alex K; Jones Ngāti Kahungunu, Rhys G

    2013-09-01

    There is a growing body of research linking urban transport systems to inequities in health. However, there is a lack of research providing evidence of the effect of transport systems on indigenous family wellbeing. We examined the connections between urban transport and the health and wellbeing of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. We provide an indigenous exploration of current urban transport systems, with a particular focus on the impacts of car dependence and the need for culturally relevant travel. We interviewed nineteen Māori participants utilising qualitative research techniques underpinned by an indigenous research methodology (Kaupapa Māori). The data highlighted the importance of accessing cultural activities and sites relevant to 'being Māori', and issues with affordability and safety of public transport. Understanding the relationship between indigenous wellbeing and transport systems that goes further than limited discourses of inequity is essential to improving transport for indigenous wellbeing. Providing an indigenous voice in transport decision-making will make it more likely that indigenous health and wellbeing is prioritised in transport planning.

  18. Otariodibacter oris and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 isolated from infections in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Delaney, Martha Ann; Fravel, Vanessa Ashley; Gulland, Frances; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2013-07-01

    We document the first associations of two recently described species of Pasteurellaceae bacteria with lesions in wild pinnipeds in rehabilitation. Samples were collected from nine lesions in four California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and two Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) during necropsy or admission examinations at a rehabilitation facility in northern California. Seven Pasteurellaceae isolates were identified using phenotypic tests and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Six strains of Otariodibacter oris were isolated from California sea lions. Otariodibacter oris was isolated in pure culture from four abscesses, an affected lymph node, and a bone lesion consistent with osteomyelitis. Otariodibacter oris was also cultured with Arcanobacterium phocae and β-hemolytic streptococci. A pure culture of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 was obtained from an abscess in a harbor seal. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that O. oris has been associated with infection. Isolation of these bacteria in pure culture from abscesses and osteomyelitis strongly indicates a pathogenic potential of this organism. Likewise, the isolation of Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 in pure culture from an abscess in a harbor seal implies causality.

  19. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  20. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  1. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  2. 42 CFR 93.403 - ORI review of research misconduct proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ORI review of research misconduct proceedings. 93.403 Section 93.403 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  3. Musculo-nasomucosal unit with complete lateral bony freeing and medial rotation for ideal C-shape restoration and retropositioning of the levator veli palatini.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    No definitive procedure for cleft repair has been identified yet as the gold standard. Accordingly, this work tried to appraise the hypothesis that if the bony detachment and full retropositioning of the levator veli palatini muscle can ideally present an anatomical C-shape muscular sling restoration and if this is accompanied with pushback palatoplasty, would this present a better result in terms of tissue fistulation and phonetic impairment? A series of 74 different degrees of palatal clefts were operated by pushback palatoplasty combined with a modified approach of the levator vili palatini. This muscle was dissected only from the oral mucosa while kept attached to the nasal one as a musculo-nasomucosal unit. This unit was completely detached from the bony margin of the hard palate and then medially rotated and retropositioned in a typical C-shape mobile sling. Evaluations included suture line assessment and fistula development, and following the child's need for speech therapy. There were no intraoperative complications. Definite anterior fistulae with nasal air and foot leakage were observed in 2 cases. Four cases had postoperative velopharyngeal incompetence with a need for speech therapy. Tension-free closure, lower risk of fistula, good restoration of velopharyngeal functions, ability to be performed on all cleft types, ability to provide a good intraoperative exposure, and being a single stage seem to be the most important advantages of this unpublished technique.

  4. Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the mandibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The frogs Ascaphus truei and Leiopelma hochstetteri are members of the most basal lineages of extant anurans. Their cranial muscles have not been previously described in full and are investigated here by dissection. Comparison of these taxa is used to review a controversy regarding the homologies of the jaw adductor muscles in Lissamphibia, to place these homologies in a wider gnathostome context, and to define features that may be useful for cladistic analysis of Anura. A new muscle is defined in Ascaphus and is designated m. levator anguli oris. The differences noted between Ascaphus and Leiopelma are in the penetration of the jaw adductor muscles by the mandibular nerve (V3). In the traditional view of this anatomy, the paths of the trigeminal nerve branches define homologous muscles. This scheme results in major differences among frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. The alternative view is that the topology of origins, insertions, and fiber directions are defining features, and the nerves penetrate the muscle mass in a variable way. The results given here support the latter view. A new model is proposed for Lissamphibia, whereby the adductor posterior (levator articularis) is a separate entity, and the rest of the adductor mass is configured around it as a folded sheet. This hypothesis is examined in other gnathostomes, including coelacanth and lungfish, and a possible sequence for the evolution of the jaw muscles is demonstrated. In this system, the main jaw adductor in teleost fish is not considered homologous with that of tetrapods. This hypothesis is consistent with available data on the domain of expression of the homeobox gene engrailed 2, which has previously not been considered indicative of homology. Terminology is discussed, and "adductor mandibulae" is preferred to "levator mandibulae" to align with usage in other gnathostomes.

  5. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures.

  6. L'effet Casimir : théorie et expériences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Genet, C.; Intravaia, F.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    L'existence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreuses conséquences observables comme l'effet Casimir, qui est maintenant mesuré avec une bonne précision et un bon accord avec la théorie, pourvu que celle-ci tienne compte des différences entre les expériences rélles et la situation idéale considérée par H.G.B. Casimir. Nous présenterons quelqu'unes des expériences récentes et discuterons les principales corrections à la force de Casimir liées à la situation expérimentale.

  7. MOST OBSERVATIONS OF {sigma} Ori E: CHALLENGING THE CENTRIFUGAL BREAKOUT NARRATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Rivinius, Th.; Rowe, J. F.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Matthews, J. M.; Kallinger, T.; Kuschnig, R.; Bohlender, D.; Neiner, C.; Telting, J. H.; Guenther, D. B.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2013-05-20

    We present results from three weeks' photometric monitoring of the magnetic helium-strong star {sigma} Ori E using the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars microsatellite. The star's light curve is dominated by twice-per-rotation eclipse-like dimmings arising when magnetospheric clouds transit across and occult the stellar disk. However, no evidence is found for any abrupt centrifugal breakout of plasma from the magnetosphere, either in the residual flux or in the depths of the light minima. Motivated by this finding we compare the observationally inferred magnetospheric mass against that predicted by a breakout analysis. The large discrepancy between the values leads us to argue that centrifugal breakout does not play a significant role in establishing the magnetospheric mass budget of {sigma} Ori E.

  8. My Home is My Marae: Kaupapa Māori evaluation of an approach to injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Brooke; Lyndon, Mataroria; Villa, Luis; Madell, Dominic; Elliot-Hohepa, Andrea; Le Comte, Lyndsay

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation's (ACC) ‘My Home is My Marae’ approach to injury prevention for whānau (families). Setting Over an 18 month period from November 2013 to June 2014, 14 ‘My Home is My Marae’ trials were conducted across the South Auckland and Far North regions of New Zealand. ACC engaged with local Māori providers of healthcare, education and social services to deliver the home safety intervention. Participants Participants of this evaluation were a purposive sample of 14 staff from six provider organisations in South Auckland and the Far North regions of New Zealand. Methods Kaupapa Māori theory-based evaluation and appreciative inquiry methodologies underpinned the evaluation. Interview participants led discussions about strengths and weaknesses of the approach, and partnerships with ACC and other organisations. The evaluation was also supported by pre-existing information available in project documentation, and quantitative data collected by Māori providers. Results Five key critical success factors of ‘My Home is My Marae’ were found from interviews: mana tangata (reputation, respect and credibility); manākitanga (showing care for people); kānohi-ki-te-kānohi (face-to-face approach); capacity building for kaimahi, whānau and providers and ‘low or no cost’ solutions to hazards in the home. Data collected for the Far North area showed that 76% of the hazards identified could be resolved through ‘low or no cost’ solutions. Unfortunately, similar data were not available for South Auckland. Conclusions Injury prevention or health promotion approaches that seek to engage with whānau and/or Māori communities would benefit from applying critical success factors of ‘My Home is My Marae’. PMID:28320792

  9. Apsidal motion of two eclipsing binaries: V796 Cyg and V2783 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, A.; Bulut, I.; ćiçek, C.; Erdem, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the orbital period variations of two eclipsing binary systems showing apsidal motion were studied. Their O - C diagrams were analysed using all reliable eclipse timings and the elements of apsidal motion of two systems were improved. We found periods of apsidal motion of V796 Cyg and V2783 Ori to be 32.7 ± 0.2 years and 415 ± 50 years, respectively.

  10. Fabrication, characterization, and heuristic trade space exploration of magnetically actuated Miura-Ori origami structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Brett; von Lockette, Paris R.

    2017-04-01

    The authors develop magnetically actuated Miura-Ori structures through observation, experiment, and computation using an initially heuristic strategy followed by trade space visualization and optimization. The work is novel, especially within origami engineering, in that beyond final target shape approximation, Miura-Ori structures in this work are additionally evaluated for the shape approximation while folding and for their efficient use of their embedded actuators. The structures consisted of neodymium magnets placed on the panels of silicone elastomer substrates cast in the Miura-Ori folding pattern. Initially four configurations, arrangements of magnets on the panels, were selected based on heuristic arguments that (1) maximized the amount of magnetic torque applied to the creases and (2) reduced the number of magnets needed to affect all creases in the pattern. The results of experimental and computational performance metrics were used in a weighted sum model to predict the optimum configuration, which was then fabricated and experimentally characterized for comparison to the initial prototypes. As expected, optimization of magnet placement and orientation was effective at increasing the degree of theoretical useful work. Somewhat unexpectedly, however, trade space results showed that even after optimization, the configuration with the most number of magnets was least effective, per magnet, at directing its actuation to the structure’s creases. Overall, though the winning configuration experimentally outperformed its initial, non-optimal counterparts, results showed that the choice of optimum configuration was heavily dependent on the weighting factors. These results highlight both the ability of the Miura-Ori to be actuated with external magnetic stimuli, the effectiveness of a heuristic design approach that focuses on the actuation mechanism, and the need to address path-dependent metrics in assessing performance in origami folding structures.

  11. Reducing smoking in pregnancy among Māori women: "aunties" perceptions and willingness to help.

    PubMed

    van Esdonk, Tineke; Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Wagemakers, Annemarie

    2014-12-01

    ori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) women have high rates of smoking during pregnancy and 42 % register with a lead maternity carer (LMC) after their first trimester, delaying receipt of cessation support. We used a participatory approach with Māori community health workers ("Aunties") to determine their willingness and perceived ability to find pregnant Māori smokers early in pregnancy and to provide cessation support. Three meetings were held in three different regions in New Zealand. The aunties believed they could find pregnant women in first trimester who were still smoking by using their networks, the 'kumara-vine' (sweet potato vine), tohu (signs/omens), their instinct and by looking for women in the age range most likely to get pregnant. The aunties were willing to provide cessation and other support but they said they would do it in a "Māori way" which depended on formed relationships and recognised roles within families. The aunties' believed that their own past experiences with pregnancy and/or smoking would be advantageous when providing support. Aunties' knowledge about existing proven cessation methods and services and knowledge about how to register with a LMC ranged from knowing very little to having years of experience working in the field. They were all supportive of receiving up-to-date information on how best to support pregnant women to stop smoking. Aunties in communities believe that they could find pregnant women who smoke and they are willing to help deliver cessation support. Our ongoing research will test the effectiveness of such an approach.

  12. X-Ray Production by V1647 Ori During Optical Outbursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, William; Weintraub, David; Grosso, Nicolas; Principe, David; Kastner, Joel; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richmond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The pre-main-sequence (PMS) star V1647 Ori has recently undergone two optical/near-infrared (OIR) outbursts that are associated with dramatic enhancements in the stellar accretion rate. Our intensive X-ray monitoring of this object affords the opportunity to investigate whether and how the intense X-ray emission is related to PMS accretion activity. Our analysis of all 14 Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of V1647 Ori demonstrates that variations in the X-ray luminosity of V1647 Ori are correlated with similar changes in the OIR brightness of this source during both (2003-2005 and 2008) eruptions, strongly supporting the hypothesis that accretion is the primary generation mechanism for the X-ray outbursts. Furthermore, the Chandra monitoring demonstrates that the X-ray spectral properties of the second eruption were strikingly similar to those of the 2003 eruption. We find that X-ray spectra obtained immediately following the second outburstduring which V1647 Ori exhibited high X-ray luminosities, high hardness ratios, and strong X-ray variabilityare well modeled as a heavily absorbed (N H 4 1022cm2), single-component plasma with characteristic temperatures (kT X 2-6keV) that are consistently too high to be generated via accretion shocks but are in the range expected for plasma heated by magnetic reconnection events. We also find that the X-ray absorbing column has not changed significantly throughout the observing campaign. Since the OIR and X-ray changes are correlated, we hypothesize that these reconnection events either occur in the accretion stream connecting the circumstellar disk to the star or in accretion-enhanced protostellar coronal activity.

  13. Use of the angularis oris cutaneous flap for repair of a rostral mandibular skin defect in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bradford, M; Degner, D A; Bhandal, J

    2011-01-01

    The angularis oris axial pattern flap is based on the blood supply of the angularis oris artery and vein. While the use of this flap for repair of canine facial wounds is well documented, this technique has not been reported in the cat. This case report presents the reconstruction of a large ventral chin and rostral lip wound with the use of this flap. Complete survival of this flap was observed in this patient.

  14. Effect of Expiratory Resistive Loading in Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Orbicularis Oris Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Yoshimi; Shuntoh, Hisato; Horiuchi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of expiratory resistive loading on orbicularis oris muscle activity. [Subjects] Subjects were 23 healthy individuals (11 males, mean age 25.5±4.3 years; 12 females, mean age 25.0±3.0 years). [Methods] Surface electromyography was performed to measure the activity of the orbicularis oris muscle during maximum lip closure and resistive loading at different expiratory pressures. Measurement was performed at 10%, 30%, 50%, and 100% of maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) for all subjects. The t-test was used to compare muscle activity between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP, and analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons was used to compare the muscle activities observed at different expiratory pressures. [Results] No significant difference in muscle activity was observed between maximum lip closure and 100% MEP. Analysis of variance with multiple comparisons revealed significant differences among the different expiratory pressures. [Conclusion] Orbicularis oris muscle activity increased with increasing expiratory resistive loading. PMID:24648644

  15. THE STRUCTURE AND KINEMATICS OF THE ENVELOPE AROUND U ORI FROM IOTA OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pluzhnik, Eugene A.; Ragland, Sam; Le Coroller, Herve; Danchi, William C.; Traub, Wesley A.

    2009-07-20

    Many of the Mira stars observed with adequate spatial resolution show detectable asymmetry. This asymmetry can be caused by an asymmetric stellar photosphere and/or asymmetric envelope around the star and can be the origin of asymmetries in the subsequent planetary nebula. In this paper, we present the results of long baseline interferometric observations of the Mira-type star U Ori at 1.51 (H{sub 2}O band), 1.64 (pseudocontinuum), and 1.78 (H{sub 2}O band) {mu}m in 2005. We performed model-independent image reconstruction of the envelope around the star using measured visibilities and closure phases. The images show asymmetric structure of the U Ori envelope that is similar to the structure of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers obtained by Vlemmings et al. in 2003. Further comparison of near infrared images with available radio maps gives some evidence for differential rotation of the envelope with rotational velocities varying between 3 and 5 km s{sup -1}. Finally, we discuss the geometric and kinematic structure of the U Ori envelope based on a model of an almost face-on expanding and rotating disk around the star.

  16. A Comparison of Pacific, Māori, and European Violent Youth Offenders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ioane, Julia; Lambie, Ian; Percival, Teuila

    2016-05-01

    Pacific Island and Māori youth are disproportionately overrepresented in Aotearoa/New Zealand in violent offending. To date, research has not examined Pacific Island violent youth offenders in comparison with other ethnic populations. This study compared Pacific Island violent youth offenders with Māori and European violent youth offenders to determine whether similarities or differences existed in their offending, social, and demographic characteristics. Findings showed that Pacific Island violent youth offenders, in comparison with Māori and European violent youth offenders, were more likely to have grown up in the lowest socioeconomic deprivation areas in New Zealand, were more likely to be older when they first started offending, and their first offence was more likely to be of a serious, violent nature. Family violence was present among all three ethnic groups highlighting the ongoing importance of intervention in this area. The findings of the current study are likely to have implications for government department policy makers, along with program providers and practitioners. Recommendations are made regarding clinical implications and future research on this population.

  17. Multi-Wavelength Study of the 2008-2009 Outburst of V1647 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alvarez, D.; Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Abraham, P.; Anandarao, B. G.; Kashyap, V.; Kospal, A.; Kun, M.; Marengo, M.; Moor, A.; Peneva, S.; Semkov, E.; Venkat, V.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2011-12-01

    V1647 Ori is a young eruptive variable star, illuminating a reflection nebula (McNeil's Nebula). It underwent an outburst in 2003 before fading back to its pre-outburst brightness in 2006. In 2008, V1647 Ori underwent a new outburst. The observed properties of the 2003-2006 event are different in several respects from both the EXor and FUor type outbursts, and suggest that this star might represent a new class of eruptive young stars, younger and more deeply embedded than EXors, and exhibiting variations on shorter time scales than FUors. In outburst, the star lights up the otherwise invisible McNeil's nebular -- a conical cloud likely accumulated from previous outbursts. We present follow-up photometric as well as optical and near-IR spectroscopy of the nebula obtainted during the 2008-2009 outburst. We will also present results from contemporaneous X-ray observations. These multi-wavelength observations of V1647 Ori, obtained at this key early stage of the outburst, provide a snapshot of the "lighting up" of the nebula, probe its evolution through the event, and enable comparison with the 2003-2006 outburst.

  18. Narratives of four Māori ex-inmates about their experiences and perspectives of rehabilitation programmes.

    PubMed

    Nakhid, Camille; Shorter, Lily Tairiri

    2014-06-01

    ori are overrepresented in the criminal justice system in Aotearoa New Zealand. Māori offenders comprise 53% of those serving custodial sentences and 48% serving community-based sentences. The majority of Māori offenders reoffended within 2 years of serving their sentence. A number of programmes aimed at reducing recidivism among Māori have been implemented, and there is considerable debate around the effectiveness of these programmes. This qualitative study focuses on the narratives of four Māori male ex-inmates about their reoffending and their experiences of the rehabilitation programmes during their incarceration. Using a narrative approach, the study sought to hear the shared stories from the men and to determine what they believe would have reduced their reoffending. The stories revealed that a lack of financial resources and gang connections influenced reoffending; the value of prison rehabilitation programmes varied depending on their appropriateness to the inmate and to their intended outcomes; and healing programmes incorporating kaupapa Māori principles and practices assisted the participants in understanding their cultural heritage and communicating with society in more acceptable ways.

  19. HH 222: A GIANT HERBIG-HARO FLOW FROM THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM V380 ORI

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S.; Bally, John; Geballe, T. R.; Kraus, Stefan; Appenzeller, Immo; Burgasser, Adam E-mail: caa@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu E-mail: stefan.kraus@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or ''the waterfall'' on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ∼1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  20. HH 222: A Giant Herbig-Haro Flow from the Quadruple System V380 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Aspin, Colin; Connelley, M. S.; Geballe, T. R.; Kraus, Stefan; Appenzeller, Immo; Burgasser, Adam

    2013-11-01

    HH 222 is a giant shocked region in the L1641 cloud, and is popularly known as the Orion Streamers or "the waterfall" on account of its unusual structure. At the center of these streamers are two infrared sources coincident with a nonthermal radio jet aligned along the principal streamer. The unique morphology of HH 222 has long been associated with this radio jet. However, new infrared images show that the two sources are distant elliptical galaxies, indicating that the radio jet is merely an improbable line-of-sight coincidence. Accurate proper motion measurements of HH 222 reveal that the shock structure is a giant bow shock moving directly away from the well-known, very young, Herbig Be star V380 Ori. The already known Herbig-Haro object HH 35 forms part of this flow. A new Herbig-Haro object, HH 1041, is found precisely in the opposite direction of HH 222 and is likely to form part of a counterflow. The total projected extent of this HH complex is 5.3 pc, making it among the largest HH flows known. A second outflow episode from V380 Ori is identified as a pair of HH objects, HH 1031 to the northwest and the already known HH 130 to the southeast, along an axis that deviates from that of HH 222/HH 1041 by only 3.°7. V380 Ori is a hierarchical quadruple system, including a faint companion of spectral type M5 or M6, which at an age of ~1 Myr corresponds to an object straddling the stellar-to-brown dwarf boundary. We suggest that the HH 222 giant bow shock is a direct result of the dynamical interactions that led to the conversion from an initial non-hierarchical multiple system into a hierarchical configuration. This event occurred no more than 28,000 yr ago, as derived from the proper motions of the HH 222 giant bow shock.

  1. The Design and Relevance of a Computerized Gamified Depression Therapy Program for Indigenous Māori Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs; Stasiak, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a major health issue among Māori indigenous adolescents, yet there has been little investigation into the relevance or effectiveness of psychological treatments for them. Further, consumer views are critical for engagement and adherence to therapy. However, there is little research regarding indigenous communities’ opinions about psychological interventions for depression. Objective The objective of this study was to conduct semistructured interviews with Māori (indigenous New Zealand) young people (taitamariki) and their families to find out their opinions of a prototype computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) program called Smart, Positive, Active, Realistic, X-factor thoughts (SPARX), a free online computer game intended to help young persons with mild to moderate depression, feeling down, stress or anxiety. The program will teach them how to resolve their issues on their own using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as psychotherapeutic approach. Methods There were seven focus groups on the subject of the design and cultural relevance of SPARX that were held, with a total of 26 participants (19 taitamarki, 7 parents/caregivers, all Māori). There were five of the groups that were with whānau (family groups) (n=14), one group was with Māori teenage mothers (n=4), and one group was with taitamariki (n=8). The general inductive approach was used to analyze focus group data. Results SPARX computerized therapy has good face validity and is seen as potentially effective and appealing for Māori people. Cultural relevance was viewed as being important for the engagement of Māori young people with SPARX. Whānau are important for young peoples’ well-being. Participants generated ideas for improving SPARX for Māori and for the inclusion of whānau in its delivery. Conclusions SPARX computerized therapy had good face validity for indigenous young people and families. In general, Māori participants were positive about the SPARX

  2. HU, the major histone-like protein of E. coli, modulates the binding of IHF to oriC.

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoy, E; Rouvière-Yaniv, J

    1992-01-01

    HU is one of the most abundant DNA binding proteins of bacteria. Unlike IHF, integration host factor of Escherichia coli, with which HU shares many properties, including a strong sequence homology and similar predicted structure, HU seems to bind non-specifically to DNA whereas IHF binds to specific sites. In this work we compare the binding characteristics of HU and IHF to a DNA fragment containing the minimal origin of replication of E. coli (oriC) and we analyse the effect of HU on the binding capacity of IHF to this oriC fragment. We show that HU interacts randomly and non-specifically with oriC as opposed to the specific binding of IHF to this same DNA sequence. In addition, we show that HU can modulate the binding of IHF to its specific oriC site. Depending on the relative concentrations of HU and IHF, HU is able either to activate or to inhibit the binding of IHF to oriC. Images PMID:1425583

  3. Redesigning the architecture of policy-making: Engaging with Māori on nanotechnology in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Debashish; Kurian, Priya A; Morrison, Talei; Morrison, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on public engagement on the use of new and emerging technologies such as nanotechnology, there is little evidence of the participation of marginalised indigenous communities in processes of such engagement. How do particular cultural values and worldviews shape the perceptions of new technologies among such indigenous peoples? This article addresses this question through an analysis of the deliberations of an indigenous Māori citizens' panel on nanotechnology in Aotearoa New Zealand. An active process of public engagement with the nation's Māori stakeholders, and their conversations with nanotechnology experts, sustainability activists and Māori researchers, helps map an alternative, culture-based architecture of public engagement on policies around new technologies. The analysis is grounded in a concept of active citizenship that we term 'sustainable citizenship'.

  4. Couples Work in Cultural Context: Te Ao Māori and Poststucturalist Practices Informing Counselor Training in Aotearoa New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Connor, Helene; Gremillion, Helen; Meima, Yolanda

    2016-06-01

    This article outlines key themes that appear in the teaching of poststructuralist ideas and practices for couples counseling within the Postgraduate Diploma in Counseling Program at Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand, and it explores the congruence of this pedagogical approach with Māori (indigenous) understandings of relationality, collaboration, and partnership. The diploma program's curriculum includes narrative therapy and relational language-making. Themes explored in this article include: understanding (heterosexual) couple relationships as contextualized entities, deconstructing dominant discourses of coupledom, and the positioning of counselors/teachers as nonexpert. Taking each theme in turn, the authors, one of them Māori and two Pākehā (European), articulate points of alignment with Māori cultural concepts and practices.

  5. OryR is a LuxR-family protein involved in interkingdom signaling between pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and rice.

    PubMed

    Ferluga, Sara; Venturi, Vittorio

    2009-02-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight in rice, contains a regulator that is encoded in the genome, designated OryR, which belongs to the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum-sensing LuxR subfamily of proteins. However, we previously reported that X. oryzae pv. oryzae does not make AHLs and does not possess a LuxI-family AHL synthase and that the OryR protein is solubilized by a compound present in rice. In this study we obtained further evidence that OryR interacts with a rice signal molecule (RSM) and that the OryR concentration increases when rice is infected with X. oryzae pv. oryzae. We also describe three OryR target promoters which are regulated differently: (i) the neighboring proline iminopeptidase (pip) virulence gene, which is positively regulated by OryR in the presence of the RSM; (ii) the oryR promoter, which is negatively autoregulated independent of the RSM; and (iii) the 1,4-beta-cellobiosidase cbsA gene, which is positively regulated by OryR independent of the RSM. We also found that the RSM for OryR is small, is not related to AHLs, and is not able to activate the broad-range AHL biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1(pZLQR). Furthermore, OryR does not regulate production of the quorum-sensing diffusible signal factor present in the genus Xanthomonas. Therefore, OryR has unique features and is an important regulator involved in interkingdom communication between the host and the pathogen.

  6. A qualitative analysis of Māori and Pacific smokers' views on informed choice and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Heather; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Erick, Stephanie; Hoek, Janet; Gray, Rebecca; Edwards, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tobacco companies frame smoking as an informed choice, a strategy that holds individuals responsible for harms they incur. Few studies have tested this argument, and even fewer have examined how informed indigenous smokers or those from minority ethnicities are when they start smoking. We explored how young adult Māori and Pacific smokers interpreted ‘informed choice’ in relation to smoking. Participants Using recruitment via advertising, existing networks and word of mouth, we recruited and undertook qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 Māori and Pacific young adults aged 18–26 years who smoked. Analyses Data were analysed using an informed-choice framework developed by Chapman and Liberman. We used a thematic analysis approach to identify themes that extended this framework. Results Few participants considered themselves well informed and none met more than the framework's initial two criteria. Most reflected on their unthinking uptake and subsequent addiction, and identified environmental factors that had facilitated uptake. Nonetheless, despite this context, most agreed that they had made an informed choice to smoke. Conclusions The discrepancy between participants' reported knowledge and understanding of smoking's risks, and their assessment of smoking as an informed choice, reflects their view of smoking as a symbol of adulthood. Policies that make tobacco more difficult to use in social settings could help change social norms around smoking and the ease with which initiation and addiction currently occur. PMID:27188813

  7. Metallurgy of Miura-ori: lattice theory for inhomogeneous deformations of origami tessellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur; Silverberg, Jesse; McLeod, Lauren; Cohen, Itai; Santangelo, Christian

    2014-03-01

    In nature, as well as in art, one often encounters thin materials that have been deformed by their environment or their creator into complex folded states; examples include the folds of the endoplasmic reticulum, the villi in the intestinal tract, and tessellated patterns in the ancient Japanese art of origami. One (engineering) advantage of creating a folded structure is that the geometric constraints associated with creasing imbues the construction with exotic mechanical properties, such as generating a material with a negative Poisson's ratio. Materials exhibiting novel behavior of this type, arising from the special properties of the unit cell, are generally classified as metamaterials. In this talk I consider a mechanical metamaterial known as Miura-ori, an origami tessellation pattern that displays soft modes and crystallographic defects not accounted for by a purely geometric theory of an infinitely thin material. I will discuss a method for deriving how inhomogeneous deformations arise from bending within Miura-ori, and show that this leads to a natural coherence length over which the inhomogeneity decays. Additionally, I will show how the modular nature of origami unit cells lends additional richness to the mechanical properties associated with deformation.

  8. DM Ori: A Young Star Occulted by a Disturbance in Its Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Lund, Michael B.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Weintraub, David A.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Prieto, Jose L.; Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C.

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ˜1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ˜1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000-2002 dimming to be < 860 days, and the event in 2013-2014 to be < 585 days, separated by ˜12.5 years. A model of the spectral energy distribution indicates a large infrared excess consistent with an extensive circumstellar disk. Using basic kinematic arguments, we propose that DM Ori is likely being periodically occulted by a feature (possibly a warp or perturbation) in its circumstellar disk. In this scenario, the occulting feature is located >6 au from the host star, moving at ˜14.6 km s-1 and is ˜4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  9. Lethality of Sortase Depletion in Actinomyces oris Caused by Excessive Membrane Accumulation of a Surface Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenggang; Huang, I-Hsiu; Chang, Chungyu; Reardon-Robinson, Melissa Elizabeth; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2014-01-01

    Sortase, a cysteine-transpeptidase conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, anchors on the cell wall many surface proteins that facilitate bacterial pathogenesis and fitness. Genetic disruption of the housekeeping sortase in several Gram-positive pathogens reported thus far attenuates virulence, but not bacterial growth. Paradoxically, we discovered that depletion of the housekeeping sortase SrtA was lethal for Actinomyces oris; yet, all of its predicted cell wall-anchored protein substrates (AcaA-N) were individually dispensable for cell viability. Using Tn5-transposon mutagenesis to identify factors that upend lethality of srtA deletion, we uncovered a set of genetic suppressors harboring transposon insertions within genes of a locus encoding AcaC and a LytR-CpsA-Psr (LCP)-like protein. AcaC was shown to be highly glycosylated and dependent on LCP for its glycosylation. Upon SrtA depletion, the glycosylated form of AcaC, hereby renamed GspA, was accumulated in the membrane. Overexpression of GspA in a mutant lacking gspA and srtA was lethal; conversely, cells overexpressing a GspA mutant missing a membrane-localization domain were viable. The results reveal a unique glycosylation pathway in A. oris that is coupled to cell wall anchoring catalyzed by sortase SrtA. Significantly, this novel phenomenon of glyco-stress provides convenient cell-based assays for developing a new class of inhibitors against Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:25230351

  10. Benefitting from differences in knowledge, practice and belief: Māori oral traditions and natural hazards science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of Mātauranga Māori [Māori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map Māori oral traditions (pūrākau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, compare the findings with geo-archaeological evidence, and discuss the scientific benefits to be gained by considering pūrākau as legitimate perspectives on history. Not surprisingly, there are both differences and complementarities between traditional Māori narratives and the available geo-archaeological evidence on extreme coastal disturbances. The findings presented here raise new and important questions about accepted geographies of tsunami risk, the causes and sources of their generation, as well as reasons for the relative paucity and abundance of information in some regions. Ways in which Mātauranga Taiao [Māori environmental knowledge] and contemporary science can be combined to produce new narratives about extreme environmental disturbance along the A/NZ coastline will require not only acceptance of other ways of knowing but also open engagement with Māori that respects their rights to tell their own histories. These efforts are encouraged to revitalise and ground-truth the interpretation of traditional stories, corroborate and/or question previous scientific deductions, and improve our collective understanding of the recurring impact of tectonic, geologic and meteorological-based events across A/NZ.

  11. Jaw adductor muscles across lepidosaurs: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Daza, Juan Diego; Diogo, Rui; Johnston, Peter; Abdala, Virginia

    2011-10-01

    The exact homologies of tetrapod jaw muscles remain unresolved, and this provides a barrier for phylogenetic analysis and tracing character evolution. Here, lepidosaur jaw muscles are surveyed using direct examination of species from 23 families and published descriptions of species from 10 families. A revised nomenclature is applied according to proposed homologies with Latimeria. Among lepidosaurs, variation was found in many aspects of jaw muscle anatomy. The superficial layers mm. levator and retractor anguli oris (LAO and RAO) are present in Sphenodon but not all squamates. The external jaw adductor muscles universally present in lepidosaurs are homologous with the main adductor muscle, A2, of Latimeria and include four layers: superficialis (A2-SUP), medialis (A2-M), profundus (A2-PRO), and posterior (A2-PVM). The A2-SUP appears divided in Agamidae, Gekkota, Xantusiidae, and Varanidae. The A2-M is layered lateromedial in lizards but anteroposterior in snakes. The names pseudotemporalis (PS) and pterygomandibularis (PTM) are recommended for subdivisions of the internal adductors of reptiles and amphibians, because the homology of this muscle with the A3' and A3 ″ of Latimeria remains inconclusive. The intramandibularis of lepidosaurs and Latimeria (A-ω) are homologous. The distribution of six jaw muscle characters was found to plot more parsimoniously on phylogenies based on morphological rather than and molecular data. Character mapping indicates that Squamata presents reduction in the divisions of the A2-M, Scincoidea presents reduction or loss of LAO, and two apomorphic features are found for the Gekkota.

  12. Indigenous injury outcomes: life satisfaction among injured Māori in New Zealand three months after injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Māori, the indigenous population of New Zealand, experience numerous and consistent health disparities when compared to non-Māori. Injury is no exception, yet there is a paucity of published literature that examines outcomes following a wide variety of injury types and severities for this population. This paper aims to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of life satisfaction three months after injury for a group of injured Māori. Methods The Māori sample (n = 566) were all participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study (POIS). POIS is a longitudinal study of 2856 injured New Zealanders aged 18–64 years who were on an injury entitlement claims’ register with New Zealand’s no-fault compensation insurer. The well-known Te Whare Tapa Whā model of overall health and well-being was used to help inform the selection of post-injury life satisfaction predictor variables. Multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationships between potential predictors and life satisfaction. Results Of the 566 Māori participants, post-injury life satisfaction data was available for 563 (99%) participants. Of these, 71% reported satisfaction with life three months after injury (compared to 93% pre-injury). Those with a higher injury severity score, not satisfied with pre-injury social relationships or poor self-efficacy pre-injury were less likely to be satisfied with life three months after injury. Conclusions The large majority of Māori participants reported being satisfied with life three months after injury; however, nearly a third did not. This suggests that further research investigating outcomes after injury for Māori, and predictors of these, is necessary. Results show that healthcare providers could perhaps put greater effort into working alongside injured Māori who have more severe injuries, report poor self-efficacy and were not satisfied with their pre-injury social relationships to ensure increased likelihood of

  13. Study on distribution of terminal branches of the facial nerve in mimetic muscles (orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle).

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Kei; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-01-01

    There have been many anatomical reports to date regarding the course of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. However, reports are relatively scarce on the detailed distribution of the terminal branches of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. In this study, we performed detailed examination of the terminal facial nerve branches to the mimetic muscles, particularly the branches terminating in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. Examination was performed on 25 Japanese adult autopsy cases, involving 25 hemifaces. The mean age was 87.4 years (range, 60-102 years). There were 12 men and 13 women (12 left hemifaces and 13 right hemifaces). In each case, the facial nerve was exposed through a preauricular skin incision. The main trunk of the facial nerve was dissected from the stylomastoid foramen. A microscope was used to dissect the terminal branches to the periphery and observe them. The course and distribution were examined for all terminal branches of the facial nerve. However, focus was placed on the course and distribution of the zygomatic branch, buccal branch, and mandibular branch to the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. The temporal branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases and the marginal mandibular branch was distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in all cases. The zygomatic branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases, but it was also distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 10 of 25 cases. The buccal branch was not distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 3 of 25 cases, and it was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in 8 cases. There was no significant difference in the variations. The orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle perform particularly important movements among the facial mimetic muscles. According to textbooks, the temporal branch and zygomatic branch innervate the orbicularis oculi muscle, and the buccal branch

  14. The significance of socially-assigned ethnicity for self-identified Māori accessing and engaging with primary healthcare in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Reid, Jennifer; Cormack, Donna; Crowe, Marie

    2016-03-01

    Despite increased focus in New Zealand on reducing health inequities between Māori and New Zealand European ethnic groups, research on barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access for Māori remains limited. In particular, there has been little interrogation of the significance of social-assignment of ethnicity for Māori in relation to engagement with predominantly non-Māori primary healthcare services and providers. A qualitative study was undertaken with a subsample (n = 40) of the broader Hauora Manawa Study to examine experiences of accessing and engaging with primary healthcare among adult urban Māori. Thematic analysis of in-depth interviews identified that participants perceived social-assignment as New Zealand European as an efficacious form of capital when interacting with predominantly non-Māori health professionals. Skin colour that was 'white' or was perceived to identify Māori as belonging to the 'dominant' New Zealand European ethnic group was reported as broadly advantageous and protective. In contrast, social-assignment as Māori was seen to be associated with risk of exposure to differential and discriminatory healthcare. Reducing the negative impacts of racialisation in a (neo)colonial society where 'White' cultural capital dominates requires increased recognition of the health-protective advantages of 'White' privilege and concomitant risks associated with socially-assigned categorisation of ethnicity as non-'White'.

  15. Strategies to reduce the use of seclusion with tāngata whai i te ora (Māori mental health service users).

    PubMed

    Wharewera-Mika, Julie PhD; Cooper, Erana PhD; Wiki, Nick Rn; Field, Trudie Rn; Haitana, Jason; Toko, Mike; Edwards, Erika; McKenna, Brian Rn Ba MHSc PhD

    2016-06-01

    ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have the highest crude population-based rate of seclusion events reported internationally (McLeod et al. ). This qualitative study explored Māori clinical, cultural and consumer perspectives on potential strategies and initiatives considered likely to facilitate prevention of, and reduction in, the use of seclusion, with tāngata whai i te ora (Māori mental health service users) in mental health inpatient services. A hui (gathering) over 2 days was held with 16 Māori participants with high levels of clinical, cultural and consumer expertise. The gathering was taped and the tapes transcribed. A thematic analysis of the hui data generated three key categories: Te Ao Māori (access to a Māori worldview); Te Ao Hurihuri (transforming practice); and Rangatiratanga (leadership, power, and control). The findings of this study align with the "six core strategies" for best practice to reduce the use of seclusion (Huckshorn ). A comprehensive approach to the reduction of the use of seclusion with tāngata whai i te ora is required, which is clearly based on a Māori model of care and a vision for transformation of practice in mental health inpatient services, which involves Māori leadership.

  16. RepD-mediated recruitment of PcrA helicase at the Staphylococcus aureus pC221 plasmid replication origin, oriD

    PubMed Central

    Machón, C.; Lynch, G. P.; Thomson, N. H.; Scott, D. J.; Thomas, C. D.; Soultanas, P.

    2010-01-01

    Plasmid encoded replication initiation (Rep) proteins recruit host helicases to plasmid replication origins. Previously, we showed that RepD recruits directionally the PcrA helicase to the pC221 oriD, remains associated with it, and increases its processivity during plasmid unwinding. Here we show that RepD forms a complex extending upstream and downstream of the core oriD. Binding of RepD causes remodelling of a region upstream from the core oriD forming a ‘landing pad’ for the PcrA. PcrA is recruited by this extended RepD–DNA complex via an interaction with RepD at this upstream site. PcrA appears to have weak affinity for this region even in the absence of RepD. Upon binding of ADPNP (non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP), by PcrA, a conformational rearrangement of the RepD–PcrA–ATP initiation complex confines it strictly within the boundaries of the core oriD. We conclude that RepD-mediated recruitment of PcrA at oriD is a three step process. First, an extended RepD–oriD complex includes a region upstream from the core oriD; second, the PcrA is recruited to this upstream region and thirdly upon ATP-binding PcrA relocates within the core oriD. PMID:20044350

  17. A particular DNA structure is required for the function of a cis-acting component of the Epstein-Barr virus OriLyt origin of replication.

    PubMed Central

    Portes-Sentis, S; Sergeant, A; Gruffat, H

    1997-01-01

    OriLyt, thecis-acting element of Epstein-Barr virus lytic origin of replication, consists of upstream and downstream components. The upstream component plays a dual role in transcription and replication. The downstream component contains a homopurine-homopyrimidine sequence which forms an H palindrome. We show that the downstream component can adopt a triple helix structure in vitro, that the 5' border of the homopyrimidine sequence is sensitive to P1 nuclease when carried by a supercoiled plasmid and that an oligonucleotide complementary to the homopyrimidine strand is taken up by a plasmid carrying the OriLyt H palindrome. We also show that all mutations which alter the H palindrome impair both oligonucleotide uptake and OriLyt-dependent replication. Interestingly, compensatory mutations which restore an H palindrome also restore oligonucleotide uptake by the mutated plasmids and their OriLyt-dependent replication. Thus, there is a strong correlation between the inability of the OriLyt H palindrome to form a non-B-DNA structure in vitro and impairment of OriLyt-dependent replication. This suggests that the presence of a non-B-DNA structure in the OriLyt downstream component is required for OriLyt-dependent replication. PMID:9060428

  18. ORNL’s ORiGAMI Uses Big Data to Help Solve Age-Old Medical Mysteries in Seconds

    ScienceCinema

    Sukumar, Rangan

    2016-07-12

    ORiGAMI is a tool for discovering and evaluating potentially interesting associations and creating novel hypothesis in medicine. ORiGAMI will help you “connect the dots” across 70 million knowledge nuggets published in 23 million papers in the medical literature.

  19. Interaction of HCMV UL84 with C/EBPalpha transcription factor binding sites within oriLyt is essential for lytic DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kagele, Dominique; Gao, Yang; Smallenburg, Kate; Pari, Gregory S

    2009-09-15

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic DNA replication is initiated at the cis-acting oriLyt region and requires six core replication proteins along with UL84 and IE2. Although UL84 is thought to be the replication initiator protein, little is known about its interaction with oriLyt. We have now performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) using antibodies specific to UL84, IE2, UL44, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPalpha) and PCR primers that span the entire oriLyt region to reveal an evaluation of specific protein binding across oriLyt. UL84 interacted with several regions of oriLyt that contain C/EBPalpha transcription factor binding sites. Mutation of either of one of C/EBPalpha (92,526 or 92,535) sites inactivated oriLyt and resulted in the loss of binding of UL84. These data reveal the regions of interaction within oriLyt for several key replication proteins and show that the interaction between UL84 and C/EBPalpha sites within oriLyt is essential for lytic DNA replication.

  20. Comparison of the puborectal muscle on MRI in women with POP and levator ani defects with those with normal support and no defect

    PubMed Central

    DeLancey, John O. L.; Sørensen, Helle Christina; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to compare puborectal muscle integrity and bulk in women with both major levator ani (LA) defects on MRI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) to women with normal LA muscle and normal support. Methods This is a case-control study comparing 24 cases with known major LA defects and POP to 24 controls with normal LA and normal support. Axial T-2 weighted MRI scans of the pelvis were evaluated for integrity of the puborectal muscle and degree of muscle bulk. Results There were no significant group differences in age, body mass index, vaginal deliveries, or hysterectomy status. In all 48 subjects, the puborectal muscle was visible and had no disruption noted. There was no difference in muscle bulk between groups (control/case, thin 42% vs. 25%, average 42% vs. 38%, thick-17% vs. 38%; P=0.47). Conclusions Defects and loss of muscle bulk in the puborectal muscle are not seen on MRI in women with major LA defects and POP. PMID:21822711

  1. The Protective Influence of Family Connectedness, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Engagement for New Zealand Ma¯ori Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma¯ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3…

  2. The protective influence of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement for New Zealand Ma̅ori adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma̅ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3 measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Participants in the current study were 431 self-identified Ma̅ori (ages 10-15 years at Time 1). As expected, the variables of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and well-being were all positively related to each other. Results of a latent growth curve model showed that, following normative trends for adolescents of this age, well-being diminished over time for Ma̅ori youth; however, high levels of family connectedness were found to mitigate this general decline in well-being over time. Furthermore, in a longitudinal path analysis, ethnic engagement was found to exert a positive indirect effect on residualized Time 3 well-being through Time 2 ethnic identity. These findings indicate that the quality of family relationships and affiliation with one's ethnic group are important predictors of positive adjustment for Ma̅ori youth over time. These results are discussed in the context of positive youth development for ethnic minority and indigenous youth.

  3. Interactions between Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces oris, and Candida albicans in the development of multispecies oral microbial biofilms on salivary pellicle.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, I M G; Del Bel Cury, A A; Jenkinson, H F; Nobbs, A H

    2017-02-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is carried orally and causes a range of superficial infections that may become systemic. Oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque and on oral mucosa. The aims of this study were to determine the mechanisms by which S. oralis and A. oris interact with each other and with C. albicans in biofilm development. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms labeled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Actinomyces oris and S. oralis formed robust dual-species biofilms, or three-species biofilms with C. albicans. The bacterial components tended to dominate the lower levels of the biofilms while C. albicans occupied the upper levels. Non-fimbriated A. oris was compromised in biofilm formation in the absence or presence of streptococci, but was incorporated into upper biofilm layers through binding to C. albicans. Biofilm growth and hyphal filament production by C. albicans was enhanced by S. oralis. It is suggested that the interkingdom biofilms are metabolically coordinated to house all three components, and this study demonstrates that adhesive interactions between them determine spatial distribution and biofilm architecture. The physical and chemical communication processes occurring in these communities potentially augment C. albicans persistence at multiple oral cavity sites.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus oris J-1, a Potential Probiotic Isolated from the Human Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli can exert health-promoting effects in the human oral microbiome through many mechanisms, including pathogen inhibition, maintenance of microbial balance, immunomodulation, and enhancement of the epithelial barrier function. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus oris J-1, that was isolated from the oral cavity of a health child. PMID:27634996

  5. The Radio Jet Associated with the Multiple V380 Ori System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Yam, J. Omar; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Anglada, Guillem; Trejo, Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    The giant Herbig-Haro object 222 extends over ˜6‧ in the plane of the sky, with a bow shock morphology. The identification of its exciting source has remained uncertain over the years. A non-thermal radio source located at the core of the shock structure was proposed to be the exciting source. However, Very Large Array studies showed that the radio source has a clear morphology of radio galaxy and a lack of flux variations or proper motions, favoring an extragalactic origin. Recently, an optical-IR study proposed that this giant HH object is driven by the multiple stellar system V380 Ori, located about 23‧ to the SE of HH 222. The exciting sources of HH systems are usually detected as weak free-free emitters at centimeter wavelengths. Here, we report the detection of an elongated radio source associated with the Herbig Be star or with its close infrared companion in the multiple V380 Ori system. This radio source has the characteristics of a thermal radio jet and is aligned with the direction of the giant outflow defined by HH 222 and its suggested counterpart to the SE, HH 1041. We propose that this radio jet traces the origin of the large scale HH outflow. Assuming that the jet arises from the Herbig Be star, the radio luminosity is a few times smaller than the value expected from the radio-bolometric correlation for radio jets, confirming that this is a more evolved object than those used to establish the correlation.

  6. A Spectroscopic Study of the Secondary Star of BM Ori: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitrichenko, E. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2001-05-01

    Two CCD spectra of the star BM Ori were obtained with the echelle spectrograph of the 6-m telescope. In one of the spectra, a large proportion of lines are distorted by emission. The emission component is blueshifted by 50 km/s, suggesting hot-gas outflow from the atmosphere. The equivalent-width ratio of measured lines in the spectra outside and during eclipse is consistent with the assumption that ~2/3 of the primary star's area is obscured during eclipse, as follows from light curves. Measured line equivalent widths were used to estimate atmospheric parameters of the secondary star, T_eff = 7300 K, log g = 5.2, and microturbulence xi_t = 6 km/s, and to determine its chemical composition. The C, Na, Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Zn abundances are solar, within the error limits. Li, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Y are overabundant, while Mg, Cu, and Ba are underabundant. In general, the secondary is similar in chemical composition to the star V1016 Ori. Based on the secondary's mass determined by solving the radial-velocity curve and on log g estimated spectroscopically from iron ionization equilibrium, we calculated its photospheric radius, R_2 = 0.5 R_solar. However, the spectroscopic log g = 5.2 disagrees with log g = 3.5 calculated from the luminosity and effective temperature and with log g = 3.0 calculated from light and radial-velocity curves. If the secondary's photospheric radius is indeed small, this argues for the hypothesis that the eclipsing body is a dust envelope. The radial velocities measured from the two spectra are systematically higher than those calculated from the radial-velocity curve by +34 and +24 km/s. It is likely that the secondary's atmosphere occasionally shrinks.

  7. A Herschel View of Protoplanetary Disks in the σ Ori Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maucó, Karina; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Briceño, César; McClure, Melissa; D'Alessio, Paola; Anderson, Kassandra; Ali, Babar

    2016-09-01

    We present new Herschel observations using the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer of 32 T Tauri stars in the young (˜3 Myr) σ Ori cluster. Most of our objects are K and M stars with large excesses at 24 μm. We used irradiated accretion disk models of D’Alessio et al. to compare their spectral energy distributions with our observational data. We arrive at the following six conclusions. (i) The observed disks are consistent with irradiated accretion disk systems. (ii) Most of our objects (60%) can be explained by significant dust depletion from the upper disk layers. (iii) Similarly, 61% of our objects can be modeled with large disk sizes (R d ≥ 100 au). (iv) The masses of our disks range between 0.03 and 39 M Jup, where 35% of our objects have disk masses less than 1 M Jup. Although these are lower limits, high-mass (>0.05 {M}⊙ ) disks, which are present in, e.g., Taurus, are missing. (v) By assuming a uniform distribution of objects around the brightest stars at the center of the cluster, we found that 80% of our disks are exposed to external FUV radiation of 300≤slant {G}0≤slant 1000, which can be strong enough to photoevaporate the outer edges of the closer disks. (vi) Within 0.6 pc from σ Ori we found forbidden emission lines of [N ii] in the spectrum of one of our large disks (SO662), but no emission in any of our small ones. This suggests that this object may be an example of a photoevaporating disk.

  8. Ethnic density and area deprivation: neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-07-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  9. Ethnic density and area deprivation: Neighbourhood effects on Māori health and racial discrimination in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Laia; Cormack, Donna; Harris, Ricci

    2013-01-01

    Some studies suggest that ethnic minority people are healthier when they live in areas with a higher concentration of people from their own ethnic group, a so-called ethnic density effect. To date, no studies have examined the ethnic density effect among indigenous peoples, for whom connections to land, patterns of settlement, and drivers of residential location may differ from ethnic minority populations. The present study analysed the Māori sample from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey to examine the association between increased Māori ethnic density, area deprivation, health, and experiences of racial discrimination. Results of multilevel regressions showed that an increase in Māori ethnic density was associated with decreased odds of reporting poor self-rated health, doctor-diagnosed common mental disorders, and experienced racial discrimination. These associations were strengthened after adjusting for area deprivation, which was consistently associated with increased odds of reporting poor health and reports of racial discrimination. Our findings show that whereas ethnic density is protective of the health and exposure to racial discrimination of Māori, this effect is concealed by the detrimental effect of area deprivation, signalling that the benefits of ethnic density must be interpreted within the current socio-political context. This includes the institutional structures and racist practices that have created existing health and socioeconomic inequities in the first place, and maintain the unequal distribution of concentrated poverty in areas of high Māori density. Addressing poverty and the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources by ethnicity and place in New Zealand is vital to improving health and reducing inequalities. Given the racialised nature of access to goods, services, and opportunities within New Zealand society, this also requires a strong commitment to eliminating racism. Such commitment and action will allow the benefits

  10. Wāhine hauora: linking local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes of New Zealand Māori and non-Māori women in relation to infant respiratory admissions and timely immunisations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant health inequities exist around maternal and infant health for Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. The infants of Māori are more likely to die in their first year of life and also have higher rates of hospital admission for respiratory illnesses, with the greatest burden of morbidity being due to bronchiolitis in those under one year of age. Timely immunisations can prevent some respiratory related hospitalisations, although for Māori, the proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations are lower than for non-Māori. This paper describes the protocol for a retrospective cohort study that linked local hospital and national health information datasets to explore maternal risk factors and obstetric outcomes in relation to respiratory admissions and timely immunisations for infants of Māori and non-Māori women. Methods/Design The study population included pregnant women who gave birth in hospital in one region of New Zealand between 1995 and 2009. Routinely collected local hospital data were linked via a unique identifier (National Health Index number) to national health information databases to assess rates of post-natal admissions and access to health services for Māori and non-Māori mothers and infants. The two primary outcomes for the study are: 1. The rates of respiratory hospitalisations of infants (≤ 1 yr of age) calculated for infants of both Māori and non-Māori women (for mothers under 20 years of age, and overall) accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, maternal smoking status. 2. The proportion of infants with age appropriate immunisations at six and 12 months, calculated for both infants born to Māori women and infants born to non-Māori women, accounting for relationship to parity, maternal age, socioeconomic deprivation index, smoking status, and other risk factors. Discussion Analysis of a wide range of routinely collected health information in which

  11. X-ray, UV and optical analysis of supergiants: ɛ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Raul E.; Hillier, D. John; Zsargó, Janos; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray to optical) analysis, based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium photospheric+wind models, of the B0 Ia-supergiant: ɛ Ori. The aim is to test the consistency of physical parameters, such as the mass-loss rate and CNO abundances, derived from different spectral bands. The derived mass-loss rate is {dot {M}} / {√{f_{∞}}} {˜} 1.6 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 where f∞ is the volume filling factor. However, the S IV λλ1062,1073 profiles are too strong in the models; to fit the observed profiles it is necessary to use f∞ <0.01. This value is a factor of 5 to 10 lower than inferred from other diagnostics, and implies {dot{M}} ≲ 1 × 10^{-7} M⊙ yr-1. The discrepancy could be related to porosity-vorosity effects or a problem with the ionization of sulphur in the wind. To fit the UV profiles of N V and O VI it was necessary to include emission from an interclump medium with a density contrast (ρcl/ρICM) of ˜100. X-ray emission in H/He like and Fe L lines was modelled using four plasma components located within the wind. We derive plasma temperatures from 1 × 106 to 7 × 106 K, with lower temperatures starting in the outer regions (R0 ˜ 3-6 R*), and a hot component starting closer to the star (R0 ≲ 2.9 R*). From X-ray line profiles we infer {dot{M}} < 4.9 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The X-ray spectrum (≥0.1 kev) yields an X-ray luminosity LX ˜ 2.0 × 10-7Lbol, consistent with the superion line profiles. X-ray abundances are in agreement with those derived from the UV and optical analysis: ɛ Ori is slightly enhanced in nitrogen and depleted in carbon and oxygen, evidence for CNO processed material.

  12. ori science education in Aotearoa New Zealand. He pūtea whakarawe: aspirations and realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anaru; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2008-09-01

    This article reports on the first two phases of a multiphase science education development project in predominantly Māori kura (school communities) in the central region of the North Island of Aotearoa New Zealand. The development project in its entirety employs an action research methodology and by so doing endeavors to support the improvement of science education delivery in accordance with school community aspirations. The full project (a) establishes the current situation in Year 1-8 science education in the communities; (b) identifies developmental aspirations for stakeholders within the communities and identifies potential contributors and constraints to these aspirations; (c) implements mechanisms for achieving identified aspirations; and finally; (d) evaluates the effectiveness of such mechanisms. In its focus on the first two phases, this article incorporates the analytical lenses of Kaupapa Māori Theory and Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model. It concludes by outlining some priorities to consider for science education development based on the outcomes of our preliminary discussions.

  13. ori patients' experiences and perspectives of chronic kidney disease: a New Zealand qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Rachael C; Walker, Shayne; Morton, Rachael L; Tong, Allison; Howard, Kirsten; Palmer, Suetonia C

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore and describe Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) patients' experiences and perspectives of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as these are largely unknown for indigenous groups with CKD. Design Face-to-face, semistructured interviews with purposive sampling and thematic analysis. Setting 3 dialysis centres in New Zealand (NZ), all of which offered all forms of dialysis modalities. Participants 13 Māori patients with CKD and who were either nearing the need for dialysis or had started dialysis within the previous 12 months. Results The Māori concepts of whakamā (disempowerment and embarrassment) and whakamana (sense of self-esteem and self-determination) provided an overarching framework for interpreting the themes identified: disempowered by delayed CKD diagnosis (resentment of late diagnosis; missed opportunities for preventive care; regret and self-blame); confronting the stigma of kidney disease (multigenerational trepidation; shame and embarrassment; fear and denial); developing and sustaining relationships to support treatment decision-making (importance of family/whānau; valuing peer support; building clinician–patient trust); and maintaining cultural identity (spiritual connection to land; and upholding inner strength/mana). Conclusions Māori patients with CKD experienced marginalisation within the NZ healthcare system due to delayed diagnosis, a focus on individuals rather than family, multigenerational fear of dialysis, and an awareness that clinicians are not aware of cultural considerations and values during decision-making. Prompt diagnosis to facilitate self-management and foster trust between patients and clinicians, involvement of family and peers in dialysis care, and acknowledging patient values could strengthen patient engagement and align decision-making with patient priorities. PMID:28104711

  14. The Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-Children Study: COMPASS Methodology and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Lee; Shultz, Sarah P.; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Krebs, Jeremy; Weatherall, Mark; Palmer, Barry R.; Lane, Andrew M.; Kira, Geoff; Witter, Trevor; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modifications including, physical activity can reduce obesity-related morbidity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in youth. This study will investigate the efficacy of a culturally-sensitive, non-contact, boxing-orientated training program on obesity and related cardio-metabolic conditions in Māori and Pasifika adolescents. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomization, cultural sensitivity, intervention program, assessments, process evaluation, and statistical analyses are described. Methods: This study will be a community based, New Zealand, randomized control trial (RCT). Male and female obese (body mass index >95th percentile) Māori and Pasifika adolescents aged 14-16 years will be recruited and the sample size will be confirmed through a feasibility study. Combating Obesity in Māori and Pasifika Adolescent School-children Study (COMPASS) is a 6-month, theory-based program, conducted 3-times/week in a culturally appropriate setting. Each session includes 40 min boxing-orientated training and 30 min resistance training. Assessments will be made at baseline, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and 24-months. Main outcomes include abdominal obesity, endothelial function, and insulin resistance. Other outcomes include arterial stiffness, lipid profile, inflammatory biomarkers, well-being, and aerobic fitness. Control measures include physical activity, sleep behavior, and dietary intake. Results: As a protocol paper there are no specific results to present, our purpose is to share our RCT design with the scientific community. Conclusions: COMPASS will be used to provide direction for exercise prescription policy in at-risk Māori and Pasifika adolescents. PMID:23930168

  15. HST/STIS ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE MASSIVE TRIPLE STAR δ ORI A

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Noel D.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Gull, Theodore R.; Lindler, Don J.; Gies, Douglas R.; Corcoran, Michael F.

    2015-07-20

    The multiple star system of δ Orionis is one of the closest examples of a system containing a luminous O-type, bright giant star (component Aa1). It is often used as a spectral-type standard and has the highest observed X-ray flux of any hot-star binary. The main component Aa1 is orbited by two lower mass stars, faint Aa2 in a 5.7 day eclipsing binary, and Ab, an astrometric companion with an estimated period of 346 years. Generally the flux from all three stars is recorded in ground-based spectroscopy, and the spectral decomposition of the components has proved difficult. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph ultraviolet spectroscopy of δ Ori A that provides us with spatially separated spectra of Aa and Ab for the first time. We measured radial velocities for Aa1 and Ab in two observations made near the velocity extrema of Aa1. We show tentative evidence for the detection of the Aa2 component in cross-correlation functions of the observed and model spectra. We discuss the appearance of the UV spectra of Aa1 and Ab with reference to model spectra. Both stars have similar effective temperatures, but Ab is fainter and is a rapid rotator. The results will help in the interpretation of ground-based spectroscopy and in understanding the physical and evolutionary parameters of these massive stars.

  16. The impact of Māori cultural values on forensic science practice in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Maui L; Allan, Christine A; Bedford, Keith R; Buckleton, John S; Stuart, Keriata

    2008-03-01

    Forensic science aims to serve society by advancing justice. It is accepted that some actions taken by the state in the interests of advancing justice, such as postmortem examinations, may impinge on values held by members of groups within society. Such actions have the potential to cause cultural offense. It is important that forensic scientists are aware of these issues and that as a profession we should take actions, where possible, to reduce any potential offense and consequently reduce unnecessary distress. This paper examines the impact of these issues on forensic practice in New Zealand, and, in particular, in relation to the cultural values of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Interviews and workshops were used to identify forensic practices involving a risk of cultural offense. Particular issues were identified in regard to crime scene attendance and examination, postmortem attendance and sample storage, disposal, and return. This paper describes the response developed by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) to address these issues, including a cultural awareness training package and reference brochure.

  17. V2494 Cyg: a unique FU Ori type object in the Cygnus OB7 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magakian, Tigran Yu.; Nikogossian, Elena H.; Movsessian, Tigran; Moiseev, Alexei; Aspin, Colin; Davis, Chris J.; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Khanzadyan, Tigran; Froebrich, Dirk; Smith, Michael D.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Beck, Tracy L.

    2013-07-01

    A photometric and spectral study of the variable star V2494 Cyg in the L 1003 dark cloud is presented. The brightness of the star, formerly known as HH 381 IRS, increased by 2.5 mag in R (probably in the 1980s) and since then has remained nearly constant. Since the brightness increase, V2494 Cyg has illuminated a bipolar cometary nebula. The stellar spectrum has several features typical of the FU Ori (FUor) type, plus it exhibits very strong Hα and forbidden emission lines with high-velocity components. These emission lines originate in the Herbig-Haro (HH) jet near the star. The kinematic age of the jet is consistent with it forming at the time of the outburst leading to the luminosity increase. V2494 Cyg also produces a rather extended outflow; it is the first known FUor with both an observed outburst and a parsec-sized HH flow. The nebula, illuminated by V2494 Cyg, possesses similar morphological and spectral characteristics to Hubble's variable nebula (R Monocerotis/NGC 2261).

  18. The 'warrior gene' and the Mãori people: the responsibility of the geneticists.

    PubMed

    Perbal, Laurence

    2013-09-01

    The 'gene of' is a teleosemantic expression that conveys a simplistic and linear relationship between a gene and a phenotype. Throughout the 20th century, geneticists studied these genes of traits. The studies were often polemical when they concerned human traits: the 'crime gene', 'poverty gene', 'IQ gene', 'gay gene' or 'gene of alcoholism'. Quite recently, a controversy occurred in 2006 in New Zealand that started with the claim that a 'warrior gene' exists in the Mãori community. This claim came from a geneticist working on the MAOA gene. This article is interested in the responsibility of that researcher regarding the origin of the controversy. Several errors were made: overestimation of results, abusive use of the 'gene of' kind of expression, poor communication with the media and a lack of scientific culture. The issues of the debate were not taken into account sufficiently, either from the political, social, ethical or even the genetic points of view. After more than 100 years of debates around 'genes of' all kinds (here, the 'warrior gene'), geneticists may not hide themselves behind the media when a controversy occurs. Responsibilities have to be assumed.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 25 Ori group low-mass stars (Downes+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, J. J.; Briceno, C.; Mateu, C.; Hernandez, J.; Vivas, A. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Allen, L.

    2015-04-01

    Multi-epoch optical V-, R-, I-band and Hα observations across the entire Orion OB1 association (spanning ~180deg2) were obtained as part of the CVSO (Briceno et al., 2005AJ....129..907B, Cat. J/AJ/129/907), being conducted since 1998 with the Jurgen Stock 1.0/1.5 Schmidt-type telescope and the 8000x8000-pixel QUEST-I CCD Mosaic camera, at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. During 2009 a new dedicated 4m survey telescope, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), located at ESO's Paranal Observatory, was commissioned by the VISTA consortium. For the Galactic Science Verification of VISTA, an ~30deg2 area of the Orion OB1 association, which included the Orion Belt region, part of the Orion A cloud, the 25 Orionis and σ Ori clusters, was imaged in the Z, Y, J, H and Ks filters, during 2009 October 16 to November 2. (3 data files).

  20. Interkingdom cooperation between Candida albicans, Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces oris modulates early biofilm development on denture material.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Indira M G; Nobbs, Angela H; Ricomini-Filho, Antônio Pedro; Jenkinson, Howard F; Del Bel Cury, Altair A

    2016-04-01

    Candida-associated stomatitis affects up to 60% of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated fungal species. The oral bacteria Actinomyces oris and Streptococcus oralis are abundant in early dental plaque. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of S. oralis and A. oris on the development of C. albicans biofilms on denture material. Resin discs were coated with saliva and at early (1.5 h) or later (24 h) stages of biofilm development, cell numbers of each species were determined. Spatial distribution of microorganisms was visualized by confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms labelled by differential fluorescence or by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Interkingdom interactions underpinning biofilm development were also evaluated planktonically utilizing fluorescence microscopy. Synergistic interactions between all three species occurred within biofilms and planktonically. Bacterial cells coaggregated with each other and adhered singly or in coaggregates to C. albicans hyphal filaments. Streptococcus oralis appeared to enhance hyphal filament production and C. albicans biovolume was increased 2-fold. Concomitantly, cell numbers of S. oralis and A. oris were enhanced by C. albicans. Thus, cooperative physical and metabolic processes occurring between these three microbial species intensify pathogenic plaque communities on denture surfaces.

  1. In vivo dynamics of EBNA1-oriP interaction during latent and lytic replication of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Tohru; Kudoh, Ayumi; Fujita, Masatoshi; Sugaya, Yutaka; Isomura, Hiroki; Tsurumi, Tatsuya

    2004-12-24

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is required for maintenance of the viral genome DNA during the latent phase of EBV replication but continues to be synthesized after the induction of viral productive replication. An EBV genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that EBNA1 constantly binds to oriP of the EBV genome during not only latent but also lytic infection. Although the total levels of EBNA1 proved constant throughout the latter, the levels of the oriP-bound form were increased as lytic infection proceeded. EBV productive DNA replication occurs at discrete sites in nuclei, called replication compartments, where viral replication proteins are clustered. Confocal laser microscopic analyses revealed that whereas EBNA1 was distributed broadly in nuclei as fine punctate dots during the latent phase of infection, the protein became redistributed to the viral replication compartments and localized as distinct spots within and/or nearby the compartments after the induction of lytic replication. Taking these findings into consideration, oriP regions of the EBV genome might be organized by EBNA1 into replication domains that may set up scaffolding for lytic replication and transcription.

  2. Reduced LPS phosphorylation in Escherichia coli lowers the elevated ori/ter ratio in seqA mutants

    PubMed Central

    Rotman, Ella; Bratcher, Preston; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Summary The seqA defect in E. coli increases the ori/ter ratio and causes chromosomal fragmentation, making seqA mutants dependent on recombinational repair (the seqA recA co-lethality). To understand the nature of this chromosomal fragmentation, we characterized ΔseqA mutants and isolated suppressors of the ΔseqA recA lethality. We demonstrate that our ΔseqA alleles have normal function of the downstream pgm gene and normal ratios of the major phospholipids in the membranes, but increased surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) phosphorylation. The predominant class of ΔseqA recA suppressors disrupts the rfaQGP genes, reducing phosphorylation of the inner core region of LPS. The rfaQGP suppressors also reduce the elevated ori/ter ratio of the ΔseqA mutants, but, unexpectedly, the suppressed mutants still exhibit the high levels of chromosomal fragmentation and SOS induction, characteristic of the ΔseqA mutants. We also found that co-lethality of rfaP with defects in the production of acidic phospholipids is suppressed by alternative initiation of chromosomal replication, suggesting that LPS phosphorylation stimulates replication initiation. The rfaQGP suppression of the seqA recA lethality provides genetic support for the surprising physical evidence that the oriC DNA forms complexes with the outer membrane. PMID:19432803

  3. Din7 and Mhr1 expression levels regulate double-strand-break-induced replication and recombination of mtDNA at ori5 in yeast.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Hori, Akiko; Yoshitani, Ayako; Niu, Rong; Yoshida, Minoru; Shibata, Takehiko

    2013-06-01

    The Ntg1 and Mhr1 proteins initiate rolling-circle mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication to achieve homoplasmy, and they also induce homologous recombination to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity. Although replication and recombination profoundly influence mitochondrial inheritance, the regulatory mechanisms that determine the choice between these pathways remain unknown. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, double-strand breaks (DSBs) introduced by Ntg1 at the mitochondrial replication origin ori5 induce homologous DNA pairing by Mhr1, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance production of DSBs. Here, we show that a mitochondrial nuclease encoded by the nuclear gene DIN7 (DNA damage inducible gene) has 5'-exodeoxyribonuclease activity. Using a small ρ(-) mtDNA bearing ori5 (hypersuppressive; HS) as a model mtDNA, we revealed that DIN7 is required for ROS-enhanced mtDNA replication and recombination that are both induced at ori5. Din7 overproduction enhanced Mhr1-dependent mtDNA replication and increased the number of residual DSBs at ori5 in HS-ρ(-) cells and increased deletion mutagenesis at the ori5 region in ρ(+) cells. However, simultaneous overproduction of Mhr1 suppressed all of these phenotypes and enhanced homologous recombination. Our results suggest that after homologous pairing, the relative activity levels of Din7 and Mhr1 modulate the preference for replication versus homologous recombination to repair DSBs at ori5.

  4. Let's kōrero (talk): the practice and functions of reminiscing among mothers and children in Māori families.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Neha, Tia

    2015-01-01

    ori adults recall earlier memories than New Zealand European or Chinese adults, highlighting the importance of memory in Māori culture. In this study, Māori preschool children and their mothers (N = 41) reminisced about a diverse range of past events, including everyday events, the child's birth, cultural rituals and the child's misbehaviour. Mothers also reported how frequently they discussed past events with their children, as well as their level of affiliation with Māori culture. Mothers who reported higher levels of cultural affiliation also reported reminiscing more frequently about a diverse range of past events. Mothers reminisced in more elaborative ways about everyday events with their children compared to birth stories, cultural rituals and misbehaviours. Maternal reminiscing about cultural rituals and misbehaviours, however, along with maternal reminiscing about everyday events and birth stories, were significantly correlated with children's memory across conversations. These results underscore the continued importance of reminiscing about culturally relevant events in Māori culture, and the newfound importance for Māori families of reminiscing about everyday events.

  5. Cancer in Māori: lessons from prostate, colorectal and gastric cancer and progress in hereditary stomach cancer in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Blair, Vanessa; Kahokehr, Arman; Sammour, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Persisting ethnic disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes exist between Māori and non-Māori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. It is difficult to disentangle the complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the variation in cancer statistics between these two groups. In Māori, the sites of highest cancer incidence are the prostate in men, breast in women and lung in both - the next most common cancers in Māori are colorectal and stomach cancer. This paper discusses colorectal, prostate and stomach cancer in Māori to illustrate selected issues that impact on cancer care. Colorectal cancer is discussed to illustrate the importance of accurate cancer statistics to focus management strategies. Prostate cancer in Māori is reviewed - an area where cultural factors impact on care delivery. Sporadic stomach cancer in New Zealand is used to show how sub-classification of different types of cancer can be important and illustrate the breadth of putative causal factors. Then follows an overview of developments in hereditary gastric cancer in New Zealand in the last 15 years, showing how successful clinical and research partnerships can improve patient outcomes. One example is the Kimi Hauora Clinic, which provides support to cancer patients, mutation carriers and their families, helping them navigate the interface with the many health-care professionals involved in the multidisciplinary care of cancer patients in the 21st century.

  6. migS, a cis-acting site that affects bipolar positioning of oriC on the Escherichia coli chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Yamaichi, Yoshiharu; Niki, Hironori

    2004-01-01

    During replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome, the replicated Ori domains migrate towards opposite cell poles, suggesting that a cis-acting site for bipolar migration is located in this region. To identify this cis-acting site, a series of mutants was constructed by splitting subchromosomes from the original chromosome. One mutant, containing a 720 kb subchromosome, was found to be defective in the bipolar positioning of oriC. The creation of deletion mutants allowed the identification of migS, a 25 bp sequence, as the cis-acting site for the bipolar positioning of oriC. When migS was located at the replication terminus, the chromosomal segment showed bipolar positioning. migS was able to rescue bipolar migration of plasmid DNA containing a mutation in the SopABC partitioning system. Interestingly, multiple copies of the migS sequence on a plasmid in trans inhibited the bipolar positioning of oriC. Taken together, these findings indicate that migS plays a crucial role in the bipolar positioning of oriC. In addition, real-time analysis of the dynamic morphological changes of nucleoids in wild-type and migS mutants suggests that bipolar positioning of the replicated oriC contributes to nucleoid organization. PMID:14685268

  7. Role for a region of helically unstable DNA within the Epstein-Barr virus latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP in origin function

    SciTech Connect

    Polonskaya, Zhanna; Benham, Craig J.; Hearing, Janet . E-mail: jhearing@ms.cc.sunysb.edu

    2004-10-25

    The minimal replicator of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent cycle origin of DNA replication oriP is composed of two binding sites for the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and flanking inverted repeats that bind the telomere repeat binding factor TRF2. Although not required for minimal replicator activity, additional binding sites for EBNA-1 and TRF2 and one or more auxiliary elements located to the right of the EBNA-1/TRF2 sites are required for the efficient replication of oriP plasmids. Another region of oriP that is predicted to be destabilized by DNA supercoiling is shown here to be an important functional component of oriP. The ability of DNA fragments of unrelated sequence and possessing supercoiled-induced DNA duplex destabilized (SIDD) structures, but not fragments characterized by helically stable DNA, to substitute for this component of oriP demonstrates a role for the SIDD region in the initiation of oriP-plasmid DNA replication.

  8. The MaoP/maoS Site-Specific System Organizes the Ori Region of the E. coli Chromosome into a Macrodomain

    PubMed Central

    Valens, Michèle; Thiel, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The Ori region of bacterial genomes is segregated early in the replication cycle of bacterial chromosomes. Consequently, Ori region positioning plays a pivotal role in chromosome dynamics. The Ori region of the E. coli chromosome is organized as a macrodomain with specific properties concerning DNA mobility, segregation of loci and long distance DNA interactions. Here, by using strains with chromosome rearrangements and DNA mobility as a read-out, we have identified the MaoP/maoS system responsible for constraining DNA mobility in the Ori region and limiting long distance DNA interactions with other regions of the chromosome. MaoP belongs to a group of proteins conserved in the Enterobacteria that coevolved with Dam methylase including SeqA, MukBEF and MatP that are all involved in the control of chromosome conformation and segregation. Analysis of DNA rings excised from the chromosome demonstrated that the single maoS site is required in cis on the chromosome to exert its effect while MaoP can act both in cis and in trans. The position of markers in the Ori region was affected by inactivating maoP. However, the MaoP/maoS system was not sufficient for positioning the Ori region at the ¼–¾ regions of the cell. We also demonstrate that the replication and the resulting expansion of bulk DNA are localized centrally in the cell. Implications of these results for chromosome positioning and segregation in E. coli are discussed. PMID:27627105

  9. Cis-element, oriR, involved in the initiation of (-) strand poliovirus RNA: a quasi-globular multi-domain RNA structure maintained by tertiary ('kissing') interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, E V; Poperechny, K V; Maslova, S V; Melchers, W J; Slot, H J; Agol, V I

    1996-01-01

    The key steps in the replication of the poliovirus genome, initiation of (-) and (+) strands, require two different cis-acting elements, oriR and oriL, respectively. It has been proposed that the spatial organization of these elements is maintained by tertiary ('kissing') interactions between the loops of two constituent hairpins. Here, the putative partners of the kissing interaction within the oriR of the full-length poliovirus RNA were modified by site-directed mutagenesis. The destabilization of this interaction resulted in a severe suppression of the viral RNA synthesis, but the mutant transcripts proved to be infectious. With a single exception, the potential for the kissing interaction within the oriR of the recovered viruses was partially or completely restored due to either true reversions or second-site compensatory mutations. There was a good correlation between the restoration of this potential and the phenotypic properties of the viruses. It was concluded that the kissing interaction in the poliovirus oriR is functionally important. Using the above experimental data, a three-dimensional structure was derived by molecular modeling techniques, which demonstrated the overall feasibility of the proposed interactions and displayed the poliovirus oriR as a quasi-globular multi-domain structure. Images PMID:8895586

  10. Elevation of the Corner of the Mouth Using Botulinum Toxin Type A

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Indications for botulinum toxin type A have been constantly evolving, and it can currently be used in virtually any area of the face and neck. The authors present their experience with this neurotoxin in treating the platysmal bands and depressor anguli oris muscle with the purpose of cosmetically improving the anterior neck and lifting the oral commissure. PMID:21430826

  11. Asymmetric crying face in a newborn with isotretinoin embryopathy.

    PubMed

    Sarici, Dilek; Akin, Mustafa Ali; Kurtoglu, Selim; Uzum, Kazim; Kiraz, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    We report a newborn with asymmetric crying face and other anomalies whose mother had taken isotretinoin during the first month of pregnancy. We hypothesize that asymmetric crying face is a finding of retinoic acid embryopathy and results from the intrauterine effects of retinoic acid on the development of the depressor anguli oris muscle or the mandibular branch of the facial nerve.

  12. Whakawhanaungatanga: the importance of culturally meaningful connections to improve uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation by Māori with COPD – a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Levack, William MM; Jones, Bernadette; Grainger, Rebecca; Boland, Pauline; Brown, Melanie; Ingham, Tristram R

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary rehabilitation is known to improve function and quality of life for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little research has been conducted on the influence of culture on experiences of pulmonary rehabilitation. This study examined factors influencing uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation by Māori with COPD in New Zealand. Method Grounded theory nested within kaupapa Māori methodology. Transcripts were analyzed from interviews and focus groups with 15 Māori and ten New Zealand non-Māori invited to attend pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD. Māori participants had either attended a mainstream hospital-based program, a community-based program designed “by Māori, for Māori”, or had experienced both. Results Several factors influencing uptake of pulmonary rehabilitation were common to all participants regardless of ethnicity: 1) participants’ past experiences (eg, of exercise; of health care systems), 2) attitudes and expectations, 3) access issues (eg, time, transport, and conflicting responsibilities), and 4) initial program experiences. These factors were moderated by the involvement of family and peers, interactions with health professionals, the way information on programs was presented, and by new illness events. For Māori, however, several additional factors were also identified relating to cultural experiences of pulmonary rehabilitation. In particular, Māori participants placed high value on whakawhanaungatanga: the making of culturally meaningful connections with others. Culturally appropriate communication and relationship building was deemed so important by some Māori participants that when it was absent, they felt strongly discouraged to attend pulmonary rehabilitation. Only the more holistic services offered a program in which they felt culturally safe and to which they were willing to return for ongoing rehabilitation. Conclusion Lack of attention to cultural factors in the delivery of

  13. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1. I. The Low-Mass Population of Ori OB1a and 1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Hernández, J.; Vivas, A. K.; Hartmann, Lee; Downes, J. J.; Berlind, Perry

    2005-02-01

    We present results of a large-scale, multiepoch optical survey of the Orion OB1 association, carried out with the QUEST camera at the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory. We identify for the first time the widely spread low-mass, young population in the Ori OB1a and OB1b subassociations. Candidate members were picked up by their variability in the V band and position in color-magnitude diagrams. We obtained spectra to confirm membership. In a region spanning ~68 deg2, we found 197 new young stars; of these, 56 are located in the Ori OB1a subassociation and 141 in Ori OB1b. The spatial distribution of the low-mass young stars is spatially coincident with that of the high-mass members but suggests a much sharper edge to the association. Comparison with the spatial extent of molecular gas and extinction maps indicates that the subassociation Ori OB1b is concentrated within a ringlike structure of radius ~2°(~15 pc at 440 pc), centered roughly on the star ɛ Ori in the Orion belt. The ring is apparent in 13CO and corresponds to a region with an extinction AV>=1. The stars exhibiting strong Hα emission, an indicator of active accretion, are found along this ring, whereas the center is populated with weak Hα-emitting stars. In contrast, Ori OB1a is located in a region devoid of gas and dust. We identify a grouping of stars within a ~3 deg2 area located in Ori OB1a, roughly clustered around the B2 star 25 Ori. The Herbig Ae/Be star V346 Ori is also associated with this grouping, which could be an older analog of σ Ori. Using several sets of evolutionary tracks, we find an age of 7-10 Myr for Ori OB1a and of ~4-6 Myr for Ori OB1b, consistent with previous estimates from OB stars. Indicators such as the equivalent width of Hα and near-IR excesses show that the number of accreting low-mass stars decreases sharply between Ori OB1b and Ori OB1a. These results indicate that although a substantial fraction of accreting disks remain at ages ~5 Myr, inner disks are

  14. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurlo, Alice; Cieza, Lucas A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A.; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L.

    2017-02-01

    As part of an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimiter Array (ALMA) survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circum-stellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25 arcsec (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circum-stellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of 106 ± 2 mJy, characteristic radius of ˜30 au, inclination of 14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5} deg and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The 12CO emission is separated into distinct blue and redshifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line of sight. The 13CO emission displays similar structure to that of the 12CO, while the C18O line emission is very weak. We calculated the expansion velocities of the low- and medium-density material with respect to the disc to be of -2.85 (blue), 4.4 (red) and -1.35 and 1.15 km s-1 (for blue and red) and we derived the mass, momentum and kinetic energy of the expanding gas. The outflow has an hourglass shape where the cavities are not seen. We interpret the shapes that the gas traces as cavities excavated by an ancient outflow. We report a detection of line emission from the circumstellar disc and derive a lower limit of the gas mass of 3 MJup.

  15. Investigation of the behaviour of the eruptive young stellar object V1647 Ori since its outburst in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, V.

    V1647 Ori is a young eruptive low mass pre-main sequence star that illuminates McNeil's nebula. The object has undergone two outbursts in the recent years - first in November 2003 and the second in mid 2008. While the first outburst lasted for about 2 years before it briefly recovered to its quiescent state, the object is still active since its second eruption in 2008. The nature of the V1647 ori outburst and its similarity with other pre-main sequence eruptive objects, namely FUors and EXors, are still debated. Both types of outburst are thought to be driven by a sudden increase of accretion through a circumstellar disk that feeds through a circumstellar envelope. Follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations in the near-IR(NIR) JHK bands were being made at Mt. Abu observatory using NICS and NICMOS. The NIR observations taken on several occasions during 2008 to 2012 show mean values of brightness in J, H and K bands of 10.82(sigma=0.146), 9.02(0.189) and 7.58(0.234) mags respectively. During the period, occasional brightening or fading by about 2-3 sigma was also noticed which can be attributed to disk accretion rate variations. The NIR spectra obtained in the K band showed Brackett gamma in emission with non-systematic variability. Our observations indicate slight fading out of V1647 ori during the early part of 2012. Modelling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in visible to sub-mm region (compiled from archival data) suggests increased disk mass accretion rate as compared to its quiescent state. The model parameters are in good agreement with those derived from observations. These results will be discussed in detail.

  16. The Proximity of Ribosomal Protein Genes to oriC Enhances Vibrio cholerae Fitness in the Absence of Multifork Replication

    PubMed Central

    Soler-Bistué, Alfonso; Timmermans, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent works suggest that bacterial gene order links chromosome structure to cell homeostasis. Comparative genomics showed that, in fast-growing bacteria, ribosomal protein genes (RP) locate near the replication origin (oriC). We recently showed that Vibrio cholerae employs this positional bias as a growth optimization strategy: under fast-growth conditions, multifork replication increases RP dosage and expression. However, RP location may provide advantages in a dosage-independent manner: for example, the physical proximity of the many ribosomal components, in the context of a crowded cytoplasm, may favor ribosome biogenesis. To uncover putative dosage-independent effects, we studied isogenic V. cholerae derivatives in which the major RP locus, S10-spc-α (S10), was relocated to alternative genomic positions. When bacteria grew fast, bacterial fitness was reduced according to the S10 relative distance to oriC. The growth of wild-type V. cholerae could not be improved by additional copies of the locus, suggesting a physiologically optimized genomic location. Slow growth is expected to uncouple RP position from dosage, since multifork replication does not occur. Under these conditions, we detected a fitness impairment when S10 was far from oriC. Deep sequencing followed by marker frequency analysis in the absence of multifork replication revealed an up to 30% S10 dosage reduction associated with its relocation that closely correlated with fitness alterations. Hence, the impact of S10 location goes beyond a growth optimization strategy during feast periods. RP location may be important during the whole life cycle of this pathogen. PMID:28246358

  17. FUENTES Infrarrojas EN 2.2 lim EN la Region Asociada AL GLOBULO ORI-1-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, J.; Carrasco, L.; Ramos, M. P.

    1987-05-01

    Se ha mapeado en el cercano infrarrojo a 2.2 micras, una región de 2 x 5 minutos de arco asociada al glóbulo ORI-I-2. Se ha detectado emisión infrarroja de fuentes puntuales y emisión extendida de bajo brillo superficial. Se discute la asociación de fuentes de 2.2 micras con la emisión detectada en IRAS y en moléculas de radio frecuencias.

  18. X-Raying the Beating Heart of a Newborn Star: Rotational Modulation of High-Energy Radiation from V1647 Ori

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael; Petre, Robert; Teets, William K.; Principe, David

    2012-01-01

    We report a periodicity of approx.1 day in the highly elevated X-ray emission from the protostar V1647 Ori during its two recent multiple-year outbursts of mass accretion. This periodicity is indicative of protostellar rotation at near-breakup speed. Modeling of the phased X-ray light curve indicates the high-temperature ( 50 MK), X-ray-emitting plasma, which is most likely heated by accretion-induced magnetic reconnection, resides in dense ( 5 1010 cm.3), pancake-shaped magnetic footprints where the accretion stream feeds the newborn star. The sustained X-ray periodicity of V1647 Ori demonstrates that such protostellar magnetospheric accretion configurations can be stable over timescales of years. Subject headings: stars: formation stars: individual (V1647 Ori) stars: pre-main sequence X-rays: stars

  19. An origin of transfer (oriT) on the conjugative element pRS01 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3.

    PubMed

    Mills, D A; Phister, T G; Dunny, G M; McKay, L L

    1998-04-01

    Previous analysis of the Tra1 region of the conjugative element pRS01 from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ML3 suggested that an origin of transfer (oriT) was present. Deletion derivatives of this cloned Tra1 region were assayed for mobilization in the presence of the wild-type pRS01 element in trans. The pRS01 oriT was localized to a 446-nucleotide segment in the intergenic region between open reading frames ltrD and ltrE. Sequence analysis of this region revealed a cluster of direct and inverted repeat structures characteristic of oriT regions associated with other conjugative systems.

  20. First BVR light curves and preliminary results of a recently discovered W UMa-type binary: V1848 Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriwattanawong, W.; Poojon, P.

    2014-04-01

    First complete photometric light curves of a recently discovered contact binary, V1848 Ori, are presented. BVR imaging data were used to derive photometric solutions, using Wilson-Devinney code. We discovered that this system is a weak-contact binary, with a fillout factor of f = 13.14%(±1.44%). Preliminary results showed that V1848 Ori is an A-type W UMa system, with a mass ratio of q = 0.7615. The more massive component was found about 400 K hotter than the other one. This system has varied from W-type to A-type during the last decade. According to the preliminary physical parameters, the weak-contact configuration of this system, with the mass ratio close to unity, and no sign of long-term orbital period change yet, is unlikely to be broken. The contact configuration is expected to be maintained and become deeper or not, depending on effect of the AML mechanism.

  1. The Ionization Structure of Sharpless 2-264: Multiwavelength Observations of the λ Ori H II Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahan, M.; Haffner, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    We present velocity-resolved maps taken with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) in Hα, [S ii] λ 6716, and [N ii] λ 6583 around the well-known O8 III star λ Ori A (HD 36861) ({\\ell }=185^\\circ to 205^\\circ ,b=-24^\\circ to -1^\\circ ). The integrated intensity ({v}{{LSR}}=-80 to +80 km s-1), {I}{{H}α }, within WHAM’s one-degree beams varies from ˜190 R near the center to ˜10 R on the periphery of the nebula where it becomes comparable to foreground and/or background emission in this complex region. Intensity ratios for [N ii]/Hα and [S ii]/Hα average 0.28 and 0.35, respectively. In both ratios, higher values are found preferentially at larger radii from λ Ori, although the behavior of [N ii]/Hα is complicated near the edges of the nebula. The [S ii]/[N ii] intensity ratio ranges from ˜0.5 to ˜1.0, with the value increasing toward larger radii (and lower Hα intensities). Variations of the [S ii]/Hα, [N ii]/Hα, and [S ii]/[N ii] line ratios in this diffuse region show some similar trends to those seen in the warm ionized medium (WIM) but with generally lower metal-line ratios. As with the WIM, the trends are driven by changes in the underlying physical parameters, most notably the ionization states and gas temperature. To investigate which cause might be dominant in this region, we use these extremely high signal-to-noise observations to construct a map of temperature and non-thermal velocity throughout the nebula. Using the line widths of Hα and [S ii], we separate thermal and non-thermal components and find spatial trends of these parameters within the nebula. Ion temperatures range between 4000 and 8000 K throughout the nebula. The non-thermal velocity map reveals a decrease in velocity from about 10 to 5 km s-1 from the center to the edge of the lower half of the H ii region. In addition to using the widths as a measure of temperature, we also use the variation in [N ii]/Hα to estimate electron temperature. The results obtained from this

  2. Electromyographic analysis of upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris muscle in deaf individuals, in mandibular rest position, compared to hearers.

    PubMed

    Regalo, S C H; Vitti, M; Hallak, J E C; Siéssere, S; Pagnano, V O; Semprini, M

    2006-01-01

    This study had the aim to analyze electromyographically, the upper and lower fascicles of the orbicularis oris muscle in bilingual, oralist deaf individuals, comparing them with clinically healthy volunteers in mandibular rest position. This was performed in 50 patients of both sexes with an average age of 18.5 years, divided into 4 groups. 1. Ten deaf bilingual, nasal-breathing patients; 2. Ten deaf bilingual, buccal-breathing patients; 3. Ten deaf oralist, nasal-breathing patients; 4. Twenty healthy volunteers, nasal-breathing patients. An electromyograph K6-I EMG Light Channel Surface Electromyography (Myo-tronics Co. Seattle, WA, EUA) of eight channels was used. The electrodes applied were duotrodes, silver-chloride surface, disposable. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 10.0 (Chicago, IL). Continuos data with normal distribution were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of significance was set at alpha= 0.01. Comparing the EMG activity of the orbicularis oris muscle made it possible to verify that, during clinical mandibular rest position, all four groups presented various levels of electromyographic (EMG) activity with statistically significant differences (F = 8.81, p < 0.01). Based this study's data, it was possible to conclude that the electromyography analysis of the orbicularis oris muscle in deaf individuals showed that deaf individuals presented higher levels of EMG activity of the orbicularis oris muscle than normal controls during mandibular rest position.

  3. Spectroscopy of the M Supergiant α Ori in the 1 2.5 μm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Martin; Wahlgren, Glenn

    The study of elemental abundances in cool stars via atomic lines in the optical region is made di.cult by stellar molecular absorption. At infrared wavelengths this problem is diminished, but ground-based observations suffer from absorption by the earth’s atmosphere. Fortunately, there are spectral windows through which we can observe. We have explored several such windows in the spectral region from 1 2.5 μm, coinciding with the wavelength domain of the new VLT instrument CRIRES, for atomic lines suitable for the study of cool luminous stars, in particular α Ori (M2Iab). We present preliminary results from this search along with our first results on abundances of iron and the weak s-process elements Sr, Y, Zr.

  4. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF V2775 Ori, AN OUTBURSTING PROTOSTAR IN L 1641: EXPLORING THE EDGE OF THE FU ORIONIS REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, William J.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Kounkel, Marina; Tobin, John J.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Henning, Thomas; Ali, Babar; Stanke, Thomas; Osorio, Mayra; Wilson, T. L.

    2012-09-01

    Individual outbursting young stars are important laboratories for studying the physics of episodic accretion and the extent to which this phenomenon can explain the luminosity distribution of protostars. We present new and archival data for V2775 Ori (HOPS 223), a protostar in the L 1641 region of the Orion molecular clouds that was discovered by Caratti o Garatti et al. to have recently undergone an order-of-magnitude increase in luminosity. Our near-infrared spectra of the source have strong blueshifted He I {lambda}10830 absorption, strong H{sub 2}O and CO absorption, and no H I emission, all typical of FU Orionis sources. With data from the Infrared Telescope Facility, the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment that span from 1 to 70 {mu}m pre-outburst and from 1 to 870 {mu}m post-outburst, we estimate that the outburst began between 2005 April and 2007 March. We also model the pre- and post-outburst spectral energy distributions of the source, finding it to be in the late stages of accreting its envelope with a disk-to-star accretion rate that increased from {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} to {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} during the outburst. The post-outburst luminosity at the epoch of the FU Orionis-like near-IR spectra is 28 L{sub Sun }, making V2775 Ori the least luminous documented FU Orionis outburster with a protostellar envelope. The existence of low-luminosity outbursts supports the notion that a range of episiodic accretion phenomena can partially explain the observed spread in protostellar luminosities.

  5. The fluid and electrolyte balance of New Zealand European and Māori/Pacific Island athletes: An observational study.

    PubMed

    McLean, Andrew; Brown, Rachel Clare; Black, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Observational research on professional athletes from the USA suggests differences may exist in sweat sodium loss based on ethnic differences. The New Zealand (NZ) sporting population is mainly of European or Māori/Pacific Island origin. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the fluid-electrolyte balance of athletes by ethnicity. A total of 20 Māori/Pacific Islanders (MP; body mass 100.97 ± 13.05 kg) and 29 NZ European (NZE; body mass 89.11 ± 11.56 kg) elite male athletes were recruited. Sweat rates were determined by body mass change during a 1-h spin cycle exercise session, during which fluid intakes and heart rate were recorded. Sweat samples were analysed for sodium concentration. Mean ± SD sweat sodium concentrations were 73.4 ± 27.2 mmol·L(-1) and 55.5 ± 26.8 mmol·L(-1) for the MP and NZE groups, respectively (p = 0.070). Sweat rate was 0.93 ± 0.26 L·h(-1) for the MP group and 0.89 ± 0.33 L·h(-1) for the NZE group (p = 0.357). Fluid intake was 1.05 ± 0.48 L and 0.93 ± 0.49 L for MP and NZE, respectively (p = 0.395). Half of the MP group gained weight during the exercise session compared to 37% of the NZE group. Pre-exercise urine specific gravity was significantly lower amongst the NZE group (1.016 ± 0.009 g mL(-1)) than the MP group (1.024 ± 0.008 g mL(-1)) p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in heart rate between the groups, p = 0.082. Hydration practices of athletes in NZ may differ by ethnicity, and this may highlight the need for more targeted education by ethnicity.

  6. The 2005 Accretion Outburst in V1118 Ori: Evidence for A Spectral Change in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audard, M.; Güdel, M.; Skinner, S. L.; Briggs, K. R.; Walter, F. M.; Stringfellow, G.; Hamilton, R. T.; Guinan, E. F.

    2005-12-01

    We present results from our X-ray monitoring campaign of the 2005 accretion outburst in the young low-mass star V1118 Ori. Optical and near-infrared photometry are presented as well. The X-ray data from early 2005 indicate that the X-ray flux and luminosity varied within a factor of two only, and were similar to the pre-outburst values measured in a serendipitous observation in 2002. Similarly, the hydrogen column density showed no evidence for significant excursions from the pre-outburst value of a few times 1021 cm-2. However, we observed a spectral change from a dominant hot plasma ( ˜ 25 MK) in 2002 and in January 2005 to a cooler plasma ( ˜ 8 MK) in February and March 2005. We argue that the closing in of the accretion disk during the outburst disrupted the hot magnetic loops high in the corona, whereas the lower cooler loops were less affected and became the dominant coronal component. We acknowledge support by NASA through Chandra award DD5-6029X and through XMM-Newton award NNG05GI96G to Columbia University. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA under contract NAS8-03060. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA. The PSI group acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 20-58827.99 and 20-66875.01). Stony Brook's participation in SMARTS is made possible by support from the offices of the Provost and the Vice President for Research. We thank J. Allyn Smith, P. McGehee, J. Espinoza, and D. Gonzalez for doing the observations with the SMARTS telescopes. We also thank H. Tannanbaum, N. Schartel, and the VLA TOO panel for granting time to observe V1118 Ori.

  7. Revisiting the rigidly rotating magnetosphere model for σ Ori E - II. Magnetic Doppler imaging, arbitrary field RRM, and light variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Kochukhov, O.; Krtička, J.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Wade, G. A.; Prvák, M.; Mikulášek, Z.; Silvester, J.; Owocki, S. P.

    2015-08-01

    The initial success of the Rigidly Rotating Magnetosphere (RRM) model application to the B2Vp star σ Ori E by Townsend, Owocki & Groote triggered a renewed era of observational monitoring of this archetypal object. We utilize high-resolution spectropolarimetry and the magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) technique to simultaneously determine the magnetic configuration, which is predominately dipolar, with a polar strength Bd = 7.3-7.8 kG and a smaller non-axisymmetric quadrupolar contribution, as well as the surface distribution of abundance of He, Fe, C, and Si. We describe a revised RRM model that now accepts an arbitrary surface magnetic field configuration, with the field topology from the MDI models used as input. The resulting synthetic H α emission and broad-band photometric observations generally agree with observations, however, several features are poorly fit. To explore the possibility of a photospheric contribution to the observed photometric variability, the MDI abundance maps were used to compute a synthetic photospheric light curve to determine the effect of the surface inhomogeneities. Including the computed photospheric brightness modulation fails to improve the agreement between the observed and computed photometry. We conclude that the discrepancies cannot be explained as an effect of inhomogeneous surface abundance. Analysis of the UV light variability shows good agreement between observed variability and computed light curves, supporting the accuracy of the photospheric light variation calculation. We thus conclude that significant additional physics is necessary for the RRM model to acceptably reproduce observations of not only σ Ori E, but also other similar stars with significant stellar wind-magnetic field interactions.

  8. Mobilization of Chimeric oriT Plasmids by F and R100-1: Role of Relaxosome Formation in Defining Plasmid Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Richard A.; Frost, Laura S.

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage at the F plasmid nic site within the origin of transfer (oriT) requires the F-encoded proteins TraY and TraI and the host-encoded protein integration host factor in vitro. We confirm that F TraY, but not F TraM, is required for cleavage at nic in vivo. Chimeric plasmids were constructed which contained either the entire F or R100-1 oriT regions or various combinations of nic, TraY, and TraM binding sites, in addition to the traM gene. The efficiency of cleavage at nic and the frequency of mobilization were assayed in the presence of F or R100-1 plasmids. The ability of these chimeric plasmids to complement an F traM mutant or affect F transfer via negative dominance was also measured using transfer efficiency assays. In cases where cleavage at nic was detected, R100-1 TraI was not sensitive to the two-base difference in sequence immediately downstream of nic, while F TraI was specific for the F sequence. Plasmid transfer was detected only when TraM was able to bind to its cognate sites within oriT. High-affinity binding of TraY in cis to oriT allowed detection of cleavage at nic but was not required for efficient mobilization. Taken together, our results suggest that stable relaxosomes, consisting of TraI, -M, and -Y bound to oriT are preferentially targeted to the transfer apparatus (transferosome). PMID:10869081

  9. A Functional oriT in the Ptw Plasmid of Burkholderia cenocepacia Can Be Recognized by the R388 Relaxase TrwC

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Esther; Bakioui, Sawsane; Gomes, Margarida C.; O'Callaghan, David; Vergunst, Annette C.; Sangari, Félix J.; Llosa, Matxalen

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is both a plant pathogen and the cause of serious opportunistic infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis patients. B. cenocepacia K56-2 harbors a native plasmid named Ptw for its involvement in the Plant Tissue Watersoaking phenotype. Ptw has also been reported to be important for survival in human cells. Interestingly, the presence of PtwC, a homolog of the conjugative relaxase TrwC of plasmid R388, suggests a possible function for Ptw in conjugative DNA transfer. The ptw region includes Type IV Secretion System genes related to those of the F plasmid. However, genes in the adjacent region shared stronger homology with the R388 genes involved in conjugative DNA metabolism. This region included the putative relaxase ptwC, a putative coupling protein and accessory nicking protein, and a DNA segment with high number of inverted repeats and elevated AT content, suggesting a possible oriT. Although we were unable to detect conjugative transfer of the Ptw resident plasmid, we detected conjugal mobilization of a co-resident plasmid containing the ptw region homologous to R388, demonstrating the cloned ptw region contains an oriT. A similar plasmid lacking ptwC could not be mobilized, suggesting that the putative relaxase PtwC must act in cis on its oriT. Remarkably, we also detected mobilization of a plasmid containing the Ptw oriT by the R388 relaxase TrwC, yet we could not detect PtwC-mediated mobilization of an R388 oriT-containing plasmid. Our data unambiguously show that the Ptw plasmid harbors DNA transfer functions, and suggests the Ptw plasmid may play a dual role in horizontal DNA transfer and eukaryotic infection. PMID:27200362

  10. Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-01

    A total of 27 bacterial isolates from California sea lions and a walrus tentatively classified within the family Pasteurellaceae was further characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed a monophyletic group, tentatively designated Bisgaard taxon 57. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, the most closely related species with a validly published name was Bisgaardia hudsonensis and the most closely related species based on rpoB sequence comparison was Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida; highest similarities between the isolates and the type strains of B. hudsonensis and P. multocida subsp. multocida were 95.0 and 88.2%. respectively. All isolates of Bisgaard taxon 57 exhibit the phenotypic characters of the family Pasteurellaceae. Members of Bisgaard taxon 57 can be separated from existing genera of the Pasteurellaceae by the following tests: positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer and indole; no X- or V-factor dependency; and acid production from L-arabinose (slow), L-fucose, maltose and trehalose, but not from dulcitol, D-mannitol, D-mannose or sucrose. The main fatty acids of Bisgaard taxon 57 (CCUG 59994(T)) are C(14:0), C(16:0), C(16:1)ω7c and the summed feature C(14:0) 3-OH/iso-C(16:1) I. This fatty acid profile is characteristic of members of the Pasteurellaceae. The quinone profile of Bisgaard taxon 57 (DSM 23800(T)) was similar to that of other genera in the Pasteurellaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain Baika1(T) is 36.2 mol%, which is at the lower end of the range for members of the family Pasteurellaceae. On the basis of both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that members of Bisgaard taxon 57 should be classified as representatives of a novel species in a new genus, Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Otariodibacter oris is Baika1(T) (=CCUG 59994(T)=DSM 23800(T)), which was

  11. The EXOTIME Monitoring Program Discovers Substellar Companion Candidates around the Rapidly Pulsating Subdwarf B Stars V1636 Ori and DW Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuh, S.; Silvotti, R.; Lutz, R.; Kim, S.-L.; Exotime Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    The EXOTIME monitoring program has discovered sub-stellar companion candidates around the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B stars V1636 Ori and DW Lyn using the timing method. Here we motivate our continuing search, and refer to descriptions of the photometric data collected, the data analysis and the characteristics of the O-C diagrams obtained. We also discuss our on-going efforts to consolidate the candidate discoveries with additional simulations and confirm them with independent methods.

  12. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris*

    PubMed Central

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. PMID:26170452

  13. Exploring occupation roles of hospice family caregivers from Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnic backgrounds living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Jennifer; Wilson, Linda

    2014-06-01

    A major challenge to occupational therapists working in palliative care is determining the best ways to help family caregivers who are caring for family members. The purpose of this study was to explore palliative caregiver occupations among Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnicities. Six informants participated, one woman and one man from each ethnic group. In each of their homes, informants were asked to discuss what it was like caring for their dying family member. The occupational themes resulting from these interviews were food preparation, spirituality and family gathering. Therapists need to be aware of the differences in how people care for family members within their ethnicity. Implications are that occupational therapists can help families identify activities important to them within the main occupational themes: different types of foods and their preparations, various ways to express spirituality and how families gather together members of their extended family. Further, clinicians need to take on the role of a "not-knowing" but curious health-care provider in order to meet the needs of caregivers. The limitation was the small number of participants who all lived in one geographic area. Future studies should include a wider group of ethnicities.

  14. The Chandra Delta Ori Large Project: Occultation Measurements of the Shocked Gas tn the Nearest Eclipsing O-Star Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Nichols, Joy; Naze, Yael; Rauw, Gregor; Pollock, Andrew; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Evans, Nancy; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Oskinova, Lida; Hamann, W. -R.; Gull, Ted; Ignace, Rico; Hole, Tabetha; Iping, Rosina; Walborn, Nolan; Hoffman, Jennifer; Lomax, Jamie; Waldron, Wayne; Owocki, Stan; Maiz-Apellaniz, Jesus; Leutenegger, Maurice; Hole, Tabetha; Gayley, Ken; Russell, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Delta Ori is the nearest massive, single-lined eclipsing binary (O9.5 II + B0.5III). As such it serves as a fundamental calibrator of the mass-radius-luminosity relation in the upper HR diagram. It is also the only eclipsing O-type binary system which is bright enough to be observable with the CHANDRA gratings in a reasonable exposure. Studies of resolved X-ray line complexes provide tracers of wind mass loss rate and clumpiness; occultation by the X-ray dark companion of the line emitting region can provide direct spatial information on the location of the X-ray emitting gas produced by shocks embedded in the wind of the primary star. We obtained phase-resolved spectra with Chandra in order to determine the level of phase-dependent vs. secular variability in the shocked wind. Along with the Chandra observations we obtained simultaneous photometry from space with the Canadian MOST satellite to help understand the relation between X-ray and photospheric variability.

  15. Relational Resilience in Māori, Pacific, and European Sole Parent Families: From Theory and Research to Social Policy.

    PubMed

    Waldegrave, Charles; King, Peter; Maniapoto, Maria; Tamasese, Taimalieutu Kiwi; Parsons, Tafaoimalo Loudeen; Sullivan, Ginny

    2016-12-01

    This study reports findings and policy recommendations from a research project that applied a relational resilience framework to a study of 60 sole parent families in New Zealand, with approximately equal numbers of Māori, Pacific, and European (White) participants. The sole parent families involved were already known to be resilient and the study focused on identifying the relationships and strategies underlying the achievement and maintenance of their resilience. The study was carried out to provide an evidence base for the development and implementation of policies and interventions to both support sole parent families who have achieved resilience and assist those who struggle to do so. The three populations shared many similarities in their pathways to becoming sole parents and the challenges they faced as sole parents. The coping strategies underlying their demonstrated resilience were also broadly similar, but the ways in which they were carried out did vary in a manner that particularly reflected cultural practices in terms of their reliance upon extended family-based support or support from outside the family. The commonalities support the appropriateness of the common conceptual framework used, whereas the differences underline the importance of developing nuanced policy responses that take into account cultural differences between the various populations to which policy initiatives are directed.

  16. Whakawhiti Kōrero, a Method for the Development of a Cultural Assessment Tool, Te Waka Kuaka, in Māori Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Hinemoa; Kersten, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The importance of tools for the measurement of outcomes and needs in traumatic brain injury is well recognised. The development of tools for these injuries in indigenous communities has been limited despite the well-documented disparity of brain injury. The wairua theory of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Māori proposes that a culturally defined injury occurs in tandem with the physical injury. A cultural response is therefore indicated. This research investigates a Māori method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool designed to further examine needs associated with the culturally determined injury and in preparation for formal validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is a method used to develop better statements in the development of the assessment tool. Four wānanga (traditional fora) were held including one with whānau (extended family) with experience of traumatic brain injury. The approach was well received. A final version, Te Waka Kuaka, is now ready for validation. Whakawhiti kōrero is an indigenous method used in the development of cultural needs assessment tool in Māori traumatic brain injury. This method is likely to have wider applicability, such as Mental Health and Addictions Services, to ensure robust process of outcome measure and needs assessment development. PMID:26576070

  17. The past photometric history of the FU Ori-type young eruptive star 2MASS J06593158-0405277 = V960 Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurdana-Šepić, Rajka; Munari, Ulisse

    2016-02-01

    The known FU Ori-type young eruptive stars are exceedingly rare (a dozen or so confirmed objects) and 2MASS J06593158-0405277, with its 2014 outburst, is likely the latest addition to the family. All members have displayed just one such eruption in their recorded history, an event lasting for decades. To test the FU Ori nature of 2MASS J06593158-0405277, we have reconstructed its photometric history by measuring its brightness on Harvard photographic plates spanning the time interval 1899-1989. No previous large amplitude eruption similar to that initiated in 2014 has been found, as in bona fide FU Ori-type objects. The median value of the brightness in quiescence of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 is B = 15.5, with the time interval 1935-1950 characterized by a large variability (∼ 1 mag amplitude) that contrasts with the remarkable photometric stability displayed at later epochs. The variability during 1935-1950 can either be ascribed to some T Tau like activity of 2MASS J06593158-0405277 itself or to the also young and fainter star 2MASS J06593168-0405224 that lies 5 arcsec to the North and forms an unresolved pair at the astrometric scale of Harvard photographic plates.

  18. Adhesion of Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces oris in co-culture to machined and anodized titanium surfaces as affected by atmosphere and pH

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the rising demand for osseointegrated titanium implants for replacing missing teeth, often in patients with a history of periodontitis, implant-related infections have become an issue of growing concern. Novel methods for treating and preventing implant-associated infections are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to investigate if different pH, atmosphere and surface properties could restrict bacterial adhesion to titanium surfaces used in dental implants. Methods Titanium discs with machined or anodized (TiUnite™) surface were incubated with a co-culture of Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces oris (early colonizers of oral surfaces) at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 at aerobic or anaerobic atmosphere. The adhesion was analysed by counting colony forming (CFU) units on agar and by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results The CFU analysis showed that a pH of 5.0 was found to significantly decrease the adhesion of S. mitis, and an aerobic atmosphere, the adhesion of A. oris. S. mitis was found in significantly less amounts on the anodized surface than the machined surface, while A. oris was found in equal amounts on both surfaces. The CLSM analysis confirmed the results from the CFU count and provided additional information on how the two oral commensal species adhered to the surfaces: mainly in dispersed clusters oriented with the groves of the machined surface and the pores of the anodized surface. Conclusions Bacterial adhesion by S. mitis and A. oris can be restricted by acidic pH and aerobic atmosphere. The anodized surface reduced the adhesion of S. mitis compared to the machined surface; while A. oris adhered equally well to the pores of the anodized surface and to the grooves of the machined surface. It is difficult to transfer these results directly into a clinical situation. However, it is worth further investigating these findings from an in vitro perspective, as well as clinically, to gain more knowledge of the effects acid pH and

  19. Noma (cancrum oris): case report in a 4-year-old HIV-positive South African child.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S; Chikte, U M

    2000-12-01

    Cancrum oris (noma) is a gangrenous infection that develops in the mouth and spreads rapidly to other parts of the face. The disease occurs mostly in conditions of poverty, poor hygiene and malnutrition. In sub-Saharan Africa the frequency in several countries is estimated to be 1-7 cases per 1,000 population, and as many as 12 cases per 1,000 in the most affected communities. About 90% of these children die without receiving any care, yet the disease can, and should, be prevented. With increasing numbers of children who are malnourished and who have compromised immune systems (compounded by the HIV pandemic) the prevalence of conditions such as noma is likely to increase. Among the earliest features of noma are excessive salivation, marked fetor oris, facial oedema and a greyish-black discolouration of the skin in the affected area. This devastating gangrenous lesion may involve the cheek, the chin, the infra-orbital margin, palate, nose, antrum and virtually any part of the face. This report describes a 4-year-old HIV-positive African girl, who was abandoned, discharged from the Plastics Unit and now lives in a child care sanctuary. Little is known about her history prior to her arrival at the home a few weeks previously. The clinical examination revealed a delay in growth and physical development equivalent to that of a 2-year-old child. The left cheek had a perforating ulcer in a healing phase. The perforation, about 1 cm in diameter, was surrounded by oedematous tissues showing a mild to moderate erythema. The peripheral oedema extended to the lower palpebral, the upper labial, left labial commissural, mandibular and pre-parotid regions. Submental, submandibular and cervical lymph nodes were mildly painful upon palpation. The child was not pyretic. The intra-oral examination revealed the features of acute necrotising gingivitis (ANG). ANG was generalised and showed classic interdental crater-like ulcers covered with whitish debris. Halitosis was pronounced

  20. Fluorescence Processes in the Outer Atmospheres of the Evolved M-Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Kober, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister; Ayres, Thomas; Wahlgren, Glenn

    2015-08-01

    The prototypical M-giant and M-supergiant stars, Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)) and Alpha Ori (M2Iab), have been observed as part of the "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres). "ASTRAL-Cool Stars" is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect, using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R~46,000 in the FUV up to ~1700 Å, R~30,000 for 1700-2150 Å, and R~114,000 >2150 Å) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/). In this paper, we use the very rich emission-line spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, Gamma Cru (GaCrux) and Alpha Ori (Betelgeuse), to study the fluorescence processes operating in their outer atmospheres. We summarize the pumping transitions and fluorescent line products known on the basis of previous work and newly identified in our on-going analysis of these extraordinary new “Treasury” spectra. Detailed descriptions of selected processes are given to illustrate their operation. The wide variety of fluorescence processes in operation in these outer atmospheres, both molecular and atomic, suggest that there is a mixture of warm and cool plasmas present and that H I Ly-alpha in particular is locally very strong, even though, in the case of Alpha Ori, no flux is seen at earth due to strong circumstellar absorption at that wavelength. Many new fluorescence line products and several new processes have been identified in these spectra, which are more complete and of higher S/N than previously available for these stars.

  1. Requirement of the N-terminal residues of human cytomegalovirus UL112-113 proteins for viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Eui; Park, Mi Young; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Han, Tae Hee; Lee, Chan Hee; Ahn, Jin-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The UL112-113 region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome encodes four phosphoproteins of 34, 43, 50, and 84 kDa that promote viral DNA replication. Co-transfection assays have demonstrated that self-interaction of these proteins via the shared N-termini is necessary for their intranuclear distribution as foci and for the efficient relocation of a viral DNA polymerase processivity factor (UL44) to the viral replication sites. However, the requirement of UL112-113 N-terminal residues for viral growth and DNA replication has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of deletion of the N-terminal regions of UL112-113 proteins on viral growth and oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. A deletion of the entire UL112 region or the region encoding the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues from the HCMV (Towne strain) bacmid impaired viral growth in bacmid-transfected human fibroblast cells, indicating their requirement for viral growth. In co-immunoprecipitation assays using the genomic gene expressing the four UL112-113 proteins together, the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues were found to be necessary for stable expression of UL112-113 proteins and their self-interaction. These residues were also required for efficient binding to and relocation of UL44, but not for interaction with IE2, an origin-binding transcription factor. In co-transfection/replication assays, replication of the oriLyt-containing plasmid was promoted by expression of intact UL112-113 proteins, but not by the expression of 25-amino-acid residue-deleted proteins. Our results demonstrate that the 25 N-terminal amino-acid residues of UL112-113 proteins that mediate self-interaction contribute to viral growth by promoting their binding to UL44 and the initiation of oriLyt-dependent DNA replication.

  2. An Sp1/Sp3 site in the downstream region of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) oriS influences origin-dependent DNA replication and flanking gene transcription and is important for VZV replication in vitro and in human skin.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Robinson, Makeda; Sommer, Marvin; Arvin, Ann; Hay, John; Ruyechan, William T

    2012-12-01

    The distribution and orientation of origin-binding protein (OBP) sites are the main architectural contrasts between varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) origins of DNA replication (oriS). One important difference is the absence of a downstream OBP site in VZV, raising the possibility that an alternative cis element may replace its function. Our previous work established that Sp1, Sp3, and YY1 bind to specific sites within the downstream region of VZV oriS; we hypothesize that one or both of these sites may be the alternative cis element(s). Here, we show that the mutation of the Sp1/Sp3 site decreases DNA replication and transcription from the adjacent ORF62 and ORF63 promoters following superinfection with VZV. In contrast, in the absence of DNA replication or in transfection experiments with ORF62, only ORF63 transcription is affected. YY1 site mutations had no significant effect on either process. Recombinant viruses containing these mutations were then constructed. The Sp1/Sp3 site mutant exhibited a significant decrease in virus growth in MeWo cells and in human skin xenografts, while the YY1 site mutant virus grew as well as the wild type in MeWo cells, even showing a late increase in VZV replication in skin xenografts following infection. These results suggest that the Sp1/Sp3 site plays an important role in both VZV origin-dependent DNA replication and ORF62 and ORF63 transcription and that, in contrast to HSV, these events are linked during virus replication.

  3. Une nouvelle théorie de la cinétique des réactions radical-radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, N. J. B.; Rickerby, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Radical recombination reactions are of central importance in radiation chemistry. In general such reactions are slower than diffusion-controlled because of the radical spins. The rate constant is corrected by a multiplicative spin statistical factor, which represents the probability that the radicals encounter one another in a reactive state. However, this method does not account for the possibility that the reactivity of a pair may recover following an unreactive encounter, for example by spin relaxation or by a coherent evolution of the spin function. In this paper we show how the spin statistical factor can be corrected for the recovery of reactivity. The new theory covers a large range of mechanisms for the recovery of reactivity, and gives simple analytical results. Both steady-state and transient solutions are presented and the former are tested against experiment for the reaction between the hydrated electron and oxygen, and for the magnetic field effect on the rate constant of an elementary reaction. Les réactions de recombinaison entre deux radicaux libres ont une grande importance en chimie sous rayonnement. En général, du fait du spin des radicaux, de telles réactions sont moins rapides que celles qui sont contrôlées par la diffusion. Les constantes de vitesse sont corrigées par un facteur multiplicatif, le facteur statistique de spin, qui représente la probabilité pour que les radicaux se rencontrent, l'un avec l'autre, dans un état réactif. Cependant, cette méthode ne tient pas compte de la possibilité pour que la même paire se rencontre plusieurs fois en raison de rencontres non-réactives. Ensuite la réactivité de cette paire peut se rétablir par exemple par relaxation de spins, ou par évolution cohérente d'une superposition des états de spin. Dans cet article on démontre comment on peut corriger le facteur statistique de spin pour le rétablissement de la réactivité. La nouvelle théorie couvre un large domaine de m

  4. A Type I Signal Peptidase Is Required for Pilus Assembly in the Gram-Positive, Biofilm-Forming Bacterium Actinomyces oris

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Gram-positive bacterium Actinomyces oris, a key colonizer in the development of oral biofilms, contains 18 LPXTG motif-containing proteins, including fimbrillins that constitute two fimbrial types critical for adherence, biofilm formation, and polymicrobial interactions. Export of these protein precursors, which harbor a signal peptide, is thought to be mediated by the Sec machine and require cleavage of the signal peptide by type I signal peptidases (SPases). Like many Gram-positive bacteria, A. oris expresses two SPases, named LepB1 and LepB2. The latter has been linked to suppression of lethal “glyco-stress,” caused by membrane accumulation of the LPXTG motif-containing glycoprotein GspA when the housekeeping sortase srtA is genetically disrupted. Consistent with this finding, we show here that a mutant lacking lepB2 and srtA was unable to produce high levels of glycosylated GspA and hence was viable. However, deletion of neither lepB1 nor lepB2 abrogated the signal peptide cleavage and glycosylation of GspA, indicating redundancy of SPases for GspA. In contrast, the lepB2 deletion mutant failed to assemble the wild-type levels of type 1 and 2 fimbriae, which are built by the shaft fimbrillins FimP and FimA, respectively; this phenotype was attributed to aberrant cleavage of the fimbrillin signal peptides. Furthermore, the lepB2 mutants, including the catalytically inactive S101A and K169A variants, exhibited significant defects in polymicrobial interactions and biofilm formation. Conversely, lepB1 was dispensable for the aforementioned processes. These results support the idea that LepB2 is specifically utilized for processing of fimbrial proteins, thus providing an experimental model with which to study the basis of type I SPase specificity. IMPORTANCE Sec-mediated translocation of bacterial protein precursors across the cytoplasmic membrane involves cleavage of their signal peptide by a signal peptidase (SPase). Like many Gram

  5. Suzaku Observation of Strong Fluorescent Iron Line Emission from the Young Stellar Object V1647 Ori during Its New X-ray Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in August 2008. During the 87 ksec observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a. high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other young stellar objects. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT approx.5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Ka line with a remarkably large equivalent width of approx. 600 eV. Such a, large equivalent width indicates that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Ka line ; so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  6. Emended description of Actinomyces naeslundii and descriptions of Actinomyces oris sp. nov. and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov., previously identified as Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1, 2 and WVA 963.

    PubMed

    Henssge, Uta; Do, Thuy; Radford, David R; Gilbert, Steven C; Clark, Douglas; Beighton, David

    2009-03-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii is an important early colonizer in the oral biofilm and consists of three genospecies (1, 2 and WVA 963) which cannot be readily differentiated using conventional phenotypic testing or on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We have investigated a representative collection of type and reference strains and clinical and oral isolates (n=115) and determined the partial gene sequences of six housekeeping genes (atpA, rpoB, pgi, metG, gltA and gyrA). These sequences identified the three genospecies and differentiated them from Actinomyces viscosus isolated from rodents. The partial sequences of atpA and metG gave best separation of the three genospecies. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 formed two distinct clusters, well separated from both genospecies WVA 963 and A. viscosus. Analysis of the same genes in other oral Actinomyces species (Actinomyces gerencseriae, A. israelii, A. meyeri, A. odontolyticus and A. georgiae) indicated that, when sequence data were obtained, these species each exhibited <90 % similarity with the A. naeslundii genospecies. Based on these data, we propose the name Actinomyces oris sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 27044(T) =CCUG 34288(T)) for A. naeslundii genospecies 2 and Actinomyces johnsonii sp. nov. (type strain ATCC 49338(T) =CCUG 34287(T)) for A. naeslundii genospecies WVA 963. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 should remain as A. naeslundii sensu stricto, with the type strain ATCC 12104(T) =NCTC 10301(T) =CCUG 2238(T).

  7. ORAL MYOFUNCTIONAL AND ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE ORBICULARIS ORIS AND MENTALIS MUSCLES IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS II/1 MALOCCLUSION SUBMITTED TO FIRST PREMOLAR EXTRACTION

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Denize Ramirez; Semeghini, Tatiana Adamov; Kroll, Lucio Benedito; Berzin, Fausto

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the presence of oral myofunctional alterations before and after first premolar extraction in Class II/1 malocclusion patients that could endanger the long-term dental arch stability. Material and Methods: The study was performed by means of morphological, functional and electromyographic analyses in 17 Class II/1 malocclusion patients (group T) and 17 Class I malocclusion patients (group C -control), both groups with 12-30-year age range (mean age: 20.93 ± 4.94 years). Results: Data analyzed statistically by Student's t-test showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the maxillary and mandibular dental arch perimeters after orthodontic treatment, but lip posture at rest did not present statistically significant differences after treatment (p>0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test analyzed data from lip posture (orbicularis oris muscle) at rest and during swallowing, as well as the mentalis muscle behavior during the above-mentioned function, not showing statistically significant differences (p>0.05) after treatment (groups T1 and T2). However, group T differed significantly from group C (p<0.05). Lip posture during swallowing showed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) for subjects submitted to orthodontic therapy when compared to data acquired before the treatment. The electromyographic analysis confirmed these data. Conclusions: Found myofunctional alterations observed after the orthodontic treatment in Class II/1 malocclusion seemed to jeopardize the long-term orthodontic stability, making recurrence possible. PMID:19089223

  8. An innovative team-based stop smoking competition among Māori and Pacific Island smokers: rationale and method for the study and its evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Māori and Pacific Island people have significantly higher smoking rates compared to the rest of the New Zealand population. The main aim of this paper is to describe how knowledge of Indigenous people’s practices and principles can be combined with proven effective smoking cessation support into a cessation intervention appropriate for Indigenous people. Methods/Design A literature review was conducted to identify what cultural principles and practices could be used to increase salience, and what competition elements could have an impact on efficacy of smoking cessation. The identified elements were incorporated into the design of a cessation intervention. Discussion Cultural practices incorporated into the intervention include having a holistic family or group-centred focus, inter-group competitiveness, fundraising and ritual pledging. Competition elements included are social support, pharmacotherapy use, cash prize incentives and the use of a dedicated website and iPad application. A pre-test post-test will be combined with process evaluation to evaluate if the competition results in triggering mass-quitting, utilisation of pharmacotherapy and in increasing sustained smoking cessation and to get a comprehensive understanding of the way in which they contribute to the effect. The present study is the first to describe how knowledge about cultural practices and principles can be combined with proven cessation support into a smoking cessation contest. The findings from this study are promising and further more rigorous testing is warranted. PMID:24365329

  9. The AT-rich tract of the SV40 ori core: negative synergism and specific recognition by single stranded and duplex DNA binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Galli, I; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1992-01-01

    The SV40 origin of replication comprises a run of thymine and adenine residues. Integrity of this AT-rich sequence is known to be essential for replication. We set out to study whether or not these elements can work synergistically to sustain replication. Quite surprisingly, additional copies of the AT stretch linked to a functional SV40 ori core dramatically reduce its replication in Cosl cells, probably by creating some physical block. Interestingly, the same inhibiting effect can be observed with the addition in cis of the yeast ARS consensus, which is homologous to the SV40 AT stretch. This modulation is possibly due to the action of cellular factors that recognize either of the two sequences. In fact, we demonstrate the existence of factor(s) in Cosl crude nuclear extracts that in vitro can specifically bind to either of them. Moreover, we show that these sequence-specific factor(s) (MW about 50 kDa), named SOAP, recognize both single (T-rich strand) and double stranded forms of the AT tracts. Binding to single stranded AT stretches can be specifically inhibited by the corresponding duplex form, but not vice versa. Images PMID:1321411

  10. Cisplatin selects short forms of the mitochondrial DNA OriB variant (16184–16193 poly-cytosine tract), which confer resistance to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Taku; Kamimura, Naomi; Asano, Hiromasa; Asoh, Sadamitsu; Ohta, Shigeo

    2017-01-01

    A number of alternations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been reported in different types of cancers, and the role of mtDNA in cancer has been attracting increasing interest. In order to investigate the relationship between mtDNA alternations and chemosensitivity, we constructed cybrid (trans-mitochondrial hybrid) cell lines carrying a HeLa nucleus and the mtDNA of healthy individuals because of the presence of somatic alternations in the mtDNA of many cancer cells. After a treatment with 1.0 μg/mL cisplatin for 10 days, we isolated 100 cisplatin-resistant clones, 70 of which carried the shorter mtDNA OriB variant (16184–16193 poly-cytosine tract), which was located in the control region of mtDNA. Whole mtDNA sequencing of 10 clones revealed no additional alternations. Re-construction of the HeLa nucleus and mtDNA from cisplatin-resistant cells showed that cisplatin resistance was only acquired by mtDNA alternations in the control region, and not by possible alternation(s) in the nuclear genome. PMID:28393913

  11. The role of the IRE1 pathway in excessive iodide- and/or fluoride-induced apoptosis in Nthy-ori 3-1 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Zeng, Qiang; Cui, Yushan; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Gang; Hou, Changchun; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Linyu; Jiang, Chunyang; Wang, Zhenglun; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-01-30

    Excessive iodide and fluoride coexist in the groundwater in many regions, causing a potential risk to the human thyroid. To investigate the mechanism of iodide- and fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity, human thyroid follicular epithelial cells (Nthy-ori 3-1) were treated with different concentrations of potassium iodide (KI), with or without sodium fluoride (NaF). Cell morphology, viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, apoptosis, and expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related molecules were assessed. Results showed 50 mM of KI, 1 mM of NaF, and 50 mM of KI +1 mM of NaF changed cellular morphology, decreased viability, and increased LDH leakage and apoptosis. Elevated expression of binding protein (BiP), IRE1, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA and protein, as well as spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (sXBP-1) mRNA, were observed in the 1 mM NaF and 50 mM KI +1 mM NaF groups. Collectively, excessive iodide and/or fluoride is cytotoxic to the human thyroid. Although these data do not manifest iodide could induce the IRE1 pathway, the cytotoxicity followed by exposure to fluoride alone or in combination with iodide may be related to IRE1 pathway-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, exposure to the combination of excessive iodide and fluoride may cause interactive effects on thyroid cytotoxicity.

  12. Keeping Kids Smokefree: rationale, design, and implementation of a community, school, and family-based intervention to modify behaviors related to smoking among Māori and Pacific Island children in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Nosa, Vili; Bullen, Chris; McCool, Judith; Kira, Anette

    Despite a concerted, sustained and comprehensive tobacco control effort, smoking is prevalent among young people in New Zealand, particularly for Māori and Pacific Island teenagers. Many took up smoking in their pre-teen years. New Zealand research has shown that daily smoking by children aged 14-15 years is strongly influenced by parental smoking. The Keeping Kids Smokefree study is investigating whether changing parental smoking behavior and attitudes via a community-partnership approach with parents, schools, and local health providers can reduce smoking initiation by 11-12 year olds. It is a quasi-experimental trial involving four schools in an urban area of high social deprivation with large numbers of Māori and Pacific Islands families. Schools were allocated to intervention or control and the intervention was developed through a process of engagement with the schools, parents of children and local healthcare organizations. This article describes the rationale, context, methodology and methods involved in establishing the study. Building Māori and Pacific Islander research capacity was a secondary objective of the study.

  13. The Rep78 gene product of adeno-associated virus (AAV) self-associates to form a hexameric complex in the presence of AAV ori sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R H; Spano, A J; Kotin, R M

    1997-01-01

    The Rep78 and Rep68 proteins of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are replication initiator proteins that bind the viral replicative-form origin of replication, nick the origin in a site- and strand-specific fashion, and mediate vectorial unwinding of the DNA duplex via an ATP-dependent helicase activity, thus initiating a strand displacement mechanism of viral DNA replication. Genetic and biochemical studies have identified Rep mutants that demonstrate a trans-dominant negative phenotype in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the possibility that multimerization of Rep is essential for certain replicative functions. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the largest of the Rep proteins, Rep78, to self-associate in vitro and in vivo. Self-association of Rep78 in vivo was demonstrated through the use of a mammalian two-hybrid system. Rep-Rep protein interaction was confirmed in vitro through coimmunoprecipitation experiments with a bacterially expressed maltose-binding protein-Rep78 fusion protein in combination with [35S]methionine-labeled Rep78 synthesized in a coupled in vitro transcription-translation system. Mapping studies with N- and C-terminal truncation mutant forms of Rep indicate that amino acid sequences required for maximal self-association occur between residues 164 and 484. Site-directed mutagenesis identified two essential motifs within this 321-amino-acid region: (i) a putative alpha-helix bearing a 3,4-hydrophobic heptad repeat reminiscent of those found in coiled-coil domains and (ii) a previously recognized nucleoside triphosphate-binding motif. Deletion of either of these regions from the full-length polypeptide resulted in severe impairment of Rep-Rep interaction. In addition, gel filtration chromatography and protein cross-linking experiments indicated that Rep78 forms a hexameric complex in the presence of AAV ori sequences. PMID:9151837

  14. Partitioning of the Linear Chromosome during Sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) Involves an oriC-Linked parAB Locus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Calcutt, Michael J.; Schmidt, Francis J.; Chater, Keith F.

    2000-01-01

    Candidate partitioning genes (parA and parB) for the linear chromosome of Streptomyces coelicolor were identified by DNA sequencing in a series of seven genes located between rnpA and trxA near the chromosomal replication origin. The most likely translation start point of parB overlapped the parA stop codon, suggestive of coregulation, and transcription analysis suggested that the two genes formed an operon. Deletion of part of parB had no effect on the growth or appearance of colonies but caused a deficiency in DNA partitioning during the multiple septation events involved in converting aerial hyphae into long chains of spores. At least 13% of spore compartments failed to inherit the normal DNA allocation. The same phenotype was obtained with a deletion removing a segment of DNA from both parA and parB. Reinforcing the idea of a special role for the par locus during sporulation, the stronger of two parAB promoters was greatly upregulated at about the time when sporulation septation was maximal in colonies. Three copies of a 14-bp inverted repeat (GTTTCACGTGAAAC) were found in or near the parAB genes, and at least 12 more identical copies were identified within 100 kb of oriC from the growing genome sequence database. Only one perfect copy of the 14-bp sequence was present in approximately 5 Mb of sequence available from the rest of the genome. The 14-bp sequence was similar to sequences identified as binding sites for Spo0J, a ParB homologue from Bacillus subtilis believed to be important for DNA partitioning (D. C.-H. Lin and A. D. Grossman, Cell 92:675–685, 1998). One of these sites encompassed the transcription start point of the stronger parA promoter. PMID:10671452

  15. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Khalifa, Nadia; Amran, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the distance measured from the distal outer of the eye to the parting line of the lips and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measured by two methods. Methods: One hundred and fourteen dental students (76 males and 38 females) were recruited for this study with mean age (22.34 ± 1.83) years. The distance from distal canthus of the eye to rima oris (eye-RO) was compared with two different measurements of the OVD (nasal [N] to gnathion [Gn], and subnasal [Sn] to menton [Me]). All distances were measured using modified digital caliper. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient test for correlations and paired samples t-test for differences were used with a significant level of (P < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the eye-RO distance and the two measurements of the OVD. However, this correlation was stronger between eye-RO and the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin than that between eye-RO and the distance from the septum of the nose to the under of the chin (r = 0.313 with P = 0.0007, r = 0.296 with P = 0.0014), respectively. Conclusion: The distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the parting of the lips seems to be a reliable method in predicting the OVD and should relate to the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin. PMID:27011736

  16. Accuracy and coverage assessment of Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbit) genes encoding immunoglobulins in the whole genome sequence assembly (OryCun2.0) and localization of the IGH locus to chromosome 20.

    PubMed

    Gertz, E Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Agarwala, Richa; Bonnet-Garnier, Amélie; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Hayes, Hélène; Mage, Rose G

    2013-10-01

    We report on the analyses of genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy and light chains in the rabbit 6.51× whole genome assembly. This OryCun2.0 assembly confirms previous mapping of the duplicated IGK1 and IGK2 loci to chromosome 2 and the IGL lambda light chain locus to chromosome 21. The most frequently rearranged and expressed IGHV1 that is closest to IG DH and IGHJ genes encodes rabbit VHa allotypes. The partially inbred Thorbecke strain rabbit used for whole-genome sequencing was homozygous at the IGK but heterozygous with the IGHV1a1 allele in one of 79 IGHV-containing unplaced scaffolds and IGHV1a2, IGHM, IGHG, and IGHE sequences in another. Some IGKV, IGLV, and IGHA genes are also in other unplaced scaffolds. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, we assigned the previously unmapped IGH locus to the q-telomeric region of rabbit chromosome 20. An approximately 3-Mb segment of human chromosome 14 including IGH genes predicted to map to this telomeric region based on synteny analysis could not be located on assembled chromosome 20. Unplaced scaffold chrUn0053 contains some of the genes that comparative mapping predicts to be missing. We identified discrepancies between previous targeted studies and the OryCun2.0 assembly and some new BAC clones with IGH sequences that can guide other studies to further sequence and improve the OryCun2.0 assembly. Complete knowledge of gene sequences encoding variable regions of rabbit heavy, kappa, and lambda chains will lead to better understanding of how and why rabbits produce antibodies of high specificity and affinity through gene conversion and somatic hypermutation.

  17. Organochlorines and heavy metals in wild caught food as a potential human health risk to the indigenous Māori population of South Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael; Phillips, Ngaire R; Olsen, Greg; Hickey, Christopher W; Tipa, Gail

    2011-05-01

    Increasing concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants in wild kai (food) of cultural, recreational and economic importance to the indigenous Māori of New Zealand is a potential human health risk. Contaminants that are known to bioaccumulate through the food chain (e.g., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PCBs and selected heavy metals) were analysed in important kai species including eel (Anguilla sp.), brown trout (Salmo trutta), black flounder (Rhombosolea retiaria) and watercress (Nasturtium officinale) from important harvesting sites in the region of South Canterbury. Eels contained relatively high wet weight concentrations of p,p'-DDE (8.6-287ng/g), PCBs ((32)Σ(PCB); 0.53-58.3ng/g), dieldrin (<0.05-16.3ng/g) and Σchlordanes (0.03-10.6ng/g). Trout and flounder contained lower concentrations of organochlorines than eels, with p,p'-DDE wet weight concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 18.5ng/g for trout and 6.4 to 27.8ng/g for flounder. Total arsenic wet weight concentrations were below detection limits for eels but ranged from 0.27 to 0.89μg/g for trout and 0.12 to 0.56μg/g for flounder. Mercury concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 0.56μg/g, 0.11 to 0.50μg/g and 0.04 to 0.10μg/g (ww) for eel, trout and flounder respectively. Lifetime excess cancer risk was calculated through established risk assessment procedures, highlighting dieldrin, ΣPCBs and p,p'-DDE in eels and arsenic in trout and flounder as primary contaminants of concern. A second non-cancer chronic health risk assessment indicated that mercury and PCBs were a potential concern in eels and mercury in trout. A cumulative lifetime cancer risk assessment showed potential health risk for consumption of some species, even at low consumption rates and provided the basis for establishing recommended dietary consumption limits for harvest sites within the study region.

  18. U-Pb zircon and biostratigraphic data of high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks of the Talea Ori: tracking the Paleotethys suture in central Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulauf, G.; Dörr, W.; Krahl, J.; Lahaye, Y.; Chatzaras, V.; Xypolias, P.

    2016-10-01

    Inherited deformation microfabrics of detrital quartz grains and U-Pb (Laser ablation (LA)-ICPMS and ID TIMS) ages of detrital zircons separated from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.l. of the Talea Ori, central Crete, suggest strikingly different source rocks. Albite gneiss of the lower Rogdia Beds includes Cambrian and Neoproterozoic rounded zircons with main U-Pb age peaks at 628 and 988 Ma. These and minor Paleoproterozoic and Archean peaks, together with the lack of Variscan-aged and Mesoproterozoic zircons, are similar to the age spectra obtained from the Phyllite-Quartzite Unit s.str. of the Peloponnesus and eastern Crete and from the Taurides. All of these zircons should be derived from the northeastern passive margin of Gondwana (Cimmeria). Metatuffites of the uppermost Rogdia Beds and metasandstone of Bali beach, on the other hand, include euhedral detrital zircons displaying a Variscan U-Pb age spectra at ca. 300 Ma with concordia ages at 291 ± 3, 300 ± 1 Ma (Rogdia) and 286 ± 3, 300 ± 3, 313 ± 2 Ma (Bali). Both types of metasediments and their zircons are similar to those of the pre-Alpine basement and overlying Tyros Beds of eastern Crete, revealing a provenance at the southern active margin of Laurasia. Thus, in central Crete the Paleotethys suture should be situated inside the Rogdia Beds. Magmatic zircons separated from a rhyolite boulder of the lower Achlada Beds yielded a concordant U-Pb zircon age at 242 ± 2 Ma placing a maximum age for the deposition of the (meta)conglomerate from which the boulder was collected. This age is compatible with an Olenekian-early Anisian age of the underlying Vasilikon marble suggested by new findings of the foraminifera Meandrospira aff. pusilla. Both the Achlada Beds and the Vasilikon marble can be attributed to the lower Tyros Beds of eastern Crete. The Alpine deformation led to a pervasive mylonitic foliation, which is affecting most of the studied rocks. This foliation results from D2 top

  19. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL)": Winds of the Evolved M Stars Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Gamma Cru (M3.4 III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, Krister E.; Kober, Gladys V.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program that collected a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R=30,000-100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the ASTRAL website at the University of Colorado at http://casa.colorado.edu/~ayres/ASTRAL/ and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we examine the wealth of wind diagnostics contained in the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 III giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2 Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and characterize the winds at the time of these STIS observations in 2011 and compare the results with those obtained from more limited data taken at earlier epochs with HST/GHRS and IUE. In particular we study the variation of the numerous Fe II profiles with intrinsic strength in the two stars. The shifting wavelengths of the wind absorptions relative to the emission peaks and the changes in relative strengths of the emission peaks reflect the acceleration of the wind from the base of the chromosphere. Although the characteristics of the Gamma Cru wind are relatively stable with time, the Alpha Ori wind outflow appears significantly smaller than seen by Carpenter et al. (1997, ApJ, 479, 970) in GHRS observations taken in 1992 (and in earlier IUE observations). There might in fact be evidence in these STIS spectra that the outflow has turned into an inflow, as reported at epochs prior to IUE by Boesgaard and Magnan (1975 ApJ 198, 369) and Boesgaard (1979 ApJ 232, 485) based on a limited number of lines in the extreme blue end of ground-based spectra.

  20. Onset sequencing of selected lip muscles in stutterers and nonstutterers.

    PubMed

    Guitar, B; Guitar, C; Neilson, P; O'Dwyer, N; Andrews, G

    1988-03-01

    The present study examined lip muscle activity during the speech production of stutterers and fluent speakers to provide information about the nature of stuttering blocks. Depressor Anguli Oris (DAO) and Depressor Labii Inferioris (DLI) were recorded, using hooked-wire electromyography (EMG), in 3 stutterers and 3 nonstutterers during productions of the words "peek", "puck", and "pack." EMG records indicated that nonstutterers activated DAO prior to DLI for production of the initial/p/. Stutterers frequently reversed this sequence of onset, particularly when they stuttered. Results are discussed in terms of mistiming versus anticipatory hypertension hypotheses about stuttering.

  1. Shear zones at the base of the lowermost known unit of the Cretan nappe pile in the Talea Ori, northern central Crete - the long-time deformation record during burial and exhumation from HP-LT metamorphic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepmann, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    The structural characteristics and microfabrics of shear zones at the base of the lowermost known level of the Cretan nappe pile, exposed at the northern central coast of the Talea Ori Mountains, are presented. There, the high pressure - low temperature (HP-LT) metamorphic sediments provide information on the long-term geological history from the pre-Alpine basement and the Alpine stages of detachment, burial to and exhumation from HP-LT conditions. Information on the unknown pre-Alpine basement of the metasedimentary unit is obtained by the components in low-strain metaconglomerates, where deformation microstructures from the source rocks are preserved or quasi-statically overprinted during the later geological history. Information on the deformation mechanisms and stress history during detachment, burial and exhumation is obtained by high-strain shear zones surrounding the low-strain metasediments. A gradual transition from the low-strain metaconglomerates and associated black shales and metacherts to shear zones characterized by a scaly foliation, shear bands and associated quartz veins is observed. Shear bands occur likewise in black shales, metaquartzites and metaconglomerates and are inclined at various angles to the sedimentary layering or the scaly foliation, respectively. They generally indicate down-faulting of the respective northern block. Associated quartz veins taper wedge-shaped at a high angle to the foliation, decorating the shear band boundaries and showing shear offsets. Microstructures in rocks from these shear bands and related vein quartz show indication of dislocation glide-controlled deformation of quartz by the presence of deformation lamellae, deformation bands, short-wavelength undulatory extinction and localized strings of recrystallized grains. The shear zones document at least two different deformation stages: A first stage of deformation is characterized mainly by dissolution precipitation creep generating the scaly cleavage and

  2. Théorie visco-élastique non-extensive V. équations de diffusion, fonctions de distribution, viscosités et coefficients de diffusion, fonctions de corrélation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, F.

    This article is an important theoretical development of the previous articles (I) and (III) in which are introduced the basic concepts of the theory. Here, diffusion equations are established and their solutions are given for the simple model with one elastic constant and isotropy of reciprocal space. The classical diffusion laws for translation (Fick law) and rotation are recovered in the limit of very long times. The concepts of microscopic and macroscopic viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient are introduced. The difference between the two concepts vanishes above the transition. It is shown that the macroscopic viscosity and self-diffusion coefficient have a very steep variation with temperature below the transition. Tensorial order parameters are defined for rotation. Formal expressions for the time correlation functions of Legendre polynomials are established. These quantities allow to calculate the main correlations functions for analysis of dielectric relaxation, light scattering, and incoherent neutron scattering. All correlation functions, translational and rotational, are fundamentally non-exponential. Cet article constitue un complément important des articles théoriques initiaux (I) et (III) dans lesquels sont introduits les concepts de base de la théorie. Ce complément concerne l'établissement des équations de diffusion, et de leurs solutions, pour le modèle simple à une constante élastique et une viscosité, et isotropie de l'espace des vecteurs d'onde. Les lois de diffusion classiques pour la translation (loi de Fick) et la rotation sont retrouvées dans la limite des temps très longs. On montre qu'il est nécessaire d'introduire les concepts de viscosité et de coefficient de diffusion microscopiques et macroscopiques. Ces deux concepts se confondent dans la phase désordonnée. Il est montré que la viscosité et le coefficient de diffusion macroscopiques varient de façon considérable avec la température en dessous de la transition

  3. Application d'une théorie alternative de la diffraction pour l'étude des profils de modulation des réseaux holographiques de volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechahougui, S.; Harthong, J.

    1992-02-01

    , the profiles gets a non-sinusoidal form for which the theoretical efficiency is better than for the sinusoidal from. We present only a theoretical analysis; for the analysis of the correlation between the exposure and the form of the resulting profile, we follow the work of Solymar and his group. Nous présentons une étude numérique de l'influence du profil de modulation de l'indice de réfraction, sur quelques paramètres tels que: l'efficacité de diffraction, la sélectivité spectrale et angulaire. Les matériaux photosensibles les plus utilisés en holographie à savoir les halogénures d'argent et la gélatine bichromatée, sont fortement non linéaires pour des expositions élevées. Nous avons choisi une série de profils correspondant à des expositions différentes. Pour ces profils nous avons fait une étude numérique complète en utilisant une théorie alternative de la diffraction dans les milieux modulés [1].

  4. Tikanga Māori (Māori Customary Practices) in Oral Health Research.

    PubMed

    Broughton, John R; Lawrence, Herenia P; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood caries is a global health issue for Indigenous populations. The study, "Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic dental disease among Indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention," is being conducted in Australia, Canada, and Aotearoa/New Zealand.

  5. Learning about Inclusion by Listening to Ma¯ori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural and learning difficulties experienced by students from minoritised cultural groups often arise because their cultural beliefs, values and preferred practices differ markedly from those of their teachers and their school. Research in New Zealand has shown that if inclusive education is to have real meaning for these students and their…

  6. 42 CFR 93.318 - Notifying ORI of special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... need to protect human or animal subjects. (b) HHS resources or interests are threatened. (c) Research... public prematurely so that HHS may take appropriate steps to safeguard evidence and protect the rights...

  7. [Noma or cancrum oris: etiopathogenic and nosologic aspects].

    PubMed

    Costini, B; Larroque, G; Duboscq, J C; Montandon, D

    1995-01-01

    Noma is a gangrenous disease that usually begins in the mouth and is characterized by rapid necrotizing destruction of soft tissue and underlying bone. The disease, which is associated with a strong putrid odor suggestive of mixed bacterial infection, develops only in predisposed persons, especially children whose natural defenses have been weakened by poor socio-economic living conditions. However a few atypical cases have recently been reported in adults in whom the main risk factor seemed to be immunodepression. The increasing number of wars in the Third World and the AIDS epidemic raise the likelihood that the number of cases of this disease will rise sharply particularly since the incidence has been grossly underestimated for many years. It now seems clear that a combination of local and systemic risk factors are implicated in the etiopathogenesis of noma with the common denominator being a weakened immune system. This would account for the fulminating course of the infectious process due to one or more opportunistic microbial or cytopathogenic agents or even to a still undetermined immunopathologic reaction that lead to massive tissue destruction. Poor understanding of the etiopathogenesis of noma is a major factor perpetuating the nosologic problems posed by this disease. Some authors add to the confusion by including a range of gangrenous diseases under the heading of noma. It is important that the term noma be applied only to necrotizing processes that begin in the mouth and present the characteristic features and course.

  8. A Photometric Survey of Ori OB1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Allison T.; Sherry, W.

    2011-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been suggested to describe the formation of sub-stellar mass objects (SSMOs), specifically brown dwarfs. Each proposed mechanism predicts a unique spatial distribution of the brown dwarfs relative to the O and B stars of the association. We have 9 square degrees of optical (VRI) data and 7 square degrees of NIR (JHK) data of Orion OB1b. The purpose of the survey is to obtain the photometric data that will allow us to determine the spatial distribution of brown dwarfs in this region and constrain the various formation theories. We present an overview of the survey, with an emphasis on the NIR data, as well as color-magnitude diagrams. This research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  9. Study of physical conditions in protoplanetary disks by interferometry. Theory, instrumentation and first observations. -- étude des conditions physiques dans les disques protoplanétaires par interférométrie. Théorie, instrumentation et premières observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, Fabien

    2007-10-01

    Les étoiles se forment lors de l'effondrement de nuages de gaz et de poussière. Dans l'environnement proche de l'étoile naissante la matière se concentre dans un plan équatorial que l'on appelle disque protoplanétaire. Les astronomes pensent que les planètes se forment au sein de cette masse de gaz et de poussière orbitant autour de l'étoile. Pour sonder ces disques à des échelles correspondant aux orbites des futures planètes, il convient d'observer dans l'infrarouge à très haute résolution spatiale. L'interférométrie infrarouge est donc un outil idéal pour étudier les conditions physiques des disques protoplanétaires. Dans ce mémoire, je décris les premiers pas de l'interférométrie infrarouge, depuis la mise au point des petits interféromètres PTI et IOTA jusqu'à la construction de l'instrument AMBER au foyer de l'interféromètre du VLT. Je décris aussi les résultats d'une piste de recherche technologique particulièrement attrayante dans le cas de l'interférométrie infrarouge et issue des technologies des autoroutes de l'information: l'optique intégrée appliquée à la combinaison de plusieurs faisceaux en astronomie. Je montre ensuite comment à partir des observations obtenues à partir de ces instruments, il est possible de contraindre la physique des disques autour des étoiles jeunes. Gráce à la résolution spectrale nouvellement disponible sur ces instruments, pour la première fois nous pouvons séparer des phénomènes physiques aussi différents que l'accrétion de matière sur l'étoile et l'éjection de particules par des vents dont l'origine précise est encore mal connue. Les résultats présentés dans ce mémoire ont été obtenus principalement à partir d'observations sur les systèmes jeunes FU Ori et MWC 297 effectuées par AMBER sur le VLTI, mais aussi par les petits interféromètres infrarouges PTI et IOTA. Je développe aussi les travaux de modélisation de la structure verticale des disques associ

  10. A review of 35 cases of asymmetric crying facies.

    PubMed

    Caksen, H; Odabaş, D; Tuncer, O; Kirimi, E; Tombul, T; Ikbal, M; Ataş, B; Ari Yuca, S

    2004-01-01

    A review of 35 cases of asymmetric crying facies: Congenital asymmetric crying facies (ACF) is caused by congenital hypoplasia or agenesis of the depressor anguli oris muscle (DAOM) on one side of the mouth. It is well known that this anomaly is frequently associated with cardiovascular, head and neck, musculoskeletal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, central nervous system, and genitourinary anomalies. In this article we report 35 ACF patients (28 children and 7 adults) and found additional abnormalities in 16 of them (i.e. 45%). The abnormalities were cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, mega-cisterna magna, mental motor retardation, convulsions, corpus callosum dysgenesis, cranial bone defect, dermoid cyst, spina bifida occulta, hypertelorism, micrognatia, retrognatia, hemangioma on the lower lip, short frenulum, cleft palate, low-set ears, preauricular tag, mild facial hypoplasia, sternal cleft, congenital heart defect, renal hypoplasia, vesicoureteral reflux, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, congenital joint contractures, congenital hip dislocation, polydactyly, and umbilical and inguinal hernia. Besides these, one infant was born to a diabetic mother, and had atrial septal defect and the four other children had 4p deletion, Klinefelter syndrome, isolated CD4 deficiency and Treacher-Collins like facial appearance, respectively Although many of these abnormalities were reported in association with ACF, cerebellar atrophy, sternal cleft, cranial bone defect, infant of diabetic mother, 4p deletion, Klinefelter syndrome, isolated CD4 deficiency and Treacher-Collins like facial appearance were not previously published.

  11. Vitamin D status of Māori and non-Māori octogenarians in New Zealand: a Cohort Study (LiLACS NZ).

    PubMed

    Bacon, Catherine J; Kerse, Ngaire; Hayman, Karen J; Moyes, Simon A; Teh, Ruth O; Kepa, Mere; Pillai, Avinesh; Dyall, Lorna

    2016-12-01

    背景与目的:本研究评估了队列研究中生活在新西兰湾和湖泊区域的八旬老人 的维生素D 状况及其决定因素。方法与研究设计:测量209 名毛利人(80-90 岁)和357 名非毛利人(85 岁)的血清25-羟维生素D(25(OH)D)的浓度, 同时收集研究对象的体格测量指标、生活方式、补充剂的应用和其它健康资 料。结果:平均25(OH)D 浓度为69(95% CI:67-72)nmol/L,其中15%的研 究对象>100 nmol/L,6 个研究对象>150 nmol/L。毛利人的25(OH)D 浓度(59 nmol/L,95% CI: 55-62 nmol/L)低于非毛利人(75 nmol/L,95% CI:72-78 nmol/L,p<0.001),校正测量日期后,差异仍然存在。98 名(占18%)研究 对象报告补充了维生素D,女性中补充者所占的比例(24%)高于男性 (11%,p<0.001),非毛利人中补充者所占的比例高于毛利人。补充维生素 D 的人中,49%的人摄入高剂量(每天>=25 μg 或相当剂量),5 个研究对象每 天摄入维生素D>=50 μg。维生素D 补充剂的应用能够强而独立地预测季节校正 的25(OH)D 浓度,并且使用者比不用者高28 nmol/L。其它预测指标包括毛利 族(比非毛利族低10 nmol/L)和女性性别(比男性低11 nmol/L)。结论:新 西兰八旬老人维生素D 浓度高于以前的报告,尤其是非毛利人。这个人群中 处方和非处方口服维生素D 补充剂普遍存在,并且是维生素状态的强预测指 标。.

  12. Neurophysiological navigation in the trigeminal nerve: use of masticatory responses and facial motor responses evoked by electrical stimulationof the trigeminal rootlets for RF-thermorhizotomy guidance.

    PubMed

    Sindou, M P

    1999-01-01

    RF-thermorhizotomy of the trigeminal nerve is an effective and safe treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, provided lesioning of the sensory fibers is performed precisely. To control the accurate placement of the electrode tip, electrical stimulation testing, prior to thermal lesioning, is of prime importance. The clinical observation of direct masticatory responses (DMR) and facial evoked motor responses (EMR) produced by stimulation of the trigeminal rootlets (at 5 Hz) helps to place the electrode tip in the optimal location. The best location is the one where the threshold for eliciting DMR is high and the threshold for evoking facial EMR in the area corresponding to the trigger zone is low. EMR in orbicularis oculi indicates location in V1, levator labii EMR signifies V2 and orbicular oris EMR corresponds to V3.

  13. 3D-Ultrasonography for evaluation of facial muscles in patients with chronic facial palsy or defective healing: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While standardized methods are established to examine the pathway from motorcortex to the peripheral nerve in patients with facial palsy, a reliable method to evaluate the facial muscles in patients with long-term palsy for therapy planning is lacking. Methods A 3D ultrasonographic (US) acquisition system driven by a motorized linear mover combined with conventional US probe was used to acquire 3D data sets of several facial muscles on both sides of the face in a healthy subject and seven patients with different types of unilateral degenerative facial nerve lesions. Results The US results were correlated to the duration of palsy and the electromyography results. Consistent 3D US based volumetry through bilateral comparison was feasible for parts of the frontalis muscle, orbicularis oculi muscle, depressor anguli oris muscle, depressor labii inferioris muscle, and mentalis muscle. With the exception of the frontal muscle, the facial muscles volumes were much smaller on the palsy side (minimum: 3% for the depressor labii inferior muscle) than on the healthy side in patients with severe facial nerve lesion. In contrast, the frontal muscles did not show a side difference. In the two patients with defective healing after spontaneous regeneration a decrease in muscle volume was not seen. Synkinesis and hyperkinesis was even more correlated to muscle hypertrophy on the palsy compared with the healthy side. Conclusion 3D ultrasonography seems to be a promising tool for regional and quantitative evaluation of facial muscles in patients with facial palsy receiving a facial reconstructive surgery or conservative treatment. PMID:24782657

  14. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  15. Pathogenicity of Exopolysaccharide-Producing Actinomyces oris Isolated from an Apical Abscess Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    are predominant members of human oral commensal microbiota and are known as initial colonizers on tooth surfaces (Nyvad & Kilian 1987, Kolenbrander et...naesulundii geno- species 2) together with Streptococcus oralis, Streptococ- cus mitis and Streptococcus intermedius form the bulk of the microbiota ...aeruginosa. Journal of Bacteriology 182, 425–31. Paddick JS, Brailsford SR, Kidd EAM, Beighton D (2005) Phenotypic and genotypic selection of microbiota

  16. Evidences for a large hot spot on the disk of Betelgeuse (α Ori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Le Bouquin, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Massive evolved stars contribute to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. When they die as supernova but also through their mass loss during the several thousands of years of their red supergiant (RSG) phase. Unfortunately the mass loss mechanism remains poorly understood. Detailed study of the CSE and photosphere of nearby RSGs is required to constrain this scenario. Betelgeuse is the closest RSG (197 pc) and therefore has a large apparent diameter (~ 42 mas) which makes it a very interesting target. For several years, our team has lead a multi-wavelength and multi-scale observing program to characterize its mass loss. We will review here our recent results in near-infrared interferometry.

  17. [Exfoliatio areata linguae et mucosae oris: a mucous membrane manifestation of psoriasis pustulosa?].

    PubMed

    Casper, U; Seiffert, K; Dippel, E; Zouboulis, C C

    1998-11-01

    Lesions of the oral mucosa are frequently described in association with psoriasis, particularly in the pustular type. Controversy surrounds the question whether mucosal lesions can be considered as oral manifestation of psoriasis. Two patients presented with concurrent pustular psoriasis and mucosal lesions with the characteristic picture of geographic tongue. Histopathology of the mucosa showed typical features of psoriasis such as marked acanthosis, clubbing of the rete ridges, focal parakeratosis and neutrophilic infiltrates. There was parallel improvement of the skin and the mucosal lesions with systemic retinoid treatment. On the basis of the histopathological features and the clinical course we favour the hypothesis that geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of pustular psoriasis.

  18. The 11 year history of starspots on V1149 Ori = HD 37824

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Barksdale, William S.

    1991-01-01

    All available radial-velocity measures, published and unpublished, yield an improved period and a new (assumed circular) solution. The period is 53.58 d +/- 0.02 d, and conjunction (K1 giant in front) was at 2 444 325.93 +/- 0.12 d. Eleven years of V-band photometry, published and unpublished, between 1978-1979 and 1989-1990 are analyzed. Eighteen data groups are fit with a two-spot light-curve-modeling technique. Six spots existing sometime during the 11 years are identified, and the 4-percent range of their rotation periods is used to estimate a differential rotation coefficient of k = 0.08 +/- 0.02. Observed lifetimes of those six spots are consistent with times calculated on the assumption that large spots are disrupted by the shear of differential rotation. The two best observed spots each lasted about five years.

  19. Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (ORIES) site workstation information packet for OREIS V1.2. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; McCord, R.A.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Olson, R.J.; Palmer, M.R.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.; Zygmunt, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    The OREIS site workstation information packet was developed to accompany the OREIS site workstations, which are being delivered to the Environmental Restoration programs at the five DOE-OR sites. The packet is written specifically for the Site ER program staff at each of the five Sites who have been designated the OREIS contact by their ER program manager, and is not intended for general distribution. The packet provides an overview of the components of OREIS, points to more detailed information provided in the accompanying vendor and OREIS developed manuals, and includes information on training opportunities and user support.

  20. Interview with Philippe Ory of the EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne) Career Centre. Interviewed by Debora Keller.

    PubMed

    Ory, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    EPFL's Career Centre was created in 2007 with the mission to be a bridge between EPFL's young graduates and industry, in order to facilitate the transition to active scientific life. Through courses, workshops and personalised advice, they help graduates to set up their application documents (CV, motivation letter), prepare for job interviews and manage their careers. The Centre also offers its services to companies by organising on-campus recruitment days, actively searching for fitting profiles or posting or mailing job adverts to the EPFL graduate community. The Career Centre's goal is to be the platform for the EPFL graduates to build their careers.

  1. Workshop on Critical ORI Issues Held in Bordeaux, France on OCtober 27 - 29, 1992. Program and Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-29

    and complex multi-screen displays). Of course, humans eventually adapt very well to most man-machine interfaces. Driving a car is an example here...combat units in the field. E. TRANSPORTATION (9) REMOTE CONVOY "TRAINING WHEELS" - A leader/follower system where a number of driverless vehicles follow a

  2. A Biomechanical Modeling Study of the Effects of the Orbicularis Oris Muscle and Jaw Posture on Lip Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavness, Ian; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Perrier, Pascal; Demolin, Didier; Payan, Yohan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors' general aim is to use biomechanical models of speech articulators to explore how possible variations in anatomical structure contribute to differences in articulatory strategies and phone systems across human populations. Specifically, they investigated 2 issues: (a) the link between lip muscle anatomy and variability in…

  3. Structure de l'univers - quand l'observation guide la théorie... ou pas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    The scientific method is often presented, e.g. to children, as a linear process, starting by a question and ending by the elaboration of a theory, with a few experiments in-between. The reality of the building of science is much more complex, with back-and-forth motions between theories and observations, with some intervention of technology and randomness. This complex process is not always correctly understood and assimilated, even amongst scientists. The hero cult, mixed with some revisionism, still exists despite in-depth historical studies. In this context, it may be useful to comparatively examine the reaction to crucial observations, their interpretation and their impact on the contemporaneous theory development. Four examples are presented here, all linked to the question of the 'construction of the heavens' but at different epochs.

  4. Allier théorie et pratique dans la lutte contre la pandémie du Sida

    PubMed Central

    Zerbo, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Le premier cas d'infection par le VIH a été notifié en 1986 au Burkina Faso. L'ignorance qui entourait cette infection et l'absence de traitement curatif a amplifié ses conséquences sociales et économiques. La mise en œuvre des interventions communautaire est un enjeu majeur actuel qui recommande la compréhension des logiques sociales endogènes qui influencent les comportements individuels et collectifs. C'est en cela que l'implication des sciences sociales dans la lutte contre les maladies, en particulier le Sida constitue un enjeu, en termes de définition et d'identification de leur contribution. Dans notre propos, nous pouvons mettre en évidence trois niveaux de contribution des sciences sociales, notamment la sociologie, l'anthropologie, la psychologie et dans une certaine mesure le droit et l’économie, à la prévention du Sida et la prise en charge des personnes infectées par le VIH. Il faut noter que ces disciplines contribuent à la lutte contre le VIH d'une part, par des réflexions et des éléments d'analyses constructives, et d'autre part, l'aptitude des porteurs de ces disciplines est parfois sollicitée pour l'efficacité de la mise en œuvre des actions et l'organisation des systèmes de soins. PMID:25722761

  5. oriGNAI3: a narrow zone of preferential replication initiation in mammalian cells identified by 2D gel and competitive PCR replicon mapping techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, F; Baron, B; Fernandez, M A; Lachagès, A M; Mayau, V; Buttin, G; Debatisse, M

    1998-01-01

    The nature of mammalian origins of DNA replication remains controversial and this is primarily because two-dimensional gel replicon mapping techniques have identified broad zones of replication initiation whereas several other techniques, such as quantitative PCR, have disclosed more discrete sites of initiation at the same chromosomal loci. In this report we analyze the replication of an amplified genomic region encompassing the 3'-end of the GNAI3 gene, the entire GNAT2 gene and the intergenic region between them in exponentially growing Chinese hamster fibroblasts. These cells express GNAI3 but not GNAT2 . The replication pattern was first analyzed by two-dimensional neutral-alkaline gel electrophoresis. Surprisingly, the results revealed a small preferential zone of replication initiation, of at most 1.7 kb, located in a limited part of the GNAI3 - GNAT2 intergenic region. Mapping of this initiation zone was then confirmed by quantitative PCR. The agreement between the two techniques exploited here strengthens the hypothesis that preferred sites of replication initiation do exist in mammalian genomes. PMID:9580680

  6. Identification of the srtC1 Transcription Start Site and Catalytically Essential Residues Required for Actinomyces oris T14V SrtC1 Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-27

    al., 1999, 2002; Frankel et al., 2007), Cys 193 in SrtC1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae (Manzano et al., 2008) and Cys 219 in SrtC1 from Group B...Sortase mediated pilus fiber biogenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae . Structure 16: 1838 1848. Manzano C, Izore T, Job V, Di Guilmi AM & Dessen A... Streptococcus (Cozzi et al., 2011) are critical for each of their corresponding sortase activities. When two other residues (Leu263 and Thr265) in this

  7. Identification of the Genes Involved in the Biofilm-like Structures on Actinomyces oris K20, a Clinical Isolate from an Apical Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    abscess, root canal infection, dental implant –related infection (14–20), and non-oral infections in the human body (21). Kalfes et al (18) isolated...in initial dental biofilm formation. Microbiology 2009;155:2116–26. 12. Li J, Helmerhorst EJ, Leone CW, et al. Identification of early microbial...colonizers in human dental biofilm . J Appl Microbiol 2004;97:1311–8. 13. Zijnge V, van Leeuwen MB, Degener JE, et al. Oral biofilm architecture on natural

  8. Optical stimulation of the facial nerve: a surgical tool?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Teudt, Ingo Ulrik; Nevel, Adam E.; Izzo, Agnella D.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2008-02-01

    One sequela of skull base surgery is the iatrogenic damage to cranial nerves. Devices that stimulate nerves with electric current can assist in the nerve identification. Contemporary devices have two main limitations: (1) the physical contact of the stimulating electrode and (2) the spread of the current through the tissue. In contrast to electrical stimulation, pulsed infrared optical radiation can be used to safely and selectively stimulate neural tissue. Stimulation and screening of the nerve is possible without making physical contact. The gerbil facial nerve was irradiated with 250-μs-long pulses of 2.12 μm radiation delivered via a 600-μm-diameter optical fiber at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. Muscle action potentials were recorded with intradermal electrodes. Nerve samples were examined for possible tissue damage. Eight facial nerves were stimulated with radiant exposures between 0.71-1.77 J/cm2, resulting in compound muscle action potentials (CmAPs) that were simultaneously measured at the m. orbicularis oculi, m. levator nasolabialis, and m. orbicularis oris. Resulting CmAP amplitudes were 0.3-0.4 mV, 0.15-1.4 mV and 0.3-2.3 mV, respectively, depending on the radial location of the optical fiber and the radiant exposure. Individual nerve branches were also stimulated, resulting in CmAP amplitudes between 0.2 and 1.6 mV. Histology revealed tissue damage at radiant exposures of 2.2 J/cm2, but no apparent damage at radiant exposures of 2.0 J/cm2.

  9. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  10. Surgical approach to the superior mid-orbit.

    PubMed

    Krohn-Hansen, Dag; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Meling, Torstein R; Haaskjold, Erling

    2013-09-01

    Access to the superior mid-orbit is required for procedures on the levator muscle in the correction of upper eyelid ptosis and in surgery aimed at local lesions in this region. The purpose with this human cadaver study was to clarify the anatomical substrate for a surgical approach to the levator muscle and the upper mid-orbit structures, in which the orbital septum and the retroseptal fat pad is not harmed during surgery. Macro-anatomical dissections and histological examinations were performed on five human orbits from three formalin embalmed cadaver heads. It was found that the orbital septum extends posteriorly from its junction with the levator aponeurosis. This posterior continuation of the orbital septum encloses the superior orbital fat pad and separates this from the anterior surface of the levator muscle. In between the orbital septum and the levator, there is a dissection space that provides a minimal invasive access corridor to the structures in the upper mid-orbit.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of oridonin nanosuspension.

    PubMed

    Lou, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiumei; Gao, Lei; Feng, Feifei; Wang, Juying; Wei, Xinbing; Yu, Zongqin; Zhang, Dianrui; Zhang, Qiang

    2009-09-08

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of an oridonin (ORI) nanosuspension relative to ORI solution both in vitro and in vivo. ORI nanosuspension with a particle size of 897.2+/-14.2 nm was prepared by the high pressure homogenization method (HPH). MTT assay showed that ORI nanosuspension could significantly enhance the in vitro cytotoxicity against K562 cells compared to the ORI solution, the IC(50) value at 36 h was reduced from 12.85 micromol/L for ORI solution to 8.11 micromol/L for ORI nanosuspension. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the ORI nanosuspension also induced a higher apoptotic rate in K562 cells compared to ORI solution. In vivo studies in a mouse model of sarcoma-180 solid tumors demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with ORI nanosuspension than ORI solution at the same dosage. The mice injected with ORI nanosuspension showed a higher reduction in tumor volume and tumor weight at the dose of 20mg/kg compared to the ORI solution (P<0.01), with the tumor inhibition rate increased from 42.49% for ORI solution to 60.23% for the ORI nanosuspension. Taken together, these results suggest that the delivery of ORI in nanosuspension is a promising approach for the treatment of the tumor.

  12. Galactosylated bovine serum albumin nanoparticles for parenteral delivery of oridonin: tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Caiyun; Zhang, Dianrui; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hejian; Li, Tingting; Hao, Leilei; Zheng, Dandan; Liu, Guangpu; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticle is a promising drug carrier system. Oridonin (ORI)-loaded galactosylated BSA nanoparticle (ORI-GB-NP) was prepared for liver targeting delivery of ORI. This work was designed to investigate the in vitro release, in vivo pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ORI-GB-NP. ORI-GB-NP was prepared by the desolvation method. The particle size of ORI-GB-NP was 172.0 ± 8.3 nm with narrow size distribution. The in vitro release of ORI-GB-NP exhibited biphasic drug release pattern with an initial burst release and consequently sustained release. Pharmacokinetic analysis displayed that ORI-GB-NP and ORI-loaded BSA nanoparticle (ORI-BSA-NP) could enhance the drug plasma level and prolong the circulation time in contrast with ORI solution. Meanwhile, compared with ORI-BSA-NP, ORI-GB-NP could deliver more ORI to liver and simultaneously reduce the toxicity of ORI to heart, lung and kidney. In conclusion, ORI-GB-NP could be a promising drug delivery system for liver cancer therapy.

  13. Interactions between segmental leg central pattern generators during fictive rhythms in the locust.

    PubMed

    Ryckebusch, S; Laurent, G

    1994-12-01

    1. Rhythmic activity of leg motor neurons could be evoked in isolated locust thoracic ganglia as well as in preparations of two or three connected thoracic ganglia superfused with the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Rhythms were always more regular and reliably elicited in single isolated ganglia. When the ganglia were connected, rhythmic activity of leg motor neurons was not usually simultaneously evoked in all six hemiganglia. Typically, some of the hemiganglia were rhythmically active, whereas others showed tonic or highly irregular activity. 2. Action potentials from leg motor neuron pools were recorded extracellularly from motor nerves and cross-correlated with the use of standard algorithms. The following correlations were observed between activities of motor neurons in different hemisegments. 1) Within a segment, trochanteral levators were coactive with contralateral trochanteral depressors. This correlation was strong in the metathoracic ganglion, and weaker in the pro- and mesothoracic ganglia. 2) Coupling between levators on opposite sides of the same segment was variable in the pro- and mesothoracic ganglia, because phase relationships between levators were different in each preparation and could also change during the course of an experiment. In the metathoracic ganglion, levators on opposite sides were never coactive. 3) Trochanteral levators were often active within a short latency of levator bursts in an ipsilateral adjacent hemiganglion. In addition, levators in one segment were often inhibited during levators bursts in the ipsilateral adjacent segment. 4) Trochanteral levators were strongly coupled to ipsilateral adjacent trochanteral depressors, for all three thoracic ganglia. 3. The phase relationships between motor neuron activities revealed by cross-correlation are discussed in the context of what is known about the mechanisms involved in the control of intersegmental coupling during legged locomotion.

  14. Modèle d'aide à la gestion des eaux souterraines (MAGES). 1. Théorie du modèle numérique de transport des contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Frédérick; Banton, Olivier; Porel, Gilles

    1998-08-01

    MAGES is software for forecasting pollution hazards of groundwater which is in the process of development at INRS-Eau (Canada). The main distinctive feature of the model is the use of stationary truncated temporal moment equations instead of the classical time dependent advection-dispersion equation to solve the transport of contaminants. The aim of this work is to describe the theory of truncated temporal moment equations and to show how the curves of the concentration versus time can be calculated from temporal moments. The discrete method used to solve the equations and its stability is also discussed.

  15. Paul Langevin's 1908 paper ``On the Theory of Brownian Motion'' [``Sur la théorie du mouvement brownien,'' C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 146, 530-533 (1908)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemons, Don S.; Gythiel, Anthony

    1997-11-01

    We present a translation of Paul Langevin's landmark paper. In it Langevin successfully applied Newtonian dynamics to a Brownian particle and so invented an analytical approach to random processes which has remained useful to this day.

  16. Étude de l'efficacité des modes de Lamb dans la signature acoustique V(z) d'une couche mince par la théorie de la résonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdani, Abderrafi; Augereau, Franck; Despaux, Gilles

    1996-05-01

    Experimental acoustic signatures measured on thin films are perturbated by an interference process between the different Lamb waves generated at various incident angular values. This disables the correct determination of the layer's acoustic parameters and for this reason, it is helpful to develop a powerful method to study the influence of each layer parameter on these modes. For this purpose, a technique based on the calculation of the half-height width on resonance peaks of the reflectance power has been elaborated. From these simulations, we may determine which modes will be more efficiently extracted from acoustic signatures for steel and glass films. This result has been confirmed experimentally using ultrasonic frequencies optimized versus the sample thicknesses for glass and steel plates. Indeed, from experimental acoustic signatures, we have next been able to retrieve the acoustic parameters of these samples. Les relevés expérimentaux des signatures acoustiques sur des couches minces sont difficiles à interpréter car tous les modes de Lamb générés à differents angles d'incidence vont interférer, ce qui rend impossible toute détermination des paramètres acoustiques de la couche. Il est alors nécessaire de mettre en oeuvre une méthode d'analyse rapide afin d'étudier l'influence de chacun des paramètres de la couche sur ces modes afin de déterminer les conditions optimales de mesure. La méthode d'analyse basée sur la détermination de la largeur à mi-hauteur des pics de résonance du pouvoir réflecteur est un moyen original de résolution du problème direct, qui permet de montrer que certains modes sont plus efficaces que d'autres, et donc plus faciles à détecter sur les signatures expérimentales. Grâce aux résulats théoriques obtenus, les fréquences d'observation ont pu être optimisées pour des épaisseurs de plaques d'acier et de verre utilisées dans la partie expérimentale de ce travail. De ces mesures et en utilisant notre modèle de simulation de la signature acoustique, nous avons résolu le problème inverse et ainsi avons pu déterminer les paramètres acoustiques de ces couches.

  17. The OECD program to validate the rat Hershberger bioassay to screen compounds for in vivo and androgen and antiandrogen responses: Phase-2 dose-response studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    DESIGN: The Hershberger bioassay is designed to identify suspected androgens and antiandrogens based on changes in the weights of five androgen-responsive tissues (ventral prostate, paired seminal vesicles and coagulating glands, the levator ani and bulbocavernosus muscles, the g...

  18. Recurrent ptosis in a patient with blepharochalasis: clinical and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Zheng, Xiaodong; Mito, Hidenori; Noma, Kazunami; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with right upper eyelid blepharochalasis with ptosis. Right upper eyelid edema had occurred 2 to 3 times per year by 30 years old, although the frequency decreased with age. The edema occurred spontaneously and resolved within 1 to 2 days. She underwent a right levator tucking surgery at 22 years old, and the ptosis recurred 2 years postoperatively. She again underwent ptosis surgery with skin excision at 37 years old. The intraoperative findings showed a thin levator aponeurosis. The white line was therefore advanced to the upper tarsal edge, resulting in an appropriate height and curvature. Three months later, the patient's eyelid height was 1.5 mm higher with a little temporal peaking. The levator aponeurosis was histopathologically shown to contain many capillaries. The increased vascularity of the levator aponeurosis may contribute to recurrent bouts of edema resulting in stretching and disinsertion of the aponeurosis.

  19. Viper NHEXS Program: A Viper Pilot Neck Health & Conditioning Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical Research Dept 2510 Fifth St. Wright...units, which include the contralateral sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae , scalenus, splenius capitis, and ipsilateral splenius capitis [6]. Neck

  20. 42 CFR 93.500 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General... findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including debarment or suspension, arising... to contest ORI research misconduct findings and HHS administrative actions under this part,...

  1. 42 CFR 93.500 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General... findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including debarment or suspension, arising... to contest ORI research misconduct findings and HHS administrative actions under this part,...

  2. Indigenizing mental health services: New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Durie, Mason

    2011-04-01

    Mental health services in New Zealand have been significantly altered by Māori cultural values. Since 1980, a monocultural approach has given way to the incorporation of Māori language, Māori health perspectives, and Māori psychological frameworks in the assessment, treatment, and care of patients. Māori provider organizations, an expanded Māori health workforce, and Māori leadership have been crucial catalysts for the transformation. The shifts have paralleled similar changes in other sectors, reflecting a broader societal movement within which indigeneity has received greater acknowledgement. The author's bicultural background, psychiatric training, and inclusion in Māori networks were important for promoting the transformation.

  3. Identification of a High-Efficiency Baculovirus DNA Replication Origin That Functions in Insect and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Carol-P; Huang, Yu-Hui; Huang, Sheng-Ping; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chang, Hao-Shuo; Lin, Pi-Hsiu; Wu, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The p143 gene from Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been found to increase the expression of luciferase, which is driven by the polyhedrin gene promoter, in a plasmid with virus coinfection. Further study indicated that this is due to the presence of a replication origin (ori) in the coding region of this gene. Transient DNA replication assays showed that a specific fragment of the p143 coding sequence, p143-3, underwent virus-dependent DNA replication in Spodoptera frugiperda IPLB-Sf-21 (Sf-21) cells. Deletion analysis of the p143-3 fragment showed that subfragment p143-3.2a contained the essential sequence of this putative ori. Sequence analysis of this region revealed a unique distribution of imperfect palindromes with high AT contents. No sequence homology or similarity between p143-3.2a and any other known ori was detected, suggesting that it is a novel baculovirus ori. Further study showed that the p143-3.2a ori can replicate more efficiently in infected Sf-21 cells than baculovirus homologous regions (hrs), the major baculovirus ori, or non-hr oris during virus replication. Previously, hr on its own was unable to replicate in mammalian cells, and for mammalian viral oris, viral proteins are generally required for their proper replication in host cells. However, the p143-3.2a ori was, surprisingly, found to function as an efficient ori in mammalian cells without the need for any viral proteins. We conclude that p143 contains a unique sequence that can function as an ori to enhance gene expression in not only insect cells but also mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE Baculovirus DNA replication relies on both hr and non-hr oris; however, so far very little is known about the latter oris. Here we have identified a new non-hr ori, the p143 ori, which resides in the coding region of p143. By developing a novel DNA replication-enhanced reporter system, we have identified and located the core region required for the p143

  4. Magnetic resonance-based female pelvic anatomy as relevant for maternal childbirth injury simulations.

    PubMed

    Hoyte, Lennox; Damaser, Margot S

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of the study are to review the female pelvic floor anatomy relevant to childbirth simulations, to discuss available methods for clinical evaluation of female pelvic floor function, and to review the variation in pelvic floor changes after vaginal childbirth. A high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) data set from an asymptomatic nullipara was used to illustrate the MR anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Manual segmentation was performed and three-dimensional reconstructions of the pelvic floor structures were generated, which were used to illustrate the 3D anatomy of the pelvic floor. Variation in the post partum appearance of the levator ani muscles is illustrated using other 2D MR data sets, which depict unilateral and bilateral disruptions in the puborectalis portion of levator ani, as well as shape variations, which may be seen in the post partum levator. The clinical evaluation of the pelvic floor is then reviewed. The female pelvis is composed of a bony scaffold, from which the pelvic floor muscles (obturator internus, levator ani) are suspended. The rectum fits in a midline groove in the levator ani. The vagina is suspended across the midline, attaching bilaterally to the obturator and levator ani. The vagina supports the bladder and urethra. MR studies have demonstrated disruptions in levator ani attachments after vaginal childbirth. Such disruptions are rare in women who have not given birth vaginally. Changes to the neuromuscular apparatus of the pelvic floor can also be demonstrated after vaginal delivery. The combination of childbirth-related anatomic and neurological injury to the pelvic floor may be associated with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). These changes are difficult to study in vivo but may be studied through simulations. Appropriate consideration of clinical anatomy is important in these simulations.

  5. Anatomy of the hind legs and actions of their muscles during jumping in leafhopper insects.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2007-10-01

    The rapid and simultaneous depression of the trochantera about the coxae of both hind legs of leafhoppers are the key joint movements powering a jump. The present study analyses the structure of these joints and the actions of the muscles that move them. The hind coxae are huge and are linked to each other at the midline by a protrusion from one coxa that inserts in a socket of the other and acts like a press-stud (popper) fastener. This asymmetry is not reflected in any left- or right-handed preference either within one species or between species. The movements of the joints in a jump are monitored by a number of possible proprioceptors that should be activated when a hind leg is fully levated in preparation for a jump: a hair row and two hair plates on the coxa, a hair plate on a trochanteral pivot with a coxa, and femoral spines at the femoro-tibial joint. The depressor and levator muscles that move the trochanter are of similar size and together occupy the greater part of the metathorax. Their lever arms are similar when the leg is fully levated, but the lever arm of the depressor increases with initial depression of the coxo-trochanteral joint while that of the levator declines. A jump is preceded by activity in the trochanteral depressor and levator muscles, which results in a forward movement of the coxa and metathorax with the trochanter fully levated. This period of co-contraction could result in storage of energy in skeletal structures in the thorax. Just before the rapid depression of the trochanter in the jump movement the frequency of depressor spikes increases while that in the levator declines, releasing any force stored by the preceding muscle contractions. These bursts of depressor spikes occur at the same time in the left and right muscles but none of the individual motor spikes appeared to be synchronous on the two sides.

  6. Multiple Origins and Replication Proteins Influence Biological Properties of β-Lactamase-Producing Plasmids from Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Pagotto, Franco; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.

    2001-01-01

    The β-lactamase-producing Asia-type plasmid pJD4 of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a 7.4-kb, broad-host-range plasmid. It is part of a family of plasmids which are structurally related yet vary in size, found in both N. gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus ducreyi. Branch-point analysis by electron microscopy indicates that pJD4 carries three clustered but distinguishable origins of replication, which we named ori1, ori2, and ori3. Although pJD4 belongs to incompatibility (Inc) group W, it also carries a silent IncFII determinant which is expressed when ori2 and ori3 are absent. The Africa-type plasmid pJD5, a naturally occurring deletion derivative of pJD4, carries only ori1, belongs to the IncFII group, and, in contrast to pJD4, requires DNA polymerase I (Pol I) for replication. Plasmids constructed from pJD4 which lack ori1 but carry ori2 and ori3 do not require Pol I and are incompatible with IncW plasmids, suggesting that the ori2 or ori3 region contains the IncW determinant. We have cloned a replication initiation protein (RepB) that is necessary for ori2 and ori3 to function. This Rep protein is distinct from RepA, which is necessary for ori1. Thus, pJD4 is unique because it is the smallest plasmid characterized containing three origins of replication and two unique Rep proteins. PMID:11544207

  7. Mandibular and hyoid muscles of Galeomorph sharks (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii), with remarks on their phylogenetic intrarelationships.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mateus C; de Carvalho, Marcelo R

    2013-10-01

    The superorder Galeomorph comprises the orders Heterodontiformes, Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes. Recent morphological and molecular support that it is a monophyletic taxon. The phyletic relationship within the Galeomorphi are also well resolved. However, only few morphological characters of the mandibular and hyoid muscles have been employed, and a detailed description of these muscles and their variations may contribute new interpretations of homology and to the discussion of different hypothesis of intrarelationships. This paper provides a detailed description of mandibular and hyoid arch muscles in galeomorph sharks, within a comparative elasmobranch framework, with the objective to discuss putative homologies that may elucidate our understanding of galeomorph evolution. Twenty-eight galeomorph species were dissected, described, illustrated and compared with other elasmobranchs and with data from the literature. The Galeomorphi are supported as monophyletic by presenting the m. levator labii superioris attached directly to the neurocranium, different from the attachment through a tendon in basal squalomorphs. Heterodontiformes and Orectolobiformes share particular variations in the position and insertion of the m. levator labii superioris and the presence of a well-defined m. levator hyomandibulae. Lamniformes and Carcharhiniformes show similar patterns in the position and attachment of the m. levator labii superioris, subdivision of the m. adductor mandibulae, and the presence of an almost indivisible m. levator hyomandibulae and m. constrictor hyoideus dorsalis, similar to the condition, albeit independently, in basal squalomorphs. No specific mandibular or hyoid arch muscle character was found to support the clade composed of Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes, as advocated by recent phylogenetic analyses.

  8. Measurement the thickness of the transverse abdominal muscle in different tasks

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ling; Yin, Liquan; Tajiri, Kimiko; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the measurement of the thickness of the transverse abdominal muscle in different tasks. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were eleven healthy adult females. Thicknesses of transverse abdominal muscle were measured in seven tasks in the supine position. The tasks were: 1) Resting state, 2) Maximal contraction of transverse abdominal muscle, 3) Maximal contraction of levator ani muscle, 4) Maximal simultaneous contraction of both transverse abdominal muscle and levator ani muscle, 5) Maximal simultaneous contraction of both transverse abdominal muscle and levator ani muscle with front side resistance added to both knee, 6) Maximal simultaneous contraction of both transverse abdominal muscle and levator ani muscle with diagonal resistance added to both knees, and 7) Maximal simultaneous contraction of both transverse abdominal muscle and levator ani muscle with lateral resistance added to both knees. [Results] The thicknesses of transverse abdominal muscle during maximal simultaneous contraction and maximal simultaneous contraction with resistance were greater than during the resting state. [Conclusion] The muscle output during simultaneous contraction and resistance movement were larger than that of each individual muscle. PMID:28265140

  9. Identification of two replicons in phage-plasmid P4.

    PubMed

    Tocchetti, A; Serina, S; Terzano, S; Dehò, G; Ghisotti, D

    1998-06-05

    DNA replication of phage-plasmid P4 proceeds bidirectionally from the ori1 site (previously named ori), but requires a second cis-acting region, crr. Replication depends on the product of the P4 alpha gene, a protein with primase and helicase activity, that binds both ori1 and crr. A negative regulator of P4 DNA replication, the Cnr protein, is required for copy number control of plasmid P4. Using a plasmid complementation test for replication, we found that two replicons, both dependent on the alpha gene product, coexist in P4. The first replicon is made by the cnr and alpha genes and the ori1 and crr sites. The second is limited to the alpha and crr region. Thus, in the absence of the ori1 region, replication can initiate at a different site. By deletion mapping, a cis-acting region, ori2, essential for replication of the alpha-crr replicon was mapped within a 270-bp fragment in the first half of the alpha gene. The ori2 site was found to be dispensable in a replicon that contains ori1. A construct that besides crr and alpha carries also the cnr gene was unable to replicate, suggesting that Cnr not only controls replication from ori1, but also silences ori2.

  10. Genome-scale analysis of metazoan replication origins reveals their organization in specific but flexible sites defined by conserved features

    PubMed Central

    Cayrou, Christelle; Coulombe, Philippe; Vigneron, Alice; Stanojcic, Slavica; Ganier, Olivier; Peiffer, Isabelle; Rivals, Eric; Puy, Aurore; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Desprat, Romain; Méchali, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In metazoans, thousands of DNA replication origins (Oris) are activated at each cell cycle. Their genomic organization and their genetic nature remain elusive. Here, we characterized Oris by nascent strand (NS) purification and a genome-wide analysis in Drosophila and mouse cells. We show that in both species most CpG islands (CGI) contain Oris, although methylation is nearly absent in Drosophila, indicating that this epigenetic mark is not crucial for defining the activated origin. Initiation of DNA synthesis starts at the borders of CGI, resulting in a striking bimodal distribution of NS, suggestive of a dual initiation event. Oris contain a unique nucleotide skew around NS peaks, characterized by G/T and C/A overrepresentation at the 5′ and 3′ of Ori sites, respectively. Repeated GC-rich elements were detected, which are good predictors of Oris, suggesting that common sequence features are part of metazoan Oris. In the heterochromatic chromosome 4 of Drosophila, Oris correlated with HP1 binding sites. At the chromosome level, regions rich in Oris are early replicating, whereas Ori-poor regions are late replicating. The genome-wide analysis was coupled with a DNA combing analysis to unravel the organization of Oris. The results indicate that Oris are in a large excess, but their activation does not occur at random. They are organized in groups of site-specific but flexible origins that define replicons, where a single origin is activated in each replicon. This organization provides both site specificity and Ori firing flexibility in each replicon, allowing possible adaptation to environmental cues and cell fates. PMID:21750104

  11. Modulation of the cytosolic androgen receptor in striated muscle by sex steroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rance, N. E.; Max, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of orchiectomy (GDX) and steroid administration on the level of the cytosolic androgen receptor in the rat levator ani muscle and in rat skeletal muscles (tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus) was studied. Androgen receptor binding to muscle cytosol was measured using H-3 methyltrienolone (R1881) as ligand, 100 fold molar excess unlabeled R1881 to assess nonspecific binding, and 500 fold molar excess of triamcinolone acetonide to prevent binding to glucocorticoid and progestin receptors. Results demonstrate that modification of the levels of sex steroids can alter the content of androgen receptors of rat striated muscle. Data suggest that: (1) cytosolic androgen receptor levels increase after orchiectomy in both levator ani muscle and skeletal muscle; (2) the acute increase in receptor levels is blocked by an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (3) administration of estradiol-17 beta to castrated animals increases receptor binding in levator ani muscle but not in skeletal muscle.

  12. Motor innervation of respiratory muscles and an opercular display muscle in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, D L

    1989-12-15

    Horseradish peroxidase was used to identify motor neurons projecting to the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, levator operculi, adductor operculi, and dilator operculi muscles in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. These muscles participate in the production of respiratory and feeding movements in teleost fishes. The dilator operculi is also the effector muscle for gill-cover erection behavior that is part of Betta's aggressive display. The motor innervation of these muscles in Betta was compared to that previously described for carp. Motor neurons of the adductor mandibulae, levator hyomandibulae, and dilator operculi are located in the trigeminal motor nucleus, and motor neurons of the adductor operculi and levator operculi are located in the facial motor nucleus in Betta and in carp. The trigeminal motor nucleus in both species is divided into rostral and caudal subnuclei. However, there are substantial differences in the organization of the subnuclei, and in the distribution of motor neurons within them. In Betta, the rostral trigeminal subnucleus consists of a single part but the caudal subnucleus is divided into two parts. Motor neurons for the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles are located in the lateral part of the caudal subnucleus; the medial part of the caudal subnucleus contains only dilator operculi motor neurons. The single caudal subnucleus in carp is located laterally, and contains motor neurons of both the dilator operculi and levator hyomandibulae muscles. Differences in the organization of the trigeminal motor nucleus may relate to the use of the dilator operculi muscle for aggressive display behavior by perciform fishes such as Betta but not by cypriniform fishes such as carp. Five species of perciform fishes that perform gill-cover erection behavior had a Betta-like pattern of organization of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and a similar distribution of dilator operculi motor neurons. Goldfish, which like carp are

  13. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by oridonin nanosuspension.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Dian-Rui; Tian, Ke-Li; Lou, Hai-Yan; Qi, Xiao-Li; Wang, Yan-Cai; Duan, Cun-Xian; Jia, Le-Jiao; Wang, Fei-Hu; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Qiang

    2011-05-01

    The mechanism for anti-tumor activity of oridonin (ORI) nanosuspension, prepared by the high pressure homogenization method, was studied using MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells in vitro. MTT assay, observation of morphologic changes, flow cytometric analysis, and western blot analysis indicated that ORI nanosuspension could significantly intensify the in vitro anti-tumor activity to MCF-7 cells, as compared with ORI solution. Furthermore, ORI nanosuspension induced G₂/M stage proliferation arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells depending on its concentration. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that the pro-caspase-3 protein was not cleaved into the activated form and the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein decreased, on the contrary, the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein increased in a dose-dependent manner in ORI nanosuspension-treated cells. These observations indicated that the anti-tumor activity of ORI nanosuspension was intensified by cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.

  14. Multiple Lytic Origins of Replication Are Required for Optimal Gammaherpesvirus Fitness In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Christine; Steer, Beatrix; Adler, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved question in herpesvirus biology is why some herpesviruses contain more than one lytic origin of replication (oriLyt). Using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) as model virus containing two oriLyts, we demonstrate that loss of either of the two oriLyts was well tolerated in some situations but not in others both in vitro and in vivo. This was related to the cell type, the organ or the route of inoculation. Depending on the cell type, different cellular proteins, for example Hexim1 and Rbbp4, were found to be associated with oriLyt DNA. Overexpression or downregulation of these proteins differentially affected the growth of mutants lacking either the left or the right oriLyt. Thus, multiple oriLyts are required to ensure optimal fitness in different cell types and tissues. PMID:27007137

  15. Turning points in the progression of obsessive relational intrusion and stalking.

    PubMed

    Mumm, Sai Sato; Cupach, William R

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the critical events defining the temporal progression of unwanted relationship pursuit. Retrospective interviews elicited the experiences of 42 victims of obsessive relational intrusion (ORI) and its extreme manifestation, stalking. Participants described turning points within their ORI experiences, and constructed graphs representing the progression of turning points over time in terms of changes in perceived severity. Inductive data analysis revealed 17 distinct turning point types. Some turning point types were associated with increases in ORI severity and others were associated with decreases. Five temporal trajectories of ORI progression also were identified. Results indicate that ORI does not necessarily progress along linear and continuous paths. Some findings support coping advice commonly given to victims of ORI and stalking.

  16. Replication of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I in Escherichia coli: dependence on dam methylation.

    PubMed

    Koch, Birgit; Ma, Xiaofang; Løbner-Olesen, Anders

    2010-08-01

    We successfully substituted Escherichia coli's origin of replication oriC with the origin region of Vibrio cholerae chromosome I (oriCI(Vc)). Replication from oriCI(Vc) initiated at a similar or slightly reduced cell mass compared to that of normal E. coli oriC. With respect to sequestration-dependent synchrony of initiation and stimulation of initiation by the loss of Hda activity, replication initiation from oriC and oriCI(Vc) were similar. Since Hda is involved in the conversion of DnaA(ATP) (DnaA bound to ATP) to DnaA(ADP) (DnaA bound to ADP), this indicates that DnaA associated with ATP is limiting for V. cholerae chromosome I replication, which similar to what is observed for E. coli. No hda homologue has been identified in V. cholerae yet. In V. cholerae, dam is essential for viability, whereas in E. coli, dam mutants are viable. Replacement of E. coli oriC with oriCI(Vc) allowed us to specifically address the role of the Dam methyltransferase and SeqA in replication initiation from oriCI(Vc). We show that when E. coli's origin of replication is substituted by oriCI(Vc), dam, but not seqA, becomes important for growth, arguing that Dam methylation exerts a critical function at the origin of replication itself. We propose that Dam methylation promotes DnaA-assisted successful duplex opening and replisome assembly at oriCI(Vc) in E. coli. In this model, methylation at oriCI(Vc) would ease DNA melting. This is supported by the fact that the requirement for dam can be alleviated by increasing negative supercoiling of the chromosome through oversupply of the DNA gyrase or loss of SeqA activity.

  17. 42 CFR 93.505 - Rights of the parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  18. 42 CFR 93.509 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  19. 42 CFR 93.509 - Computation of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  20. 42 CFR 93.518 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  1. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  2. 42 CFR 93.518 - Witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  3. 42 CFR 93.510 - Filing motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  4. 42 CFR 93.505 - Rights of the parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions...

  5. Unique and Universal Features of Epsilonproteobacterial Origins of Chromosome Replication and DnaA-DnaA Box Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Pawel; Donczew, Rafal; Mielke, Thorsten; Thiel, Marcel; Oldziej, Stanislaw; Weigel, Christoph; Zawilak-Pawlik, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, chromosome replication is initiated by the interaction of the initiator protein DnaA with a defined region of a chromosome at which DNA replication starts (oriC). While DnaA proteins share significant homology regardless of phylogeny, oriC regions exhibit more variable structures. The general architecture of oriCs is universal, i.e., they are composed of a cluster of DnaA binding sites, a DNA-unwinding element, and sequences that bind regulatory proteins. However, detailed structures of oriCs are shared by related species while being significantly different in unrelated bacteria. In this work, we characterized Epsilonproteobacterial oriC regions. Helicobacter pylori was the only species of the class for which oriC was characterized. A few unique features were found such as bipartite oriC structure, not encountered in any other Gram-negative species, and topology-sensitive DnaA-DNA interactions, which have not been found in any other bacterium. These unusual H. pylori oriC features raised questions of whether oriC structure and DnaA-DNA interactions are unique to this bacterium or whether they are common to related species. By in silico and in vitro analyses we identified putative oriCs in three Epsilonproteobacterial species: pathogenic Arcobacter butzleri, symbiotic Wolinella succinogenes, and free-living Sulfurimonas denitrificans. We propose that oriCs typically co-localize with ruvC-dnaA-dnaN in Epsilonproteobacteria, with the exception of Helicobacteriaceae species. The clusters of DnaA boxes localize upstream (oriC1) and downstream (oriC2) of dnaA, and they likely constitute bipartite origins. In all cases, DNA unwinding was shown to occur in oriC2. Unlike the DnaA box pattern, which is not conserved in Epsilonproteobacterial oriCs, the consensus DnaA box sequences and the mode of DnaA-DnaA box interactions are common to the class. We propose that the typical Epsilonproteobacterial DnaA box consists of the core nucleotide sequence 5′-TTCAC-3

  6. The Mira Variable S Orionis: Relationships Between the Photosphere, Molecular Layer, Dust Shell, and SiO Maser Shell at 4 Epochs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    the stellar minimum, and the later epochs shortly after the following stellar maximum. 2. Lightcurve and characteristics of S Ori S Ori is a Mira...453 190 days. Figure 1 shows the visual lightcurve of S Ori as a function of Julian Date and stellar phase based on these values. Also indicated are...phase MIDI observations VLBA observations Epoch A B C D AAVSO AFOEV b. Fig. 1. Visual lightcurve of S Ori as a function of Julian Date and stel- lar cycle

  7. Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O L

    2007-04-01

    The anatomic structures in the female that prevent incontinence and genital organ prolapse on increases in abdominal pressure during daily activities include sphincteric and supportive systems. In the urethra, the action of the vesical neck and urethral sphincteric mechanisms maintains urethral closure pressure above bladder pressure. Decreases in the number of striated muscle fibers of the sphincter occur with age and parity. A supportive hammock under the urethra and vesical neck provides a firm backstop against which the urethra is compressed during increases in abdominal pressure to maintain urethral closure pressures above the rapidly increasing bladder pressure. This supporting layer consists of the anterior vaginal wall and the connective tissue that attaches it to the pelvic bones through the pubovaginal portion of the levator ani muscle, and the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments comprising the tendinous arch of the pelvic fascia. At rest the levator ani maintains closure of the urogenital hiatus. They are additionally recruited to maintain hiatal closure in the face of inertial loads related to visceral accelerations as well as abdominal pressurization in daily activities involving recruitment of the abdominal wall musculature and diaphragm. Vaginal birth is associated with an increased risk of levator ani defects, as well as genital organ prolapse and urinary incontinence. Computer models indicate that vaginal birth places the levator ani under tissue stretch ratios of up to 3.3 and the pudendal nerve under strains of up to 33%, respectively. Research is needed to better identify the pathomechanics of these conditions.

  8. A 3-D Finite Element Model of Anterior Vaginal Wall Support to Evaluate Mechanisms Underlying Cystocele Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Luyun; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To develop a 3D computer model of the anterior vaginal wall and its supports, validate that model, and then use it to determine the combinations of muscle and connective tissue impairments that result in cystocele formation, as observed on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods A subject-specific 3D model of the anterior vaginal wall and its supports was developed based on MRI geometry from a healthy nulliparous woman. It included simplified representations of the anterior vaginal wall, levator muscle, cardinal and uterosacral ligaments, arcus tendineus fascia pelvis and levator ani, paravaginal attachments, and the posterior compartment. This model was then imported into ABAQUS™ and tissue properties were assigned from the literature. An iterative process was used to refine anatomical assumptions until convergence was obtained between model behavior under increases of abdominal pressure up to 168 cmH2O and deformations observed on dynamic MRI. Results Cystocele size was sensitive to abdominal pressure and impairment of connective tissue and muscle. Larger cystocele formed in the presence of impairments in muscular and apical connective tissue support compared to either support element alone. Apical impairment resulted in a larger cystocele than paravaginal impairment. Levator ani muscle impairment caused a larger urogenital hiatus size, longer length of the distal vagina exposed to a pressure differential, larger apical descent and resulted in a larger cystocele size. Conclusions Development of a cystocele requires a levator muscle impairment, an increase in abdominal pressure, and apical and paravaginal support defects. PMID:19481208

  9. Palatal Activity in Voicing Distinctions: A Simultaneous Fiberoptic and Electromyographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Berti, Fredericka; Hirose, Hajime

    1975-01-01

    A study of electromyographic (EMG) activity and palatal movement is reported. Motion pictures were taken of the nasal surface of the soft palate and EMG recordings from the levator palatini muscle were obtained. Both were analyzed for the relationship of velar height to EMG strength and time. (SC)

  10. Pelvic floor muscle training in males: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew L

    2014-07-01

    The pelvic floor muscles are vital to male genitourinary health. Pelvic floor muscle training may prove helpful in a variety of clinical circumstances: stress urinary incontinence that follows prostate surgery, overactive bladder, postvoid dribbling, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation issues including premature ejaculation, and pelvic pain due to levator muscle spasm.

  11. Pelvic architectural distortion is associated with pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Markus; Margulies, Rebecca U; DeLancey, John O L

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between architectural distortion seen on magnetic resonance (MR) scans (lateral "spill" of the vagina and posterior extension of the space of Retzius) and pelvic organ prolapse. Secondary analysis of MR imaging scans from a case-control study of women with prolapse (maximum point > or = + 1 cm; N = 144) and normal controls (maximum point < or = -1 cm; N= 126) was done. Two independent investigators, blinded to prolapse status and previously established levator-defect scores, determined the presence of architectural distortion on axial MR scans. Women were categorized into three groups based on levator defects and architectural distortion. Among the three groups, women with levator defects and architectural distortion have the highest proportion of prolapse (78%; p < 0.001). Among women with levator defects, those with prolapse had an odds ratio of 2.2 for the presence of architectural distortion (95% CI = 1.1-4.6). Pelvic organ prolapse is associated with the presence of visible architectural distortion on MR scans.

  12. Effect of cleft palate repair on the susceptibility to contraction-induced injury of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenitally-clefted goat palates.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite cleft palate repair, velopharyngeal competence is not achieved in ~ 15% of patients, often necessitating secondary surgical correction. Velopharyngeal competence postrepair may require the conversion of levator veli palatini muscle fibers from injury-susceptible type 2 fibers to injury-resi...

  13. Contractile properties of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenital cleft palates and normal palates of Spanish goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A goat model in which cleft palate is induced by the plant alkaloid, anabasine was used to determine muscle fiber integrity of the levator veli palatine muscle. It was determined that the muscle fibers of the cleft palate-induced goats were primarily of the type 2 (fast fibers) which fatigue easil...

  14. The Effect of Cleft Palate Repair on Contractile Properties of Single Permeabilized Muscle Fibers From Congenitally Cleft Goats Palates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cleft palate goat model was used to study the contractile properties of the levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle which is responsible for the movement of the soft palate. In 15-25% of patients that undergo palatoplasty, residual velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) remains a problem and often require...

  15. Contraction-induced injury to single permeabilized muscle fibers from normal and congenitally-clefted goat palates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A goat model in which cleft palate is induced by the plant alkaloid, anabasine was used to determine muscle fiber integrity of the levator veli palatine (LVP) muscle. It was determined that muscle fiber type, size, and sensitivity to contraction-induced injury was different between cleft palate ind...

  16. Linear scleroderma associated with ptosis and motility disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Suttorp-Schulten, M S; Koornneef, L

    1990-01-01

    A case is reported in which an 11-year-old girl developed progressive ptosis and a subsequent motility disorder of the right eye. The diagnosis linear scleroderma en coup de sabre was established. Atrophy of the upper levator palpebral and superior rectus muscle could be shown on CT scan. Images PMID:2223709

  17. The East Asian eyelid-open technique.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, L R

    1993-04-01

    Creation of a dynamic levator aponeurosis fold or double eye adds to the beauty of the East Asian. The eyes are larger and less puffy, and the eyelashes appear longer and curve up and out instead of down. The distance from the ciliary border to the eyebrow is decreased and more in proportion. The Mongolian trait is preserved.

  18. Effects of nonlinear muscle elasticity on pelvic floor mechanics during vaginal childbirth.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinshan; Kruger, Jennifer A; Nash, Martyn P; Nielsen, Poul M F

    2010-11-01

    The role of the pelvic floor soft tissues during the second stage of labor, particularly the levator ani muscle, has attracted much interest recently. It has been postulated that the passage of the fetal head through the pelvis may cause excessive stretching of the levator ani muscle, which may lead to pelvic floor dysfunction and pelvic organ prolapse later in life. In order to study the complex biomechanical interactions between the levator ani muscle and the fetal head during the second stage of labor, finite element models have been developed for quantitative analysis of this process. In this study we have simulated vaginal delivery using individual-specific anatomical computer models of the pelvic floor interacting with a fetal head model with minimal restrictions placed upon its motion. Two constitutive relations were considered for the levator ani muscle (of exponential and neo-Hookean forms). For comparison purposes, the exponential relation was chosen to exhibit much greater stiffening at higher strains beyond the range of the experimental data. We demonstrated that increased nonlinearity in the elastic response of the tissues leads to considerably higher (56%) estimated force required for delivery, accompanied by a more homogeneous spatial distribution of maximum principal stretch ratio across the muscle. These results indicate that the form of constitutive relation beyond the presently available experimental data markedly affects the estimated function of the levator ani muscle during vaginal delivery, due to the large strains that occur. Further experimental data at higher strains are necessary in order to more reliably characterize the constitutive behavior required for modeling vaginal childbirth.

  19. A multi-compartment 3-D finite element model of rectocele and its interaction with cystocele.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiajia; Chen, Luyun; Fenner, Dee E; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O L

    2015-06-25

    We developed a subject-specific 3-D finite element model to understand the mechanics underlying formation of female pelvic organ prolapse, specifically a rectocele and its interaction with a cystocele. The model was created from MRI 3-D geometry of a healthy 45 year-old multiparous woman. It included anterior and posterior vaginal walls, levator ani muscle, cardinal and uterosacral ligaments, anterior and posterior arcus tendineus fascia pelvis, arcus tendineus levator ani, perineal body, perineal membrane and anal sphincter. Material properties were mostly from the literature. Tissue impairment was modeled as decreased tissue stiffness based on previous clinical studies. Model equations were solved using Abaqus v 6.11. The sensitivity of anterior and posterior vaginal wall geometry was calculated for different combinations tissue impairments under increasing intraabdominal pressure. Prolapse size was reported as pelvic organ prolapse quantification system (POP-Q) point at point Bp for rectocele and point Ba for cystocele. Results show that a rectocele resulted from impairments of the levator ani and posterior compartment support. For 20% levator and 85% posterior support impairments, simulated rectocele size (at POP-Q point: Bp) increased 0.29 mm/cm H2O without apical impairment and 0.36 mm/cm H2O with 60% apical impairment, as intraabdominal pressures increased from 0 to 150 cm H2O. Apical support impairment could result in the development of either a cystocele or rectocele. Simulated repair of posterior compartment support decreased rectocele but increased a preexisting cystocele. We conclude that development of rectocele and cystocele depend on the presence of anterior, posterior, levator and/or or apical support impairments, as well as the interaction of the prolapse with the opposing compartment.

  20. Replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome in RNase HI-deficient cells: multiple initiation regions and fork dynamics.

    PubMed

    Maduike, Nkabuije Z; Tehranchi, Ashley K; Wang, Jue D; Kreuzer, Kenneth N

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication in Escherichia coli is normally initiated at a single origin, oriC, dependent on initiation protein DnaA. However, replication can be initiated elsewhere on the chromosome at multiple ectopic oriK sites. Genetic evidence indicates that initiation from oriK depends on RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops), which are normally removed by enzymes such as RNase HI to prevent oriK from misfiring during normal growth. Initiation from oriK sites occurs in RNase HI-deficient mutants, and possibly in wild-type cells under certain unusual conditions. Despite previous work, the locations of oriK and their impact on genome stability remain unclear. We combined 2D gel electrophoresis and whole genome approaches to map genome-wide oriK locations. The DNA copy number profiles of various RNase HI-deficient strains contained multiple peaks, often in consistent locations, identifying candidate oriK sites. Removal of RNase HI protein also leads to global alterations of replication fork migration patterns, often opposite to normal replication directions, and presumably eukaryote-like replication fork merging. Our results have implications for genome stability, offering a new understanding of how RNase HI deficiency results in R-loop-mediated transcription-replication conflict, as well as inappropriate replication stalling or blockage at Ter sites outside of the terminus trap region and at ribosomal operons.

  1. 42 CFR 93.514 - Amendment to the charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.514 Amendment to the charge letter. (a) The ORI may amend the findings of research misconduct up to 30 days before the scheduled hearing. (b) The ALJ may...

  2. 42 CFR 93.514 - Amendment to the charge letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.514 Amendment to the charge letter. (a) The ORI may amend the findings of research misconduct up to 30 days before the scheduled hearing. (b) The ALJ may...

  3. 42 CFR 93.511 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.511 Prehearing conferences. (a) The ALJ must schedule an initial prehearing..., specification of disputes of fact and their materiality to the ORI findings of research misconduct and any...

  4. 42 CFR 93.511 - Prehearing conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.511 Prehearing conferences. (a) The ALJ must schedule an initial prehearing..., specification of disputes of fact and their materiality to the ORI findings of research misconduct and any...

  5. An Ultraviolet Study of Non-periodic Variability in Accreting Pre-Main Sequence Stars: UXors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, N. L.; Herbst, W.

    1994-05-01

    Many earlier type (K0 or hotter) pre-main sequence stars are known to occasionally and irregularly fade by as much as 2-3 magnitudes in V. Such excursions occur on timescales of ten to forty days. They include both G-type T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars. We propose UX Ori as a prototype for this class of variable stars and refer to them as UXors. We have used archival IUE spectra and a catalog of UBVRI photometry to study the variations of 5 such objects, namely: RY Lup, RY Tau, CO Ori, BF Ori, and UX Ori. The leading hypothesis for explaining their behavior is variable circumstellar obscuration. Relationships between UV spectral line fluxes and equivalent widths and V magnitude are found and displayed. Some shell features in UX Ori and BF Ori switch from absorption to emission during the minima. The equivalent width of these (emission) features [FeII(1,62,63) and MgII(1)] increases as the star fades. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the interval of 1200 to 8900 angstroms were constructed for several stars at different V magnitude light levels. A strong depression in the SED around 2200 angstroms, caused by iron lines is quite noticeable in UX Ori and BF Ori when the stars are bright. The source and location of the variable obscuring material is discussed.

  6. An Ultraviolet and Optical Study of Accreting Pre-Main-Sequence Stars: Uxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Nancy L.; Herbst, William

    1995-11-01

    UX Ori stars (UXors) are pre-main-sequence stars of both the Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri type which show aperiodic eclipse-like minima. Their variations have been attributed to occultations by circumstellar material. We use archival IUE spectra and a catalog of UBVRI photometry to study the variations of five such objects, namely, RY Lup, RY Tau, CO Ori, BF Ori, and UX Ori. Relationships between UV spectral line fluxes and equivalent widths and V magnitude are found and displayed. Some shell features in UX Ori and BF Ori switch from absorption to emission during the minima. The equivalent widths of the emission features increase as the star fades. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the interval of 1200-8900 Å were constructed for several stars at different V magnitude light levels. A strong depression in the SED around 2400 Å, caused primarily by iron absorption lines (the "iron curtain") is quite noticeable in UX Ori and BF Ori when the stars are bright, but is diminished or absent when faint. The data are discussed in the context of the variable circumstellar obscuration hypothesis and provide some additional support for it.

  7. Photographic observations of Theta-1 Orionis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, W. A.; Gull, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    Photographic observations of the eclipsing binary Theta-1 Ori A suggest a secondary minimum near phase 0.64 of its 65.43233-day period. This minimum may be wavelength dependent. The star Theta-1 Ori E is suspected of being variable.

  8. DNA binding site for a factor(s) required to initiate simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, M; DePamphilis, M L

    1986-01-01

    Efficient initiation of DNA replication in the absence of nonspecific DNA repair synthesis was obtained by using a modification of the system developed by J.J. Li and T.J. Kelly [(1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 6973-6977]. Circular double-stranded DNA plasmids replicated in extracts of CV-1 cells only when the plasmids contained the cis-acting origin sequence for simian virus 40 DNA replication (ori) and the extract contained simian virus 40 large tumor antigen. Competition between plasmids containing ori and plasmids carrying deletions in and about ori served to identify a sequence that binds the rate-limiting factor(s) required to initiate DNA replication. The minimum binding site (nucleotides 72-5243) encompassed one-half of the simian virus 40 ori sequence that is required for initiation of replication (ori-core) plus the contiguous sequence on the late gene side of ori-core containing G + C-rich repeats that facilitates initiation (ori-auxiliary). This initiation factor binding site was specific for the simian virus 40 ori region, even though it excluded the high-affinity large tumor antigen DNA binding sites. Images PMID:3006062

  9. Amplified Genes in Breast Cancer: Molecular Targets for Investigation and Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    Curvilinear , three - dimensional motion of chromatin domains and nucleoli in neuronal interphase ...et al., 1998). EBNA-1 may mediate the association between oriP vectors and chromatin in interphase nuclei as well, although we cannot microscopically...observe the association as chromatin fibers are decondensed in interphase nuclei . If this is the case, chromatin -associated oriP vectors

  10. Oridonin Attenuates Synaptic Loss and Cognitive Deficits in an Aβ1–42-Induced Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Li, Chaosheng; Hui, Zhen; Xu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic loss induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. In this study, we found that oridonin (Ori) rescued synaptic loss induced by Aβ1–42 in vivo and in vitro and attenuated the alterations in dendritic structure and spine density observed in the hippocampus of AD mice. In addition, Ori increased the expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin and promoted mitochondrial activity in the synaptosomes of AD mice. Ori also activated the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus of AD mice. Furthermore, in the Morris water maze test, Ori reduced latency and searching distance and increased the number of platform crosses in AD mice. These data suggest that Ori might prevent synaptic loss and improve behavioral symptoms in Aβ1–42-induced AD mice. PMID:26974541

  11. Maternal and neonatal health impact of obstetrical risk insurance scheme in Mauritania: a quasi experimental before-and-after study.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Aline; Ravit, Marion; Ridde, Valéry; Dossa, Inès; Bonnet, Emmanuel; Bedecarrats, Florent; Dumont, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    A variety of health financing schemes shaped on pre-payment scheme have been implemented across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to address the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In Mauritania, the Obstetric Risk Insurance package (ORI) focusing on maternal and perinatal health has been progressively implemented at the health district level since 2002. Here, our main objective was to assess the effectiveness of the ORI in increasing facility-based delivery rates, as well as increases in family planning, antenatal and postnatal care, caesarean delivery and neonatal health, from demographic and health survey data between 2002 and 2011. We also examined whether the effects of the ORI varied between strata of the population. The study was based on a quasi-experimental before-and-after design to assess the causal link between availability of ORI and increase in use of maternal health services and neonatal mortality. In combination with geographical information system, difference-in-differences and odd ratio approaches were used to address our objectives. Indicators of access to care for pregnant women and neonatal health and improved in both non-intervention and intervention groups during the study period. There was no global effect of the availability of ORI on facility-based delivery rates, nor on the use of antenatal and postnatal care services, except for qualified antenatal services. However, delivery rates in local health centres with ORI increased more rapidly than in those with no ORI, the contrary was shown for hospitals. Caesarean delivery and family planning decreased with ORI. Although late neonatal mortality rates remained low in the country, a significant decrease was seen in districts without ORI. Except for some strata of the population, ORI has not really met its objective of attracting more pregnant women towards facility-based health care.

  12. Micronutrient intake in advanced age: Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia ora Tonu, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ).

    PubMed

    Wham, Carol; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon A; Rolleston, Anna; Muru-Lanning, Marama; Hayman, Karen; Kerse, Ngaire; Adamson, Ashley

    2016-11-09

    A high prevalence of undernutrition has previously been reported in indigenous Māori (49 %) and non-Māori (38 %) octogenarians and may be associated with risk of micronutrient deficiencies. We examined vitamin and mineral intakes and the contributing food sources among 216 Māori and 362 non-Māori participating in Life and Living to Advanced age a Cohort Study in New Zealand, using a repeat 24-h multiple-pass recall. More than half of the Māori and non-Māori participants had intakes below the estimated average requirement from food alone for Ca, Mg and Se. Vitamin B6 (Māori women only), folate (women only), vitamin E (Māori women; all men) and Zn (men only) were low in these ethnic and sex subgroups. Women had intakes of higher nutrient density in folate, vitamin C, Ca, Mg, K, vitamin A (non-Māori) and β-carotene (Māori) compared with men (P<0·05). When controlling for age and physical function, β-carotene, folate, vitamin C, Ca and Mg were no longer significantly different, but vitamins B2, B12, E and D, Fe, Na, Se and Zn became significantly different for Māori between men and women. When controlling for age and physical function, vitamins A and C and Ca were no longer significantly different, but vitamin B2, Fe, Na and Zn became significantly different for non-Māori between men and women. For those who took nutritional supplements, Māori were less likely to be deficient in food alone intake of vitamin A, folate and Mg, whereas non-Maori were less likely to be deficient in intakes of Mg, K and Zn, but more likely to be deficient in vitamin B12 intake. A lack of harmonisation in nutrient recommendations hinders the interpretation of nutrient adequacy; nonetheless, Ca, Mg and Se are key micronutrients of concern. Milk and cheese were important contributions to Ca intake, whereas bread was a key source of Mg and Se. Examination of dietary intake related to biochemical status and health outcomes will establish the utility of these observations.

  13. Beneficial impacts of a national smokefree environments law on an indigenous population: a multifaceted evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Richard; Gifford, Heather; Waa, Andrew; Glover, Marewa; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background Smokefree environments legislation is increasingly being implemented around the world. Evaluations largely find that the legislation is popular, compliance is high and report improved air quality and reduced exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The impact of the legislation on disadvantaged groups, including indigenous peoples has not been explored. We present findings from a multifaceted evaluation of the impact of the smokefree workplace provisions of the New Zealand Smokefree Environments Amendment Act on Māori people in New Zealand. Māori are the indigenous people of New Zealand. The Smokefree Environments Amendment Act extended existing smokefree legislation to almost all indoor workplaces in December 2004 (including restaurants and pubs/bars). Methods Review of existing data and commissioned studies to identify evidence for the evaluation of the new legislation: including attitudes and support for the legislation; stakeholders views about the Act and the implementation process; impact on SHS exposure in workplaces and other settings; and impact on smoking-related behaviours. Results Support for the legislation was strong among Māori and reached 90% for smokefree restaurants and 84% for smokefree bars by 2006. Māori stakeholders interviewed were mostly supportive of the way the legislation had been introduced. Reported exposure to SHS in workplaces decreased similarly in Māori and non-Māori with 27% of employed adult Māori reporting SHS exposure indoors at work during the previous week in 2003 and 9% in 2006. Exposure to SHS in the home declined, and may have decreased more in Māori households containing one or more smokers. For example, the proportion of 14–15 year old Māori children reporting that smoking occurred in their home fell from 47% in 2001 to 37% in 2007. Similar reductions in socially-cued smoking occurred among Māori and non-Māori. Evidence for the effect on smoking prevalence was mixed. Māori responded to the new law with

  14. Size of the superior palpebral involuntary muscle (Müller muscle).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Kim, Dae Joong; Hwang, Se Ho

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the width and length of the superior palpebral muscle by using anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. Ten orbits of 5 adult Korean cadavers were used. Eyelids were cut in vertical planes through midpupilliary, medial limbus, and lateral limbus and in horizontal planes at the anterior border of the superior transverse ligament and 2 mm proximal to the upper tarsal border. Superior palpebral muscle was localized using mouse monoclonal anti-α-smooth muscle actin and counterstained with light green for collagen. In enlarged pictures of sections, widths, lengths, and thicknesses of the superior palpebral involuntary muscle were measured with a curved scale and were analyzed. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle was divided into superficial and deep parts below the superior transverse ligament. The levator aponeurosis originated from the superficial part and the superior palpebral muscle originated from the deep part of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. The aponeurosis was inserted into the upper border of tarsus. The superior palpebral muscle fibers arose 2.71 ± 0.64 mm posterior to the anterior border of the superior transverse ligament. The superior palpebral muscle was trapezoidal. The lengths of its sides were 15.58 ± 1.82 and 22.30 ± 5.25 mm, and its height was 13.70 ± 2.74 mm. The levator aponeurosis covered the superior palpebral muscle anteriorly. The width of the levator aponeurosis was approximately 4 mm wider than the superior palpebral muscle. The thicknesses of the superior palpebral muscle were 0.14 ± 0.13 mm at the anterior border of the superior transverse ligament, 0.45 ± 0.11 mm at the superior fornix level, and 0.10 ± 0.03 mm at the upper border of the tarsal plate. One vascular layer was between the levator aponeurosis and the superior palpebral muscle (upper vascular layer), and the other was between the superior palpebral muscle and the conjunctiva (lower vascular layer). At the superior

  15. Urban Rural Differences in Breast Cancer in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenson, Ross; Lao, Chunhuan; Elwood, Mark; Brown, Charis; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Many rural communities have poor access to health services due to a combination of distance from specialist services and a relative shortage of general practitioners. Our aims were to compare the characteristics of urban and rural women with breast cancer in New Zealand, to assess breast cancer-specific and all-cause survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model, and to assess whether the impact of rurality is different for Māori and New Zealand (NZ) European women. We found that rural women tended to be older and were more likely to be Māori. Overall there were no differences between urban and rural women with regards their survival. Rural Māori tended to be older, more likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease and less likely to be screen detected than urban Māori. Rural Māori women had inferior breast cancer-specific survival and all-cause survival at 10 years at 72.1% and 55.8% compared to 77.9% and 64.9% for urban Māori. The study shows that rather than being concerned that more needs to be done for rural women in general it is rural Māori women where we need to make extra efforts to ensure early stage at diagnosis and optimum treatment. PMID:27727190

  16. Combined off-resonance imaging and T2 relaxation in the rotating frame for positive contrast MR imaging of infection in a murine burn model

    PubMed Central

    Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Righi, Valeria; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Kesarwani, Meenu; He, Jianxin; Yasuhara, Shingo; Dai, George; Rahme, Laurence G.; Tzika, Aria A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To develop novel magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods to monitor accumulation of macrophages in inflammation and infection. Positive-contrast MR imaging provides an alternative to negative-contrast MRI, exploiting the chemical shift induced by ultra-small superparamagnetic iron-oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles to nearby water molecules. We introduce a novel combination of off-resonance (ORI) positive-contrast MRI and T2ρ relaxation in the rotating frame (ORI-T2ρ) for positive-contrast MR imaging of USPIO. Materials and Methods We tested ORI-T2ρ in phantoms and imaged in vivo the accumulation of USPIO-labeled macrophages at the infection site in a mouse model of burn trauma and infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA). PA infection is clinically important. The USPIO nanoparticles were injected directly in the animals in solution, and macrophage labeling occurred in vivo in the animal model. Results We observed a significant difference between ORI-T2ρ and ORI, which leads us to suggest that ORI-T2ρ is more sensitive in detecting USPIO signal. To this end, the ORI-T2ρ positive contrast method may prove to be of higher utility in future research. Conclusion Our results may have direct implications in the longitudinal monitoring of infection, and open perspectives for testing novel anti-infective compounds. PMID:21031524

  17. Dynamic organization of chromosomal DNA in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Niki, H; Yamaichi, Y; Hiraga, S

    2000-01-15

    We have revealed the subcellular localization of different DNA segments that are located at approximately 230-kb intervals on the Escherichia coli chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The series of chromosome segments is localized within the cell in the same order as the chromosome map. The large chromosome region including oriC shows similar localization patterns, which we call the Ori domain. In addition, the localization pattern of the large segment including dif is characteristic of the replication terminus region. The segment also shows similar localization patterns, which we call the Ter domain. In newborn cells, Ori and Ter domains of the chromosome are differentially localized near opposite cell poles. Subsequently, in the B period, the Ori domain moves toward mid-cell before the initiation of replication, and the Ter domain tends to relocate at mid-cell. An inversion mutant, in which the Ter domain is located close to oriC, shows abnormal subcellular localization of ori and dif segments, resulting in frequent production of anucleate cells. These studies thus suggest that the E. coli chromosome is organized to form a compacted ring structure with the Ori and Ter domains; these domains participate in the cell cycle-dependent localization of the chromosome.

  18. Identification of a thermophilic plasmid origin and its cloning within a new Thermus-E. coli shuttle vector.

    PubMed

    Wayne, J; Xu, S Y

    1997-08-22

    A pUC19-based vector has been generated for selecting functional thermophilic origins (oris) of Thermus ssp. Once combined with thermophilic DNA, the vector can be amplified in ampicillin resistant (Ap(R)) E. coli, prior to transformation and kanamycin (Km) selection in Thermus thermophilus. The Km(R) Thermus transformants replicate any newly-formed shuttle vectors via introduced thermophilic oris. Using this "ori-selecting" vector, three novel thermophilic oris were cloned from randomly digested Thermus cryptic plasmid DNA. These shuttle vectors are useful for genetic analyses, as well as protein engineering within thermophiles. The smallest ori-containing sequence of 4.2 kb has been subcloned, sequenced, and further refined to 2.3 kb. A significant ORF of 341 amino acids (aa), with a Thermus promoter and RBS, is found within the thermophilic ori. Deleting part of this ORF abolishes the shuttle vector's ability to replicate in T. thermophilus. Therefore, we postulate that this ORF encodes a replication protein (Rep) necessary for thermophilic plasmid replication. The thermophilic ori also contains two sequences which resemble DnaA boxes.

  19. Genomewide and biochemical analyses of DNA-binding activity of Cdc6/Orc1 and Mcm proteins in Pyrococcus sp.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Fujihiko; Glatigny, Annie; Mucchielli-Giorgi, Marie-Hélène; Agier, Nicolas; Delacroix, Hervé; Marisa, Laetitia; Durosay, Patrice; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Aggerbeck, Lawrence; Forterre, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The origin of DNA replication (oriC) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi contains multiple ORB and mini-ORB repeats that show sequence similarities to other archaeal ORB (origin recognition box). We report here that the binding of Cdc6/Orc1 to a 5 kb region containing oriC in vivo was highly specific both in exponential and stationary phases, by means of chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with hybridization on a whole genome microarray (ChIP-chip). The oriC region is practically the sole binding site for the Cdc6/Orc1, thereby distinguishing oriC in the 1.8 M bp genome. We found that the 5 kb region contains a previously unnoticed cluster of ORB and mini-ORB repeats in the gene encoding the small subunit (dp1) for DNA polymerase II (PolD). ChIP and the gel retardation analyses further revealed that Cdc6/Orc1 specifically binds both of the ORB clusters in oriC and dp1. The organization of the ORB clusters in the dp1 and oriC is conserved during evolution in the order Thermococcales, suggesting a role in the initiation of DNA replication. Our ChIP-chip analysis also revealed that Mcm alters the binding specificity to the oriC region according to the growth phase, consistent with its role as a licensing factor.

  20. CHANDRA REVEALS VARIABLE MULTI-COMPONENT X-RAY EMISSION FROM FU ORIONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Guedel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

    2010-10-20

    FU Orionis is the prototype of a class of eruptive young stars ('FUors') characterized by strong optical outbursts. We recently completed an exploratory survey of FUors using XMM-Newton to determine their X-ray properties, about which little was previously known. The prototype FU Ori and V1735 Cyg were detected. The X-ray spectrum of FU Ori was found to be unusual, consisting of a cool moderately absorbed component plus a hotter component viewed through an absorption column density that is an order of magnitude higher. We present here a sensitive (99 ks) follow-up X-ray observation of FU Ori obtained at higher angular resolution with Chandra ACIS-S. The unusual multi-component spectrum is confirmed. The hot component is centered on FU Ori and dominates the emission above 2 keV. It is variable (a signature of magnetic activity) and is probably coronal emission originating close to FU Ori's surface viewed through cool gas in FU Ori's strong wind or accretion stream. In contrast, the X-ray centroid of the soft emission below 2 keV is offset 0.''20 to the southeast of FU Ori, toward the near-IR companion (FU Ori S). This offset amounts to slightly less than half the separation between the two stars. The most likely explanation for the offset is that the companion contributes significantly to the softer X-ray emission below 2 keV (and weakly above 2 keV). The superimposed X-ray contributions from FU Ori and the companion resolve the paradox posed by XMM-Newton of an apparently single X-ray source viewed through two different absorption columns.

  1. Identification of metabolites of oridonin in rats with a single run on UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS system based on multiple mass defect filter data acquisition and multiple data processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tingting; Jin, Yiran; Ma, Yinghua; Xie, Weiwei; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Kerong; Zhang, Lantong; Du, Yingfeng

    2015-12-01

    Oridonin (ORI) is an active natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid ingredient originating from well-known traditional Chinese herb medicine and is expected to be pursued as a new anticancer agent. In the present study, a novel and efficient approach was developed for in vivo screening and identification of ORI metabolites using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS). This analytical strategy was as follows: an effective on-line data acquisition method multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) combined with dynamic background subtraction (DBS), was developed to trace all of potential metabolites of ORI. The MMDF and DBS method could trigger an information dependent acquisition scan, which could give the information of low-level metabolites masked by background noise and endogenous components in complex matrix. Moreover, the sensitive and specific multiple data-mining techniques including extracted ion chromatography, mass defect filtering, product ion filtering and neutral loss filtering were employed to identify the metabolites of ORI. Then, structures for the metabolites were successfully assigned based on accurate masses, the mass fragmentation of ORI and metabolic knowledge. Finally, an important parameter Clog P was used to estimate the retention time of isomers. Based on the proposed strategy, 16 phase I and 2 phase II metabolites were detected in rats after oral administration of ORI. The main biotransformation route of ORI was identified as reduction, oxidation, dehydroxylation and glucuronic acid conjugation. This is the first study of ORI metabolism in vivo. This study not only proposed a practical strategy for rapidly screening and identifying metabolites, but also provided useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of ORI in vivo. At the same time this methodology can be widely applied for the structural characterization of the metabolites

  2. Chandra Reveals Variable Multi-component X-ray Emission From FU Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Güdel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

    2010-10-01

    FU Orionis is the prototype of a class of eruptive young stars ("FUors") characterized by strong optical outbursts. We recently completed an exploratory survey of FUors using XMM-Newton to determine their X-ray properties, about which little was previously known. The prototype FU Ori and V1735 Cyg were detected. The X-ray spectrum of FU Ori was found to be unusual, consisting of a cool moderately absorbed component plus a hotter component viewed through an absorption column density that is an order of magnitude higher. We present here a sensitive (99 ks) follow-up X-ray observation of FU Ori obtained at higher angular resolution with Chandra ACIS-S. The unusual multi-component spectrum is confirmed. The hot component is centered on FU Ori and dominates the emission above 2 keV. It is variable (a signature of magnetic activity) and is probably coronal emission originating close to FU Ori's surface viewed through cool gas in FU Ori's strong wind or accretion stream. In contrast, the X-ray centroid of the soft emission below 2 keV is offset 0farcs20 to the southeast of FU Ori, toward the near-IR companion (FU Ori S). This offset amounts to slightly less than half the separation between the two stars. The most likely explanation for the offset is that the companion contributes significantly to the softer X-ray emission below 2 keV (and weakly above 2 keV). The superimposed X-ray contributions from FU Ori and the companion resolve the paradox posed by XMM-Newton of an apparently single X-ray source viewed through two different absorption columns.

  3. Historical model for editor and Office of Research Integrity cooperation in handling allegations, investigation, and retraction in a contentious (Abbs) case of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Price, Alan R; Daroff, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between a journal editor and the federal Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in addressing investigations of research misconduct, each performing their own responsibilities while keeping each other informed of events and evidence, can be critical to the professional and regulatory resolution of a case. This paper describes the history of one of ORI's most contentious investigations that involved falsification of research on Parkinson's disease patients by James Abbs, Professor of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, published in the journal Neurology, which was handled cooperatively by the authors, who were the chief ORI investigator and the Editor-in-Chief of Neurology, respectively.

  4. The Relationship Between Oxygen Reserve Index and Arterial Partial Pressure of Oxygen During Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Dorotta, Ihab L.; Wells, Briana; Juma, David; Applegate, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of intraoperative pulse oximetry (Spo2) enhances hypoxia detection and is associated with fewer perioperative hypoxic events. However, Spo2 may be reported as 98% when arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pao2) is as low as 70 mm Hg. Therefore, Spo2 may not provide advance warning of falling arterial oxygenation until Pao2 approaches this level. Multiwave pulse co-oximetry can provide a calculated oxygen reserve index (ORI) that may add to information from pulse oximetry when Spo2 is >98%. This study evaluates the ORI to Pao2 relationship during surgery. METHODS: We studied patients undergoing scheduled surgery in which arterial catheterization and intraoperative arterial blood gas analysis were planned. Data from multiple pulse co-oximetry sensors on each patient were continuously collected and stored on a research computer. Regression analysis was used to compare ORI with Pao2 obtained from each arterial blood gas measurement and changes in ORI with changes in Pao2 from sequential measurements. Linear mixed-effects regression models for repeated measures were then used to account for within-subject correlation across the repeatedly measured Pao2 and ORI and for the unequal time intervals of Pao2 determination over elapsed surgical time. Regression plots were inspected for ORI values corresponding to Pao2 of 100 and 150 mm Hg. ORI and Pao2 were compared using mixed-effects models with a subject-specific random intercept. RESULTS: ORI values and Pao2 measurements were obtained from intraoperative data collected from 106 patients. Regression analysis showed that the ORI to Pao2 relationship was stronger for Pao2 to 240 mm Hg (r2 = 0.536) than for Pao2 over 240 mm Hg (r2 = 0.0016). Measured Pao2 was ≥100 mm Hg for all ORI over 0.24. Measured Pao2 was ≥150 mm Hg in 96.6% of samples when ORI was over 0.55. A random intercept variance component linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures indicated that Pao2 was significantly related to ORI

  5. IgG4 Staining in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Irwin; Rajak, Saul N; Kearney, Daniel J; Andrew, Nicholas H; Selva, Dinesh

    2015-09-10

    IgG4-related ophthalmic disease is increasingly widely recognized. Moreover, IgG4 staining can occur in other inflammatory diseases. The authors report a case of IgG4 staining of an enlarged, inflamed levator palpebrae superioris in a patient with a past history of thyroid eye disease. A 78-year-old woman with quiescent hyperthyroidism had clinical and radiological evidence of levator palpebrae superioris inflammation without superior rectus involvement. A biopsy was consistent with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease. There was a marked but incomplete response to an orbital injection of triamcinolone. The authors discuss the association between thyroid eye disease and IgG4 staining and the diagnostic issues that arise when IgG4-related ophthalmic disease criteria are fulfilled in patients with other orbital inflammatory conditions.

  6. Evolution of the head-trunk interface in tetrapod vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Mohaddes, Zahra; Hanken, James

    2016-04-19

    Vertebrate neck musculature spans the transition zone between head and trunk. The extent to which the cucullaris muscle is a cranial muscle allied with the gill levators of anamniotes or is instead a trunk muscle is an ongoing debate. Novel computed tomography datasets reveal broad conservation of the cucullaris in gnathostomes, including coelacanth and caecilian, two sarcopterygians previously thought to lack it. In chicken, lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) adjacent to occipital somites is a recently identified embryonic source of cervical musculature. We fate-map this mesoderm in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which retains external gills, and demonstrate its contribution to posterior gill-levator muscles and the cucullaris. Accordingly, LPM adjacent to the occipital somites should be regarded as posterior cranial mesoderm. The axial position of the head-trunk border in axolotl is congruent between LPM and somitic mesoderm, unlike in chicken and possibly other amniotes.

  7. Testosterone enhances C-14 2-deoxyglucose uptake by striated muscle. [sex hormones and muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toop, J.; Max, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of testosterone propionate (TP) on C-14 2-deoxyglucose (C-14 2DG) uptake was studied in the rat levator ani muscle in vivo using the autoradiographic technique. Following a delay of 1 to 3 h after injecting TP, the rate of C-14 2DG uptake in experimental animals began to increase and continued to increase for at least 20 h. The label, which corresponds to C-14 2-deoxyglucose 6-phosphate, as demonstrated by chromatographic analysis of muscle extracts, was uniformly distributed over the entire muscle and was predominantly in muscle fibers, although nonmuscular elements were also labeled. The 1 to 3 h time lag suggests that the TP effect may be genomic, acting via androgen receptors, rather than directly on muscle membranes. Acceleration of glucose uptake may be an important early event in the anabolic response of the rat levator ani muscle to androgens.

  8. Branchial arch muscle innervation by the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagal (X) nerves in tetraodontiformes, with special reference to muscle homologies.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio

    2008-06-01

    Branchial arch muscle innervation by the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagal (X) nerves in 10 tetraodontiform families and five outgroup taxa was examined, with special reference to muscle homologies. Basic innervation patterns and their variations were described for all muscle elements (except gill filament muscles). In the tetraodontids Takifugu poecilonotus and Canthigaster rivulata, diodontid Diodon holocanthus, and molid Mola mola, levator externus 4 was innervated by the 3rd vagal branchial trunk (BX3) in addition to BX2, owing to strong posterior expansion of the muscle. Based on nerve innervation, migrations of the muscle attachment sites (i.e., origins and insertions) were recognized in levator internus 2 (in Mola mola), obliquus dorsalis 3 (in Ostracion immaculatus and Canthigaster rivulata), and obliquus ventralis 2 (in Stephanolepis cirrhifer), muscle topologies not necessarily being indicative of homologies. Embryonic origin of the retractor dorsalis and parallel attainment of the swimbladder muscle within the order were also discussed.

  9. Prevalence and associated factors of blepharoptosis in Korean adult population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Cho, J; Zhao, D; Woo, K I; Kim, Y-D; Kim, S; Yang, S W

    2017-03-24

    PurposeThis study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of involutional blepharoptosis in a nationwide representative sample in Korea.MethodsCross-sectional study 20 941 Korean men and women 40 years of age and older who participated in last 2 years (2008 and 2009) of the 4th wave of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV and the first 2 years (2010 and 2011) of KNHANES V. Ocular examinations were performed by ophthalmologists trained in procedure and grading methods, and blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance <2 mm on either eye.ResultsThe prevalence of involutional blepharoptosis in the Korean adult was 13.5% (95% CI: 12.1%, 14.9%). It was increasing along with aging (5.4% among 40's and 32.8% in people over 70 years old). A statistically significant negative association between levator function and blepharoptosis was found. With right eye, while only 5.4% (95% CI: 4.5%, 6.2%) had blepharoptosis among people whose levator function was excellent (≥12 mm), 71.4% (95% CI: 60.0%, 85.9%) of people whose levator function was poor (≤4 mm) had blepharoptosis. Hypertension, diabetes, higher body mass index (BMI), and lower education had statistically significant association with blepharoptosis adjusting all other confounders.ConclusionsThe distribution and proportional changes of levator function and marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) with aging implicate a contributory role of muscular degeneration. Strong association with hypertension, diabetes, BMI, and education level suggests that etiology of involutional blepharoptosis would be multifactorial and further investigation would be necessary to determine precise mechanism and contribution of factors.Eye advance online publication, 24 March 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.43.

  10. A rare case of Enterococcus faecalis-induced orbital cellulitis and myositis

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Piyush; Ichhpujani, Parul; Bansal, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infection of soft tissue behind the orbital septum. Common pathogens isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. It is a straightforward diagnosis and usually responds to empirical treatment without any sequela. We report a case of orbital cellulitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis, which was complicated by myositis of levator palpebrae superioris. To the best of our knowledge, only one case report exists dating way back to 1986. PMID:27688288

  11. The oculocardiac reflex in aponeurotic blepharoptosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Uda, Hirokazu; Sugawara, Yasusih; Sarukawa, Syunji; Sunaga, Ataru

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the oculocardiac reflex (OCR) and blepharoptosis surgery for safe eyelid surgery. Fifty-four consecutive patients with bilateral aponeurotic blepharoptosis were enrolled in this study. Changes in electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring were recorded during surgery. Preoperative pressing on the globe and intraoperative stretching of the levator aponeurosis were also carried out and the occurrence rate of the OCR was recorded. A positive OCR was observed in 12 patients (22.2%) in the preoperative globe-pressing test, whereas a positive OCR was observed in 22 patients (40.7%) in the levator-stretching test. The levator-stretching test did not indicate a significant difference in the rate of heart rate decrease with respect to laterality. No correlation was observed between age and the occurrence of OCR. On the other hand, there was a significant difference in the percentage of heart rate decrease between patients with positive OCR and negative OCR as determined in the globe-pressing test (mean = 13.1% vs. 5.4%). During the practical operative manoeuvre, no bradycardia was observed in any case. This study confirmed that a rapid and strong traction of levator aponeurosis induces the OCR regardless of laterality and age. Atraumatic and gentle handling are essential to prevent OCR. The preoperative globe-pressing test may be an index of the OCR in reflex-prone patients. Intraoperative ECG monitoring will be useful for early onset detection, although positive OCR was not observed in any patient during the practical surgical manoeuvre.

  12. Genetic Studies of Strabismus, Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders (CCDDs), and Their Associated Anomalies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-16

    Congenital Fibrosis of Extraocular Muscles; Duane Retraction Syndrome; Duane Radial Ray Syndrome; Mobius Syndrome; Brown Syndrome; Marcus Gunn Syndrome; Strabismus Congenital; Horizontal Gaze Palsy; Horizontal Gaze Palsy With Progressive Scoliosis; Facial Palsy; Facial Paresis, Hereditary, Congenital; Third Nerve Palsy; Fourth Nerve Palsy; Sixth Nerve Palsy; Synkinesis; Ocular Motility Disorders; Levator-Medial Rectus Synkinesis; Athabaskan Brainstem Dysgenesis; Tongue Paralysis; Ninth Nerve Disorder; Fifth Nerve Palsy; Seventh Nerve Palsy; Eleventh Nerve Disorder; Twelfth Nerve Disorder; Vagus Nerve Paralysis; Moebius Sequence

  13. Pubic Bone Injuries after First Childbirth: Utility of MR in detection and differential diagnosis of structural injury

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Catherine; Jacobson, Jon A.; Low, Lisa Kane; Park, Lee; DeLancey, John; Miller, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate utility of MR in diagnosing structural injury in primiparous women with pelvic floor injury risks. Methods Observational study of 77 women with 3T MR imaging after delivery. Women (n=45) were operationally defined as High Risk for levator ani muscle tears (2nd stage labor> 150 minutes, anal sphincter tear, forceps, age> 35, birth weight > 4000 grams) or Low Risk (n=32): vaginally delivered without these risk factors (n=12); delivered by cesarean after 2nd stage labor >150 minutes (n=14), and cesarean without labor (n=6). All women were imaged using MR fluid sensitive sequences. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed images for bone marrow edema, fracture, pubic symphysis measurements, and levator ani tear. Results MR imaging showed pubic bone fractures in 38% of women at High Risk and 13% of at Low Risk for pelvic floor injury (χ2(3)= 9.27, p=0.03). Levator ani muscle tears were present in 44% of the High Risk and 9% of Low Risk women (X2(3)=11.57, p=0.010). Bone marrow edema in the pubic bones was present in 61% of women studied across delivery categories. Complex patterns of injury included combinations of bone marrow edema, fractures, levator ani tears and pubic symphysis injuries. No MR documented injuries were present in 18% of women at High Risk and 44% at Low Risk (χ2(1)=6.2, p=.013). Conclusions Criteria identifying primiparous women at risk for pelvic floor injury can predict increased risk of bone and soft tissues changes at the pubic symphysis. Fluid sensitive MR imaging has utility for differential diagnosis of structural injury in postpartum women. PMID:21728205

  14. Emotional Empathy and Facial Mimicry for Static and Dynamic Facial Expressions of Fear and Disgust.

    PubMed

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions. Moreover, we tested whether emotional empathy modulated facial mimicry for emotional facial expressions. In accordance with our predictions, the highly empathic group responded with larger activity in the corrugator supercilii and levator labii muscles. Moreover, dynamic compared to static facial expressions of fear revealed enhanced mimicry in the high-empathic group in the frontalis and corrugator supercilii muscles. In the low-empathic group the facial reactions were not differentiated between fear and disgust for both dynamic and static facial expressions. We conclude that highly empathic subjects are more sensitive in their facial reactions to the facial expressions of fear and disgust compared to low empathetic counterparts. Our data confirms that personal characteristics, i.e., empathy traits as well as modality of the presented stimuli, modulate the strength of facial mimicry. In addition, measures of EMG activity of the levator labii and frontalis muscles may be a useful index of empathic responses of fear and disgust.

  15. Posterior Compartment Anatomy as seen in MRI and 3-D Reconstruction from Asymptomatic Nulliparas

    PubMed Central

    HSU, Yvonne; LEWICKY-GAUPP, Christina; De LANCEY, John O.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify characteristic anatomical features of the posterior compartment using MR cross-sectional anatomy and 3-D modeling. Study Design Supine, static proton-density MR images of 20 nulliparas were analyzed. MR images were used to create models in a selected exemplar. Results The compartment’s upper, mid, and lower segments are best seen in the axial plane. It is bounded inferiorly by the perineal body, ventrally by the posterior vaginal wall and dorsally by the levator ani muscles and coccyx. In the upper portion, the compartment is bordered laterally by the uterosacral ligaments while in the mid portion, there is more direct contact with the lateral levator ani muscles. In the lower portion, the contact becomes obliterated as the vagina and levator ani muscles become fused to one another and to the perineal body. Conclusion The posterior compartment has characteristic anatomic features in MR cross-sectional anatomy that can be further elucidated and integrated with 3-D anatomy. PMID:18241813

  16. Emotional Empathy and Facial Mimicry for Static and Dynamic Facial Expressions of Fear and Disgust

    PubMed Central

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions. Moreover, we tested whether emotional empathy modulated facial mimicry for emotional facial expressions. In accordance with our predictions, the highly empathic group responded with larger activity in the corrugator supercilii and levator labii muscles. Moreover, dynamic compared to static facial expressions of fear revealed enhanced mimicry in the high-empathic group in the frontalis and corrugator supercilii muscles. In the low-empathic group the facial reactions were not differentiated between fear and disgust for both dynamic and static facial expressions. We conclude that highly empathic subjects are more sensitive in their facial reactions to the facial expressions of fear and disgust compared to low empathetic counterparts. Our data confirms that personal characteristics, i.e., empathy traits as well as modality of the presented stimuli, modulate the strength of facial mimicry. In addition, measures of EMG activity of the levator labii and frontalis muscles may be a useful index of empathic responses of fear and disgust. PMID:27933022

  17. Role of pelvic floor in lower urinary tract function.

    PubMed

    Chermansky, Christopher J; Moalli, Pamela A

    2016-10-01

    The pelvic floor plays an integral part in lower urinary tract storage and evacuation. Normal urine storage necessitates that continence be maintained with normal urethral closure and urethral support. The endopelvic fascia of the anterior vaginal wall, its connections to the arcus tendineous fascia pelvis (ATFP), and the medial portion of the levator ani muscles must remain intact to provide normal urethral support. Thus, normal pelvic floor function is required for urine storage. Normal urine evacuation involves a series of coordinated events, the first of which involves complete relaxation of the external urethral sphincter and levator ani muscles. Acquired dysfunction of these muscles will initially result in sensory urgency and detrusor overactivity; however, with time the acquired voiding dysfunction can result in intermittent urine flow and incomplete bladder emptying, progressing to urinary retention in severe cases. This review will start with a discussion of normal pelvic floor anatomy and function. Next various injuries to the pelvic floor will be reviewed. The dysfunctional pelvic floor will be covered subsequently, with a focus on levator ani spasticity and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Finally, future research directions of the interaction between the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract function will be discussed.

  18. Changes in facial electromyographic activity in spider-phobic girls after psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leutgeb, Verena; Schienle, Anne

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies of spider phobia have indicated that disgust is a crucial disorder-relevant emotion and that the facial electromyogram (EMG) of the levator labii region is a reliable disgust indicator. The present investigation focused on EMG effects of psychotherapy in thirty girls (aged between 8 and 14 years) suffering from spider phobia. They were presented with phobia-relevant, generally fear-inducing, disgust-inducing and affectively neutral pictures in a first EMG session. Subsequently, patients were randomly assigned to either a therapy group or a waiting-list group. Therapy-group participants received a single session of exposure therapy in vivo. One week later a second EMG session was conducted. Patients of the waiting-list group received exposure therapy after the second EMG session. After therapy, the girls were able to hold a living spider in their hands and rated spiders more positive, and less arousing, fear- and disgust-inducing. Moreover, they showed a reduction of average levator labii activity in response to pictures of spiders, reflecting the reduction of feelings of disgust. A positive side effect of the therapy was a significant drop in overall disgust proneness and a decreased average activity of the levator labii muscle in response to generally disgust-inducing pictures. Results emphasize the role of disgust feelings in spider-phobic children and suggest that overall disgust proneness should also be targeted in therapy.

  19. Anococcygeal Raphe Revisited: A Histological Study Using Mid-Term Human Fetuses and Elderly Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinichi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated the morphology of the anococcygeal ligament. As the anococcygeal ligament and raphe are often confused, the concept of the anococcygeal raphe needs to be re-examined from the perspective of fetal development, as well as in terms of adult morphology. Materials and Methods We examined the horizontal sections of 15 fetuses as well as adult histology. From cadavers, we obtained an almost cubic tissue mass containing the dorsal wall of the anorectum, the coccyx and the covering skin. Most sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Masson-trichrome solution. Results The adult ligament contained both smooth and striated muscle fibers. A similar band-like structure was seen in fetuses, containing: 1) smooth muscle fibers originating from the longitudinal muscle coat of the anal canal and 2) striated muscle fibers from the external anal sphincter (EAS). However, in fetuses, the levator ani muscle did not attach to either the band or the coccyx. Along and around the anococcygeal ligament, we did not find any aponeurotic tissue with transversely oriented fibers connecting bilateral levator ani slings. Instead, in adults, a fibrous tissue mass was located at a gap between bilateral levator ani slings; this site corresponded to the dorsal side of the ligament and the EAS in the immediately deep side of the natal skin cleft. Conclusion We hypothesize that a classically described raphe corresponds to the specific subcutaneous tissue on the superficial or dorsal side of the anococcygeal ligament. PMID:22665356

  20. Apraxia of lid opening.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Marta; Teimory, Masoud

    2007-07-01

    We describe eyelid movement abnormalities in an 80-year-old man with apraxia of lid opening (ALO), resulting from involuntary levator palpebrae inhibition (ILPI) and pretarsal orbicularis oculi (OO) contraction. He was unable to open his lids at will following closure. Attempted eye opening resulted in forceful contraction of the frontalis muscle, backward thrusting of the head and lengthened lid closure. The inability to reopen the lids was not evident during spontaneous reflex blinking and he had no difficulty in keeping the lids open once they had been manually lifted up. There were no episodes of involuntary drooping of the eyelids or spasmodic contraction of the OO causing involuntary eyelid closure. Pursuit eye movements were not restricted, the vestibulo-ocular reflex was preserved and both horizontal and vertical saccades were normal. Despite the clinically visible persistence of pretarsal OO activity, treatment with botulinum toxin injections in the pretarsal and preseptal portions of the muscle did not reduce his difficulty in initiating lid elevation but he found some benefit using lid crutches. ALO is thought to be due to an abnormality in the supranuclear control of eyelid movement. ILPI can present either isolated or combined with blepharospasm. The excitatory levator palpebrae response necessary to lift the lids up is likely to be in very close connection with the OO antagonistic inhibitory response. Alterations in one or another pre-motor structure may result in inability to raise the lids due to inhibition of the levator palpebrae as well as persistence of the pretarsal OO.

  1. Which Stars Are Ionizing the Orion Nebula?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O’Dell, C. R.; Kollatschny, W.; Ferland, G. J.

    2017-03-01

    The common assumption that {θ }1 {Ori} {{C}} is the dominant ionizing source for the Orion Nebula is critically examined. This assumption underlies much of the existing analysis of the nebula. In this paper we establish through comparison of the relative strengths of emission lines with expectations from Cloudy models and through the direction of the bright edges of proplyds that {θ }2 {Ori} {{A}}, which lies beyond the Bright Bar, also plays an important role. {θ }1 {Ori} {{C}} does dominate ionization in the inner part of the Orion Nebula, but outside of the Bright Bar as far as the southeast boundary of the Extended Orion Nebula, {θ }2 {Ori} {{A}} is the dominant source. In addition to identifying the ionizing star in sample regions, we were able to locate those portions of the nebula in 3D. This analysis illustrates the power of MUSE spectral imaging observations to identify sources of ionization in extended regions.

  2. 42 CFR 93.317 - Retention and custody of the research misconduct proceeding record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... misconduct allegation covered by this part, including the research records and evidence, to perform forensic or other analyses or as otherwise needed to conduct an HHS inquiry or investigation or for ORI...

  3. 42 CFR 93.317 - Retention and custody of the research misconduct proceeding record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... misconduct allegation covered by this part, including the research records and evidence, to perform forensic or other analyses or as otherwise needed to conduct an HHS inquiry or investigation or for ORI...

  4. 42 CFR 93.317 - Retention and custody of the research misconduct proceeding record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... misconduct allegation covered by this part, including the research records and evidence, to perform forensic or other analyses or as otherwise needed to conduct an HHS inquiry or investigation or for ORI...

  5. 42 CFR 93.317 - Retention and custody of the research misconduct proceeding record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... misconduct allegation covered by this part, including the research records and evidence, to perform forensic or other analyses or as otherwise needed to conduct an HHS inquiry or investigation or for ORI...

  6. 42 CFR 93.507 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.507 Ex parte communications. (a) No party, attorney, or other...

  7. 42 CFR 93.521 - Correction of the transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.521 Correction of the transcript. (a) At any time, but not later than...

  8. 42 CFR 93.522 - Filing post-hearing briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.522 Filing post-hearing briefs. (a) After the hearing and under a...

  9. 42 CFR 93.522 - Filing post-hearing briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.522 Filing post-hearing briefs. (a) After the hearing and under a...

  10. 42 CFR 93.521 - Correction of the transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.521 Correction of the transcript. (a) At any time, but not later than...

  11. 42 CFR 93.513 - Submission of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.513 Submission of witness...

  12. 42 CFR 93.508 - Filing, forms, and service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.508 Filing, forms, and service. (a) Filing. (1) Unless the ALJ...

  13. 42 CFR 93.508 - Filing, forms, and service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.508 Filing, forms, and service. (a) Filing. (1) Unless the ALJ...

  14. 42 CFR 93.513 - Submission of witness lists, witness statements, and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.513 Submission of witness...

  15. 42 CFR 93.507 - Ex parte communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.507 Ex parte communications. (a) No party, attorney, or other...

  16. Towards an indigenous science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    1996-06-01

    The recent development of a national science curriculum in Māori opened up space to contest whose knowledge and whose ways of knowing are included. This paper outlines the background to the curriculum development work in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous Māori people and science education. Concern is expressed about the fitting of one cultural framework into another and questions are raised about the approach used in the development of the science curriculum. Further research in the area of language, culture and science education is discussed along with how Māori might move forward in the endeavour of developing a curriculum that reflects Māori culture and language.

  17. Complainant issues in research misconduct: the office of research integrity experience.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Chris B

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the experiences of the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) with issues involving complainants who make allegations of research misconduct. The paper describes the legal framework for complainant issues, the various roles of the complainant as the allegation of misconduct proceeds through the steps of investigation and resolution, how allegations of retaliation against the complainant are handled, the responsibilities of ORI and of the research institution where the alleged misconduct occurred, and ORI's experience with several cases of alleged retaliation. In each of these areas, the paper attempts to provide guidance to prospective complainants, research institutions, and other interested persons on effective ways to approach the various problems and concerns that arise, while maintaining a balance between the needs of the complainant, the accused, the research institution handling the allegation, and ORI.

  18. The abundance of interstellar oxygen toward Orion: Evidence for recent infall?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, David M.; Jura, M.; Hawkins, Isabel; Cardelli, Jason A.

    1994-01-01

    We present high S/N (greater than 800) Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) observations of the weak interstellar O I lambda 1356 absorption in the low-density sight lines toward iota Ori and kappa Ori. By comparing these data with observations toward more reddened stars, we find no evidence of density-dependent depletion from the gas phase for oxygen. The derived total oxygen abundance (gas plus grains) towards iota Ori and kappa Ori is consistent with stellar and nebular determinations in Orion at a level that is one-half the solar value. We speculate that the O/H abundance ratio is lower in Orion compared to the Sun because the local Milky Way has suffered a recent infall of metal-poor material, perhaps from the Magellanic Stream.

  19. 78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... Manager, DNA Extraction and Staging Laboratory (DESL), SAIC-Frederick, Inc., the Operations and Technical..., ORI found that Respondent fabricated the quantitative and qualitative data for RNA and DNA...

  20. High efficiency of replication and expression of foreign genes in SV40-transformed human fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Boast, S; La Mantia, G; Lania, L; Blasi, F

    1983-01-01

    Human fibroblasts (HF) were transformed in vitro with origin-defective SV40 DNA (ori-) using the calcium phosphate co-precipitation technique. The SV40 ori- transformed human cells (HSF) were able to replicate efficiently a recombinant DNA molecule containing the ori sequence of SV40 DNA. Transfection of HFS with pTBC1, a recombinant pi vx plasmid containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene and the ori SV40 sequences, results in high levels of TK mRNA of correct size. The pTBC1 plasmid does not appear to contain 'poison' sequences and can be efficiently re-established in Escherichia coli after replication in human cells. This host vector system may be of great usefulness in studying the expression of human genes in human cells. Images Fig. 2. Figure 3. PMID:6321161

  1. 25 Orionis: A Kinematically Distinct 10 Myr Old Group in Orion OB1a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño, César; Hartmann, Lee; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Vivas, A. Katherina; Furesz, Gabor; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    We report here on the photometric and kinematic properties of a well-defined group of nearly 200 low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, concentrated within ~1° of the early-B star 25 Ori, in the Orion OB1a subassociation. We refer to this stellar aggregate as the 25 Orionis group. The group also harbors the Herbig Ae/Be star V346 Ori and a dozen other early-type stars with photometry, parallaxes, and some with IR excess emission, indicative of group membership. The number of high- and low-mass stars is in agreement with expectations from a standard initial mass function. The velocity distribution for the low-mass stars shows a narrow peak at 19.7 km s-1, offset ~-10 km s-1 from the velocity characterizing the younger stars of the Ori OB1b subassociation, and -4 km s-1 from the velocity of widely spread young stars of the Ori OB1a population; this result provides new and compelling evidence that the 25 Ori group is a distinct kinematic entity, and that considerable space and velocity structure is present in the Ori OB1a subassociation. The low-mass members follow a well-defined band in the color-magnitude diagram, consistent with an isochronal age of ~7-10 Myr. The ~2 time drop in the overall Li I equivalent widths and accretion fraction between the younger Ori OB1b and the 25 Ori group is consistent with the latter being significantly older. In a simple-minded kinematic evolution scenario, the 25 Ori group may represent the evolved counterpart of the younger σ Ori cluster. The 25 Ori stellar aggregate is the most populous ~10 Myr sample yet known within 500 pc, setting it as an excellent laboratory to study the evolution of solar-like stars and protoplanetary disks. Based on observations obtained at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela, operated by CIDA for the Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona; and the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory of

  2. Stars of type MS with evidence of white dwarf companions. [IUE, Main Sequence (MS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peery, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A search for white dwarf companions of MS-type stars was conducted, using IUE. The overendowments of these stars in typical S-process nuclides suggest that they, like the Ba II stars, may owe their peculiar compositions to earlier mass transfer. Short-wavelength IUE spectra show striking emission line variability in HD35155, HD61913, and 4 Ori; HD35155 and 4 Ori show evidence of white dwarf companions.

  3. Impact of field strength and iron oxide nanoparticle concentration on the linearity and diagnostic accuracy of off-resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Christian T; Dai, Guangping; Novikov, Mikhail; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Weissleder, Ralph; Rosen, Bruce R; Sosnovik, David E

    2008-06-01

    Off-resonance imaging (ORI) techniques are being increasingly used to image iron oxide imaging agents such as monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION). However, the diagnostic accuracy, linearity, and field dependence of ORI have not been fully characterized. In this study, the sensitivity, specificity, and linearity of ORI were thus examined as a function of both MION concentration and magnetic field strength (4.7 and 14 T). MION phantoms with and without an air interface as well as MION uptake in a mouse model of healing myocardial infarction were imaged. MION-induced resonance shifts were shown to increase linearly with MION concentration. In contrast, the ORI signal/sensitivity was highly non-linear, initially increasing with MION concentration until T2 became comparable to the TE and decreasing thereafter. The specificity of ORI to distinguish MION-induced resonance shifts from on-resonance water was found to decrease with increasing field because of the increased on-resonance water linewidths (15 Hz at 4.7 T versus 45 Hz at 14 T). Large resonance shifts ( approximately 300 Hz) were observed at air interfaces at 4.7 T, both in vitro and in vivo, and led to poor ORI specificity for MION concentrations less than 150 microg Fe/mL. The in vivo ORI sensitivity was sufficient to detect the accumulation of MION in macrophages infiltrating healing myocardial infarcts, but the specificity was limited by non-specific areas of positive contrast at the air/tissue interfaces of the thoracic wall and the descending aorta. Improved specificity and linearity can, however, be expected at lower fields where decreased on-resonance water linewidths, reduced air-induced resonance shifts, and longer T2 relaxation times are observed. The optimal performance of ORI will thus likely be seen at low fields, with moderate MION concentrations and with sequences containing very short TEs.

  4. Improved Filed Evaluation of NAPL Dissolution and Source Longevity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Well Design in the LSZ. Ccmc1t · Silica F ow CretJt Coller ernpar ory r iser wi th lo cked l hr eod ed t: o~ (I u~>h wi th g·odc l - 3 l ee...Design in the UWBZ. Ccmc""’t. - Silico Grout CoiiGi ... ernpor ory r iser with locked theoded c oo Ct ush with graoel -3 ’ee : Gr ound sur f

  5. Modern Electromagnetic Scattering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-10

    multiple thin coatings, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37 (1947) 576–577. [11] F. Abelès, La théorie générale des couches minces, J. Phys. Radium 11 (1950) 307...Abelès, La théorie générale des couches minces, J. Phys. Radium 11 (1950) 307–310. [11] M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory

  6. Macronutrient intake in advanced age: Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia ora Tonu, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand (LiLACS NZ).

    PubMed

    Wham, Carol; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon A; Rolleston, Anna; Muru-Lanning, Marama; Hayman, Karen; Adamson, Ashley; Kerse, Ngaire

    2016-09-01

    As part of the 12-month follow-up of the longitudinal cohort study, Life and Living in Advanced Age: A Cohort Study in New Zealand, dietary intake was assessed in 216 Māori and 362 non-Māori octogenarians using repeat 24-h multiple pass recalls. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated, and food items reported were allocated to food groups used in the New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey (NZANS). Intakes were compared with the nutrient reference values (NRV) for Australia and New Zealand. The median BMI was higher for Māori (28·3 kg/m2) than for non-Māori (26·2 kg/m2) P=0·007. For Māori, median energy intake was 7·44 MJ/d for men and 6·06 MJ/d for women with 16·3 % energy derived from protein, 43·3 % from carbohydrate and 38·5 % from fat. Median energy intake was 7·91 and 6·26 MJ/d for non-Māori men and women, respectively, with 15·4 % of energy derived from protein, 45 % from carbohydrate and 36·7 % from fat. For both ethnic groups, bread was the top contributor to energy and carbohydrate intakes. Protein came from beef and veal, fish and seafood, bread, milk and poultry with the order differing by ethnic groups and sex. Fat came mainly from butter and margarine. Energy-adjusted protein was higher for Māori than non-Māori (P=0·049). For both ethnic groups, the median energy levels were similar, percent carbohydrate tended to be lower and percent fat higher compared with adults aged >70 years in NZANS. These unique cross-sectional data address an important gap in our understanding of dietary intake in this growing section of our population and highlight lack of age-appropriate NRV.

  7. The peculiar UV extinction of Herschel 36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, J.; Helfer, H. L.; Wolf, J.; Donn, B.; Pipher, J. L.

    The differential extinction curve of Herschel 36 was determined from International Ultraviolet Explorer data. It is quite unusual, characterized by a distinct 2200 A peak with a very low far blue end at 5 to 7 mu to the -1 power. The star appears to be an extreme member of the group Savage drew attention to, previously consisting only of theta Ori, NU Ori, sigma Sco, and rho Oph. It appears that multiple scattering effects are needed to explain the observations.

  8. Effectiveness of γ-oryzanol in reducing neuromotor deficits, dopamine depletion and oxidative stress in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Parkinson's disease induced by rotenone.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Stífani Machado; de Paula, Mariane Trindade; Poetini, Marcia Rósula; Meichtry, Luana; Bortolotto, Vandreza Cardoso; Zarzecki, Micheli Stefani; Jesse, Cristiano Ricardo; Prigol, Marina

    2015-12-01

    The γ-orizanol present in rice bran oil contains a mix of steryl triterpenyl esters of ferulic acid, which is believed to be linked to its antioxidant potential. In this study we investigated the neuroprotective actions of γ-orizanol (ORY) against the toxicity induced by rotenone (ROT) in Drosophila melanogaster. The flies (both genders) aged between 1 and 5 days old were divided into four groups of 50 flies each: (1) control, (2) ORY 25 μM, (3) ROT 500 μM, (4) ORY 25 μM+ROT 500 μM. Flies were concomitantly exposed to a diet containing ROT and ORY for 7 days according to their respective groups. Survival and behavior analyses were carried out in vivo, and ex vivo analyses involved acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), determination of dopaminergic levels, cellular viability and mitochondrial viability, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reactive species levels (RS), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and contents of total thiols and non-proteic thiols (NPSH). Our results show for the first time that ORY not only acts as an endogenous activator of the cellular antioxidant defenses, but it also ameliorates rotenone induced mortality, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our salient findings regarded the restoration of cholinergic deficits, dopamine levels and improved motor function provided by ORY. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of ORY and that this effect can be potentially due to its antioxidant action. In conclusion, the present results show that ORY is effective in reducing the ROT induced toxicity in D. melanogaster, which showed a neuroprotective action, possibly due to the presence of the antioxidant constituents such as the ferulic acid.

  9. Mathematics curriculum development and indigenous language revitalisation: contested spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen; Trinick, Tony; Meaney, Tamsin

    2013-09-01

    This paper examines the development of two iterations of mathematics curricula over a 15-year period for classrooms teaching in te reo Māori, the endangered Indigenous language of Aotearoa New Zealand. Similarities and differences between the two iterations are identified. Although parameters set by the New Zealand Ministry of Education about what the curricula would look like and how they would be developed were not always commensurate with Māori aspirations, analysis suggests that Māori were able to use opportunities to ensure that their agendas for language development and revitalisation were achieved. Spaces were made available because of the government's ideological assumptions, but were used by Māori to achieve their ideological aims. However, neither iteration was smooth, with Māori having to determine how to operate within these contested spaces. The result of Māori requirements to have language recognised as an important issue was that both process and product of curriculum development were affected.

  10. Bacterial expression system with tightly regulated gene expression and plasmid copy number.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Lisa M; Lapoint, Kathleen; Anthony, Larry; Pluciennik, Anna; Filutowicz, Marcin

    2004-09-29

    A new Escherichia coli host/vector system has been engineered to allow tight and uniform modulation of gene expression and gamma origin (ori) plasmid copy number. Regulation of gamma ori plasmid copy number is achieved through arabinose-inducible expression of the necessary Rep protein, pi, whose gene was integrated into the chromosome of the host strain under control of the P(BAD) promoter. gamma ori replication can be uniformly modulated over 100-fold by changing the concentration of l-arabinose in the growth medium. This strain avoids the problem of all-or-nothing induction of P(BAD) because it is deficient in both arabinose uptake and degradation genes. Arabinose enters the cell by a mutant LacY transporter, LacYA177C, which is expressed from the host chromosome. Although this strain could be compatible with any gamma ori plasmid, we describe the utility of a gamma ori expression vector that allows especially tight regulation of gene expression. With this host/vector system, it is possible to independently modulate gene expression and gene dosage, facilitating the cloning and overproduction of toxic gene products. We describe the successful use of this system for cloning a highly potent toxin, Colicin E3, in the absence of its cognate immunity protein. This system could be useful for cloning genes encoding other potent toxins, screening libraries for potential toxins, and maintaining any gamma ori vector at precise copy levels in a cell.

  11. Complex polar machinery required for proper chromosome segregation in vegetative and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Lenarcic, Rok; Willis, Clare R.; Roberts, David M.; Hamoen, Leendert W.; Errington, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chromosome segregation is an essential process of cell multiplication. In prokaryotes, segregation starts with the newly replicated sister origins of replication, oriCs, which move apart to defined positions in the cell. We have developed a genetic screen to identify mutants defective in placement of oriC during spore development in the Gram‐positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. In addition to the previously identified proteins Soj and DivIVA, our screen identified several new factors involved in polar recruitment of oriC: a reported regulator of competence ComN, and the regulators of division site selection MinD and MinJ. Previous work implicated Soj as an important regulator of oriC positioning in the cell. Our results suggest a model in which the DivIVA‐interacting proteins ComN and MinJ recruit MinD to the cell pole, and that these proteins work upstream of Soj to enable oriC placement. We show that these proteins form a polar complex, which acts in parallel with but distinct from the sporulation‐specific RacA pathway of oriC placement, and also functions during vegetative growth. Our study further shows that MinD has two distinct cell cycle roles, in cell division and chromosome segregation, and highlights that cell probably use multiple parallel mechanisms to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:27059541

  12. Evaluating Maori community initiatives to promote healthy eating, healthy action.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, Heather; Mercer, Christine; Riini, Denise; McPherson, Brighid; Morrison, Laurie

    2014-03-01

    ori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand, experience poorer health than non-Māori across a range of health measures. Interventions focused at an individual level have proved largely ineffective; 'bottom-up' approaches where communities determine their own priorities may be more sustainable than 'top-down' approaches where goals are determined by health authorities. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an innovative health promotion programme aimed at improving Māori health and to discuss the importance of ownership and control of health initiatives by Māori. Evaluators conducted a comprehensive evaluation of a Healthy Eating Healthy Action programme in six small Māori health agencies, gathering information from programme managers and co-ordinators, participants and wider community members about what changes were occurring at individual, family and community levels. Effective interventions built on cultural values and practices and were delivered by Māori with close connections to the community. Changes in nutrition and physical activity made by participants also benefitted their wider families and community. The changes demonstrated subtle but important shifts in thinking about healthy eating and healthy activity that in the longer term could lead to more measurable change towards improved quality of life for people within communities.

  13. ABSENCE OF SIGNIFICANT COOL DISKS IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS EXHIBITING REPETITIVE OPTICAL OUTBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hirano, Naomi; Takami, Michihiro; Dong, Ruobing; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Kóspál, Ágnes; Dunham, Michael M.; Henning, Thomas; Hashimoto, Jun; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-10

    We report Submillimeter Array 1.3 mm high angular resolution observations toward the four EXor-type outbursting young stellar objects VY Tau, V1118 Ori, V1143 Ori, and NY Ori. The data mostly show low dust masses M{sub dust} in the associated circumstellar disks. Among the sources, NY Ori possesses a relatively massive disk with M{sub dust} ∼ 9 × 10{sup −4}M{sub ⊙}. V1118 Ori has a marginal detection equivalent to M{sub dust} ∼ 6 × 10{sup −5}M{sub ⊙}. V1143 Ori has a non-detection also equivalent to M{sub dust} < 6 × 10{sup −5}M{sub ⊙}. For the nearest source, VY Tau, we get a surprising non-detection that provides a stringent upper limit M{sub dust} < 6 × 10{sup −6}M{sub ⊙}. We interpret our findings as suggesting that the gas and dust reservoirs that feed the short-duration, repetitive optical outbursts seen in some EXors may be limited to the small-scale, innermost region of their circumstellar disks. This hot dust may have escaped our detection limits. Follow-up, more sensitive millimeter observations are needed to improve our understanding of the triggering mechanisms of EXor-type outbursts.

  14. Octane requirement increase of 1990 and 1991 model vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The octane requirement increase (ORI) of 80 1990 and 43 1991 model-year vehicles operated on commercial fuels in customer-like service has been determined. These ORI values were established from the octane number requirements regardless of whether they were determined at maximum- or part-throttle. At 15,000 miles, the mean ORI of the 1990 vehicles with full-boiling range fuels (FBRU) was 4.4 (R+M)/2 octane numbers, 5.2 Research octane numbers (RON), and 3.5 Motor octane numbers (MON). The ORI of individual vehicles ranged from no increase to 1 1. 1 (R + M)/2 numbers. At 15,000 miles, the mean ORI of the 1991 vehicles with full-boiling range fuels (FBRU) was 3.3 (R+M)/2 numbers, 4.1 RON, and 2.6 MON. Individual vehicle ORI ranged from no increase to 9.2 (R + M)/2 numbers. As opposed to a number of 1989 models submitted which showed a somewhat unusual variation with mileage, the 1990 and 1991 models behaved in the more traditional manner.

  15. Ribosome Protein L4 is essential for Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 function

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chih-Lung; Liu, Cheng-Der; You, Ren-In; Ching, Yung-Hao; Liang, Jun; Ke, Liangru; Chen, Ya-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chi; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Liou, Je-Wen; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)-mediated origin of plasmid replication (oriP) DNA episome maintenance is essential for EBV-mediated tumorigenesis. We have now found that EBNA1 binds to Ribosome Protein L4 (RPL4). RPL4 shRNA knockdown decreased EBNA1 activation of an oriP luciferase reporter, EBNA1 DNA binding in lymphoblastoid cell lines, and EBV genome number per lymphoblastoid cell line. EBV infection increased RPL4 expression and redistributed RPL4 to cell nuclei. RPL4 and Nucleolin (NCL) were a scaffold for an EBNA1-induced oriP complex. The RPL4 N terminus cooperated with NCL-K429 to support EBNA1 and oriP-mediated episome binding and maintenance, whereas the NCL C-terminal K380 and K393 induced oriP DNA H3K4me2 modification and promoted EBNA1 activation of oriP-dependent transcription. These observations provide new insights into the mechanisms by which EBV uses NCL and RPL4 to establish persistent B-lymphoblastoid cell infection. PMID:26858444

  16. The plasmid replicon of EBV consists of multiple cis-acting elements that facilitate DNA synthesis by the cell and a viral maintenance element.

    PubMed Central

    Aiyar, A; Tyree, C; Sugden, B

    1998-01-01

    Plasmids containing oriP, the plasmid origin of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are replicated stably in human cells that express a single viral trans-acting factor, EBNA-1. Unlike plasmids of other viruses, but akin to human chromosomes, oriP plasmids are synthesized once per cell cycle, and are partitioned faithfully to daughter cells during mitosis. Although EBNA-1 binds multiple sites within oriP, its role in DNA synthesis and partitioning has been obscure. EBNA-1 lacks enzymatic activities that are present in the origin-binding proteins of other mammalian viruses, and does not interact with human cellular proteins that provide equivalent enzymatic functions. We demonstrate that plasmids with oriP or its constituent elements are synthesized efficiently in human cells in the absence of EBNA-1. Further, we show that human cells rapidly eliminate or destroy newly synthesized plasmids, and that both EBNA-1 and the family of repeats of oriP are required for oriP plasmids to escape this catastrophic loss. These findings indicate that EBV's plasmid replicon consists of genetic elements with distinct functions, multiple cis-acting elements that facilitate DNA synthesis and viral cis/trans elements that permit retention of replicated DNA in daughter cells. They also explain historical failures to identify mammalian origins of DNA synthesis as autonomously replicating sequences. PMID:9799247

  17. CONSTRAINING MASS RATIO AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY SYSTEM WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, Laurent; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil; Monnier, John D.; Crepp, Justin; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Remi

    2012-09-20

    We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 {mu}m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A{sub V} = 8-12, with an effective temperature of {approx}4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S system and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary system.

  18. The role of sensory signals from the insect coxa-trochanteral joint in controlling motor activity of the femur-tibia joint.

    PubMed

    Akay, T; Bässler, U; Gerharz, P; Büschges, A

    2001-02-01

    Interjoint coordination in multi-jointed limbs is essential for the generation of functional locomotor patterns. Here we have focused on the role that sensory signals from the coxa-trochanteral (CT) joint play in patterning motoneuronal activity of the femur-tibia (FT) joint in the stick insect middle leg. This question is of interest because when the locomotor system is active, movement signals from the FT joint are known to contribute to patterning of activity of the central rhythm-generating networks governing the CT joint. We investigated the influence of femoral levation and depression on the activity of tibial motoneurons. When the locomotor system was active, levation of the femur often induced a decrease or inactivation of tibial extensor activity while flexor motoneurons were activated. Depression of the femur had no systematic influence on tibial motoneurons. Ablation experiments revealed that this interjoint influence was not mediated by signals from movement and/or position sensitive receptors at the CT joint, i.e., trochanteral hairplate, rhombal hairplate, or internal levator receptor organ. Instead the influence was initiated by sensory signals from a field of campaniform sensillae, situated on the proximal femur (fCS). Selective stimulation of these fCS produced barrages of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in tibial extensor motoneurons and activated tibial flexor motoneurons. During pharmacologically activated rhythmic activity of the otherwise isolated mesothoracic ganglion (pilocarpine, 5 x 10(-4) M), deafferented except for the CT joint, levation of the femur as well had an inhibitory influence on tibial extensor motoneurons. However, the influence of femoral levation on the rhythm generated was rather labile and only sometimes a reset of the rhythm was induced. In none of the preparations could entrainment of rhythmicity by femoral movement be achieved, suggesting that sensory signals from the CT joint only weakly affect central

  19. Search and characterization of T-type planetary mass candidates in the σ Orionis cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Ramírez, K.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Rebolo, R.; Bihain, G.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The proper characterization of the least massive population of the young σ Orionis star cluster is required to understand the form of the cluster mass function and its impact on our comprehension of the substellar formation processes. S Ori 70 (T5.5 ± 1) and 73, two T-type cluster member candidates, are likely to have masses between 3 and 7 MJup if their age is 3 Myr. It awaits confirmation whether S Ori 73 has a methane atmosphere. Aims: We aim to: i) confirm the presence of methane absorption in S Ori 73 by performing methane imaging; ii) study S Ori 70 and 73 cluster membership via photometric colors and accurate proper motion analysis; and iii) perform a new search to identify additional T-type σ Orionis member candidates. Methods: We obtained HAWK-I (VLT) J, H, and CH4off photometry of an area of 119.15 arcmin2 in σ Orionis down to Jcomp = 21.7 and Hcomp = 21 mag. S Ori 70 and 73 are contained in the explored area. Near-infrared data were complemented with optical photometry using images acquired with OSIRIS (GTC) and VISTA as part of the VISTA Orion survey. Color-magnitude and color-color diagrams were constructed to characterize S Ori 70 and 73 photometrically, and to identify new objects with methane absorption and masses below 7 MJup. We derived proper motions by comparing of the new HAWK-I and VISTA images with published near-infrared data taken 3.4 - 7.9 yr ago. Results.S Ori 73 has a red H - CH4off color indicating methane absorption in the H-band and a spectral type of T4 ± 1. S Ori 70 displays a redder methane color than S Ori 73 in agreement with its latter spectral classification. Our proper motion measurements (μα cos δ = 26.7 ± 6.1, μδ = 21.3 ± 6.1 mas yr-1 for S Ori 70, and μα cos δ = 46.7 ± 4.9, μδ = -6.3 ± 4.7 mas yr-1 for S Ori 73) are larger than the motion of σ Orionis, rendering S Ori 70 and 73 cluster membership uncertain. From our survey, we identified one new photometric candidate with J = 21.69 ± 0.12 mag

  20. Identification of persistent RNA-DNA hybrid structures within the origin of replication of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Prichard, M N; Jairath, S; Penfold, M E; St Jeor, S; Bohlman, M C; Pari, G S

    1998-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic-phase DNA replication initiates at the cis-acting origin of replication, oriLyt. oriLyt is a structurally complex region containing repeat elements and transcription factor binding sites. We identified two site-specific alkali-labile regions within oriLyt which flank an alkali-resistant DNA segment. These alkali-sensitive regions were the result of the degradation of two RNA species embedded within oriLyt and covalently linked to viral DNA. The virus-associated RNA, vRNA, was identified by DNase I treatment of HCMV DNA obtained from sucrose gradient purified virus. This heterogeneous population of vRNA was end labeled and used as a hybridization probe to map the exact location of vRNAs within oriLyt. vRNA-1 is localized between restriction endonuclease sites XhoI at nucleotide (nt) 93799 and SacI at nt 94631 and is approximately 500 bases long. The second vRNA, vRNA-2, lies within a region which exhibits a heterogeneous restriction pattern located between the SphI (nt 92636) and BamHI (nt 93513) and is approximately 300 bases long. This region was previously shown to be required for oriLyt replication (D. G. Anders, M. A. Kacica, G. S. Pari, and S. M. Punturieri, J. Virol. 66:3373-3384, 1992). RNase H analysis determined that vRNA-2 forms a persistent RNA-DNA hybrid structure in the context of the viral genome and in an oriLyt-containing plasmid used in the transient-replication assay.

  1. Initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro: aphidicolin causes accumulation of early-replicating intermediates and allows determination of the initial direction of DNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Decker, R S; Yamaguchi, M; Possenti, R; DePamphilis, M L

    1986-01-01

    Aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, provided a novel method for distinguishing between initiation of DNA synthesis at the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin of replication (ori) and continuation of replication beyond ori. In the presence of sufficient aphidicolin to inhibit total DNA synthesis by 50%, initiation of DNA replication in SV40 chromosomes or ori-containing plasmids continued in vitro, whereas DNA synthesis in the bulk of SV40 replicative intermediate DNA (RI) that had initiated replication in vivo was rapidly inhibited. This resulted in accumulation of early RI in which most nascent DNA was localized within a 600- to 700-base-pair region centered at ori. Accumulation of early RI was observed only under conditions that permitted initiation of SV40 ori-dependent, T-antigen-dependent DNA replication and only when aphidicolin was added to the in vitro system. Increasing aphidicolin concentrations revealed that DNA synthesis in the ori region was not completely resistant to aphidicolin but simply less sensitive than DNA synthesis at forks that were farther away. Since DNA synthesized in the presence of aphidicolin was concentrated in the 300 base pairs on the early gene side of ori, we conclude that the initial direction of DNA synthesis was the same as that of early mRNA synthesis, consistent with the model proposed by Hay and DePamphilis (Cell 28:767-779, 1982). The data were also consistent with initiation of the first DNA chains in ori by CV-1 cell DNA primase-DNA polymerase alpha. Synthesis of pppA/G(pN)6-8(pdN)21-23 chains on a single-stranded DNA template by a purified preparation of this enzyme was completely resistant to aphidicolin, and further incorporation of deoxynucleotide monophosphates was inhibited. Therefore, in the presence of aphidicolin, this enzyme could initiate RNA-primed DNA synthesis at ori first in the early gene direction and then in the late gene direction, but could not continue DNA synthesis for an extended

  2. Method of unconfounding orientation and direction tunings in neuronal response to moving bars and gratings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun

    2005-10-01

    When an oriented bar or grating is drifted across the receptive field of a cortical neuron at various orientations, the tuning function reflects both, and thus confounds the orientation (ORI) and the direction-of-motion (DIR) selectivity of the cell. Since ORI (or DIR), by definition, has a period of 180(or 360) deg/cycle, a popular method for separating these two components, due to Wörgötter and Eysel [Biol. Cybern. 57, 349 (1987)], is to Fourier decompose the neuron's response along the angular direction and then identify the first and the second harmonic with DIR and ORI, respectively (the SDO method). Zhang [Biol. Cybern. 63, 135 (1990)] pointed out that this interpretation is misconceived--all odd harmonics (not just the first harmonic) reflect the DIR component, whereas all even harmonics (including the second harmonic) contain contributions from both DIR and ORI. Here, a simplified procedure is proposed to accomplish the goal of unconfounding ORI and DIR. We first construct the sum of all odd harmonics of the overall tuning curve, denoted ODDSUM, by calculating the difference in the neuronal response to opposite drifting directions. Then we construct ODDSUM+/ODDSUM/ and identify it with DIR (here . denotes the absolute value). Subtracting DIR, that is ODDSUM+ /ODDSUM/, from the overall tuning curve gives ORI. Our method ensures that (i) the reconstructed DIR contains only one, positive peak at the preferred direction and can have power in all harmonics, and (ii) the reconstructed ORI has two peaks separated by 180 degrees and has zero power for all odd harmonics. Using this procedure, we have unconfounded orientation and direction components for a considerable sample of macaque striate cortical cells, and compared the results with those obtained using Wörgötter and Eysel's SDO method. We found that whereas the estimate of the peak angle of ORI remains largely unaffected, Wörgötter and Eysel's method considerably overestimated the relative strength of

  3. Method of unconfounding orientation and direction tunings in neuronal response to moving bars and gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun

    2005-10-01

    When an oriented bar or grating is drifted across the receptive field of a cortical neuron at various orientations, the tuning function reflects both, and thus confounds the orientation (ORI) and the direction-of-motion (DIR) selectivity of the cell. Since ORI (or DIR), by definition, has a period of 180(or 360) deg/cycle, a popular method for separating these two components, due to Wörgötter and Eysel [Biol. Cybern. 57, 349 (1987)], is to Fourier decompose the neuron's response along the angular direction and then identify the first and the second harmonic with DIR and ORI, respectively (the SDO method). Zhang [Biol. Cybern. 63, 135 (1990)] pointed out that this interpretation is misconceived-all odd harmonics (not just the first harmonic) reflect the DIR component, whereas all even harmonics (including the second harmonic) contain contributions from both DIR and ORI. Here, a simplified procedure is proposed to accomplish the goal of unconfounding ORI and DIR. We first construct the sum of all odd harmonics of the overall tuning curve, denoted ODDSUM, by calculating the difference in the neuronal response to opposite drifting directions. Then we construct ODDSUM+|ODDSUM| and identify it with DIR (here |.| denotes the absolute value). Subtracting DIR, that is ODDSUM+|ODDSUM|, from the overall tuning curve gives ORI. Our method ensures that (i) the reconstructed DIR contains only one, positive peak at the preferred direction and can have power in all harmonics, and (ii) the reconstructed ORI has two peaks separated by 180° and has zero power for all odd harmonics. Using this procedure, we have unconfounded orientation and direction components for a considerable sample of macaque striate cortical cells, and compared the results with those obtained using Wörgötter and Eysel's SDO method. We found that whereas the estimate of the peak angle of ORI remains largely unaffected, Wörgötter and Eysel's method considerably overestimated the relative strength of ORI. To

  4. A new set of useful cloning and expression vectors derived from pBlueScript.

    PubMed

    Mayer, M P

    1995-09-22

    A new set of cloning vectors derived from pBlueScript (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA, USA) is presented. The ampicillin-resistance-encoding gene (ApR) of pBlueScript has been replaced by genes encoding resistance to either kanamycin (KmR) or tetracycline (TcR). The origin of DNA replication (ori), conferring to pBlueScript a very high-copy-number (500-700 copies/chromosome), has been replaced by the pBR322 ori (15-20 copies/chromosome) or the P15A ori (10-12 copies/chromosome) [Sambrook et al.: Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1989]. Therefore, eight new vectors with different drug selection markers and low, medium or high plasmid copy-number were created which are compatible with each other (ColE1 ori and P15A ori) and can be selected to replace one another. These vectors were further modified by the insertion of an expression cassette based on the promoter and AraC repressor/activator of the ara operon, which allows high-level expression, extremely tight regulation and very inexpensive induction. High-level expression of one or two genes within the same cell is demonstrated.

  5. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  6. TcpM: a novel relaxase that mediates transfer of large conjugative plasmids from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Jessica A; Traore, Daouda A; Bannam, Trudi L; Lyras, Dena; Whisstock, James C; Rood, Julian I

    2016-03-01

    Conjugative transfer of toxin and antibiotic resistance plasmids in Clostridium perfringens is mediated by the tcp conjugation locus. Surprisingly, neither a relaxase gene nor an origin of transfer (oriT) has been identified on these plasmids, which are typified by the 47 kb tetracycline resistance plasmid pCW3. The tcpM gene (previously called intP) encodes a potential tyrosine recombinase that was postulated to be an atypical relaxase. Mutagenesis and complementation studies showed that TcpM was required for wild-type transfer of pCW3 and that a tyrosine residue, Y259, was essential for TcpM activity, which was consistent with the need for a relaxase-mediated hydrophilic attack at the oriT site. Other catalytic residues conserved in tyrosine recombinases were not required for TcpM activity, suggesting that TcpM was not a site-specific recombinase. Mobilization studies led to the identification of the oriT site, which was located in the 391 bp intergenic region upstream of tcpM. The oriT site was localized to a 150 bp region, and gel mobility shift studies showed that TcpM could bind to this region. Based on these studies we postulate that conjugative transfer of pCW3 involves the atypical relaxase TcpM binding to and processing the oriT site to initiate plasmid transfer.

  7. DNA ligand designed to antagonize EBNA1 represses Epstein-Barr virus-induced immortalization.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ai; Noguchi, Kohji; Minoshima, Masafumi; Kashiwazaki, Gengo; Kanda, Teru; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Junko; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2011-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms human B lymphocytes into immortalized cells in vitro and is associated with various malignancies in vivo. EBNA1, which is expressed in the majority of EBV-infected cells, recognizes specific DNA sequences at the cis-acting latent origin of plasmid replication (oriP) element of the EBV genome. EBNA1 plays a critical role in the viral episome maintenance and transactivates viral transforming genes in latently infected cells. Therefore, DNA-targeting agents that can disrupt the EBNA1-oriP interaction will offer novel functional inhibitors of EBNA1. Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides, sequence-specific DNA ligands, can be designed to interfere with the binding of various transcriptional factors. Here, we synthesized pyrrole-imidazole polyamides targeting EBNA1-bound DNA sequences and developed an inhibitor for the EBNA1-oriP interaction. A pyrrole-imidazole polyamide, designated as DSE-3, bound adjacent to the EBNA1 recognition sequences located in the dyad symmetry element of oriP, and selectively inhibited EBNA1-oriP binding both in vitro and in vivo. DSE-3 also inhibited the proliferation of established lymphoblastoid cell lines by eradicating EBV episomes from the cells. In addition, DSE-3 repressed the expression of viral transforming genes after infecting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with EBV and, as a consequence, inhibited EBV-mediated B-cell immortalization. These results suggest that EBNA1 functions will be an attractive pharmacological target for EBV-associated diseases.

  8. No clinical or neurophysiological evidence of botulinum toxin diffusion to non-injected muscles in patients with hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Lorenzano, C; Bagnato, S; Gilio, F; Fabbrini, G; Berardelli, A

    2006-04-01

    Botulinum toxin injected into a muscle may diffuse to nearby muscles thus producing unwanted effects. In patients with hemifacial spasm, we evaluated clinically and neurophysiologically, whether botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) diffuses from the injection site (orbicularis oculi) to untreated muscles (orbicularis oris from the affected side and orbicularis oculi and oris from the unaffected side). We studied 38 patients with idiopathic hemifacial spasm. Botulinum toxin was injected into the affected orbicularis oculi muscle alone (at 3 standardized sites) at a clinically effective dose. Patients were studied before (T0) and 3-4 weeks after treatment (T1). We evaluated the clinical effects of botulinum toxin and muscle strength in the affected and unaffected muscles. We also assessed the peak-to-peak amplitude compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recorded from the orbicularis oculi and orbicularis oris muscles on both sides after supramaximal electrical stimulation of the facial nerve at the stylomastoid foramen. In all patients, botulinum toxin treatment reduced muscle spasms in the injected orbicularis oculi muscle and induced no muscle weakness in the other facial muscles. The CMAP amplitude significantly decreased in the injected orbicularis oculi muscle, but remained unchanged in the other facial muscles (orbicularis oris muscle on the affected side and contra-lateral unaffected muscles). In conclusion, in patients with hemifacial spasm, botulinum toxin, at a clinically effective dose, induces no clinical signs of diffusion and does not reduce the CMAP size in the nearby untreated orbicularis oris or contralateral facial muscles.

  9. Development of quantitative and high-throughput assays of polyomavirus and papillomavirus DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Morin, Geneviève; Lehoux, Michaël; Bullock, Peter A; Archambault, Jacques

    2010-03-30

    Polyoma- and papillomaviruses genome replication is initiated by the binding of large T antigen (LT) and of E1 and E2, respectively, at the viral origin (ori). Replication of an ori-containing plasmid occurs in cells transiently expressing these viral proteins and is typically quantified by Southern blotting or PCR. To facilitate the study of SV40 and HPV31 DNA replication, we developed cellular assays in which transient replication of the ori-plasmid is quantified using a firefly luciferase gene located in cis to the ori. Under optimized conditions, replication of the SV40 and HPV31 ori-plasmids resulted in a 50- and 150-fold increase in firefly luciferase levels, respectively. These results were validated using replication-defective mutants of LT, E1 and E2 and with inhibitors of DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. These quantitative and high-throughput assays should greatly facilitate the study of SV40 and HPV31 DNA replication and the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of this process.

  10. Actions of motor neurons and leg muscles in jumping by planthopper insects (hemiptera, issidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Bräunig, Peter

    2010-04-15

    To understand the catapult mechanism that propels jumping in a planthopper insect, the innervation and action of key muscles were analyzed. The large trochanteral depressor muscle, M133b,c, is innervated by two motor neurons and by two dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, all with axons in N3C. A smaller depressor muscle, M133a, is innervated by two neurons, one with a large-diameter cell body, a large, blind-ending dendrite, and a giant ovoid, axon measuring 50 microm by 30 microm in nerve N5A. The trochanteral levator muscles (M132) and (M131) are innervated by N4 and N3B, respectively. The actions of these muscles in a restrained jump were divisible into a three-phase pattern. First, both hind legs were moved into a cocked position by high-frequency bursts of spikes in the levator muscles lasting about 0.5 seconds. Second, and once both legs were cocked, M133b,c received a long continuous sequence of motor spikes, but the two levators spiked only sporadically. The spikes in the two motor neurons to M133b,c on one side were closely coupled to each other and to the spikes on the other side. If one hind leg was cocked then the spikes only occurred in motor neurons to that side. The final phase was the jump movement itself, which occurred when the depressor spikes ceased and which lasted 1 ms. Muscles 133b,c activated synchronously on both sides, are responsible for generating the power, and M133a and its giant neuron may play a role in triggering the release of a jump.

  11. An agonist–antagonist cerebellar nuclear system controlling eyelid kinematics during motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Campusano, Raudel; Gruart, Agnès; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Delgado-García, José M.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of two antagonistic groups of deep cerebellar nuclei neurons has been reported as necessary for a proper dynamic control of learned motor responses. Most models of cerebellar function seem to ignore the biomechanical need for a double activation–deactivation system controlling eyelid kinematics, since most of them accept that, for closing the eyelid, only the activation of the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscle (via the red nucleus to the facial motor nucleus) is necessary, without a simultaneous deactivation of levator palpebrae motoneurons (via unknown pathways projecting to the perioculomotor area). We have analyzed the kinetic neural commands of two antagonistic types of cerebellar posterior interpositus neuron (IPn) (types A and B), the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the OO muscle, and eyelid kinematic variables in alert behaving cats during classical eyeblink conditioning, using a delay paradigm. We addressed the hypothesis that the interpositus nucleus can be considered an agonist–antagonist system controlling eyelid kinematics during motor learning. To carry out a comparative study of the kinetic–kinematic relationships, we applied timing and dispersion pattern analyses. We concluded that, in accordance with a dominant role of cerebellar circuits for the facilitation of flexor responses, type A neurons fire during active eyelid downward displacements—i.e., during the active contraction of the OO muscle. In contrast, type B neurons present a high tonic rate when the eyelids are wide open, and stop firing during any active downward displacement of the upper eyelid. From a functional point of view, it could be suggested that type B neurons play a facilitative role for the antagonistic action of the levator palpebrae muscle. From an anatomical point of view, the possibility that cerebellar nuclear type B neurons project to the perioculomotor area—i.e., more or less directly onto levator palpebrae motoneurons—is highly appealing. PMID

  12. The utility of margin-reflex distance in determining the type of surgical intervention for congenital blepharoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ural, Ozlem; Mocan, Mehmet Cem; Dolgun, Anıl; Erdener, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the utility of margin-reflex distance (MRD) as an alternative to levator function (LF) in choosing the appropriate surgical procedure for congenital blepharoptosis. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective, observational study. Subjects and Methods: Records of patients with simple (dystrophic) congenital ptosis who were operated and followed for ≥6 months postoperatively and whose outcomes were deemed as successful were evaluated in the study. Success was defined as a MRD at the last postoperative visit of ≥3 mm. In all cases, levator resection was performed when LF was >4 mm and frontalis suspension when LF was ≤4 mm. Statistical Analysis Used: For statistical evaluations, LF was accepted as the gold standard parameter for deciding on the surgical intervention, and the optimum cutoff point for initial MRD was determined as the point at which sensitivity and specificity was highest at the receiving operating curve for the selection of surgical procedure. Results: Of one hundred and three eyes of ninety patients (44 female/46 male), levator resection was used in 44.7% and frontalis suspension in 55.3%. When the optimum cutoff point for MRD was determined as 0.5 mm, the sensitivity was 71%, specificity was 86%, and the area under the curve that represented the discriminative power of this parameter was found to be 0.826. Conclusion: The MRD at the cutoff point of 0.5 mm may be used as an alternative to LF to determine the type of surgical intervention in patients with congenital blepharoptosis whose LF cannot be reliably obtained in clinical evaluations. PMID:27905338

  13. Electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induces involuntary reflex contraction of the frontalis muscles.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Osada, Yoshiro; Ban, Ryokuya

    2013-02-01

    The levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles, despite consisting of slow-twitch fibres that involuntarily sustain eyelid-opening and eyebrow-raising against gravity. To compensate for this anatomical defect, this study hypothetically proposes that initial voluntary contraction of the levator fast-twitch muscle fibres stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle and evokes proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study sought to determine whether unilateral transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle could induce electromyographic responses in the frontalis muscles, with monitoring responses in the orbicularis oculi muscles. The study population included 27 normal subjects and 23 subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis, who displayed persistently raised eyebrows on primary gaze and light eyelid closure. The stimulation induced a short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle of all subjects and long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of normal subjects. However, it did not induce long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. The orbicularis oculi muscles showed R1 and/or R2 responses. The stimulation might reach not only the proprioceptive fibres, but also other sensory fibres related to the blink or corneal reflex. The experimental system can provoke a monosynaptic short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle, probably through the mesencephalic trigeminal proprioceptive neuron and the frontalis motor neuron, and polysynaptic long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles through an unknown pathway. The latter neural circuit appeared to be engaged by the circumstances of aponeurotic blepharoptosis.

  14. Characterisation of human soft palate muscles with respect to fibre types, myosins and capillary supply

    PubMed Central

    STÅL, PER S.; LINDMAN, ROLF

    2000-01-01

    Four human soft palate muscles, and palatopharyngeus, the uvula, the levator and tensor veli palatini were examined using enzyme-histochemical, immunohistochemical and biochemical methods and compared with human limb and facial muscles. Our results showed that each palate muscle had a distinct morphological identity and that they generally shared more similarities with facial than limb muscles. The palatopharyngeus and uvula muscles contained 2 of the highest proportions of type II fibres ever reported for human muscles. In contrast, the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles contained predominantly type I fibres. A fetal myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC), not usually found in normal adult limb muscles, was present in a small number of fibres in all palate muscles. The mean muscle fibre diameter was smaller than in limb muscles and the individual and intramuscular variability in diameter and shape was considerable. All palate muscles had a high capillary density and an unusually high mitochondrial enzyme activity in the type II fibres, in comparison with limb muscles. No ordinary muscle spindles were observed. The fibre type and MyHC composition indicate that the palatopharyngeus and uvula muscles are functionally involved in quick movements whereas the levator and tensor veli palatini muscles perform slower and more continuous contractions. The high aerobic capacity and the rich capillarisation suggest that the palate muscles are relatively fatigue resistant. Absence of ordinary muscle spindles indicates a special proprioceptive control system. The special morphology of the palate muscles may be partly related to the unique anatomy with only one skeletal insertion, a feature consistent with muscle work at low load and tension and which may influence the cytoarchitecture of these muscles. Other important factors determining the special morphological characteristics might be specific functional requirements, distinct embryological origin and phylogenetic factors

  15. The anabolic steroid methandienone targets the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and myostatin signaling in a rat training model.

    PubMed

    Mosler, Stephanie; Pankratz, Carlos; Seyfried, Alexis; Piechotta, Marion; Diel, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the biological activity of myostatin (MSTN), a negative regulator of muscle growth, is affected by training but also anabolic steroids. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the frequently abused anabolic steroid methandienone (Md) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and androgen-sensitive tissues in intact rats performing a treadmill training to simulate the situation of abusing athletes. The anabolic effects were correlated with the expression of members of the MSTN signaling cascade. Md treatment resulted in a significant stimulation of anabolic activity of the levator ani muscle, which was further increased by training, while prostate and seminal vesicle weights decreased in conformance with hormone concentrations of LH and testosterone. In gastrocnemius muscle, mRNA expression of genes of the MSTN signaling cascade (MSTN, Smad7 and MyoD) was reduced by training but not after Md treatment, in soleus muscle MSTN and its inhibitors, follistatin (FLST) and Smad-7 were only affected after training in combination with Md treatment. In summary, our data demonstrate that Md treatment of intact rats results in anabolic effects which are enhanced in combination with physical activity. Interestingly, the anabolic activity on the levator ani was increased in combination with training, although the levator ani muscle was not specifically stimulated by our training protocol. In the m. gastrocnemius and soleus, the anabolic effects correlate with changes in the expression patterns of genes involved in MSTN signaling. Our data provide evidence that the decrease in the weight of androgen-sensitive sexual glands, observed after Md treatment, is caused by a suppression of endogenous testosterone synthesis. These observations provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between anabolic steroids, training and MSTN signaling during skeletal muscle adaptation.

  16. Dysfunctional voiding in adults.

    PubMed

    Haifler, Miki; Stav, Kobi

    2013-05-01

    Dysfunctional voiding is characterized by an intermittent and/or fluctuating flow rate due to involuntary intermittent contractions of the periurethral striated or levator muscles during voiding in neurologically normal women (International Continence Society definition). Due to the variable etiology, the diagnosis and treatment of DV is problematic. Frequently, the diagnosis is done at a late stage mainly due to non-specific symptoms and lack of awareness. The objectives of treatment are to normalize micturition patterns and prevent complications such as renal failure and recurrent infections. Treatment should be started as early as possible and a multidisciplinary approach is beneficial.

  17. Rectovaginal septal repair: case presentations and introduction of a modified reconstruction technique.

    PubMed

    Walfisch, A; Zilberstein, T; Walfisch, S

    2004-11-01

    Rectovaginal fistula are a relatively rare kind of anorectal fistulas. Spontaneous healing is rare and the rectal advancement flap repair is the most popular procedure with success rates ranging between 60% and 80%. We present a new technique for repairing damage in the rectovaginal septum that consists of placing a folded polyglycolic acid mesh (Dexon) between the levator ani muscle closure area and the vaginal wall. This absorbable mesh separates the suture lines on the vaginal and rectal walls, and induces fibrosis and healing. The technique was performed in four women suffering from a rectovaginal fistula due to different causes. It was successful in all cases.

  18. A rare case of pachydermoperiostosis associated with blepharoptosis and floppy eyelids

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Bipasha; Alam, Md. Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis (PDP) is a multisystem disorder of mesenchymal origin. It is a form of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. The typical clinical features include pachydermia, cutis verticus gyrata, digital clubbing, and periostosis. Patients present with mechanical ptosis resulting from markedly thickened eye lids. Floppy eye lids have rarely been reported in association with PDP. We describe a rare case of PDP associated with ptosis and floppy eye lids in an adult male. Meibomian gland dysfunction was documented by meibography. The patient underwent bilateral upper lid wedge resection, lateral tarsal strip, tarsectomy and external levator advancement with good cosmetic outcome following surgery. PMID:28112140

  19. The tarsectomy operation of A.P.L. Gillet de Grandmont (1837-1894) and its periodic rediscovery.

    PubMed

    Reifler, D M

    1995-01-01

    During the past two centuries, several methods of ptosis repair have been described and refined, but each method has typically been subject to cycles of popularity, neglect and reincarnation. Repair of ptosis through partial resection of the tarsus is one such example. Although Sir William Bowman included tarsectomy with his historic levator resections, the French ophthalmologist, A.P.L. Gillet de Grandmont was the first to specifically emphasize resection of tarsus for the correction of ptosis. Yet contemporary advocates of tarsectomy for ptosis repair have generally failed to recognize Gillet de Grandmont's contribution and his role in the history of ptosis surgery. For this reason, a review of this subject is presented.

  20. Movement of the Epiglottis in Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    ferret the epiglottis is closely related to the larynx and particularly to the hyoid bone. Pigs and ferrets have hyo-epiglottic muscles in addition to...closure is effected in large part by the levator veli palatini muscles , which insert well cranial to the free edge of the soft palate (DuBrul, 1976...University Press. Cleall, J.F. (1965) Deglutition: a study of form and function. Am. J. Orthodontics . 51:566-594. Crelin, E.S. (1973) Functional Anatomy of

  1. DNA replication origin and transcriptional enhancer in c-myc gene share the c-myc protein binding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, H; Imamura, Y; Iguchi-Ariga, S M

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that c-myc protein, or protein(s) complexed with c-myc protein, binds to the region upstream of the first exon of the c-myc gene and that this region contains an origin of cellular DNA replication (ori) and also a transcriptional enhancer. Here we show by Southwestern blotting that c-myc protein binds directly to a 7 bp sequence within the above region. Furthermore, we show that the c-myc protein binding sequences are indispensable for both ori and enhancer functions, but that additional sequences are required for maximal ori and enhancer activities. Thus, c-myc protein is a sequence specific factor which is apparently used both in initiation of DNA replication and in regulation of RNA transcription. Images PMID:2686984

  2. Identification and analysis of a lytic-phase origin of DNA replication in human herpesvirus 7.

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, N; Dykes, C; Deng, H; Dominguez, G; Nicholas, J; Dewhurst, S

    1997-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) DNA sequences colinear with the HHV-6 lytic-phase origin of DNA replication (oriLyt) were amplified by PCR. Plasmid constructs containing these sequences were replicated in HHV-7-infected cord blood mononuclear cells but not in HHV-6-infected cells. In contrast, plasmids bearing HHV-6 oriLyt were replicated in both HHV-6- and HHV-7-infected cells. Finally, the minimal HHV-7 DNA element necessary for replicator activity was mapped to a 600-bp region which contains two sites with high homology to the consensus binding site for the HHV-6 origin binding protein. At least one of these binding sites was shown to be essential for replicator function of HHV-7 oriLyt. PMID:9060695

  3. Optical spectroscopy of Z Canis Majoris, V1057 Cygni, and FU Orionis - Accretion disks and signatures of disk winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hartmann, Lee W.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution, high SNR optical spectra have been used to investigate the hypothesis that in outburst, FU Ori objects are self-luminous accretion disks whose light dominates at optical and near-IR wavelengths. Strong evidence has been found for linewidth versus wavelength correlation in good agreement with model predictions for Z CMa and V1057 Cyg, but not for FU Ori itself. Linewidth varies continuously with wavelength at optical wavelengths in the former two objects, In the case of FU Ori, it is argued that a combination of strong wind components to spectral lines, and surface gravity possibly being lower than that of supergiants, conceals the underlying linewidth versus wavelength relationship. A marginal correlation is found between linewidth and lower excitation potential in all three objects. Synthetic disk spectra are subtracted from observed spectral, and remarkably good fits are found for all three objects for wavelengths longer than about 5000 A.

  4. Coping with obsessive relational intrusion and stalking: the role of social support and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linda Kim; Spitzberg, Brian H; Lee, Carmen M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which social support mediates negative effects of stalking and obsessive relational intrusion (ORI) victimization. A survey of 1,068 respondents indicated that (a) ORI/stalking victimization is positively related to negative symptoms and trauma; (b) five different types of coping responses are positively related to negative symptoms; (c) four domains of social support reveal small but significant negative relationships with negative symptoms; and (d) females are more threatened by unwanted pursuit than male victims, and male pursuers are more threatening than female pursuers. Structural equation modeling indicates that the influence of ORI/stalking on negative symptoms is mediated by the use of coping strategies and the adequacy of social support. Discussion speculates on the functional theoretical value of coping and support processes in managing unwanted pursuit and stalking.

  5. Optical spectroscopy of Z Canis Majoris, V1057 Cygni, and FU Orionis - Accretion disks and signatures of disk winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Strom, Stephen E.; Edwards, Suzan; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hartmann, Lee W.

    1992-09-01

    High resolution, high SNR optical spectra have been used to investigate the hypothesis that in outburst, FU Ori objects are self-luminous accretion disks whose light dominates at optical and near-IR wavelengths. Strong evidence has been found for linewidth versus wavelength correlation in good agreement with model predictions for Z CMa and V1057 Cyg, but not for FU Ori itself. Linewidth varies continuously with wavelength at optical wavelengths in the former two objects, In the case of FU Ori, it is argued that a combination of strong wind components to spectral lines, and surface gravity possibly being lower than that of supergiants, conceals the underlying linewidth versus wavelength relationship. A marginal correlation is found between linewidth and lower excitation potential in all three objects. Synthetic disk spectra are subtracted from observed spectral, and remarkably good fits are found for all three objects for wavelengths longer than about 5000 A.

  6. Rejection as a call to arms: inter-racial hostility and support for political action as outcomes of race-based rejection in majority and minority groups.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Sibley, Chris G; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2012-03-01

    Both majority and minority group members fear race-based rejection, and respond by disparaging the groups that they expect will reject them. It is not clear, however, how this process differs in minority and majority groups. Using large representative samples of White (N= 4,618) and Māori (N= 1,163) New Zealanders, we found that perceptions of race-based rejection predicted outgroup negativity in both groups, but in different ways and for different reasons. For White (but not Māori) New Zealanders, increased intergroup anxiety partially mediated the relationship between cognitions of rejection and outgroup negativity. Māori who expected to be rejected on the basis of their race reported increased ethnic identification and, in part through this, increased support for political action benefiting their own group. This finding supports collective-action models of social change in historically disadvantaged minority groups.

  7. Criminal sittings – rape in the colony, New Zealand, 1862.

    PubMed

    Erai, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In 1862 His Honor, Justice Johnston, issued his instructions to the jury of the New Zealand Supreme Court for two simultaneous rape trials – the alleged rape of a European woman by two Māori men, and an alleged “assault with intent to commit a rape” of a Māori woman by a European man. This article argues that those instructions should be read within an historiographical critique of British colonial expansion, print capitalism and violence. Drawing on feminist postcolonial theorizing the question posed here, is, “What is the historical, ideological context for a newspaper reporting of the possible rape of a Māori woman in 1862?

  8. Spectroscopic Evidence of Sporadic Gas Accretion onto the Herbig AE Stars with Non-Periodic Algol-Type Minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, O. V.; Grinin, V. P.; Rostopchina, A. N.

    We present the results of simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations for six isolated Herbig Ae stars with non-periodic Algol-like minima: UX Ori, BF Ori, CQ Tau, SV Cep, VX Gas, and WW Vul. In all cases the Ha line has the profile typical for axially symmetric accretion. In the spectra of five stars (CQ Tau is the exception) the strong He I 5876 Å line has been observed in absorption which is not typical of normal A stars. In three cases: UX Ori, VX Cas, and WW Vul, variability of this line is found. We did not observe any correlation between the strength of this line and the brightness of the stars. These observational facts are considered as evidence for gas accretion, which is probably an important property of young stars with non-periodic Algol-type minima.

  9. Globalisation, localisation and implications of a transforming nursing workforce in New Zealand: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Callister, Paul; Badkar, Juthika; Didham, Robert

    2011-09-01

    Severe staff and skill shortages within the health systems of developed countries have contributed to increased migration by health professionals. New Zealand stands out among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in terms of the high level of movements in and out of the country of skilled professionals, including nurses. In New Zealand, much attention has been given to increasing the number of Māori and Pacific nurses as one mechanism for improving Māori and Pacific health. Against a backdrop of the changing characteristics of the New Zealand nursing workforce, this study demonstrates that the globalisation of the nursing workforce is increasing at a faster rate than its localisation (as measured by the growth of the Māori and New Zealand-born Pacific workforces in New Zealand). This challenges the implementation of culturally appropriate nursing programmes based on the matching of nurse and client ethnicities.

  10. The magnetic field of ζ Orionis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Rivinius, Th.

    2015-10-01

    Context. ζ Ori A is a hot star claimed to host a weak magnetic field, but no clear magnetic detection was obtained so far. In addition, it was recently shown to be a binary system composed of a O9.5I supergiant and a B1IV star. Aims: We aim at verifying the presence of a magnetic field in ζ Ori A, identifying to which of the two binary components it belongs (or whether both stars are magnetic), and characterizing the field. Methods: Very high signal-to-noise spectropolarimetric data were obtained with Narval at the Bernard Lyot Telescope (TBL) in France. Archival HEROS, FEROS and UVES spectroscopic data were also used. The data were first disentangled to separate the two components. We then analyzed them with the least-squares deconvolution technique to extract the magnetic information. Results: We confirm that ζ Ori A is magnetic. We find that the supergiant component ζ Ori Aa is the magnetic component: Zeeman signatures are observed and rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field is clearly detected with a period of 6.829 d. This is the only magnetic O supergiant known as of today. With an oblique dipole field model of the Stokes V profiles, we show that the polar field strength is ~140 G. Because the magnetic field is weak and the stellar wind is strong, ζ Ori Aa does not host a centrifugally supported magnetosphere. It may host a dynamical magnetosphere. Its companion ζ Ori Ab does not show any magnetic signature, with an upper limit on the undetected field of ~300 G. Based on observations obtained at the Télescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Solving the Puzzle of the Massive Star System θ2 Orionis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, V.; Gagné, M.; Cohen, D. H.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Savoy, M. R.; Fehon, G.; Cartagena, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The young O9.5 V spectroscopic binary θ2 Ori A shows moderately hard X-ray emission and relatively narrow X-ray lines, suggesting that it may be a Magnetically Confined Wind Shock (MCWS) source, similar to its more massive analogue θ1 Ori C. X-ray flares occurring near periastron led to the suggestion that the flares are produced via magnetic reconnection as magnetospheres on both components of the θ2 Ori A binary interact at closest approach. We use a series of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of θ2 Ori A to place an upper limit on the magnetic field strength of 135 G (95% credible region). Such a weak dipole field would not produce magnetic confinement, or a large magnetosphere. A sub-pixel analysis of the Chandra ACIS images of θ2 Ori A obtained during quiescence and flaring show that the hard, flaring X-rays are offset from the soft, quiescent emission by 0.4 arcsec. If the soft emission is associated with the A1/A2 spectroscopic binary, the offset and position angle of the hard, flaring source place it at the location of the intermediate-mass A3 companion, discovered via speckle interferometry. The spectropolarimetric and X-ray results taken together point to the A3 companion, not the massive A1/A2 binary, as the source of hard, flaring X-ray emission. We also discuss a similar analysis performed for the magnetic Bp star σ Ori E. We find a similar origin for its X-ray flaring.

  12. Physical well-being and ethnic inequality in New Zealand prisons, 1840–1975

    PubMed Central

    Inwood, Kris; Oxley, Les

    2015-01-01

    The British colonization of New Zealand after 1840 was marked by an unusual concern compared to other settler colonies for incorporating the indigenous population Māori population into the new society. But despite a continuing political rhetoric of protection and sovereignty Māori have historically had lower living standards and, since the 1920s, higher rates of incarceration than European-descended New Zealanders (Pākehā). In this paper we examine differences between Māori and Pākehā over 130 years using prison records. Aggregate data from the Ministry of Justice show long-term change and differences in incarceration rates. Using a dataset of all extant registers of men entering New Zealand prisons we show change over time in convictions and in height. The adult statures of Māori and Pākehā were similar for men born before 1900 but marked differences emerged among cohorts born during the twentieth century. By World War II the gap in adult stature widened to around 3 cm, before narrowing for men born after World War II. Periods of divergence in stature are paralleled by divergence in fertility and indicators of family size, suggesting the possibility that increasing fertility stressed the economic situation of Māori families. The prison evidence suggests that inequalities in ‘net nutrition’ between Māori and Pākehā are long-standing but not unchanging, indeed they increased for cohorts born into the early 20th century. A subset of the data describing adolescents confirms that among those born after 1945 the ethnic differential was already visible by the age of 16 years. PMID:26167110

  13. DNA-binding domain of the RepE initiator protein of mini-F plasmid: involvement of the carboxyl-terminal region.

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, F; Kawasaki, Y; Ishiai, M; Nishikawa, K; Yura, T; Wada, C

    1995-01-01

    The RepE initiator protein (251 residues) is essential for mini-F replication in Escherichia coli and exhibits two major functions: initiation of DNA replication from ori2 and autogenous repression of repE transcription. Whereas the initiation is mediated by RepE monomers that bind to the ori2 iterons (direct repeats), the autogenous repression is mediated by dimers that bind to the repE operator, which contains an inverted repeat sequence related to the iterons. We now report that the binding of RepE to these DNA sites is primarily determined by the C-terminal region of this protein. The mutant RepE proteins lacking either the N-terminal 33 (or more) residues or the C-terminal 7 (or more) residues were first shown to be defective in binding to both the ori2 and the operator DNAs. However, direct screening and analysis of mutant RepEs which are specifically affected in binding to the ori2 iterons revealed that the mutations (mostly amino acid substitutions) occur exclusively in the C-terminal region (residues 168 to 242). These mutant proteins exhibited reduced binding to ori2 and no detectable binding to the operator. Thus, whereas truncation of either end of RepE can destroy the DNA-binding activities, the C-terminal region appears to represent a primary DNA-binding domain of RepE for both ori2 and the operator. Analogous DNA-binding domains seem to be conserved among the initiator proteins of certain related plasmids. PMID:7721691

  14. Chromosome replication dynamics in the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Duggin, Iain G; McCallum, Simon A; Bell, Stephen D

    2008-10-28

    The "baby machine" provides a means of generating synchronized cultures of minimally perturbed cells. We describe the use of this technique to establish the key cell-cycle parameters of hyperthermophilic archaea of the genus Sulfolobus. The 3 DNA replication origins of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were mapped by 2D gel analysis to near 0 (oriC2), 579 (oriC1), and 1,197 kb (oriC3) on the 2,226-kb circular genome, and we present a direct demonstration of their activity within the first few minutes of a synchronous cell cycle. We also detected X-shaped DNA molecules at the origins in log-phase cells, but these were not directly associated with replication initiation or ongoing chromosome replication in synchronized cells. Whole-genome marker frequency analyses of both synchronous and log-phase cultures showed that origin utilization was close to 100% for all 3 origins per round of replication. However, oriC2 was activated slightly later on average compared with oriC1 and oriC3. The DNA replication forks moved bidirectionally away from each origin at approximately 88 bp per second in synchronous culture. Analysis of the 3 Orc1/Cdc6 initiator proteins showed a uniformity of cellular abundance and origin binding throughout the cell cycle. In contrast, although levels of the MCM helicase were constant across the cell cycle, its origin localization was regulated, because it was strongly enriched at all 3 origins in early S phase.

  15. Expression of Staphylococcus aureus clumping factor A in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris using a new shuttle vector.

    PubMed

    Que, Y A; Haefliger, J A; Francioli, P; Moreillon, P

    2000-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus harbors redundant adhesins mediating tissue colonization and infection. To evaluate their intrinsic role outside of the staphylococcal background, a system was designed to express them in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris 1363. This bacterium is devoid of virulence factors and has a known genetic background. A new Escherichia coli-L. lactis shuttle and expression vector was constructed for this purpose. First, the high-copy-number lactococcal plasmid pIL253 was equipped with the oriColE1 origin, generating pOri253 that could replicate in E. coli. Second, the lactococcal promoters P23 or P59 were inserted at one end of the pOri253 multicloning site. Gene expression was assessed by a luciferase reporter system. The plasmid carrying P23 (named pOri23) expressed luciferase constitutively at a level 10,000 times greater than did the P59-containing plasmid. Transcription was absent in E. coli. The staphylococcal clumping factor A (clfA) gene was cloned into pOri23 and used as a model system. Lactococci carrying pOri23-clfA produced an unaltered and functional 130-kDa ClfA protein attached to their cell walls. This was indicated both by the presence of the protein in Western blots of solubilized cell walls and by the ability of ClfA-positive lactococci to clump in the presence of plasma. ClfA-positive lactococci had clumping titers (titer of 4,112) similar to those of S. aureus Newman in soluble fibrinogen and bound equally well to solid-phase fibrinogen. These experiments provide a new way to study individual staphylococcal pathogenic factors and might complement both classical knockout mutagenesis and modern in vivo expression technology and signature tag mutagenesis.

  16. Origin-of-transfer sequences facilitate mobilisation of non-conjugative antimicrobial-resistance plasmids in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Frances G.; Yui Eto, Karina; Murphy, Riley J. T.; Fairhurst, Heather M.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Grubb, Warren B.; Ramsay, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital, community and livestock-associated infections and is increasingly resistant to multiple antimicrobials. A significant proportion of antimicrobial-resistance genes are plasmid-borne, but only a minority of S. aureus plasmids encode proteins required for conjugative transfer or Mob relaxase proteins required for mobilisation. The pWBG749 family of S. aureus conjugative plasmids can facilitate the horizontal transfer of diverse antimicrobial-resistance plasmids that lack Mob genes. Here we reveal that these mobilisable plasmids carry copies of the pWBG749 origin-of-transfer (oriT) sequence and that these oriT sequences facilitate mobilisation by pWBG749. Sequences resembling the pWBG749 oriT were identified on half of all sequenced S. aureus plasmids, including the most prevalent large antimicrobial-resistance/virulence-gene plasmids, pIB485, pMW2 and pUSA300HOUMR. oriT sequences formed five subfamilies with distinct inverted-repeat-2 (IR2) sequences. pWBG749-family plasmids encoding each IR2 were identified and pWBG749 mobilisation was found to be specific for plasmids carrying matching IR2 sequences. Specificity of mobilisation was conferred by a putative ribbon-helix-helix-protein gene smpO. Several plasmids carried 2–3 oriT variants and pWBG749-mediated recombination occurred between distinct oriT sites during mobilisation. These observations suggest this relaxase-in trans mechanism of mobilisation by pWBG749-family plasmids is a common mechanism of plasmid dissemination in S. aureus. PMID:26243776

  17. Measles epidemiology and outbreak response immunization in a rural community in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    Sniadack, D. H.; Moscoso, B.; Aguilar, R.; Heath, J.; Bellini, W.; Chiu, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Only limited data are available on the impact of measles outbreak response immunization (ORI) in developing countries. We conducted a community survey in Espindola, a rural border community in northern Peru, following a measles outbreak and subsequent ORI to study the epidemiology and impact of the outbreak and to evaluate the costs and benefits of measles ORI. During the outbreak, 150 of the 553 Espindola residents developed clinical cases of measles. Adults accounted for 44.0% of cases, and were frequently identified as primary cases. The attack rate among all susceptible people was 45.5% and was highest (61.2%) for the 16-20 year age group. Among adults, significant risk factors for developing measles included being aged 16-20 years (relative risk [RR] = 3.06, 95% CI = 2.08, 4.49) and being male (RR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.71). Among serologically confirmed cases, 60.7% developed diarrhoea and 32.1% pneumonia. The overall case-fatality rate was 3.3%, but reached 19.1% in the 0-23-month age group. Failure to reach children through either routine immunization or national campaigns made this community vulnerable to the severe and extensive impact of measles virus importation. The ORI campaign targeted non-measles case children aged 6 months to 15 years, regardless of their previous immunization status, and was effective in terminating this measles outbreak and in preventing morbidity, loss of livelihood and death despite the involvement of large numbers of adults in measles transmission. The last measles case occurred within 3 weeks of completing ORI. The ORI campaign, which would have cost approximately US$ 3000 in 1998, saved as many as 1155 person-days of work among 77 adults, prevented an estimated 87 cases of diarrhoea and 46 cases of pneumonia, and averted 5 deaths. PMID:10444877

  18. THE CORONAL ABUNDANCES OF MID-F DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin

    2013-05-10

    A Chandra spectrum of the moderately active nearby F6 V star {pi}{sup 3} Ori is used to study the coronal properties of mid-F dwarfs. We find that {pi}{sup 3} Ori's coronal emission measure distribution is very similar to those of moderately active G and K dwarfs, with an emission measure peak near log T = 6.6 seeming to be ubiquitous for such stars. In contrast to coronal temperature, coronal abundances are known to depend on spectral type for main sequence stars. Based on this previously known relation, we expected {pi}{sup 3} Ori's corona to exhibit an extremely strong ''first ionization potential (FIP) effect'', a phenomenon first identified on the Sun where elements with low FIP are enhanced in the corona. We instead find that {pi}{sup 3} Ori's corona exhibits a FIP effect essentially identical to that of the Sun and other early G dwarfs, perhaps indicating that the increase in FIP bias toward earlier spectral types stops or at least slows for F stars. We find that {pi}{sup 3} Ori's coronal characteristics are significantly different from two previously studied mid-F stars, Procyon (F5 IV-V) and {tau} Boo (F7 V). We believe {pi}{sup 3} Ori is more representative of the coronal characteristics of mid-F dwarfs, with Procyon being different because of luminosity class, and {tau} Boo being different because of the effects of one of two close companions, one stellar ({tau} Boo B: M2 V) and one planetary.

  19. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  20. The infrared excess of cool giant stars - A chromospheric contribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, D. L.; Snell, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The idea that the infrared excesses of evolved M stars may contain a contribution from a chromosphere is explored using alpha Ori and W Hya as test cases. The spectrum of alpha Ori between 8 and 30 millimicrons can be interpreted satisfactorily in terms of three components: a photosphere, a silicate dust cloud, and a cool chromosphere (temperature about 5000 K), which is optically thick at 14 millimicrons. A similar modelling for W Hya suggests a hotter chromosphere (temperature about 8000 K), with unit optical depth at 30 millimicrons. Some consequences of these chromospheres are briefly discussed.

  1. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry from Gemini 11 of stars in Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, T. H.; Spear, G. G.; Kondo, Y.; Henize, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry in the wavelength region 2600-3600 A is reported for the bright early-type stars beta, eta, gamma, delta, iota, epsilon, sigma, zeta, and kappa Ori. The results are in good agreement with other observations, and, with the possible exception of the supergiants, are in good agreement with recent line-blanketed model atmospheres. There is evidence that the supergiants possess a small ultraviolet deficiency shortward of 3000 A relative to main-sequence stars of similar spectral type. The most extreme example of this phenomenon is the star kappa Ori.

  2. Joint VLBA/VLTI Observations of the Mira Variable S Orionis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    0 (red ) and v ¼ 2, J ¼ 1 0 (blue) SiO maser emission toward S Ori. The images represent maximum pixel values over the LSR velocity range from +10.1...Observations of the v ¼ 1, J ¼ 1 0 (43.1 GHz) and v ¼ 2, J ¼ 1 0 (42.8 GHz) SiO maser emission toward the Mira variable S Ori were conducted using the VLBA...of Mira variables and supergiants have been investigated by mapping the SiO maser emission at typical distances of 2–4 stellar radii toward these

  3. BF Orionis - Evidence for an infalling circumstellar envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welty, Alan D.; Barden, Samuel C.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the optical magnitudes and Balmer lines of the Herbig Ae/Be star BF Orionis confirm that the object is an early to mid A-type star, but appears to be below the zero-age main sequence. Enhanced metal-line strengths (once thought to link BF Ori with the Am stars), line asymmetries, and radial velocities are shown to be signatures of an infalling circumstellar envelope. The possibility that BF Ori has a late-type companion is examined, and it is concluded that it does not.

  4. Histidine Operon Deattenuation in dnaA Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium Correlates with a Decrease in the Gene Dosage Ratio between tRNAHis and Histidine Biosynthetic Loci

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Potard, Anne-Beatrice; Figueroa-Bossi, Nara; Bossi, Lionello

    1999-01-01

    Expression of the histidine operon of Salmonella typhimurium is increased in dnaA(Ts) mutants at 37°C. This effect requires an intact his attenuator and can be suppressed by increasing the gene copy number of the hisR locus, which encodes the tRNAHis. We present data which suggest that the his deattenuation defect in dnaA(Ts) mutants results from the loss of a gene dosage gradient between the hisR locus, close to oriC, and the his operon, far from oriC. Some of the conclusions drawn here may apply to other operons as well. PMID:10217789

  5. The multiplicity of massive stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster as seen with long-baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grellmann, R.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Kraus, S.; Helminiak, K. G.; Zinnecker, H.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The characterization of multiple stellar systems is an important ingredient for testing current star formation models. Stars are more often found in multiple systems, the more massive they are. A complete knowledge of the multiplicity of high-mass stars over the full range of orbit separations is thus essential to understand their still debated formation process. Aims: Infrared long baseline interferometry is very well suited to close the gap between spectroscopic and adaptive optics searches. Observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) in general and the Trapezium Cluster in particular can help to answer the question about the origin and evolution of multiple stars. Earlier studies provide a good knowledge about the multiplicity of the stars at very small (spectroscopic companions) and large separations (AO, speckle companions) and thus make the ONC a good target for such a project. Methods: We used the near infrared interferometric instrument AMBER at ESOs Very Large Telescope Interferometer to observe a sample of bright stars in the ONC. We complement our data set by archival NACO observations of θ1 Ori A to obtain more information about the orbit of the close visual companion. Results: Our observations resolve the known multiple systems θ1 Ori C and θ1 Ori A and provide new orbit points, which confirm the predicted orbit and the determined stellar parameters for θ1 Ori C. Combining AMBER and NACO data for θ1 Ori A we were able to follow the (orbital) motion of the companion from 2003 to 2011. We furthermore find hints for a companion around θ1 Ori D, whose existence has been suggested already before, and a previously unknown companion to NU Ori. With a probability of ~90% we can exclude further companions with masses of ≥ 3 M⊙ around our sample stars for separations between ~2 mas and ~110 mas. Conclusions: We conclude that the companion around θ1 Ori A is most likely physically related to the primary star and not only a chance projected

  6. IUE observations of new A star candidate proto-planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the detection of accreting gas in the A5e PMS Herbig Ae star, HR 5999, most of the observations for this IUE program were devoted to Herbig Ae stars rather than to main sequence A stars. Mid-UV emission at optical minimum light was detected for UX Ori (A1e), BF Ori (A5e), and CQ Tau (F2e). The presence of accreting gas in HD 45677 and HD 50138 prompted reclassification of these stars as Herbig Be stars rather than as protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed results are discussed.

  7. Explorer : des clés pour mieux comprendre la matière

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le LHC va-t-il bouleverser les théories de l'infiniment petit ? Les physiciens aimeraient que l'accélérateur fasse trembler le modèle standard. Cette théorie des particules élémentaires et des forces laisse de nombreuses zones d'ombre. Le LHC et ses expériences ont été conçus pour les éclairer.

  8. Observed departures from LTE ionization equilibrium in late-type giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    Photoelectric scans of the Ca I line at 6572 A and the forbidden Ca II transition at 7323 A are studied in the K giant alpha Tau, the M supergiant alpha Ori, and the M giants beta And, alpha Cet, mu Gem, and beta Peg. The relative strengths of these lines are shown to be indicative of the ratio of the relative number densities of the neutral and ionized species in the photosphere. The analysis indicates an overionization relative to LTE in qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations of Auman and Woodrow for the K and M giants. The M supergiant alpha Ori exhibits a large overionization relative to LTE.

  9. Re-Evaluation of the Lower San Fernando Dam. Report 3. The Behavior of Undrained Contractive Sand and Its Effect on Seismic Liquefaction Flow Failures of Earth Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Relationship Between Residual Strength and SPT N-Values for Sands (after Seed, 1987) 45 ORY VIBRATION WET ROOING INITIAL LIQUEFACTION .8$0 UNE ~~ .i-10...yal 5tlics 2.000 60 Dry Vibration ? a 2.000 60 Wet odding ? & 2,00 60 Ory I’(bratien P 9 Sand NO. 1 2.800 60 Moist Tnplni F . . 1,.400 60 P o Monterey...from a lacustrine, swampy deposit tnat hds experienced liquefaction induced by vibrating machinery in the past. The grain size distributions for these

  10. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  11. Normal Vulvovaginal, Perineal, and Pelvic Anatomy with Reconstructive Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Yavagal, Sujata; de Farias, Thais F.; Medina, Carlos A.; Takacs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A thorough insight into the female genital anatomy is crucial for understanding and performing pelvic reconstructive procedures. The intimate relationship between the genitalia and the muscles, ligaments, and fascia that provide support is complex, but critical to restore during surgery for correction of prolapse or aesthetic reasons. The external female genitalia include the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, vestibule with glands, perineal body, and the muscles and fascia surrounding these structures. Through the perineal membrane and the perineal body, these superficial vulvar structures are structurally related to the deep pelvic muscle levator ani with its fascia. The levator ani forms the pelvic floor with the coccygeus muscle and provides vital support to all the pelvic organs and stability to the perineum. The internal female genital organs include the vagina, cervix, uterus, tubes, and ovaries with their visceral fascia. The visceral fascia also called the endopelvic fascia, surrounds the pelvic organs and connects them to the pelvic walls. It is continuous with the paraurethral and paravaginal fascia, which is attached to the perineal membrane. Thus, the internal and external genitalia are closely related to the muscles and fascia, and work as one functioning unit. PMID:22547969

  12. Pelvic floor muscles and the external urethral sphincter have different responses to applied bladder pressure during continence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Hong; Salcedo, Levilester B.; Song, Bo; Damaser, Margot S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the functional innervation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and if there is PFM activity during an external pressure increase to the bladder in female rats. Methods Thirty-one female adult virgin Sprague Dawley rats received an external increase in bladder pressure until urinary leakage was noted while bladder pressure was recorded (leak point pressure; LPP) under urethane anesthesia. Six of the rats underwent repeat LPP testing after bilateral transection of the levator ani nerve. Another 6 rats underwent repeat LPP testing after bilateral transection of the pudendal nerve. Simultaneous recordings of PFM (pubo-/iliococcygeus muscles) electromyogram (EMG) and external urethral sphincter (EUS) EMG were recorded during cystometry and LPP testing. Results Thirteen rats (42%) showed tonic PFM EMG activity during filling cystometry. Eighteen rats (58%) showed no tonic PFM EMG activity at baseline, but PFM EMG could be activated by pinching the perineal skin. This activity could be maintained unless voiding occurred. The external increase in bladder pressure caused significantly increased EUS EMG activity as demonstrated by increased amplitude and frequency. However, there was no such response in PFM EMG. LPP was not significantly different after levator ani nerve transection, but was significantly decreased after pudendal nerve transection. Conclusions PFM activity was not increased during external pressure increases to the bladder in female rats. Experimental designs using rats should consider this result. PMID:20206969

  13. The tethered vagina syndrome, post surgical incontinence and I-plasty operation for cure.

    PubMed

    Petros, P E; Ulmsten, U I

    1990-01-01

    Urinary incontinence was observed in 19 patients after bladder neck elevation or vaginal repair operations. Characteristically, patients could not suppress their urge to micturate on getting up in the morning, and they wet before arrival at the toilet. Urodynamically, a high posterior cough transmission ratio was noted. A 1.5 cm longitudinal incision in the vagina, dissected free and resutured horizontally (I-plasty), immediately cured this particular condition, but ultimately failed in 1/3 cases. Most of these failed patients were subsequently cured by further adjustment of vaginal tension under local anaesthesia (Tuck procedure). These findings confirm the emphasis given by the Integral Theory of Female Urinary Incontinence as to maintain adequate elasticity in the zone of critical elasticity (ZCE) of the supralevator vagina. The ZCE acts as an elastic hinge, allowing (i.e. facilitates) the separate and opposite contractile forces of anterior pubococcygeus, and levator plate which are necessary to close off urethra and bladder neck respectively. Inadequate elasticity at the ZCE converts the ZCE's role from facilitation to opposition. The stronger levator muscle contraction counteracts the forward section of the weaker anterior part of pubococcygeus muscle, preventing bladder neck closure.

  14. Neural control of the female urethral and anal rhabdosphincters and pelvic floor muscles

    PubMed Central

    de Groat, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The urethral rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles are important in maintenance of urinary continence and in preventing descent of pelvic organs [i.e., pelvic organ prolapse (POP)]. Despite its clinical importance and complexity, a comprehensive review of neural control of the rhabdosphincter and pelvic floor muscles is lacking. The present review places historical and recent basic science findings on neural control into the context of functional anatomy of the pelvic muscles and their coordination with visceral function and correlates basic science findings with clinical findings when possible. This review briefly describes the striated muscles of the pelvis and then provides details on the peripheral innervation and, in particular, the contributions of the pudendal and levator ani nerves to the function of the various pelvic muscles. The locations and unique phenotypic characteristics of rhabdosphincter motor neurons located in Onuf's nucleus, and levator ani motor neurons located diffusely in the sacral ventral horn, are provided along with the locations and phenotypes of primary afferent neurons that convey sensory information from these muscles. Spinal and supraspinal pathways mediating excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the motor neurons are described; the relative contributions of the nerves to urethral function and their involvement in POP and incontinence are discussed. Finally, a detailed summary of the neurochemical anatomy of Onuf's nucleus and the pharmacological control of the rhabdosphincter are provided. PMID:20484700

  15. Evolution of the head-trunk interface in tetrapod vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Sefton, Elizabeth M; Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Mohaddes, Zahra; Hanken, James

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrate neck musculature spans the transition zone between head and trunk. The extent to which the cucullaris muscle is a cranial muscle allied with the gill levators of anamniotes or is instead a trunk muscle is an ongoing debate. Novel computed tomography datasets reveal broad conservation of the cucullaris in gnathostomes, including coelacanth and caecilian, two sarcopterygians previously thought to lack it. In chicken, lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) adjacent to occipital somites is a recently identified embryonic source of cervical musculature. We fate-map this mesoderm in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which retains external gills, and demonstrate its contribution to posterior gill-levator muscles and the cucullaris. Accordingly, LPM adjacent to the occipital somites should be regarded as posterior cranial mesoderm. The axial position of the head-trunk border in axolotl is congruent between LPM and somitic mesoderm, unlike in chicken and possibly other amniotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09972.001 PMID:27090084

  16. Concomitant responses of upper airway stabilizing muscles to transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal men.

    PubMed

    Sériès, Frédéric; Wang, Wei; Mélot, Christian; Similowski, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Upper airway stabilizing muscles play a crucial role in the maintenance of upper airway patency. Transcranial magnetic stimulation allows the investigation of the corticomotor activation process for respiratory muscles. This technique has also been used to evaluate the genioglossus corticomotor response. The aims of this study were to characterize the response of different upper airway stabilizing muscles to focal cortical stimulation of the genioglossus. Alae nasi, genioglossus, levator palatini, palatoglossus and diaphragm motor-evoked potential responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded during expiration, tidal inspiration and deep inspiration in nine normal awake subjects. A concomitant response of the four studied upper airway muscles was observed in the majority of cortical stimuli. The response of these muscles was independent of the diaphragmatic one that was only occasionally observed. Significant positive relationships were found between alae nasi, levator palatini and palatoglossus motor-evoked potential latencies and amplitudes and the corresponding values of the genioglossus. We conclude that transcranial magnetic stimulation applied in the genioglossus area induces a concomitant motor response of upper airway stabilizing muscles with consistent changes in their motor responses during inspiratory manoeuvres.

  17. Etiology of craniofacial malformations in mouse models of blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heude, Églantine; Bellessort, Brice; Fontaine, Anastasia; Hamazaki, Manatsu; Treier, Anna-Corina; Treier, Mathias; Levi, Giovanni; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas

    2015-03-15

    Blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus-inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by narrow palpebral fissures and eyelid levator muscle defects. BPES is often associated to premature ovarian insufficiency (BPES type I). FOXL2, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, is the only gene known to be mutated in BPES. Foxl2 is essential for maintenance of ovarian identity, but the developmental origin of the facial malformations of BPES remains, so far, unexplained. In this study, we provide the first detailed account of the developmental processes leading to the craniofacial malformations associated to Foxl2. We show that, during development, Foxl2 is expressed both by Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCCs) and by Cranial Mesodermal Cells (CMCs), which give rise to skeletal (CNCCs and CMCs) and muscular (CMCs) components of the head. Using mice in which Foxl2 is selectively inactivated in either CNCCs or CMCs, we reveal that expression of Foxl2 in CNCCs is essential for the development of extraocular muscles. Indeed, inactivation of Foxl2 in CMCs has only minor effects on muscle development, whereas its inactivation in CNCCs provokes a severe hypoplasia of the levator palpabrae superioris and of the superior and inferior oblique muscles. We further show that Foxl2 deletion in either CNCCs or CMCs prevents eyelid closure and induces subtle skeletal developmental defects. Our results provide new insights in the complex developmental origin of human BPES and could help to understand the origin of other ocular anomalies associated to this syndrome.

  18. Review on surgical management of ptosis and the use of phenylephrine: A national survey of British Oculoplastic Surgery Society (BOPSS) UK Consultants.

    PubMed

    Mota, Peter M; Norris, Jonathan H

    2016-12-01

    We assess current practice using topical phenylephrine by British Oculoplastic Surgery Society (BOPSS) consultants in the surgical management of ptosis. All UK consultant BOPSS members were invited to participate in a web-based survey, consisting of 8 questions relating to the surgical management of adult primary involutional ptosis with normal levator function and the use of phenylephrine in the management of ptosis. 53 BOPSS consultants (43%) completed the survey, of which 76% perform anterior approach levator advancement as first-line surgery. Then, 40% of consultants routinely use phenylephrine unilaterally in the ptotic eye, with 90% using 2.5% as opposed to 10%. Also, 77% of consultants use topical phenylephrine to illustrate the predicted outcome of surgery for the patient's benefit and 65% modify their approach on the basis of the test. If phenylephrine raises the ptotic eyelid >2 mm, those using an anterior approach reduces to 13.6%, with majority using a posterior approach (86.4%). If phenylephrine induces no improvement, then 76% use an anterior approach. If phenylephrine induces a contralateral ptosis 79% of consultants will perform simultaneous bilateral surgery. A number of interesting trends were observed amongst BOPSS consultants in their surgical approach to ptosis based on the phenylephrine test. The majority of consultants will switch from anterior to posterior approach surgery when the phenylephrine test is strongly positive and will also perform bilateral surgery when a contralateral ptosis is induced with phenylephrine.

  19. [Correction of the position of the cilia in facial paralysis: Technical note].

    PubMed

    Caillot, A; Labbé, D

    2015-06-01

    Facial paralysis is a incapacitating pathology that we treat with lengthening temporalis myoplasty for reanimation of the smile. To treat lagophthalmia, we use the extension of the levator of the upper eyelid according Tessier and the asymmetric external blepharorraphy. These techniques can optionally be combined with other techniques, as needed. However, many patients are embarrassed by the appearance of the lashes of the upper eyelid homolateral side facial paralysis. The cilia are lowered and horizontalised, creating a functional disorder by partial "amputation" of the visual field and aesthetic inconvenience. We describe a surgical technique to correct the malposition of the lashes. This technique can be carried out independently or in the lengthening of the temporal myoplasty or another surgical procedure on the eye. In case of extension of the levator of the upper eyelid, the technique we propose requires no additional incision. This is a simple technique and increases very little surgical time. It is fast, little or no morbid, reproducible and provides a significant improvement in the aesthetic and functional patient. This simple technique allows to provide both aesthetic and functional refinement for patients with facial paralysis sequelae.

  20. Blepharoplasty techniques in the management of orbito-temporal neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Lin, Ming; Shao, Chunyi; Ge, Shengfang; Fan, Xianqun

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to present blepharoplasty techniques we used for severe orbito-temporal neurofibromatosis (NF). A retrospective noncomparative single-center case study was undertaken on patients with orbito-temporal NF. Twenty-two patients with orbito-temporal NF treated at the Department of Ophthalmology of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital between 2007 and 2011 participated in the study. They underwent a standard ophthalmologic assessment for orbito-temporal NF involving both the orbito-temporal soft tissue and bony orbits. The orbits were examined with three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) and all 22 patients underwent tumor debulking, blepharoplasty, and orbital reconstruction. We modified the conventional procedures. Our reconstructive techniques included eyelid reduction; lateral canthal reattachment; for patients with collapse of the lateral orbital margin, reconstruction of the orbital margin to be performed before reattaching the lateral canthus to the implanted titanium mesh; anterior levator resection; and frontalis suspension according to preoperative levator muscle function. Visual acuity, tumor recurrence, and postoperative palpebral fissure and orbital appearance were evaluated to assess outcomes. Acceptable cosmetic results were obtained in 22 patients after debulking of the orbito-temporal NF and surgical reconstruction. There was no loss of vision or visual impairment postoperatively. All patients did not display recrudescence after a follow-up period of >1 year. Three patients with residual ptosis were successfully treated with a second ptosis repair. We believe that the blepharoplasty techniques described in the treatment of orbito-palpebral NF may provide both functional and esthetic benefits.

  1. A Prototype External Magnetic Eyelid Device for Blepharoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Kevin E.; Tomasi, Matteo; Yoon, Michael; Paschalis, Eleftherios I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test a prototype magnet system (magnetic levator prosthesis) for the ability to comfortably and non-invasively provide eye opening with maintenance of the blink in people with paralytic ptosis and determine preliminary efficacy for short-term clinical application. Methods The prototype device consisted of a magnet on a spectacle frame and a micro-magnet array mounted externally on the eyelid. Participants with unilateral CN III palsy (n=3) trialed the predicate (ptosis crutch) and magnet device. Video analysis was used to quantify changes in eyelid opening and subjective responses were documented with a rating scale. A 20-minute and then a 1-week trial were offered. Results The magnetic levator prosthesis device was effective to provide eye opening while allowing, at minimum, a volitional blink without ill effects on the eyelid skin or ocular surface. Comfort scores ranged from 6 to 9 out of 10 over 3 evaluations. All patients chose an extended trial of the magnet device and reported continued 8-9/10 comfort and efficacy after the extended 1-week trial. Conclusions Comfortable and effective restoration of eye opening with maintenance of the blink is feasible using external static magnets and warrants further study. Translational Relevance This is the first careful documentation of the successful use of an externally mounted static magnet system to treat paralytic ptosis. PMID:25674358

  2. Antiandrogenic activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra in male rats.

    PubMed

    Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Sarookhani, Mohammad-Reza; Jahani-Hashemi, Hassan; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-08-01

    Abnormal levels of androgens cause many diseases like benign prostatic hyperplasia and hormone dependent cancers. Although the reduction in serum testosterone (T) by Glycyrrhiza glabra has been reported, its effects on seminal vesicle (SV) and prostate tissues have never been reported. This study was carried out to investigate different aspects of antiandrogenic properties of this plant. Immature male rats were divided into five groups (n = 7): castrated rats without any treatment received only vehicle; castrated rats plus T replacement; three castrated groups with T replacement plus various doses of G. glabra extract (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg). All of the injections were carried out once daily in subcutaneous manner for 7 days. On the eighth day, blood samples were collected for total T measurement. Ventral prostate (VP), SV and levator ani muscle were dissected and weighed. Slides prepared from prostate were assessed histologically. The variation in the relative and absolute volume of the prostate tissue compartments was determined. Those receiving the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in prostate weight, total T and VP epithelium/stroma ratio (V/V). These results in SV and levator ani were shown in response to 300 mg/kg of extract. Increasing in T metabolism, down-regulation of androgen receptors or activation of oestrogen receptors could be involved mechanisms. This study showed that alcoholic extract of G. glabra has antiandrogenic properties.

  3. Supra and infralevator neurovascular pathways to the penile corpora cavernosa

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, G.; DROUPY, S.; QUILLARD, J.; PARADIS, V.; GIULIANO, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of both penile innervation and vascularisation. Eighty-five male cadavers were examined through gross and microscopic anatomical analysis. The pelvic nerve plexus had both parasympathetic and sympathetic roots. It was distributed to the external urethral sphincter giving rise to cavernous nerves which anastomosed in 70% of the cases with the pudendal nerve in the penile root. Accessory pudendal arteries were present in the pelvis in 70% of the cases, anastomosing in 70% of the cases with the cavernous arteries that originated from the pudendal arteries. Transalbugineal anastomoses were always seen between the cavernous artery and the spongiosal arterial network. There were 2 venous pathways, 1 in the pelvis and 1 in the perineum with a common origin from the deep dorsal penile vein. It is concluded that there are 2 neurovascular pathways destined for the penis that are topographically distinct. One is located in the pelvis and the other in the perineum. We were unable to determine the functional balance between these 2 anastomosing pathways but experimental data have shown that they are both involved in penile erection. These 2 neurovascular pathways, above and below the levator ani, together with their anastomoses, form a neurovascular loop around the levator ani. PMID:10634698

  4. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres

    PubMed Central

    David, Izhak; Holmes, Philip

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks’ architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity). Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system. PMID:27422902

  5. ANMS-ESNM Position Paper and Consensus Guidelines On Biofeedback Therapy for Anorectal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Satish S.C.; Benninga, Marc A; Bharucha, Adil E; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Whitehead, William E

    2015-01-01

    Anorectal disorders such as dyssynergic defecation, fecal incontinence, levator ani syndrome and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome are common, and affect both the adult and pediatric populations. Although they are treated with several treatment approaches, over the last two decades, biofeedback therapy using visual and verbal feedback techniques has emerged as an useful option. Because it is safe, it is commonly recommended. However, the clinical efficacy of biofeedback therapy in adults and children is not clearly known, and there is a lack of critical appraisal of the techniques used and the outcomes of biofeedback therapy for these disorders. The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society and the European Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility convened a task force to examine the indications, study performance characteristics, methodologies used and the efficacy of biofeedback therapy, and to provide evidence-based recommendations. Based on the strength of evidence, biofeedback therapy is recommended for the short term and long term treatment of constipation with dyssynergic defecation (Level I, Grade A), and for the treatment of fecal incontinence (Level II, Grade B). Biofeedback therapy may be useful in the short-term treatment of Levator Ani Syndrome with dyssynergic defecation (Level II, Grade B), and solitary rectal ulcer syndrome with dyssynergic defecation (Level III, Grade C), but the evidence is fair. Evidence does not support the use of biofeedback for the treatment of childhood constipation (Level 1, Grade D). PMID:25828100

  6. Central generation of grooming motor patterns and interlimb coordination in locusts.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, A; Laurent, G

    1996-12-15

    Coordinated bursts of leg motoneuron activity were evoked in locusts with deefferented legs by tactile stimulation of sites that evoke grooming behavior. This suggests that insect thoracic ganglia contain central pattern generators for directed leg movements. Motoneuron recordings were made from metathoracic and mesothoracic nerves, after eliminating all leg motor innervation, as well as all input from the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and prothoracic ganglion. Strong, brief trochanteral levator motoneuron bursts occurred, together with silence of the slow and fast trochanteral depressor motoneurons and activation of the common inhibitor motoneuron. The metathoracic slow tibial extensor motoneuron was active in a pattern distinct from its activity during walking or during rhythms evoked by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. Preparations in which the metathoracic ganglion was isolated from all other ganglia could still produce fictive motor patterns in response to tactile stimulation of metathoracic locations. Bursts of trochanteral levator and depressor motoneurons were clearly coordinated between the left and right metathoracic hemiganglia and also between the mesothoracic and the ipsilateral metathoracic ganglia. These data provide clear evidence for centrally generated interlimb coordination in an insect.

  7. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres.

    PubMed

    David, Izhak; Holmes, Philip; Ayali, Amir

    2016-09-15

    Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks' architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity). Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system.

  8. [Anatomy of the urethral sphincteric vesico-prostatic complex].

    PubMed

    Gadda, F; Carmignani, L; Favini, P; Acquati, P; Avogadro, A; Rocco, F

    2001-09-01

    As 27 different names have been proposed for the components of the urethral sphincter, it is difficult to build a clear anatomical model of it. Starting from a review of the literature and from some personal observations of surgical anatomy, our aim is to draw a vision as much organic as possible of the anatomy of the urethral sphincter. The components of the urethral sphincter are: the bladder neck (preprostatic sphincter), the smooth muscle urethral sphincter, the rhabdosphincter and levator ani muscle. Recently the rhabdosphincter has been proposed as a vertical structure that extends from the pelvic cavity (bladder base) to the perineal cavity. It can be round-shaped or omega-shaped. The anterior insertions are along the anterolateral aspect of the prostate (superiorly) and on the perineal fascia (inferiorly). The posterior insertions are on the Denonvilliers fascia and posterior aspect of the prostatic apex (superiorly) and on the central perineal tendon (inferiorly). The rhabdosphincter has strong means of fixations: anteriorly it is fixed to the pubis by the pubo-urethral ligaments, posteriorly it is supported by the medial fibrous raphe of the perineum. The anteromedial fibres of levator ani muscle are involved in the continence mechanism by their strong relation with the rhabdosphincter and the prostate.

  9. Enhancement of aphrodisiac activity in male rats by ethanol extract of Kaempferia parviflora and exercise training.

    PubMed

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Yimlamai, T; Pholpramool, C

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KD) and exercise training on reproductive function in male rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control, KD70 (received 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks), Ex (exercise training for 4 weeks), Ex + KD70 (exercise training with KD 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). At the end of treatment regimes, sexual behaviours including mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculation latency (PEL), number of mount within 30 min (MF(30)) and number of ejaculation (NEL) were assessed by a video camera, and fertility was tested by natural mating. Results showed that KD had no effect on the weights of reproductive organs, liver, kidneys and levator ani muscle. On the other hand, the weights of epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and levator ani muscle were significantly increased in the Ex and Ex+KD70 groups. ML and EL were shortened in all treatment groups, but PEL was decreased only in KP70 group. Only Ex and Ex + KD70 groups exhibited lower MF and higher NEL whilst MF(30) were not changed in all groups. None of the treatments altered male fertility. It is concluded that KD enhanced sexual motivation whereas exercise training promoted both sexual motivation and performance.

  10. A Cadaveric Investigation of the Dorsal Scapular Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vuvi H.; Liu, Hao (Howe); Rosales, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Compression of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) is associated with pain in the upper extremity and back. Even though entrapment of the DSN within the middle scalene muscle is typically the primary cause of pain, it is still easily missed during diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to document the DSN's anatomy and measure the oblique course it takes with regard to the middle scalene muscle. From 20 embalmed adult cadavers, 23 DSNs were documented regarding the nerve's spinal root origin, anatomical route, and muscular innervations. A transverse plane through the laryngeal prominence was established to measure the distance of the DSN from this plane as it enters, crosses, and exits the middle scalene muscle. Approximately 70% of the DSNs originated from C5, with 74% piercing the middle scalene muscle. About 48% of the DSNs supplied the levator scapulae muscle only and 52% innervated both the levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles. The average distances from a transverse plane at the laryngeal prominence where the DSN entered, crossed, and exited the middle scalene muscle were 1.50 cm, 1.79 cm, and 2.08 cm, respectively. Our goal is to help improve clinicians' ability to locate the site of DSN entrapment so that appropriate management can be implemented. PMID:27597900

  11. Acute unilateral isolated ptosis

    PubMed Central

    Court, Jennifer Helen; Janicek, David

    2015-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of acute onset painless left ptosis. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He was systemically well with no headache, other focal neurological signs, or symptoms of fatigue. CT imaging showed swelling of the levator palpebrae superioris suggestive of myositis. After showing no improvement over 5 days the patient started oral prednisolone 30 mg reducing over 12 weeks. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free at 6 months follow-up. Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. Differential diagnoses include a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing a partial or complete third nerve palsy, Horner’s syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. A careful history and examination must be taken. Orbital myositis typically involves the extraocular muscles causing pain and diplopia. Isolated levator myositis is rare. PMID:25564592

  12. Anatomical study of the opossum (Didelphis albiventris) extraocular muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, S M; Soares, J C; da Silva, A M; Seullner, G

    1995-01-01

    The anatomy of the extraocular muscles was studied in 10 adult opossums (Didelphis albiventris) of both sexes. Eight extraocular muscles were identified: 4 rectus muscles, 2 oblique muscles, the levator palpebrae superioris and the retractor ocular bulbi. The rectus muscles originate very close one to another between the orbital surfaces of the presphenoid and palatine bones. These muscles diverge on the way to their insertion which occurs at about 2 mm from the limbus. The levator palpebrae superioris originates with the dorsal rectus and is positioned dorsally in relation to it. The retractor ocular bulbi forms a cone which embraces the optic nerve and is located internally in relation to the rectus muscles. The dorsal oblique originates on the presphenoid bone and after a tendinous trajectory through a trochlea on the medial wall of the orbit, inserts into the ocular bulb. The only muscle arising from the anterior orbital floor is the ventral oblique. The main nerve supply for these muscles is the oculomotor, except for the dorsal oblique which is innervated by the trochlear nerve, and the lateral rectus which is innervated by the abducens nerve. The retractor ocular bulbi receives branches from the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve and some branches from the abducens nerve. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7649843

  13. Cranial musculature in the larva of the caecilian, Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Within the Gymnophiona (caecilians) oviparous species with biphasic life-cycles possess a free living semi-aquatic larval stage that feeds in aquatic habitats. The larvae pass through a metamorphosis to a purely terrestrial adult stage. It is likely that the cranial morphology of caecilian larvae has specializations for aquatic feeding. However, little is known about the cranial morphology, and the cranial musculature is especially neglected in the literature. This study provides a detailed description of the jaw and hyobranchial musculature in larval stages of a caecilian. We studied late embryonic and early larval specimens of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis. Furthermore, we compared and homologized the cranial muscles found in larval I. kohtaoensis with the muscles described for adult caecilians. Most cranial muscles of larval I. kohtaoensis are also present in the adult, except for the m. levator mandibulae externus and the m. subarcualis obliquus II. Our results were compared with the data available for larval frogs and salamanders in order to hypothesize the cranial musculature in the larva of the most recent common ancestor of the Lissamphibia. Larval caecilians, frog tadpoles, and salamander larvae share many characters in their cranial musculature, which, consequently, can be assigned to the lissamphibian ground pattern. However, the m. pterygoideus and the m. levator quadrati are unique to the Gymnophiona.

  14. Radical Dissection of Greater Palatine Artery and Dynamic Reconstruction of Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nauman Ahmad; Chaudry, Ayesha; Ishaq, Irfan; Aslam, Muhammad; Shamim, Romaisa; Kafeel, Mirza Muhammad; Aazam, Muhammad; Sailer, Hermann; Ganatra, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Restoration of proper anatomy and physiology is an integral part of cleft palate repair. The senior author has devised a new technique of radical release of greater palatine vessels, which helps in achieving tension-free closure of palatal cleft. In addition, release and transposition of palatal muscles is performed without the use of operative microscope, resulting in improved palatal function. This technique is applicable to all types of clefts of the palate and can be performed on adult patients as well. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case series of cleft palate repairs performed over a period of 3 years. Single-stage repair with modified Bardach’s technique for complete cleft palate and von Langenbeck’s technique for incomplete cleft palate with radical release of greater palatine vessels and levator complex retropositioning was performed. The outcome measures were closure of palatal defect and speech production. A follow-up of at least 6 months was completed in each patient. Results: A total of 1568 patients were included in the study. Their age ranged from 9 months to 54 years. The overall fistula rate was 6.1%. Improvement of speech was observed even in adult patients. Conclusions: Radical release of greater palatine artery and levator complex transposition can dramatically improve results of cleft palate repair. This technique helps in dynamic reconstruction of cleft palate and can be effectively applied in all age groups. PMID:28280675

  15. Dynamical Mass of the O-Type Supergiant in Zeta Orionis A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    nonradial pulsation. Abundance pat- terns are unlikely, since the distortion has a similar shape in all lines, regardless of species. To produce such a...shape, nonradial pulsation has to be a high-order p-mode type, meaning ζ Ori B is a βCephei star without a radial mode, where the photometric

  16. Recombination-dependent concatemeric viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lo Piano, Ambra; Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Zecchi, Lisa; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of viral double stranded (ds) DNA replication involves proteins that recruit and load the replisome at the replication origin (ori). Any block in replication fork progression or a programmed barrier may act as a factor for ori-independent remodelling and assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. Then replication initiation becomes dependent on recombination proteins, a process called recombination-dependent replication (RDR). RDR, which is recognized as being important for replication restart and stability in all living organisms, plays an essential role in the replication cycle of many dsDNA viruses. The SPP1 virus, which infects Bacillus subtilis cells, serves as a paradigm to understand the links between replication and recombination in circular dsDNA viruses. SPP1-encoded initiator and replisome assembly proteins control the onset of viral replication and direct the recruitment of host-encoded replisomal components at viral oriL. SPP1 uses replication fork reactivation to switch from ori-dependent θ-type (circle-to-circle) replication to σ-type RDR. Replication fork arrest leads to a double strand break that is processed by viral-encoded factors to generate a D-loop into which a new replisome is assembled, leading to σ-type viral replication. SPP1 RDR proteins are compared with similar proteins encoded by other viruses and their possible in vivo roles are discussed.

  17. JPRS Report, China: Studies of Local Area Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    part of southern Xinjiang where he established the so-called [" zhe de sha er" 0772 1795 3097 1422 seven cities] regime. Yakup Bek used this regime...recovery of Xinjiang. Within the Qing government, the "border defense the- ory" for the recovery of Xinjiang, of which Zuo Zong- tang was the main

  18. Role of PTEN in the Tumor Microenvironment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    area, length, curvature attributes, etc., morphological ori- entation, and location. Statistical distributions of such geometric attributes of...ensembles of microstructural features collectively specify the geometric state of a microstructure. Mathematically, these properties of the microstructure...are formalized by the statis- tical N-point correlation functions (N-pcfs) (Stoyan et al., 1985). There are fundamental geometric constraints that are

  19. Comparison of Three Near Infrared Spectrophotometers for Infestation Detection in Wild Blueberries Using Multivariate Calibration Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method for automated non-destructive detection of insect infestation internal to small fruit is desirable because of the zero-to-zero tolerance of the fresh and processed fruit markets. Three NIRS instruments: the Ocean Optics SD2000, the Perten DA7000 and the Ori...

  20. Theoretical Investigation of Optical Computing Based on Neural Network Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-29

    34 Cognitive and Psychological Computation with Neu- ral Models," IEEE Trans. Sys., Man, and cyber., SMC-13, p. 799, 1983. 20’ K. Nakano, "Association-A...7),482(1986). 211 F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics : Perceptron and the The- ory of Brain Mechanisms, Spartan Books, Washington,(1961). 22

  1. The CIDA-QUEST large-scale survey of Orion OB1: evidence for rapid disk dissipation in a dispersed stellar population.

    PubMed

    Briceño, C; Vivas, A K; Calvet, N; Hartmann, L; Pacheco, R; Herrera, D; Romero, L; Berlind, P; Sánchez, G; Snyder, J A; Andrews, P

    2001-01-05

    We are conducting a large-scale, multiepoch, optical photometric survey [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia-Quasar Equatorial Survey Team (CIDA-QUEST)] covering about 120 square degrees to identify the young low-mass stars in the Orion OB1 association. We present results for an area of 34 square degrees. Using photometric variability as our main selection criterion, as well as follow-up spectroscopy, we confirmed 168 previously unidentified pre-main sequence stars that are about 0.6 to 0.9 times the mass of the sun (Mo), with ages of about 1 million to 3 million years (Ori OB1b) and about 3 million to 10 million years (Ori OB1a). The low-mass stars are spatially coincident with the high-mass (at least 3 Mo) members of the associations. Indicators of disk accretion such as Halpha emission and near-infrared emission from dusty disks fall sharply from Ori OB1b to Ori OB1a, indicating that the time scale for disk dissipation and possibly the onset of planet formation is a few million years.

  2. Concerted action of NIC relaxase and auxiliary protein MobC in RA3 plasmid conjugation.

    PubMed

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Moncalián, Gabriel; Cabezas, Matilde; Bartosik, Aneta A; de la Cruz, Fernando; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2016-08-01

    Conjugative transfer of the broad-host-range RA3 plasmid, the archetype of the IncU group, relies on the relaxase NIC that belongs to the as yet uncharacterized MOBP4 subfamily. NIC contains the signature motifs of HUH relaxases involved in Tyr nucleophilic attack. However, it differs in the residue involved in His activation for cation coordination and was shown here to have altered divalent cation requirements. NIC is encoded in the mobC-nic operon preceded directly by oriT, where mobC encodes an auxiliary transfer protein with a dual function: autorepressor and stimulator of conjugative transfer. Here an interplay between MobC and NIC was demonstrated. MobC is required for efficient NIC cleavage of oriT in supercoiled DNA whereas NIC assists MobC in repression of the mobC-nic operon. A 7-bp arm of IR3 (IR3a) was identified as the binding site for NIC and the crucial nucleotides in IR3a for NIC recognition were defined. Fully active oriTRA3 was delineated to a 47-bp DNA segment encompassing a conserved cleavage site sequence, the NIC binding site IR3a and the MobC binding site OM . This highly efficient RA3 conjugative system with defined requirements for minimal oriT could find ample applications in biotechnology and computational biology where simple conjugative systems are needed.

  3. 40 CFR 51.50 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... source, containing one or more pollutant-emitting units. The EPA's reporting format for a given inventory...'s own current and most recent facility ID codes, the EPA-assigned facility ID codes, and the ORIS (Department of Energy) ID code if applicable. Fall throughput (percent) means the part of the throughput...

  4. 40 CFR 51.50 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... source, containing one or more pollutant-emitting units. The EPA's reporting format for a given inventory...'s own current and most recent facility ID codes, the EPA-assigned facility ID codes, and the ORIS (Department of Energy) ID code if applicable. Fall throughput (percent) means the part of the throughput...

  5. 40 CFR 51.50 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... source, containing one or more pollutant-emitting units. The EPA's reporting format for a given inventory...'s own current and most recent facility ID codes, the EPA-assigned facility ID codes, and the ORIS (Department of Energy) ID code if applicable. Fall throughput (percent) means the part of the throughput...

  6. 42 CFR 93.303 - Assurances for small institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances for small institutions. 93.303 Section... Assurances for small institutions. (a) If an institution is too small to handle research misconduct proceedings, it may file a “Small Organization Statement” with ORI in place of the formal...

  7. 42 CFR 93.303 - Assurances for small institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances for small institutions. 93.303 Section... Assurances for small institutions. (a) If an institution is too small to handle research misconduct proceedings, it may file a “Small Organization Statement” with ORI in place of the formal...

  8. A comprehensive approach toward conserving Malus germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-National Plant Germplasm System apple (Malus) collection has traditionally been conserved by maintaining orchards at the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, NY and cryopreserving dormant buds of clones. The orchard Malus collection includes hundreds of M. sieversii and M. orie...

  9. Combined ultraviolet studies of astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baliunas, S. L.; Dupree, A. K.; Elvis, M.; Huchra, J. P.; Kenyon, S.; Raymond, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: Cygnus Loop; P Cygni profiles in dwarf novae; YY Gem; nova shells; HZ Herculis; activity cycles in cluster giants; Alpha Ori; metal deficient giant stars; ultraviolet spectra of symbiotic stars detected by the Very Large Array; time variability in symbiotic stars; blue galaxies; and quasistellar objects with X-ray spectra.

  10. Hot Binaries: Observational Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    in iu s & M . C ur e 20 HARTKOPF the secondary is physical, possibly an early-O main- sequence star. • Orion Nebula Cluster (Preibisch et al. 1999...anticipated for some time on either side of T0. 4.4. θ1 Ori C This might be the best target for determining a dynamical distance to the Orion Nebula Cluster

  11. Recovery Plan for Phytophthora kernoviae Causing Bleeding Trunk Cankers, Leaf Blight and Stem Dieback in Trees and Shrubs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora kernoviae, a recently described species of Phytophthora, is an invasive pathogen of forest trees and shrubs such as beech (Fagus sylvatica) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum) that has become established in woodlands and public gardens in Cornwall, United Kingdom. Although the ori...

  12. Surface EMG Recording of the Perioral Reflexes: Preliminary Observations on Stutterers and Nonstutterers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Michael D.

    1987-01-01

    Surface electrodes were used to describe the perioral reflexes in seven stutterers and five nonstutterers and electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained at electrode sites associated with the orbicularis oris inferior muscle and the depressor labia inferior muscle. A difference was noted in the pattern of reflex response between the two…

  13. Speech-Muscle Visuomotor Tracking in Dysarthric and Nonimpaired Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Michael D.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Surface electrodes were used to describe the perioral reflexes in seven stutterers and five nonstutterers and electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained at electrode sites associated with the orbicularis oris inferior muscle and the depressor labia inferior muscle. A difference was noted in the pattern of reflex response between the two…

  14. 75 FR 24703 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... of debarment based on the misconduct in science findings of the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in..., committed misconduct in science (scientific misconduct) in research supported by or reported in...

  15. 75 FR 4566 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... of debarment based on the misconduct in science findings of the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in... misconduct in science and research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of General...

  16. O Type and Other Hot Binaries: Current Statistics of the USNO Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    et al. work, this can be attributed not to any enhancement in reduction but to an improvement in detector tech- nology. 3.5. Mea Culpa I: HD 93129...larger influence on speckle detection or non-detection than was previously thought. Stats from USNO Database 31 3.6. Mea Culpa II: HD 37742 (= ζ Ori

  17. The experience of whanau caring for members disabled from the effects of a cerebro-vascular accident.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Andrea; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2006-09-01

    The study sought to understand the experience of Māori in accepting responsibility for the care of a whanau member following a cerebro-vascular accident (CVA). The importance and role of whanau, kaumatua and kuia to Māori as a distinctive ethnic entity is well known and acknowledged in coming to an understanding of Māori society. Whanau has a very large part to play in the care of the family member disabled by CVA. There is extensive literature that deals with these issues, yet there is little that deals with disability issues and in particular those issues that arise following CVA. A qualitative study was conducted examining the experience of Whanau caring for members disabled from the effects of CVA. Individual and focus group interviews were undertaken with Māori patients and their caregivers to explore this phenomenon. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach and highlighted three time stages of concern, namely (1) the onset of the event, (2) hospitalisation, and (3) discharge care.

  18. Xeroderma pigmentosum variant cells are resistant to immortalization

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, J.P.G.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    We have attempted to immortalize fibroblasts from several Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients to better characterize this disease. These patients exhibit sun sensitivity and highly elevated skin cancer rates. It is believed that the defect in these cells involves post replication repair of DNA damage, but the molecular mechanisms and their involvement in patient`s phenotypes remain unknown. Human cells undergo senescence and stop growing after a period of growth in culture, making prolonged studies difficult or impossible. For this reason, immortal cell lines are essential. We have attempted to immortalize XPV cells by: spontaneous transformation, transfection with pSV40 ori (a plasmid containing the SV40 large T-antigen), transfection with pSV40 ori and exposure to 300 rads of x-rays, transfection with pSV40 ori, exposure to 200 rads of x-rays, and treatment with 0.5mM ethyl methanesulfonate, and infection with SV40 virus (strain 776). Despite the fact that some experiments had as many as 2x10{sup 8} cells, we were unable to immortalize any of the cells from our patients. We also obtained several XPV lines from other laboratories which had been transformed with pSV40 ori, but none of them proved to be immortalized either. We suspect that the presumed mutation in XPV cells is in some way interfering with SV40 large T-antigen induced immortalization.

  19. Distributing the ERIC Database on SilverPlatter Compact Disc--A Brief Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Ted

    This description of the development of the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) compact disc by two companies, SilverPlatter and ORI, Inc., provides background information on ERIC and the ERIC database, discusses reasons for choosing to put the ERIC database on compact discs, and describes the formulation of an ERIC CD-ROM team as part of…

  20. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... administrative actions. After completing its review, ORI either closes the case without a finding of research... administrative actions based on the record of the research misconduct proceedings and any other information... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and...