Gao, Zan; Zhang, Peng; Podlog, Leslie William
Enjoyment has been implicated as a determinant of physical activity among children and adolescents. However, the effect of different sport activities on children's enjoyment remains largely unexplored. This study examined whether children's enjoyment in physical education (PE) varied as a function of learning activities. Participants were 210 third- through sixth-grade children who had a 30 min PE class every week. Participants responded to a standardized self-report enjoyment survey measuring their enjoyment level in a PE class during which they participated in tag games. Students completed the same questionnaire when involved in interactive dance games in PE. The results revealed that children reported significantly higher scores in enjoyment toward interactive dance games than they did toward traditional games (p < .01). Also, girls exhibited higher enjoyment toward interactive dance games than boys did (p < .05). However, no gender difference emerged on enjoyment toward traditional games. In conclusion, it is practical and meaningful to integrate interactive dance games into PE.
Eversole, Megan; Collins, Diane M.; Karmarkar, Amol; Colton, Lisa; Quinn, Jill Phillips; Karsbaek, Rita; Johnson, Jessica Reinken; Callier, Nicolle Patricia; Hilton, Claudia L.
Enjoyment is a fundamental component of activity participation. This study compared leisure activity enjoyment experienced by typically developing children (TD; n = 64) and those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 67) from age 6 to 13. The TD children enjoyed "formal" and "physical" activities significantly more than the…
Eversole, Megan; Collins, Diane M; Karmarkar, Amol; Colton, Lisa; Quinn, Jill Phillips; Karsbaek, Rita; Johnson, Jessica Reinken; Callier, Nicolle Patricia; Hilton, Claudia L
Enjoyment is a fundamental component of activity participation. This study compared leisure activity enjoyment experienced by typically developing children (TD; n = 64) and those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 67) from age 6 to 13. The TD children enjoyed formal and physical activities significantly more than the children with ASD. Symptom severity was negatively related to enjoyment of overall, formal, physical and social activities. Older children with ASD enjoyed overall, informal, recreational, and self-improvement activities significantly less than younger children, but no differences were seen across TD age groups. Children with ASD enjoyed swimming significantly more than TD children. Understanding patterns of activity enjoyment is useful for being better able to address a child's motivation to participate in various life activities.
Michael, Shannon L; Coffield, Edward; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E
Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents. Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls. Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation. These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits.
Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette
In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents…
Fox, L D; Rejeski, W J; Gauvin, L
The primary purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of leadership style and group dynamics on the enjoyment of physical activity. A completely randomized 2 x 2 factorial design was used in which the manipulation of "leadership style" (socially enriched vs. bland) was crossed with a manipulation of "group dynamics" (socially enriched vs. bland). The study was conducted in an aerobics studio on a university campus. The sample included 48 male and 42 female undergraduate students who were moderately active. Each participant was involved in a single session of step aerobics. A female graduate student provided either an enriched or bland series of interactions to manipulate leadership style, and a trained group of planted undergraduates was used to promote either an enriched or bland group environment. The outcome measures of interest were enjoyment and the probability of engaging in a similar activity in the future. Participants in the enriched leadership style plus enriched group dynamics condition reported higher enjoyment than did participants in the other three conditions. On average, the level of enjoyment was 22.07% higher in this condition than in the other three conditions (p < .001). The probability of future involvement was 13.93% higher for participants in the enriched group environment, irrespective of leadership style (p < .03). Enjoyment during physical activity is optimized when a positive and supportive leadership style is coupled with an enriched and supportive group environment. Future research is required to extend these findings to other activities and populations.
Noting the difficulty that many parents have finding activities to fit the busy life, budget, and energy levels of the average parent and the attention span and abilities of the typical infant and toddler, this book is designed as a reference book for parents and others looking for ways to entertain, educate, and enjoy a young child during the…
Background An emerging public health strategy is to enhance children’s opportunities to be physically active during school break periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on primary school children’s quality of life (QOL), enjoyment and participation in physical activity (PA). Methods This study consisted of a movable/recycled materials intervention that included baseline, a 7-week post-test and an 8-month follow-up data collection phase. Children within an intervention school (n = 123) and a matched control school (n = 152) aged 5-to-12-years-old were recruited for the study. Children’s PA was measured using a combination of pedometers and direct observation (SOPLAY). Quality of life, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of lunchtime activities were assessed in the 8-12 year children. A multi-level mixed effect linear regression model was applied in STATA (version 12.0) using the xtmixed command to fit linear mixed models to each of the variables to examine whether there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the intervention and control school at the three time points (pre, post and follow-up). Results Significant overall interaction effects (group × time) were identified for children’s mean steps and distance (pedometers) in the intervention school compared to the control school. Intervention school children also spent significantly higher proportions within specified target areas engaged in higher PA intensities in comparison to the control school at both the 7-week post-test and 8-month follow-up. A short-term treatment effect was revealed after 7-weeks for children’s physical health scale QOL, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of intra-personal play activities. Conclusions Examining the effects of this school playground intervention over a school year suggested that the introduction of movable/recycled materials can have a significant
Pressman, Sarah D.; Matthews, Karen A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M.; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard
Objective To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Method Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19–89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Results Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Conclusion Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes. PMID:19592515
Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?
Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students’ enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the “High motivation profile”, in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the “Low motivation profile”, in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key points Two motivational profiles were revealed: 1) the “High motivation profile”, in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the “Low motivation profile”, in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile. Moreover, the representatives of the “High motivation profile ”experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the “Low motivation profile” These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined? PMID:24149994
Moghaddaszadeh, Asal; Ahmadi, Yasamin; Belcastro, Angelo N
Girls' (9-19 years) participation in physical activity (PA) is known to decrease at a faster rate than boys. A reduction in PA attractiveness (enjoyment) and lower psychosocial profile of girls approaching biological maturity may underlie the decreasing rate of PA participation. Since engaging children in active play programs improves health related quality of life indictors and enjoyment levels; the purposes of this study were to: 1) assess psychosocial status and PA attractiveness/enjoyment of boys and girls to an eight-week active play program; and 2) investigate the relationships among PA participation, psychosocial status and PA attractiveness with both age and maturity status for boys and girls following an active play PA program. Thirty-three children (age 9.8±1.3 years; weight 43.1±13.4 kg; BMI 20.8±3.2 kg/m2) were recruited to participate in an active play program for 8 weeks (4x/week; 1hr/d). M-S estimates ranged from -6.7 to -2.5 years away from biological maturity Daily program PA was assessed and compared to pre-post measures of psychosocial functioning and PA attractiveness. Statistical procedures were performed using ANOVA and/or Pearson's correlation r (SPSS v. 22.0) with P=0.05. PA participation in the active play program showed a group average of 39±11% time spent in moderate-vigorous PA (%MVPA) with boys averaging 45% MVPA and girls averaging 30% MVPA (P<0.05). PA attractiveness scores for boys did not change following the program; whereas girls improved from 67±13% to 76±9% (P<0.05). Minimal changes were noted for the health-related quality of life measures as a result of the PA program. Comparing PA attractiveness to %MVPA, 80% of girls reporting positive changes or no change; in contrast 56% of boys responded with negative/less PA attractiveness. PA attractiveness for all children was negatively associated with age (r=-0.19) and/or M-S (r=-0.29). The relationships, however, were gender specific with boys exhibiting a coefficient of -0
Lewis, Beth A; Williams, David M; Frayeh, Amanda; Marcus, Bess H
Self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) enjoyment are related to PA behaviour, but it is unclear which is more important and how they interrelate. The purpose of this study was to examine how these two constructs interrelate to influence PA behaviour. Participants were low-active adults (n = 448) participating in a RCT examining the effect of a PA promotion intervention. Participants completed physical activity, enjoyment and self-efficacy measures at baseline, six and 12 months. Self-efficacy and enjoyment at both baseline and six months predicted PA at 12 months. However, enjoyment was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy, in that self-efficacy no longer predicted PA behaviour when included alongside enjoyment. In follow-up mediation analyses, enjoyment at six months did not mediate the effect of baseline self-efficacy on 12-month PA; however, six-month self-efficacy mediated the effect of baseline enjoyment on 12-month PA. Our results indicate that interventions should perhaps initially focus on increasing enjoyment of physical activity. Greater PA enjoyment appears to influence individuals' self-reported ability to engage in regular PA (i.e. higher self-efficacy ratings). Additional research is needed to better understand the interrelationships between self-efficacy and enjoyment and how these constructs affect PA.
Lewis, Beth A.; Williams, David M.; Frayeh, Amanda L.; Marcus, Bess H.
Objective Self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) enjoyment are related to PA behavior, but it is unclear which is more important and how they interrelate. The purpose of this study was to examine how these two constructs interrelate to influence PA behavior. Design Participants were low active adults (n=448) participating in a RCT examining the effect of a PA promotion intervention. Participants completed physical activity, enjoyment, and self-efficacy measures at baseline, six, and 12 months. Results Self-efficacy and enjoyment at both baseline and six months predicted PA at 12 months. However, enjoyment was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy in that self-efficacy no longer predicted PA behavior when included alongside enjoyment. In follow-up mediation analyses, enjoyment at six months did not mediate the effect of baseline self-efficacy on 12-month PA; however, six-month self-efficacy mediated the effect of baseline enjoyment on 12-month PA. Conclusion Our results indicate that interventions should perhaps initially focus on increasing enjoyment of physical activity. Greater PA enjoyment appears to influence individuals’ self-reported ability to engage in regular PA (i.e., higher self-efficacy ratings). Additional research is needed to better understand the interrelationships between self-efficacy and enjoyment and how these constructs affect PA. PMID:26541890
Hyndman, Brendon; Telford, Amanda; Finch, Caroline; Ullah, Shahid; Benson, Amanda C.
Background: Enjoyment of physical activity is as an important determinant of children's participation in physical activity. Despite this, there is an absence of reliable measures for assessing children's enjoyment of play activities during school lunchtime. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the reliability of the Lunchtime…
Woods, Catherine B.; Tannehill, Deborah; Walsh, Julia
Enjoyment of physical activity (EPA) is positively correlated with activity, yet little is known of its relationship with enjoyment of physical education (EPE). This study's purpose was to explore EPE and its relationship to EPA. Cross-sectional data (N = 4122, average age 14.5 plus or minus 1.7 years, 48% male) were collected as part of the CSPPA…
Sclafani, Chris; Wickes, Dennis
Much research has been conducted on reading levels of elementary school students. Teachers search for learning experiences that lend inclusion to all genders and levels. How does this all lay out for the students? The initial trial of the study looks into the impact and differences of gender and/or reading level on areas such as school enjoyment,…
Abrantes, Ana M; Farris, Samantha G; Garnaat, Sarah L; Minto, Alexia; Brown, Richard A; Price, Lawrence H; Uebelacker, Lisa A
Depressive symptoms are consistently shown to be related to poor smoking cessation outcomes. Aerobic exercise is a potential treatment augmentation that, given its antidepressant and mood enhancing effect, may bolster cessation outcomes for smokers with elevated depressive symptoms. Lower enjoyment of physical activity may inhibit the acute mood enhancing effects of aerobic exercise. The current study investigated the associations between depressive symptoms, physical activity enjoyment and the acute mood experience from exercise among low-active smokers with elevated depressive symptoms. Daily smokers with elevated depressive symptoms (N=159; Mage = 45.1, SD = 10.79; 69.8% female) were recruited for a randomized controlled exercise-based smoking cessation trial. Participants self-reported levels of depressive symptoms, physical activity enjoyment, and rated their mood experience (assessed as "mood" and "anxiety") before and after a standardized aerobic exercise test. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that depressive symptom severity accounted for significant unique variance in physical activity enjoyment (R2 =.041, t = -2.61, p = .010), beyond the non-significant effects of gender and level of tobacco dependence. Additionally, physical activity enjoyment was a significant mediator of the association between depressive symptom severity and acute mood experience ("mood" and "anxiety") following the exercise test. Physical activity enjoyment may explain, at least in part, how depressive symptom severity is linked to the acute mood experience following a bout of activity. Interventions that target increasing physical activity enjoyment may ultimately assist in enhancing the mood experience from exercise, and therefore improve smoking cessation likelihood, especially for smokers with elevated depressive symptoms.
Temple, Viviene A
Many adults with an intellectual disability exhibit low physical activity levels. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between participation in physical activity/sedentary behaviour and factors consistent with behavioural choice theory: enjoyment, preference, and barriers. Examination of these relationships increases our understanding of physical activity behaviour among adults with an intellectual disability. A descriptive correlational design was used. Steps per day of adults with intellectual disability (n = 37) were measured using pedometers for 1 week and associations with barriers, enjoyment, and preference were computed from participant's survey responses. Average steps per day ranged from 1658 to 19 303 (M = 8100.5+/-3735.4). Linear regression showed that barriers to physical activity and preference for sedentary behaviour were significant predictors of steps per day R = 0.533 (P = 0.009); which accounted for 28.4% of the variance in steps per day. The factor that stands out from this study for the least active individuals was accessibility of physical activity options. Ensuring that the effort needed to engage in physical activity is manageable and perceived as achievable is important. In addition, the higher preference for sedentary activity among the least active individuals suggests that it will be valuable to examine what attracts adults with an intellectual disability to particular physical activities and what aspects of participation they find reinforcing.
Johnson, Christine E.; Erwin, Heather E.; Kipp, Lindsay; Beighle, Aaron
We used achievement goal theory to examine students' physical activity (PA) motivation and physical education (PE) enjoyment. Purposes included: 1) determine whether schools with different pedagogical approaches varied in student perceptions of mastery and performance climate dimensions, enjoyment, and PA; 2) examine gender and grade differences…
Du, Yunfei; Simpson, Carol
This paper reports on a study that examined students' self-reported enjoyment level as an indication of student success. A total of 169 subjects who were learning totally via the Internet were chosen from master's students in the School of Library and Information Sciences at the University of North Texas. The following questions were addressed:…
Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas
The present study examined gender differences and relationships of seven specific domains of physical self-concept (PSC) ("Strength," "Endurance," "Speed," "Flexibility," "Coordination," "Global Sport Competence," and "Appearance") and physical activity enjoyment (PAE) in 447…
Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun; Dai, Jun
The present study aimed to contrast the mediating magnitude of self-efficacy and enjoyment connecting peer support and adolescents' physical activity (PA). Participants were 9th-12th grade students ( N = 409; 56.5% boys) who were randomly chosen from six public schools located in Fuzhou city in southeast China. The bootstrapping method in structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the direct and indirect effects of peer support on adolescents' PA. Peer support did not directly impact PA. Rather, peer support indirectly influenced PA through either self-efficacy or enjoyment, with self-efficacy demonstrating a stronger mediating effect. Additionally, we found a significant serial mediating effect with enjoyment, and self-efficacy sequentially mediated the relationship between peer support and PA. The findings highlight the role of self-efficacy and enjoyment as mediators connecting peer support and PA. Self-efficacy seems to be more important, as it demonstrated a significantly greater mediating effect.
Hyndman, Brendon; Telford, Amanda; Finch, Caroline; Ullah, Shahid; Benson, Amanda C
Enjoyment of physical activity is as an important determinant of children's participation in physical activity. Despite this, there is an absence of reliable measures for assessing children's enjoyment of play activities during school lunchtime. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the reliability of the Lunchtime Enjoyment of Activity and Play (LEAP) Questionnaire. Questionnaire items were categorized employing a social-ecological framework including intrapersonal (20 items), interpersonal (2 items), and physical environment/policy (17 items) components to identify the broader influences on children's enjoyment. An identical questionnaire was administered on 2 occasions, 10 days apart, to 176 children aged 8-12 years, attending a government elementary school in regional Victoria, Australia. Test-retest reliability confirmed that 35 of 39 LEAP Questionnaire items had at least moderate kappa agreement ranging from .44 to .78. Although 4 individual kappa values were low, median kappa scores for each aggregated social-ecological component reached at least moderate agreement (.44-.60). This study confirms the LEAP Questionnaire to be a reliable, context-specific instrument with sound content, and face validity that employs a social-ecological framework to assess children's enjoyment of school play and lunchtime activities. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Moderate physical activity (PA) improves physical fitness measures (i.e., aerobic capacity, agility, flexibility, body composition, and muscular endurance and strength). In addition to numerous physiological benefits, PA has been shown to increase cognitive and emotional functioning. These benefits lead to improved immune response and have been associated with...
Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Mazer, Barbara; Riley, Patricia; Maltais, Désirée B; Nadeau, Line; Majnemer, Annette
Motor, cognitive, social and behavioral problems have been found to persist in adolescents born extremely preterm. Leisure participation has been associated with health benefits; however, few studies have explored leisure participation in this population. The aim of this study was to describe leisure participation in adolescents born at ≤29week gestation. Secondary aims were to identify potential differences in participation related to sex, age, motor competence, and cognitive ability, and between adolescents born preterm and their siblings born at term. This cross-sectional study included 128 adolescents (mean age: 16.0years; 67 females) with a mean gestational age of 26.5weeks. All participants, as well as 22 siblings born at term, completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Participation levels were highest in social and recreational activities, and lowest in active-physical and skill-based activities. Boys participated in more active-physical activities (p=0.01) and more often (p<0.001) than girls, whereas girls had higher participation levels in social and self-improvement activities (p<0.05) than boys. Older adolescents engaged in more social activities (p=0.01) and more frequently (p=0.002) than younger adolescents. Overall, participants with poor motor and cognitive skills had lower participation levels in active-physical and social activities. Adolescents born preterm participated in fewer recreational activities compared to term-born siblings (p=0.013). Engagement in active-physical and skill-based leisure activities needs to be promoted in boys, and especially in girls with a history of prematurity. Activities should be adapted to sex and individual skill level in order to promote participation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette
In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents with CP and to identify potential differences in participation patterns related to sociodemographic attributes. A cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 175 adolescents 12-20 years old (M=15.3; ±2.2), GMFCS I=55/II=43/III=13/IV=18/V=39 who completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). The types of activities participants engaged in most frequently were social and recreational activities, whereas self-improvement and skill-based activities were least frequent. Social activities were the activities they enjoyed most. In general, participation decreases, as youth grow older. Girls engaged in more self-improvement activities than boys. Adolescents who study in special segregated schools experienced a lower diversity and intensity of engagement in all leisure activity domains. Adolescents who were not ambulatory and those presenting with more severe manual ability limitations participated less in all activity types except skill-based activities. Adolescents with CP place a high value on the ability to engage in activities of their own choosing and on interacting with friends. Engagement in a variety of leisure activities is important for a healthy development. Understanding the leisure patterns and preferences of this population, in addition to the contextual factors, may help in the elaboration of interventions and programs to promote a healthy development for this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Tscherne, James; Rodriguez, Daniel
Documented gender differences in physical activity rates during adolescence (Grunbaum et al., 2004) pose the question of whether physical activity enjoyment similarly differs between boys and girls. However, a necessary precursor to research on this topic is that the factor structure of the PACES be equivalent across gender. Although gender…
Stanish, Heidi I.; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G.
Background Youth with intellectual disabilities (ID) exhibit low levels of physical activity, but the underlying contributors to behavior are unclear. We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy among adolescents with ID and typically developing (TD) adolescents. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 38 adolescents with ID (mean age 16.8 years) and 60 TD adolescents (mean age 15.3 years). Of the original 33 questionnaire items, 23 met the test-retest reliability criteria and were included in the group comparisons. Results Fewer adolescents with ID reported that they have someone to do physical activity with (64% vs. 93%, p<0.001), and a greater proportion of adolescents with ID perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (41% vs. 0%, p<0.001). Fewer adolescents with ID believed that physical activity is good for their health (92% vs. 100%, p=0.05). More adolescents with ID reported a dislike of individual physical activities (p=0.02). A large proportion of adolescents with ID (84%) responded that they were good at doing physical activities, but the difference between groups was only of borderline significance. (95% of TD adolescents, p=0.06). Conclusions Adolescents shared many of the same perceptions about physical activity, but some important differences between groups were identified. PMID:25830443
Stanish, Heidi I; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G
Youths with intellectual disabilities (ID) exhibit low levels of physical activity, but the underlying contributors to behavior are unclear. We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy among adolescents with ID and typically developing (TD) adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 38 adolescents with ID (mean age, 16.8 years) and 60 TD adolescents (mean age, 15.3 years). Of the original 33 questionnaire items, 23 met the test-retest reliability criteria and were included in the group comparisons. Fewer adolescents with ID reported that they have someone with whom to do physical activity (64% vs 93%: P < .001), and a greater percentage of adolescents with ID perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (41% vs 0%; P < .001). Fewer adolescents with ID believed that physical activity would be good for their health (92% vs 100%; P = .05). More adolescents with ID reported a dislike of individual physical activities (P = .02). A large percentage of adolescents with ID (84%) responded that they were good at doing physical activities, but the difference between groups was only of borderline significance (95% of TD adolescents, P = .06). Adolescents shared many of the same perceptions about physical activity, but some important differences between groups were identified.
Grieser, Mira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Saksvig, Brit I.; Lee, Jung-Sun; Felton, Gwen M.; Kubik, Martha Y.
Background: This study examines the differences among black, Hispanic, and white adolescent girls in their perceptions surrounding physical activity (PA), including support within the school climate, friend and family social support, and personal enjoyment. Methods: Participants included 1466 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the…
Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal
The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…
Boros, Piroska; Fontana, Fabio; Mack, Mick
Weight-related teasing is associated with reduced levels of physical activity in youth, but the importance of weight teasing experiences to the engagement of female college students in physical activity is yet to be determined. Thus, this study examined differences in physical activity engagement and physical activity enjoyment in female college…
Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie
The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187
Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Komoski, Stephanie E.; Carr, Philip M.; Ward, Dianne S.
Background Some active video games have been found to promote physical activity adherence because of enjoyment. However, many active games are exercise themed, which may interfere with the distracting properties that make game-based exercise more enjoyable than traditional exercise. This study compared exercise-themed and game-themed active games to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment. Method Young adults (N = 100, 50 female, 55 overweight, aged 18–35 years) played two of four Wii Fit games (one aerobic game and one balance game per person) for 10 min each. Of the two aerobic games, one was exercise themed (jogging) and the other was game themed (hula hooping). Both balance games were game themed. Energy expenditure and enjoyment were measured. Results After adjustment for gender and weight, aerobic games produced 2.70 kcal/kg-1/h-1 (95% confidence interval 2.41, 3.00) greater energy expenditure than balance games (p < .001), but balance games were more enjoyable (p < .001). In aerobic games, jogging produced greater energy expenditure than hula hooping in normal-weight and male participants (p < .001); in overweight and female participants, no differences were found (p > .17). Hula hooping was enjoyed more than jogging (p = .008). Enjoyment predicted energy expenditure in aerobic games (B = 0.767, p = .010). Conclusions Aerobic games produced greater energy expenditure but lower enjoyment than balance games, and a game-themed aerobic game was found more enjoyable than an exercise-themed aerobic game. Integrating more strenuous activity into entertaining games instead of games that simply simulate exercise may be a fruitful avenue for active game development. PMID:22920810
Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda C; Lester, Leanne; Telford, Amanda
Issue addressed An important strategy for increasing children's physical activity is to enhance children's opportunities for school recess physical activities, yet little is known about the influence of school recess physical activities on children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between Australian primary school children's enjoyment of recess physical activities and HRQOL. Methods The study consisted of children at two Australian primary schools (n=105) aged 8-12 years. The Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play questionnaire was used to measure school children's enjoyment of school recess physical activities. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was used to measure children's HRQOL. Researchers applied linear regression modelling in STATA (ver. 13.0) to investigate the relationship between children's enjoyment of school recess physical activities and HRQOL. Results It was discovered that primary school children's enjoyment of more vigorous-type school recess physical activities and playing in a range of weather conditions was associated with children's improved HRQOL. Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that health providers and researchers should consider providing primary school children with opportunities and facilities for more vigorous-intensity school recess physical activities as a key strategy to enhance children's HRQOL. So what? Considering a social-ecological model framework of the key predictors of children's enjoyment of school recess physical activities may provide valuable insight for school health providers into the multiple levels of influence on children's HRQOL when developing school settings and activities for school recess.
Steeves, Jeremy A; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie; Cho, Chi; Thompson, Dixie L
Physical activity (PA) is enjoyable, but there are barriers to participation. TV viewing is highly enjoyable with limited barriers. Exercising while viewing TV may impact enjoyment, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA, compared with exercising without TV. 58 sedentary, overweight adults were randomized to 1 of 2 PA prescriptions: one that increased PA during TV viewing (TV Commercial Stepping), and another that focused solely on PA (Walking). Random effects models tested changes in enjoyment of TV and PA, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA across time (baseline, 3, and 6 months) and PA prescription during a 6-month PA intervention. At baseline, TV was more enjoyable than PA. Over the 6-month intervention, enjoyment of TV viewing did not change, but enjoyment of PA and exercise self-efficacy significantly increased, while barriers to PA significantly decreased for both groups compared with baseline (P < .05). While enjoyment of TV viewing remained constant, PA became more enjoyable, confidence to exercise increased, and barriers to being active were reduced for previously sedentary adults participating in a behavioral PA intervention. These findings highlight the importance of encouraging inactive adults to engage in some form of PA, whether it occurs with or without TV viewing.
Budd, Elizabeth L; McQueen, Amy; Eyler, Amy A; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Auslander, Wendy F; Brownson, Ross C
Most girls experience a notable decline in physical activity (PA) in early adolescence, increasing their risk for harmful health outcomes. Enjoyment for PA (i.e., positive feelings toward PA) is a determinant of PA among girls during adolescence and sustained PA throughout adulthood. Previous studies recommended increasing girls' PA enjoyment in order to increase their PA, but did not include environmental-level strategies for how families, schools, or communities do this. To gain insight on such strategies, this study examines the role of PA enjoyment as a mediator of social and physical environments to moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA of early adolescent girls. Cross-sectional, secondary analyses, using structural equation modeling, were conducted on a U.S. national dataset of 1721 sixth grade girls from the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls in 2003. Mediation model fit parameters included χ 2 (292, N = 1721) = 947.73 p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04 (90% CI = 0.03, 0.04), and SRMR = 0.037 suggesting overall good fit. There were no indirect effects on PA through PA enjoyment from the social or physical environmental factors. To PA, there were significant direct effects only from social support from friends (β = 0.15, CI = 0.09, 0.22). To PA enjoyment, there were significant direct effects from social support from family (β = 0.15, CI = 0.08, 0.23), school climate (teachers β = 0.15, CI = 0.10, 0.21 and boys β = 0.15, CI = 0.09, 0.20), and neighborhood environment (β = 0.10, CI = 0.04, 0.17). The findings of this study identified several direct effects of the social and physical environment on PA enjoyment that can begin to inform environmental-level strategies for increasing PA enjoyment among early adolescent girls. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Martinez, Nic; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Salomon, Kristen; Jung, Mary E; Little, Jonathan P
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has many known physiological benefits, but research investigating the psychological aspects of this training is limited. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the affective and enjoyment responses to continuous and high-intensity interval exercise sessions. Twenty overweight-to-obese, insufficiently active adults completed four counterbalanced trials: a 20-min trial of heavy continuous exercise and three 24-min HIIT trials that used 30-s, 60-s, and 120-s intervals. Affect declined during all trials (p < .05), but affect at the completion of trials was more positive in the shorter interval trials (p < .05). Enjoyment declined in the 120-s interval and heavy continuous conditions only (p < .05). Postexercise enjoyment was higher in the 60-s trial than in the 120-s trial and heavy continuous condition (p < .05). Findings suggest that pleasure and enjoyment are higher during shorter interval trials than during a longer interval or heavy continuous exercise.
Vella, Chantal A; Taylor, Katrina; Drummer, Devin
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health during supervised lab-based studies but adherence, enjoyment, and health benefits of HIIT performed independently are yet to be understood. We compared adherence, enjoyment, and cardiometabolic outcomes after 8 weeks of HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), matched for energy expenditure, in overweight and obese young adults. 17 adults were randomized to HIIT or MICT. After completing 12 sessions of supervised training over 3 weeks, participants were asked to independently perform HIIT or MICT for 30 min, 4 times/week for 5 weeks. Cardiometabolic outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak), lipids, and inflammatory markers. Exercise enjoyment was measured by the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Exercise adherence (93.4 ± 3.1% vs. 93.1 ± 3.7%, respectively) and mean enjoyment across the intervention (100.1 ± 4.3 vs. 100.3 ± 4.4, respectively) were high, with no differences between HIIT and MICT (p > .05). Similarly, enjoyment levels did not change over time in either group (p > .05). After training, HIIT exhibited a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than MICT (-0.66 mmol L -1 vs. -0.03 mmol L -1 , respectively) and a greater increase in VO 2 peak than MICT (p < .05, +2.6 mL kg min -1 vs. +0.4 mL kg min -1 , respectively). Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein increased in HIIT (+0.5 pg mL -1 and + 31.4 nmol L -1 , respectively) and decreased in MICT (-0.6 pg mL -1 and -6.7 nmol L -1 , respectively, p < .05). Our novel findings suggest that HIIT is enjoyable and has high unsupervised adherence rates in overweight and obese adults. However, HIIT may be associated with an increase in inflammation with short-term exercise in this population.
Slettebø, Åshild; Saeteren, Berit; Caspari, Synnøve; Lohne, Vibeke; Rehnsfeldt, Arne Wilhelm; Heggestad, Anne Kari Tolo; Lillestø, Britt; Høy, Bente; Råholm, Maj-Britt; Lindwall, Lillemor; Aasgaard, Trygve; Nåden, Dagfinn
Living in a nursing home may be challenging to the residents' experience of dignity. Residents' perception of how their dignity is respected in everyday care is important. To examine how nursing home residents experience dignity through the provision of activities that foster meaning and joy in their daily life. A qualitative design was used and 28 individual semistructured interviews conducted with nursing home residents from six nursing homes in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Independent ethical committees in all participating countries granted their approval for the study. The participants highlight two dimensions of the activities that foster experiences of dignity in nursing homes in Scandinavia. These two categories were (i) fostering dignity through meaningful participation and (ii) fostering dignity through experiencing enjoyable individualised activities. Activities are important for residents to experience dignity in their daily life in nursing homes. However, it is important to tailor the activities to the individual and to enable the residents to take part actively. Nurses should collect information about the resident's preferences for participation in activities at the nursing home. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Cooper, Renatta; Jones, Elizabeth
Parents and teachers want their children to be safe and to learn the skills they will need to live successful lives in a competitive society. In a diverse and rapidly changing world where people are only an e-mail's blink away from all those strangers everywhere, then it would be safest in the long run to teach young children to "enjoy diversity."…
Windlin, Béat; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
Previous research has concentrated exclusively on the association between the frequency of joint family activities (JFA) and adolescent problem behaviours. In this study, multiple linear regressions based on a national sample of 3467 13- to 16-year-olds in Switzerland revealed that JFA enjoyment rather than JFA frequency is consistently related to low adolescent substance use and violence. By choosing JFA that their children enjoy, parents might provide opportunities for disclosure, strengthen family bonds and reduce the likelihood of adolescent problem behaviours. In terms of prevention, a shift in focus towards the quality rather than the quantity of JFA could prove more effective.
Umeda, M; Marino, C A; Lee, W; Hilliard, S C
Evidence suggests the role of physical activity (PA) in management of clinical symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, very little is known regarding the psychological correlates of PA in patients with fibromyalgia. Therefore, this study examined the association between exercise enjoyment (EE) and PA in women with fibromyalgia. 19 women with fibromyalgia completed a laboratory session, where EE was assessed using a self-report questionnaire immediately after 20 min of light-intensity biking. Muscle pain ratings (MPR) in the legs were assessed during exercise, and changes in clinical pain intensity after exercise were computed. PA was assessed subjectively using a self-report questionnaire and objectively using an accelerometer for one week. Results from correlation analyses indicated that EE was associated with the self-reported amount of PA (rs=0.61, R(2)=0.37, p<0.01) and the minutes spent for moderate intensity PA (rs=0.48, R(2)=0.23, p<0.05). However, neither MPR nor changes in clinical pain intensity were associated with PA. These results suggest that EE may serve as a determinant of PA in women with fibromyalgia. Future research is needed to develop interventions to maximize EE to promote PA in this clinical population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...
Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J; Howie, Erin K; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon
Active-input videogames could provide a useful conduit for increasing physical activity by improving a child's self-confidence, physical activity enjoyment, and reducing anxiety. Therefore this study evaluated the impact of (a) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (b) their replacement with active-input videogames, on child self-perception, enjoyment of physical activity, and electronic game use anxiety. This was a crossover, randomized controlled trial, conducted over a 6-month period in participants' family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia, from 2007 to 2010. Children 10-12 years old were recruited through school and community media. Of 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, and 8 withdrew, leaving 66 children (33 girls) for analysis. A counterbalanced randomized order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: No home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games, and home access to active-input electronic games. Perception of self-esteem (Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children), enjoyment of physical activity (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale questionnaire), and anxiety toward electronic game use (modified Loyd and Gressard Computer Anxiety Subscale) were assessed. Compared with home access to traditional electronic games, neither removal of all electronic games nor replacement with active-input games resulted in any significant change to child self-esteem, enjoyment of physical activity, or anxiety related to electronic games. Although active-input videogames have been shown to be enjoyable in the short term, their ability to impact on psychological outcomes is yet to be established.
Pharez, Emily S.
This article describes the challenges faced by a middle school teacher who inherited a recreation-based physical education program in which students had been accustomed to choosing what they wanted to do. Stressing the importance of implementing a standards-based program in which students of all skill levels and activity preferences were able to…
Dudley, Dean; Okely, Anthony; Pearson, Philip; Cotton, Wayne
This article presents a systematic review of published literature on the effectiveness of physical education in promoting participation in physical activity, enjoyment of physical activity and movement skill proficiency in children and adolescents. The review utilized a literature search, specifically publications listed in Ovid, A+ Education,…
Timo, Jaakkola; Sami, Yli-Piipari; Anthony, Watt; Jarmo, Liukkonen
The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents' perceived physical competence towards physical activity (PA), and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education (PE) during early adolescence can predict amount and intensity of self-reported physical activity six years later. This study utilized a 6-year longitudinal data set collected within Finnish school settings. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE during their first year at middle school (Grade 7), and their PA engagement during their last year in high school (Grade 12). A sample of 333 students (200 girls, 133 boys; M age=12.41, years, SD=.27) participated in the study. Perceived physical competence in physical activity was assessed by the sport competence dimension of the Physical Self-Perception Profile, autonomous motivation in PE was assessed by the Sport Motivation Scale and enjoyment in PE by the Sport Enjoyment Scale. Students' self-reported metabolic equivalent (MET) and PA intensity (light [LPA], moderate [MPA], vigorous [VPA]) was calculated from the short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity significantly predicted total METs (β=.28), MPA (β=.18) and VPA (β=.29) six years later. Autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE at Grade 7, however, were not significant predictors of later PA. The results of this study support the proposition that self-perception of an individual's abilities arising from interactions with the environment related to PA during early puberty has an influential effect on later PA behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nordtorp, Heidi L.; Nyquist, Astrid; Jahnsen, Reidun; Moser, Thomas; Strand, Liv Inger
This study examined test-retest reliability of the Norwegian version of Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE), and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) in children with and without disabilities. Totally 141 children, 107 typically developing, mean age 11.1, and 34 with disabilities, mean age 14.2 years participated. A…
The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results.
Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka J; Finn, Tara; Callister, Robin
Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the field. Australian New Zealand Clinical
Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the
About 200 children of employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center visited the facility for annual Take Our Children to Work activities July 27. Participants enjoyed a windshield tour of the rocket engine test site and various demonstrations and presentations on such topics as cryogenics, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, computer safety and robotics. They also had an opportunity to take photos at the astronaut suit exhibit and participate in StenniSphere activities.
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter
This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.
Mellecker, Robin; Baranowski, Tom
Abstract With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhancing the fun or enjoyment experienced during exergame play should enhance the intensity and duration of physical activity, and thereby the health benefits. Research, reviewed herein, indicates fun and/or enjoyment in games are inherently laden with psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment substrates. Physical activity may also have separate or closely related psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment enjoyment substrates. Research is needed to integrate these levels of experience and to identify the game mechanics that enhance, and even maximize, the fun or enjoyment experienced in exergames, to thereby increase the health benefit. PMID:24761322
Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene
The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…
Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla
Background: Adolescents' decisions to engage in physical activities are influenced by the social aspects of the activity, including opportunity for affiliation, being part of a team, and the social status it offers. A curriculum and instructional model that has been shown to embed the student social system within a positive program of action is…
Sanders, Gabriel J; Peacock, Corey A; Barkley, Jacob E; Gish, Brian; Brock, Scott; Volpenhein, Josh
Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) "Wii™ Sports Boxing" ("Wii Boxing") and Xbox(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) "Kinect(®) Sports Boxing" ("Kinect Boxing") are both boxing simulation videogames that are available for two different active videogame (AVG) systems. Although these AVGs are similar, the style of gameplay required is different (i.e., upper body only versus total body movements) and may alter physical activity intensity and one's preference for playing one game over the other. AVGs that elicit the greatest physiologic challenge and are preferred by users should be identified in an effort to enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions and programs that include AVGs. The mean heart rate (HRmean) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 27 adults (22.7±4.2 years old) were recorded during four 10-minute conditions: seated rest, treadmill walking at 3 miles/hour, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing." Upon completion of all four conditions, participants indicated which condition they preferred, and HRmean and HRpeak were calculated as a percentage of age-predicted maximum heart rate to classify physical activity intensity for the three activity conditions (treadmill, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing"). "Kinect Boxing" significantly (P<0.001) increased percentage HRmean (64.1±1.6 percent of age-predicted maximum) and percentage HRpeak (76.5±1.9 percent) above all other conditions: Wii HRmean, 53.0±1.2 percent; Wii HRpeak, 61.8±1.5 percent; treadmill HRmean, 52.4±1.2 percent; treadmill HRpeak, 55.2±2.2 percent. Percentage HRpeak for "Kinect Boxing" was great enough to be considered a vigorous-intensity physical activity. There was no difference (P=0.55) in percentage HRmean between "Wii Boxing" and treadmill walking. Participants also preferred "Kinect Boxing" (P<0.001; n=26) to all other conditions ("Wii Boxing," n=1; treadmill n=0). "Kinect Boxing" was the most preferred and the only condition that was physiologically challenging enough to be classified as a
Ziegler, Robert J.
Because reading for pleasure faces such stiff competition from other activities, one Minnesota elementary principal instituted rewarding and enjoyable reading activities: DEAR (Drop Everything and Read) Time, principal's book club, "I love to read" month, RIOT (Reading Instead of Television) Time, celebrity readers, T-shirt logos, and…
Klimmt, Christoph; Rizzo, Albert; Vorderer, Peter; Koch, Jan; Fischer, Till
Based on theoretical assumptions from film psychology and their application to video games, the hypothesis is tested that suspense is a major factor in video game enjoyment. A first-person shooter game was experimentally manipulated to create either a low level or a high level of suspense. Sixty-three participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions; enjoyment was assessed after playing by a 10-item rating scale. Results support the assumption that suspense is a driver of video game enjoyment.
Nordtorp, Heidi L; Nyquist, Astrid; Jahnsen, Reidun; Moser, Thomas; Strand, Liv Inger
This study examined test-retest reliability of the Norwegian version of Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE), and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) in children with and without disabilities. Totally 141 children, 107 typically developing, mean age 11.1, and 34 with disabilities, mean age 14.2 years participated. A cross-sectional, test-retest design was applied. The participants completed CAPE and PAC twice within mean 19 days. Reliability was examined by Chronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and Kappa statistics. The alpha values for internal consistency varied between 0.53 and 0.87 for the CAPE and between 0.75 and 0.93 for the PAC. ICC coefficients varied from 0.49 to 0.83 for the CAPE and 0.50 to 0.85 for the PAC. Kappa coefficients varied from 0.30 to 0.66. The Norwegian CAPE and PAC demonstrated sufficient measurement properties of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The reliability of the CAPE, however, was not entirely satisfactory.
Gråstén, Arto; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami
enjoyment via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation at Grade 9 for both girls and boys.Ego-involving climate did not fit either the data for the girls or boys, as PE lessons based on ego-involving motivational climate did not significantly influence on the level of PE enjoyment.The results of the current study and previous practical findings support task-involving teaching methods to promote adolescent's PE enjoyment through secondary school years. School PE could be most effective if based on task-involving motivational climate, in which the main objective is increasing students' perceived physical competence, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment.
Almasri, Nihad A; Palisano, Robert J; Kang, Lin-Ju
To establish the construct validity and internal consistency of the Arabic Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) and to determine the effects of age, gender, and disability status on diversity and intensity of participation. The World Health Organization guidelines for translation of measures were applied to translate the CAPE and PAC, 75 children with cerebral palsy (mean age = 10.7 ± 2.9 years) and 75 children with typical development (mean age = 10.8 ± 2.7 years) completed the translated measures. The construct validity of the translated measures was demonstrated by principle component analyses in addition to the known-groups method by examining the effects of age, gender, and presence of disability on diversity and intensity scores. The internal consistencies of the extracted components were examined by Cronbach's alpha. Four components emerged: (1) physical activities; (2) home-based activities; (3) self-improvement activities; and (4) social activities. Cronbach's alpha varied from 0.61 (social activities) to 0.83 (physical activities). Age, gender, and disability were significant determinants of types of activities. The Arabic CAPE and PAC are culturally valid in measuring participation of children with or without disabilities in Jordan. The child's age, gender, and disability should be considered to provide participation-based plans of care that are considerate for children and their families. Implications for rehabilitation The Arabic CAPE and PAC are culturally valid measures for participation of children with or without disabilities in Jordan. The Arabic CAPE and PAC measures can guide participation-based plans of care that are meaningful and considerate for children and their families. Child age and gender should be considered to provide appropriate activities and to facilitate participation of children with and without disabilities. Families and service providers
Fink, A; Gebhard, B; Erdwiens, S; Haddenhorst, L; Nowak, S
The introduction of the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health of the World Health Organization in 2001 made social participation a major rehabilitation outcome and the ultimate goal of rehabilitation services. There is no available instrument to measure the youth participation in leisure activities apart from asking the youth themselves. The goal of this study was to present a German version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC). The CAPE/PAC questionnaire was translated into German, a cultural adaptation process was designed and a reliability study was conducted. One hundred and fifty-two youths with and without disabilities, with a mean age of 15.2 years (standard deviation 1.7), participated in the study. The participants completed CAPE and PAC twice within 4 weeks. Reliability was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement, smallest detectable change and Cronbach's alpha. The absolute values of participation differ between the typically developed youth group and those with impairments; the reliability of the CAPE/PAC is comparable in both groups. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.43 to 0.74 for the CAPE and from 0.71 to 0.83 for the PAC in all participants. The alpha values for internal consistency ranged from 0.42 to 0.82 for the CAPE and from 0.65 to 0.92 for the PAC. The German version of the PAC showed satisfactory reliability; however, reliability was not satisfactory for all scores of the CAPE, but comparable with versions in other languages. The need for newly developed participation measurements requires further discussion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lyu, Minjeong; Gill, Diane L.
Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class-type differences.…
Welch, David; Fremaux, Guy
Sounds at levels that can injure the ear are regarded as enjoyable by many people. In many societies, a common form of this behavior is listening to loud music, either via personal audio systems or at music venues. Drawing on theory from the literature around loud sound and emotional responses to music, and combining it with concepts of physiological sound adaptation and classical conditioning, we developed a model of the process that may underlie people's enjoyment of loud sound, particularly loud music in nightclubs. The Conditioning, Adaptation, and Acculturation to Loud Music (CAALM) model proposes that the benefits associated with loud sound, alongside other desirable aspects of nightclubs, provide the unconditioned stimuli. Over time regular clubbers become conditioned to enjoy loud sound in itself. Exposure to loud sound also causes adaptation within the auditory system, so there is both a desire for, and tolerance of, loud sound during leisure time. This sets up an expectation of loud music as a cultural norm, and staff of leisure venues, who are themselves part of that culture, set music levels to meet customer expectations; and a cycle is perpetuated. This theory may be a useful consideration for health promotion and hearing conservation interventions.
Agres, Kat; Herremans, Dorien; Bigo, Louis; Conklin, Darrell
An empirical investigation of how local harmonic structures (e.g., chord progressions) contribute to the experience and enjoyment of uplifting trance (UT) music is presented. The connection between rhythmic and percussive elements and resulting trance-like states has been highlighted by musicologists, but no research, to our knowledge, has explored whether repeated harmonic elements influence affective responses in listeners of trance music. Two alternative hypotheses are discussed, the first highlighting the direct relationship between repetition/complexity and enjoyment, and the second based on the theoretical inverted-U relationship described by the Wundt curve. We investigate the connection between harmonic structure and subjective enjoyment through interdisciplinary behavioral and computational methods: First we discuss an experiment in which listeners provided enjoyment ratings for computer-generated UT anthems with varying levels of harmonic repetition and complexity. The anthems were generated using a statistical model trained on a corpus of 100 uplifting trance anthems created for this purpose, and harmonic structure was constrained by imposing particular repetition structures (semiotic patterns defining the order of chords in the sequence) on a professional UT music production template. Second, the relationship between harmonic structure and enjoyment is further explored using two computational approaches, one based on average Information Content, and another that measures average tonal tension between chords. The results of the listening experiment indicate that harmonic repetition does in fact contribute to the enjoyment of uplifting trance music. More compelling evidence was found for the second hypothesis discussed above, however some maximally repetitive structures were also preferred. Both computational models provide evidence for a Wundt-type relationship between complexity and enjoyment. By systematically manipulating the structure of chord
Agres, Kat; Herremans, Dorien; Bigo, Louis; Conklin, Darrell
An empirical investigation of how local harmonic structures (e.g., chord progressions) contribute to the experience and enjoyment of uplifting trance (UT) music is presented. The connection between rhythmic and percussive elements and resulting trance-like states has been highlighted by musicologists, but no research, to our knowledge, has explored whether repeated harmonic elements influence affective responses in listeners of trance music. Two alternative hypotheses are discussed, the first highlighting the direct relationship between repetition/complexity and enjoyment, and the second based on the theoretical inverted-U relationship described by the Wundt curve. We investigate the connection between harmonic structure and subjective enjoyment through interdisciplinary behavioral and computational methods: First we discuss an experiment in which listeners provided enjoyment ratings for computer-generated UT anthems with varying levels of harmonic repetition and complexity. The anthems were generated using a statistical model trained on a corpus of 100 uplifting trance anthems created for this purpose, and harmonic structure was constrained by imposing particular repetition structures (semiotic patterns defining the order of chords in the sequence) on a professional UT music production template. Second, the relationship between harmonic structure and enjoyment is further explored using two computational approaches, one based on average Information Content, and another that measures average tonal tension between chords. The results of the listening experiment indicate that harmonic repetition does in fact contribute to the enjoyment of uplifting trance music. More compelling evidence was found for the second hypothesis discussed above, however some maximally repetitive structures were also preferred. Both computational models provide evidence for a Wundt-type relationship between complexity and enjoyment. By systematically manipulating the structure of chord
Certo, Michael V; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Chari, Divya A; Mancuso, Dean M; Lalwani, Anil K
To identify factors that enhance the enjoyment of music in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Specifically, we assessed the hypothesis that variations in reverberation time (RT60) may be linked to variations in the level of musical enjoyment in CI users. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment in normal-hearing individuals. Single tertiary academic medical center. Normal-hearing adults (N = 20) were asked to rate a novel 20-second melody on three enjoyment modalities: musicality, pleasantness, and naturalness. Subjective rating of music excerpts. Participants listened to seven different instruments play the melody, each with five levels (0.2, 1.6, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0 s) of RT60, both with and without CI simulation processing. Linear regression analysis with analysis of variance was used to assess the impact of RT60 on music enjoyment. Without CI simulation, music samples with RT60 = 3.0 seconds were ranked most pleasant and most musical, whereas those with RT60 = 1.6 seconds and RT60 = 3.0 seconds were ranked equally most natural (all p < 0.05). With CI simulation, music samples with RT60 = 0.2 seconds were ranked most pleasant, most musical, and most natural (all p < 0.05). Samples without CI simulation show a preference for middle-range RT60, whereas samples with CI simulation show a negative linear relationship between RT60 and musical enjoyment, with preference for minimal reverberation. Minimization of RT60 may be a useful strategy for increasing musical enjoyment under CI conditions, both in altering existing music as well as in composition of new music.
United States Department of Agriculture 10 tips Nutrition Education Series MyPlate MyWins Based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Enjoy your food, but eat less You can enjoy your meals while making ...
Griffin, Kent; Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie
Background: Obese and overweight children are often cast as being lazy or unmotivated in regards to participation in physical activity. Purpose: Based on the social cognitive principle of triadic reciprocality, this pilot study was designed to examine the impact of a mastery motivational climate on overweight and obese children's commitment to,…
English Journal, 2007
In this article, several teachers share their ideas on what they enjoy about coaching, directing, or advising. One of them, Mary Ann Yedinak, teaches middle school language arts, has a family, and has several partially written books still stored on her computer. However, she still wants to add an extracurricular activity such as Drama Club to her…
Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Greeley, Samuel J.; Collins, Larry H.
Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after…
Coleman, P L
In the mid-1970s, the Philippine Commission on Population (POPCOM) began to use entertainment programs for reaching people with messages on population and development issues. 2 major motion pictures contained family planning (FP) messages. Radio dramas, print media, and theater also were used to convey FP messages. The early experiments were continued in the late 1980s through the work of the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD). PCPD, with the assistance of the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) project, embarked on a program which used popular music to encourage young people to become sexually responsible adults. In 1990, the Philippine Non-Governmental Organization Council (PNGOC), the Department of Health (DOH) and JHU/PCS began an effort funded by USAID to form a coalition with the entertainment community for social development causes. DOH, JHU/PCS, and USAID wanted to promote FP and health through the Enter-Educate concept. PNGOC and JHU/PCS contacted over 20 entertainment organizations and held more than 75 conferences, work shops, and meetings which attended by more than 300 people. The movement of Entertainment for Social Change was launched in October 1991 with the creation of the Enter-Educate Foundation, Inc. (EEF). The aims of EEF include rewards, professional approach, and establishment of a network of dedicated entertainment and social development professionals. In 1993, a television comedy series will focus on FP as well as on maternal and child health. Further plans at the local level include: tree planting; discussions on migration; talks about FP; meetings on community population and environment activities; and networking of organizations involved with youth, the environment, and population. JHU/PCS provides technical assistance for the production, monitoring, and evaluation of the project. With these efforts, the EEF is attempting to focus on the country's biggest problems: population and the
How enjoyable a food product is remembered to be is likely to shape future choice. The present study tested the influence that expectations and specific moments during consumption experiences have on remembered enjoyment for food products. Sixty-four participants consumed three snack foods (savoury, sweet and savoury-sweet) and rated expected and online enjoyment for each product. Twenty-four hours later participants rated remembered enjoyment and future expected enjoyment for each product. Remembered enjoyment differed to online enjoyment for two of the three products, resulting in the foods being remembered as less enjoyable than they actually were. Both expected enjoyment and specific moments during the consumption experience (e.g. the least enjoyable mouthful) influenced remembered enjoyment. However, the factors that shaped remembered enjoyment were not consistent across the different food products. Remembered enjoyment was also shown to be a better predictor of future expected enjoyment than online enjoyment. Remembered enjoyment is likely to influence choice behaviour and can be discrepant to actual enjoyment. Specific moments during a consumption experience can have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment (whilst others are neglected), but the factors that determine which moments influence remembered enjoyment are unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith-Ryan, Abbie E
Exercise enjoyment has been shown to be important for adherence. Minimal data exist on enjoyment of intense exercise, especially in clinical populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate enjoyment levels of overweight and obese subjects undergoing 3 weeks of high-intensity interval training. Forty-two generally healthy overweight and obese men and women (body mass index = 30·8 ± 4·8 kg × m -2 ) volunteered for this study. Exercise enjoyment was quantified using the Exercise Enjoyment Scale before and after each of nine total interval training sessions, over a three-week period. Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of each interval and training session. There were no significant differences in enjoyment between training groups (P > 0·05). Exercise enjoyment improved significantly over the three-week training phase (P < 0·05). Enjoyment levels were relatively high to begin training: mean ± SD: 4·2 ± 1·0 out of a 7 point scale. Heart rate and RPE were significantly reduced (P < 0·05) from pre- (day 1) to post-training (day 9). High-intensity interval training may be an enjoyable form of exercise for overweight and obese men and women. Enjoyment levels may continue to increase following initial introduction to this type of training. Due to the small time demand and high enjoyment, interval training may be an effective exercise approach in a sedentary population. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Srinivasan, V. K.
This article adopts the following classification for a Euclidean planar ?, purely based on angles alone. A Euclidean planar triangle is said to be acute angled if all the three angles of the Euclidean planar ? are acute angles. It is said to be right angled at a specific vertex, say B, if the angle ? is a right angle with the two remaining angles as acute angles. It is said to be obtuse angled at the vertex B if ? is an obtuse angle, with the two remaining angles as acute angles. In spite of the availability of numerous text books that contain our human knowledge of Euclidean plane geometry, softwares can offer newer insights about the characterizations of planar geometrical objects. The author's characterizations of triangles involve points like the centroid G, the orthocentre H of the ?, the circumcentre S of the ?, the centre N of the nine-point circle of the ?. Also the radical centre rc of three involved diameter circles of the sides BC, AC and AB of the ? provides a reformulation of the orthocentre, resulting in an interesting theorem, dubbed by the author as 'Three Circles Theorem'. This provides a special result for a right-angled ?, again dubbed by the author as 'The Four Circles Theorem'. Apart from providing various inter connections between the geometrical points, the relationships between shapes of the triangle and the behaviour of the points are reasonably explored in this article. Most of these results will be useful to students that take courses in Euclidean Geometry at the college level and the high school level. This article will be useful to teachers in mathematics at the high school level and the college level.
SJOGREN, DOUGLAS D.; STAKE, ROBERT E.
A STUDY OF LEARNING ACTIVITY EXPLORED (1) AN ACTIVITY-ACHIEVEMENT SCALE TO DESCRIBE THE IMPACT OF ACTIVITY ON ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) THE POSSIBLE COMPLEXITY OR DIMENSIONALITY OF THIS IMPACT. TEN GROUPS, OF 10 COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS EACH, WERE SCHEDULED TO STUDY UNDER EACH OF 10 LEARNING SITUATIONS. THE SITUATIONS CONSISTED OF TWO MODES OF…
Vazou, Spyridoula; Smiley-Oyen, Ann
Classroom-based physical activity is a new approach aiming to improve both physical activity levels and academic achievement. This study investigated the acute effect of a 10-min bout of aerobic physical activity integrated with math practice, compared with a seated math practice, on executive function and enjoyment among normal-weight (n = 24) and overweight children (n = 11). Thirty-five typically developing prepubescent children (10.55 ± 0.74 years) completed a session of physical activity integrated with math practice and a seated math practice session in counterbalanced order. Results showed that following integrated physical activity, the response time in the Standard Flanker improved more than after seated practice. Among the overweight children, physical activity benefitted performance in the Standard Flanker by preventing the decline associated with seated practice. Children enjoyed the physical activity practice more than the seated practice. These findings suggest that integrating physical activity with academic instruction may be a realistic strategy for promoting physical activity because it may facilitate, not antagonize, executive function.
Blampied, Meredith; Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden; Liberty, Kathleen
The sensitivity of male children (5-15 years) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to the affective state of others was tested using an emotion recognition task. Only children without ASD could reliably differentiate between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. Results are considered in terms of the social impairments of children with…
Blampied, Meredith; Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden; Liberty, Kathleen
The sensitivity of male children (5-15 years) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to the affective state of others was tested using an emotion recognition task. Only children without ASD could reliably differentiate between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. Results are considered in terms of the social impairments of children with ASD.
Teglasi, Hedwig; French, Mila; Lohr, Lauren; Miller, Karen J.; Erwin, Holly Drewer; Rothman, Lee; Denny, Michelle
The relationship between children's activity level and adjustment has been based on a one-dimensional conceptualization of activity level and warrants re-examination. Current questionnaires conflate amount of physical movement with its appropriateness to the context, making it impossible to tell which aspect of activity level accounts for its…
Leveraging Avatars in 3D Virtual Environments ("Second Life") for Interactive Learning: The Moderating Role of the Behavioral Activation System "vs." Behavioral Inhibition System and the Mediating Role of Enjoyment
Jin, Seung-A. Annie
Within the Entertainment-Education (E-E) framework, two experiments examined the effects of avatar-based e-health education targeting college students. Study 1 (between-subjects factorial design experiment: N = 94) tested the effects of message framing in e-learning and the moderating role of students' motivational systems on their enjoyment of…
News Quantum physics: German Physical Society spring meeting Journal access: American Physical Society's online journals will be available for free in all US high schools Award: High-school physics teacher receives American award for excellence Teacher training: Fobinet offers coordination of teacher-training activities Astronomy: Astronomy fans see stars at Astrofest Conference: Delegates enjoy the workshops and activities at CPD conference Forthcoming events
Quantum physics: German Physical Society spring meeting Journal access: American Physical Society's online journals will be available for free in all US high schools Award: High-school physics teacher receives American award for excellence Teacher training: Fobinet offers coordination of teacher-training activities Astronomy: Astronomy fans see stars at Astrofest Conference: Delegates enjoy the workshops and activities at CPD conference Forthcoming events
Stork, Matthew J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A
Interval exercise training can elicit physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training, but with reduced time. However, the intense nature of specific protocols, particularly the "all-out" efforts characteristic of sprint interval training (SIT), may be perceived as being aversive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected music can reduce the potential aversiveness of an acute session of SIT by improving affect, motivation, and enjoyment, and to examine the effects of music on performance. Twenty moderately active adults (22 ± 4 yr) unfamiliar with interval exercise completed an acute session of SIT under two different conditions: music and no music. The exercise consisted of four 30-s "all-out" Wingate Anaerobic Test bouts on a cycle ergometer, separated by 4 min of rest. Peak and mean power output, RPE, affect, task motivation, and perceived enjoyment of the exercise were measured. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate changes in dependent measures over time and between the two conditions. Peak and mean power over the course of the exercise session were higher in the music condition (coefficient = 49.72 [SE = 13.55] and coefficient = 23.65 [SE = 11.30]; P < 0.05). A significant time by condition effect emerged for peak power (coefficient = -12.31 [SE = 4.95]; P < 0.05). There were no between-condition differences in RPE, affect, or task motivation. Perceived enjoyment increased over time and was consistently higher in the music condition (coefficient = 7.00 [SE = 3.05]; P < 0.05). Music enhances in-task performance and enjoyment of an acute bout of SIT. Listening to music during intense interval exercise may be an effective strategy for facilitating participation in, and adherence to, this form of training.
Diehl, Kristin; Zauberman, Gal; Barasch, Alixandra
Experiences are vital to the lives and well-being of people; hence, understanding the factors that amplify or dampen enjoyment of experiences is important. One such factor is photo-taking, which has gone unexamined by prior research even as it has become ubiquitous. We identify engagement as a relevant process that influences whether photo-taking will increase or decrease enjoyment. Across 3 field and 6 lab experiments, we find that taking photos enhances enjoyment of positive experiences across a range of contexts and methodologies. This occurs when photo-taking increases engagement with the experience, which is less likely when the experience itself is already highly engaging, or when photo-taking interferes with the experience. As further evidence of an engagement-based process, we show that photo-taking directs greater visual attention to aspects of the experience one may want to photograph. Lastly, we also find that this greater engagement due to photo-taking results in worse evaluations of negative experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Jaakkola, Timo; Wang, C K John; Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo
The purpose of this study was to identify student clusters with homogenous profiles in perceptions of task- and ego-involving, autonomy, and social relatedness supporting motivational climate in school physical education. Additionally, we investigated whether different motivational climate groups differed in their enjoyment in PE. Participants of the study were 2 594 girls and 1 803 boys, aged 14-15 years. Students responded to questionnaires assessing their perception of motivational climate and enjoyment in physical education. Latent profile analyses produced a five-cluster solution labeled 1) 'low autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group', 2) 'low autonomy, relatedness, and high task and ego climate, 3) 'moderate autonomy, relatedness, task and ego climate' group 4) 'high autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group, and 5) 'high relatedness and task but moderate autonomy and ego climate' group. Analyses of variance showed that students in clusters 4 and 5 perceived the highest level of enjoyment whereas students in cluster 1 experienced the lowest level of enjoyment. The results showed that the students' perceptions of various motivational climates created differential levels of enjoyment in PE classes. Key pointsLatent profile analyses produced a five-cluster solution labeled 1) 'low autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group', 2) 'low autonomy, relatedness, and high task and ego climate, 3) 'moderate autonomy, relatedness, task and ego climate' group 4) 'high autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group, and 5) 'high relatedness and task but moderate autonomy and ego climate' group.Analyses of variance showed that clusters 4 and 5 perceived the highest level of enjoyment whereas cluster 1 experienced the lowest level of enjoyment. The results showed that the students' perceptions of motivational climate create differential levels of enjoyment in PE classes.
Hodgson, John A; Roy, Roland R; Higuchi, Norio; Monti, Ryan J; Zhong, Hui; Grossman, Elena; Edgerton, V Reggie
The activation level of a muscle is presumed to be a major determinant of many mechanical and phenotypic properties of its muscle fibers. However, the relationship between the daily activation levels of a muscle and these properties has not been well defined, largely because of the lack of accurate and sustained assessments of the spontaneous activity levels of the muscle. Therefore, we determined the daily activity levels of selected rat hindlimb muscles using intramuscular EMG recordings. To allow comparisons across muscles having varying activity levels and/or muscle fiber type compositions, we recorded EMG activity in a predominantly slow plantarflexor (soleus), a predominantly fast plantarflexor (medial gastrocnemius, MG), a predominantly fast ankle dorsiflexor (tibialis anterior, TA) and a predominantly fast knee extensor (vastus lateralis, VL) in six unanesthetized rats for periods of 24 h. EMG activity levels were correlated with the light:dark cycle, with peak activity levels occurring during the dark period. The soleus was the most active and the TA the least active muscle in all rats. Daily EMG durations were highest for soleus (11-15 h), intermediate for MG (5-9 h) and VL (3-14 h) and lowest for TA (2-3 h). Daily mean EMG amplitudes and integrated EMG levels in the soleus were two- to threefold higher than in the MG and VL and seven- to eightfold higher than in the TA. Despite the three- to fourfold difference in activation levels of the MG and VL vs the TA, all three predominantly fast muscles have been reported to have a similar, very low percentage of slow fibers. Comparing these relative EMG levels to the published fiber type profiles of these muscles yields a very poor relationship between daily activity level and fiber type composition in the same muscles across several species. Although it is clear that changing the levels of activity can modulate the expression of the myosin phenotype, these results indicate that factors other than activation
Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes—labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed. PMID:27445752
Davis, Christa Ann
This dissertation describes two studies, based on data collection within a pre-existing collegiate course for pre-service teachers in a children's dance setting at a northwest public university. The overall purpose of these experimental studies was to compare traditional movement/dance with the influence of a relevance-based instructional model,…
Schneider, Ray; Harrington, Mike; Tobar, David
The purpose of this study was to examine goal orientation in college hockey players. Specifically, how a task or ego orientation can affect enjoyment. The Task and Ego Orientation Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) was used to determine goal orientation as either task or ego, and the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scales (PACES) measured how much…
Chen, Su-Yen; Fu, Yang-Chih
Using data from a national survey of adults in Taiwan, this study explored how often older adults participate in and how much they enjoy 2 mostly-solitary leisure activities (reading books and watching TV/DVDs/videos) and 2 mostly-social leisure activities (socializing with friends and engaging in physical activities). According to ordinal…
Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administ
Declerck, Marlies; Verheul, Martine; Daly, Daniel; Sanders, Ross
To investigate enjoyment and specific benefits of a swimming intervention for youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Fourteen youth with CP (aged 7 to 17 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to III) were randomly assigned to control and swimming groups. Walking ability, swimming skills, fatigue, and pain were assessed at baseline, after a 10-week swimming intervention (2/week, 40-50 minutes) or control period, after a 5-week follow-up and, for the intervention group, after a 20-week follow-up period. The level of enjoyment of each swim-session was assessed. Levels of enjoyment were high. Walking and swimming skills improved significantly more in the swimming than in the control group (P = .043; P = .002, respectively), whereas fatigue and pain did not increase. After 20 weeks, gains in walking and swimming skills were retained (P = .017; P = .016, respectively). We recommend a swimming program for youth with CP to complement a physical therapy program.
Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Kalyararaman, Sriram
Purpose Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Methods Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents [METs]) and enjoyment were measured across ten games in 100 young adults aged 18 to 35 (50 females). Results All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < .001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322 (mean [SD] 3.10 [0.89] METs) and 298 (2.91 [0.87] METs) percent, which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 [0.28] METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 [0.16] METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < .001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < .001). Conclusions Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:21364477
Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Bowling, J Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kalyararaman, Sriram
Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Energy expenditure (METs) and enjoyment were measured across 10 games in 100 young adults age 18-35 yr (50 women). All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < 0.001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322% (mean ± SD = 3.10 ± 0.89 METs) and 298% (2.91 ± 0.87 METs), which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 ± 0.28 METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 ± 0.16 METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < 0.001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than in overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < 0.001). Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior.
Kilpatrick, Marcus W; Greeley, Samuel J; Collins, Larry H
Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after interval and continuous exercise sessions. Twenty-four participants (12 men, 12 women; body mass index = 24 ± 4, maximal oxygen consumption = 41 ± 5 mL/kg/min) completed a maximal cycle ergometer test used to prescribe experimental trials: (a) moderate continuous, (b) heavy continuous, (c) heavy interval, and (d) severe interval. All trials were 20 min in length, and all intervals utilized 60-s segments and a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Affective and enjoyment responses were significantly less positive for the heavy continuous trials in comparison with all other trials during exercise (p < .05; ES = .2-.8). Additionally, both severe and heavy interval exercise were more enjoyable than heavy continuous exercise (p > .05). Findings suggest that interval protocols produce affective and enjoyment responses that are equal to moderate continuous exercise and more positive than heavy continuous exercise. These results indicate that interval-based exercise may be a viable alternative to continuous exercise in the promotion of health and fitness.
Eastham, Susan L.
Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…
Ludlow, Andrew T; Zimmerman, Jo B; Witkowski, Sarah; Hearn, Joe W; Hatfield, Bradley D; Roth, Stephen M
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of exercise energy expenditure (EEE) with both telomere length and telomerase activity in addition to accounting for hTERT C-1327T promoter genotype. Sixty-nine (n = 34 males; n = 35 females) participants 50-70 yr were assessed for weekly EEE level using the Yale Physical Activity Survey. Lifetime consistency of EEE was also determined. Subjects were recruited across a large range of EEE levels and separated into quartiles: 0-990, 991-2340, 2341-3540, and >3541 kcal x wk(-1). Relative telomere length and telomerase activity were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The second EEE quartile exhibited significantly longer telomere lengths [1.12 +/- 0.03 relative units (RU)] than both the first and fourth EEE quartiles (0.94 +/- 0.03 and 0.96 +/- 0.03 RU, respectively; P < 0.05) but was not different from the third quartile. Telomerase activity was not different among the EEE quartiles. An association was observed between telomerase enzyme activity and hTERT genotype with the TT genotype (1.0 x 10(-2) +/- 4.0 x 10(-3) attomoles (amol) per 10,000 cells; n = 19) having significantly greater telomerase enzyme activity than both the CT (1.3 x 10(-3) +/- 3.2 x 10(-3); n = 30) and CC groups (5.0 x 10(-4) +/- 3.9 x 10(-3); n = 20; P = 0.01). These results indicate that moderate physical activity levels may provide a protective effect on PBMC telomere length compared with both low and high EEE levels.
Quick, John M.; Atkinson, Robert K.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between gameplay enjoyment, gaming goal orientations, and individual characteristics. A total of 301 participants were surveyed and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. This led to an expanded Gameplay Enjoyment Model (GEM) with 41 game design features that…
Quick, John M.; Atkinson, Robert K.; Lin, Lijia
A survey study was conducted to better understand how gameplay enjoyment relates to players' personality traits and video game preferences. This study demonstrated that the core design elements of games that lead to enjoyment can be empirically identified. Similarly, it showed that considering personality, an individual characteristic, can produce…
Wuang, Yeepay; Su, Chwen-Yng
This study aimed to determine participation and enjoyment in young people with Down syndrome (DS) in Taiwan and to assess how participation varies across gender, cognitive, and motor function variables. Using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, data on participation were collected from 997 adolescents with DS and their…
Oster, Natalia V.; Geller, Berta; Carney, Patricia A.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L.; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G.
Summary Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by agreement with patient cases previously reviewed by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p=0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p=0.013), and high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p<0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p<0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p<0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted. PMID:25554017
Jaakkola, T; Ntoumanis, N; Liukkonen, J
The aim of this study was to investigate the relations among situational motivational climate, dispositional approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment in Finnish male junior ice hockey players. The sample comprised 265 junior B-level male players with a mean age of 17.03 years (SD = 0.63). Players filled questionnaires tapping their perceptions of coach motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment. For the statistical analysis, players were divided into high and low perceived sport ability groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect path from task-involving motivational climate via task-approach goal to enjoyment. Additionally, SEM demonstrated four other direct associations, which existed in both perceived ability groups: from ego-involving motivational climate to ego-approach and ego-avoidance goals; from ego-approach goal to ego-avoidance goal; and from task-avoidance goal to ego-avoidance goal. Additionally, in the high perceived sport ability group, there was an association from task-involving motivational climate to enjoyment. The results of this study reveal that motivational climate emphasizing effort, personal development and improvement, and achievement goal mastering tasks are significant elements of enjoyment in junior ice hockey. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oster, Natalia V; Geller, Berta M; Carney, Patricia A; Reisch, Lisa M; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G
Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by comparing pathologist assessments of a set of 60 cases with consensus assessments of the same cases made by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p = 0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p = 0.013) and have high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p < 0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p < 0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p < 0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lai, Chih-Jou; Liu, Wen-Yu; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chan, Rai-Chi
This study investigates the effects of pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function, enjoyment, activities of daily living, and health-related quality of life for children with spastic cerebral palsy of various motor severities. Children with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned to a pediatric aquatic therapy group (n = 11; mean age = 85.0 ± 33.1 months; male : female = 4 : 7) or a control group (n = 13; mean age = 87.6 ± 34.0 months; male : female = 9 : 4). The statistic results indicate that the pediatric aquatic therapy group had greater average 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure following intervention than the control group (η(2) = 0.308, P = .007), even for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System level IV (5.0 vs 1.3). The pediatric aquatic therapy group had higher Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores than the control group at post-treatment (P = .015). These findings demonstrate that pediatric aquatic therapy can be an effective and alternative therapy for children with cerebral palsy even with poor Gross Motor Function Classification System level. © The Author(s) 2014.
Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.
The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they…
With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhanc...
Li, Qiang; Cui, Yuanting; Jin, Rongbing; Lang, Hongmei; Yu, Hao; Sun, Fang; He, Chengkang; Ma, Tianyi; Li, Yingsha; Zhou, Xunmei; Liu, Daoyan; Jia, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zhiming
High salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension and is associated with cardiovascular events. Most countries exhibit a traditionally high salt intake; thus, identification of an optimal strategy for salt reduction at the population level may have a major impact on public health. In this multicenter, random-order, double-blind observational and interventional study, subjects with a high spice preference had a lower salt intake and blood pressure than subjects who disliked spicy food. The enjoyment of spicy flavor enhanced salt sensitivity and reduced salt preference. Salt intake and salt preference were related to the regional metabolic activity in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of participants. Administration of capsaicin-the major spicy component of chili pepper-enhanced the insula and OFC metabolic activity in response to high-salt stimuli, which reversed the salt intensity-dependent differences in the metabolism of the insula and OFC. In animal study, OFC activity was closely associated with salt preference, and salty-taste information processed in the OFC was affected in the presence of capsaicin. Thus, interventions related to this region may alter the salt preference in mice through fiber fluorometry and optogenetic techniques. In conclusion, enjoyment of spicy foods may significantly reduce individual salt preference, daily salt intake, and blood pressure by modifying the neural processing of salty taste in the brain. Application of spicy flavor may be a promising behavioral intervention for reducing high salt intake and blood pressure. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Lund, Anne; Melhus, Mali; Sveen, Unni
Even people with mild to moderate stroke will experience changes in their abilities to perform everyday occupations. Group interventions may be appropriate in late-stage rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to explore how the participants involved themselves in person-centered lifestyle groups after stroke in Norway. Semi-structured interviews were performed with six older adults with mild-to-moderate stroke who had participated in lifestyle groups over a period of nine months. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The participants involved themselves in the lifestyle groups in a variety of ways by creating enjoyable company in sharing stroke experiences, sharing knowledgeable interest, pushing and forcing each other forward and reflecting on self-worth. Through doing group activities together, they created various ways of being, belonging and becoming, addressing development of strategies for regaining self-belief and a sense of autonomy, and for adapting to everyday life post-stroke. The participants were active contributors in the groups and pushed each other and themselves regarding involvement in meaningful occupations. This active participation seemed to bring the participants' resources into focus and contrasted with the frequent negative perceptions of people post-stroke as 'victims'.
Gümüşsoy, Verim; Kaya, Mustafa
Constructivist learning allows students to be actively involved in the learning process and thus the learning to be permanent. It makes the lesson more interesting and enjoyable compared to classical learning where students are passive and get bored quickly. When students engage in activities during the learning process, they enjoy it more. And there is no doubt that games help this a lot. In this project, a game has been designed to make it more entertaining to learn the periodical table for the students. In this game, a huge periodical table (with empty columns) is drawn with acrylic paint in the school yard. Acrylic paint is preferred because it is resilient to outdoor conditions, quick drying and relatively durable. Besides its functionality in the game, the presence of the huge periodical table in the yard boosts students' motivation for scientific activities. Students are taught about the periodical table in their Chemistry lesson a week before the game is to be played. They are informed about the game and asked to bring some sportswear to wear during the game. On the game day, the class is divided into teams of five people. Each team wears a different color vest and is called by the color of the vest they are wearing. The starting point is drawn as far as possible from the periodical table. Furthermore, some question cards that cover the subject are used in the game. As an example from the game: one student from each team is asked to find the correct place by the atomic number of a certain element as described in the cards given to them. There is a time limit so the stopwatch is started as each student starts reading the information on the card. The student runs to the correct place of the certain element according to the clues on their given card. Then they stop and raise their hands. The teacher stops the stopwatch for that student. The teams gain points according to their speed and correct guesses. The game continues as other students are given different
Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov (right), commander of the first (prime) crew of Soviet cosmonauts on the planned Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), enjoys a tribal welcome from Shoshone Indians during a hunting trip in the Lander, Wyoming area.
Nemer, John S; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Mancuso, Dean M; Griffin, Brianna M; Certo, Michael V; Chen, Stephanie Y; Chun, Michael B; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K
Cochlear implantation is associated with poor music perception and enjoyment. Reducing music complexity has been shown to enhance music enjoyment in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In this study, we assess the impact of harmonic series reduction on music enjoyment. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment in normal-hearing (NH) individuals and CI recipients. Single tertiary academic medical center. NH adults (N = 20) and CI users (N = 8) rated the Happy Birthday song on three validated enjoyment modalities-musicality, pleasantness, and naturalness. Subjective rating of music excerpts. Participants listened to seven different instruments play the melody, each with five levels of harmonic reduction (Full, F3+F2+F1+F0, F2+F1+F0, F1+F0, F0). NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation. Linear mixed effect models (LME) and likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the impact of harmonic reduction on enjoyment. NH listeners without simulation rated segments with the first four harmonics (F3+F2+F1+F0) most pleasant and natural (p <0.001, p = 0.004). NH listeners with simulation rated the first harmonic alone (F0) most pleasant and natural (p <0.001, p = 0.003). Their ratings demonstrated a positive linear relationship between harmonic reduction and both pleasantness (slope estimate = 0.030, SE = 0.004, p <0.001, LME) and naturalness (slope estimate = 0.012, SE = 0.003, p = 0.003, LME). CI recipients also found the first harmonic alone (F0) to be most pleasant (p = 0.003), with a positive linear relationship between harmonic reduction and pleasantness (slope estimate = 0.029, SE = 0.008, p <0.001, LME). Harmonic series reduction increases music enjoyment in CI and NH individuals with or without CI simulation. Therefore, minimization of the harmonics may be a useful strategy for enhancing musical enjoyment among both NH and CI listeners.
Nemer, John S.; Kohlberg, Gavriel D.; Mancuso, Dean M.; Griffin, Brianna M.; Certo, Michael V.; Chen, Stephanie Y.; Chun, Michael B.; Spitzer, Jaclyn B.; Lalwani, Anil K.
Objective Cochlear implantation is associated with poor music perception and enjoyment. Reducing music complexity has been shown to enhance music enjoyment in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In this study, we assess the impact of harmonic series reduction on music enjoyment. Study Design Prospective analysis of music enjoyment in normal-hearing (NH) individuals and CI recipients. Setting Single tertiary academic medical center. Patients NH adults (N=20) and CI users (N=8) rated the Happy Birthday song on three validated enjoyment modalities–musicality, pleasantness, and naturalness. Intervention Subjective rating of music excerpts. Main outcome measures Participants listened to seven different instruments play the melody, each with five levels of harmonic reduction (Full|F3+F2+F1+F0|F2+F1+F0|F1+F0|F0). NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation. Linear mixed effect models (LME) and likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the impact of harmonic reduction on enjoyment. Results NH listeners without simulation rated segments with the first four harmonics (F3+F2+F1+F0) most pleasant and natural (p<0.001|p=0.004). NH listeners with simulation rated the first harmonic alone (F0) most pleasant and natural (p<0.001|p=0.003). Their ratings demonstrated a positive linear relationship between harmonic reduction and both pleasantness (slope estimate=0.030|SE=0.004|p<0.001|LME) and naturalness (slope estimate=0.012|SE=0.003|p=0.003|LME). CI recipients also found the first harmonic alone (F0) to be most pleasant (p=0.003), with a positive linear relationship between harmonic reduction and pleasantness (slope estimate=0.029|SE=0.008|p<0.001|LME). Conclusions Harmonic series reduction increases music enjoyment in CI and NH individuals with or without CI simulation. Therefore, minimization of the harmonics may be a useful strategy for enhancing musical enjoyment among both NH and CI listeners. PMID:27755358
Perera, Janaki I.; Quinlivan, Brendan T.; Simonovich, Jennifer A.; Towers, Emily; Zadik, Oren H.; Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.
In light of recent literature in educational psychology, this study investigates instructional support and students' autonomy at a small technical undergraduate school. Grounded theory is used to analyze twelve semi-structured open-ended interviews about engineering students' experiences in Introductory Mechanics that includes Lecture, Recitation, and Laboratory components. Using data triangulation with each course component as a unit of analysis, this study examines students' course enjoyment as a function of instructional support and autonomy. The Lecture utilizes traditional instructor-centered pedagogy with predominantly passive learning and no student autonomy. The Recitation creates an active learning environment through small group work with a moderate degree of autonomy. The Laboratory is designed around self-guided project-based activities with significant autonomy. Despite these differences, all three course components provide similar levels of instructional support. The data reveal that students enjoy the low autonomy provided by Lecture and Recitations while finding the Laboratory frustrating. Analyses indicate that the differences in autonomy contribute to students' misinterpretation of the three course components' value within the context of the entire course.
Thin, Alasdair G.; Poole, Nicola
Dance is a form of exercise that is considered to have widespread popular appeal and in particular to adolescent females. Dance-based body-movement controlled video games are a popular form of ExerGaming that is being adopted for use in school-based physical activity health promotion programs. The results of this study indicate that the game play mechanics and skill demands of the dance-based ExerGames would appear to have limited the subjects' level of physical exertion over the period of study. After training there was an increase in enjoyment rating for the Step Aerobics game which appears related to a perceptible improvement in game performance. It is therefore recommended that ExerGames should be designed with very low initial skill demands in order to maximize the user's level of exertion and to realize and reward progress, thereby helping to promote an enjoyable exercise experience and counterbalance any sense of exertional discomfort. Keywords: exercise; health promotion; exergaming; user experience; design; video game; enjoyment.
Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor
Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05) and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05) in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352
Topeka Public Schools, KS.
Since an increasing number of people today are spending leisure time in the out-of-doors, there is a need to develop society's awareness and understanding of the environment, develop outdoor skills, and stress factors in outdoor activity participation. This unit is designed to provide enough information and skill development to enable educable…
Describes three humanities activities, designed using the 1981 "California History/Social Science Framework," in which seventh-grade social studies students study medieval culture. Students design personal coats-of-arms, play a typical medieval game, listen to medieval stories and myths, and draw or illustrate stories using medieval…
Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro
Although physical activity reduces the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, a large proportion of the population is not sufficiently physically active. Therefore, the present study examined the environmental, social, and psychological correlates for meeting the 2 recommended physical activity criteria: ≥420 min per week of at least moderate-intensity activity (MPA criterion) and ≥210 min per week of vigorous activity (VPA criterion) for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults. Cross-sectional study. The sample included 2000 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. An Internet-based survey was used to assess seven sociodemographic variables (e.g., education level, employment status), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, residential area), social variables (social support), psychological variables (self-efficacy, perceived positive (pros) and negative (cons) aspects of exercise), and physical activity. The adjusted odds of meeting each physical activity criterion by these variables were calculated. Overall, 22.3% of the study population met the criterion of MPA, and 7.3% met the criterion of VPA. Having high self-efficacy, fewer perceived cons, possessing home fitness equipment, reporting enjoyable scenery, and living in a rural area were significantly associated with meeting the recommended criteria. Participants who met the 2 activity recommendations differed by self-efficacy, cons, possession of home fitness equipment, reporting of enjoyable scenery, and residential area. These findings imply that strategies to promote more intense physical activities specifically in terms of these variables may be necessary for colon cancer prevention. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coulthard, Helen; Sahota, Simran
A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine whether the relationship between enjoyment of tactile play and food neophobia observed in children (Coulthard & Thakker, 2015) would be related to levels seen in their parents. One hundred and twenty six participants were recruited from playgroup centres in the Walsall area of the West Midlands, UK; 63 children (2-5 years; 30 girls and 33 boys) and 63 attendant parents (53 mothers and 10 fathers). Children and their parents' enjoyment of a tactile play task was rated by both the parent and a researcher, and questionnaire measures of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity were completed by the parent for both themselves and their children. Strong associations were found between parent and child scores across all the measures; food neophobia, tactile sensitivity and tactile play enjoyment. The variables most strongly related to child food neophobia were parental neophobia and enjoyment of tactile play (parent and child). These findings indicate that family resemblance exists not only for food neophobia, but for tactile sensory processing as well, and may represent a possible inherited route to neophobia. The findings strengthen the suggestion that tactile processing is associated with food neophobia although the causal nature of this relationship is still not known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle
This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity "to see images" of a written story in the mind's eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap.
Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle
This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity “to see images” of a written story in the mind’s eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap. PMID:25386154
Kaufmann, Renee; Buckner, Marjorie M; Ledbetter, Andrew M
This study reports results of a study that examined the extent to which contextual factors (i.e., income level and number of children) might predict a mother's mental health quality, which, in turn, may predict level of engagement with Facebook. Results supported this model, finding that mothers with more children and lower income possess lower mental health quality, and lower mental health quality predicted more frequent Facebook use. However, this pattern was qualified by a mother's level of enjoyment of Facebook, such that mental health quality did not significantly predict Facebook intensity when enjoyment of Facebook was low. This research extends practitioners' knowledge of mothers' mental health quality by identifying a behavior that may indicate lower mental health quality and enhance abilities to recognize mothers who may need support or treatment. Future directions for this research are included.
Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; Palou, Pere; Gili, Margarita; Ponseti, Xavier; Borras, Pere A; Vidal, Josep; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Villamarín, Francisco; Sousa, Catarina
Building upon Deci's and Ryan (1985) Self-determination theory as well as the sportive behavioral correlates of the model of Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1976), this study tries to establish the relationship between motivation and commitment in youth sport. For this purpose 454 young competitive soccer players answered the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ) during the regular season. The SMS measures the three dimensions of the Motivational continuum (the Amotivation, the Extrinsic Motivation and the Intrinsic Motivation). The SCQ measures the Sportive Commitment and its composing factors such as the Enjoyment, the Alternatives to the sport, and the Social Pressure. Our findings provided a clear pattern of the influence of motivation in sport enjoyment and commitment, outlining the positive contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to enjoyment and commitment. Amotivation, contributes positively to alternatives to sport and negatively to enjoyment and commitment, It should be noted that extrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to enjoyment whereas intrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to commitment.
The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 5. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential Human…
Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.
The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.
System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…
The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the third grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. Following a brief overview of the HDP and explanation of the Magic…
The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 6. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to aid teachers in instilling responsibility and self-confidence in children. The nucleus of the Human Development Program is a circle session…
Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Fair, Cori N; Jennings, Rose; Warren, Judith L
To examine if gardening experience and enjoyment are associated with vegetable exposure, preferences, and consumption of vegetables among low-income third-grade children. Cross-sectional study design, using baseline data from the Texas! Grow! Eat! Go! Twenty-eight Title I elementary schools located in different counties in Texas. Third-grade students (n = 1,326, 42% Hispanic) MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gardening experience, gardening enjoyment, vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Random-effects regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index percentile of child, estimated means and standard errors of vegetable consumption, exposure, and preference by levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Wald χ 2 tests evaluated the significance of differences in means of outcomes across levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Children with more gardening experience had greater vegetable exposure and higher vegetable preference and consumed more vegetables compared with children who reported less gardening experience. Those who reported that they enjoyed gardening had the highest levels of vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Garden-based interventions can have an important and positive effect on children's vegetable consumption by increasing exposure to fun gardening experiences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sport psychologists know that many people who do a behavior voluntarily over a long period of time have discovered for themselves an inner feeling that motivates them to perform the behavior, such as exercise, for its own sake. This form of motivation has been labeled "intrinsic" by some researchers. The concept of intrinsic motivation, when…
Holmberg, Kristina; Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene
There is a lack of empirical studies that examine the influence of neoliberal ideas in preschool music and teaching. Neoliberal ideas have primarily been studied in a broader educational perspective and related to preschool policy reforms. The aim of this paper is to study preschool teachers' rhetoric concerning music contents and music activities…
Levine, William H.; Betzner, Michelle; Autry, Kevin S.
Recent research has provided evidence that the information provided before a story--a spoiler--may increase the enjoyment of that story, perhaps by increasing the processing fluency experienced during reading. In one experiment, we tested the reliability of these findings by closely replicating existing methods and the generality of these findings…
Blai, Boris, Jr.
A study was conducted at Harcum Junior College in order to ascertain what modes of learning students preferred and to determine which of these learning modes afforded the students the most enjoyment. A survey was distributed to the student body; a 50% rate of response was achieved. Results indicated that students felt they learned most from class…
How can ELT be made enjoyable and effective? One feasible pedagogical application is to integrate English songs into ELT. Song, a combination of music and lyrics, possesses many intrinsic merits, such as a kaleidoscope of culture, expressiveness, recitability and therapeutic functions, which render it an invaluable source for language teaching.…
Anderson, William Todd
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mindful listening instruction on music listening sensitivity and music listening enjoyment. A pretest--posttest control group design was used. Participants, fourth-grade students (N = 42) from an elementary school in a large city in the Northeastern United States, were randomly assigned to two…
S75-20108 (September 1974) --- Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov (right), commander of the first (prime) crew of Soviet cosmonauts on the planned Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), enjoys a tribal welcome from Shoshone Indians during a hunting trip in the Lander, Wyoming area. Leonov was in the United States to take part in joint crew training at the Johnson Space Center.
Frenzel, Anne C.; Goetz, Thomas; Ludtke, Oliver; Pekrun, Reinhard; Sutton, Rosemary E.
In this study, the authors examined the relationship between teacher and student enjoyment. Based on social-cognitive approaches to emotions, they hypothesized (a) that teacher enjoyment and student enjoyment within classrooms are positively linked and (b) that teacher enthusiasm mediates the relationship between teacher and student enjoyment.…
Longitudinal studies on adolescents' enjoyment in physical education (PE) are lacking. This study examined students' self-reported enjoyment and predictors of enjoyment in PE in school among students from age 14 to 19, using questionnaires and interviews. From the results, enjoyment in PE increases among girls during high school, while students…
Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena
The frequency of involvement in sports often has been concurrently and longitudinally associated with higher self-esteem. The interpretation of this association consistently has been framed as involvement in sports leading to higher levels of self-esteem over time (i.e., socialization effect), although no studies have tested whether higher levels of self-esteem lead to increased involvement in sports over time (i.e., selection effect). Another important aspect of involvement in sports that may be related to self-esteem is the degree to which youth enjoy sports. However, this aspect has received much less attention. To address these gaps in the literature, we first examined the bidirectional effects between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports with 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female; 92.4 % Canadian-born) over 4 years. Higher levels of self-esteem predicted greater involvement in sports over time, but greater involvement in sports did not predict higher levels of self-esteem over time, offering support only for selection effects. We then tested the bidirectional effects between the enjoyment of sports and self-esteem and found evidence of both socialization and selection effects. Specifically, greater enjoyment of sports predicted higher self-esteem over time, and higher self-esteem predicted greater enjoyment of sports over time. These novel findings suggest that adolescents with higher self-esteem play sports more frequently and enjoy sports more than adolescents with lower self-esteem. In addition, the degree to which adolescents enjoy sports may be more important for increasing self-esteem than the frequency with which adolescents play sports.
Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael
Doctors' job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8-10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1-3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael
Introduction Doctors’ job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. Materials and methods We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Results Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8–10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1–3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Conclusions Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. PMID:26783328
Canestrari, Carla; Branchini, Erika; Bianchi, Ivana; Savardi, Ugo; Burro, Roberto
In this paper, a parallel analysis of the enjoyment derived from humor and insight problem solving is presented with reference to a “general” Theory of the Pleasures of the Mind (TPM) (Kubovy, 1999) rather than to “local” theories regarding what makes humor and insight problem solving enjoyable. The similarity of these two cognitive activities has already been discussed in previous literature in terms of the cognitive mechanisms which underpin getting a joke or having an insight experience in a problem solving task. The paper explores whether we can learn something new about the similarities and differences between humor and problem solving by means of an investigation of what makes them pleasurable. In the first part of the paper, the framework for this joint analysis is set. Two descriptive studies are then presented in which the participants were asked to report on their experiences relating to solving visuo-spatial insight problems (Study 1) or understanding cartoons (Study 2) in terms of whether they were enjoyable or otherwise. In both studies, the responses were analyzed with reference to a set of categories inspired by the TPM. The results of Study 1 demonstrate that finding the solution to a problem is associated with a positive evaluation, and the most frequent explanations for this were reported as being Curiosity, Virtuosity and Violation of expectations. The results of Study 2 suggest that understanding a joke (Joy of verification) and being surprised by it (Feeling of surprise) were two essential conditions: when they were not present, the cartoons were perceived as not enjoyable. However, this was not enough to explain the motivations for the choice of the most enjoyable cartoons. Recognizing a Violation of expectations and experiencing a Diminishment in the cleverness or awareness initially attributed to the characters in the cartoon were the aspects which were most frequently indicated by the participants to explain why they enjoyed the
Astorino, Todd A; Thum, Jacob S
High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a robust and time-efficient approach to improve multiple health indices including maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max). Despite the intense nature of HIIT, data in untrained adults report greater enjoyment of HIIT versus continuous exercise (CEX). However, this has yet to be investigated in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). To examine differences in enjoyment in response to CEX and HIIT in persons with SCI. Repeated measures, within-subjects design. University laboratory in San Diego, CA. Nine habitually active men and women (age = 33.3 ± 10.5 years) with chronic SCI. Participants performed progressive arm ergometry to volitional exhaustion to determine VO 2 peak. During subsequent sessions, they completed CEX, sprint interval training (SIT), or HIIT in randomized order. Physical activity enjoyment (PACES), affect, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), VO 2 , and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Despite a higher VO 2 , RPE, and BLa consequent with HIIT and SIT (P < 0.05), PACES was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in response to HIIT (107.4 ± 13.4) and SIT (103.7 ± 12.5) compared to CEX (81.6 ± 25.4). Fifty-five percent of participants preferred HIIT and 45% preferred SIT, with none identifying CEX as their preferred exercise mode. Compared to CEX, brief sessions of submaximal or supramaximal interval training elicit higher enjoyment despite higher metabolic strain. The long-term efficacy and feasibility of HIIT in this population should be explored considering that it is not viewed as more aversive than CEX.
Astell, Arlene J; Joddrell, Phil; Groenewoud, Hanny; de Lange, Jacomine; Goumans, Marleen; Cordia, Anneloes; Schikhof, Yvonne
Previous research has indicated that people living with dementia are able to use touchscreen technology, which presents an opportunity to deliver meaningful and engaging activities for people to pass the time independently. The challenge is to identify suitable applications from the thousands that are currently available, and familiarity, where an app is a digital version of an existing real world game, may be one solution. To evaluate the concept of familiarity in gameplay with people living with dementia by comparing a known game with a novel game and measuring whether users are able to play these games independently and whether they enjoy doing so. Thirty older adults living with dementia were recruited from local care services. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 played a familiar game (Solitaire) and Group 2 played a novel game (Bubble Xplode). Each participant played the same game on three separate occasions within one week. Number of gameplay attempts, whether a checkpoint was reached and how much time to reach the checkpoint were measured. A brief post-session interview was conducted to assess the participants' enjoyment. Ninety percent of participants attempted gameplay independently with 17% of participants in the familiar group reaching the checkpoint compared with 93% playing the novel game. Regardless of which game was played or whether the checkpoint was reached, 88% of all participants reported enjoyment of the gaming sessions. People living with dementia can play touchscreen games independently, but familiarity does not ensure successful gameplay. Enjoyment appears to be independent of progression through a game. The potential of novel and unfamiliar games as meaningful activities that people with dementia can engage with independently should be further explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Jianyu; Moffit, Jeff
Badminton has been identified as a lifelong activity. It is an inexpensive sport and everyone--children, seniors, and individuals with disabilities--can reach a level of enjoyment in the game after mastering basic skills and tactics. In teaching badminton, teachers need to understand how students develop game play ability from a low level to an…
Lyons, Elizabeth J
This article reviews theoretical and empirical evidence related to three mechanisms for encouraging enjoyment during exergame play: Feedback, challenge, and rewards. A literature search and narrative review were conducted. Feedback is found in nearly all exergames, and richer, more in-depth feedback is associated with increased activity. Challenge is a vital component of any videogame, and exergames include physical as well as cognitive challenges. Flow states have traditionally been conceptualized as occurring when an optimal match between player skills and game challenge occurs. However, failure and retrial are necessary for feelings of overall satisfaction and fun, despite not necessarily being ideally fun or satisfying themselves. Rewards are a more complicated issue, with significant theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting positive and negative effects of reward systems. How rewards are integrated into the mechanics and storyline of the game likely impacts how they are perceived and, thus, their effectiveness. Finally, integration of these mechanisms into exergames requires specific attention to both cognitive and physical implementations. Movements that are not themselves enjoyable or engaging may lead to cheating and lower energy expenditure. Feedback, challenge, and rewards are promising mechanisms by which exergames could become more enjoyable. How these concepts are operationalized can affect physical and psychological reactions to exergames. Attention to these concepts in future exergame development and implementation would benefit theory, research, and practice.
Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar
Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.
Focht, Brian C.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of brief walks completed in outdoor and laboratory environments on affective responses, enjoyment, and intention to walk for exercise. Thirty-five active young women (M age = 22.14 years, SD = 1.73) walked for 10 min at a self-selected intensity in outdoor and laboratory environments. Affective…
Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P
Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alexander, Ashlin J; Bartel, Lee; Friesen, Lendra; Shipp, David; Chen, Joseph
Cochlear implants (CIs) allow many profoundly deaf individuals to regain speech understanding. However, the ability to understand speech does not necessarily guarantee music enjoyment. Enabling a CI user to recover the ability to perceive and enjoy the complexity of music remains a challenge determined by many factors. (1) To construct a novel, attention-based, diagnostic software tool (Music EAR) for the assessment of music enjoyment and perception and (2) to compare the results among three listener groups. Thirty-six subjects completed the Music EAR assessment tool: 12 normal-hearing musicians (NHMs), 12 normal-hearing nonmusicians (NHnMs), and 12 CI listeners. Subjects were required to (1) rate enjoyment of musical excerpts at three complexity levels; (2) differentiate five instrumental timbres; (3) recognize pitch pattern variation; and (4) identify target musical patterns embedded holistically in a melody. Enjoyment scores for CI users were comparable to those for NHMs and superior to those for NHnMs and revealed that implantees enjoyed classical music most. CI users performed significantly poorer in all categories of music perception compared to normal-hearing listeners. Overall CI user scores were lowest in those tasks requiring increased attention. Two high-performing subjects matched or outperformed NHnMs in pitch and timbre perception tasks. The Music EAR assessment tool provides a unique approach to the measurement of music perception and enjoyment in CI users. Together with auditory training evidence, the results provide considerable hope for further recovery of music appreciation through methodical rehabilitation.
Springer, Judy B
Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This 10-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT) approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention.
Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo
The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.
Hesketh, Kathryn R; Goodfellow, Laura; Ekelund, Ulf; McMinn, Alison M; Godfrey, Keith M; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; van Sluijs, Esther M F
To investigate the association between objectively measured maternal and preschool-aged children's physical activity, determine how this association differs by demographic and temporal factors, and identify factors associated with maternal activity levels. In the UK Southampton Women's Survey, physical activity levels of 554 4-year-olds and their mothers were measured concurrently by using accelerometry for ≤7 days. Two-level mixed-effects linear regression was used to model the association between maternal and children's minutes spent sedentary, in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression was used to investigate correlates of maternal activity. Mother-child daily activity levels were positively associated at all activity intensities (sedentary, LPA, and MVPA; all P < .001). The association for sedentary time was stronger for normal-weight children (versus those who were overweight/obese), and those attending preschool part-time (versus full-time). The mother-child association for LPA differed by maternal education and was stronger at the weekend (versus weekdays). The opposite was true for MVPA. Sedentary time and MVPA were most strongly associated in mornings, with LPA most strongly associated in the evenings. Maternal BMI, age leaving school, number and age of children at home, and working hours were independently associated with maternal daily sedentary time and LPA. Physical activity levels in mothers and their 4-year-old children are directly associated, with associations at different activity intensities influenced by temporal and demographic factors. Influences on maternal physical activity levels also differ by activity intensity. Providing targeted interventions for mothers of young children may increase both groups' activity.
Barros, Cláudia Renata Dos Santos; Zucchi, Eliana Miura; França Junior, Ivan
To estimate the level of physical activity among children and adolescents orphaned by AIDS according to socio-demographic and orphanhood-related characteristics. A population-based study was carried out with 235 children and adolescents aged 7 to 14 years in the municipality of São Paulo, SP, in 2007. Children were classified as active and inactive. The cut-off point established was 300 minutes of weekly physical activity. All variables were compared between both groups and sexes. An overall prevalence of 42% of inactivity was found. Active commuting and child's play were the main physical activities for most of the children and adolescents. As for physical activity level, a significant difference was observed between sexes (p < 0.001). Boys were more active and played outdoors more than girls. There is a high prevalence of physical inactivity among children and adolescents orphaned by AIDS, especially girls.
Florida Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys the on-time launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Weldon and other guests of NASA viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP viewing site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.
García Puello, Floralinda; Herazo Beltrán, Yaneth; Tuesca Molina, Rafael
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for chronic diseases in Western societies. To determine the sociodemographic and motivational factors associated with physical activity in college students. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) -short form- and the "motives for physical activities measure-revised" (MPAM-R) questionnaire were applied to 900 university students aged 20 ± 3 years (60% women). The frequency, level and motivations for engaging in physical activity and associated demographic factors were analyzed. Twenty two percent of students were classified as having a high level of physical activity, 54.8% had a low level and 13.9% were considered inactive. According to MET consumption, 68.9% of students are inactive and only 16.8% of students classified as very active. Ninety two percent of active students performed physical activity for health reasons. A significant association between gender and social motivation was observed. A high prevalence of physical inactivity was found in these students. Males showed higher levels of physical activity than females.
Schofield, Grant; Croteau, Karen; McLean, Grant
To examine levels of trust for various sources of physical activity information. Questions from a 2003 nationally representative survey (n=8,291), Obstacles to Action, relating to how much respondents would trust various sources of physical activity information, were examined. The most trusted source of physical activity information was the general practitioner (GP) and the least trusted source was the Internet. High levels of trust were also found for health organisations, dietitians and nurses, while low levels of trust were also found for television, radio, and print media. The primary care setting continues to be the most trusted source of physical activity information. Those more likely to trust their physician were older adults, those with chronic disease, and the insufficiently active.
Cheng, Feon W.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lohse, Barbara
BACKGROUND NEEDs for Bones (NFB), based on the Health Belief Model, is a 4-lesson osteoporosis-prevention curriculum for 11-14 year-olds. This study examined the relationship between enjoyment of food tastings and interest in NFB. METHODS NFB was administered by teachers as part of standard practice and evaluated after the 4th lesson using a 21-item survey. Significant clustering of students within classrooms required use of random-intercept multilevel ordinal regression models in SAS proc GLIMMIX, with students nested within classrooms. Analyses considered tasting experience, eating attitudes, sex, grade, and cohort. RESULTS Students (N = 1619; 50% girls) participated from 85 4th-8th grade classrooms (47% 6th grade; 31% 7th grade) in 16 Pennsylvania SNAP-Ed eligible schools over 2 academic years. For all foods tasted, students who did not enjoy the food tasting were less interested in the lesson than students who did enjoy the food tasting (all p < .001); refried beans (OR 0.30), soy milk (OR = 0.55), cranapple juice (OR = 0.51), sunflower kernels (OR = 0.48), and Swiss cheese (OR = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS Enjoyment of food tasting activities can predict interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention, supporting resource allocation and inclusion of food tasting activities in school-age nutrition education. PMID:26032277
Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R
The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…
Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth
This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…
Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron
Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of…
Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.
The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…
Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy
Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…
Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman
Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903
Haque, Md Nuruzzaman
Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.
Rind, Esther; Shortt, Niamh; Mitchell, Richard; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Pearce, Jamie
characteristics. Whilst more affluent populations enjoy advantages on some health outcomes, they will still benefit from increasing their levels of physical activity through active travel. Benefits of active travel to the whole community would include reduced vehicle emissions, reduced carbon consumption, the preservation or enhancement of infrastructure and the presentation of a 'normalised' behaviour.
Los Arcos, Asier; Vázquez, Juan Sebastián; Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment.
Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623
Weathers, Danny; Siemens, Jennifer Christie; Kopp, Steven W
While monitoring food intake is critical for controlling eating, traditional tools designed for this purpose can be impractical when one desires real-time feedback. Further, the act of monitoring can deplete valuable cognitive resources. In response to these concerns, technologies have been developed to aid those wanting to control their food intake. Of note, devices can now track eating in number of bites taken as opposed to more traditional units such as pieces or volume. Through two studies, the current research investigates the effects of tracking food portions at the bite level on cognitive resources, enjoyment of the eating experience, and objective and subjective self-control. Results indicate that using wearable technology to track bite portions, as compared to doing so mentally, (1) reduces cognitive resource depletion, (2) is equally as effective for allowing users to successfully achieve eating goals, and (3) does not reduce enjoyment of the eating experience. These results support the viability of tracking food intake at the bite level, which holds a number of potential implications for eating and weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, M-C; Lee, S-W; Choi, S-T; Park, Y-B; Lee, S-K
To determine whether serum leptin levels are elevated in men with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and whether the levels correlate with serum cytokine profiles and disease activity of AS. Forty-two male patients with newly diagnosed AS were enrolled. Their Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), body mass index (BMI), and acute phase reactants, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, were assessed. Serum leptin levels were determined using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and serum cytokine profiles, including tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and interferon (IFN)-gamma, were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These results were compared with those from 42 age-matched healthy men. After a follow-up period of 31.0+/-20.1 months, clinical and biochemical variables were reassessed in the men with AS. At baseline, patients with AS had significantly elevated serum levels of leptin, leptin adjusted for BMI (leptin/BMI), TNFalpha, and IL-6, but not IFN-gamma, as compared to the controls. Serum leptin/BMI levels correlated well with IL-6 levels, and both leptin/BMI and IL-6 levels correlated well with BASDAI and CRP levels in patients with AS. The changes in leptin/BMI and IL-6 levels between the baseline and follow-up measurements correlated well with one another (p<0.05) and both correlated well with the changes in BASDAI (p<0.05). Serum leptin/BMI levels were increased and significantly associated with IL-6 levels and disease activity in men with AS, suggesting a possible role for leptin in the inflammatory reactions of AS.
Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K; Peltola, Henna-Riikka; Putkinen, Vesa; Schäfer, Katharina
The recent surge of interest towards the paradoxical pleasure produced by sad music has generated a handful of theories and an array of empirical explorations on the topic. However, none of these have attempted to weigh the existing evidence in a systematic fashion. The present work puts forward an integrative framework laid out over three levels of explanation - biological, psycho-social, and cultural - to compare and integrate the existing findings in a meaningful way. First, we review the evidence pertinent to experiences of pleasure associated with sad music from the fields of neuroscience, psychophysiology, and endocrinology. Then, the psychological and interpersonal mechanisms underlying the recognition and induction of sadness in the context of music are combined with putative explanations ranging from social surrogacy and nostalgia to feelings of being moved. Finally, we address the cultural aspects of the paradox - the extent to which it is embedded in the Western notion of music as an aesthetic, contemplative object - by synthesising findings from history, ethnography, and empirical studies. Furthermore, we complement these explanations by considering the particularly significant meanings that sadness portrayed in art can evoke in some perceivers. Our central claim is that one cannot attribute the enjoyment of sadness fully to any one of these levels, but to a chain of functionalities afforded by each level. Each explanatory level has several putative explanations and its own shift towards positive valence, but none of them deliver the full transformation from a highly negative experience to a fully enjoyable experience alone. The current evidence within this framework ranges from weak to non-existent at the biological level, moderate at the psychological level, and suggestive at the cultural level. We propose a series of focussed topics for future investigation that would allow to deconstruct the drivers and constraints of the processes leading to
Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide
Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.
Winter, Corinna; Müller, Carsten; Brandes, Mirko; Brinkmann, Anja; Hoffmann, Christiane; Hardes, Jendrik; Gosheger, Georg; Boos, Joachim; Rosenbaum, Dieter
The diagnosis of cancer bears severe implications for pediatric patients. One immense restriction consists in a reduced level of activity due to different factors. Physical activity affects various aspects of development and can be regarded as an essential part of a child's life. In the present study physical activity in patients undergoing cancer therapy was quantified in order to determine the extent of the restriction and to provide baseline information for the assessment of possible interventions. Physical activity in 80 patients and 45 healthy children matched for age and gender was measured using the StepWatch 3 Activity Monitor (SAM, OrthoCare Innovations). Pediatric cancer patients, at 2,787 gait cycles (gcs) per day, were significantly less active than their healthy counterparts (8,096 gcs). Patients were significantly more active at home than during inpatient stays (3,185 gcs compared to 1,830 gcs), and patients with bone tumors were less active than those with leukemia regarding both, the amount (1,849 gcs vs. 2,992 gcs) and the intensity of activity. The present study quantified an often observed but so far hardly assessable problem. Activity in cancer patients is considerably reduced and patients with bone tumors are at increased risk from the detrimental effects of prolonged inactivity. Both our findings and the accepted fact that activity is an essential element of child development confirm the need for interventions tailored to a patient's needs and abilities during the course of treatment. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len
To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.
Helt, Molly S; Fein, Deborah A
Both social input and facial feedback appear to be processed differently by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested the effects of both of these types of input on laughter in children with ASD. Sensitivity to facial feedback was tested in 43 children with ASD, aged 8-14 years, and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (6-14), in order to examine whether children with ASD use bodily feedback as an implicit source of information. Specifically, children were asked to view cartoons as they normally would (control condition), and while holding a pencil in their mouth forcing their smiling muscles into activation (feedback condition) while rating their enjoyment of the cartoons. The authors also explored the effects of social input in children with ASD by investigating whether the presence of a caregiver or friend (companion condition), or the presence of a laugh track superimposed upon the cartoon (laugh track condition) increased the children's self-rated enjoyment of cartoons or the amount of positive affect they displayed. Results showed that the group with ASD was less affected by all three experimental conditions, but also that group differences seemed to have been driven by one specific symptom of ASD: restricted range of affect. The strong relationship between restricted affect and insensitivity to facial feedback found in this study sheds light on the implications of restricted affect for social development in ASD.
Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K L C
The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3 accelerometers. Results revealed that the children spent the most time in sedentary and light physical activity, while their participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activities was low. Given the sedentary class format and limited physical space for the Head Start programs observed, we suggest adding a structured physical activity component to Head Start schools to fight the overweight and obesity crisis.
Saligheh, Maryam; Rooney, Rosanna M; McNamara, Beverley; Kane, Robert T
postnatal depression (PND) is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within 6 weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother's health as well as the family's functioning and the child's development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women. The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardized questionnaires. There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.
Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.
Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF...
Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon
The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…
Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert
Individual differences and variation in behavioral responses have been identified in many animal species. These differences may be the result of genetic or environmental factors or the interaction between them. Analysis of individual differences in behavior may be important for many reasons. The zebrafish is a powerful model organism that is rapidly gaining popularity in behavioral brain research. However, individual differences have rarely been explored in zebrafish although significant variation in their performance has been reported. In the current study we identified individual differences in activity levels of zebrafish using a genetically heterogeneous population. Groups of zebrafish classified as high, medium, or low activity performers demonstrated consistent activity levels over a period of 7 days, and also in a subsequent open field task, suggesting stable individual differences as opposed to stochastic variation among subjects. We also uncovered a sex dependent relationship between behavioral measures. Female zebrafish in the high activity group preferred the top portion of the tank, whereas low activity females preferred the lower portion but males did not show such a relationship. The relationship between these two behaviors in females implies the potential existence of a behavioral syndrome persisting between contexts. Furthermore, females demonstrated a higher level of consistency in their behavior as compared to males, and the behavioral differences were found to be independent of both body size and weight of the tested subjects. The identification of individual differences in activity levels in zebrafish will allow the investigation of underlying genetic and/or environmental underpinnings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Babirekere-Iriso, Esther; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa; Mupere, Ezekiel; Michaelsen, Kim F; Stark, Ken D; Lauritzen, Lotte; Briend, André; Friis, Henrik; Brage, Søren; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel
To assess the level and predictors of physical activity at discharge among children recovering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). We conducted a prospective study among 69 children 6-59 months of age admitted with SAM for nutritional rehabilitation at Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. Using hip-mounted triaxial accelerometers, we measured physical activity expressed as counts per minute (cpm) during the last three days of hospital treatment. As potential predictors, we assessed clinical and background characteristics, duration to transition phase and duration of hospitalisation, serum C-reactive protein and whole-blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify predictors of physical activity. The median (IQR) age was 15.5 (12.6; 20.5) months. At discharge, the mean (SD) movement was 285 (126) cpm. Physical activity was 43 (19; 67) cpm higher for each unit increase in weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and 72 (36; 108) cpm higher for each centimetre increase in MUAC. Whole-blood DHA on admission was also a positive predictor of physical activity, whereas duration to transition phase and duration of hospitalisation were both negative predictors. The level of physical activity at discharge among children treated for SAM was low. WHZ, MUAC and DHA on admission were positive predictors of physical activity, whereas duration of stabilisation and hospitalisation was negative predictors of physical activity. These results suggest that assessment of physical activity may be used as a marker of recovery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun
The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…
Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.
Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.
Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)
Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.
Liss, Miriam; Erchull, Mindy J; Ramsey, Laura R
Sexualization of girls and women in America is rampant and has many negative consequences. Women, however, often report enjoying being sexually admired by men. Given this paradox, it is unclear whether such enjoyment represents an authentic empowerment of women's sexuality or is related to traditional feminine norms and sexist beliefs. In Studies 1 and 2, the authors developed and tested the eight-item Enjoyment of Sexualization Scale (ESS). It had good reliability and was differentiated from related constructs including body surveillance, body shame, self-sexualizing behaviors, and appearance-contingent self-esteem. In Study 3, endorsement of traditional gender norms, endorsement of benevolent sexism, and endorsement of hostile sexism were all positively related to the ESS. Moreover, women who both enjoyed sexualization and engaged in self-objectification reported more negative eating attitudes. Overall, there was little support for positive effects of enjoying sexualization. The extent to which enjoying sexualization actually empowers women or contributes to their oppression is discussed.
Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.
Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.
Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Kyu Bong; Lee, Byung Mu
It has been reported that an active aloe polysaccharide isolated from Aloe barbadensis Miller exerted various pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, wound healing, anti-hepatitis, anti-gastric ulcer, and anti-tumorigenicity in animals. Adverse health effects of aloe are of concern in humans. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate a tolerable upper intake level (UL) of active aloe or a maximal allowable daily intake (ADImax) of active aloe based on 4-wk oral toxicity investigation in ICR mice. An active aloe was daily administered to male and female ICR mice for 4 wk at different dose levels (0, 120, 600, 3000, or 15,000 mg/kg body weight [bw]). All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and changes of body weight, food consumption, organ weights, and hematological and biochemical parameters were recorded. In this study, no changes in clinical signs, urinalysis, or hematological or biochemical analysis were observed. In females, a dose-dependent quantitative decrease in albumin (ALB) levels was observed, but it was not significant, due to wide interindividual variations. A significant decrease in male kidney weight was observed from the 120-mg/kg to the 15,000-mg/kg bw treatment groups, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were also quantitatively lower. A dose-dependent reduction in the body weight of females was also observed, which might be related to less food consumption. Based on the reduced kidney weights in males, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of an active aloe was estimated to be 120 mg/kg bw in male ICR mice, and the UL or ADImax was 0.4 mg/kg bw/d [(120 mg/kg bw/d)/(100 for safety factor) x (3 for modifying factor)], or 24 mg for a 60-kg adult (24 mg x 200 = 4.8 g of aloe gel/d/adult), assuming that consumers utilize active aloe for a month. Data showed that an active aloe did not induce any remarkable subacute toxic effects, but decreased male kidney weights, which requires further investigation.
Wiggins, Jennifer M.; Barbosa, Pedro; Libeau, Pierre; Priam, Pierre; Narassimprakash, Hemalatha; Grodzenski, Xenia; Marheineke, Kathrin
DNA replication in higher eukaryotes initiates at thousands of origins according to a spatio-temporal program. The ATR/Chk1 dependent replication checkpoint inhibits the activation of later firing origins. In the Xenopus in vitro system initiations are not sequence dependent and 2-5 origins are grouped in clusters that fire at different times despite a very short S phase. We have shown that the temporal program is stochastic at the level of single origins and replication clusters. It is unclear how the replication checkpoint inhibits late origins but permits origin activation in early clusters. Here, we analyze the role of Chk1 in the replication program in sperm nuclei replicating in Xenopus egg extracts by a combination of experimental and modelling approaches. After Chk1 inhibition or immunodepletion, we observed an increase of the replication extent and fork density in the presence or absence of external stress. However, overexpression of Chk1 in the absence of external replication stress inhibited DNA replication by decreasing fork densities due to lower Cdk2 kinase activity. Thus, Chk1 levels need to be tightly controlled in order to properly regulate the replication program even during normal S phase. DNA combing experiments showed that Chk1 inhibits origins outside, but not inside, already active clusters. Numerical simulations of initiation frequencies in the absence and presence of Chk1 activity are consistent with a global inhibition of origins by Chk1 at the level of clusters but need to be combined with a local repression of Chk1 action close to activated origins to fit our data. PMID:26046346
Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria
The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…
Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)
This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.
Pojoga, Luminita H.; Coutinho, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Yao, Tham M.; Maldonado, Enrique R.; Youte, Rodeler; Adler, Gail K.; Williams, Jonathan; Turchin, Alexander; Williams, Gordon H.; Romero, Jose R.
BACKGROUND Aldosterone (ALDO), a critical regulator of sodium homeostasis, mediates its effects via activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) through mechanisms that are not entirely clear. Striatin, a membrane associated protein, interacts with estrogen receptors in endothelial cells. METHODS We studied the effects of MR activation in vitro and in vivo on striatin levels in vascular tissue. RESULTS We observed that dietary sodium restriction was associated with increased striatin levels in mouse heart and aorta and that striatin and MR are present in the human endothelial cell line, (EA.hy926), and in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC). Further, we show that MR co-precipitates with striatin in vascular tissue. Incubation of EA.hy926 cells with ALDO (10−8 mol/l for 5–24 h) increases striatin protein and mRNA expression, an effect that was inhibited by canrenoic acid, an MR antagonist. Consistent with these observations, incubation of MAEC with ALDO increased striatin levels that were likewise blocked by canrenoic acid. To test the in vivo relevance of these findings, we studied two previously described mouse models of increased ALDO levels. Intraperitoneal ALDO administration augmented the abundance of striatin protein in mouse heart. We also observed that in a murine model of chronic ALDO-mediated cardiovascular damage following treatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester plus angiotensin II an increased abundance of striatin protein in heart and kidney tissue. CONCLUSION Our results provide evidence that increased striatin levels is a component of MR activation in the vasculature and suggest that regulation of striatin by ALDO may modulate estrogen’s nongenomic effects. PMID:22089104
Carbone, Marica; Duty, Susan; Rattray, Marcus
Drugs which upregulate astrocyte glutamate transport may be useful neuroprotective compounds by preventing excitotoxicity. We set up a new system to identify potential neuroprotective drugs which act through GLT-1. Primary mouse striatal astrocytes grown in the presence of the growth-factor supplement G5 express high levels of the functional glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (also known as EAAT2) as assessed by Western blotting and 3H-glutamate uptake assay, and levels decline following growth factor withdrawal. The GLT-1 transcriptional enhancer dexamethasone (0.1 or 1 μM) was able to prevent loss of GLT-1 levels and activity following growth factor withdrawal. In contrast, ceftriaxone, a compound previously reported to enhance GLT-1 expression, failed to regulate GLT-1 in this system. The neuroprotective compound riluzole (100 μM) upregulated GLT-1 levels and activity, through a mechanism that was not dependent on blockade of voltage-sensitive ion channels, since zonasimide (1 mM) did not regulate GLT-1. Finally, CDP-choline (10 μM – 1 mM), a compound which promotes association of GLT-1/EAAT2 with lipid rafts was unable to prevent GLT-1 loss under these conditions. This observation extends the known pharmacological actions of riluzole, and suggests that this compound may exert its neuroprotective effects through an astrocyte-dependent mechanism. PMID:22080156
Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.
Santos, Neyliane F G Dos; Silva, Rafael F; Pinto, Marcela M P L; Silva, Edvane B DA; Tasat, Deborah R; Amaral, Ademir
Several molecules and events involved in cell response to radiation-induced damage have been investigated towards a personalized radiotherapy. Considering the importance of active caspase-3 in the proteolytic cascade that ensures radiation-induced apoptosis execution, this research was designed to evaluate the expression levels of this protein as a bioindicator of individual radiosensitivity. Peripheral blood samples of 10 healthy individuals were gamma-irradiated (cobalt-60 source) with 1, 2 and 4 Gy (control: non-irradiated samples), and active caspase-3 expression levels were measured in lymphocytes, by flow cytometry, ex vivo and after different times of in vitro incubation (24, 48 and 72 hours). Short-term incubation of 24 h was the most adequate condition to evidence correlations between dose radiation and active caspase-3 expression. For each radiation dose, it was observed a significant inter-individual variation in active caspase-3 expression intensity, suggesting that this parameter may be suitable for evidence individual radiosensitivity. The methodology presented and discussed in this work may help to predict healthy tissues response to radiation exposure toward the better patient outcome.
Tolea, Magdalena I.; Terracciano, Antonio; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Costa, Paul T.; Ferrucci, Luigi
Associations among personality as measured by the Five Factor Model, physical activity, and muscle strength were assessed using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 1220, age: mean = 58, SD = 16). General linear modeling with adjustment for age, sex, race, and body mass index, and bootstrapping for mediation were used. We found neuroticism and most of its facets to negatively correlate with strength. The extraversion domain and its facets of warmth, activity, and positive-emotions were positively correlated with strength, independent of covariates. Mediation analysis results suggest that these associations are partly explained by physical activity level. Findings extend the evidence of an association between personality and physical function to its strength component and indicate health behavior as an important pathway. PMID:23966753
Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael
The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.
Quick globalization of human activity of economy has made English the most important international communication tool in the world past two decades. Taking the fact that the people speaking English as a mother language is less than ten percents of the total world population, into account, it is obviously to be noted that almost all the people using other language with different cultural background can basically truly be communicated not in English but in individual language. In this respect, learning multiple languages leads to be fascinated by different national culture and results in further enjoyment of one‧s life. This is actually demonstrated in terms of the author‧s experience in this paper.
Müller, U; Rowe, J B; Rittman, T; Lewis, C; Robbins, T W; Sahakian, B J
Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Müller, U.; Rowe, J.B.; Rittman, T.; Lewis, C.; Robbins, T.W.; Sahakian, B.J.
Background Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. Results Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Cognitive Enhancers’. PMID:22820554
Wang, Xing; Liu, An-Heng; Jia, Zhong-Wei; Pu, Kui; Chen, Kang-Yin; Guo, Hua
The present study aimed to reveal the expression changes of complement system activation and complement activation product C3a receptor during acute myocardial infarction. Blood samples were collected from healthy individuals and from patients with coronary artery stenosis or acute myocardial infarction. The subjects received physical examination in hospital between January and July 2015 (n=5). Cytometric bead array was performed to measure the levels of complement system activation product anaphylatoxin C3a, C4a and C5a. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed in tissues of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting between January and July 2015 to detect the expression of C3a receptor. The results of cytometric bead array showed that the content of complement activation products C3a, C4a and C5a in the plasma of patients with coronary artery stenosis and acute myocardial infarction were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01). The results of immunoblotting suggested that the protein expression of C3a receptor in infarct tissues of patients with acute myocardial infarction was significantly higher than that of normal tissues adjacent to the infarcted area (P<0.05). There is complement system activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Additionally, the increase in the expression of complement C3a receptor in tissues of infarct area suggested that C3a-C3a receptor signaling pathway may be involved in the development of myocardial infarction.
This study primarily explores the types of books African American children in a local fourth grade classroom like and enjoy. Books students are interested in reading and other related aspects that contribute to their literary enjoyment are also explored. It is during the upper elementary years that many students who eventually express little or no…
Fu, Fong-Ling; Su, Rong-Chang; Yu, Sheng-Chin
In an effective e-learning game, the learner's enjoyment acts as a catalyst to encourage his/her learning initiative. Therefore, the availability of a scale that effectively measures the enjoyment offered by e-learning games assist the game designer to understanding the strength and flaw of the game efficiently from the learner's points of view.…
Chattillion, Elizabeth A.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Roepke, Susan K.; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor
This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (N=107; mean age 73.95±8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (β = .41; p = .005) and EPI (β = .44; p = .003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (β = −.08; p = .57) or EPI (β = .23; p = .12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers. PMID:22149759
Chattillion, Elizabeth A; Mausbach, Brent T; Roepke, Susan K; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G; Patterson, Thomas L; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor
This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (n = 107; mean age = 73.95 ± 8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (β = 0.41; p = 0.005) and EPI (β = 0.44; p = 0.003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (β = -0.08; p = 0.57) or EPI (β = 0.23; p = 0.12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers.
Rodrigues, Elizângela Sofia Ribeiro; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig
To evaluate the level of physical activity in undergraduate students and to investigate its potential association with smoking. A cross-sectional study with a stratified sample proportional to the total number of students was carried out in Gurupi, Central-West Brazil, in 2005. The sample comprised 871 subjects. The IPAQ-8 short version was applied to assess the level of physical activity. Smoking status was evaluated by a modified World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire and the magnitude of smokers' nicotine dependence was quantified using the Fagerström nicotine dependence scale. The frequencies, prevalences and prevalence ratios were determined by Yates' chi-square test or Fisher's exact test in the entire sample and stratified by area, course, shift and gender, with a 5% statistical significance level. Mean age was 25 years old (SD+/-8) and mean age at first smoking experience was 17 years old (SD+/-4). The prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking was 29.9% and 7.2%, respectively. The overall prevalence of sedentary smokers and non-smokers was 8.5%, and 91.5%, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. A higher prevalence of smoking and physical inactivity was found in those over 25 (48.6%, p <0.05). Nicotine dependence was "very low" in most subjects (68.2%, p <0.05). Smoking was more prevalent in males (10.8%, p <0.05) and the level of physical inactivity was not different in both males and females (p >0.05). Physical inactivity was seen on both smokers and non-smokers in the same proportion and no association was found between these two variables. Low prevalences of physical inactivity and smoking found in the study may be explained by available ongoing preventive and education programs, which should be implemented in the long run.
Eisenberger, Robert; Sucharski, Ivan L; Yalowitz, Steven; Kent, Robert J; Loomis, Ross J; Jones, Jason R; Paylor, Sarah; Aselage, Justin; Mueller, Meta Steiger; McLaughlin, John P
Eight studies assessed the motive for sensory pleasure (MSP) involving a general disposition to enjoy and pursue pleasant nature-related experiences and avoid unpleasant nature-related experiences. The stated enjoyment of pleasant sights, smells, sounds, and tactile sensations formed a unitary construct that was distinct from sensation seeking, novelty preference, and need for cognition. MSP was found to be related to (a) enjoyment of pleasant nature scenes and music of high but not low clarity; (b) enjoyment of writings that portrayed highly detailed nature scenes; (c) enjoyment of pleasantly themed paintings and dislike of unpleasant paintings, as distinct from findings with Openness to Experience; (d) choice of pleasant nature scenes over exciting or intellectually stimulating scenes; (e) view duration and memory of artistically rendered quilts; (f) interest in detailed information about nature scenes; and (g) frequency of sensory-type suggestions for improvement of a museum exhibit.
Wardini, Rima; Dajczman, Esther; Yang, Nathan; Baltzan, Marcel; Préfontaine, David; Stathatos, Maria; Marciano, Haguit; Watson, Shawn; Wolkove, Norman
OBJECTIVE: The present pilot study tested the use of a virtual game system (VGS) for exercise training in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Safety, feasibility, enjoyment and adherence were assessed. METHODS: VGS (Wii , Nintendo, USA) games were prescreened and categorized into lower- and upper-body workouts. Patients admitted for a three- to four-week inpatient PR program exercised daily. They were provided an opportunity to individually engage in VGS sessions three times weekly, varying with length of stay. Dyspnea, oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured before, during and after game sessions. Patients were considered to be adherent if they attended at least 50% of VGS sessions. Adverse events and enjoyment were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients with a mean (± SD) age of 66±9 years and a mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 0.72±0.40 L participated. Among the 25 patients completing the program, adherence was 76%, with a mean attendance rate of 64±35%. Mean dyspnea score was 1.5±1.1 before and 3.2±1.2 after exercise. Mean oxygen saturation changed from 94±3% to 91±5% (P<0.001), while heart rate increased from 88±15 beats/min to 102±18 beats/min (P<0.001). One patient reported chest pain requiring nitroglycerin spray and five experienced transient desaturation below 85% with play. Patients enjoyed the program (visual analogue score 8±2.6/10) and most would highly recommend it to others. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate exercise using a VGS was safe, feasible and enjoyed as an adjunct to inpatient PR. This modality may encourage patients to maintain physical activity after PR. PMID:24093115
Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A. Vadillo, Miguel
Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants’ perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants’ judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding. PMID:23029435
Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel
Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.
Ruiz-Casado, Ana; Verdugo, Ana Soria; Solano, María J Ortega; Aldazabal, Itziar Pagola; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Alejo, Lidia Brea; del Hierro, Julio R Padilla; Palomo, Isabel; Aguado-Arroyo, Oscar; Garatachea, Nuria; Cebolla, Héctor; Lucia, Alejandro
To objectively assess physical activity (PA) levels in a cohort of Spanish cancer survivors. Descriptive, cross-sectional. The Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada and two healthcare centers in Madrid, Spain. 204 cancer survivors and 115 adults with no history of cancer. Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer for seven or more consecutive days to assess PA levels. Body mass index (BMI), indirect indicators of adiposity (waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio), and cardiorespiratory fitness also were determined. Light, moderate, vigorous, and total PA (sum of the former). Most (94%) of the cancer survivors met international recommendations for moderate PA, but very few (3%) fulfilled those (75 minutes or more per week) for vigorous PA. Except for lower total (minute per day, p=0.048) and vigorous PA levels (p<0.001 for both minute per day and minute per week) recorded in the cancer survivors group, no between-group differences were detected (p>0.05). A high percentage of the survivors (33%) were obese (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2), and many also showed poor cardiorespiratory fitness (45% were below the 8 metabolic equivalent threshold). Although cancer survivors overall met international PA recommendations for a healthy lifestyle, their BMI and cardiorespiratory profiles were not within the healthy range. Cancer survivors need to be informed about healthy lifestyle habits and should be regularly monitored.
Muthukumar, Allie K; Stork, Tobias; Freeman, Marc R
Astrocytic uptake of GABA through GABA transporters (GATs) is an important mechanism regulating excitatory/inhibitory balance in the nervous system; however, mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate GAT levels are undefined. We found that at mid-pupal stages the Drosophila melanogaster CNS neuropil was devoid of astrocyte membranes and synapses. Astrocyte membranes subsequently infiltrated the neuropil coordinately with synaptogenesis, and astrocyte ablation reduced synapse numbers by half, indicating that Drosophila astrocytes are pro-synaptogenic. Shortly after synapses formed in earnest, GAT was upregulated in astrocytes. Ablation or silencing of GABAergic neurons or disruption of metabotropic GABA receptor 1 and 2 (GABA(B)R1/2) signaling in astrocytes led to a decrease in astrocytic GAT. Notably, developmental depletion of astrocytic GABA(B)R1/2 signaling suppressed mechanosensory-induced seizure activity in mutants with hyperexcitable neurons. These data reveal that astrocytes actively modulate GAT expression via metabotropic GABA receptor signaling and highlight the importance of precise regulation of astrocytic GAT in modulation of seizure activity.
Girvan, James T.; Harris, Frances
A survey completed by managers of 77 senior centers in Idaho revealed that meals, blood pressure screening, and games and trips were the most successful activities offered. Alzheimer's support groups, library books for loan, and exercise classes were the least successful. Possible reasons for the success or failure of these activities were…
Dawson, Jon; Huikuri, Suvi; Armada, Francisco
The process of working together across sectors to improve health and to influence its determinants is often referred to as intersectoral action for health. The Liverpool Active City strategy and action plan were launched in 2005, bringing together partners from diverse sectors such as education, transport, and civil society to boost levels of physical activity among the city's residents. The research material was based on semistructured interviews with key stakeholders and on review and analysis of gray literature and media reports. A case-study method was used to analyze the experience. The results show that Liverpool Active City succeeded in boosting levels of physical activity among the city's residents and demonstrate how intersectoral action benefited the goals of the program and promoted common aims. Important lessons can be drawn from the experience of Liverpool Active City for public health professionals and policy makers. Success factors include the involvement of a broad range of agencies from a variety of sectors, which reinforced the sense of partnership in the physical activity agenda and supported the implementation of activities. The experience also demonstrated how intersectoral action brought benefits to the physical activity goals of Liverpool Active City.
Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali
This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…
Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057
Kong, Zhaowei; Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.
Westergren, Thomas; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Fegran, Liv
Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic airway disease which may reduce capability for physical activity. In healthy peers, physical activity is influenced by psychosocial and socioeconomic factors. Knowledge about the role of these factors has not been mapped in children and adolescents with asthma. The main objective of this scoping review was to identify psychosocial and socioeconomic factors associated with physical activity level in children and adolescents with asthma in the literature. The specific objectives were to map the instruments used to measure these factors, report on the construction and validation of these instruments, map psychosocial and socioeconomic issues related to physical activity level reported in qualitative studies, and identify gaps in knowledge about the relationship between psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and physical activity level in children and adolescents with asthma. Children and adolescents with asthma aged six to 18 years. Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors related to physical activity level and participation. All physical activity contexts. Quantitative and qualitative primary studies in English, with no date limit. The databases searched included nine major databases for health and sports science, and five databases for unpublished studies. After screening and identification of studies, the reference lists of all identified reports were searched, and forward citation searches were conducted using four databases. The following data were extracted: (a) relevant study characteristics and assessment of physical activity level, (b) instruments used to assess psychosocial and socioeconomic factors, (c) association between physical activity level and these factors, (d) construction and validation of instruments, and (e) psychosocial and socioeconomic issues related to physical activity participation. Twenty-one quantitative and 13 qualitative studies were included. In cross-sectional studies, enjoyment, physical self
Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Marcos, Ascensión; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Polito, Angela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Béghin, Laurent; Molnár, Dénes; Kafatos, Anthony; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Sjöström, Michael
The aim of this article is to examine the association between adolescents' physical activity (PA) levels and their relatives' (father, mother, brothers, sisters and best friend) PA engagement and encouragement. Adolescents (52.3% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years were gathered from the HELENA study. Adolescents' PA levels were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (valid data on 3007 participants) and accelerometry (valid data on 2200 participants). Relatives' engagement and encouragement were reported by the adolescents and encoded into three categories (low, middle and high). Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' PA encouragement was more strongly associated with adolescents' PA levels than relatives' PA engagement. Pairwise comparisons indicated that the higher the encouragement level (from most relatives) the higher the adolescent's PA levels. This finding was overall consistent when using self-report or objective methods for assessing adolescents' PA levels, yet the associations were stronger when using self-report methods. These findings highlight the important role of social encouragement on adolescents' PA levels. Community interventions aiming to enhance PA levels in the adolescent population might be more successful when family and peers are also targeted.
This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure
Heinrich, Katie M; Patel, Pratik M; O'Neal, Joshua L; Heinrich, Bryan S
Understanding exercise participation for overweight and obese adults is critical for preventing comorbid conditions. Group-based high-intensity functional training (HIFT) provides time-efficient aerobic and resistance exercise at self-selected intensity levels which can increase adherence; behavioral responses to HIFT are unknown. This study examined effects of HIFT as compared to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training (ART) on exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions. A stratified, randomized two-group pre-test posttest intervention was conducted for eight weeks in 2012 with analysis in 2013. Participants (n = 23) were stratified by median age (< or ≥ 28) and body mass index (BMI; < or ≥ 30.5). Participants were physically inactive with an average BMI of 31.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2, body fat percentage of 42.0 ± 7.4%, weight of 89.5 ± 14.2 kg, and ages 26.8 ± 5.9 years. Most participants were white, college educated, female, and married/engaged. Both groups completed 3 training sessions per week. The ART group completed 50 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise each session and full-body resistance training on two sessions per week. The HIFT group completed 60-minute sessions of CrossFit™ with actual workouts ranging from 5-30 minutes. Participants completed baseline and posttest questionnaires indicating reasons for exercise initiation (baseline), exercise enjoyment, and exercise intentions (posttest). Adherence was defined as completing 90% of exercise sessions. Daily workout times were recorded. Participants provided mostly intrinsic reasons for exercise initiation. Eighteen participants adhered (ART = 9, 81.8%; HIFT = 9, 75%). HIFT dropouts (p = .012) and ART participants (p = .009) reported lower baseline exercise enjoyment than HIFT participants, although ART participants improved enjoyment at posttest (p = .005). More HIFT participants planned to continue the same exercise than ART participants (p = .002). No significant changes in
Bitton, Shahar; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Freedman, Sara
Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents' experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study's goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014. Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers) completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5) and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18). Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers. Results: Parents' depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers' parents' distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers' parents.
Nyssen, Samantha Maria; dos Santos, Júlia Gianjoppe; Barusso, Marina Sallum; de Oliveira, Antônio Delfino; Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires Di; Jamami, Mauricio
OBJECTIVE: To compare the Body mass index, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index scores and its individual components between COPD patients with and without severe physical inactivity, as well as to correlate the number of steps/day with scores of physical activity questionnaires, age, and the BODE index (including its components). METHODS: We included 30 patients, who were evaluated for body composition, pulmonary function (FEV1), perception of dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale), and exercise capacity (six-minute walk distance [6MWD]). The patients also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), short version, and the modified Baecke questionnaire (mBQ). The level of physical activity was assessed by the number of steps/day (as determined by pedometer), using the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day to form two groups: no severe physical inactivity (SPI−) and severe physical inactivity (SPI+). We used the Mann-Whitney test or t-test, as well as Pearson's or Spearman's correlation tests, in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: In comparison with the SPI− group, the SPI+ group showed more advanced age, higher mBQ scores (leisure domain), lower 6MWD (in m and % of predicted), and lower IPAQ scores (metabolic equivalent-walk/week domain and total). The IPAQ scores showed weak correlations with steps/day (r = 0.399), age (r = −0.459), and 6MWD-in m (r = 0.446) and in % of predicted (r = 0.422). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, the cut-off of 4,580 steps/day was not sensitive enough to identify differences between the groups when compared with the predictors of mortality. The IPAQ, short version score correlated with steps/day. PMID:24473759
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The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in ...
Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken
This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…
Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.
The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in a novel setting with novelty seeking phenotypes,…
Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria
High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…
Eaton, Warren O.; Yu, Alice Piklai
Investigated sex differences in the motor activity level of 83 children of 5-8 years. Relative maturity was negatively related to activity level. Girls were less motorically active and more mature than boys. (RJC)
Barbee, Brent; Adamo, Daniel
(SBDB), comprising 37.7% of known NEOs. Apollos have orbits crossing Earth's with periods greater than Earth's. An Apollo is therefore defined to have perihelion less than 1.017 AU and a greater than 1.0 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Apollos numbered 4080 in the SBDB, comprising 53.9% of known NEOs. Atens have orbits crossing Earth's with periods less than Earth's. An Aten is therefore defined to have aphelion greater than 0.983 AU and a less than 1.0 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Atens numbered 618 in the SBDB, comprising 8.2% of known NEOs. Atiras have orbits everywhere inferior to (inside of) Earth's. An Atira is therefore defined to have aphelion less than 0.983 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Atiras numbered 11 in the SBDB, comprising 0.1% of known NEOs. It is no surprise that the largest n values are chiefly associated with Apollos and Atens. Because these orbits cross Earth's, distance to be covered in a given round trip mission time delta-t can be far less than is possible for Amors or Atiras . This delta-t or the sum of mission propulsive impulse magnitudes delta-v can more frequently be minimized to enhance NHATS compliance for Apollos and Atens than is generally the case for Amors and Atiras. A less intuitive trend in NHATS results is that Atens nearly outnumber the more numerous Apollos among the most compliant NEOs as measured by n. This trend is completely out of proportion to the degree Atens are represented among the known NEO population. A theory based on geocentric NEO dynamics is presented by this paper to explain why Atens enjoy inherently greater accessibility than do Apollos. Another trend evident from mapping into (a, e, i) space is the dearth of known NEOs at low e when a < 1 AU. Underrepresentation of Atens and Atiras in the NEO catalog is at least in part attributable to observing exclusively from a perspective near Earth. Generally inferior Aten and Atira orbits are rarely, if ever, in Earth's night sky. Until a comprehensive NEO survey is conducted from an
Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C.; Castro-Chavira, Susana A.; González-López, Mauricio; Sánchez-Moguel, Sergio M.
High levels of physical activity seem to positively influence health and cognition across the lifespan. Several studies have found that aerobic exercise enhances cognition and likely prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. Nevertheless, the association of incidental physical activity (IPA) with health and cognition during aging has not been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of IPA level with cognitive functions and resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy old participants. Participants (n = 97) with normal scores on psychometric and neuropsychological tests and normal values in blood analyses were included. A cluster analysis based on the scores of the Yale Physical Activity Scale (YPAS) allowed the formation of two groups: active, with high levels of IPA, and passive, with low levels of IPA. Eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded from the participants; the fast Fourier transform was used offline to calculate absolute power (AP), relative power (RP), and mean frequency (MF) measures. There were no differences in socioeconomic status, cognitive reserve, general cognitive status, or lipid and TSH profiles between the groups. The results of cognitive tests revealed significant differences in the performance variables of the WAIS scores (p = .015), with advantages for the active group. The resting EEG exhibited significantly slower activity involving the frontal, central, and temporal regions in the passive group (p < .05). Specifically, higher delta RP (F7, T3), lower delta MF (F4, C4, T4, T6, Fz, Cz), higher theta AP (C4), higher theta RP (F4, C4, T3, Fz), lower alpha AP (F3, F7, T3), lower alpha RP (F7), and lower total MF (F3, F7, T3, T5, Fz) were found. Altogether, these results suggest that IPA induces a neuroprotective effect, which is reflected both in behavioral and electrophysiological variables during aging. PMID:29370215
Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Fernández, Thalía; Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C; Castro-Chavira, Susana A; González-López, Mauricio; Sánchez-Moguel, Sergio M
High levels of physical activity seem to positively influence health and cognition across the lifespan. Several studies have found that aerobic exercise enhances cognition and likely prevents cognitive decline in the elderly. Nevertheless, the association of incidental physical activity (IPA) with health and cognition during aging has not been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of IPA level with cognitive functions and resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in healthy old participants. Participants (n = 97) with normal scores on psychometric and neuropsychological tests and normal values in blood analyses were included. A cluster analysis based on the scores of the Yale Physical Activity Scale (YPAS) allowed the formation of two groups: active, with high levels of IPA, and passive, with low levels of IPA. Eyes-closed resting EEG was recorded from the participants; the fast Fourier transform was used offline to calculate absolute power (AP), relative power (RP), and mean frequency (MF) measures. There were no differences in socioeconomic status, cognitive reserve, general cognitive status, or lipid and TSH profiles between the groups. The results of cognitive tests revealed significant differences in the performance variables of the WAIS scores (p = .015), with advantages for the active group. The resting EEG exhibited significantly slower activity involving the frontal, central, and temporal regions in the passive group (p < .05). Specifically, higher delta RP (F7, T3), lower delta MF (F4, C4, T4, T6, Fz, Cz), higher theta AP (C4), higher theta RP (F4, C4, T3, Fz), lower alpha AP (F3, F7, T3), lower alpha RP (F7), and lower total MF (F3, F7, T3, T5, Fz) were found. Altogether, these results suggest that IPA induces a neuroprotective effect, which is reflected both in behavioral and electrophysiological variables during aging.
Privitera, Gregory J; Antonelli, Danielle E; Szal, Abigail L
The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. A sample of 84 undergraduate students rated their mood and arousal before and after a standardized exercise, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at a pace of 3.6 mph for 10 minutes. During the work out session, participants watched the same television show, which they previously rated as enjoyable, or not enjoyable. As added controls, a third group exercised with no distraction (the TV was turned off); a fourth group did not exercise, but watched the television show. The results showed that exercise alone was sufficient to increase pleasant mood (95% CI 0.61, 1.46) and that including an enjoyable distraction during exercise significantly augmented pleasant mood compared to all other groups (95% CI 1.58, 2.99; R(2) = 0.29). These results show that the enjoyment of a distraction is a key factor that can augment the intensity of positive mood following exercise. Key pointsThe hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested.The results support this hypothesis by showing for the first time that while exercise alone was sufficient to increase the intensity of positive mood; combining exercise with an enjoyable distraction resulted in significantly greater increases in pleasant mood compared to exercise alone.Accounting for the enjoyment of a distraction type in future studies can increase the sensitivity of research designs used to detect changes in positive mood post-exercise.
Privitera, Gregory J.; Antonelli, Danielle E.; Szal, Abigail L.
The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. A sample of 84 undergraduate students rated their mood and arousal before and after a standardized exercise, which consisted of walking on a treadmill at a pace of 3.6 mph for 10 minutes. During the work out session, participants watched the same television show, which they previously rated as enjoyable, or not enjoyable. As added controls, a third group exercised with no distraction (the TV was turned off); a fourth group did not exercise, but watched the television show. The results showed that exercise alone was sufficient to increase pleasant mood (95% CI 0.61, 1.46) and that including an enjoyable distraction during exercise significantly augmented pleasant mood compared to all other groups (95% CI 1.58, 2.99; R2 = 0.29). These results show that the enjoyment of a distraction is a key factor that can augment the intensity of positive mood following exercise. Key points The hypothesis that an enjoyable distraction during exercise will augment the intensity of positive mood post-exercise was tested. The results support this hypothesis by showing for the first time that while exercise alone was sufficient to increase the intensity of positive mood; combining exercise with an enjoyable distraction resulted in significantly greater increases in pleasant mood compared to exercise alone. Accounting for the enjoyment of a distraction type in future studies can increase the sensitivity of research designs used to detect changes in positive mood post-exercise. PMID:24790478
Higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and maybe even light physical activity, have been related to better health, motor skills, and cognitive outcomes in virtually all age and ability groups. However, most people in general are not prone to enjoy and participate in substantial amo...
Kohlberg, Gavriel D.; Mancuso, Dean M.; Chari, Divya A.; Lalwani, Anil K.
Objective. Enjoyment of music remains an elusive goal following cochlear implantation. We test the hypothesis that reengineering music to reduce its complexity can enhance the listening experience for the cochlear implant (CI) listener. Methods. Normal hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9) evaluated a piece of country music on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version along with 20 modified, less complex, versions created by including subsets of the musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation processing. Results. Compared to the original song, modified versions containing only 1–3 instruments were less enjoyable to the NH listeners but more enjoyable to the CI listeners and the NH listeners with CI simulation. Excluding vocals and including rhythmic instruments improved enjoyment for NH listeners with CI simulation but made no difference for CI listeners. Conclusions. Reengineering a piece of music to reduce its complexity has the potential to enhance music enjoyment for the cochlear implantee. Thus, in addition to improvements in software and hardware, engineering music specifically for the CI listener may be an alternative means to enhance their listening experience. PMID:26543322
Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Mancuso, Dean M; Chari, Divya A; Lalwani, Anil K
Enjoyment of music remains an elusive goal following cochlear implantation. We test the hypothesis that reengineering music to reduce its complexity can enhance the listening experience for the cochlear implant (CI) listener. Normal hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9) evaluated a piece of country music on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version along with 20 modified, less complex, versions created by including subsets of the musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation processing. Compared to the original song, modified versions containing only 1-3 instruments were less enjoyable to the NH listeners but more enjoyable to the CI listeners and the NH listeners with CI simulation. Excluding vocals and including rhythmic instruments improved enjoyment for NH listeners with CI simulation but made no difference for CI listeners. Reengineering a piece of music to reduce its complexity has the potential to enhance music enjoyment for the cochlear implantee. Thus, in addition to improvements in software and hardware, engineering music specifically for the CI listener may be an alternative means to enhance their listening experience.
Weibel, David; Wissmath, Bartholomäus; Mast, Fred W
Previous research studies on spatial presence point out that the users' imagery abilities are of importance. However, this influence has not yet been tested for different media. This is surprising because theoretical considerations suggest that mental imagery comes into play when a mediated environment lacks vividness. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence mental imagery abilities can have on the sensation of presence and enjoyment in different mediated environments. We presented the participants (n = 60) a narrative text, a movie sequence, and a computer game. Across all media, no effect of mental imagery abilities on presence and enjoyment was found, but imagery abilities marginally interacted with the mediated environment. Individuals with high imagery abilities experienced more presence and enjoyment in the text condition. The results were different for the film condition: here, individuals with poor imagery abilities reported marginally higher enjoyment ratings, whereas the presence ratings did not differ between the two groups. Imagery abilities had no influence on presence and enjoyment within the computer game condition. The results suggest that good imagery abilities contribute to the sensations of presence and enjoyment when reading a narrative text. The results for this study have an applied impact for media use because their effectiveness can depend on the individual mental imagery abilities.
Liebenberg, Janet; Mentz, Elsa; Breed, Betty
This paper reports on a qualitative study that examined how pair programming shapes the experience of secondary school girls taking IT as a subject, with respect to their enjoyment of programming and the subject itself. The study involved six Grade 11 girls who were doing solo programming in Grade 10 and pair programming in their following Grade. The results showed that the girls enjoyed the subject more when programming in pairs due to improved comprehension of the task. They especially enjoyed the socialization and communication brought about by pair programming. The assistance, support, motivation, focus and encouragement they received from partners when stuck or while fixing errors made the programming experience more enjoyable for them. The increased enjoyment brought about by pair programming resulted in the perception of greater learning in the subject IT and also to greater interest in it. It also led to greater persistence in dealing with problems. Pair programming should be implemented right from the start of Grade 10 since it may lead to greater enjoyment of programming and the subject IT in general. The approach may also lead to more girls being attracted to the subject.
Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun
The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.
Donny, William F.
The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education was assessed in 1980, based on data for 48,162 graduates, or 54.3 percent of the graduates at all degree levels. Attention was directed to the proportions of graduates in each degree field and level: (1) employed in their fields of preparation, (2)…
Norris, Carol A.; Starrfield, Susan
High school students in Phoenix, Arizona, were surveyed to determine their perceptions of participation in school clubs and activities. Clubs/activities were categorized as being (1) athletic; (2) social; or (3) academic. Reasons given for joining certain clubs/activities conformed to expectations: students in athletic clubs joined to perform in…
Cuppett, Marchell; Latin, Richard W.
Investigated the physical activities of certified athletic trainers (ATCs), both at work and at leisure. Survey data indicated that those who worked in clinical versus school settings had the highest mean total activity score. Females scored significantly higher than males. The mean total index activity of the over-36-years-old group was…
Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koelsch, Stefan
Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in the light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general, rather than a special license for exceptional art forms only. The underlying rationale is that negative emotions have been shown to be particularly powerful in securing attention, intense emotional involvement, and high memorability, and hence is precisely what artworks strive for. Two groups of processing mechanisms are identified that conjointly adopt the particular powers of negative emotions for art's purposes. The first group consists of psychological distancing mechanisms that are activated along with the cognitive schemata of art, representation, and fiction. These schemata imply personal safety and control over continuing or discontinuing exposure to artworks, thereby preventing negative emotions from becoming outright incompatible with expectations of enjoyment. This distancing sets the stage for a second group of processing components that allow art recipients to positively embrace the experiencing of negative emotions, thereby rendering art reception more intense, more interesting, more emotionally moving, more profound, and occasionally even more beautiful. These components include compositional interplays of positive and negative emotions, the effects of aesthetic virtues of using the media of (re)presentation (musical sound, words/language, color, shapes) on emotion perception, and meaning-making efforts. Moreover, our Distancing-Embracing model proposes that concomitant mixed emotions often help integrate negative emotions into altogether pleasurable trajectories.
Bulunuz, Mizrap; Jarrett, Olga S.; Martin-Hansen, Lisa
Of great importance for achieving science education reform may be teachers' interest in science and enjoyment of science. This study explores the motivational qualities (rated for "interest," "fun," and "learning" value) of different levels of inquiry of hands-on class activities. The participants, 53 preservice teachers in two sections of a…
Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Blom, Nico A; van Dijk, Arie P J; Helbing, Wim A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized exercise program on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with congenital heart disease and to know what the moderating impact of their baseline health behavior and disease knowledge is. Included were 93 patients, aged 10 to 25, with surgical repair for tetralogy of Fallot or with a Fontan circulation for single-ventricle physiology, of 5 participating centers of pediatric cardiology in The Netherlands. They were randomly allocated, stratified for age, gender, and type of congenital heart disease to a 12-week period with either: (1) three times per week standardized exercise training or (2) care as usual (randomization ratio 2:1). At baseline and after 12 weeks, participants completed Web-based questionnaires and were interviewed by phone. Primary analyses tested changes from baseline to follow-up in sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in the exercise group vs. control group. Secondary analyses concerned the moderating influence of baseline health behavior and disease knowledge on changes from baseline to follow-up, and comparison with normative data. At follow-up, the exercise group reported a decrease in passive leisure-time spending (watching television and computer usage) compared with controls. Exercise training had no effect on sports enjoyment and active leisure-time spending. Disease knowledge had a moderating effect on improvement in sports enjoyment, whereas health behavior did not. Compared with normative data, patients obtained similar leisure time scores and lower frequencies as to drinking alcohol and smoking. Exercise training decreased passive, but not active, leisure-time spending. It did not influence sports enjoyment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Mancuso, Dean M; Griffin, Brianna M; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K
Noise reduction algorithm (NRA) in speech processing strategy has positive impact on speech perception among cochlear implant (CI) listeners. We sought to evaluate the effect of NRA on music enjoyment. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment. Academic medical center. Normal-hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9). Subjective rating of music excerpts. NH and CI listeners evaluated country music piece on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version and 20 modified, less complex versions created by including subsets of musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments through CI simulation and CI listeners listened to the segments with their usual speech processing strategy, with and without NRA. Decreasing the number of instruments was significantly associated with increase in the pleasantness and naturalness in both NH and CI subjects (p < 0.05). However, there was no difference in music enjoyment with or without NRA for either NH listeners with CI simulation or CI listeners across all three modalities of pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness (p > 0.05): this was true for the original and the modified music segments with one to three instruments (p > 0.05). NRA does not affect music enjoyment in CI listener or NH individual with CI simulation. This suggests that strategies to enhance speech processing will not necessarily have a positive impact on music enjoyment. However, reducing the complexity of music shows promise in enhancing music enjoyment and should be further explored.
Van Vuuren, Michele A Janse; Strodl, Esben; White, Katherine M; Lockie, Philip David
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) incidence continues to increase worldwide because of its efficacy and low surgical risks. This study aimed to investigate satisfaction with eating and the change in taste perception, desire, and enjoyment of flavor changes and associations with extent of percentage excess weight loss (%excess weight loss (EWL)) post-LSG. One hundred six participants completed an online questionnaire 4 to 6 weeks as well as 6 to 8 months post-LSG bariatric surgery. The questionnaire included study-specific questions about changes in taste, desire, and enjoyment of eight major categories of flavor, as well as the Suter Quality of Alimentation Questionnaire to measure satisfaction with eating. The majority of participants reported a post-surgery increase in the intensity of the flavor of sweet (60, 55%) and fatty (57, 70%) at both time points, respectively. Participants also reported a decreased enjoyment for sweet (77, 61%) and fatty (77, 83%) flavors and decreased desire for fatty (83, 84%) and sweet (82, 68%) flavors at both time periods. This study found an increase in intensity of flavor of all eight taste modalities and a decrease in desire and enjoyment of all taste modalities except salty and savory flavors following surgery. Participants reported an increased acuity of spicy flavors and fatty tastes over time, and the desire and enjoyment of sweet, bitter, and metallic flavors increased over time. Changes in savory enjoyment over a 6- to 8-month period post-LSG were weakly associated with extent of % EWL at 6 months post-surgery. The participants reported average (40, 37%), good (33, 42%), and excellent (15, 11%) satisfaction with eating at both time points. This preliminary study indicates that subjective changes in taste, desire, and enjoyment of flavors of eight taste modalities are very common after LSG.
Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W; Preiss, Thomas
In the past century, few areas of biology advanced as much as our understanding of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Initially considered unimportant in terms of gene regulation, crucial cellular fate changes, cell differentiation, or malignant transformation are now known to involve 'metabolic remodeling' with profound changes in the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes. This review focuses on the recent identification of RNA-binding activity of numerous metabolic enzymes. We discuss possible roles of this unexpected second activity in feedback gene regulation ('moonlighting') and/or in the control of enzymatic function. We also consider how metabolism-driven post-translational modifications could regulate enzyme-RNA interactions. Thus, RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donny, William F.
The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education in 1979 was examined, based on data for 44,875 graduates or 50.6 percent of all higher education graduates. Research was designed to determine what proportion of graduates in each degree field and degree level were employed in their fields of…
Warren, Bradley; Odenheimer Brin, Eleanor
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess college students' pre- and post- health-related, fitness levels, as determined by the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) five components of fitness, in a one-credit, graded college course and to objectively measure any differences between those pre- and post- health-related fitness levels.…
Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans
Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…
Bessell, Harold; Ball, Geraldine
The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade four. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential…
Monedero, Javier; Lyons, Elizabeth J; O'Gorman, Donal J
Despite the widely accepted health benefits of regular physical activity, only a small percentage of the population meets the current recommendations. The reasons include a wide use of technology and a lack of enjoyment while exercising. The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological, perceptual and enjoyment responses between a single bout of (I) conventional cycling and (II) interactive cycling video game at a matched workload. A cross-sectional study in 34 healthy participants was performed. Initially, participants completed an incremental maximal cycling test to measure peak oxygen uptake and to determine ventilatory threshold. In random order, participants carried out a 30 min interactive cycling trial and a 30 min conventional cycling trial at 55% of peak power output. During the trials, oxygen uptake and energy expenditure were measured by open-circuit spirometry and heart rate was measured by radiotelemetry. RPE and enjoyment were measured every 10 minutes with Borg scale and a modified PACES scale. Interactive cycling resulted in a significantly greater %V̇O2Reserve (68.2% ± 9.2% vs 64.7% ± 8.1%), rate of energy expenditure (505.8±75.2 vs 487.4±81.2 j·kg-1·min-1), and enjoyment (63.4% ± 17 vs 42% ± 13.6), P<0.05. Participants were working at a higher intensity in relation to the individual's ventilatory threshold during the interactive cycling video game trial (M = 11.86, SE = 3.08) than during the Conventional cycling trial (M = 7.55, SE = 3.16, t(33) = -2.69, P<0.05, r = .42). No significant differences were found for heart rate reserve (72.5 ± 10.4 vs 71.4±10.1%) and RPE (13.1 ± 1.8 vs 13.2 ± 1.7). Interactive cycling games can be a valid alternative to conventional exercise as they result in a higher exercise intensity than conventional cycling and a distraction from aversive cognitive and physiological states at and above the ventilatory threshold.
Saudino, Kimberly J.; Eaton, Warren O.
The activity level of 60 pairs of infant twins was measured for 2 days. Differences in activity level for monozygotic and dizygotic twins, as indicated by motion recorders and parent ratings, showed evidence of genetic influences. (BC)
Okun, Morris; Infurna, Frank J; Hutchinson, Ianeta
Previous research indicates that volunteer satisfaction and enjoyment do not exert direct effects on the cessation of volunteering by older adults. This study examined whether satisfaction with and enjoyment of volunteering indirectly affect volunteer cessation via hours volunteered. Our sample consisted of participants in the Americans' Changing Lives study (N = 380) who were 65 years old and older and who volunteered at Wave 1. Volunteer satisfaction, volunteer enjoyment, hours volunteered, and several covariates were assessed at Wave 1, and volunteer cessation was assessed 3 years later at Wave 2. Volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment were positively associated with hours volunteered, and more hours volunteered was associated with decreased likelihood of volunteer cessation. The indirect effects of volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment on volunteer cessation via hours volunteered were -.023 (p = .059) and -.036 (p = .015), respectively. The dynamics of volunteer cessation are important because a volunteer shortage is forecasted and because the benefits of volunteering may attenuate when volunteering stops. Future research should test the proposed causal sequence using longitudinal data with at least 3 waves. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Armstrong, Ronald W.
A review dedicated to James C.M. Li is given of dislocation pile-ups and their connection to the Hall-Petch dependence of polycrystalline strength and fracture mechanics properties on an inverse square root of grain size basis, with such grain size dependence now very importantly extended to nanopolycrystalline material behaviors. An analogous H-P dependence is described for the inverse activation volume parameter obtained from the strain rate (and thermal) dependencies contained in the model dislocation thermal activation-strain rate analysis, also relating to pioneering contributions of Li to the topic of thermally activated dislocation dynamics.
Uitte de Willige, Shirley; Keane, Fiona M; Bowen, David G; Malfliet, Joyce J M C; Zhang, H Emma; Maneck, Bharvi; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Leebeek, Frank W G; Rijken, Dingeman C; Gorrell, Mark D
Circulating fibroblast activation protein (cFAP) is a constitutively active enzyme expressed by activated fibroblasts that has both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. We aimed to assess the correlation between cFAP activity and antigen levels and to compare variations in levels. In plasma of 465 control individuals, 368 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 102 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with severe liver disease before and after liver transplant, cFAP activity levels were measured with a newly developed cFAP activity assay. In the same samples, cFAP antigen levels were measured using a commercially available cFAP ELISA. Correlation analyses between activity and antigen levels were performed by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient (ρ). Additionally, normal ranges, determinants and differences between cohorts and between anticoagulants were investigated. cFAP activity and antigen levels significantly correlated in controls (ρ: 0.660, p<0.001) and in CHD patients (ρ: 0.709, p<0.001). cFAP activity and antigen levels in the HCV cohort were significantly lower in the samples taken after liver transplantation (p<0.001) and normalized toward levels of healthy individuals. Furthermore, cFAP activity and antigen levels were higher in men and significantly associated with body mass index. Also, cFAP activity and antigen levels were higher in EDTA plasma as compared to the levels in citrated plasma from the same healthy individuals. For analyzing cFAP levels, either activity levels or antigen levels can be measured to investigate differences between individuals. However, it is of importance that blood samples are collected in the same anticoagulant.
De Stefani, Diego; Rizzuto, Rosario; Pozzan, Tullio
In the last 5 years, most of the molecules that control mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis have been finally identified. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is mediated by the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU) complex, a macromolecular structure that guarantees Ca(2+) accumulation inside mitochondrial matrix upon increases in cytosolic Ca(2+). Conversely, Ca(2+) release is under the control of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, encoded by the NCLX gene, and of a H(+)/Ca(2+) antiporter, whose identity is still debated. The low affinity of the MCU complex, coupled to the activity of the efflux systems, protects cells from continuous futile cycles of Ca(2+) across the inner mitochondrial membrane and consequent massive energy dissipation. In this review, we discuss the basic principles that govern mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis and the methods used to investigate the dynamics of Ca(2+) concentration within the organelles. We discuss the functional and structural role of the different molecules involved in mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling and their pathophysiological role.
Longo, E; Badia, M; Orgaz, B; Verdugo, M A
Despite growing interest in the topic of participation, the construct has not yet been assessed in children and adolescents with and without cerebral palsy (CP) in Spain. As there are no available instruments to measure participation in leisure activities which have been adapted in this country, the goal of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). The sample comprised 199 children and adolescents with CP and 199 without CP, between 8 and 18 years of age, from seven regions in Spain. The adaptation of the original version of CAPE was carried out through translation and backward translation, and the validity of the instrument was analysed. Construct validity was assessed through the correlation of the diverse CAPE domains and the quality of life domains (KIDSCREEN questionnaire). Discriminant validity was established by comparing children and adolescents with CP and typically developing children and adolescents. For test-retest reliability, the children and adolescents with and without CP completed the CAPE questionnaire twice within 4 weeks. The correlations found between the CAPE domains and the quality of life domains show that the CAPE presents construct validity. The CAPE discriminated children and adolescents with CP from those without any disability in the results of participation. According to most CAPE domains, typically developing children and adolescents engage in a greater number of activities than children and adolescents with CP. Test-retest reliability for the Spanish version of CAPE was adequate. The study provides a valid instrument to assess the participation of children and adolescents with and without CP who live in Spain. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In the context of polypharmacology, promiscuity is defined as the ability of small molecules to specifically interact with multiple targets. In addition, promiscuity can also be viewed as a characteristic feature of targets by considering their ability to recognize structurally diverse molecules as well as compounds with multi-target activities. Promiscuity estimates can be obtained through systematic mining of compound activity data. Currently available volumes of activity data are so large that it should be possible to derive statistically sound trends from their analysis. However, confidence criteria must be carefully considered when drawing conclusions from compound data mining. Herein, the results of recent promiscuity analyses are presented in context, including studies that view promiscuity from a target perspective. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Donny, William F.
The employment of graduates of all degree levels in Pennsylvania institutions of higher education in 1978 is examined. Data were obtained for 44,264 graduates, or 50.1 percent of all those who graduated from postsecondary institutions in Pennsylvania between January 1978 and August 1978. Survey results are presented separately for baccalaureate…
Allen, Rodney F., Ed.
Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…
Brown, James W.
The purpose of this learning activity packet is to acquaint students of Spanish as a second language with letter-writing in Spanish. Upon completion of the packet, students should be able to: (1) identify some of the major differences in mailing customs between the U.S. and Hispanic countries, (2) read and write mailing and return adresses, (3)…
The middle school athletic program should be based on the same philosophy governing academics and nonathletic activities. Essential criteria include total participation, no emphasis on winning, administrative and staff encouragement, short athletic sessions providing several choices, no tournaments or community "all-star" teams, appropriately…
The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the first grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to aid teachers in instilling responsibility and self-confidence in children. The guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential…
The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the second grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to aid teachers in instilling responsibility and self-confidence in children. The guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential…
Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie
The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.
Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando
This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.
massive outage of services globally. There are other similar projects at Ark that are dedicated to Internet topology research, including Dolphin [3... Dolphin : The measurement system for the next generation Internet,” in 4th International Conference on Communications, Internet and Information... evolution of the Internet’s AS-level topology,” in IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, pp. 1–12, 2006.  Y.-J. Chi, R
Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729
Laplatine, L.; Al'Mrayat, O.; Luan, E.; Fang, C.; Rezaiezadeh, S.; Ratner, D. M.; Cheung, K.; Dattner, Y.; Chrostowski, L.
Biosensors based on silicon photonic integrated circuits have attracted a growing interest in recent years. The use of sub-micron silicon waveguides to propagate near-infrared light allows for the drastic reduction of the optical system size, while increasing its complexity and sensitivity. Using silicon as the propagating medium also leverages the fabrication capabilities of CMOS foundries, which offer low-cost mass production. Researchers have deeply investigated photonic sensor devices, such as ring resonators, interferometers and photonic crystals, but the practical integration of silicon photonic biochips as part of a complete system has received less attention. Herein, we present a practical system-level architecture which can be employed to integrate the aforementioned photonic biosensors. We describe a system based on 1 mm2 dies that integrate germanium photodetectors and a single light coupling device. The die are embedded into a 16x16 mm2 epoxy package to enable microfluidic and electrical integration. First, we demonstrate a simple process to mimic Fan-Out Wafer-level-Packaging, which enables low-cost mass production. We then characterize the photodetectors in the photovoltaic mode, which exhibit high sensitivity at low optical power. Finally, we present a new grating coupler concept to relax the lateral alignment tolerance down to +/- 50 μm at 1-dB (80%) power penalty, which should permit non-experts to use the biochips in a"plug-and-play" style. The system-level integration demonstrated in this study paves the way towards the mass production of low-cost and highly sensitive biosensors, and can facilitate their wide adoption for biomedical and agro-environmental applications.
Soldin, Offie P.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Soldin, Steven J.; O’Mara, Daniel M.
Context Cigarette tobacco smoke is a potent environmental contaminant known to adversely affect health including fertility and pregnancy. Objective To examine the associations between second-hand cigarette tobacco-smoke exposure, or active smoking and serum concentrations of steroid hormones using tandem mass spectrometry. Design Healthy women (18–45 y) from the general community in the Metropolitan Washington, DC were recruited at the follicular stage of their menstrual cycle. Participants were assigned to one of three study groups: active smokers (N= 107), passive smokers (N= 86), or non-smokers (N= 100). Classifications were based on a combination of self-reporting and serum cotinine concentrations. Methods Serum androgens, estrogens, progestins, androstenedione, aldosterone, cortisol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 11-deoxycortisol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25-OHVitD3) and cotinine were measured by isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) (API-5000). Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to assess median differences among the three groups, with Dunn’s multiple comparison test for post hoc analysis. Results Serum estrone, estradiol, and estriol concentrations were lower in active and passive smokers than in non-smokers. The three study groups differed significantly in serum concentrations of 16-OHE1, aldosterone and 25-OHVitD3, as well as in the ratios of many of the steroids. Pair-wise comparison of the groups demonstrated significant differences in hormone concentrations between (i) smokers and nonsmokers for aldosterone: (ii) passive smokers and non-smokers for aldosterone, progesterone and estriol. Moreover, for smokers and passive smokers, there were no significant differences in these hormone concentrations. Conclusions Smoke exposure was associated with lower than normal median steroid hormone concentrations. These processes may be instrumental in explaining some adverse effects of
pressure 5. 6i a.k (hypertension), 2) elevated serum cholesterol level, 3) elevated blood sugar, 4) cigarette smoking, and 5) obesity (overeating with...aerobic training programs. Two recent Stanford studies have noted that both male and female long-distance runners had more HDL than their analogous...Engineers. New York, MY: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1966. 8. Nelson, J. K., & J. R. Thomas. Introduction to Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation
Publics are not simply a product of common attention to texts, but are also animated by an economy of tropes and affects that relies on processes of metonymic connection, metaphorical condensation, and affective investment. Drawing on Jacques Lacan's theory of enjoyment and his treatments of metaphor and metonymy as rhetorical forms, this essay…
As a storyteller, the author reminds her readers that she adorns, ornaments, enlarges, engorges, and elevates the truth. However, she relates that there are ten things she no longer enjoys about the world of children's books and publishing but she's still willing to endure. She endures them for the sake of story, and for the sake of her readers.…
13. photocopy, SCHOOLCHILDREN ENJOYING A WAGON RIDE, late 19th or early 20th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF851 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND
van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees
Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…
Zhang, Yulei; Dang, Yan
Web development is an important component in the curriculum of computer science and information systems areas. However, it is generally considered difficult to learn among students. In this study,we examined factors that could influence students' perceptions of accomplishment and enjoyment and their intention to learn in the web development…
Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard
The present study focused on students' academic enjoyment as predicted by achievement in multiple academic domains. Assumptions were based on Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions, and were tested in a sample of 1380 German students from grades 5 to 10. Students' academic…
Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.; Gilmore, Alison; Jameson, Madgerie
Using data from New Zealand's National Education Monitoring Project, a light sampling, low stakes performance based national school assessment program, reading self-efficacy, reading enjoyment, and reading achievement were examined in samples of 8 and 12 year old children. Sample sizes were n = 480 for each group. While reading achievement…
Liebenberg, Janet; Mentz, Elsa; Breed, Betty
This paper reports on a qualitative study that examined how pair programming shapes the experience of secondary school girls taking IT as a subject, with respect to their enjoyment of programming and the subject itself. The study involved six Grade 11 girls who were doing solo programming in Grade 10 and pair programming in their following Grade.…
Schaer, Barbara; And Others
This study was developed to investigate differences between black and white freshmen (both men and women) entering engineering programs. Specifically the study determined the relationships between enjoyment of course studied, achievement in those courses, and persistence, as reported by black/white, male/female students entering the engineering…
Wang, C. K. John; Liu, W. C.
This study examined the network of relationships between sport ability beliefs, achievement goals, self-determination and female students' enjoyment in school physical education (PE). Female secondary students (n = 343) from a single-sex secondary school in Singapore participated in the survey. They were assessed on sport ability beliefs, goal…
Bishop-Clark, Cathy; Courte, Jill; Howard, Elizabeth V.
Students in an introductory computing class participated in a study investigating the impact of using a graphics programming environment (Alice) and pair-programming on confidence, enjoyment and achievement. Sixty-four participants completed a short questionnaire and a content pre-test about computer programming concepts. Students were then…
Xu, Hao; Song, Donglei; Yu, Tao; Tavares, Adriano
Many attempts at personalisation have been made in education. They all collect learning data and analyse learning behaviours, and ultimately achieve personalised learning dynamically. However, further research is needed on the ways to effectively access and analyse information about learning within an enjoyable environment and with positive…
The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…
Anderson, William Todd
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Music Listening Sensitivity and Music Listening Enjoyment. The type of mindfulness investigated in this study was of the social-psychological type, which shares both commonalities with and distinctions from meditative mindfulness. Enhanced context awareness,…
Meadowcroft, Jeanne; Zillmann, Dolf
Existing theory suggests that women in the premenstrual and menstrual phases of their hormonal cycle would select and enjoy nonarousing television programs, sucy as nonhostile comedy and game shows, and would avoid action drama and hostile and arousing programs. To test this theory, female undergraduates from telecommunications and journalism…
Del Giudice, Marco; Colle, Livia
The authors investigated the differences between 8-year-olds (n = 80) and adults (n = 80) in recognition of felt versus faked enjoyment smiles by using a newly developed picture set that is based on the Facial Action Coding System. The authors tested the effect of different facial action units (AUs) on judgments of smile authenticity. Multiple…
Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Saudino, Kimberly J
The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in a novel setting with novelty seeking phenotypes, and child temperament literature, which links AL, novelty response, and shyness, we hypothesized that shyness would be an important component of children's AL in a novel situation. We examined this using mechanically assessed AL from 2 situations (the home and the lab) and 2 measures of shyness (1 parent-rated and 1 observer-rated) on up to 313 twin pairs (145 monozygotic and 168 dizygotic), at 2 and 3 years of age. Biometric genetic models removed from lab AL the variance shared with home AL, representing what was different in AL when the child entered the lab compared to the home. We report that almost half (43%) of the genetic component of AL in the lab was independent of AL in the home, and this unique genetic component shared genetic covariance with shyness. Shyness influences AL in a novel situation such as the lab, indicating that mechanically assessed AL represents more than global motoric activity and provides information on a child's temperamental response to novelty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Andrew, N; Wolfe, R; Cameron, P; Richardson, M; Page, R; Bucknill, A; Gabbe, B
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of serious sport and active recreation injury on 12-month physical activity levels. Adults admitted to hospital with sport and active recreation-related injuries, and captured by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry were recruited to the study. Changes between preinjury and 12 month post-injury physical activity was assessed using the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Independent demographic, injury, and hospital variables were assessed for associations with changes in physical activity levels, using multivariate linear regression. A total of 324 patients were recruited, of which 98% were followed up at 12 months. Mean short IPAQ scores decreased from 7650 METS (95% CI: 7180, 8120) preinjury to 3880 METS; (95% CI: 3530, 4250) post-injury, independent of functional recovery. Education level and occupation group were the only variables independently associated with changes in physical activity levels post-injury. These results highlighted that sport and active recreation injuries lead to significant reductions in physical activity levels. Hence, the prevention of sport and active recreation injuries is important when considering promotion of activity at a population level. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan
Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…
Lincoln. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; Michael Bowker
Parks provide many outdoor recreation opportunities that encourage physical activity and healthy lifestyles, and research has recently begun to explore the demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with park-based activity levels, particularly outside of urban areas. This study used a mixed methods approach to investigate physical activity levels and...
Conlon, Jenny A; Haff, G Gregory; Tufano, James J; Newton, Robert U
Conlon, JA, Haff, GG, Tufano, JJ, and Newton, RU. Training load indices, perceived tolerance, and enjoyment among different models of resistance training in older adults. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 867-875, 2018-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between volume load (VL), training monotony, and strain, and perceived tolerance and enjoyment, across periodized and nonperiodized (NP) resistance training (RT) in older adults. Forty-one healthy, untrained apparently healthy older adults (women = 21, men = 20; 70.9 ± 5.1 years; 166.3 ± 8.2 cm; 72.9 ± 13.4 kg) were randomly stratified into a NP, block periodized (BP), or daily undulating periodized (DUP) group and completed a 22-week RT intervention at a frequency of 3 d·wk. All training was executed on RT machines and training volume was equalized between training groups based on total repetitions. Despite statistical differences in VL, training monotony, and strain between NP, BP, and DUP RT, perceived tolerance and enjoyment were similar across training models. Therefore, no meaningful relationships between training load indices (VL, monotony, and strain) and perceived tolerance and enjoyment were evident. Based on these results, periodization strategies do not appear to impact perceived tolerance or enjoyment of RT among the elderly, yet are recommended for better management of training load, potentially reducing the risk of illness and injury and promoting long-term adherence. Above all, practitioners should promote a friendly, supportive, and motivating training environment to increase program adherence and consequent training adaptations.
Heisz, Jennifer J; Tejada, Mary Grace M; Paolucci, Emily M; Muir, Cameron
This is the first study to show that enjoyment for high-intensity interval exercise increases with chronic training. Prior acute studies typically report high-intensity interval training (HIT) as being more enjoyable than moderate continuous training (MCT) unless the high-intensity intervals are too strenuous or difficult to complete. It follows that exercise competency may be a critical factor contributing to the enjoyment of HIT, and therefore building competency through chronic training may be one way to increase its enjoyment. To test this, we randomly assigned sedentary young adults to six weeks of HIT or MCT, and tracked changes in their enjoyment for the exercise. Enjoyment for HIT increased with training whereas enjoyment for MCT remained constant and lower. Changes in exercise enjoyment were predicted by increases in workload, suggesting that strength adaptions may be important for promoting exercise enjoyment. The results point to HIT as a promising protocol for promoting exercise enjoyment and adherence in sedentary young adults.
Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during
Badia, Marta; Longo, Egmar; Orgaz, M Begoña; Gómez-Vela, María
Participation is an important modifiable quality of life (QOL) determinant and a key outcome measure. The aim of this study was to confirm if participation in leisure activities affects the QOL domains in children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP) in Spain. A total of 206 children and adolescents with CP (and their parents), 115 boys and 91 girls, mean age of 11.96 years (SD=3.00; range 8-18 years) participated in the study. Distribution according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was 24.3% Level I, 18% Level II, 18% Level III, 12.6% Level IV, and 27.2% Level V. Participation in leisure activities was assessed using the Spanish version of Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and QOL using the KIDSCREEN parents' version. Diversity, intensity and enjoyment of participation explained the levels of QOL in the Physical well-being, Psychological well-being, Autonomy, Parent relation & home life and Social support & peers domains, independently of gender, age and level of impairment (motor and intellectual). We also found that intensity and enjoyment of participation in informal activities had more influence on the different QOL domains. The most influenced domain by the enjoyment of participation in all domains and types of CAPE activities was Psychological well-being. The participation in leisure activities had a positive effect on the QOL of the Spanish children and adolescents with CP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gow, Alan J.; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L.
Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p < 0.05). Between ages 75 and 85, participation in leisure activities and cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity and cognitive ability, confirmed the positive association between levels of leisure activity and cognitive ability (path coefficient = 0.36, p < 0.001); however, neither leisure activity level nor change in leisure activity were associated with cognitive change. Although a positive association between leisure activity and cognitive ability was reported—the likely precedents of this are discussed—there was no evidence that a higher level or maintenance of leisure activity was protective against cognitive decline across a 10-year follow-up. PMID:25352824
Ignico, Arlene A.; Richhart, Christine; Wayda, Valerie K.
Examined effects of a 10-week physical activity program on activity level and self-esteem of 8- to 11-year olds. Conducted activities three times weekly for one hour per day. Found that mile-run, timed sit-ups, and sit-reach performances improved significantly from pre- to posttests. Mile-run average heart rates, recovery heart rates, and…
Lasko, David J.
This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…
Alghamdi, Mohammed S; Chiarello, Lisa A; Palisano, Robert J; McCoy, Sarah W
The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of age, sex, gross motor, manual ability, and communication functions on the frequency and enjoyment of children's participation in family and recreational activities. The secondary aim was to determine the relationships between motor and communication functions and participation. Participants were 694 children, 1.5-12 years old, with cerebral palsy (CP) and their parents across the US and Canada. Parents rated children's frequency and enjoyment of participation using the Child Engagement in Daily Life measure. Parents and therapists identified children's level of function using Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS). Differences in frequency and enjoyment of participation were found based on children's GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS levels but not age or sex. Children with higher gross motor, manual, and communication functions had higher frequency and enjoyment of participation, compared to children with lower functions. Frequency of participation was associated with GMFCS and CFCS levels whereas enjoyment of participation was only associated with CFCS level. Knowledge of child's gross motor, manual ability, and communication functions of children with CP is important when setting goals and planning interventions for participation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leiss, Dominik; Pekrun, Reinhard; Blum, Werner; Muller, Marcel; Messner, Rudolf
In this study which was part of the DISUM-project, 224 ninth graders from 14 German classes from middle track schools (Realschule) were asked about their enjoyment, interest, value and self-efficacy expectations concerning three types of mathematical problems: intra-mathematical problems, word problems and modelling problems. Enjoyment, interest,…
Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yuri
Prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing significantly worldwide due to energy imbalance perhaps stemming from undesirable dietary behavior and physical activity level. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity level on nutritional status in elementary school students. The subjects were comprised of 287 elementary school students between 4th and 6th grades in Seoul, Korea. The level of physical activity was scored with a modified Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire and was categorized as active, moderately active, and sedentary. Dietary intakes were obtained using a 24-hour food recall method. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test for global significant differences of nutrient intakes by physical activity level. Boys were more active than girls. Daily intakes of energy in moderately active boys were significantly higher than in the sedentary group, but intakes of calcium and iron in moderately active boys were lower than active boys. For girls, physical activity level did not affect nutrient density at all. Intakes of calcium, vitamin C, and folate for both boys and girls were below 50% of recommended intake. Physical activity did not affect nutrient density and our participants were exposed to nutritional imbalance. Therefore, the results suggest that nutrition education regarding balanced diet and optimum physical activity is required for children's health and growth. PMID:20827348
Mathiassen, Astrid; Hollema, Siemon
Energy deficiency is observed to be at odds with other food security indicators. In wealthier urban areas, the prevalence of energy deficiency is often higher than in poorer rural areas, whereas other food security indicators, such as food diversity, perform much better in urban than in rural areas. To investigate to what extent differences in physical activity levels influence dietary quantity and quality. Central to this analysis is the construction of a household activity index, a single measure that aims to capture the collective workload of the household. This paper uses data from Nepal and Uganda expenditure surveys that contain information on food consumption, as well as detailed information on how individual household members spend their time. Energy deficiency numbers are adjusted by the activity index, and the results are compared with the standard approach for calculating energy deficiency assuming light activity levels. Regressions are estimated to discuss demand for calories and diversity given the activity level. Accounting for differences in activity level has a large effect on energy deficiency figures, particularly in rural areas. The analysis shows that a higher household activity level significantly increases the calories consumed but lessens food diversity, suggesting that households with high activity levels sacrifice diversity for quantity in order to meet their energy requirements. Physical activity levels should be taken into account when interpreting empirical differences in food consumption levels for determining the prevalence of food insecurity and making allocation decisions for food security assistance.
Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo
Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
This article explores the effect of gender and contextual features on emotional reactions, identification toward game characters, and game enjoyment. Two aspects of contextual features are specifically examined: the moral justification of game characters and violence. An experiment was conducted by allowing participants to play either a morally justified character of a non-violent game, a morally justified character of a violent game, or a morally unjustified character of a violent game. The results show that participants felt less guilty and identified with the characters more when playing the morally justified characters of the non-violent game. Furthermore, males and females demonstrate different patterns of enjoyment to different contextual features of video games. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Åsenlöf, Pernilla; Lindberg, Eva
There is a lack of evidence about the impact of physical activity on insomnia based on representative samples with a long-term follow-up. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of physical activity on insomnia incidence, as well as the impact of changes in leisure-time physical activity on insomnia in women. The study included a population-based sample of 5062 women aged >20 years who responded to questionnaires in 2000 and 2010. Insomnia was defined as experiencing severe or very severe problems in falling asleep, maintaining sleep, or experiencing early morning awakenings, together with daytime sleepiness or fatigue. Physical activity was categorized as low, medium, or high level at baseline and at follow-up. After adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol dependence, snoring status, level of education, and psychological distress, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for incident insomnia in women who increased from a low to a medium or high level of physical activity was 0.53 (0.3-0.94) and 0.17 (0.03-0.81), respectively, as compared to women with a low activity level on both occasions. Women remaining on a medium activity level or increasing to a high activity level had an OR of 0.53 (0.35-0.83) and 0.36 (0.21-0.64) and the OR of those decreasing from a high level to a medium level or remaining on a high activity level on both occasions was 0.37 (0.21-0.66) and 0.3 (0.16-0.54) respectively. Women maintaining higher levels or increasing their level of leisure-time physical activity over the 10-year period were partly protected from self-reported insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger
This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…
Fairclough, S.; Stratton, G.
The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels during high school physical education lessons. The data were considered in relation to recommended levels of physical activity to ascertain whether or not physical education can be effective in helping young people meet health-related goals. Sixty-two boys and 60 girls (aged 11-14…
raw motor activity counts and tissue levelsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Moser, G., Z. Liu, C. Schlosser, T. Spanogle, A. Chandrasekaran, and K. Mcdaniel. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY. Academic Press Incorporated, Orlando, FL, USA, 313: 97-103, (2016).
Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C.
This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate…
Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.
Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…
Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Oliveira, Antônio C
Several studies have shown that physical activity levels have declined in many countries, even with the regular practice of physical education in schools. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of low physical activity levels and associated factors in adolescents enrolled in public high schools in Northeastern Brazil. The sample was composed of 2259 adolescents (62.3% female) aged 16.26 ± 1.1 years. A questionnaire was applied to collect data on physical activity levels, sociodemographic information, tobacco use and alcohol consumption, nutritional status and sedentary behavior. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression hierarchized model with Prevalence Rate (PR) and P ≤ .05 were used. Higher prevalence of low physical activity level (89.1%) was observed. It was observed that 19.6% of individuals did not attend physical education classes regularly. Association was identified between low physical activity level and older girls (P = .02) and not attending physical education classes (P < .01). In males, the group most likely to have that low physical activity level was those whose parents studied until three years (P = .04). Low physical activity level was present in most adolescents, more evident in girls. Lifestyle changes are needed, with substitution of sedentary activities for physical and sport activities in schools.
Clark, Christina; Cunningham, Anna
Do pupils who use Accelerated Reader (AR) think differently about reading, do they enjoy reading more and do they do it more often than pupils who do not use AR? We explore this question using two sources of data. The first utilises data from our 2014 annual literacy survey in which more than 32,000 children and young people aged 8 to 18…
Liu, Xiao; Qin, Shaozheng; Rijpkema, Mark; Luo, Jing; Fernández, Guillén
It is well established that hippocampal activity is positively related to effective associative memory formation. However, in biological systems often optimal levels of activity are contrasted by both sub- and supra-optimal levels. Sub-optimal levels of hippocampal activity are commonly attributed to unsuccessful memory formation, whereas the supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity related to unsuccessful memory formation have been rarely studied. It is still unclear under what circumstances such supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity occur. To clarify this issue, we aimed at creating a condition, in which supra-optimal hippocampal activity is associated with encoding failure. We assumed that such supra-optimal activity occurs when task-relevant information is embedded in task-irrelevant, distracting information, which can be considered as noise. In the present fMRI study, we probed neural correlates of associative memory formation in a full-factorial design with associative memory (subsequently remembered versus forgotten) and noise (induced by high versus low distraction) as factors. Results showed that encoding failure was associated with supra-optimal activity in the high-distraction condition and with sub-optimal activity in the low distraction condition. Thus, we revealed evidence for a bell-shape function relating hippocampal activity with associative encoding success. Our findings indicate that intermediate levels of hippocampal activity are optimal while both too low and too high levels appear detrimental for associative memory formation. Supra-optimal levels of hippocampal activity seem to occur when task-irrelevant information is added to task-relevant signal. If such task-irrelevant noise is reduced adequately, hippocampal activity is lower and thus optimal for associative memory formation.
Little is known about the role of state versus trait characteristics on our enjoyment of music. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, particularly preference for music that evokes negative emotions. The sample consisted of 128 participants who were asked to listen to two pieces of self-selected music and rate the music on variables including preference and felt and expressed emotions. Participants completed a brief measure of state absorption after listening to each piece, and a trait absorption inventory. State absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, whereas trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music, with chi-square analyses demonstrating greater enjoyment of negative emotions in music among individuals with high trait absorption. This is the first study to show that state and trait absorption have separable and distinct effects on a listener’s music experience, with state characteristics impacting music enjoyment in the moment, and trait characteristics influencing music preference based on its emotional content. PMID:27828970
Coulthard, Helen; Thakker, Dipti
Previous research has shown that parental reports of food neophobia and tactile sensitivity are associated with lower fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in children. This study aimed to pilot a behavioral observation measure of tactile play in young children. The primary aim of the study was to see whether children's enjoyment of tactile play was associated with higher F/V consumption, as well as lower food neophobia. Seventy 2- to 5-year-old children (37 males and 33 females) and their parents were recruited through children's centers in the Leicester region of the United Kingdom during July to October 2012. Children's engagement in two tactile play tasks using sticky foods (mashed potatoes and vegetarian gelatin) was observed and rated by both the researcher and parent. Parents were asked to complete a series of questionnaires measuring F/V consumption, food neophobia, and sensory processing. It was found that lower child food neophobia was significantly related to enjoyment of tactile play, whereas child F/V consumption was associated with parental F/V consumption, but not enjoyment of tactile play. The findings strengthen the idea that tactile processing may be associated with the acceptance of food variety, but not the total amount of F/V consumed. Additional research is indicated to determine whether tactile play tasks can be used to lower child food neophobia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hall, Sarah E; Schubert, Emery; Wilson, Sarah J
Little is known about the role of state versus trait characteristics on our enjoyment of music. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, particularly preference for music that evokes negative emotions. The sample consisted of 128 participants who were asked to listen to two pieces of self-selected music and rate the music on variables including preference and felt and expressed emotions. Participants completed a brief measure of state absorption after listening to each piece, and a trait absorption inventory. State absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, whereas trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music, with chi-square analyses demonstrating greater enjoyment of negative emotions in music among individuals with high trait absorption. This is the first study to show that state and trait absorption have separable and distinct effects on a listener's music experience, with state characteristics impacting music enjoyment in the moment, and trait characteristics influencing music preference based on its emotional content.
Atombo, Charles; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhang, Hui; Wemegah, Tina D
Road accidents are an important public health concern, and speeding is a major contributor. Although flow theory (FLT) is a valid model for understanding behavior, currently the nature of the roles and interplay of FLT constructs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework when attempting to explain the determinants of motivations for intention to speed and speeding behavior of car drivers is not yet known. The study aims to synthesize TPB and FLT in explaining drivers of advanced vehicles intentions to speed and speed violation behaviors and evaluate factors that are critical for explaining intention and behavior. The hypothesized model was validated using a sample collected from 354 fully licensed drivers of advanced vehicles, involving 278 males and 76 females on 2 occasions separated by a 3-month interval. During the first of the 2 occasions, participants completed questionnaire measures of TPB and FLT variables. Three months later, participants' speed violation behaviors were assessed. The study observed a significant positive relationship between the constructs. The proposed model accounted for 51 and 45% of the variance in intention to speed and speed violation behavior, respectively. The independent predictors of intention were enjoyment, attitude, and subjective norm. The independent predictors of speed violation behavior were enjoyment, concentration, intention, and perceived behavioral control. The findings suggest that safety interventions for preventing speed violation behaviors should be aimed at underlying beliefs influencing the speeding behaviors of drivers of advanced vehicles. Furthermore, perceived enjoyment is of equal importance to driver's intention, influencing speed violation behavior.
Yi, Zeng; George, Linda; Sereny, Melanie; Gu, Danan; Vaupel, James W.
This study analyzes the unique datasets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey using logistic regression and controlling for various covariates. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that disabled older parents are more satisfied with care provided by daughters than sons and that older parents enjoy greater filial piety from and better relationships with daughters than sons. The daughter-advantages of enjoying greater filial piety from and better relationships with children are stronger among the oldest-old aged 80+ than the young-old aged 65–79, and surprisingly more profound in rural areas than urban areas, while son-preference is much more prevalent among rural residents. We also discuss why China’s rigorous fertility policy until October-2015 and much less-developed pension system in rural areas substantially contribute to sustaining traditional son-preference and a high sex ratio at birth (SRB) when fertility is low. We recommend China take integrative public health policy actions of informing the public that having daughter(s) is beneficial for old age care, developing the rural pension system and implementing the universal two-child policy as soon as possible. We believe that these policy actions would help to reduce son-preference, bring down the high SRB, and enable more future elderly parents to enjoy better care from their children and healthier lives. PMID:28529965
Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.
Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T
New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
... at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is coordinated at the Federal level through the Cabinet Council on Natural Resources and Environment. NRCS provides...
... at the national level. 621.40 Section 621.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... activities at the national level. (a) Policy development in water and related land resources is coordinated at the Federal level through the Cabinet Council on Natural Resources and Environment. NRCS provides...
Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...
Engaging in moderate to vigorous amounts of physical activity is needed for young children to grow and develop to their full potential and the playground environment can help play a role. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity levels of children in preschool settings during outdoor playground activity time. Four…
Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody
The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…
Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman
Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…
Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.
Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…
Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence
Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kim, Su Hwan; Jang, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, You Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Joo Sung
Determining inflammatory activity is crucial for assessing disease activity and for tailoring therapy in patients with Crohn׳s disease (CD). This study aimed to evaluate adipocytokine levels in patients with CD and to determine whether they can serve as surrogate markers for disease activity. Serum samples and information regarding the clinical features of patients in the CD Network Project registry were collected from March 2009 to February 2012. Patients with CD and disease duration of at least 2 years were enrolled in this study. Fasting serum leptin, adiponectin, obestatin and ghrelin levels were measured, and their correlation with clinical features of the patients was analyzed. Serum adipocytokine levels were evaluated according to disease activity as determined by CD activity index score. A total of 153 patients with CD were included. Serum ghrelin levels negatively correlated with patient age (P = 0.041) and age at diagnosis (P = 0.017), and positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.017). Multiple regression analysis showed that serum ghrelin levels were related only to CRP levels (P = 0.032). Like ghrelin, serum leptin levels were also related to CRP levels (P < 0.001). Obestatin and adiponectin levels were not related to CRP levels. Serum adipocytokine levels did not significantly differ across different disease locations or behaviors. Serum ghrelin levels were significantly lower in patients with CD with a history of surgery than in those without (P = 0.007). Serum ghrelin and leptin levels may be useful as surrogate markers for disease activity in patients with CD. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bruce, David G; Devine, Amanda; Prince, Richard L
To examine whether fear of falling is a probable cause of reduced recreational physical activity levels in healthy older women. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal study. One thousand five hundred older, ambulatory women (aged 70-85), selected at random from the electoral roll. Self-reported recreational physical activity levels and fear of falling, demographic variables, anthropometric variables and measures of disability, and physical and cognitive function. The study subjects had low levels of physical and cognitive impairments; 24.1% of the group was obese (body mass index> 30). Twenty-six percent of the women did not participate in recreational physical activity; 39% participated in sufficient activity to gain probable health benefits. Although the women who did not participate in recreational activities were most likely to report fear of falling (45.2%), it was common in the group as a whole (33.9%), including the most active women (27.0%). Independent risk factors for nonparticipation in physical activity were fear of falling (odds ratio (OR)=0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.54-0.90, P=.006), obesity (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.38-0.66, P=.001), and slower times on the timed up-and-go test (OR=0.88, 95% CI=0.84-0.92, P=.001). Fear of falling was also independently associated with lower recreational physical activity levels in women who were active (beta=-0.09, P=.003). Subgroup analysis suggested that fear of falls affected activity levels at a predisability stage in women with mildly impaired mobility. Fear of falling is common in healthy, high-functioning older women and is independently associated with reduced levels of participation in recreational physical activity. Fear of falling is an important psychological barrier that may need to be overcome in programs attempting to improve activity levels in older women.
Dmitruk, Agnieszka; Kunicka, Izabela; Popławska, Helena; Hołub, Wojciech
Appropriate diet and physical activity are vital determinants of psychophysical development in children and adolescents. The aim of the study was to analyse an association between dietary habits and physical activity levels of adolescents from post-grammar schools. The study included 110 girls and 65 boys between 16 and 19 years of age from two post-grammar schools in Biała Podlaska in Poland. They were subjected to a diagnostic survey providing information on their diet (number of meals a day, their regularity, frequency of bread, dairy, meat, fish, sweet, fruit, vegetable and fast food consumption, preferred ways of food processing). Physical activity levels were determined with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire--Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Based on these data, the respondents were stratified to high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Due to small number of participants presenting with low physical activity levels, we did not include this group in further analyses. The significance of differences in the dietary habits of adolescents presenting with high and moderate physical activity levels was verified with the χ2 test. Most girls and boys presented with high levels of physical activity. However, we did not find an evident relationship between dietary habits and physical activity levels. Girls from high and moderate physical activity groups differed solely in terms of the number of daily meals, frequency of meat and sweet consumption, and significant intergroup differences observed among boys pertained to the frequencies of whole-wheat bread, meat and fast food consumption. The abovementioned food products were consumed more often by girls and boys presenting with high physical activity levels. The dietary mistakes observed in physically active adolescents from post-secondary schools justify intensification of their dietary education programs.
Gregg, Virginia R.; And Others
Using feature films to teach undergraduate psychology courses can promote active learning for several reasons. Films can reach students with a variety of learning styles, including those with a visual approach to learning. Also, students seem to enjoy commercial films and their use can help decrease levels of monotony from daily lectures. Feature…
Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...
Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine
The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.
Bell, A Colin; Finch, Meghan; Wolfenden, Luke; Fitzgerald, Michael; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Jannah; Freund, Megan; Wiggers, John
To describe children's physical activity levels during childcare and associations with modifiable characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 328 preschool children (43% girls; age 3-5 years) and 145 staff from 20 long day care centres in the Hunter Region of NSW, Australia. Pedometers assessed child physical activity levels. Centre characteristics and staff attitudes and behaviours towards children's physical activity were assessed using surveys, interviews and observational audit. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Over the measurement period, average step count of children was 15.8 (SD=6.8) steps/minute. Four-year-olds had the highest step counts (16.4, SD=7.1, p=0.03) with no differences by sex. Step counts were significantly higher in centres that had a written physical activity policy (+3.8 steps/minute, p=0.03) and where staff led structured physical activity (+3.7 steps/minute, p<0.001) and joined in active play (+2.9 steps/minute, p=0.06). Written physical activity policy, structured staff-led physical activity and staff joining in active play were associated with higher levels of physical activity. Childcare physical activity interventions should consider including strategies to encourage written physical activity policies and support structured staff led physical activities. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Serón, Pamela; Muñoz, Sergio; Lanas, Fernando
Physical activity plays a crucial role in the protection against cardiovascular diseases. To assess the level of physical activity in a group of subjects living in urban Temuco. Cross sectional study in a random sample of 1091 women aged 52 ± 10 years and 444 men aged 54 ± 10 years , living in Temuco, Chile. The level of physical activity was measured using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Age, gender, educational and socioeconomic level were also determined in study subjects. Median energy expenditure was 2150 and 1600 MET-minute/ week in men and women, respectively (p = 0,001). It decreased with age from a median of 1965 MET-minute/ week in those younger than 50 years old to 1647 MET-minute/ week among subjects aged between 51 and 60 years old and to 1485 MET-minute/ week among those older than 60 years. (p = 0,001). The frequency of high, moderate and low physical activity levels were 15.6, 66 and 18.4 % respectively. These levels were associated with gender, age, educational and socioeconomic level. There was a high frequency of low and moderate levels of physical activity in the urban population of Temuco, associated with female gender, advanced age and middle socioeconomic level.
Lachish, Shelly; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor
Identifying factors that improve job satisfaction of new doctors and ease the difficult transition from student to doctor is of great interest to public health agencies. Studies to date have focused primarily on the value of changes to medical school curricula and induction processes in this regard, but have overlooked the extent to which institutional support can influence new doctors' enjoyment of and attitude to work. Here, we examine variation in the perceived level of support received by new medical graduates in the United Kingdom (UK) from their employer and whether this influences enjoyment of and attitudes to the first postgraduate year, and whether doctors who perceived a lower level of support were less inclined to intend a long term career in medicine in the UK. All UK medical graduates of 2012 were surveyed in 2013 in a cross-sectional study, towards the end of their first post-graduate year (the 'F1' year of the 2-year Foundation Training Programme for new UK doctors). We used linear regression to assess whether the level of support doctors reported receiving from their employing Trust (Very Good, Good, Adequate, Poor, or Very Poor) was associated with the extent to which they enjoyed their F1 year. Similarly, we assessed the strength of associations between self-reported level of Trust support and doctors' responses to 12 statements about fundamental aspects of their working lives, each assessed on a 5-point scale of agreement. Using χ (2) tests we examined whether doctors' intentions to practise medicine in the UK varied with the level of support they reported receiving from their Trust. The response rate was 45 % (2324/5171). Of 2324 responding junior doctors, 63.8 % reported receiving 'Very Good' (23.6 %) or 'Good' (40.2 %) initial support from their Trust, while a further 27.4 % stated they received 'Adequate' support. 'Poor' support was reported by 5.8 % and 'Very Poor' support by 2.2 %. We found very strong positive associations between
Based on the view that almost every interaction a parent has with an infant is an opportunity to help the baby learn more about the world, this book provides parents with simple and effective ways to enrich their infant's environment and to boost their childs language, motor, and social skills. Introductory remarks describe the learning areas…
Zook, Kathleen R.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Wu, Tong Tong
Purpose Although the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls is well-documented, there are girls whose physical activity does not follow this pattern. This study examined the relationships between physical activity trajectories and personal, psychosocial and environmental factors among adolescent girls. Methods Participants were from the University of Maryland field site of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Of 730 girls measured in 8th grade, 589 were re-measured in 11th grade. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelererometers; participants were categorized as active maintainers (n=31), inactive maintainers (n=410), adopters (n=64), or relapsers (n=56). Height and weight were measured, personal and psychosocial information was collected from surveys, and distance from home to school and parks was assessed from Geographical Information Systems. Multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Variables at individual, social, and environmental levels predicted active maintainers and inactive maintainers, while only individual-level variables predicted adoption. None predicted relapse. Higher (favorable) scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend and family physical activity support, frequency of physical activity with friends, and shorter distance from home to a park predicted active maintainers. Overweight/obese status, earlier age at menses, and lower scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend physical activity support, and frequency of physical activity with friends, and further distance from home to school predicted inactive maintainers. High physical self-concept and not being overweight/obese predicted adopters. Conclusion Multi-level factors appear to predict behavior maintenance rather than actual change. Implications and Contribution Although physical activity declines among girls during adolescence, some maintain and others increase their physical activity. Our
Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity. DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants. SETTING—England. PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity. RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was −0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7). CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup. Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661
Tatrow, Kristin; Montgomery, Guy H; Avellino, Maria; Bovbjerg, Dana H
A high level of anticipatory distress in women scheduled for surgery to detect or treat breast cancer emphasizes the importance of investigation of potential targets for distress-reducing interventions. Exercise and sleep have been examined in relation to distress in this population, focusing on the postsurgery period. In this study the authors examined the contributions of physical activity and sleep to anticipatory distress levels in 124 women prior to breast surgery. Patients completed measures of distress, activity and sleep. The authors hypothesized that higher levels of activity and better sleep would be associated with lower anticipatory distress. Additionally, the authors hypothesized that the effects of physical activity on distress would be accounted for by (mediated) sleep quality. Results indicated that physical activity and sleep quality were negatively related to distress (p < .05); however, activity effects were not mediated by sleep. These findings have implications for designing interventions to reduce anticipatory breast surgery distress.
Kwak, Lydia; Berrigan, David; Van Domelen, Dane; Sjöström, Michael; Hagströmer, Maria
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between employment status and job activity level with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, stratified by gender and country. Cross-sectional study design. Data from working age adults (18-65 years) from two cross-sectional studies, the Swedish 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 Attitude Behavior and Change Study (ABC; n=1165) and the 2003-2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=4201), were stratified by employment status (employed and not employed) and job activity level (active, sedentary and mixed). PA in counts×min(-1) and time spent in sedentary, low and moderate or higher intensity were measured with accelerometers. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. In NHANES, the employed had significantly higher counts×min(-1) and spent more time in moderate or higher intensity PA than those not employed. In ABC, no significant differences were observed between employed and unemployed. Adults with active versus sedentary occupations had higher counts×min(-1) and less sedentary time in both the USA and Sweden and in both men and women. For example, counts×min(-1) were 20-40% greater in active versus sedentary jobs. Employment status is related to PA and sedentary time among men and women in the USA but not in Sweden. Among the employed, occupational PA is associated with total PA and sedentary time for both genders and in both countries. Comparisons of PA levels based on objective measurements can refine understanding of country differences in activity. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.
Briani, Ronaldo V; Pazzinatto, Marcella F; De Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Azevedo, Fábio M
Physical activity levels seem to play a role in patellofemoral pain (PFP); however, few studies have been conducted to confirm this hypothesis. To determine the reported pain levels of women with and without PFP who maintain different levels of physical activity; to determine the capability of these levels to predict pain; and to test the capability of two stair-negotiation protocols, with and without external load, to equalize pain between groups. Four groups were divided based on the women's physical activity levels: moderate activity PFP group (28), moderate activity control group (23), intense activity PFP group (22), and intense activity control group (22). All participants were asked to perform 15 repetitions of stair negotiation with and without external load on a seven-step staircase on two separate days. Pain levels were reported using a visual analog scale at five distinct moments: previous month, before stair negotiation, after stair negotiation, before patellofemoral joint (PFJ) loading protocol, and after PFJ loading protocol. The intense activity PFP group showed higher levels of pain than the moderate activity PFP group (F (8,158) =11.714, p=0.000, η 2 =0.30). The PFJ loading protocol was able to equalize and exacerbate pain in the PFP groups. Intense physical activity seems to have a higher association with knee pain than moderate physical activity. A PFJ loading protocol may be an alternative to equalize pain in women with PFP during clinical assessments. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Brasholt, Martin; Chawes, Bo; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Vahlkvist, Signe; Sinding, Marianne; Bisgaard, Hans
The aim of this study was to examine in detail levels and patterns of physical activity in preschool children and the effects of gender and BMI on this activity. Two hundred and fifty-three children aged 5 y participating in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood wore an accelerometer day and night over a 4-wk period. The main outcome measure was level of physical activity using the raw data. A secondary measure was time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). A Fourier series analysis was applied to study in detail patterns over time. Activity profiles throughout the year were unique for each sex, with boys being overall more active than girls except for winter months. Preschool children also showed distinct patterns of physical activity during weekdays as compared with weekends and were most active during weekdays. Preschool children in the highest tertile of BMI had a flat yearly activity profile and tended to be less active as compared with those in the lowest tertile. Preschool children showed significant gender differences in physical activity, with distinct patterns throughout the year as well as between weekdays and weekends. A high BMI tended to be associated with lower levels of physical activity.
Kokshoorn, Bas; Blankers, Bart J; de Zoete, Jacob; Berger, Charles E H
More often than not, the source of DNA traces found at a crime scene is not disputed, but the activity or timing of events that resulted in their transfer is. As a consequence, practitioners are increasingly asked to assign a value to DNA evidence given propositions about activities provided by prosecution and defense counsel. Given that the dispute concerns the nature of the activity that took place or the identity of the actor that carried out the activity, several factors will determine how to formulate the propositions. Determining factors are (1) whether defense claims the crime never took place, (2) whether defense claims someone other than the accused (either an unknown individual or a known person) performed the criminal activity, and (3) whether it is claimed and disputed that the suspect performed an alternative, legitimate activity or has a relation to the victim, the object, or the scene of crime that implies a legitimate interaction. Addressing such propositions using Bayesian networks, we demonstrate the effects of the various proposition sets on the evaluation of the evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung
[Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116
Loprinzi, Paul D; Richart, Sarah M
The purpose of this study was to examine whether white blood cell (WBC) level mediated the relationship between physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; 1,726 U.S. adult men (aged 40 years or older) provided complete data on the study variables. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for a 7-day period to measure their physical activity behavior, and PSA and WBC levels were obtained from a blood sample. After adjustments, results showed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely associated with WBC count (b = - .03; 95% CI [ - 0.04, - 0.006; p = .01), and WBC count (b = .10; 95% CI [0.009, 0.18; p = .04) was positively associated with PSA. Both the Sobel (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 2.0; p = .03) and the Aroian (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 1.9; p = .03) tests demonstrated that WBC mediated the relationship between physical activity and PSA. Additionally, among 107 participants with prostate cancer, survivors engaging in more MVPA had lower levels of WBC (b = - .04; 95% CI [ - 0.09, - 0.0009; p = .04). Conclusion Physical activity may influence PSA levels through WBC modulation; however, future research is needed to determine the direction of causality. Additionally, prostate cancer survivors engaging in higher levels of MVPA had lower levels of WBC, underscoring the importance of promoting physical activity among prostate cancer survivors.
Overbeek, Anouk; Rietjens, Judith A C; Jabbarian, Lea J; Severijnen, Johan; Swart, Siebe J; van der Heide, Agnes; Korfage, Ida J
Frail older adults are increasingly expected to self-manage their health and healthcare. We assessed the extent to which this group is able to take up this responsibility by measuring their level of activation as patients (i.e. their knowledge, skills and confidence to self-manage their health and healthcare). Further, we studied which characteristics of older adults were associated with patient activation. In this cross-sectional study 200 frail, competent adults (median age 87 years) participated. Participants were community-dwelling adults who received home care and residents of care homes. Data were collected via personal interviews in participants' homes. The main outcome measure was patient activation assessed by the short version of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13; range: 0-100). The PAM distinguishes four levels of increasing activation with level 1 indicating poor patient activation and level 4 adequate patient activation. Other studied variables were: multimorbidity, type of residency, frailty (Tilburg Frailty Index), mental competence (Mini Mental State Examination), health-related quality of life (SF-12), satisfaction with healthcare (subscale Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire) and personal characteristics (age, gender, marital status, educational level). Regression analyses were performed to investigate which variables were associated with patient activation. Participants had a median PAM score of 51. Thirty-nine percent had level 1 activation, 31% level 2, 26% level 3 and 5% level 4. Fifty-nine percent of community dwelling adults had level 1 or 2 activation versus 81% of care home residents (p = 0.007). Mental competence (Effect: 0.52, CI: 0.03-1.01, p = 0.04) and health-related quality of life (Effect: 0.15, CI: 0.01-0.30, p = 0.04 for physical health; Effect: 0.20, CI: 0.07-0.34, p = 0.003 for mental health) were positively associated with patient activation. Frailty (Effect: -1.06, CI: -1.75 - -0.36, p = 0.003) was
Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Sakano, Noriko; Teshigawara, Sanae; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tabata, Izumi; Numata, Takeyuki
To investigate the link between serum vaspin levels and physical activity and/or physical fitness in Japanese. A total of 156 subjects (81 men and 75 women) was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum vaspin levels, physical activity by uniaxial accelerometers, peak oxygen uptake, and metabolic risk parameters were evaluated. We also assessed anthropometric and body composition parameters. Serum vaspin levels were over the level of 10 ng/mL in 15 subjects (9.6 %: Vaspin High group). In Vaspin Low group (<5 ng/mL: 74 men and 67 women), serum vaspin levels were 0.12 ± 0.18 ng/mL in men and 0.39 ± 0.70 ng/mL in women. Peak oxygen uptake was significantly and positively correlated with serum vaspin levels even after adjusting for age, physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents × h per week (METs[Symbol: see text]h/w)], BMI, and other confounding factors in men. In turn, physical activity was significantly and positively correlated with serum vaspin levels even after adjusting for confounding factors in women. Serum vaspin levels were closely associated with physical fitness in men and physical activity in women independent of body composition in this Japanese cohort.
Shook, Robin P; Gribben, Nicole C; Hand, Gregory A; Paluch, Amanda E; Welk, Gregory J; Jakicic, John M; Hutto, Brent; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N
Subjective measures of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) rely on relative intensity whereas objective measures capture absolute intensity; thus, fit individuals and unfit individuals may perceive the same activity differently. Adults (N = 211) wore the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for 10 consecutive days to objectively assess sedentary time and MVPA. On day 8, participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to subjectively assess sitting time and MVPA. Fitness was assessed via a maximal treadmill test, and participants were classified as unfit if the result was in the bottom tertile of the study population by sex or fit if in the upper 2 tertiles. Overall, estimates of MVPA between the IPAQ and SWA were not significantly different (IPAQ minus SWA, 67.4 ± 919.1 MVPA min/wk, P = .29). However, unfit participants overestimated MVPA using the IPAQ by 37.3% (P = .02), but fit participants did not (P = .99). This between-group difference was due to overestimation, using the IPAQ, of moderate activity by 93.8 min/wk among the unfit individuals, but underestimation of moderate activity among the fit participants by 149.4 min/wk. Subjective measures of MVPA using the IPAQ varied by fitness category; unfit participants overestimated their MVPA and fit participants accurately estimated their MVPA.
González, Silvia; Lozano, Óscar; Ramírez, Andrea; Grijalba, Carlos
Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identify disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Future interventions to increase physical activity levels in Colombia must consider inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status. Of special concern is the low prevalence of meeting physical activity
Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Morehead, Craig A
To date, studies examining physical activity (PA) levels have largely been dedicated to the school setting, while there is little known about the activity levels of children who participate in traditional or summer day camps. Participants were 83 11- to 12-year-old campers who partook in either Sport Education or traditional instruction at a large residential summer camp. All lessons were video recorded and coded using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT), which categorizes PA levels as well as contextual characteristics. Results indicated that campers who participated in Sport Education spent a higher percentage of time (61.6%) engaged in moderate to vigorous activity than campers in the traditional activity unit (42.2%). In addition, campers spent less time idly within Sport Education (27.9%), than its counterpart (39.5%). These findings indicate that utilizing the Sport Education model may provide campers with higher levels of PA within this context.
Beatty, Jackson; Wagoner, Brennis L.
Reports increased central nervous system vigilance and activation was observed as indicated by pupillary dilation during the decision interval of a letter matching task as higher levels of processing were performed. (SL)
Bratteby Tollerz, L U; Forslund, A H; Olsson, R M; Lidström, H; Holmbäck, U
This study compared daily activity energy expenditure (AEE) in children with cerebral palsy with a control group and investigated whether the children achieved healthy levels of physical activity. We enrolled eight children with bilateral cerebral palsy, from eight to 10 years of age, and a group of controls matched for age and gender. For three days, physical activity was simultaneously measured by accelerometers and self-reports using a diary. The daily AEE results were compared between groups and methods. The number of children that achieved healthy physical activity levels in each group was explored. Children with cerebral palsy had significantly lower daily AEE, as measured by accelerometers, than the controls, and they did not achieve the healthy moderate to heavy physical activity level defined in the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Self-reports using the diaries resulted in an overestimation of physical activity compared with the ankle accelerometer measurements in both groups. Our investigation of physical activity in children with cerebral palsy and controls using accelerometers and a diary found low levels of daily AEE and physical activity, and these results were most prominent in the group with cerebral palsy. The diaries overestimated physical activity in both groups. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ma, Congcong; Li, Wenfeng; Gravina, Raffaele; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Qimeng; Fortino, Giancarlo
As a sedentary lifestyle leads to numerous health problems, it is important to keep constant motivation for a more active lifestyle. A large majority of the worldwide population, such as office workers, long journey vehicle drivers and wheelchair users, spends several hours every day in sedentary activities. The postures that sedentary lifestyle users assume during daily activities hide valuable information that can reveal their wellness and general health condition. Aiming at mining such underlying information, we developed a cushion-based system to assess their activity levels and recognize the activity from the information hidden in sitting postures. By placing the smart cushion on the chair, we can monitor users' postures and body swings, using the sensors deployed in the cushion. Specifically, we construct a body posture analysis model to recognize sitting behaviors. In addition, we provided a smart cushion that effectively combine pressure and inertial sensors. Finally, we propose a method to assess the activity levels based on the evaluation of the activity assessment index (AAI) in time sliding windows. Activity level assessment can be used to provide statistical results in a defined period and deliver recommendation exercise to the users. For practical implications and actual significance of results, we selected wheelchair users among the participants to our experiments. Features in terms of standard deviation and approximate entropy were compared to recognize the activities and activity levels. The results showed that, using the novel designed smart cushion and the standard deviation features, we are able to achieve an accuracy of (>89%) for activity recognition and (>98%) for activity level recognition.
Li, Wenfeng; Gravina, Raffaele; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Qimeng
As a sedentary lifestyle leads to numerous health problems, it is important to keep constant motivation for a more active lifestyle. A large majority of the worldwide population, such as office workers, long journey vehicle drivers and wheelchair users, spends several hours every day in sedentary activities. The postures that sedentary lifestyle users assume during daily activities hide valuable information that can reveal their wellness and general health condition. Aiming at mining such underlying information, we developed a cushion-based system to assess their activity levels and recognize the activity from the information hidden in sitting postures. By placing the smart cushion on the chair, we can monitor users’ postures and body swings, using the sensors deployed in the cushion. Specifically, we construct a body posture analysis model to recognize sitting behaviors. In addition, we provided a smart cushion that effectively combine pressure and inertial sensors. Finally, we propose a method to assess the activity levels based on the evaluation of the activity assessment index (AAI) in time sliding windows. Activity level assessment can be used to provide statistical results in a defined period and deliver recommendation exercise to the users. For practical implications and actual significance of results, we selected wheelchair users among the participants to our experiments. Features in terms of standard deviation and approximate entropy were compared to recognize the activities and activity levels. The results showed that, using the novel designed smart cushion and the standard deviation features, we are able to achieve an accuracy of (>89%) for activity recognition and (>98%) for activity level recognition. PMID:28972556
Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin
During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the active and controlled acromegaly patients regarding serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of <118.3 ng/mL. In this study, serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9
Friston, K J; Holmes, A; Poline, J B; Price, C J; Frith, C D
This paper is about detecting activations in statistical parametric maps and considers the relative sensitivity of a nested hierarchy of tests that we have framed in terms of the level of inference (voxel level, cluster level, and set level). These tests are based on the probability of obtaining c, or more, clusters with k, or more, voxels, above a threshold u. This probability has a reasonably simple form and is derived using distributional approximations from the theory of Gaussian fields. The most important contribution of this work is the notion of set-level inference. Set-level inference refers to the statistical inference that the number of clusters comprising an observed activation profile is highly unlikely to have occurred by chance. This inference pertains to the set of activations reaching criteria and represents a new way of assigning P values to distributed effects. Cluster-level inferences are a special case of set-level inferences, which obtain when the number of clusters c = 1. Similarly voxel-level inferences are special cases of cluster-level inferences that result when the cluster can be very small (i.e., k = 0). Using a theoretical power analysis of distributed activations, we observed that set-level inferences are generally more powerful than cluster-level inferences and that cluster-level inferences are generally more powerful than voxel-level inferences. The price paid for this increased sensitivity is reduced localizing power: Voxel-level tests permit individual voxels to be identified as significant, whereas cluster-and set-level inferences only allow clusters or sets of clusters to be so identified. For all levels of inference the spatial size of the underlying signal f (relative to resolution) determines the most powerful thresholds to adopt. For set-level inferences if f is large (e.g., fMRI) then the optimum extent threshold should be greater than the expected number of voxels for each cluster. If f is small (e.g., PET) the extent
Torres, Berta; Guardo, Alberto C; Leal, Lorna; Leon, Agathe; Lucero, Constanza; Alvarez-Martinez, Míriam J; Martinez, Miguel J; Vila, Jordi; Martínez-Rebollar, María; González-Cordón, Ana; Gatell, Josep M; Plana, Montserrat; García, Felipe
Introduction Monotherapy with protease-inhibitors (MPI) may be an alternative to cART for HIV treatment. We assessed the impact of this strategy on immune activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing patients on successful MPI (n=40) with patients on cART (n=20). Activation, senescence, exhaustion and differentiation stage in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, markers of monocyte activation, microbial translocation, inflammation, coagulation and low-level viremia were assessed. Results CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte subset parameters were not significantly different between both groups. Conversely, as compared with triple cART, MPI patients showed a higher proportion of activated monocytes (CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells, p=0.031), soluble markers of monocyte activation (sCD14 p=0.004, sCD163 p=0.002), microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein; LBP p=0.07), inflammation (IL-6 p=0.04) and low-level viremia (p=0.035). In a multivariate model, a higher level of CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells and sCD14, and presence of very low-level viremia were independently associated with MPI. Monocyte activation was independently associated with markers of inflammation (IL-6, p=0.006), microbial translocation (LBP, p=0.01) and low-level viremia (p=0.01). Conclusions Patients on MPI showed a higher level of monocyte activation than patients on standard therapy. Microbial translocation and low-level viremia were associated with the high level of monocyte activation observed in patients on MPI. The long-term clinical consequences of these findings should be assessed. PMID:25280865
Bejarano, Hernán D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Rassenti, Stephen
This article examines individual and social influences on investments in health and enjoyment from immediate consumption. Our lab experiment mimics the problem of health investment over a lifetime (Grossman, 1972a,b). Incentives to find the appropriate expenditures on life enjoyment and health are given by making in each period come period a function of previous health investments. In order to model social effects in the experiment, we randomly assigned individuals to chat/observation groups. Groups were permitted to freely chat between repeated lifetimes. Two treatments were employed: In the Independent-rewards treatment, an individual's rewards from investments in life enjoyment depend only on his choice and in the Interdependent-rewards treatment; rewards not only depend on an individual's choices but also on their similarity to the choices of the others in their group, generating a premium on conformity. The principal hypothesis is that gains from conformity increase variance in health behavior among groups and can lead to suboptimal performance. We tested three predictions and each was supported by the data: the Interdependent-rewards treatment (1) decreased within-group variance, (2) increased between-group variance, and (3) increased the likelihood of behavior far from the optimum with respect to the dynamic problem. We also test and find support for a series of subsidiary hypotheses. We found: (4) Subjects engaged in helpful chat in both treatments; (5) there was significant heterogeneity among both subjects and groups in chat frequencies; and (6) chat was most common early in the experiment, and (7) the interdependent rewards treatment increased strategic chat frequency. Incentives for conformity appear to promote prosocial behavior, but also increase variance among groups, leading to convergence on suboptimal strategies for some groups. We discuss these results in light of the growing literature focusing on social networks and health outcomes. PMID
Background About half a billion people with disabilities in developing countries have limited access to assistive technology. The Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities requires governments to take measures to ensure provision of such technologies. To guide implementation of these measures there is a need for understanding health outcomes from a human rights perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the relation between assistive technology use and enjoyment of human rights in a low-income country. Methods Data was collected in eight districts of Bangladesh through interviews of people with hearing impairments using and not using hearings aids, and people with ambulatory impairments using and not using manual wheelchairs (N = 583). Using logistic regression, self-reported outcomes on standard of living, health, education, work, receiving information and movement were analyzed. Results The adjusted likelihood of reporting greater enjoyment of human rights was significantly higher among people using hearing aids compared to non-users for all outcomes except working status. Compared to non-users, users of wheelchairs reported a significantly higher adjusted likelihood of good ambulatory performance and a significantly lower adjusted likelihood of reporting a positive working status. Further analyses indicated that physical accessibility to working places and duration of wheelchair use had a statistically significant impact on the likelihood of reporting positive work outcomes. Conclusions The findings support the notion that assistive technology use increases the likelihood of human rights enjoyment, particularly hearing aid use. Physical accessibility should always be addressed in wheelchair provision. PMID:22992413
Bejarano, Hernán D; Kaplan, Hillard; Rassenti, Stephen
This article examines individual and social influences on investments in health and enjoyment from immediate consumption. Our lab experiment mimics the problem of health investment over a lifetime (Grossman, 1972a,b). Incentives to find the appropriate expenditures on life enjoyment and health are given by making in each period come period a function of previous health investments. In order to model social effects in the experiment, we randomly assigned individuals to chat/observation groups. Groups were permitted to freely chat between repeated lifetimes. Two treatments were employed: In the Independent-rewards treatment, an individual's rewards from investments in life enjoyment depend only on his choice and in the Interdependent-rewards treatment; rewards not only depend on an individual's choices but also on their similarity to the choices of the others in their group, generating a premium on conformity. The principal hypothesis is that gains from conformity increase variance in health behavior among groups and can lead to suboptimal performance. We tested three predictions and each was supported by the data: the Interdependent-rewards treatment (1) decreased within-group variance, (2) increased between-group variance, and (3) increased the likelihood of behavior far from the optimum with respect to the dynamic problem. We also test and find support for a series of subsidiary hypotheses. We found: (4) Subjects engaged in helpful chat in both treatments; (5) there was significant heterogeneity among both subjects and groups in chat frequencies; and (6) chat was most common early in the experiment, and (7) the interdependent rewards treatment increased strategic chat frequency. Incentives for conformity appear to promote prosocial behavior, but also increase variance among groups, leading to convergence on suboptimal strategies for some groups. We discuss these results in light of the growing literature focusing on social networks and health outcomes.
Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine H; Christensen, Finn B; Fonager, Kirsten
Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities in the LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p < 0.001. Despite being equally physically active and engaged in leisure activities, LDS patients did not achieve a quality of life comparable to that of THA patients 1 year postoperatively.
Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this presenta...
Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this paper is...
Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.
Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…
Mota, Jorge; Esculcas, Carlos
The main goals of this cross-sectional survey were (a) to describe the associations between sex, age, and physical activity behavior and (b) to describe the age and sex-related associations with the choice of structured (formal) and unstructured (nonformal) physical activity programs. At baseline, data were selected randomly from 1,013 students, from the 7th to the 12th grades. A response rate of 73% (n = 739) was obtained. Accordingly, the sample of this study consisted of 594 adolescents (304 females and 290 males) with mean age of 15.9 years (range 13-20). Physical activity was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A questionnaire about leisure activities was applied to the sample to define the nominal variable "nature of physical activity." The data showed that significantly more girls than boys (p < or = .001) belonged to the sedentary group (80.7% girls) and low activity group (64.5% girls). Boys more frequently belonged to the more active groups (92.1%; p < or = .001). The older participants were more engaged in formal physical activities, whereas the younger mostly chose informal ones whatever their level of physical activity. There were more significant differences in girls' physical activity groups (chi 2 = 20.663, p < or = .001) than in boys' (chi 2 = 7.662, p < or = .05). Furthermore, active girls chose more structured physical activities than their sedentary counterparts (18.8% vs. 83.3%). However, boys preferred unstructured activities regardless of physical activity group (83.7% vs. 58.5%; p < or = .05). It can be concluded that as age increased, organized sports activities became a relatively more important component of total weekly activity for both male and female participants.
STS-45 Commander Charles F. Bolden retrieves a straw from his meal tray assembly secured on the middeck ceiling as other blue shift crewmembers around him enjoy eating their meals. Below Bolden, Pilot Brian Duffy balances a meal tray assembly on his lap as a food package and spoon freefloat between his hands. Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout, holding a food package and a spoon, steadies himself while eating by positioning his feet under a forward locker handhold strap. In the background, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Kathryn D. Sullivan prepares to take a bite of food.
Gispen, Fiona E.; Chen, David S.; Genther, Dane J.; Lin, Frank R.
OBJECTIVES Identifying modifiable risk factors for decreased physical activity in older adults is important given the impact of physical activity on health. Whether hearing impairment, highly prevalent in older adults, is associated with activity levels is unclear. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis SETTING 2005–2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey PARTICIPANTS 706 adults aged 70 years or greater who completed audiometric testing and whose physical activity was assessed subjectively with questionnaires and objectively with body-worn accelerometers MEASUREMENTS Hearing impairment was defined by the speech-frequency (0.5 – 4 kilohertz (kHz) pure tone average in the better-hearing ear (normal <25 decibel (dB), mild 25 to <40dB, moderate or greater ≥40dB). Main outcome measures were self-reported leisure time physical activity and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Both were quantified using minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and categorized into three levels: inactive, insufficiently active, and sufficiently active. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS Compared to those with normal hearing, individuals with moderate or greater hearing impairment had a greater odds of being in a lower category of physical activity as measured by self-report (OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.11, 2.28) and accelerometry (OR=1.70, 95%CI: 0.99, 2.91). Mild hearing impairment was not associated with level of physical activity. CONCLUSION Moderate or greater hearing impairment in older adults is associated with decreased levels of physical activity independent of demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Future research is needed to investigate the basis of this association and whether hearing rehabilitative interventions could affect physical activity in older adults. PMID:25041032
Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos
To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable,s the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Coe, Dawn Podulka; Pivarnik, James M; Womack, Christopher J; Reeves, Mathew J; Malina, Robert M
This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical education class enrollment and physical activity on academic achievement in middle school children. Participants were 214 sixth-grade students randomly assigned to physical education during either first or second semesters. Moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (number of 30-min time blocks) outside of school was assessed using the 3-d physical activity recall (3DPAR). The 3DPAR time blocks were converted to ordinal data with scores of 1 (no activity), 2 (some activity), or 3 (activity meeting Healthy People 2010 guidelines). Academic achievement was assessed using grades from four core academic classes and standardized test scores (Terra Nova percentiles). Grades were similar regardless of whether students were enrolled in physical education during first or second semesters. Physical education classes averaged only 19 min of MVPA. Students who either performed some or met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for vigorous activity had significantly higher grades (P < 0.05) than students who performed no vigorous activity in both semesters. Moderate physical activity did not affect grades. Standardized test scores were not significantly related to physical education class enrollment or physical activity levels. Although academic achievement was not significantly related to physical education enrollment, higher grades were associated with vigorous physical activity, particularly activity meeting recommended Healthy People 2010 levels.
Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John
This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.
Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina
The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…
Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank
In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…
Hilton, Jason T.
As social and academic forces begin to collide for young adolescents at the beginning of the middle level experience, students experience an unfortunate drop in their creativity. Appropriately trained middle level teachers have the potential to lessen this problem through the use of carefully selected open-ended learning activities that increase…
This systematic review presents research on the physical activity levels of preschool-aged children (aged 2-6 years). Thirty-nine primary studies (published 1986-2007) representing a total of 10,316 participants (5236 male and 5080 female), from seven countries are described and the physical activity behaviors of this population are considered in…
Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.
Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…
Venditti, M; Tarasi, A; Baiocchi, P; Lamonaca, V; Testore, G P
Trospectomycin, a new aminocyclitol antibiotic, was uniformly active against 69 isolates of enterococci with high-level resistance to steptomycin (54 isolates), gentamicin (27 isolates), ampicillin (19 isolates), ciprofloxacin (17 isolates), vancomycin (3 isolates), or teicoplanin (3 isolates). In time-killing studies, trospectomycin alone demonstrated no bactericidal activity. No synergistic interaction was demonstrated when trospectomycin was combined with ampicillin, vacomycin or ciprofloxacin.
McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others
In this study, researchers observed third graders' physical activity levels and associated variables in physical education classes in four Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health centers nationwide. Results found significant differences among centers for physical activity and lesson context variables. During free play, boys were more…
Dixon, Mark R.; Nastally, Becky L.; Waterman, Amber
The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results…
Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy
Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…
Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.
This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…
Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger
The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…
Ul-Haq, Zahoor; Khurram, Bushra Ahmed; Bangash, Arshad Khan
Purpose: This paper discusses an effective instructional method called "activity based learning" that can be used to develop the speaking skills of students in the elementary school level. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of activity based learning on the development of the speaking skills of low and high achievers…
Three national health objectives for 2010 (objectives no. 22-6, 22-7, and 22-11) aim to increase levels of physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. To promote a healthy, more active lifestyle among U.S. youth, CDC developed the Youth Media Campaign (YMC), a national initiative to encourage children aged 9-13 years to engage in and maintain high levels of regular physical activity. To provide a baseline assessment of physical activity levels among children aged 9-13 years, CDC conducted the YMC Longitudinal Survey (YMCLS), a nationally representative survey of children aged 9-13 years and their parents. This report presents data from the survey, which indicate that 61.5% of children aged 9-13 years do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours and that 22.6% do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Improving levels of physical activity among this population will require innovative solutions that motivate children and that address parents' perceived barriers to their children engaging in physical activity.
Mindubaeva, F A; Shukurov, F A; Salikhova, Y Y; Niyazova, Y I; Ramazanov, A K
Comprehensive study of the cardiovascular system functional condition of 15-16 teenagers while in normal daily locomotor activity and in the mode of regular moderate physical activity was performed. The features of cerebral circulation and myocardium functional condition of teenagers are studied depending on initial tonus of the autonomic nervous system and locomotor activity level in the process of continuous step physical activity on tredmil. The condition of regulatory mechanisms, providing adaptation of teenagers in the conditions of modern school was studied. Research results showed, that elasticity of cerebrum arterial vessels, veins tone, venous outflow for teenagers not having regular physical activity, considerably mionectic. More adequate reaction of coronary blood flow in the process of physical activity is educed for the trained teenagers with the balanced autonomic regulation of cardiac rhythm. This group showed a higher level and regulation quality of organism reserve possibilities.
levels and the deployed lifestyle, particularly nutritional intake, activity levels, and elevated stress levels on a long-term basis. One very well known...available during the recruit phase of training. On the other hand, thousands of studies exist relating risk factors, disease states, nutritional habits...the presence of chylomicrons. The accumulation of triglycerides is generally proportional to the amount of dietary fat. Dyslipidemia is a more
Maturana, Carola J; Aguirre, Adam; Sáez, Juan C
Exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) during early life induces long-lasting neuroinflammation. GCs induce rapid degranulation of mast cells, which release proinflammatory molecules promoting activation of microglia and astrocytes. The possible involvement of oligodendrocytes, however, remains poorly understood. It was studied whether high GC levels during gestation activates the inflammasome in hippocampal oligodendrocytes of mouse offspring. Oligodendrocytes of control pups showed expression of inflammasome components (NLRP3, ACS, and caspase-1) and their levels were increased by prenatal administration of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic GC. These cells also showed high levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, revealing activation of the inflammasome. Moreover, they showed increased levels of the P2X 7 receptor and pannexin1, which are associated to inflammasome activation. However, levels of connexins either were not affected (Cx29) or reduced (Cx32 and Cx47). Nonetheless, the functional states of pannexin1 and connexin hemichannels were elevated and directly associated to functional P2X 7 receptors. As observed in DEX-treated brain slices, hemichannel activity first increased in hippocampal mast cells and later in microglia and macroglia. DEX-induced oligodendrocyte hemichannel activity was mimicked by urocortin-II, which is a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR) agonist. Response to DEX and urocortin-II was inhibited by antalarmin (a CRHR blocker) or by mast cells or microglia inhibitors. The increase in hemichannel activity persisted for several weeks after birth and cross-fostering with a control mother did not reverse this condition. It is proposed that activation of the oligodendrocyte inflammasome might be relevant in demyelinating diseases associated with early life exposure to high GC levels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 625-642, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Breda, Chris Andreissy; Rodacki, André Luiz Félix; Leite, Neiva; Homann, Diogo; Goes, Suelen Meira; Stefanello, Joice Mara Facco
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition that causes impaired functional capacity, possibly through the adoption of sedentary behaviour. However, little is known regarding physical activity level and its relationship with physical performance in women with FM. To compare physical activity level, assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and physical performance, measured using the six-minute walk test (6MWT), in women with and without FM, and to examine the possible relationships between physical activity level and physical performance in both groups. The study included 30 women diagnosed with FM (patients) and 28 healthy women (controls) who answered the IPAQ and performed the 6MWT. Patients and controls self-reported similar physical activity level, considering both the total score and all IPAC subcomponents (P > 0.05). However, the FM patients had worse physical performance in the 6MWT (patients, 441.8 ± 84.1 m vs. controls, 523.9 ± 80.3 m; P < 0.01). There were no relationships between the distance walked in the 6MWT and the IPAQ variables for the control group. However, the distance walked by patients in the test showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) with the total score and the subcomponents transport, household activities, and physical activities of moderate intensity in the IPAQ. Women with FM had physical activity levels similar to women without FM but exhibited worse physical performance. This functional impairment may be related to lifestyle adopted because there was a relationship between physical activity level and physical performance in those patients.
Rueegg, Corina S; Gianinazzi, Micòl E; Michel, Gisela; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Bergstraesser, Eva; Kuehni, Claudia E
The extent to which physical performance limitations affect the ability of childhood cancer survivors to reach healthy activity levels is unknown. Therefore this study aims to describe the effect of different types of limitations on activity levels in survivors. Within the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study we sent a questionnaire to all survivors (≥16 years) registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived >5 years and were diagnosed 1976-2005 aged <16 years. We measured healthy activity levels using international guidelines and assessed different kinds of performance limitations (visual impairment, weight and endurance problems, cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neurological problems, pain and fatigue syndromes). The sample included 1,560 survivors (75% response rate), of whom 209 (13.5%) reported they have performance limitations. Forty-two percent of survivors with limitations reached healthy activity levels, compared to 57% of survivors without limitations. Least active were survivors with vision impairments (25% active), weight and endurance problems (27.3%), cardiorespiratory problems (36.4%), and musculoskeletal problems (43.1%). After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and type of cancer, we found that survivors with limitations were 1.4 (95%CI 1.0-2.0; P = 0.047) times more likely to be inactive. Although many survivors with physical performance limitations maintain healthy activity levels, there is room for improvement. Adapted and targeted physical activity counseling for survivors with performance limitations might help them to raise level of activity and pursue a healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Lamis, Dorian A; Serafini, Gianluca; Ricci, Federica; Migliorati, Monica; Bellini, Samantha; Erbuto, Denise; Mazza, Marianna; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Martelletti, Paolo
Objective Medication-overuse headache is often comorbid with emotional disturbances and disordered personality traits. The aim of the present study was to determine whether depression and insomnia complaints were associated with satisfaction and enjoyment with one's own life in medication-overuse headache patients, and whether insomnia complaints were able to explain part of the variance of Quality of Life explained by depression. Methods Participants were 187 consecutive adult outpatients admitted to the Regional Referral Headache Centre of the Sant'Andrea Hospital in Rome, Italy. Patients were administered the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory - II, and the Athens Insomnia Scale. Results The Beck Depression Inventory was associated with all the dimensions of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, with more severe depression being associated independently with lower satisfaction and enjoyment with one's own life. The Athens Insomnia Scale was independently and significantly associated only with physical health, such that patients with more insomnia complaints were 3.1 times ( p < 0.001) more likely to report lower physical health satisfaction. Conclusions Our findings confirmed that medication-overuse headache patients has a negative impact on quality of life and suggested that depression and insomnia were independently associated with satisfaction and enjoyment of life in medication-overuse headache patients. The early recognition and appropriate treatment of comorbid psychopathological symptoms are crucial to improve satisfaction and enjoyment of life in medication-overuse headache patients.
Anbar, Tag; Zuel-Fakkar, Nehal Mohamed; Matta, Mary Fikry; Arbab, Mai Mohammed Ibrahim
Vitiligo is the most prevalent acquired pigmentary disorder as a result of destruction of melanocytes. Several studies have reported increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) in vitiligo patients which may be the result of decreased Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels. In addition, homocystinuria is associated with pigmentary dilution. On the other hand, other studies reported normal serum homocysteine levels. Our aim was to study the Hcy level in active vitiligo patients both in serum and in suction blister fluid obtained from the lesional skin. A total of 30 patients with active vitiligo of both sexes and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. Sera from the blood and from lesional induced bullae were obtained from the patients and controls and were assayed for Hcy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. There were no significant differences in the serum levels of Hcy between patients and healthy controls, however, the increase in Hcy level was highly statistically significant in the patients' lesional induced bulla compared to the healthy controls. There was no significant difference in Hcy levels between males and females and between patients with negative or positive family histories of vitiligo. The presence of a high homocysteine level in active vitiligo lesions points to a local event occurring in this lesion, which is not reflected as an increase in the patient's serum level.
..., Jucas JW, Ward BW, Peregoy JA. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview... activity. Walking can be an enjoyable recreational, occupational or purposeful (e.g., for transportation...; and national-, state-, tribal-, territorial-, community-, organizational-, and individual-level...
Harvey, Stacy L.; Enciso, Germán; Dephoure, Noah; Gygi, Steven P.; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Kellogg, Douglas R.
Entry into mitosis is initiated by synthesis of cyclins, which bind and activate cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). Cyclin synthesis is gradual, yet activation of Cdk1 occurs in a stepwise manner: a low level of Cdk1 activity is initially generated that triggers early mitotic events, which is followed by full activation of Cdk1. Little is known about how stepwise activation of Cdk1 is achieved. A key regulator of Cdk1 is the Wee1 kinase, which phosphorylates and inhibits Cdk1. Wee1 and Cdk1 show mutual regulation: Cdk1 phosphorylates Wee1, which activates Wee1 to inhibit Cdk1. Further phosphorylation events inactivate Wee1. We discovered that a specific form of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2ACdc55) opposes the initial phosphorylation of Wee1 by Cdk1. In vivo analysis, in vitro reconstitution, and mathematical modeling suggest that PP2ACdc55 sets a threshold that limits activation of Wee1, thereby allowing a low constant level of Cdk1 activity to escape Wee1 inhibition in early mitosis. These results define a new role for PP2ACdc55 and reveal a systems-level mechanism by which dynamically opposed kinase and phosphatase activities can modulate signal strength. PMID:21849476
Harvey, Stacy L; Enciso, Germán; Dephoure, Noah; Gygi, Steven P; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Kellogg, Douglas R
Entry into mitosis is initiated by synthesis of cyclins, which bind and activate cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). Cyclin synthesis is gradual, yet activation of Cdk1 occurs in a stepwise manner: a low level of Cdk1 activity is initially generated that triggers early mitotic events, which is followed by full activation of Cdk1. Little is known about how stepwise activation of Cdk1 is achieved. A key regulator of Cdk1 is the Wee1 kinase, which phosphorylates and inhibits Cdk1. Wee1 and Cdk1 show mutual regulation: Cdk1 phosphorylates Wee1, which activates Wee1 to inhibit Cdk1. Further phosphorylation events inactivate Wee1. We discovered that a specific form of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A(Cdc55)) opposes the initial phosphorylation of Wee1 by Cdk1. In vivo analysis, in vitro reconstitution, and mathematical modeling suggest that PP2A(Cdc55) sets a threshold that limits activation of Wee1, thereby allowing a low constant level of Cdk1 activity to escape Wee1 inhibition in early mitosis. These results define a new role for PP2A(Cdc55) and reveal a systems-level mechanism by which dynamically opposed kinase and phosphatase activities can modulate signal strength.
Hombek, Karolina; Jarema, Magdalena; Smoleń, Ewa
Physical activity is a key component of a healthy lifestyle. The data of WHO conclude that little physical activity is the fourth key risk factor of premature death. Weight disorder such as obesity and overweight are an significant risk factor in cancer development. The aim of the study was to determine physical activity in cancer prevention among the population of Sanok's county. The study covered a group 157 residents of Sanok's county in 2015. A method of diagnostic survey and conventional survey was used. The main research tool was a selfmade survey. The p values p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. Almost half of the respondents of the survey declared doing sport regularly and most of them were young people with higher education. The preferred form of physical activity among the survey group was jogging. Only one third of surveyed people declared regular physical activity. The responders usually evaluated their level of physical activity as medium. The main reasons for physical activity were: achieving better wellbeing and maintaining good physical condition, whereas laziness and lack of time were the main reasons of the lack of physical activity. Responders most often spend from 30-90 minutes on working out on their workout days. Risk factor of cancer in the study group were physical activity. Age, sex and place of residence conditioned the level of physical activity and up keeping proper body weight. These studies require constant increase of awareness in the area of physical activity.
Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.
We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.
Longo, Egmar; Badia, Marta; Orgaz, Begoña M
This study analyzed the patterns and predictors of participation in leisure activities outside of school of Spanish children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Children and adolescents with CP (n = 199; 113 males and 86 females) participated in this cross-sectional study. Their mean age was 12.11 years (SD = 3.02; range 8-18 years), and they were evaluated using the Spanish version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Means, standard deviations and percentages were used to characterize the profile of participation, and linear regression analyses were employed to assess associations between the variables (child, family and environmental factors) and the diversity, intensity and enjoyment of participation. Children and adolescents with CP reported low diversity and intensity of participation and high levels of enjoyment. Participation in leisure activities outside of school was determined more by child and environmental factors than by family ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley
The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.
Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley
The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900
Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
to investigate the association between objective measures of physical activity levels, physical fitness and screen time in Colombia children and adolescents from Bogota, Colombia. a sample of 149 healthy Colombian youth, children and adolescents (9-17.9 years old) participated in the study. Physical activity level was assessed over 7 days using an accelerometer. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip waist, subscapular/ triceps skinfold thicknesses and self-reported screen time (television/internet and videogame-viewing time) were measured. Aerobic capacity, handgrip strength, standing broad jump, vertical jump, speed/agility and flexibility were used as indicators of physical fitness. in girls with a high level of physical activity had favorable aerobic capacity (r = 0.366) and inverse relationship with subscapular/triceps skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.257) and (r = -0,237) p < 0.05, respectively. In boys, vigorous physical activity were associated with higher values of flexibility (r = 0.277) and aerobic capacity (r = 0.347), p < 0.05. Finally, the participants who watched 2 h or less of television per day showed 1.81 times (95%CI 1.401 to 2.672) that met physical activity guidelines. the healthy Colombian youth who reported moderate to vigorous objective measures of physical activity levels, presented higher levels in physical fitness especially in aerobic capacity and flexibility and lower values in subscapular/triceps skinfold thicknesses. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Lindgren, Richard; Hendricks, Curtis; Lucatorto, Lynn; McNeilus, Thomas; Thornton, Stephen
Several hands-on activities in light and optics covering selected topics will be discussed in the context of home labs and how such activities can be incorporated into a distance-learning or online web-based course utilizing the latest communication technologies and the Internet. The presentation will focus on activities that can be constructed from easy to obtain supplies as well as a commercially available kit that we are having made available. Activities for teachers at the elementary level will focus on understanding light rays, shadows, and reflection from plane surfaces; at the middle school level will focus on curved mirrors and lenses, dispersion, and drawing ray diagrams; at the high school level will focus on Snell's law, the lens equation, wave interference, polarization, Young's experiment, and diffraction. A distance-learning, web-based course based on these home labs will be described. )
Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Della Porta, Matthew D; Kiken, Laura G; Tillman, Shanna
Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly applied to treat eating-related problems ranging from obesity to eating disorders. Yet few studies have empirically examined the mechanisms of a mindful approach to eating. The current studies examine the potential of brief mindfulness instructions to enhance the psychological and behavioral dimensions of eating. In three experiments (total N = 319 undergraduates), we examined whether brief mindfulness instructions would enhance the positive sensory experience involved in tasting food as well as healthy eating behaviors. Relative to distraction control instructions, the first two studies demonstrated that brief mindfulness instructions increased the enjoyment of a commonly pleasurable food (chocolate; Study 1), and a food with generally more mixed associations (raisins; Study 2). The third study replicated and extended these findings to show that brief mindfulness instructions also led to lower calorie consumption of unhealthy food relative to distracted or no-instruction control conditions, an effect mediated by greater eating enjoyment. Findings demonstrated the power of brief mindfulness instructions to positively impact both health-relevant behavior and sensory experience associated with eating food. Implications for both theory and clinical applications of mindfulness are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This research adopts three primary colors and their three mixed colors as main color hue variances by changing the background of a female nude digital image. The color saturation variation is selected to 9S as high saturation and 3S as low saturation of PCCS. And the color tone elements are adopted in 3.5 as low brightness, 5.5 as medium brightness for primary color, and 7.5 as low brightness. The water-color brush stroke used for two female body digital images which consisting of a visual pleasant image with elegant posture and another unpleasant image with stiff body language, is to add the visual intimacy. Results show the brightness of color is the main factor impacting visual enjoyment, followed by saturation. Explicitly, high-brightness with high saturation gains the highest rate of enjoyment, high-saturation medium brightness (primary color) the second, and high-brightness with low saturation the third, and low-brightness with low saturation the least.
Tarasenko, Yelena N; Miller, Eric A; Chen, Chen; Schoenberg, Nancy E
Physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors issued by the American Cancer Society and the American College of Sports Medicine emphasize the essential role of a health care provider (HCP) in counseling cancer survivors to achieve healthier lifestyles. However, research has not established whether HCP's recommendations to engage in physical activity are associated with increased physical activity levels of cancer survivors. The study examines this potential association using the 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. The final analytic sample consisted of 3320 cancer survivors and 38,955 adults without cancer who reported seeing or talking to a HCP and if or not they had received a physical activity recommendation in the prior year. Consistent with the aforementioned guidelines, physical activity levels were categorized as inactive, insufficiently active, and sufficiently active (i.e., meeting guidelines). Average adjusted predictions and marginal effects were estimated from generalized ordered logit models. Multivariable regressions controlled for socio-demographic and health-related characteristics and survey year. On average, receipt of a HCP's physical activity recommendation was associated with a lower adjusted prevalence of inactivity by 8.3 percentage points and a higher adjusted prevalence of insufficient and sufficient activity by 4.6 and 3.7 percentage points, respectively, regardless of cancer diagnosis (P's<0.05). A HCP's recommendation is associated with higher levels of leisure-time aerobic physical activity among cancer survivors and adults without cancer. The communication between cancer survivors and their HCPs may act as a 'window' of opportunity to increase physical activity levels among the U.S. cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Waśko-Czopnik, Dorota; Jóźków, Paweł; Dunajska, Katarzyna; Mędraś, Marek; Paradowski, Leszek
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very frequent and multifactorial disease. It has been found that GERD is associated with obesity, smoking, esophagitis, diet and lifestyle. Physical activity is among the factors involved in the occurrence of GERD. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between the different parameters of lower esophageal pressure (LES) and the level of everyday physical activity in patients with GERD. The authors examined 100 consecutive patients who underwent manometry and pH-metry because of symptoms suggesting GERD. Physical activity was assessed by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). In accordance with IPAQ categorical scoring, the authors divided the studied subjects into 3 groups according to their level of physical activity. The investigation comprised 59 men and 41 women, with the mean age 49 ± 14 years. The authors analyzed the relationships between the LES parameters (pressure, total LES length and HPZ length) and physical activity. The authors did not find any significant correlations between the studied parameters and the amount of physical activity. The authors also did not observe any association between the LES pressure and the level of physical activity. The subgroups distinguished on the basis of LESP did not differ as to the amount of everyday physical activity as well. Although most data indicates that intense exercise exacerbates GERD symptoms, the authors did not find any associations between LES parameters and physical activity. In view of the present results maintaining the recommended level of everyday physical activity does not interfere with the mechanisms of GERD.
Burke, Anne L J; Denson, Linley A; Mathias, Jane L; Hogg, Malcolm N
To document staffing (medical, nursing, allied health [AH], administrative) in Australian multidisciplinary persistent pain services and relate them to clinical activity levels. Of the 68 adult outpatient persistent pain services approached (Dec'08-Jan'10), 45 agreed to participate, received over 100 referrals/year, and met the contemporaneous International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for Level 1 or 2 multidisciplinary services. Structured interviews with Clinical Directors collected quantitative data regarding staff resources (disciplines, amount), services provided, funding models, and activity levels. Compared with Level 2 clinics, Level 1 centers reported higher annual demand (referrals), clinical activity (patient numbers) and absolute numbers of medical, nursing and administrative staff, but comparable numbers of AH staff. When staffing was assessed against activity levels, medical and nursing resources were consistent across services, but Level 1 clinics had relatively fewer AH and administrative staff. Metropolitan and rural services reported comparable activity levels and discipline-specific staff ratios (except occupational therapy). The mean annual AH staffing for pain management group programs was 0.03 full-time equivalent staff per patient. Reasonable consistency was demonstrated in the range and mix of most disciplines employed, suggesting they represented workable clinical structures. The greater number of medical and nursing staff within Level 1 clinics may indicate a lower multidisciplinary focus, but this needs further exploration. As the first multidisciplinary staffing data for persistent pain clinics, this provides critical information for designing and implementing clinical services. Mapping against clinical outcomes to demonstrate the impact of staffing patterns on safe and efficacious treatment delivery is required. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Champ, Colin E; Ohri, Nitin; Klement, Rainer J; Cantor, Matthew; Beriwal, Sushil; Glaser, Scott M; Smith, Ryan P
Radiation therapy (RT) is often delivered after lumpectomy for women with breast cancer. A common perceived side effect of RT is fatigue, yet its exact effect on activity levels and sleep is unknown. In this study we analyzed the change in activity levels and sleep using an activity tracking device before, during, and after RT for women with early stage breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ who underwent adjuvant RT. After institutional review board approval, activity levels were quantified before, during, and after RT with measurements of steps, miles walked, calories burned, and sleep metrics in 10 women fitted with activity trackers. All data were uploaded and tabulated on a secure database. Multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate changes in these variables over time during the RT course. Median step count was 5047 per day (range, 2741-15,508) and distance traveled was 1.6 miles per day (range, 0.9-5.3). Step count, distance, and calories decreased by an average of 54 steps per day, 0.02 miles per day, and 3 calories per day (median calories 1822; range, 1461-2712) during RT, respectively. These changes were statistically significant (P < .001), but not clinically relevant. There was no significant change in sleep (average 6.8 hours per night; range, 5.5-8.3). RT has a minimal effect on activity or sleep in women undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Activity levels varied greatly between patients in a population of women undergoing hypofractionated RT. Because increased activity levels correlate with improved outcomes, further studies evaluating attempts to increase physical activity during as well as after treatment with radiation are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe
The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.
Proszek, Joanna; Roy, Amit; Jakobsen, Ann-Katrine; Frøhlich, Rikke; Knudsen, Birgitta R.; Stougaard, Magnus
Human topoisomerase I (hTopI) is an essential cellular enzyme. The enzyme is often upregulated in cancer cells, and it is a target for chemotherapeutic drugs of the camptothecin (CPT) family. Response to CPT-based treatment is dependent on hTopI activity, and reduction in activity, and mutations in hTopI have been reported to result in CPT resistance. Therefore, hTOPI gene copy number, mRNA level, protein amount, and enzyme activity have been studied to explain differences in cellular response to CPT. We show that Rolling Circle Enhanced Enzyme Activity Detection (REEAD), allowing measurement of hTopI cleavage-religation activity at the single molecule level, may be used to detect posttranslational enzymatic differences influencing CPT response. These differences cannot be detected by analysis of hTopI gene copy number, mRNA amount, or protein amount, and only become apparent upon measuring the activity of hTopI in the presence of CPT. Furthermore, we detected differences in the activity of the repair enzyme tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, which is involved in repair of hTopI-induced DNA damage. Since increased TDP1 activity can reduce cellular CPT sensitivity we suggest that a combined measurement of TDP1 activity and hTopI activity in presence of CPT will be the best determinant for CPT response. PMID:24434877
Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.
This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958
Kantomaa, Marko T; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H
This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009-2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays.
Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C
Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.
Daley, Amanda J
Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.
Lee, Nolan C; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D; Hirsch, Jana A; McKay, Heather A; Winters, Meghan
Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. In Fall 2012, we used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8±0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4-76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km 2 (95% CI 1.3-3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2-24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1-23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3-34.3) elsewhere. School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered.
Zaninotto, Paola; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew
To test whether the number of reports of enjoyment of life over a four year period is quantitatively associated with all cause mortality, and with death from cardiovascular disease and from other causes. Longitudinal observational population study using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a nationally representative sample of older men and women living in England. 9365 men and women aged 50 years or older (mean 63, standard deviation 9.3) at recruitment. Time to death, based on mortality between the third phase of data collection (wave 3 in 2006) and March 2013 (up to seven years). Subjective wellbeing with measures of enjoyment of life were assessed in 2002 (wave 1), 2004 (wave 2), and 2006 (wave 3). 2264 (24%) respondents reported no enjoyment of life on any assessment, with 1833 (20%) reporting high enjoyment on one report of high enjoyment of life, 2063 (22%) on two reports, and 3205 (34%) on all three occasions. 1310 deaths were recorded during follow-up. Mortality was inversely associated with the number of occasions on which participants reported high enjoyment of life. Compared with the no high enjoyment group, the hazard ratio for all cause mortality was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.99) for two reports of enjoyment of life, and 0.76 (0.64 to 0.89) for three reports, after adjustment for demographic factors, baseline health, mobility impairment, and depressive symptoms. The same association was observed after deaths occurring within two years of the third enjoyment measure were excluded (0.90 (0.85 to 0.95) for every additional report of enjoyment), and in the complete case analysis (0.90 (0.83 to 0.96)). This is an observational study, so causal conclusions cannot be drawn. Nonetheless, the results add a new dimension to understanding the significance of subjective wellbeing for health outcomes by documenting the importance of sustained wellbeing over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to
Wilson, Carmen L.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Nathan, Paul C.; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Hudson, Melissa M.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Brinkman, Tara M.; Krull, Kevin R.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ness, Kirsten K.
Background We aimed to identify demographic and health-related predictors of declining physical activity levels over a four year period among participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Methods Analyses included 7287 ≥5 year childhood cancer survivors and 2107 siblings who completed multiple follow-up questionnaires. Participants were classified as active if they met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for physical activity. Generalized linear models were used to compare participants whose physical activity levels declined from active to inactive over the study to those who remained active. Additionally, selected chronic conditions (CTCAE v4.03 Grade 3 and 4) were evaluated as risk factors in an analysis limited to survivors only. Results The median age at last follow-up among survivors and siblings was 36 (range: 21–58) and 38 (range: 21–62) years, respectively. The rate of decline did not accelerate over time among survivors when compared with siblings. Factors that predicted declining activity included BMI ≥30kg/m2 (RR=1.32, 95%CI=1.19–1.46, p<0.01), not completing high school (RR=1.31, 95%CI=1.08–1.60, p<0.01), and female sex (RR=1.33, 95%CI=1.22–1.44, p<0.01). Declining physical activity levels were associated with the presence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions (p=0.034), but not with the presence of cardiac (p=0.10), respiratory (p=0.92) or neurological conditions (p=0.21). Conclusions Interventions designed to maximize physical activity should target female, obese, and less educated survivors. Survivors with chronic musculoskeletal conditions should be monitored, counseled and/or referred for physical therapy. Impact Clinicians should be aware of low activity levels among sub-populations of childhood cancer survivors which may heighten their risk for chronic illness. PMID:24842624
Detre, Greg J.; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J.; Norman, Kenneth A.
Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. PMID:23499722
Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio
According to the interim report "National Health Promotion in the 21st Century (Healthy Japan 21)", the Exercise and Physical Activity Guide for Health Promotion 2006 (EPAGH2006) is an im-portant resource in the field of physical activity in Japan. A previous study (Higo & Nakamura, 2008) showed that although the awareness level of EPAGH2006 was lower than for other health pro-motion policies (e.g., Healthy Japan 21), the proportion of people who walked regularly was higher in the EPAGH2006 awareness group than in the no-awareness group. This result indicates that pro-motion of EPAGH2006 would contribute to increase in the number of physically active people. The purpose of the present study was to identify longitudinal change in awareness of EPAGH2006, and to examine the relationship with levels of physical activity. The subjects were 1,100 Japanese adults (mean [SD], 39.8 [10.1 years) recruited from among the registrants of a Japanese social research company. This longitudinal study was conducted using online questionnaires in surveys in November 2007 (T1) and December 2008 (T2). The awareness level of EPAGH2006 was assessed with 3 choices, i.e., good understanding, awareness and no-awareness. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire short Version (Craig et al., 2003; Murase et al., 2002) was used to estimate the amount of physical activity that the subjects engaged in. The Mann-Whitney test was utilized to assess inter-group differences in changes in the amount of physical activity between the understanding and no-awareness groups. The proportion of those who fully understood EPAGH2006 was 1.4% at T1 and 2.2%0 at T2 and did not significantly increase. The physical activity level in the understanding group at T2 was significantly decreased compared with the no-awareness groups at both T1 and T2 (p=0.013). The lack of increase in the awareness level between the two time points suggests that dissemination of EPAGH2006 has not been effective. A more
Skender, Stephanie; Böhm, Jürgen; Schrotz-King, Petra; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Siegel, Erin M.; Steindorf, Karen; Owen, Robert W.; Ose, Jennifer; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann; Ulrich, Cornelia M.
Physical activity (PA) and vitamin D are thought to affect colorectal cancer prognosis. The present study investigates associations between 25(OH)D3 and PA in prospectively followed colorectal cancer patients in the ColoCare study. At 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery patients donated a blood sample, wore an accelerometer for 10 consecutive days and completed a PA questionnaire. Plasma 25(OH)D3 levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. We tested associations using partial correlations and multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusted for season, age and BMI. A total of 137 assessments of 25(OH)D3 levels and physical activity were conducted (58 at 6 months, 51 at 12 months and 28 at 24 months). More than 60% of the patients were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D3 ≤20ng/mL), independent of study time point. At 6 months follow-up, accelerometry-based vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were positively associated with 25(OH)D3 levels (P=0.04; P=0.006,). Physical activity together with season were significant predictors of elevated 25(OH)D3 levels. Our results suggest that the majority of colorectal cancer patients may suffer from vitamin D deficiency. Engaging in physical activity may be an effective approach to increase their 25(OH)D3 levels. PMID:28094599
Çekiç, Cem; Kırcı, Adnan; Vatansever, Sezgin; Yılmaz, Huriye Erbak; Alper, Emrah; Ünsal, Belkıs
Background. Syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a member of the family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between SDC-1 and disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD). Methods. Serum samples of 54 patients with CD and 30 healthy controls were obtained. First, SDC-1 levels of the CD patients were compared to the control group. Subsequently, SDC-1 levels were analyzed in patients with CD in active and remission periods. Finally, SDC-1 efficacy in predicting disease activity was evaluated by performing correlation analysis between SDC-1 and C-reactive protein (CRP) and Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI). Results. SDC-1 level was higher in the CD group (61.9 ± 42.6 ng/mL) compared with the control group (34.1 ± 8.0 ng/mL) (p = 0.03). SDC-1 levels were higher in active CD patients (97.1 ± 40.3 ng/mL) compared with those in remission (33.7 ± 13.5 ng/mL) (p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between SDC-1 and CRP (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) and between SDC-1 and CDAI (r = 0.747, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Serum levels of SDC-1 are higher in CD compared to the normal population and can be an effective marker of disease severity. PMID:26294905
Çekiç, Cem; Kırcı, Adnan; Vatansever, Sezgin; Aslan, Fatih; Yılmaz, Huriye Erbak; Alper, Emrah; Arabul, Mahmut; Sarıtaş Yüksel, Elif; Ünsal, Belkıs
Background. Syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a member of the family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between SDC-1 and disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD). Methods. Serum samples of 54 patients with CD and 30 healthy controls were obtained. First, SDC-1 levels of the CD patients were compared to the control group. Subsequently, SDC-1 levels were analyzed in patients with CD in active and remission periods. Finally, SDC-1 efficacy in predicting disease activity was evaluated by performing correlation analysis between SDC-1 and C-reactive protein (CRP) and Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI). Results. SDC-1 level was higher in the CD group (61.9 ± 42.6 ng/mL) compared with the control group (34.1 ± 8.0 ng/mL) (p = 0.03). SDC-1 levels were higher in active CD patients (97.1 ± 40.3 ng/mL) compared with those in remission (33.7 ± 13.5 ng/mL) (p < 0.001). A significant positive correlation was found between SDC-1 and CRP (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) and between SDC-1 and CDAI (r = 0.747, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Serum levels of SDC-1 are higher in CD compared to the normal population and can be an effective marker of disease severity.
Chaillou, Thomas; Lanner, Johanna T
Reduced oxygen (O 2 ) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O 2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O 2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O 2 levels to promote muscle regeneration. Severe hypoxia (≤1% O 2 ) appears detrimental for myogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas a 3-6% O 2 level could promote myogenesis. Hypoxia impairs the regenerative capacity of injured muscles. Although it remains to be explored, hypoxia may contribute to the muscle damage observed in patients with pathologies associated with hypoxia (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Hypoxia affects satellite cell activity and myogenesis through mechanisms dependent and independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transplantation of hypoxia-conditioned myoblasts are beneficial procedures to enhance muscle regeneration in animals. These therapies may be clinically relevant to treatment of patients with severe muscle damage.-Chaillou, T. Lanner, J. T. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity. © FASEB.
Hladinova, Z.; Hruskova, Z.; Svobodova, B.; Malickova, K.; Lanska, V.; Konopásek, P.; Jancova, E.; Rysava, R.; Edelstein, C. L.; Tesar, V.
Objective. ST2, a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family, is selectively expressed on Th2 cells and mediates important Th2 functions. IL-33 is a specific ligand of ST2. The aim of the study was to determine whether serum levels of soluble ST2 (sST2) or IL-33 predict activity of the disease in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). Methods. 139 AAV patients and 62 controls were studied. IL-33 and sST2 in the blood were measured with a commercially available ELISA. Results. Newly diagnosed AAV patients had higher sST2 levels than controls (P < 0.01). Levels of sST2 were significantly higher in active newly diagnosed AAV patients than in patients with remission (P < 0.001). IL-33 levels were higher in AAV patients than in the control groups (P = 0.002). However, serum IL-33 levels were not increased in patients with active AAV compared to patients in remission. IL-33 levels were higher in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis than in patients with microscopic polyangiitis (P = 0.012). Conclusions. Serum sST2, but not serum IL-33, may be a marker of activity in AAV patients. PMID:25802482
Ampel, Neil M; Dionne, Sara O; Giblin, Andrea; Podany, Abigail B; Galgiani, John
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a circulating collectin that is part of the innate immune response. We explored the serum levels of MBL in persons with different forms of coccidioidomycosis. Serum MBL was measured by ELISA from samples obtained from healthy donors with immunity to Coccidioides, and those with various forms of active coccidioidomycosis. Blood cell specimens from a subgroup of subjects with active coccidioidomycosis were examined for single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MBL gene and promoter regions. The control group comprised 29 healthy immune subjects. Patient groups with active coccidioidomycosis consisted of 20 patients with symptomatic primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, 26 with non-meningeal disseminated coccidioidomycosis, and nine with coccidioidal meningitis. The group with active coccidioidomycosis was significantly older and more likely to be male than the control group (for both, P < 0.001). The mean +/- SEM level of serum MBL in the healthy controls was 169.4 +/- 28.6 ng/ml, significantly higher than the 79.2 +/- 10.9 ng/ml for all active groups (P < 0.001). Moreover, the active coccidioidomycosis group was significantly more likely to have serum MBL level
Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679
Häfele, César Augusto; Freitas, Matheus Pintanel; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Rombaldi, Airton José
The aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity in three categories (inactive, insufficiently active and active) with health outcomes in people with epilepsy. The dependent variables and the instruments used in the study were: a) quality of life - measured by Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 for adults and Quality of Life in Epilepsy for Adolescents, b) side effects of medication - measured by Adverse Events Profile, c) depression - measured by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, and d) state and trait anxiety - measured by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physical activity levels were analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for adults in the commuting and leisure domains and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Simple and multiple linear regression was used in the statistical analysis. The cross-sectional study with one hundred and one individuals was conducted in Pelotas/RS, Brazil, at the Neurology Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Pelotas. In the crude analysis, physical activity was positively associated with quality of life (p<0.001) and negatively associated with depression (p=0.046), state of anxiety (p=0.014), trait of anxiety (p=0.015) and side effect of medication (p=0.01). In addition, physical activity levels explained 10% of the quality of life (R 2 =0.10). In the adjusted analysis, physical activity remained associated with side effect of medication (p=0.014) and was not associated with trait anxiety (p=0.066). However, quality of life showed a positive linear trend (p=0.001) while depression (p=0.033) and anxiety state (p=0.004) showed a negative trend according to physical activity levels. Physical activity was associated with health outcomes, and can be a nonpharmacological treatment in people with epilepsy for improving health and life conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gispen, Fiona E; Chen, David S; Genther, Dane J; Lin, Frank R
To determine whether hearing impairment, highly prevalent in older adults, is associated with activity levels. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2005-06). Individuals aged 70 and older who completed audiometric testing and whose physical activity was assessed subjectively using questionnaires and objectively using body-worn accelerometers (N=706). Hearing impairment was defined according to the speech-frequency (0.5-4 kHz) pure-tone average in the better-hearing ear (normal <25.0 dB, mild 25.0-39.9 dB, moderate or greater ≥40 dB). Main outcome measures were self-reported leisure time physical activity and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Both were quantified using minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and categorized as inactive, insufficiently active, or sufficiently active. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Individuals with moderate or greater hearing impairment had greater odds than those with normal hearing of being in a lower category of physical activity as measured according to self-report (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.11-2.28) and accelerometry (OR=1.70, 95% CI=0.99-2.91). Mild hearing impairment was not associated with level of physical activity. Moderate or greater hearing impairment in older adults is associated with lower levels of physical activity independent of demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Future research is needed to investigate the basis of this association and whether hearing rehabilitative interventions could affect physical activity in older adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.
Liou, Yiing-Mei; Chiang, Li-Chi
Few studies have investigated levels of physical activity among children in Taiwan. The purposes of this study were to explore levels of physical activity among children and examine their rates of compliance with various international recommendations. The sample was comprised 463 children (249 boys and 214 girls) , aged between nine and twelve from four cities in Taiwan. Three-day Physical Activity Logs (3-d PAL) were used as the instrument to measure physical activity in the previous seven days. The mean and percentile of average estimated energy expenditure (EE, kcal/kg/day), moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, min/day) and vigorous physical activity (VPA, min/day) among boys and girls according to age group were reported. Four international physical activity recommendations were used, as the criteria with which were examined compliance rates. Results indicated no significant main effects of age or gender, and no interaction was found between EE and MVPA. VPA significantly increased between the aged nine and eleven. Girls aged 12 engaged less significantly VPA than boys. Over 90% of children met the Physical Activity Guidelines for Adolescents (PAGA) and the United States' Healthy People Objective No. 22.6; 80% met the United Kingdom Expert Consensus Group guideline; and 70% met the Healthy People Objective No. 22.7. These results indicated that physical activity among the majority of children complied with the international recommendations. The only significant difference came in participation rates for vigorous physical activity among children of different ages and gender. Our results provide important information for health policy in the field of children' s physical activity. We would recommend the setting up of national objectives for the physical activity of children and the conducting of a national surveillance study with a more precise and consistent measurement of physical activity for children to offer a comparable data in the future is suggested.
Kim, Ju-Hwa; Choi, Ae-Ran; Kim, Yong Kee; Kim, Hyung Sik; Yoon, Sungpil
The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal)-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal. PMID:23975168
De Mey, Kristof; Danneels, Lieven; Cagnie, Barbara; Borms, Dorien; TʼJonck, Zilke; Van Damme, Eline; Cools, Ann M
During resistance training protocols, people are often encouraged to target the scapular stabilizing musculature (middle and lower trapezius and serratus anterior) while minimizing shoulder prime mover activation (upper trapezius and large glenohumeral muscles) in their training regime, especially in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis. To increase the activation levels in the stabilizing muscles without drastically increasing the activation in the prime movers, unstable surfaces are frequently used during closed kinetic chain (CKC) exercises. However, the specific influence of Redcord slings (RS) as an unstable surface tool on the shoulder muscle activation levels has rarely been investigated, despite these results may be used for adequate exercise selection. Therefore, a controlled laboratory study was performed on 47 healthy subjects (age, 22 ± 4.31 years; height, 176 ± 0.083 cm; weight, 69 ± 8.57 kg) during 4 CKC exercises without and with RS: half push-up (HPU), knee push-up (KPU), knee prone bridging plus (KPBP), and pull-up. When using RS, serratus anterior muscle activation decreased during the KPU and KPBP exercise. In addition, a drastic increase in pectoralis major muscle activation was found during the HPU and KPBP exercise. Consequently, the use of RS does not necessarily imply that higher levels of scapular stabilizer muscle activation will be attained. These findings suggest that RS might be an appropriate training tool when used within a general strengthening program but should not be preferred over a stable base of support when training for specific scapular stabilization purposes.
Yoon, Jin Sook; Choi, Soo Hyun; Lee, Joon H; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Sang Yeul
To measure tear nerve growth factor (NGF) concentrations in cases of active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) before and after glucocorticoid treatment, and to correlate NGF levels with disease inflammatory activity and thyroid autoantibody concentration. The study involved 20 patients with active TAO and 20 age- and gender-matched controls. Tear break-up time (BUT) was obtained, the Schirmer test was performed, and tear NGF/total protein ratio was measured in control subjects and patients with active TAO before, and 2 and 4 weeks after, steroid treatment. Tear BUT and Schirmer values significantly increased after 2 and 4 weeks of steroid treatment (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004 respectively). Baseline tear NGF/total protein ratio was higher in patients with active TAO than in control subjects, and the ratio significantly decreased after 2 and 4 weeks of steroid treatment (p < 0.001). Tear NGF/total protein ratio did not correlate with inflammatory activity score, exophthalmos value and thyroid binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII) level (p > 0.05). Tear NGF may have a specific role in ocular surface inflammation, which protects against ocular surface damage in patients with active TAO. Anti-inflammatory treatment significantly reduced the level of NGF in tears, increased tear film stability and production, and decreased congestive symptoms.
Fassett, Hunter J.; Nelson, Aimee J.
Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of
Lulic, Tea; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Nelson, Aimee J
Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of
Sumukadas, D; Witham, M; Struthers, A; McMurdo, M
Regular physical activity is vital for maintaining the health and independence of older people. Few objective data exist on the effect of weather on physical activity levels in this group. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weather using an objective measure of physical activity. This was a retrospective study of 127 participants, >65 years old, who were enrolled in a previous randomised controlled trial. The main outcome was daily activity counts measured using the RT3 triaxial accelerometer over 1-week periods. These were correlated with local weather data including daily maximum temperature, sunshine, precipitation and wind speed that were obtained from the metrological office. The mean age of the subjects was 78.6 years; 90/127 were female; and 720 usable daily counts were obtained for the 127 participants. The mean daily counts showed a striking seasonal variation, with maximum activity in June and minimum in February (137 557 vs 65 010 counts per day, p<0.001). Day length, mean maximum temperature and mean daily sunshine were able to explain 72.9% of the monthly variance in daily activity levels. Daily counts showed moderate correlation with day length (r = 0.358, p<0.001), maximum temperature (r = 0.345, p<0.001), duration of sunshine (r = 0.313, p<0.001) and rain (r = -0.098, p = 0.008) but not with wind speed (r = 0.093, p = 0.12). Multivariate analysis showed that day length, sunshine duration and maximum temperature were independent predictors of daily activity (adjusted R(2) = 0.16). Physical activity levels among older people are much higher in summer than in winter. Day length, sunshine duration and maximum temperature have a significant influence on physical activity levels.
Cockrum, R. H.
One method being used to determine energy level(s) and electrical activity of impurities in silicon is described. The method is called capacitance transient spectroscopy (CTS). It can be classified into three basic categories: the thermally stimulated capacitance method, the voltage-stimulated capacitance method, and the light-stimulated capacitance method; the first two categories are discussed. From the total change in capacitance and the time constant of the capacitance response, emission rates, energy levels, and trap concentrations can be determined. A major advantage of using CTS is its ability to detect the presence of electrically active impurities that are invisible to other techniques, such as Zeeman effect atomic absorption, and the ability to detect more than one electrically active impurity in a sample. Examples of detection of majority and minority carrier traps from gold donor and acceptor centers in silicon using the capacitance transient spectrometer are given to illustrate the method and its sensitivity.
Kaspar, Kai; Zimmermann, Daniel; Wilbers, Anne-Kathrin
Previous research on news perception has been dominated by a cognitively oriented perspective on reception processes, whereas emotions have been widely neglected. Consequently, it has remained open which features of a news story might elicit affective responses and hence modulate news perception, shifting the focus to the emotional potential of the narrative. According to the affective-disposition theory, the experience of suspense is the striving force of immersion in fictional dramas. Thereby, a positive affective disposition toward the protagonist of a story and a high likelihood of a bad ending should increase suspense that, in turn, should positively influence reading appreciation and lingering interest in the story. We investigated whether suspense and its determinants also play such a key role in the context of news stories. Study 1 ( n = 263) successfully replicated results of an earlier study, whereas Studies 2 ( n = 255) and 3 ( n = 599) challenged the generalizability of some effects related to manipulated characteristics of a news story. In contrast, correlational relationships between perceived news characteristics and news evaluation were relatively stable. In particular, participants' liking of the protagonist and the perceived likelihood of a good ending were positively associated with suspense, reading appreciation, and lingering interest. This result indicates a preference for happy endings and contradicts the notion that likely negative outcomes are beneficial for suspense and the enjoyment of news stories, as postulated by the affective-disposition theory in the context of fictional dramas. Moreover, experienced suspense reliably mediated the correlations between, on the one hand, participants' liking of the protagonist and the perceived likelihood of a good ending and, on the other hand, reading appreciation and lingering interest. The news story's personal relevance was less influential than expected. Further, we observed a large absence of
Kaspar, Kai; Zimmermann, Daniel; Wilbers, Anne-Kathrin
Previous research on news perception has been dominated by a cognitively oriented perspective on reception processes, whereas emotions have been widely neglected. Consequently, it has remained open which features of a news story might elicit affective responses and hence modulate news perception, shifting the focus to the emotional potential of the narrative. According to the affective-disposition theory, the experience of suspense is the striving force of immersion in fictional dramas. Thereby, a positive affective disposition toward the protagonist of a story and a high likelihood of a bad ending should increase suspense that, in turn, should positively influence reading appreciation and lingering interest in the story. We investigated whether suspense and its determinants also play such a key role in the context of news stories. Study 1 (n = 263) successfully replicated results of an earlier study, whereas Studies 2 (n = 255) and 3 (n = 599) challenged the generalizability of some effects related to manipulated characteristics of a news story. In contrast, correlational relationships between perceived news characteristics and news evaluation were relatively stable. In particular, participants' liking of the protagonist and the perceived likelihood of a good ending were positively associated with suspense, reading appreciation, and lingering interest. This result indicates a preference for happy endings and contradicts the notion that likely negative outcomes are beneficial for suspense and the enjoyment of news stories, as postulated by the affective-disposition theory in the context of fictional dramas. Moreover, experienced suspense reliably mediated the correlations between, on the one hand, participants' liking of the protagonist and the perceived likelihood of a good ending and, on the other hand, reading appreciation and lingering interest. The news story's personal relevance was less influential than expected. Further, we observed a large absence of
Shervey, Sarah Wollersheim; DiPerna, James C
There are many purported benefits to recess including engaging in physical activity, forming positive peer relationships, and taking a break from the classroom. Current research, however, is inconclusive regarding the presence of gender and developmental differences in physical activity that takes place during recess. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the amount of physical activity that occurs during recess across gender and grade level. Students from first- and sixth-grade classrooms participated in the study, and physical activity was measured using accelerometers to record the number of steps taken during recess. A 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA indicated sixth grade males engaged in more physical activity than sixth grade females, first grade males, and first grade females. Because they are not engaging in as much physical activity as their sixth grade male counterparts, ways to help female and younger students take more steps during recess should be explored.
Griaznykh, A V
The dynamics' features of restoration reactions of the secretory function of gastric glands have been studied at patients with differences in the level and specificity of daily physical activity. The dependence between the level and characteristics of daily physical activity and reactivity of the secretory apparatus of the gastric glands in the recovery period after the muscle load has been established. The high reactivity of the secretory activity of digestive glands is typical for individuals with high level of daily physical activity. The differences of the functional stability of the secretion's mechanisms of various components of gastric juice under the influence of physical exercise and in recovery have been revealed. The greatest stability of the secretory mechanisms of digestive glands has been discovered at athletes practicing with the development of endurance--at skiers. Heterochronous reducing reactions of gastric and pancreatic secretion after physical stress have been defined. The reduction of secretion's mechanisms of gastric juice ingredients and the electrolyte and acid composition of digestive juices isn't simultaneous: the first order is for ferment's secretion. The inverse relationship between the content of digestive enzymes pepsinogen-1 and -2 in blood's serum and the concentration of proteolytic enzymes in the gastric content has been found at persons with various degrees of adaptation to the muscular tension.
Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E.; Fair, Joan M.; Haskell, William L.; Varady, Ann N.; Iribarren, Carlos; Hlatky, Mark A.; Go, Alan S.; Fortmann, Stephen P.
Background This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the new 2-item Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS). Methods Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected from the healthy older controls (n = 1023) enrolled in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. Construct validity was examined by regression analyses to evaluate significant trends (P ≤ .05) across the SBAS activity categories for the selected psychological health factors measured at baseline and year 2, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and education level. Test-retest reliability was performed using Spearman's rank correlation. Results At baseline, subjects were 66 ± 2.8 years old, 38% female, 77% married, 61% retired, 24% college graduate, and 68% Caucasian. At baseline, lower self-reported stress, anxiety, depression, and cynical distrust, and higher self-reported mental and physical well-being were significantly associated with higher levels of physical activity (p trend ≤ 0.01). These associations held at year 2. The test-retest reliability of the SBAS was statistically significant (rs= 0.62, P < .001). Conclusion These results provide evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SBAS in older adults. We also found a strong dose-response relationship between regular physical activity and psychological health in older adults, independent of gender, education level and ethnicity. PMID:20231759
Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki
Antagonistic muscle pairs cannot be fully activated simultaneously, even with maximal effort, under conditions of voluntary co-contraction, and their muscular activity levels are always below those during agonist contraction with maximal voluntary effort (MVE). Whether the muscular activity level during the task has trainability remains unclear. The present study examined this issue by comparing the muscular activity level during maximal voluntary co-contraction for highly experienced bodybuilders, who frequently perform voluntary co-contraction in their training programs, with that for untrained individuals (nonathletes). The electromyograms (EMGs) of biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during maximal voluntary co-contraction of elbow flexors and extensors were recorded in 11 male bodybuilders and 10 nonathletes, and normalized to the values obtained during the MVE of agonist contraction for each of the corresponding muscles (% EMGMVE). The involuntary coactivation level in antagonist muscle during the MVE of agonist contraction was also calculated. In both muscles, % EMGMVE values during the co-contraction task for bodybuilders were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those for nonathletes (biceps brachii: 66±14% in bodybuilders vs. 46±13% in nonathletes, triceps brachii: 74±16% vs. 57±9%). There was a significant positive correlation between a length of bodybuilding experience and muscular activity level during the co-contraction task (r = 0.653, P = 0.03). Involuntary antagonist coactivation level during MVE of agonist contraction was not different between the two groups. The current result indicates that long-term participation in voluntary co-contraction training progressively enhances muscular activity during maximal voluntary co-contraction. PMID:24260233
Yüksel, Meral; Okur, Hacer Kuzu; Pelin, Zerrin; Öğünç, Ayliz Velioğlu; Öztürk, Levent
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive obstruction of the upper airways, and it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There have been several studies demonstrating low levels of nitric oxide in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome compared with healthy controls. In this study, we hypothesized that reduced nitric oxide levels would result in high arginase activity. Arginase reacts with L-arginine and produces urea and L-ornithine, whereas L-arginine is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide. METHODS: The study group consisted of 51 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (M/F: 43/8; mean age 49±10 years of age) and 15 healthy control subjects (M/F: 13/3; mean age 46±14 years of age). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide levels and arginase activity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum samples. RESULTS: Serum nitric oxide levels in the control subjects were higher than in the obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). Arginase activity was significantly higher (p<0.01) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases compared with the control group. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with cardiovascular diseases had higher arginase activity than the controls (p<0.001) and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Low nitric oxide levels are associated with high arginase activity. The mechanism of nitric oxide depletion in sleep apnea patients suggests that increased arginase activity might reduce the substrate availability of nitric oxide synthase and thus could reduce nitric oxide levels. PMID:24714832
Matsuyama, Yasushi; Okazaki, Hitoaki; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirotaka; Kamata, Yasuyuki; Nagatani, Katsuya; Nagashima, Takao; Hayakawa, Morisada; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Yoshio, Taku; Tominaga, Shin-ichi; Minota, Seiji
To determine levels of interleukin 33 (IL-33) in serum and synovial fluid (SF) and their clinical associations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To evaluate the ability of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from RA patients to release IL-33. Sera were obtained from 59 patients with RA, 10 patients with infectious diseases, and 42 healthy volunteers. SF samples were obtained from 15 patients with RA and 13 with osteoarthritis. IL-33 levels were measured using a sandwich ELISA after removal of rheumatoid factor with protein A-Sepharose beads. FLS were stimulated with IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor, and treated with or without chemical damage. PBMC were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. The levels of IL-33 were measured in the culture supernatants and cell lysates by ELISA or immunoblotting. Serum IL-33 levels were significantly higher in RA patients, especially in the high disease activity group compared to the moderate or low activity group. IL-33 levels in SF were elevated in all 15 RA patients measured. IL-33 levels were higher in SF samples than in sera in 7 RA patients measured simultaneously. The 30-kDa IL-33 precursor was detected in the culture supernatants of damaged FLS but was not detected in those of activated PBMC and non-damaged FLS. IL-33 levels were elevated in sera and SF samples from patients with RA, and correlated with disease activity. IL-33 was produced mainly in inflamed joints; IL-33/ST2L signaling might play an important role in joint inflammation of human RA.
Tonguç, Mine Öztürk; Öztürk, Onder; Sütçü, Recep; Ceyhan, Betül Mermi; Kılınç, Gizem; Sönmez, Yonca; Yetkin Ay, Zuhal; Sahin, Unal; Baltacıoğlu, Esra; Kırzıoğlu, F Yeşim
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of smoking status on the systemic and local superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in subjects with chronic periodontitis (CP). Sixty-five CP patients (23 smokers [CP-S], 23 former smokers [CP-FS], and 19 non-smokers [CP-NS]) and 20 periodontally healthy non-smoker controls (PH-NS) were included in the study. After the clinical measurements, serum and gingival tissue samples were collected. SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities and MDA levels in hemolysates and gingival tissue samples were spectrophotometrically assayed. Blood MDA levels in all the periodontitis groups were higher than in the PH-NS group but only the difference between CP-FS and PH-NS groups was significant (P <0.01). Gingival tissue MDA levels in the periodontitis groups were significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.01). However, the control group had the highest gingival SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities compared with all the periodontitis groups (P <0.01). The CP-S group had the highest gingival MDA levels and SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities among the periodontitis groups, whereas the lowest values were observed in the CP-NS group (P <0.01). The blood and gingival MDA levels in the CP-FS group were similar in the CP-NS group, whereas they were lower than in the CP-S group. Systemic and local MDA levels are increased by smoking in addition to the impact of periodontitis. The decreased local SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities observed in periodontitis patients may increase with smoking.
Background Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Methods Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Results Median (interquartile-range, IQR) activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0) kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR) physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58). Median (IQR) time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999–1175), 303 (223–374) and 40 (22–69) min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0) beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5) kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm2 difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm2 difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. Conclusion The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries. PMID:23244057
Hjorth, Mads F; Kloster, Stine; Girma, Tsinuel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Andersen, Gregers; Kaestel, Pernille; Brage, Søren; Friis, Henrik
Women in low-income countries are generally considered to have a high physical workload which is sustained during pregnancy. Although most previous studies have been based on questionnaires a recent meta-analysis of doubly labeled water data has raised questions about the actual amount of physical activity performed. In this study we report objectively assessed levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness among pregnant urban Ethiopian women, and their association with demographic characteristics and anthropometric measures. Physical activity was measured for seven consecutive days in 304 women using a combined uniaxial accelerometer and heart rate sensor. Activity energy expenditure was determined using a group calibration in a branched equation model framework. Type and duration of activities were reported using a 24-hour physical activity recall and grip strength was assessed using a dynamometer. Median (interquartile-range, IQR) activity energy expenditure was 31.1 (23.7-42.0) kJ/kg/day corresponding to a median (IQR) physical activity level of 1.46 (1.39-1.58). Median (IQR) time in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity was 1100 (999-1175), 303 (223-374) and 40 (22-69) min/day, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) sleeping heart rate was 73.6 (8.0) beats/min and grip strength was 21.6 (4.5) kg. Activity energy expenditure was 14% higher for every 10 cm(2) difference in arm muscle area and 10% lower for every 10 cm(2) difference in arm fat area and 10-week difference in gestational age. The level and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women from urban Ethiopia is low compared to non-pregnant women from other low income countries as well as pregnant European women from high-income countries.
Clapham, Matthew E
Multistressor global change, the combined influence of ocean warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, poses a serious threat to marine organisms. Experimental studies imply that organisms with higher levels of activity should be more resilient, but testing this prediction and understanding organism vulnerability at a global scale, over evolutionary timescales, and in natural ecosystems remain challenging. The fossil record, which contains multiple extinctions triggered by multistressor global change, is ideally suited for testing hypotheses at broad geographic, taxonomic, and temporal scales. Here, I assess the importance of activity level for survival of well-skeletonized benthic marine invertebrates over a 100-million-year-long interval (Permian to Jurassic periods) containing four global change extinctions, including the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions. More active organisms, based on a semiquantitative score incorporating feeding and motility, were significantly more likely to survive during three of the four extinction events (Guadalupian, end-Permian, and end-Triassic). In contrast, activity was not an important control on survival during nonextinction intervals. Both the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions also triggered abrupt shifts to increased dominance by more active organisms. Although mean activity gradually returned toward pre-extinction values, the net result was a permanent ratcheting of ecosystem-wide activity to higher levels. Selectivity patterns during ancient global change extinctions confirm the hypothesis that higher activity, a proxy for respiratory physiology, is a fundamental control on survival, although the roles of specific physiological traits (such as extracellular pCO 2 or aerobic scope) cannot be distinguished. Modern marine ecosystems are dominated by more active organisms, in part because of selectivity ratcheting during these ancient extinctions, so on average may be less vulnerable to global change
Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia
Little evidence exists on the physical activity and sedentary time of Canadian toddlers; this study objectively measured such behaviors and compared participants' activity levels to national guidelines. Levels of screen-viewing among toddlers were also explored. Forty toddlers (mean age = 25.7 months) wore Actical accelerometers for seven consecutive days (15 s epoch). Parents/guardians completed a wear-time log and a demographic and screen-viewing questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were used to determine participants' levels of physical activity and sedentary time, to identify whether toddlers were meeting physical activity/sedentary guidelines, and to explore demographic variables. T-tests were used to assess whether toddlers' activity levels differed based on cut-points applied and various demographic and screen-related variables. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between toddlers' sedentary time and screen-viewing levels. Toddlers engaged in 37.27 (SD = 3.79) to 49.40 (SD = 3.29) mins/hr of sedentary time, 9.79 (SD = 2.90) to 18.78 (SD = 3.22) mins/hr of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), 0.82 (SD = 0.72) to 3.95 (SD = 1.93) mins/hr of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and 10.60 (SD =3.29) to 22.73 (SD = 3.97) mins/hr of total physical activity (TPA), based on the Trost et al. and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) cut-points respectively; these rates were significantly different (p <.001). On at least 1 day, 17.5 % (Trost et al. cut-points) and 97.5 % (CHMS cut-points) of the sample met or exceeded the Canadian physical activity guidelines. No statistically significant differences in sedentary time or physical activity (all intensities) based on sex were reported (p <.001); however, LPA (CHMS cut-points) did significantly differ based on childcare attendance (p <.05). Approximately 93.2 % of participants watched television, and 56.8 % utilized computers. Only 18
Jones, Sandra C; Barrie, Lance
This study investigates the effect of the introduction of voluntary student unionism and subsequent increase in campus facility fees on engagement in physical activity on campus. Participants were 1,904 students from a large regional NSW (Australia) university across 3 time periods (926 in 2005, 504 in 2006, and 474 in 2007). Students completed a survey across the 3 time periods, responding to questions about physical activity levels, use of on-campus and off-campus facilities, and barriers to facility use. Participation in physical activity at university facilities was low overall, and declined substantially between 2005 and 2007, with the proportion of students identifying cost as a barrier more than doubling over this time period. There is a need for policy makers to consider the unintended health impacts of such policy changes, particularly in relation to the impact on already insufficient levels of physical activity.
Sui, Zhixian; Moran, Lisa J; Dodd, Jodie M
There is contradictory research assessing physical activity patterns during pregnancy and postpartum among women who are overweight or obese. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity among overweight and obese women over the course of pregnancy and the initial postpartum period. Three hundred and five overweight or obese pregnant women completed physical-activity questionnaires at three time points during pregnancy and at 4-months postpartum. Physical activity declined between early pregnancy and 28-weeks gestation (P<0.001) and declined further at 36-weeks gestation (P<0.001) before increasing significantly at 4-months postpartum (P<0.001). However, reported activity at 4-months postpartum remained significantly lower than that reported in early pregnancy (P<0.001). There was no significant difference either cross-sectionally or for changes over pregnancy and postpartum for total levels or categories of physical activity for women with different body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG). BMI was the only independent predictor of the change in total physical activity over the study and GWG, with women with higher BMI having larger decline of physical activity (β=0.114, s.e.=0.750, P=0.032) and less GWG (β=-0.253, s.e.=0.063, P<0.001). Physical activity declined significantly between early pregnancy and 28-weeks gestation, with a further decline to 36-weeks gestation. At 4-months postpartum, physical activity significantly increased but not to the level of that reported at early pregnancy. SO WHAT?: The promotion of appropriate physical activity should be implemented early in pregnancy and postpartum to prevent the decline in activity we have observed in overweight and obese women. Future research should also explore the barriers and enablers to women engaging in exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin
Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity. PMID:27072196
Liu, Han; Guo, Xianwu; Gooneratne, Ravi; Lai, Ruifang; Zeng, Cong; Zhan, Fanbin; Wang, Weimin
Vertebrate gut microbiome often underpins the metabolic capability and provides many beneficial effects on their hosts. However, little was known about how host trophic level influences fish gut microbiota and metabolic activity. In this study, more than 985,000 quality-filtered sequences from 24 16S rRNA libraries were obtained and the results revealed distinct compositions and diversities of gut microbiota in four trophic categories. PCoA test showed that gut bacterial communities of carnivorous and herbivorous fishes formed distinctly different clusters in PCoA space. Although fish in different trophic levels shared a large size of OTUs comprising a core microbiota community, at the genus level a strong distinction existed. Cellulose-degrading bacteria Clostridium, Citrobacter and Leptotrichia were dominant in the herbivorous, while Cetobacterium and protease-producing bacteria Halomonas were dominant in the carnivorous. PICRUSt predictions of metagenome function revealed that fishes in different trophic levels affected the metabolic capacity of their gut microbiota. Moreover, cellulase and amylase activities in herbivorous fishes were significantly higher than in the carnivorous, while trypsin activity in the carnivorous was much higher than in the herbivorous. These results indicated that host trophic level influenced the structure and composition of gut microbiota, metabolic capacity and gut content enzyme activity.
Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A
Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.
Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S
Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.
Ahabrach, Hanan; Piedrafita, Blanca; Ayad, Abdelmalik; El Mlili, Nisrin; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente; Llansola, Marta
Patients with liver cirrhosis may present hepatic encephalopathy with a wide range of neurological disturbances and alterations in sleep quality and in the sleep-wake circadian rhythm. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. We have assessed, in an animal model of chronic hyperammonemia without liver failure, the effects of hyperammonemia per se on the circadian rhythms of motor activity, temperature, and plasma levels of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. Chronic hyperammonemia alters the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity and of cortisol and corticosterone levels in blood. Different types of motor activity are affected differentially. Hyperammonemia significantly alters the rhythm of spontaneous ambulatory activity, reducing strongly ambulatory counts and slightly average velocity during the night (the active phase) but not during the day, resulting in altered circadian rhythms. In contrast, hyperammonemia did not affect wheel running at all, indicating that it affects spontaneous but not voluntary activity. Vertical activity was affected only very slightly, indicating that hyperammonemia does not induce anxiety. Hyperammonemia abolished completely the circadian rhythm of corticosteroid hormones in plasma, completely eliminating the peaks of cortisol and corticosterone present in control rats at the start of the dark period. The data reported show that chronic hyperammonemia, similar to that present in patients with liver cirrhosis, alters the circadian rhythms of corticosteroid hormones and of motor activity. This suggests that hyperammonemia would be a relevant contributor to the alterations in corticosteroid hormones and in circadian rhythms in patients with liver cirrhosis. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Tsihlis, Nick D.; Kapadia, Muneera R.; Vavra, Ashley K.; Flannery, Walker D.; Oustwani, Christopher S.; Jiang, Qun; Kibbe, Melina R.
Objective Isopeptidase T is a cysteine protease deubiquitinating enzyme that hydrolyzes unanchored polyubiquitin chains to free monoubiquitin. Nitric oxide (NO) decreases 26S proteasome activity in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in animal models. As NO can cause S-nitrosylation of active-site cysteines, we hypothesize that NO inhibits isopeptidase T activity through S-nitrosylation. Because accumulation of polyubiquitin chains inhibits the 26S proteasome, this may be one mechanism through which NO prevents neointimal hyperplasia. Methods To investigate our hypothesis, we examined the effect of NO on isopeptidase T activity, levels, and localization in VSMCs in vitro and in a rat carotid balloon injury model in vivo. Results NO inhibited recombinant isopeptidase T activity by 82.8% (t = 60 minutes, P < .001 vs control). Dithiothreitol and glutathione (5 mmol/L) both significantly reversed NO-mediated inhibition of isopeptidase T activity (P < .001). NO caused a time-dependent increase in S-nitrosylated isopeptidase T levels in VSMCs, which was reversible with dithiothreitol, indicating that isopeptidase T undergoes reversible S-nitrosylation on exposure to NO in vitro. Although NO did not affect isopeptidase T levels or subcellular localization in VSMCs in vitro, it decreased isopeptidase T levels and increased ubiquitinated proteins after balloon injury in vivo. Conclusions Local administration of NO may prevent neointimal hyperplasia by inhibiting isopeptidase T levels and activity in the vasculature, thereby inhibiting the 26S proteasome in VSMCs. These data provide additional mechanistic insights into the ability of NO to prevent neointimal hyperplasia after vascular interventions. (J Vasc Surg 2013;■:1-8.) Clinical Relevance The 26S proteasome is responsible for degrading polyubiquitinated proteins. Isopeptidase T is a deubiquitinating enzyme that recycles polyubiquitin chains to monoubiquitin. Nitric oxide (NO
The adolescence period is a very critical developmental period for personality, socializing and promotion of physical activity. In this regard, the aim of this study was to compare domain-specific physical activity efficacy level between adolescent boys and girls. A total of 219 girls (body weight: 57.50 ± 10.44 kg, height: 160.30 ± 7.40 cm, age…
space generation techniques, our technique is applicable to general high-level models which do not have to possess any particular structure . The...all transition induced by the same activity in an on-the-fly fashion. The obtained "activity-local" structures are finally composed in order to...much higher generation speed. (c)The composition scheme, as well as the new data structure , results in extremely compact symbolic representatbns
Shumilov, O I; Kasatkina, E A; Raspopov, O M
It was found that the frequency of extreme situations (traumas, deaths, sudden diseases) in miners working in Spitsbergen mines (74 degree N) correlates well with heliogeomagnetic activity (local magnetic disturbances, solar proton flashes). It was shown that in winter, both an enhanced and an extremely low level of magnetic activity can affect the occurrence of extreme situations. The results obtained can be used for predicting and reducing the frequency of extreme events in the zone of the polar cap during geomagnetic disturbances.
Chatatikun, Moragot; Chiabchalard, Anchalee
Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight induces overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in skin photoaging and hyperpigmentation disorders. Novel whitening and anti-wrinkle compounds from natural products have recently become of increasing interest. The purpose of this study was to find products that reduce ROS in 14 Thai plant extracts. To determine total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, anti-tyrosinase activity and anti-collagenase activity, we compared extracts of 14 Thai plants prepared using different solvents (petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol). Antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH and ABTS assays. Total phenolic content of the 14 Thai plants extracts was found at the highest levels in ethanol followed by dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts, respectively, while flavonoid content was normally found in the dichloromethane fraction. Scavenging activity ranged from 7 to 99% scavenging as assessed by DPPH and ABTS assays. The ethanol leaf extract of Ardisia elliptica Thunb. had the highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity and collagenase inhibition, while Cassia alata (L.) Roxb. extract had the richest flavonoid content. Interestingly, three plants extracts, which were the ethanolic fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb., had high antioxidant content and activity, and significantly inhibited both tyrosinase and collagenase. Our finding show that the ethanol fractions of Annona squamosa L., Ardisia elliptica Thunb. and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. show promise as potential ingredients for cosmetic products such as anti-wrinkle agents and skin whitening products.
McMurdo, Marion E T; Argo, Ishbel; Crombie, Iain K; Feng, Zhiqiang; Sniehotta, Falko F; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar; Witham, Miles D; Donnan, Peter T
To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. Cross sectional survey. 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years), old-old (over 80 years), more affluent and less affluent groups. Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. 547 older people (mean (SD) age 79(8) years, 54% female) were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2) = 0.32). In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.
Łagowska, Karolina; Woźniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan
The aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional habits of high school students, depending on their sex and physical activity. The investigated population included 147 students in age of 17.5 +/- 1.5 y (girls DZ = 98, boys CH = 49) with different level of physical activity (athletes SPO, moderate physical activity UAF, low physical activity NAF). Nutritional data were obtained by FFQ and calculated for selected food-groups and generally as young healthy eating index YHEI. International IPAQ was used to determine the level of physical activity and anthropometric measured were conducted to estimated BMI and body fat status. It was indicated the YHEI in athletes was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to rest of students. Moreover, a significant difference (p < 0.05) in YHEI in DZ compared to CH was also found. The significant differences (p < 0.05) in the frequency of consumption of red meat, vegetable oil and sweetned drinks was revealed between DZ and CH adolescents. The frequency of consumption of vegetable oil, fast - foods, sweets, alcoholic drinks, energy drinks and isotonic drinks varied with the level of physical activity. Frequency of consumption of sweets negatively correlated with skinfold thickness in DZ, whereas positive correlation between consumption frequency of energy drinks, BMI and skinfold thickness was found in CH. The results show, that nutritional habits of the athletes was most approached to nutritional guidelines. CH, nutritional habits may predicted to overweight and obesity in CH group more distinctly than in DZ group.
Buchwald, Adam; Falconer, Carolyn
Descriptions of language production have identified processes involved in producing language and the presence and type of interaction among those processes. In the case of spoken language production, consensus has emerged that there is interaction among lexical selection processes and phoneme-level processing. This issue has received less attention in written language production. In this paper, we present a novel analysis of the writing-to-dictation performance of an individual with acquired dysgraphia revealing cascading activation from lexical processing to letter-level processing. The individual produced frequent lexical-semantic errors (e.g., chipmunk → SQUIRREL) as well as letter errors (e.g., inhibit → INBHITI) and had a profile consistent with impairment affecting both lexical processing and letter-level processing. The presence of cascading activation is suggested by lower letter accuracy on words that are more weakly activated during lexical selection than on those that are more strongly activated. We operationalize weakly activated lexemes as those lexemes that are produced as lexical-semantic errors (e.g., lethal in deadly → LETAHL) compared to strongly activated lexemes where the intended target word (e.g., lethal) is the lexeme selected for production.
Jones, Malia; Taylor, Anais; Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen S; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund
Psychosocial stress may be a factor in the link between physical activity and obesity. This study examines how the daily experience of psychosocial stress influences physical activity levels and weight status in adults. This study reports temporally ordered relationships between sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels and real-time reports of subjective psychosocial stress levels. Adults (n=105) wore an accelerometer and participated in an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of stress by answering prompts on a mobile phone several times per day over 4 days. Subjective stress was negatively related to sedentary activity in the minutes immediately preceding and immediately following an EMA prompt. Light activity was positively associated with a subsequent EMA report of higher stress, but there were no observed associations between stress and moderate-to-vigorous activity. Real-time stress reports and accelerometer readings for the same 4-day period showed no association. Nor were there associations between real-time stress reports and weight status.
Nusier, Mohamad K; El-Akawi, Zeyad J; Bani-Hani, Ibrahim
The aim of this study is to investigate blood lead levels in workers of lead acid battery factories and the relationship between those levels and the activity of y-glutamyl transferase (y-GT). Samples of blood were collected during the period from July 2001 to August 2001 from 95 workers of the 2 lead-acid battery factories in Amman, Jordan. They were categorized into 2 groups based on the nature of their work: direct (high exposure) and indirect contact (low exposure) groups. Lead concentration in whole venous blood and y-GT activity was measured. Mean blood lead levels were 51.4 +/- 1.8 and 23.9 +/- 3.8 ug/dl for both direct and indirect groups. y-Glutamyl transferase mean activity was found to be 29.2 +/- 2.6 U/L for direct and 23 +/- 5.7 U/L for indirect contact groups. Fifty healthy individuals were selected as controls. Their mean blood lead levels and y-GT mean activity were 12.3 +/- 0.5 ug/dl and 25.6 +/- 1.2 U/L. As results indicated, no significant relation was found between lead blood levels and y-GT activity (p=0.303) or between lead blood levels and duration of exposure in both direct and indirect groups (p=0.61). However, significant relation was found between lead blood levels and type of work (p value approached zero) and between lead blood levels and duration of exposure in those workers with lead blood levels exceeding 20 ug/dl and employed for more than one year (p value approached zero). Lead blood levels among workers in lead acid battery factories in Jordan are high. In most cases, they are higher than the limit permitted by the World Health Organization. Therefore, good protection measures should be taken in such factories to avoid the negative impact of high lead blood levels on the health of workers.
Ong, Ming Jing; Wallman, Karen E; Fournier, Paul A; Newnham, John P; Guelfi, Kym J
Current guidelines recommend that pregnant women without contraindications should engage in 30 min or more of moderate intensity exercise on most days of the week, however, many women fail to achieve this goal. This study examined the effect of adding brief higher intensity intervals to traditional continuous moderate intensity exercise on energy expenditure and the enjoyment of exercise in late pregnancy. This is important to determine given that any additional energy expenditure resulting from higher intensity intervals may be meaningless if enjoyment is compromised, since long-term adherence will likely be low. In this study, 12 healthy pregnant women at 30 ± 1 weeks gestation, aged 35 ± 6 years with a BMI of 27.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2) performed either 30 min of continuous cycling exercise (CONT) at a steady power output equivalent to 65 % age-predicted heart rate maximum or an equivalent period of interval cycling (INTV) consisting of continuous cycling at the same power output as CONT, but with the addition of six 15-s self-paced higher intensity efforts throughout, performed at regular intervals, on separate occasions in a counterbalanced order. Mean cycling power output, heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were higher during INTV compared with CONT (P < 0.05). However, there was no difference in mean rate of perceived exertion between conditions. Enjoyment of exercise was higher with INTV (P = 0.01). The addition of six 15-s higher intensity intervals to continuous moderate intensity exercise effectively increased energy expenditure by 28 %, at the same time as enhancing the enjoyment of exercise in late pregnancy. While these findings may be specific to recreationally active women, this study provides a rationale for future studies to examine the physiological and psychological responses to regular interval training during pregnancy to optimise exercise prescription. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry
Kataoka, Haruno; Utsumi, Akira; Hirose, Yuki; Yoshiura, Hiroshi
Disclosure control of natural language information (DCNL), which we are trying to realize, is described. DCNL will be used for securing human communications over the internet, such as through blogs and social network services. Before sentences in the communications are disclosed, they are checked by DCNL and any phrases that could reveal sensitive information are transformed or omitted so that they are no longer revealing. DCNL checks not only phrases that directly represent sensitive information but also those that indirectly suggest it. Combinations of phrases are also checked. DCNL automatically learns the knowledge of sensitive phrases and the suggestive relations between phrases by using co-occurrence analysis and Web retrieval. The users' burden is therefore minimized, i.e., they do not need to define many disclosure control rules. DCNL complements the traditional access control in the fields where reliability needs to be balanced with enjoyment and objects classes for the access control cannot be predefined.
Ward, M G; Warner, B; Unsworth, N; Chuah, S-W; Brownclarke, C; Shieh, S; Parkes, M; Sanderson, J D; Arkir, Z; Reynolds, J; Gibson, P R; Irving, P M
Discriminative drug level thresholds for disease activity endpoints in patients with Crohn's disease. have been consistently demonstrated with infliximab, but not adalimumab. To identify threshold concentrations for infliximab and adalimumab in Crohn's disease according to different disease endpoints, and factors that influence drug levels. We performed a cross-sectional service evaluation of patients receiving maintenance infliximab or adalimumab for Crohn's disease. Serum drug levels were at trough for infliximab and at any time point for adalimumab. Endpoints included Harvey-Bradshaw index, C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin. 6-tioguanine nucleotide (TGN) concentrations were measured in patients treated with thiopurines. A total of 191 patients (96 infliximab, 95 adalimumab) were included. Differences in infliximab levels were observed for clinical (P=.081) and biochemical remission (P=.003) and faecal calprotectin normalisation (P<.0001) with corresponding thresholds identified on ROC analysis of 1.5, 3.4 and 5.7 μg/mL. Adalimumab levels were similar between active disease and remission regardless of the endpoint assessed. Modelling identified that higher infliximab dose, body mass index and colonic disease independently accounted for 31% of the variation in infliximab levels, and weekly dosing, albumin and weight accounted for 23% of variation in adalimumab levels. TGN levels did not correlate with drug levels. Infliximab drug levels are associated with the depth of response/remission in patients with Crohn's disease, but no such relationship was observed for adalimumab. More data are needed to explain the variation in drug levels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Hillard, Cecilia J; Koltyn, Kelli F
Acute aerobic exercise improves mood and activates the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in physically active individuals; however, both mood and eCB responses to exercise may vary based on habitual levels of physical activity. This study aimed to examine eCB and mood responses to prescribed and preferred exercises among individuals with low, moderate, and high levels of physical activity. Thirty-six healthy adults (21 ± 4 yr) were recruited from low (≤60 min moderate-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] per week), moderate (150-299 min MVPA per week), and high (≥300 MVPA per week) physical activity groups. Participants performed both prescribed (approximately 70%-75% max) and preferred (i.e., self-selected) aerobic exercise on separate days. Mood states and eCB concentrations were assessed before and after exercise conditions. Both preferred and prescribed exercise resulted in significant increases (P < 0.01) in circulating eCB (N-arachidonoylethanolamine [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol); however, increases in AEA (P < 0.05) were larger in the prescribed condition. Likewise, both preferred and prescribed exercise elicited positive mood improvements compared with preexercise values, but changes in state anxiety, total mood disturbance, and confusion were greater in the preferred condition (P < 0.05). Changes in 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations were found to negatively correlate with changes in depression, tension, and total mood disturbance in the preferred condition (P < 0.05), and changes in AEA were positively associated with changes in vigor in the prescribed condition (P < 0.05). There were no significant group differences for mood or eCB outcomes. These results indicate that eCB and mood responses to exercise do not differ significantly between samples with varying physical activity levels. This study also demonstrates that in addition to prescribed exercise, preferred exercise activates the eCB system, and this activation may contribute to positive mood
Lee, I-Min; Ewing, Reid; Sesso, Howard D
Physical activity is associated with better health, but many individuals are insufficiently active. Modifying the built environment may be an approach capable of influencing population-wide levels of physical activity, but few data exist from longitudinal studies that can minimize bias from active people choosing activity-friendly neighborhoods. This study aims to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the built environment and physical activity on a large scale. This study examined cross-sectional associations between urban sprawl (mapping addresses to corresponding counties) and physical activity (self-reported) among men throughout the U.S. in 1993 and in 1988, and longitudinal associations between changes in exposure to urban sprawl for movers and physical activity, 1988-1993. Included were 4997 men (mean age, 70 years) in the 1993 cross-sectional study; 4918 men in the 1988 cross-sectional study; and 3448 men in the longitudinal study, 1988-1993. Data were collected prospectively in 1988 and 1993, and analyses were performed in 2007-2008. In cross-sectional analyses, less sprawl was significantly associated with more walking OR, comparing least with most sprawling areas, for meeting physical activity recommendations by walking=1.38 [95% CI=1.09, 1.76] in 1993 and 1.53 [1.19, 1.96] in 1988). Less sprawl also was associated with lower prevalence of overweight (corresponding OR=0.79 [0.64, 0.98] in 1993 and 0.81 [0.66, 1.00] in 1988). However, longitudinal analyses assessing change did not show that decreasing sprawl was associated with increased physical activity or decreased BMI. These findings suggest that the cross-sectional results may reflect self-selection, rather than indicating that the built environment--as measured by urban sprawl--increases physical activity. However, the longitudinal findings were limited by small numbers of men changing residence and associated sprawl levels.
Barnicle, Scott P.; Burton, Damon
This study examined the effectiveness of an applied mental skills training (MST) intervention utilizing mental skills to enhance intrinsic sources of enjoyment (ISOEs) as a means of promoting self-confidence, motivational style, and athletic performance, while also decreasing trait anxiety. The intervention project was designed to increase intrinsic SOE using a systematic and individualized mental training protocol, and then examine its relationships to mental skills and soccer performance. A Division 1 collegiate women’s soccer team was randomly assigned to treatment (n = 8) and control (n = 11) groups, equally distributed by academic year, position, and pre-season coach-evaluated starters and non-starts. Results revealed that the MST intervention significantly increased intrinsic enjoyment targeted psychological and competitive outcomes, both in practice and competition within the treatment group as compared to the control group. This study’s support for the impact mental skills training may have had on ISOEs, as well as other psychosocial outcomes and athletic performance can serve to highlight a mental skill often overlooked by consultants and coaches. Key points Sport enjoyment is a pivotal part of athletic performance, and should be more accepted and utilized in sport psychology interventions Applied sport psychology can positively impact athletes’ enjoyment, as well as athletic performance Applied sport psychology interventions can be effective in collegiate sports, and should be more utilized and appreciated. Intrinsic sport enjoyment is a vital component of an athlete’s success, both on and off the field. PMID:27928214
Ferm, Ulrika M; Claesson, Britt K; Ottesjö, Cajsa; Ericsson, Stina
This study explores children with complex communication needs, their peers and adult support persons in play with the talking and moving robot LekBot. Two triads were filmed playing with LekBot at pre-school. LekBot was developed to facilitate independent and enjoyable play on equal terms for children with significant communication disabilities and their peers. Using Conversation Analysis, participatory symmetry and enjoyment were investigated in relation to spoken and gestural communication, embodied stance, gaze, and affective display. Data originated from three video-recorded sessions that were approximately 2 hours long. Four different interaction situations were identified and explored: Participatory Asymmetry, Adult Facilitation, Greater Participatory Symmetry and Creativity, and Turn-taking and Enjoyable Play with LekBot. Neither participatory symmetry nor enjoyment were easily achieved in the play sessions and may require considerable effort, including adult involvement, but creative, spontaneous and highly enjoyable play, correlating with participatory symmetry to various degrees, was observed in a few instances. The findings are discussed with regard to play, AAC and the future development of robots to facilitate play.
Wallet, Mark A; Rodriguez, Carina A; Yin, Li; Saporta, Sara; Chinratanapisit, Sasawan; Hou, Wei; Sleasman, John W; Goodenow, Maureen M
HIV-1 replication and microbial translocation occur concomitant with systemic immune activation. This study delineates mechanisms of immune activation and CD4 T-cell decline in pediatric HIV-1 infection. Cross-sectional and longitudinal cellular and soluble plasma markers for inflammation were evaluated in 14 healthy and 33 perinatally HIV-1-infected pediatric study volunteers prior to and over 96 weeks of protease-inhibitor-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). All HIV-1-infected patients reconstituted CD4 T cells either with suppression of viremia or rebound of drug-resistant virus. Systemic immune activation was determined by polychromatic flow cytometry of blood lymphocytes and ELISA for plasma soluble CD27, soluble CD14, and tumor necrosis factor. Microbial translocation was evaluated by limulus amebocyte lysate assay to detect bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ELISA for antiendotoxin core antigen immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Immune activation markers were compared with viral load, CD4 cell percentage, and LPS by regression models. Comparisons between healthy and HIV-1-infected or between different viral outcome groups were performed by nonparametric rank sum. Microbial translocation was detected in healthy infants but resolved with age (P < 0.05). LPS and soluble CD14 levels were elevated in all HIV-1-infected patients (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001, respectively) and persisted even if CD4 T cells were fully reconstituted, virus optimally suppressed, and lymphocyte activation resolved by ART. Children with CD4 T-cell reconstitution but viral rebound following ART continued to display high levels of soluble CD27. Microbial translocation in pediatric HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent monocyte/macrophage activation independent of viral replication or T-cell activation.
Pakchotanon, Rattapol; Chaiamnuay, Sumapa; Narongroeknawin, Pongthorn; Asavatanabodee, Paijit
Serum vitamin D level was inversely associated with the risk of developing new onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and disease activity, but some conflicting results have been reported. To examine the serum vitamin D status in Thai RA patients and possible independent factors affecting serum 25 hydroxyvitamin vitamin D (25(OH)D) and the associations of serum 25(OH)D level and the disease activity and functional status in Thai RA patients. A cross-sectional study was performed in 239 Thai RA patients. The blood levels of 25(OH)D2 and D3 were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Disease activity was assessed according to tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), visual analog scale for global patient assessment, Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28) and Thai Health Assessment Questionnaire (Thai HAQ). The mean vitamin D level was 28.79 ng/mL. There were no associations between 25(OH)D levels and number of tender and swollen joint counts, DAS-28 score, HAQ score or rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-cyclic citrulinated peptide (CCP) positivity. After multivariated analysis, Bangkok residents, non-farmer, obesity and non-vitamin D supplementation were the predictors for vitamin D insufficiency in Thai patients with RA. There are no associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with disease activity or functional status in Thai RA patients. The factors associated with vitamin D insufficiency are Bangkok resident, non-farmer, obesity and not taking vitamin D supplementation. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Girona, Josefa; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Plana, Nuria; Guaita-Esteruelas, Sandra; Amigo, Nuria; Heras, Mercedes; Masana, Luis
PCSK9 inhibition is a new powerful cholesterol-lowering strategy. Recently, it was reported that CETP inhibitors influence PCSK9 levels as an off-target effect. We explored the relationship between circulating PCSK9 levels and CETP activity in patients with metabolic disease who were not on lipid-lowering therapy. Plasma CETP activity and PCSK9 levels were measured in 450 participants (median age, 58 years; 49 % women) who attended the metabolism unit because of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (78 %), atherogenic dyslipidemia (32 %), obesity (50 %), type 2 diabetes mellitus (72 %), and other risk factors (13 %). A 6 week lipid-lowering drug wash-out period was established in treated patients. Both PCSK9 levels and CETP activity were higher in patients with an increasing number of MetS components. PCSK9 levels were positively correlated with CETP activity in the entire cohort (r = 0.256, P < 0.0001) independent of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and glucose. Individuals with the loss-of-function PCSK9 genetic variant rs11591147 (R46L) had lower levels of PCSK9 (36.5 %, P < 0.0001) and LDL-C (17.8 %, P = 0.010) as well as lower CETP activity (10.31 %, P = 0.009). This association remained significant in the multiple regression analysis even after adjusting for gender, age, BMI, LDL-C, triglycerides, glucose, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, SBP and MetS (P = 0.003). Our data suggest a metabolic association between PCSK9 and CETP independent of lipid-lowering treatment. The clinical implications of this metabolic relationship could be relevant for explaining the effect of PCSK9 and CETP inhibition on overall lipid profiles.
Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Russell, Daniel W; Huberty, Jennifer
A limitation of traditional outcome studies from behavioral interventions is the lack of attention given to evaluating the influence of moderating variables. This study examined possible moderation effect of baseline activity levels on physical activity change as a result of the Ready for Recess intervention. Ready for Recess (August 2009-September 2010) was a controlled trial with twelve schools randomly assigned to one of four conditions: control group, staff supervision, equipment availability, and the combination of staff supervision and equipment availability. A total of 393 children (181 boys and 212 girls) from grades 3 through 6 (8-11 years old) were asked to wear an Actigraph monitor during school time on 4-5 days of the week. Assessments were conducted at baseline (before intervention) and post intervention (after intervention). Initial MVPA moderated the effect of Staff supervision (β = -0.47%; p < .05), but not Equipment alone and Staff + Equipment (p > .05). Participants in the Staff condition that were 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean for baseline MVPA (classified as "low active") had lower MVPA levels at post-intervention when compared with their low active peers in the control condition (Mean diff = -10.8 ± 2.9%; p = .005). High active individuals (+1SD above the mean) in the Equipment treatment also had lower MVPA values at post-intervention when compared with their highly active peers in the control group (Mean diff = -9.5 ± 2.9%; p = .009). These results indicate that changes in MVPA levels at post-intervention were reduced in highly active participants when recess staff supervision was provided. In this study, initial MVPA moderated the effect of Staff supervision on children's MVPA after 6 months of intervention. Staff training should include how to work with inactive youth but also how to assure that active children remain active.
Howell, David R; Mannix, Rebekah C; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P
Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. © 2016 The Author(s).
Kas, M J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, J G; de Krom, M; van Gassen, K L I; van Lith, H A; Olivier, B; Oppelaar, H; Hendriks, J; de Wit, M; Groot Koerkamp, M J A; Holstege, F C P; van Oost, B A; de Graan, P N E
The generation of motor activity levels is under tight neural control to execute essential behaviors, such as movement toward food or for social interaction. To identify novel neurobiological mechanisms underlying motor activity levels, we studied a panel of chromosome substitution (CS) strains derived from mice with high (C57BL/6J strain) or low motor activity levels (A/J strain) using automated home cage behavioral registration. In this study, we genetically mapped the expression of baseline motor activity levels (horizontal distance moved) to mouse chromosome 1. Further genetic mapping of this trait revealed an 8.3-Mb quantitative trait locus (QTL) interval. This locus is distinct from the QTL interval for open-field anxiety-related motor behavior on this chromosome. By data mining, an existing phenotypic and genotypic data set of 2445 genetically heterogeneous mice (http://gscan.well.ox.ac.uk/), we confirmed linkage to the peak marker at 79 970 253 bp and refined the QTL to a 312-kb interval containing a single gene (A830043J08Rik). Sequence analysis showed a nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region of the Riken gene. Genome-wide microarray gene expression profiling in brains of discordant F(2) individuals from CS strain 1 showed a significant upregulation of Epha4 in low-active F(2) individuals. Inclusion of a genetic marker for Epha4 confirmed that this gene is located outside of the QTL interval. Both Epha4 and A830043J08Rik are expressed in brain motor circuits, and similar to Epha4 mutants, we found linkage between reduced motor neurons number and A/J chromosome 1. Our findings provide a novel QTL and a potential downstream target underlying motor circuitry development and the expression of physical activity levels.
Howell, David R.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; Quinn, Bridget; Taylor, J. Andrew; Tan, Can Ozan; Meehan, William P.
Background Physical rest after a concussion has been described as a key component in the management of the injury. Evidence supporting this recommendation, however, is limited. Purpose To examine the association between physical activity and symptom duration in a cohort of patients after a concussion. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods This study included 364 patients who were diagnosed with a concussion, were seen by a physician within 3 weeks of injury, and completed a questionnaire at the initial clinic visit. The questionnaire assessed the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) score, previous number of concussions, presence of the loss of consciousness or amnesia at the time of injury, and prior treatment for headaches. During each follow-up clinic visit, physical activity level was self-reported. A Cox proportional hazard model was constructed to determine the association between symptom duration, initial clinic visit responses, and self-reported physical activity level after the injury. Results Study participants ranged in age from 8 to 27 years (mean age, 15.0 years) and had sustained a mean of 0.8 prior concussions; 222 patients (61%) were male. On initial examination, the mean PCSS score was 34.7. The mean symptom duration was 48.9 days after the injury. Among the variables included in the model, initial PCSS score and female sex were independently associated with symptom duration, while physical activity level after the injury was not. For participants aged between 13 and 18 years, however, higher levels of physical activity after the injury were associated with a shorter symptom duration. Conclusion Results from this study indicate that physical activity after the injury may not be universally detrimental to the recovery of concussion symptoms. PMID:26838933
Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M
Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research goals and the planning of new trials. CRD
Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M
Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research
Val Jiménez, Carmen Llanos; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; García Atienza, Eva María; Navarro Ruiz, María Soledad; Hernández Cerón, Inmaculada; Moreno de la Rosa, Lorena
To describe the functional status and self-rated health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in Primary Care, and checking their relationship with the level of physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics. Study of prevalence and cross association. Primary Care Clinics. Adult patients with a diagnosis of OA in any joint in their clinical records. Out of a total of 487 selected, 346 (71.0%) took part in the study. Functional capacity (WOMAC scale), self-rated quality of life (EuroQol- 5D questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ questionnaire), number of affected joints, pain level, and sociodemographic characteristics. A mean score of 30.2 (SD: 20.8; CI 95% CI: 28.0 to 32.4) was obtained on the WOMAC scale, with pain, stiffness, and functional capacity scores of 6.5 (SD: 4.8), 1.9 (SD: 2.0), and 21.7 (SD: 15.7), respectively. The score showed a linear trend (P<.001) compared to the level of physical activity, being 41.1 (SD: 19.9) in inactive subjects, 24.3 (SD: 18.7) in subjects with moderate activity, and 22.3 (SD: 19.8) in subjects with intense activity. In the multiple linear regression, the score on the WOMAC scale, as well as that obtained in self-rated health status, maintained their association with physical activity level after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and the number of affected joints. In patients with OA, pain and functional capacity are the most affected dimensions. Functional status and self-rated health status are higher in active patients, regardless of the number of joints affected and their demographic characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.
The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.
Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon
Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.
Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…
Howcroft, Jennifer; Klejman, Sue; Fehlings, Darcy; Wright, Virginia; Zabjek, Karl; Andrysek, Jan; Biddiss, Elaine
To evaluate the potential of active video game (AVG) play for physical activity promotion and rehabilitation therapies in children with cerebral palsy (CP) through a quantitative exploration of energy expenditure, muscle activation, and quality of movement. Single-group, experimental study. Human movement laboratory in an urban rehabilitation hospital. Children (N=17; mean age ± SD, 9.43±1.51y) with CP. Participants played 4 AVGs (bowling, tennis, boxing, and a dance game). Energy expenditure via a portable cardiopulmonary testing unit; upper limb muscle activations via single differential surface electrodes; upper limb kinematics via an optical motion capture system; and self-reported enjoyment via the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). Moderate levels of physical activity were achieved during the dance (metabolic equivalent for task [MET]=3.20±1.04) and boxing (MET=3.36±1.50) games. Muscle activations did not exceed maximum voluntary exertions and were greatest for the boxing AVG and for the wrist extensor bundle. Angular velocities and accelerations were significantly larger in the dominant arm than in the hemiplegic arm during bilateral play. A high level of enjoyment was reported on the PACES (4.5±0.3 out of 5). AVG play via a low-cost, commercially available system can offer an enjoyable opportunity for light to moderate physical activity in children with CP. While all games may encourage motor learning to some extent, AVGs can be strategically selected to address specific therapeutic goals (eg, targeted joints, bilateral limb use). Future research is needed to address the challenge of individual variability in movement patterns/play styles. Likewise, further study exploring home use of AVGs for physical activity promotion and rehabilitation therapies, and its functional outcomes, is warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mikuni, Masato; Mitsube, Kenrokure; Peterson, C Matthew; Brännström, Mats
Ovulation is a local physiological inflammatory process with active participation of inflammatory mediators and immune cells. To prevent extensive inflammatory injury to the follicle at ovulation there is also a local anti-inflammatory system at ovulation, converting the inactive glucocorticoid cortisone to the more potent cortisol. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the potent glucocorticoid analogue,