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  1. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  2. Engagement, enjoyment, and energy expenditure during active video game play

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Objective Playing active video games can produce moderate levels of physical activity, but little is known about how these games motivate players to be active. Several psychological predictors, such as perceptions of competence, control, and engagement, may be associated with enjoyment of a game, which has in turn been hypothesized to predict energy expended during play. However, these relationships have yet to be tested in active video games. Methods Young adults aged 18–35 (N = 97, 50 female) < 300 pounds played a Dance Dance Revolution game for 13 minutes while energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Self-reported measures of engagement, perceived competence, perceived control, and enjoyment were taken immediately afterwards. Mediation was analyzed using path analysis. Results A path model in which enjoyment mediated the effects of engagement, perceived competence, and perceived control on energy expenditure and BMI directly affected energy expenditure was an adequate fit to the data, χ2(1, N = 97) = .199, p = .655; CFI = 1.00; RMSEA < .001; 90% CI = .000 - .206; p = .692. Enjoyment mediated the relationship between engagement and energy expenditure (indirect effect = .138, p = .028), but other mediated effects were not significant. Conclusion Engagement, enjoyment, and BMI affect energy expended during active video game play. Games that are more enjoyable and engaging may produce greater intensity activity. Developers, practitioners, and researchers should consider characteristics that influence these predictors when creating or recommending active video games. PMID:23527520

  3. Examining elementary school children's level of enjoyment of traditional tag games vs. interactive dance games.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Zhang, Peng; Podlog, Leslie William

    2014-01-01

    Enjoyment has been implicated as a determinant of physical activity among children and adolescents. However, the effect of different sport activities on children's enjoyment remains largely unexplored. This study examined whether children's enjoyment in physical education (PE) varied as a function of learning activities. Participants were 210 third- through sixth-grade children who had a 30 min PE class every week. Participants responded to a standardized self-report enjoyment survey measuring their enjoyment level in a PE class during which they participated in tag games. Students completed the same questionnaire when involved in interactive dance games in PE. The results revealed that children reported significantly higher scores in enjoyment toward interactive dance games than they did toward traditional games (p < .01). Also, girls exhibited higher enjoyment toward interactive dance games than boys did (p < .05). However, no gender difference emerged on enjoyment toward traditional games. In conclusion, it is practical and meaningful to integrate interactive dance games into PE.

  4. Leisure Activity Enjoyment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eversole, Megan; Collins, Diane M.; Karmarkar, Amol; Colton, Lisa; Quinn, Jill Phillips; Karsbaek, Rita; Johnson, Jessica Reinken; Callier, Nicolle Patricia; Hilton, Claudia L.

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment is a fundamental component of activity participation. This study compared leisure activity enjoyment experienced by typically developing children (TD; n = 64) and those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 67) from age 6 to 13. The TD children enjoyed "formal" and "physical" activities significantly more than the…

  5. Variety, Enjoyment, and Physical Activity Participation Among High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon L.; Coffield, Edward; Lee, Sarah M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents. Methods Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls. Results Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation. Conclusions These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits. PMID:26107142

  6. Variety, Enjoyment, and Physical Activity Participation Among High School Students.

    PubMed

    Michael, Shannon L; Coffield, Edward; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    Federal guidelines state that youth should participate in a variety of physical activity (PA) they find enjoyable. Little is known, however, about how variety and enjoyment are associated with PA participation among adolescents. Data came from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative survey of adolescents. Path analysis was used to examine the association of a variety of self-reported PA, defined as the number of activities and activity types (ie, team sports/weightlifting, individual activities, and other competitive/recreational sports), on self-reported PA enjoyment and participation. The analysis also examined whether enjoyment mediates the association between a variety of PA and participation. Separate models were estimated for boys and girls. Number of activities was associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. For boys and girls, team sports/weightlifting was associated with increased participation, and individual activities were indirectly associated with increased participation through enjoyment. For boys, team sports/weightlifting was indirectly related with participation. These findings suggest that participation in a variety of PA is associated with increased PA enjoyment and participation. Providing opportunities for adolescents to engage in a variety of activities might help them identify PA they enjoy and facilitate lifelong PA habits.

  7. The effects of curiosity-evoking events on activity enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Isikman, Elif; MacInnis, Deborah J; Ülkümen, Gülden; Cavanaugh, Lisa A

    2016-09-01

    Whereas prior literature has studied the positive effects of curiosity-evoking events that are integral to focal activities, we explore whether and how a curiosity-evoking event that is incidental to a focal activity induces negative outcomes for enjoyment. Four experiments and 1 field study demonstrate that curiosity about an event that is incidental to an activity in which individuals are engaged, significantly affects enjoyment of a concurrent activity. The reason why is that curiosity diverts attention away from the concurrent activity and focuses attention on the curiosity-evoking event. Thus, curiosity regarding an incidental event decreases enjoyment of a positive focal activity but increases enjoyment of a negative focal activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Picture Me Playing--A Portrait of Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents…

  9. Effects of leadership style and group dynamics on enjoyment of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Fox, L D; Rejeski, W J; Gauvin, L

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of leadership style and group dynamics on the enjoyment of physical activity. A completely randomized 2 x 2 factorial design was used in which the manipulation of "leadership style" (socially enriched vs. bland) was crossed with a manipulation of "group dynamics" (socially enriched vs. bland). The study was conducted in an aerobics studio on a university campus. The sample included 48 male and 42 female undergraduate students who were moderately active. Each participant was involved in a single session of step aerobics. A female graduate student provided either an enriched or bland series of interactions to manipulate leadership style, and a trained group of planted undergraduates was used to promote either an enriched or bland group environment. The outcome measures of interest were enjoyment and the probability of engaging in a similar activity in the future. Participants in the enriched leadership style plus enriched group dynamics condition reported higher enjoyment than did participants in the other three conditions. On average, the level of enjoyment was 22.07% higher in this condition than in the other three conditions (p < .001). The probability of future involvement was 13.93% higher for participants in the enriched group environment, irrespective of leadership style (p < .03). Enjoyment during physical activity is optimized when a positive and supportive leadership style is coupled with an enriched and supportive group environment. Future research is required to extend these findings to other activities and populations.

  10. Evaluating the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on children’s quality of life, enjoyment and participation in physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An emerging public health strategy is to enhance children’s opportunities to be physically active during school break periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on primary school children’s quality of life (QOL), enjoyment and participation in physical activity (PA). Methods This study consisted of a movable/recycled materials intervention that included baseline, a 7-week post-test and an 8-month follow-up data collection phase. Children within an intervention school (n = 123) and a matched control school (n = 152) aged 5-to-12-years-old were recruited for the study. Children’s PA was measured using a combination of pedometers and direct observation (SOPLAY). Quality of life, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of lunchtime activities were assessed in the 8-12 year children. A multi-level mixed effect linear regression model was applied in STATA (version 12.0) using the xtmixed command to fit linear mixed models to each of the variables to examine whether there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the intervention and control school at the three time points (pre, post and follow-up). Results Significant overall interaction effects (group × time) were identified for children’s mean steps and distance (pedometers) in the intervention school compared to the control school. Intervention school children also spent significantly higher proportions within specified target areas engaged in higher PA intensities in comparison to the control school at both the 7-week post-test and 8-month follow-up. A short-term treatment effect was revealed after 7-weeks for children’s physical health scale QOL, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of intra-personal play activities. Conclusions Examining the effects of this school playground intervention over a school year suggested that the introduction of movable/recycled materials can have a significant

  11. Association of Enjoyable Leisure Activities With Psychological and Physical Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Matthews, Karen A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M.; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Method Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19–89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Results Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Conclusion Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes. PMID:19592515

  12. Association of enjoyable leisure activities with psychological and physical well-being.

    PubMed

    Pressman, Sarah D; Matthews, Karen A; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2009-09-01

    To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19-89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes.

  13. Black, Hispanic, and White Girls' Perceptions of Environmental and Social Support and Enjoyment of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Grieser, Mira; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Saksvig, Brit I.; Lee, Jung-Sun; Felton, Gwen M.; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examines the differences among black, Hispanic, and white adolescent girls in their perceptions surrounding physical activity (PA), including support within the school climate, friend and family social support, and personal enjoyment. Methods Participants included 1466 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Participants were 20% black, 21% Hispanic, 47% white, and 12% of other or mixed races. Multivariate analyses were performed on each scale, adjusting for body mass index and free and reduced-price lunch status. Results Results showed racial differences on several variables. Black girls, compared with white girls, perceived significantly lower PA enjoyment (p < .001) and teacher support for PA (p = .004). Hispanic girls experienced less PA enjoyment (p = .003) and perceived less support for PA from boys (p = .001) and their families (p = .008) than white girls. Black girls reported significantly higher levels of physical education (PE) enjoyment than did white girls (p = .003). Conclusions Differences in perceived PA support and enjoyment across race raise questions about why these differences exist and how best to address disparities within interventions. PMID:18489464

  14. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  15. Children and adolescent physical activity participation and enjoyment during active play.

    PubMed

    Moghaddaszadeh, Asal; Ahmadi, Yasamin; Belcastro, Angelo N

    2017-10-01

    Girls' (9-19 years) participation in physical activity (PA) is known to decrease at a faster rate than boys. A reduction in PA attractiveness (enjoyment) and lower psychosocial profile of girls approaching biological maturity may underlie the decreasing rate of PA participation. Since engaging children in active play programs improves health related quality of life indictors and enjoyment levels; the purposes of this study were to: 1) assess psychosocial status and PA attractiveness/enjoyment of boys and girls to an eight-week active play program; and 2) investigate the relationships among PA participation, psychosocial status and PA attractiveness with both age and maturity status for boys and girls following an active play PA program. Thirty-three children (age 9.8±1.3 years; weight 43.1±13.4 kg; BMI 20.8±3.2 kg/m2) were recruited to participate in an active play program for 8 weeks (4x/week; 1hr/d). M-S estimates ranged from -6.7 to -2.5 years away from biological maturity Daily program PA was assessed and compared to pre-post measures of psychosocial functioning and PA attractiveness. Statistical procedures were performed using ANOVA and/or Pearson's correlation r (SPSS v. 22.0) with P=0.05. PA participation in the active play program showed a group average of 39±11% time spent in moderate-vigorous PA (%MVPA) with boys averaging 45% MVPA and girls averaging 30% MVPA (P<0.05). PA attractiveness scores for boys did not change following the program; whereas girls improved from 67±13% to 76±9% (P<0.05). Minimal changes were noted for the health-related quality of life measures as a result of the PA program. Comparing PA attractiveness to %MVPA, 80% of girls reporting positive changes or no change; in contrast 56% of boys responded with negative/less PA attractiveness. PA attractiveness for all children was negatively associated with age (r=-0.19) and/or M-S (r=-0.29). The relationships, however, were gender specific with boys exhibiting a coefficient of -0

  16. Self-Efficacy versus Perceived Enjoyment as Predictors of Physical Activity Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Beth A.; Williams, David M.; Frayeh, Amanda L.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) enjoyment are related to PA behavior, but it is unclear which is more important and how they interrelate. The purpose of this study was to examine how these two constructs interrelate to influence PA behavior. Design Participants were low active adults (n=448) participating in a RCT examining the effect of a PA promotion intervention. Participants completed physical activity, enjoyment, and self-efficacy measures at baseline, six, and 12 months. Results Self-efficacy and enjoyment at both baseline and six months predicted PA at 12 months. However, enjoyment was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy in that self-efficacy no longer predicted PA behavior when included alongside enjoyment. In follow-up mediation analyses, enjoyment at six months did not mediate the effect of baseline self-efficacy on 12-month PA; however, six-month self-efficacy mediated the effect of baseline enjoyment on 12-month PA. Conclusion Our results indicate that interventions should perhaps initially focus on increasing enjoyment of physical activity. Greater PA enjoyment appears to influence individuals’ self-reported ability to engage in regular PA (i.e., higher self-efficacy ratings). Additional research is needed to better understand the interrelationships between self-efficacy and enjoyment and how these constructs affect PA. PMID:26541890

  17. Self-efficacy versus perceived enjoyment as predictors of physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Beth A; Williams, David M; Frayeh, Amanda; Marcus, Bess H

    2016-01-01

    Self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) enjoyment are related to PA behaviour, but it is unclear which is more important and how they interrelate. The purpose of this study was to examine how these two constructs interrelate to influence PA behaviour. Participants were low-active adults (n = 448) participating in a RCT examining the effect of a PA promotion intervention. Participants completed physical activity, enjoyment and self-efficacy measures at baseline, six and 12 months. Self-efficacy and enjoyment at both baseline and six months predicted PA at 12 months. However, enjoyment was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy, in that self-efficacy no longer predicted PA behaviour when included alongside enjoyment. In follow-up mediation analyses, enjoyment at six months did not mediate the effect of baseline self-efficacy on 12-month PA; however, six-month self-efficacy mediated the effect of baseline enjoyment on 12-month PA. Our results indicate that interventions should perhaps initially focus on increasing enjoyment of physical activity. Greater PA enjoyment appears to influence individuals' self-reported ability to engage in regular PA (i.e. higher self-efficacy ratings). Additional research is needed to better understand the interrelationships between self-efficacy and enjoyment and how these constructs affect PA.

  18. The Development of the Lunchtime Enjoyment of Activity and Play Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyndman, Brendon; Telford, Amanda; Finch, Caroline; Ullah, Shahid; Benson, Amanda C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Enjoyment of physical activity is as an important determinant of children's participation in physical activity. Despite this, there is an absence of reliable measures for assessing children's enjoyment of play activities during school lunchtime. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the reliability of the Lunchtime…

  19. An Examination of the Relationship between Enjoyment, Physical Education, Physical Activity and Health in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Tannehill, Deborah; Walsh, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Enjoyment of physical activity (EPA) is positively correlated with activity, yet little is known of its relationship with enjoyment of physical education (EPE). This study's purpose was to explore EPE and its relationship to EPA. Cross-sectional data (N = 4122, average age 14.5 plus or minus 1.7 years, 48% male) were collected as part of the CSPPA…

  20. Student Perceived Motivational Climate, Enjoyment, and Physical Activity in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christine E.; Erwin, Heather E.; Kipp, Lindsay; Beighle, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    We used achievement goal theory to examine students' physical activity (PA) motivation and physical education (PE) enjoyment. Purposes included: 1) determine whether schools with different pedagogical approaches varied in student perceptions of mastery and performance climate dimensions, enjoyment, and PA; 2) examine gender and grade differences…

  1. Physical Self-Concept and Physical Activity Enjoyment in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences and relationships of seven specific domains of physical self-concept (PSC) ("Strength," "Endurance," "Speed," "Flexibility," "Coordination," "Global Sport Competence," and "Appearance") and physical activity enjoyment (PAE) in 447…

  2. Self-Efficacy Manipulation Influences Physical Activity Enjoyment in Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Cheng, Shoubin; Lu, Jiaying; Zhu, Lele; Chen, Ling

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the manipulation of exercise self-efficacy on the enjoyment of physical activity in a sample of 44 Chinese adolescents (age = 14.27 ± .87 y), including 22 boys and 22 girls. The participants were randomized into a low-efficacy or high-efficacy condition, and their self-efficacy beliefs for engaging in moderate-intensity physical activity were manipulated by providing false feedback after a submaximal exercise test. The participants' self-efficacy was measured and compared before and after the exercise test and the participants' enjoyment of physical activity was assessed after the exercise test. It was found that exercise self-efficacy was successfully manipulated in the expected direction in both conditions, which significantly influenced the participants' enjoyment of physical activity. After the exercise test, the participants in the low-efficacy condition reported lower enjoyment scores relative to the high-efficacy participants. These results suggest that self-efficacy may have an important influence on the enjoyment of physical activity among Chinese adolescents. We recommend that physical activity promotion programs should be tailored to enhance adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs and enjoyment of the experience of physical activity.

  3. Relations among school students' self-determined motivation, perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao

    2009-12-01

    Guided by the self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of self-determined motivation toward motivational outcomes (perceived enjoyment, perceived effort, physical activity behaviors) for 286 middle school students in physical education. Analyses indicated that intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and introjected regulation were positively related to students' enjoyment, perceived effort, and physical activity, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with students' enjoyment and perceived effort. The findings highlighted the importance of higher self-determined motivation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) in students' perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. This study supports the use of self-determination theory to investigate students' motivational outcomes in school physical education.

  4. The Effects of Active Videogame Feedback and Practicing Experience on Children's Physical Activity Intensity and Enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun

    2017-08-01

    The study aims to explore the effects of receiving active videogame (AVG) feedback and playing experience on individuals' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and perceived enjoyment. This was a within-subject design study. The participants included 36 (n = 15 and 21 for boys and girls, respectively) fourth graders enrolled in a rural elementary school in southern Georgia area. The experiment lasted for 6 weeks with each week including three sessions. The participants were assigned in either front row (sensor feedback) or back row (no sensor feedback) during practice, which was alternated in different sessions. Two different dance games were played during the study with each game implemented for 3 weeks. The MVPA was measured with GT3X+ accelerometers. Physical activity (PA) enjoyment was assessed after the completion of the first two and last two sessions of each game. A repeated one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used to examine the effects of AVG feedback and game on MVPA. A repeated one-way MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) was conducted for each game to examine the effects of experience and AVG feedback on enjoyment and MVPA. No effects of AVG feedback were found for MVPA or enjoyment (P > 0.05). The effects of experience on MVPA were found for Just Dance Kids 2014 with experience decreased MVPA (P < 0.05). Students who practiced dance AVG without receiving feedback still demonstrated positive affection and accumulated similar MVPA than when practicing while receiving feedback. Experience for certain dance games tends to decrease PA intensity.

  5. The development of the lunchtime enjoyment of activity and play questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Brendon; Telford, Amanda; Finch, Caroline; Ullah, Shahid; Benson, Amanda C

    2013-04-01

    Enjoyment of physical activity is as an important determinant of children's participation in physical activity. Despite this, there is an absence of reliable measures for assessing children's enjoyment of play activities during school lunchtime. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the reliability of the Lunchtime Enjoyment of Activity and Play (LEAP) Questionnaire. Questionnaire items were categorized employing a social-ecological framework including intrapersonal (20 items), interpersonal (2 items), and physical environment/policy (17 items) components to identify the broader influences on children's enjoyment. An identical questionnaire was administered on 2 occasions, 10  days apart, to 176 children aged 8-12  years, attending a government elementary school in regional Victoria, Australia. Test-retest reliability confirmed that 35 of 39 LEAP Questionnaire items had at least moderate kappa agreement ranging from .44 to .78. Although 4 individual kappa values were low, median kappa scores for each aggregated social-ecological component reached at least moderate agreement (.44-.60). This study confirms the LEAP Questionnaire to be a reliable, context-specific instrument with sound content, and face validity that employs a social-ecological framework to assess children's enjoyment of school play and lunchtime activities. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  6. Effects of Trail Information on Physical Activity Enjoyment

    Treesearch

    Erik Rosegard

    2004-01-01

    Moderate physical activity (PA) improves physical fitness measures (i.e., aerobic capacity, agility, flexibility, body composition, and muscular endurance and strength). In addition to numerous physiological benefits, PA has been shown to increase cognitive and emotional functioning. These benefits lead to improved immune response and have been associated with...

  7. Socioeconomic disparities in adolescent substance use: Role of enjoyable alternative substance-free activities.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Nafeesa; Khoddam, Rubin; Leventhal, Adam M

    2017-03-01

    To examine whether reduced substance-free enjoyable activity (i.e., 'alternative reinforcers') is a mediating mechanism linking lower socioeconomic status and adolescent substance use risk. High school students in Los Angeles, CA (N = 2,553, 2013-2014, M age baseline = 14.1) were administered three semiannual surveys. Socioeconomic status was measured by highest parental education reported at Wave 1 (the beginning of 9th grade). Three elements of alternative reinforcement at Wave 2 (six-month follow-up) were assessed as mediators: ratings of frequency of engagement, level of enjoyment, and frequency × enjoyment product scores of substance-free typically pleasant activities (like participation in sports teams or school clubs). Study outcomes included prior six-month alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, and other substance use at Wave 3 (twelve-month follow-up). Logistic regression models adjusting for alternative reinforcers and substance use from the preceding wave as well as other co-factors were used to examine the association of Wave 1 parental education with Wave 3 substance use and mediation by Wave 2 alternative reinforcement. Lower parental education at Wave 1 was associated with a greater likelihood of reporting alcohol (β = -0.122, 95% CI = -0.234, -0.009) and marijuana (β = -0.168, 95% CI = -0.302, -0.034) use at Wave 3. The inverse association between parental education and substance use was statistically mediated by each element of diminished alternative reinforcement at Wave 2. Lower parental education at Wave 1 was associated with lower alternative reinforcement at Wave 2, which in turn was associated with greater likelihood of alcohol (range of β indirect effects  : -0.007 [95% CI = -0.016, -0.001] to -0.01 [95% CI = -0.018, -0.004]) and marijuana (βs: -0.011 [95% CI = -0.022,-0.002] to -0.018 [95% CI = -0.035, -0.005]) use at Wave 3. Parental education was not associated with use of combustible tobacco products or other

  8. Participation and enjoyment of leisure activities in adolescents born at ≤ 29 week gestation.

    PubMed

    Dahan-Oliel, Noémi; Mazer, Barbara; Riley, Patricia; Maltais, Désirée B; Nadeau, Line; Majnemer, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Motor, cognitive, social and behavioral problems have been found to persist in adolescents born extremely preterm. Leisure participation has been associated with health benefits; however, few studies have explored leisure participation in this population. The aim of this study was to describe leisure participation in adolescents born at ≤29week gestation. Secondary aims were to identify potential differences in participation related to sex, age, motor competence, and cognitive ability, and between adolescents born preterm and their siblings born at term. This cross-sectional study included 128 adolescents (mean age: 16.0years; 67 females) with a mean gestational age of 26.5weeks. All participants, as well as 22 siblings born at term, completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Participation levels were highest in social and recreational activities, and lowest in active-physical and skill-based activities. Boys participated in more active-physical activities (p=0.01) and more often (p<0.001) than girls, whereas girls had higher participation levels in social and self-improvement activities (p<0.05) than boys. Older adolescents engaged in more social activities (p=0.01) and more frequently (p=0.002) than younger adolescents. Overall, participants with poor motor and cognitive skills had lower participation levels in active-physical and social activities. Adolescents born preterm participated in fewer recreational activities compared to term-born siblings (p=0.013). Engagement in active-physical and skill-based leisure activities needs to be promoted in boys, and especially in girls with a history of prematurity. Activities should be adapted to sex and individual skill level in order to promote participation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceived competence and enjoyment in predicting students' physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the predictive strength of perceived competence and enjoyment on students' physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in physical education classes. Participants (N = 307; 101 in Grade 6, 96 in Grade 7, 110 in Grade 8; 149 boys, 158 girls) responded to questionnaires assessing perceived competence and enjoyment of physical education, then their cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed on the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Physical activity in one class was estimated via pedometers. Regression analyses showed enjoyment (R2 = 16.5) and perceived competence (R2 = 4.2) accounted for significant variance of only 20.7% of physical activity and, perceived competence was the only significant contributor to cardiorespiratory fitness performance (R2 = 19.3%). Only a small amount of variance here leaves 80% unaccounted for. Some educational implications and areas for research are mentioned.

  10. Picture me playing-a portrait of participation and enjoyment of leisure activities in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Shevell, Michael; Lach, Lucyna; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert; Poulin, Chantal; Majnemer, Annette

    2013-03-01

    In recent years attention has been paid to the participation levels of children and youth with Cerebral Palsy (CP), particularly the extent to which they have the opportunity to be involved in and enjoy leisure activities. The objective of this study is to describe the level of participation and enjoyment in leisure activities among adolescents with CP and to identify potential differences in participation patterns related to sociodemographic attributes. A cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 175 adolescents 12-20 years old (M=15.3; ±2.2), GMFCS I=55/II=43/III=13/IV=18/V=39 who completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). The types of activities participants engaged in most frequently were social and recreational activities, whereas self-improvement and skill-based activities were least frequent. Social activities were the activities they enjoyed most. In general, participation decreases, as youth grow older. Girls engaged in more self-improvement activities than boys. Adolescents who study in special segregated schools experienced a lower diversity and intensity of engagement in all leisure activity domains. Adolescents who were not ambulatory and those presenting with more severe manual ability limitations participated less in all activity types except skill-based activities. Adolescents with CP place a high value on the ability to engage in activities of their own choosing and on interacting with friends. Engagement in a variety of leisure activities is important for a healthy development. Understanding the leisure patterns and preferences of this population, in addition to the contextual factors, may help in the elaboration of interventions and programs to promote a healthy development for this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical Activity Enjoyment, Perceived Barriers, and Beliefs Among Adolescents With and Without Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi I; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda G

    2016-01-01

    Youths with intellectual disabilities (ID) exhibit low levels of physical activity, but the underlying contributors to behavior are unclear. We compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy among adolescents with ID and typically developing (TD) adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 38 adolescents with ID (mean age, 16.8 years) and 60 TD adolescents (mean age, 15.3 years). Of the original 33 questionnaire items, 23 met the test-retest reliability criteria and were included in the group comparisons. Fewer adolescents with ID reported that they have someone with whom to do physical activity (64% vs 93%: P < .001), and a greater percentage of adolescents with ID perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (41% vs 0%; P < .001). Fewer adolescents with ID believed that physical activity would be good for their health (92% vs 100%; P = .05). More adolescents with ID reported a dislike of individual physical activities (P = .02). A large percentage of adolescents with ID (84%) responded that they were good at doing physical activities, but the difference between groups was only of borderline significance (95% of TD adolescents, P = .06). Adolescents shared many of the same perceptions about physical activity, but some important differences between groups were identified.

  12. Factorial Validity and Gender Invariance of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Tscherne, James; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Documented gender differences in physical activity rates during adolescence (Grunbaum et al., 2004) pose the question of whether physical activity enjoyment similarly differs between boys and girls. However, a necessary precursor to research on this topic is that the factor structure of the PACES be equivalent across gender. Although gender…

  13. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  14. Enjoyment, Barriers, and Beliefs About Physical Activity in Adolescents With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Heidi; Curtin, Carol; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2015-10-01

    The authors compared physical activity enjoyment, perceived barriers, beliefs, and self-efficacy between adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) adolescents. A questionnaire was verbally administered to 35 adolescents with ASD and 60 TD adolescents. Compared with TD adolescents, fewer adolescents with ASD enjoyed team sports (65% vs. 95%, p < .001) and physical education (84% vs. 98%, p = .02). A greater proportion of adolescents with ASD perceived that physical activities were too hard to learn (16% vs. 0%, p < .01), and fewer believed that physical activity was a way to make friends (68% vs. 97%, p < .001). Fewer adolescents with ASD preferred to do physical activity in their free time (25% vs. 58%, p < .01). Most adolescents with ASD felt that physical activity is fun (84%), but the proportion was lower than in TD adolescents (98%, p = .03). Some perceptions about physical activity were similar between the 2 groups, but differences identified may inform program development.

  15. Peer Support and Adolescents' Physical Activity: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun; Dai, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to contrast the mediating magnitude of self-efficacy and enjoyment connecting peer support and adolescents' physical activity (PA). Participants were 9th-12th grade students ( N  = 409; 56.5% boys) who were randomly chosen from six public schools located in Fuzhou city in southeast China. The bootstrapping method in structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the direct and indirect effects of peer support on adolescents' PA. Peer support did not directly impact PA. Rather, peer support indirectly influenced PA through either self-efficacy or enjoyment, with self-efficacy demonstrating a stronger mediating effect. Additionally, we found a significant serial mediating effect with enjoyment, and self-efficacy sequentially mediated the relationship between peer support and PA. The findings highlight the role of self-efficacy and enjoyment as mediators connecting peer support and PA. Self-efficacy seems to be more important, as it demonstrated a significantly greater mediating effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. A Comparison of Physical Activity Engagement and Enjoyment in Female College Students with and without a History of Weight-Related Teasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Piroska; Fontana, Fabio; Mack, Mick

    2017-01-01

    Weight-related teasing is associated with reduced levels of physical activity in youth, but the importance of weight teasing experiences to the engagement of female college students in physical activity is yet to be determined. Thus, this study examined differences in physical activity engagement and physical activity enjoyment in female college…

  17. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  18. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2014-10-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial-a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit-vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation.

  19. Influence of a health-related physical fitness model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James; Shultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of a health-related physical fitness physical education model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment. 61 students (25 boys, 36 girls; M age = 12.6 yr., SD = 0.6) were assigned to two groups (health-related physical fitness physical education group, and traditional physical education group), and participated in one 50-min. weekly basketball class for 6 wk. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using NL-1000 pedometers. The physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children was employed to assess perceived competence, and children's enjoyment was measured using the Sport Enjoyment Scale. The findings suggest that students in the intervention group increased their perceived competence, enjoyment, and physical activity over a 6-wk. intervention, while the comparison group simply increased physical activity over time. Children in the intervention group had significantly greater enjoyment.

  20. Alcohol-related and alcohol-free activity participation and enjoyment among college students: a behavioral theories of choice analysis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Barnett, Nancy P; Colby, Suzanne M

    2006-08-01

    College student alcohol abuse remains a significant public health problem, and there is a need for theory-driven and empirically based models to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral theories of choice assume that the decision to consume alcohol is influenced by the relative value of alcohol versus other available activities. In the present study, a sample of college student drinkers (N=108; 56% female, 44% male) who had previously completed a mandatory alcohol intervention completed a measure of alcohol-related and alcohol-free activity participation and enjoyment. The goals of the study were to examine the influence of drinking quantity and contextual variables on activity enjoyment and to identify enjoyable alcohol-free activities that take place on evenings when students might otherwise be drinking. Overall, students found alcohol-related activities more enjoyable than alcohol-free activities, and drinking quantity was positively related to enjoyment. However, alcohol-free activities such as watching movies, going to the theater or museums, going to bars or parties, hanging out with friends, eating at restaurants, and engaging in creative activity were generally as enjoyable as drinking. Alcohol-free activities that included peers or dates were more enjoyable than solitary activities. Men were less likely to engage in alcohol-free activities that included peers and reported less enjoyment related to alcohol-free activities than did women. Further research is required to identify procedures for increasing participation in alcohol-free activities and to determine whether increased alcohol-free activity participation results in decreased alcohol consumption.

  1. Novel Approaches to Obesity Prevention: Effects of Game Enjoyment and Game Type on Energy Expenditure in Active Video Games

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Komoski, Stephanie E.; Carr, Philip M.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some active video games have been found to promote physical activity adherence because of enjoyment. However, many active games are exercise themed, which may interfere with the distracting properties that make game-based exercise more enjoyable than traditional exercise. This study compared exercise-themed and game-themed active games to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment. Method Young adults (N = 100, 50 female, 55 overweight, aged 18–35 years) played two of four Wii Fit games (one aerobic game and one balance game per person) for 10 min each. Of the two aerobic games, one was exercise themed (jogging) and the other was game themed (hula hooping). Both balance games were game themed. Energy expenditure and enjoyment were measured. Results After adjustment for gender and weight, aerobic games produced 2.70 kcal/kg-1/h-1 (95% confidence interval 2.41, 3.00) greater energy expenditure than balance games (p < .001), but balance games were more enjoyable (p < .001). In aerobic games, jogging produced greater energy expenditure than hula hooping in normal-weight and male participants (p < .001); in overweight and female participants, no differences were found (p > .17). Hula hooping was enjoyed more than jogging (p = .008). Enjoyment predicted energy expenditure in aerobic games (B = 0.767, p = .010). Conclusions Aerobic games produced greater energy expenditure but lower enjoyment than balance games, and a game-themed aerobic game was found more enjoyable than an exercise-themed aerobic game. Integrating more strenuous activity into entertaining games instead of games that simply simulate exercise may be a fruitful avenue for active game development. PMID:22920810

  2. Novel approaches to obesity prevention: effects of game enjoyment and game type on energy expenditure in active video games.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Komoski, Stephanie E; Carr, Philip M; Ward, Dianne S

    2012-07-01

    Some active video games have been found to promote physical activity adherence because of enjoyment. However, many active games are exercise themed, which may interfere with the distracting properties that make game-based exercise more enjoyable than traditional exercise. This study compared exercise-themed and game-themed active games to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment. Young adults (N = 100, 50 female, 55 overweight, aged 18-35 years) played two of four Wii Fit games (one aerobic game and one balance game per person) for 10 min each. Of the two aerobic games, one was exercise themed (jogging) and the other was game themed (hula hooping). Both balance games were game themed. Energy expenditure and enjoyment were measured. After adjustment for gender and weight, aerobic games produced 2.70 kcal/kg(-1)/h(-1) (95% confidence interval 2.41, 3.00) greater energy expenditure than balance games (p < .001), but balance games were more enjoyable (p < .001). In aerobic games, jogging produced greater energy expenditure than hula hooping in normal-weight and male participants (p < .001); in overweight and female participants, no differences were found (p > .17). Hula hooping was enjoyed more than jogging (p = .008). Enjoyment predicted energy expenditure in aerobic games (B = 0.767, p = .010). Aerobic games produced greater energy expenditure but lower enjoyment than balance games, and a game-themed aerobic game was found more enjoyable than an exercise-themed aerobic game. Integrating more strenuous activity into entertaining games instead of games that simply simulate exercise may be a fruitful avenue for active game development. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Is there a relationship between primary school children's enjoyment of recess physical activities and health-related quality of life? A cross-sectional exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Brendon; Benson, Amanda C; Lester, Leanne; Telford, Amanda

    2017-03-01

    Issue addressed An important strategy for increasing children's physical activity is to enhance children's opportunities for school recess physical activities, yet little is known about the influence of school recess physical activities on children's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship between Australian primary school children's enjoyment of recess physical activities and HRQOL. Methods The study consisted of children at two Australian primary schools (n=105) aged 8-12 years. The Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play questionnaire was used to measure school children's enjoyment of school recess physical activities. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was used to measure children's HRQOL. Researchers applied linear regression modelling in STATA (ver. 13.0) to investigate the relationship between children's enjoyment of school recess physical activities and HRQOL. Results It was discovered that primary school children's enjoyment of more vigorous-type school recess physical activities and playing in a range of weather conditions was associated with children's improved HRQOL. Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that health providers and researchers should consider providing primary school children with opportunities and facilities for more vigorous-intensity school recess physical activities as a key strategy to enhance children's HRQOL. So what? Considering a social-ecological model framework of the key predictors of children's enjoyment of school recess physical activities may provide valuable insight for school health providers into the multiple levels of influence on children's HRQOL when developing school settings and activities for school recess.

  4. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation

    PubMed Central

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one’s life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants’ preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference. PMID:27090501

  5. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-19

    Positive social interactions contribute to the sense that one's life has meaning. Enjoyment of feelings associated through social interaction motivates humans to build social connections according to their personal preferences. Therefore, we hypothesized that social interaction itself activates the reward system in a manner that depends upon individual interaction preferences. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which 38 participants played a virtual ball-toss game in which the number of ball tosses to the participant was either similar to (normal-frequency condition) or higher than (high-frequency condition) the number of tosses to the other players. Participants reported greater-than-anticipated enjoyment during the high-frequency condition, suggesting that receiving a social reward led to unexpected positive feelings. Consistent with this, the high-frequency condition produced stronger activation in the ventral striatum, which is part of the reward system, and the precuneus, representing positive self-image, which might be translated to social reward. Furthermore, ventral striatal activation covaried with individual participants' preference for interactions with others. These findings suggest that an elevated frequency of social interaction is represented as a social reward, which might motivate individuals to promote social interaction in a manner that is modulated by personal preference.

  6. Physical Activity With and Without TV Viewing: Effects on Enjoyment of Physical Activity and TV, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Barriers to Being Active in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie; Cho, Chi; Thompson, Dixie L

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is enjoyable, but there are barriers to participation. TV viewing is highly enjoyable with limited barriers. Exercising while viewing TV may impact enjoyment, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA, compared with exercising without TV. 58 sedentary, overweight adults were randomized to 1 of 2 PA prescriptions: one that increased PA during TV viewing (TV Commercial Stepping), and another that focused solely on PA (Walking). Random effects models tested changes in enjoyment of TV and PA, exercise self-efficacy, and barriers to PA across time (baseline, 3, and 6 months) and PA prescription during a 6-month PA intervention. At baseline, TV was more enjoyable than PA. Over the 6-month intervention, enjoyment of TV viewing did not change, but enjoyment of PA and exercise self-efficacy significantly increased, while barriers to PA significantly decreased for both groups compared with baseline (P < .05). While enjoyment of TV viewing remained constant, PA became more enjoyable, confidence to exercise increased, and barriers to being active were reduced for previously sedentary adults participating in a behavioral PA intervention. These findings highlight the importance of encouraging inactive adults to engage in some form of PA, whether it occurs with or without TV viewing.

  7. The role of physical activity enjoyment in the pathways from the social and physical environments to physical activity of early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Budd, Elizabeth L; McQueen, Amy; Eyler, Amy A; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Auslander, Wendy F; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-06-01

    Most girls experience a notable decline in physical activity (PA) in early adolescence, increasing their risk for harmful health outcomes. Enjoyment for PA (i.e., positive feelings toward PA) is a determinant of PA among girls during adolescence and sustained PA throughout adulthood. Previous studies recommended increasing girls' PA enjoyment in order to increase their PA, but did not include environmental-level strategies for how families, schools, or communities do this. To gain insight on such strategies, this study examines the role of PA enjoyment as a mediator of social and physical environments to moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA of early adolescent girls. Cross-sectional, secondary analyses, using structural equation modeling, were conducted on a U.S. national dataset of 1721 sixth grade girls from the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls in 2003. Mediation model fit parameters included χ 2 (292, N = 1721) = 947.73 p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.04 (90% CI = 0.03, 0.04), and SRMR = 0.037 suggesting overall good fit. There were no indirect effects on PA through PA enjoyment from the social or physical environmental factors. To PA, there were significant direct effects only from social support from friends (β = 0.15, CI = 0.09, 0.22). To PA enjoyment, there were significant direct effects from social support from family (β = 0.15, CI = 0.08, 0.23), school climate (teachers β = 0.15, CI = 0.10, 0.21 and boys β = 0.15, CI = 0.09, 0.20), and neighborhood environment (β = 0.10, CI = 0.04, 0.17). The findings of this study identified several direct effects of the social and physical environment on PA enjoyment that can begin to inform environmental-level strategies for increasing PA enjoyment among early adolescent girls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy Cost and Enjoyment of Active Videogames in Children and Teens: Xbox 360 Kinect.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Kimberly A; Howe, Cheryl A

    2015-08-01

    New active videogames (AVGs) may provide youth an alternative to traditional play. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), intensity, and enjoyment of AVGs with those of seated videogames (SVGs). Youth (8-17 years old) volunteered to play a random selection of six (two SVGs, four AVGs) videogames for 6-10 minutes each. Prior to participation, height, weight, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured. A portable metabolic analyzer was worn during the games to measure total energy expenditure, and PAEE was calculated as (total energy expenditure - measured RMR). An accelerometer was worn on the right hip to measure intensity in counts/minute and steps/minute. Youth were classified as child (8-12 years old) versus teen (13-17 years old), healthy weight (body mass index [BMI] <85th percentile) versus overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile), and male versus female. A three-way mixed-model analysis of variance was used to compare differences in PAEE (metabolic equivalents [METs] and kcal/minute) with sex, weight status, and age group as main effects, including Bonferroni's adjustment. Most AVGs were moderate to vigorous intensity (4.6±0.1 METs; range, 2.8-6.6 METs), where steps/minute (lower-body movement) was positively related to PAEE (R(2)=0.68). All SVGs were classified as light intensity (1.7±0.0 METs). PAEE (kcal/minute) was significantly higher during AVGs and for teens, males, and overweight youth. There was no significant difference in enjoyment between AVGs and SVGs. AVGs elicited sufficient energy cost to be a suitable alternative for traditional play and may contribute to the recommended dose of physical activity, particularly in teens, males, and overweight youth.

  9. Examining Enjoyment of Casual Videogames.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Daniel M; Carbonara, Corey P

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the processes leading to enjoyment of casual videogames on both mobile devices and console systems. Building upon a foundation in mental models theory and the psychology of play, the study focuses on how performance and experience-based variables impact enjoyment of casual videogames played on mobile devices and console devices. The grounding assumption of this research is that playing videogames produces enjoyment that contributes to mental health in the form of a brief distraction from the stress of daily life, social connections with family and friends through casual gameplay, and, in some cases, a compelling reason to engage in physical activity. A student sample of players (n=363) played a variety of casual games on mobile (iPad(®) or iPod(®) Touch(®) [Apple, Cupertino, CA]) or console (Wii™ [Nintendo, Japan], Xbox(®) 360 Kinect(®) [Microsoft, Redmond, WA], or PS3™ Move [Sony, Tokyo, Japan]) platforms. They then answered a questionnaire assessing their evaluations of the game's interactivity level, their sense of spatial presence in the game, their perception of the game's realism, and, most importantly, their enjoyment. Path analysis demonstrated the interrelationships among these variables. The results show that spatial presence is a powerful predictor of videogame enjoyment for both console- and mobile-based casual games. Patterns of prediction for games on each platform, as demonstrated using path analysis, were similar and aligned with predictions based on mental models and the psychology of play. The psychological theory of play and the mental models perspective offer firm theoretical grounds for understanding how enjoyment is wrought in the process of playing casual games. The relationships among interactivity, spatial presence, perceived reality, and enjoyment hold for games played on handheld or console devices. Furthermore, this study is one of the first to demonstrate these relationships and test them simultaneously

  10. High-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training elicit similar enjoyment and adherence levels in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Vella, Chantal A; Taylor, Katrina; Drummer, Devin

    2017-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health during supervised lab-based studies but adherence, enjoyment, and health benefits of HIIT performed independently are yet to be understood. We compared adherence, enjoyment, and cardiometabolic outcomes after 8 weeks of HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), matched for energy expenditure, in overweight and obese young adults. 17 adults were randomized to HIIT or MICT. After completing 12 sessions of supervised training over 3 weeks, participants were asked to independently perform HIIT or MICT for 30 min, 4 times/week for 5 weeks. Cardiometabolic outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak), lipids, and inflammatory markers. Exercise enjoyment was measured by the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Exercise adherence (93.4 ± 3.1% vs. 93.1 ± 3.7%, respectively) and mean enjoyment across the intervention (100.1 ± 4.3 vs. 100.3 ± 4.4, respectively) were high, with no differences between HIIT and MICT (p > .05). Similarly, enjoyment levels did not change over time in either group (p > .05). After training, HIIT exhibited a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than MICT (-0.66 mmol L -1 vs. -0.03 mmol L -1 , respectively) and a greater increase in VO 2 peak than MICT (p < .05, +2.6 mL kg min -1 vs. +0.4 mL kg min -1 , respectively). Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein increased in HIIT (+0.5 pg mL -1 and + 31.4 nmol L -1 , respectively) and decreased in MICT (-0.6 pg mL -1 and -6.7 nmol L -1 , respectively, p < .05). Our novel findings suggest that HIIT is enjoyable and has high unsupervised adherence rates in overweight and obese adults. However, HIIT may be associated with an increase in inflammation with short-term exercise in this population.

  11. Enjoying vs. smiling: Facial muscular activation in response to emotional language.

    PubMed

    Fino, Edita; Menegatti, Michela; Avenanti, Alessio; Rubini, Monica

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether emotionally congruent facial muscular activation - a somatic index of emotional language embodiment can be elicited by reading subject-verb sentences composed of action verbs, that refer directly to facial expressions (e.g., Mario smiles), but also by reading more abstract state verbs, which provide more direct access to the emotions felt by the agent (e.g., Mario enjoys). To address this issue, we measured facial electromyography (EMG) while participants evaluated state and action verb sentences. We found emotional sentences including both verb categories to have valence-congruent effects on emotional ratings and corresponding facial muscle activations. As expected, state verb-sentences were judged with higher valence ratings than action verb-sentences. Moreover, despite emotional congruent facial activations were similar for the two linguistic categories, in a late temporal window we found a tendency for greater EMG modulation when reading action relative to state verb sentences. These results support embodied theories of language comprehension and suggest that understanding emotional action and state verb sentences relies on partially dissociable motor and emotional processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The nutrition and enjoyable activity for teen girls study: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Deborah L; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Lubans, David R

    2013-09-01

    Obesity prevention among youth of low SES is a public health priority given the higher prevalence of youth obesity in this population subgroup. To evaluate the 24-month impact of a school-based obesity prevention program among adolescent girls living in low-income communities. The study was a school-based group RCT, the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention. The study involved 12 secondary schools located in low-income communities in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were 357 adolescent girls (aged 13.2 ± 0.5 years). The 12-month multicomponent intervention was guided by social cognitive theory and involved strategies to promote physical activity, reduce sedentary behaviors, and improve dietary outcomes. The primary outcome was BMI, and secondary outcomes were BMI z-score; percentage body fat (bioelectrical impedance analysis); physical activity (accelerometers); dietary intake; and recreational screen-time (self-report). Data were collected in 2010-2012 and analyzed in 2012. After 24 months, there were no intervention effects on BMI (adjusted mean difference -0.33, 95% CI= -0.97, 0.28, p=0.353) and BMI z-score (-0.12, 95% CI= -0.27, 0.04, p=0.178). However, there was a group-by-time interaction for percentage body fat (-1.96%, 95% CI= -3.02, -0.89, p=0.006). Intervention effects for physical activity, screen time, and dietary intake were not significant. The NEAT Girls intervention did not result in effects on the primary outcome. Further study of youth who are "at risk" of obesity should focus on strategies to improve retention and adherence in prevention programs. This study is registered at Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials ACTRN1261000033004. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The association between exercise enjoyment and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Umeda, M; Marino, C A; Lee, W; Hilliard, S C

    2014-11-01

    Evidence suggests the role of physical activity (PA) in management of clinical symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, very little is known regarding the psychological correlates of PA in patients with fibromyalgia. Therefore, this study examined the association between exercise enjoyment (EE) and PA in women with fibromyalgia. 19 women with fibromyalgia completed a laboratory session, where EE was assessed using a self-report questionnaire immediately after 20 min of light-intensity biking. Muscle pain ratings (MPR) in the legs were assessed during exercise, and changes in clinical pain intensity after exercise were computed. PA was assessed subjectively using a self-report questionnaire and objectively using an accelerometer for one week. Results from correlation analyses indicated that EE was associated with the self-reported amount of PA (rs=0.61, R(2)=0.37, p<0.01) and the minutes spent for moderate intensity PA (rs=0.48, R(2)=0.23, p<0.05). However, neither MPR nor changes in clinical pain intensity were associated with PA. These results suggest that EE may serve as a determinant of PA in women with fibromyalgia. Future research is needed to develop interventions to maximize EE to promote PA in this clinical population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effects of Active Videogame and Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids Physical Education on Children's Health-Related Fitness and Enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han; Sun, Haichun

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of a Kinect active videogame (AVG) and the Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK) intervention in improving children's health-related fitness and physical activity (PA) enjoyment. A total of 65 students from both third and fourth grade in a rural elementary school participated in the study. The third graders (N = 29, mean age = 9.1 years, 10 boys, mean body mass index [BMI] = 20.1) were assigned to a SPARK physical education group, while the fourth graders (N = 36, mean age = 10.2 years, 15 boys, mean BMI = 20.3) were enrolled in the Kinect AVG group. The intervention lasted for 6 weeks, with each week including three practice sessions (∼40 minutes per session). All participants were measured on their health-related fitness by testing their performance in the 15-m Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), curl-ups, and push-ups both before and after the interventions. Participants' PA enjoyment was measured immediately after the first and last session's practice. Various ANCOVA tests were conducted to analyze the intervention effects on the changes of health-related fitness performances and enjoyment while controlling for baseline values, gender, and BMI. Various MANOVA tests were used to examine the intervention effects on PA levels during three practice sessions. Participants in AVG group had greater improvement in 15-m PACER test (P < 0.001), as well as PA enjoyment (P < 0.05), than those in SPARK group. The AVG group generated higher light PA and lower sedentary time for three (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) and two sessions (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001), respectively. In addition, the AVG group accumulated higher moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for the first session (P < 0.01), while the SPARK group generated higher MVPA for the third session (P < 0.001). No MVPA difference was found between groups for another session. A

  15. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10–13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  17. Health-Related Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Enjoyment Keep the Socially Vulnerable Physically Active in Community-Based Physical Activity Programs: A Sequential Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Herens, Marion; Bakker, Evert Jan; van Ophem, Johan; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Koelen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is most commonly found in socially vulnerable groups. Dutch policies target these groups through community-based health-enhancing physical activity (CBHEPA) programs. As robust evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is limited, this study investigated whether CBHEPA programs contribute to an increase in and the maintenance of physical activity in socially vulnerable groups. In four successive cohorts, starting at a six-month interval, 268 participants from 19 groups were monitored for twelve months in seven CBHEPA programs. Data collection was based on repeated questionnaires. Socio-economic indicators, program participation and coping ability were measured at baseline. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and on-going program participation were measured three times. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were measured at baseline and at twelve months. Statistical analyses were based on a quasi-RCT design (independent t-tests), a comparison of participants and dropouts (Mann-Whitney test), and multilevel modelling to assess change in individual physical activity, including group level characteristics. Participants of CBHEPA programs are socially vulnerable in terms of low education (48.6%), low income (52.4%), non-Dutch origin (64.6%) and health-related quality of life outcomes. Physical activity levels were not below the Dutch average. No increase in physical activity levels over time was observed. The multilevel models showed significant positive associations between health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment, and leisure-time physical activity over time. Short CBHEPA programs (10-13 weeks) with multiple trainers and gender-homogeneous groups were associated with lower physical activity levels over time. At twelve months, dropouts' leisure-time physical activity levels were significantly lower compared to continuing participants, as were health-related quality of life, self-efficacy and enjoyment outcomes. BMI and

  18. Effects of Home Access to Active Videogames on Child Self-Esteem, Enjoyment of Physical Activity, and Anxiety Related to Electronic Games: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J; Howie, Erin K; Pollock, Clare; Straker, Leon

    2014-08-01

    Active-input videogames could provide a useful conduit for increasing physical activity by improving a child's self-confidence, physical activity enjoyment, and reducing anxiety. Therefore this study evaluated the impact of (a) the removal of home access to traditional electronic games or (b) their replacement with active-input videogames, on child self-perception, enjoyment of physical activity, and electronic game use anxiety. This was a crossover, randomized controlled trial, conducted over a 6-month period in participants' family homes in metropolitan Perth, Australia, from 2007 to 2010. Children 10-12 years old were recruited through school and community media. Of 210 children who were eligible, 74 met inclusion criteria, and 8 withdrew, leaving 66 children (33 girls) for analysis. A counterbalanced randomized order of three conditions sustained for 8 weeks each: No home access to electronic games, home access to traditional electronic games, and home access to active-input electronic games. Perception of self-esteem (Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children), enjoyment of physical activity (Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale questionnaire), and anxiety toward electronic game use (modified Loyd and Gressard Computer Anxiety Subscale) were assessed. Compared with home access to traditional electronic games, neither removal of all electronic games nor replacement with active-input games resulted in any significant change to child self-esteem, enjoyment of physical activity, or anxiety related to electronic games. Although active-input videogames have been shown to be enjoyable in the short term, their ability to impact on psychological outcomes is yet to be established.

  19. Enjoyment Fosters Engagement: The Key to Involving Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pharez, Emily S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the challenges faced by a middle school teacher who inherited a recreation-based physical education program in which students had been accustomed to choosing what they wanted to do. Stressing the importance of implementing a standards-based program in which students of all skill levels and activity preferences were able to…

  20. What are the benefits of a commercial exergaming platform for college students? Examining physical activity, enjoyment, and future intentions.

    PubMed

    Garn, Alex C; Baker, Birgitta L; Beasley, Emily K; Solmon, Melinda A

    2012-02-01

    Traditional videogames contribute to sedentary behaviors; in contrast, exergaming is a relatively new concept that uses videogames to promote exercise during game play. Nintendo Wii Fit is a commercially popular exergaming platform geared toward improving fitness, however, limited empirical evidence related to the physical and mental benefits of the Wii Fit platform currently exist. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate possible physical and motivational benefits of Nintendo Wii Fit. A repeated measures design was used with 30 college-aged students to explore physical activity, enjoyment, and future intentions of physical activity associated with Wii Fit exergames. Data supported the efficacy of Wii Fit Basic Run to consistently produce moderate to vigorous physical activity across participants. Future intentions were higher for exergaming compared with generic exercise and obese individuals enjoyed exergaming more than generic physical activity. The Basic Run Wii Fit game provided opportunities for accumulating moderate to vigorous physical activity that provided motivational benefits to these participants, especially those classified as obese. Future research should examine the ability of Wii Fit exergames to produce physical activity and motivation over time.

  1. A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Physical Education and School Sport Interventions Targeting Physical Activity, Movement Skills and Enjoyment of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Dean; Okely, Anthony; Pearson, Philip; Cotton, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of published literature on the effectiveness of physical education in promoting participation in physical activity, enjoyment of physical activity and movement skill proficiency in children and adolescents. The review utilized a literature search, specifically publications listed in Ovid, A+ Education,…

  2. A Motivational Model of Physical Education and Links to Enjoyment, Knowledge, Performance, Total Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE) including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI) were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls) in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls’ PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes. Key points The present findings indicated that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be

  3. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and motivation and enjoyment in physical education as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Timo, Jaakkola; Sami, Yli-Piipari; Anthony, Watt; Jarmo, Liukkonen

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents' perceived physical competence towards physical activity (PA), and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education (PE) during early adolescence can predict amount and intensity of self-reported physical activity six years later. This study utilized a 6-year longitudinal data set collected within Finnish school settings. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE during their first year at middle school (Grade 7), and their PA engagement during their last year in high school (Grade 12). A sample of 333 students (200 girls, 133 boys; M age=12.41, years, SD=.27) participated in the study. Perceived physical competence in physical activity was assessed by the sport competence dimension of the Physical Self-Perception Profile, autonomous motivation in PE was assessed by the Sport Motivation Scale and enjoyment in PE by the Sport Enjoyment Scale. Students' self-reported metabolic equivalent (MET) and PA intensity (light [LPA], moderate [MPA], vigorous [VPA]) was calculated from the short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity significantly predicted total METs (β=.28), MPA (β=.18) and VPA (β=.29) six years later. Autonomous motivation and enjoyment in PE at Grade 7, however, were not significant predictors of later PA. The results of this study support the proposition that self-perception of an individual's abilities arising from interactions with the environment related to PA during early puberty has an influential effect on later PA behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of cognitive and physical decline by enjoyable walking-habituation program based on brain-activating rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Murai, Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu; Maki, Yohko; Isahai, Mikie; Kaiho Sato, Ayumi; Yamagami, Tetsuya; Ura, Chiaki; Miyamae, Fumiko; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-06-01

    Evaluating effects of an enjoyable walking-habituation program. We carried out a 12-week intervention, consisting of an enjoyable walking-habituation program based on five principles of brain-activating rehabilitation: pleasant atmosphere, interactive communication, social roles, praising each other and errorless support. The program, once a week for 90 min, was carried out in small groups. Participants were 71 community-dwelling people (72.2 ± 4.3) without dementia. Cognitive function was evaluated in five cognitive domains: memory, executive function, word fluency, visuospatial abilities and sustained attention. Additionally, quality of life, depressive state, functional capacity, range of activities, social network and subjective memory complaints were assessed using questionnaires. Motor function was also evaluated. Measurement was carried out before the observation period, after observation and after intervention. A total of 63 participants were included in the analysis. Daily steps, executive function, subjective memory complaints, functional capacity and 5-m maximum walking time significantly improved during the intervention period (after observation to after intervention) compared with the observation period (before the observation period to after observation). No significant differences were seen in other evaluations. At 6 months after the intervention, 52 of 63 participants (82.5%) continued to walk once a week or more, and all of them were confident about continuing to walk in the future. Furthermore, all participants were satisfied with our walking-habituation program and all replied that they felt delighted. The intervention program, based on the five principles of brain-activating rehabilitation, resulted in improvement of some cognitive and physical functions, as well as a high walking-habituation rate at 6 months' follow up. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Enjoyable learning: the role of humour, games, and fun activities in nursing and midwifery education.

    PubMed

    Baid, Heather; Lambert, Nicky

    2010-08-01

    Education that captures the attention of students is an essential aspect of promoting meaningful, active learning. Rather than standing at the front of a group of learners simply speaking about a topic, teachers have the opportunity of livening up their teaching with humour, games, and other fun activities. This article critically evaluates the benefits and limitations of humour within nursing education as well as the use of games and fun activities as teaching strategies. Examples of various games and interactive activities are also provided. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking Parental Influences and Youth Participation in Physical Activity In- and Out-of-school: The Mediating Role of Self-efficacy and Enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Wing, Erin K; Bélanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Parents influence their children's behavior. We examined parental influence on youth participation in physical activity (PA) in- and out-of-school, directly and/or indirectly, via self-efficacy beliefs and enjoyment of PA. Cross-sectional analyses using self-reported data from 595 youth (Mage = 13.4 years). A path model linking youth perceptions of parental support and parental control to their participation in PA indirectly via self-efficacy beliefs and enjoyment of PA provided good fit to the data: χ(2)(7) = 27.63; RMSEA = .07 [90%CI = .04, .10]; CFI = .98; SRMR = .04. Perceived parental control was negatively associated with youth self-efficacy beliefs (β = -.12, p = .01) and enjoyment of PA (β = -.15, p = .01). Perceived tangible parental support was positively associated with self-efficacy beliefs (β = .28, p < .01) and enjoyment of PA (β = .13, p < .01), and perceived intangible parental support was positively associated with enjoyment of PA (β = .18, p = .04). Self-efficacy beliefs and enjoyment of PA were positively associated with participation in PA in- and out-of-school (β = .11-.27, p ≤ .01). Interventions targeting parents to promote PA warrant investigation.

  7. Quantifying the Impact of Mosquitoes on Quality of Life and Enjoyment of Yard and Porch Activities in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    The recent expansion of Aedes albopictus, a day-biting mosquito, to densely inhabited areas in the northeastern Atlantic states of the USA has dramatically increased the problem that mosquitoes create for urban and suburban residents. We quantified the impact of mosquitoes on residents' quality of life within the context of a comprehensive area-wide integrated pest management program to control Ae. albopictus in two counties (Mercer and Monmouth) in New Jersey. We interviewed residents of 121 randomly selected households in both counties between October and November 2010. We asked residents about their experience with mosquitoes in their neighborhood and the importance of the ability to relax outdoors without mosquitoes compared to other neighborhood characteristics (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). We rated residents' utility based on paired comparisons to known states from the EuroQol health description system. The majority (54.6%) of respondents considered mosquitoes to be a problem. Respondents reported an average of 7.1 mosquito bites in a typical week during that summer. Mosquitoes prevented 59.5% of residents from enjoying their outdoor activities at least to some extent. Residents rated the mosquito acceptability (mean ± standard deviation) during that summer on a scale of 0 (mosquito invasion) to 100 (no mosquitoes) at 56.7±28.7, and their overall utility at 0.87±0.03. This is comparable to living with up to two risk factors for diabetes (i.e., abdominal obesity, body mass index of 28 or more, reported cholesterol problems, diagnosis of hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease) or women experiencing menstrual disorders. Respondents rated the importance of enjoying outdoor activities without mosquitoes (4.69±0.80) comparable to that of neighborhood safety (4.74±0.80) and higher than that of a clean neighborhood (4.59±0.94). In conclusion, New Jersey residents reported that mosquitoes decreased their utility by 0

  8. Reliability of the Norwegian Version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtorp, Heidi L.; Nyquist, Astrid; Jahnsen, Reidun; Moser, Thomas; Strand, Liv Inger

    2013-01-01

    This study examined test-retest reliability of the Norwegian version of Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE), and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) in children with and without disabilities. Totally 141 children, 107 typically developing, mean age 11.1, and 34 with disabilities, mean age 14.2 years participated. A…

  9. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Okely, Anthony D; Batterham, Marijka J; Finn, Tara; Callister, Robin

    2010-10-28

    Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the field. Australian New Zealand Clinical

  10. Children enjoy visit to Stennis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-27

    About 200 children of employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center visited the facility for annual Take Our Children to Work activities July 27. Participants enjoyed a windshield tour of the rocket engine test site and various demonstrations and presentations on such topics as cryogenics, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, computer safety and robotics. They also had an opportunity to take photos at the astronaut suit exhibit and participate in StenniSphere activities.

  11. The importance of cohesion and enjoyment for the fitness improvement of 8-10-year-old children participating in a team and individual sport school-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.

  12. But I like PE: factors associated with enjoyment of physical education class in middle school girls.

    PubMed

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ward, Dianne S; Conway, Terry L; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R

    2008-03-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teachers' support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls.

  13. But I Like PE: Factors Associated With Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they enjoyed PE class a lot. Variables positively associated with PE class enjoyment included physical activity level, perceived benefits of physical activity, self-efficacy for leisure time physical activity, and perceived school climate for girls' physical activity as influenced by teachers, while body mass index was inversely associated with PE class enjoyment. After adjusting for all variables in the model, PE class enjoyment was significantly greater in Blacks than in Whites. In model testing, with mutual adjustment for all variables, self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of PE class enjoyment, followed by perceived benefits, race/ethnicity, and teacher's support for girls' physical activity, as compared to boys, at school. The overall model explained 11% of the variance in PE class enjoyment. Findings suggest that efforts to enhance girls' self-efficacy and perceived benefits and to provide a supportive PE class environment that promotes gender equality can potentially increase PE class enjoyment among young girls. PMID:18431947

  14. Disentangling Fun and Enjoyment in Exergames Using an Expanded Design, Play, Experience Framework: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Mellecker, Robin; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-06-01

    With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhancing the fun or enjoyment experienced during exergame play should enhance the intensity and duration of physical activity, and thereby the health benefits. Research, reviewed herein, indicates fun and/or enjoyment in games are inherently laden with psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment substrates. Physical activity may also have separate or closely related psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment enjoyment substrates. Research is needed to integrate these levels of experience and to identify the game mechanics that enhance, and even maximize, the fun or enjoyment experienced in exergames, to thereby increase the health benefit.

  15. Disentangling Fun and Enjoyment in Exergames Using an Expanded Design, Play, Experience Framework: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Mellecker, Robin; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Abstract With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhancing the fun or enjoyment experienced during exergame play should enhance the intensity and duration of physical activity, and thereby the health benefits. Research, reviewed herein, indicates fun and/or enjoyment in games are inherently laden with psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment substrates. Physical activity may also have separate or closely related psychosocial, physiological, and embodiment enjoyment substrates. Research is needed to integrate these levels of experience and to identify the game mechanics that enhance, and even maximize, the fun or enjoyment experienced in exergames, to thereby increase the health benefit. PMID:24761322

  16. Fundamentals of Outdoor Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Fear, Gene

    The purpose of this preventive search and rescue teachers guide is to help high school aged youth understand the complexities and priorities necessary to manage a human body in outdoor environments and the value of planning ahead to have on hand the skills and equipment needed for outdoor survival, comfort, and enjoyment. Separate sections present…

  17. Performativity and Enjoyable Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, Barbara; Beard, Colin; Clayton, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This paper takes critical lenses to interpret what students find enjoyable in their learning in specific "subject" environments within the prevailing socio-economic climate in higher education. It considers student dispositions that emerged from dialogues with two groups of students attending a non-traditional university and taking…

  18. Making Accounting Tutorials Enjoyable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargate, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This paper emanates from a case study which focussed on 15 Managerial Accounting and Financial Management (MAFM) students' "enjoyment" of learning MAFM in an 18-week Writing Intensive Tutorial (WIT) programme. Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) was used for the research design and as a data analysis tool. Following IQA protocols…

  19. Sport Education and Social Goals in Physical Education: Relationships with Enjoyment, Relatedness, and Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhead, Tristan L.; Garn, Alex C.; Vidoni, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adolescents' decisions to engage in physical activities are influenced by the social aspects of the activity, including opportunity for affiliation, being part of a team, and the social status it offers. A curriculum and instructional model that has been shown to embed the student social system within a positive program of action is…

  20. Heart Rate and Liking During "Kinect Boxing" Versus "Wii Boxing": The Potential for Enjoyable Vigorous Physical Activity Videogames.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Peacock, Corey A; Barkley, Jacob E; Gish, Brian; Brock, Scott; Volpenhein, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) "Wii™ Sports Boxing" ("Wii Boxing") and Xbox(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) "Kinect(®) Sports Boxing" ("Kinect Boxing") are both boxing simulation videogames that are available for two different active videogame (AVG) systems. Although these AVGs are similar, the style of gameplay required is different (i.e., upper body only versus total body movements) and may alter physical activity intensity and one's preference for playing one game over the other. AVGs that elicit the greatest physiologic challenge and are preferred by users should be identified in an effort to enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions and programs that include AVGs. The mean heart rate (HRmean) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 27 adults (22.7±4.2 years old) were recorded during four 10-minute conditions: seated rest, treadmill walking at 3 miles/hour, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing." Upon completion of all four conditions, participants indicated which condition they preferred, and HRmean and HRpeak were calculated as a percentage of age-predicted maximum heart rate to classify physical activity intensity for the three activity conditions (treadmill, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing"). "Kinect Boxing" significantly (P<0.001) increased percentage HRmean (64.1±1.6 percent of age-predicted maximum) and percentage HRpeak (76.5±1.9 percent) above all other conditions: Wii HRmean, 53.0±1.2 percent; Wii HRpeak, 61.8±1.5 percent; treadmill HRmean, 52.4±1.2 percent; treadmill HRpeak, 55.2±2.2 percent. Percentage HRpeak for "Kinect Boxing" was great enough to be considered a vigorous-intensity physical activity. There was no difference (P=0.55) in percentage HRmean between "Wii Boxing" and treadmill walking. Participants also preferred "Kinect Boxing" (P<0.001; n=26) to all other conditions ("Wii Boxing," n=1; treadmill n=0). "Kinect Boxing" was the most preferred and the only condition that was physiologically challenging enough to be classified as a

  1. How to Help Kids Enjoy Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Because reading for pleasure faces such stiff competition from other activities, one Minnesota elementary principal instituted rewarding and enjoyable reading activities: DEAR (Drop Everything and Read) Time, principal's book club, "I love to read" month, RIOT (Reading Instead of Television) Time, celebrity readers, T-shirt logos, and…

  2. Preventing Obesity Among Adolescent Girls: One-Year Outcomes of the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a 12-month multicomponent school-based obesity prevention program, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls among adolescent girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Twelve secondary schools in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred fifty-seven adolescent girls aged 12 to 14 years. INTERVENTION A multicomponent school-based intervention program tailored for adolescent girls. The intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included teacher professional development, enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity sessions, handbooks and pedometers for self-monitoring, parent newsletters, and text messaging for social support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI z score, body fat percentage, physical activity, screen time, dietary intake, and self-esteem. RESULTS After 12 months, changes in BMI (adjusted mean difference, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.33), BMI z score (mean, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.04), and body fat percentage (mean, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.88 to 0.70) were in favor of the intervention, but they were not statistically different from those in the control group. Changes in screen time were statistically significant (mean, -30.67 min/d; 95% CI, -62.43 to -1.06), but there were no group by time effects for physical activity, dietary behavior, or self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities did not significantly reduce BMI gain. However, changes in body composition were of a magnitude similar to previous studies and may be associated with clinically important health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12610000330044.

  3. Prediction of enjoyment in school physical education.

    PubMed

    Gråstén, Arto; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami

    2012-01-01

    enjoyment via perceived physical competence and intrinsic motivation at Grade 9 for both girls and boys.Ego-involving climate did not fit either the data for the girls or boys, as PE lessons based on ego-involving motivational climate did not significantly influence on the level of PE enjoyment.The results of the current study and previous practical findings support task-involving teaching methods to promote adolescent's PE enjoyment through secondary school years. School PE could be most effective if based on task-involving motivational climate, in which the main objective is increasing students' perceived physical competence, intrinsic motivation, and enjoyment.

  4. Reliability of the German version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC).

    PubMed

    Fink, A; Gebhard, B; Erdwiens, S; Haddenhorst, L; Nowak, S

    2016-09-01

    The introduction of the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health of the World Health Organization in 2001 made social participation a major rehabilitation outcome and the ultimate goal of rehabilitation services. There is no available instrument to measure the youth participation in leisure activities apart from asking the youth themselves. The goal of this study was to present a German version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and Preferences for Activities of Children (CAPE/PAC). The CAPE/PAC questionnaire was translated into German, a cultural adaptation process was designed and a reliability study was conducted. One hundred and fifty-two youths with and without disabilities, with a mean age of 15.2 years (standard deviation 1.7), participated in the study. The participants completed CAPE and PAC twice within 4 weeks. Reliability was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement, smallest detectable change and Cronbach's alpha. The absolute values of participation differ between the typically developed youth group and those with impairments; the reliability of the CAPE/PAC is comparable in both groups. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.43 to 0.74 for the CAPE and from 0.71 to 0.83 for the PAC in all participants. The alpha values for internal consistency ranged from 0.42 to 0.82 for the CAPE and from 0.65 to 0.92 for the PAC. The German version of the PAC showed satisfactory reliability; however, reliability was not satisfactory for all scores of the CAPE, but comparable with versions in other languages. The need for newly developed participation measurements requires further discussion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Music enjoyment with cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Prevoteau, Charlotte; Chen, Stephanie Y; Lalwani, Anil K

    2018-10-01

    Since the advent of cochlear implant (CI) surgery in the 1960s, there have been remarkable technological and surgical advances enabling excellent speech perception in quiet with many CI users able to use the telephone. However, many CI users struggle with music perception, particularly with the pitch-based and melodic elements of music. Yet remarkably, despite poor music perception, many CI users enjoy listening to music based on self-report questionnaires, and prospective studies have suggested a disassociation between music perception and enjoyment. Music enjoyment is arguably a more functional measure of one's listening experience, and thus enhancing one's listening experience is a worthy goal. Recent studies have shown that re-engineering music to reduce its complexity may enhance enjoyment in CI users and also delineate differences in musical preferences from normal hearing listeners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wii Fit U intensity and enjoyment in adults.

    PubMed

    Tripette, Julien; Murakami, Haruka; Ando, Takafumi; Kawakami, Ryoko; Tanaka, Noriko; Tanaka, Shigeho; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2014-08-26

    The Wii Fit series (Nintendo Inc., Japan) provides active video games (AVGs) to help adults to maintain a sufficient level of daily physical activity (PA). The second generation of home AVG consoles is now emerging with new game modalities (including a portable mini screen in the case of the new Wii U). The present study was performed to investigate the intensity and enjoyment of Wii Fit U games among adults. Metabolic equivalent (METs, i.e., intensity) of the Wii Fit U activities were evaluated using metabolic chambers in 16 sedentary adults (8 women and 8 men). A short version of the physical activity enjoyment scale was completed for each activity. Wii Fit U activities were distributed over a range from 2.2  ±  0.4 METs (Hula dance) to 4.7  ±  1.2 (Hip-hop dance). Seven activities were classified as light-intensity PA (<3 METs) and 11 activities as moderate-intensity PA (3 - 6 METs). The new portable mini screen game modality does not induce higher METs. Men exercised at higher intensities than women. There was no correlation between enjoyment and MET values in women or men. More and more moderate-intensity activities are available through video gaming, but the average intensity (3.2  ±  0.6) is still low. Users should be aware that AVGs alone cannot fulfill the recommendations for PA, and the video games industry still must innovate further to enhance gaming intensity and make the tool more attractive to health and fitness professionals.

  7. Reading Enjoyment and Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reporting on Reading, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The articles in this publication offer ideas for developing enjoyment of reading in children. Among the topics discussed are the following: the need for teachers and parents to build children's self-esteem through increasing their experiences of success, their expectations of success, and the value they place on reading; methods for increasing…

  8. Perceived Physical Competence, Enjoyment and Effort in Same-Sex and Coeducational Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyu, Minjeong; Gill, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived competence is a key motivational determinant of physical activity behaviours in adolescents, and motivational determinants are influenced by the class environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of perceived physical competence, enjoyment and effort in class, focusing on gender and class-type differences.…

  9. Kindergarten Practitioners' Experience of Promoting Children's Involvement in and Enjoyment of Physically Active Play: Does the Contagion of Physical Energy Affect Physically Active Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørgen, Kathrine; Svendsen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    This research is based on interviews that explore the reflections of 10 Norwegian kindergarten practitioners with regard to the importance of their involvement in children's physically active outdoor playtime. The data were analysed from a qualitative phenomenological perspective and resulted in basic themes that describe the practitioners'…

  10. The Art of Creating Enjoyable Career Counseling Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark J.; Soper, Barlow

    1982-01-01

    Provides counselor educators with some specific suggestions for making career counseling classes enjoyable and educational. Discusses lecture topics, small group activities, creative use of Dictionary of Occupational Titles, evaluation of occupational information, and imaginative ways of interpreting test results. (RC)

  11. Gender, perceived competence and the enjoyment of physical education in children: a longitudinal examination.

    PubMed

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Yw; Velduizen, Scott; Hay, John; Bray, Steven R; Faught, Brent E

    2012-03-06

    The current study examined associations between gender, perceived athletic competence, and enjoyment of physical education (PE) class over time in a cohort of children enrolled in grade four (ages 9 or 10) at baseline (n = 2262). We assessed each student 5 times over a period of 2 years. We used mixed effects modeling to examine change over time in enjoyment of PE. Enjoyment of PE declined among girls but remained constant among boys. Higher levels of perceived competence were associated with higher PE enjoyment. A 3-way interaction between gender, competence, and time revealed that PE enjoyment was lowest and declined most markedly among girls with low perceived athletic competence. Among boys with low competence, enjoyment remained at a consistently low level. Our results indicate that lower perceived athletic competence is associated with low enjoyment of PE, and, among girls, with declining enjoyment. Findings suggest that interventions in a PE context that target perceived competence should be considered in future work.

  12. Harmonic Structure Predicts the Enjoyment of Uplifting Trance Music.

    PubMed

    Agres, Kat; Herremans, Dorien; Bigo, Louis; Conklin, Darrell

    2016-01-01

    An empirical investigation of how local harmonic structures (e.g., chord progressions) contribute to the experience and enjoyment of uplifting trance (UT) music is presented. The connection between rhythmic and percussive elements and resulting trance-like states has been highlighted by musicologists, but no research, to our knowledge, has explored whether repeated harmonic elements influence affective responses in listeners of trance music. Two alternative hypotheses are discussed, the first highlighting the direct relationship between repetition/complexity and enjoyment, and the second based on the theoretical inverted-U relationship described by the Wundt curve. We investigate the connection between harmonic structure and subjective enjoyment through interdisciplinary behavioral and computational methods: First we discuss an experiment in which listeners provided enjoyment ratings for computer-generated UT anthems with varying levels of harmonic repetition and complexity. The anthems were generated using a statistical model trained on a corpus of 100 uplifting trance anthems created for this purpose, and harmonic structure was constrained by imposing particular repetition structures (semiotic patterns defining the order of chords in the sequence) on a professional UT music production template. Second, the relationship between harmonic structure and enjoyment is further explored using two computational approaches, one based on average Information Content, and another that measures average tonal tension between chords. The results of the listening experiment indicate that harmonic repetition does in fact contribute to the enjoyment of uplifting trance music. More compelling evidence was found for the second hypothesis discussed above, however some maximally repetitive structures were also preferred. Both computational models provide evidence for a Wundt-type relationship between complexity and enjoyment. By systematically manipulating the structure of chord

  13. Harmonic Structure Predicts the Enjoyment of Uplifting Trance Music

    PubMed Central

    Agres, Kat; Herremans, Dorien; Bigo, Louis; Conklin, Darrell

    2017-01-01

    An empirical investigation of how local harmonic structures (e.g., chord progressions) contribute to the experience and enjoyment of uplifting trance (UT) music is presented. The connection between rhythmic and percussive elements and resulting trance-like states has been highlighted by musicologists, but no research, to our knowledge, has explored whether repeated harmonic elements influence affective responses in listeners of trance music. Two alternative hypotheses are discussed, the first highlighting the direct relationship between repetition/complexity and enjoyment, and the second based on the theoretical inverted-U relationship described by the Wundt curve. We investigate the connection between harmonic structure and subjective enjoyment through interdisciplinary behavioral and computational methods: First we discuss an experiment in which listeners provided enjoyment ratings for computer-generated UT anthems with varying levels of harmonic repetition and complexity. The anthems were generated using a statistical model trained on a corpus of 100 uplifting trance anthems created for this purpose, and harmonic structure was constrained by imposing particular repetition structures (semiotic patterns defining the order of chords in the sequence) on a professional UT music production template. Second, the relationship between harmonic structure and enjoyment is further explored using two computational approaches, one based on average Information Content, and another that measures average tonal tension between chords. The results of the listening experiment indicate that harmonic repetition does in fact contribute to the enjoyment of uplifting trance music. More compelling evidence was found for the second hypothesis discussed above, however some maximally repetitive structures were also preferred. Both computational models provide evidence for a Wundt-type relationship between complexity and enjoyment. By systematically manipulating the structure of chord

  14. The Enjoyment of Formal and Informal Recreation and Leisure Activities: A Comparison of School-Aged Children with and without Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Petrenchik, Theresa; Law, Mary; Hurley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fairly extensive literature on the developmental benefits of youth's participation in organised, out-of-school activities, little is known about the participation of school-aged children with physical disabilities in formal recreation and leisure activities, both in comparison with their participation in informal activities and with…

  15. Reverberation time influences musical enjoyment with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Certo, Michael V; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Chari, Divya A; Mancuso, Dean M; Lalwani, Anil K

    2015-02-01

    To identify factors that enhance the enjoyment of music in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Specifically, we assessed the hypothesis that variations in reverberation time (RT60) may be linked to variations in the level of musical enjoyment in CI users. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment in normal-hearing individuals. Single tertiary academic medical center. Normal-hearing adults (N = 20) were asked to rate a novel 20-second melody on three enjoyment modalities: musicality, pleasantness, and naturalness. Subjective rating of music excerpts. Participants listened to seven different instruments play the melody, each with five levels (0.2, 1.6, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0 s) of RT60, both with and without CI simulation processing. Linear regression analysis with analysis of variance was used to assess the impact of RT60 on music enjoyment. Without CI simulation, music samples with RT60 = 3.0 seconds were ranked most pleasant and most musical, whereas those with RT60 = 1.6 seconds and RT60 = 3.0 seconds were ranked equally most natural (all p < 0.05). With CI simulation, music samples with RT60 = 0.2 seconds were ranked most pleasant, most musical, and most natural (all p < 0.05). Samples without CI simulation show a preference for middle-range RT60, whereas samples with CI simulation show a negative linear relationship between RT60 and musical enjoyment, with preference for minimal reverberation. Minimization of RT60 may be a useful strategy for increasing musical enjoyment under CI conditions, both in altering existing music as well as in composition of new music.

  16. Does Enjoyment Accompany Learning? A Student Perceptions Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a study conducted at Harcum Junior College, a private, two-year, women's college, to elicit students' perceptions of a variety of learning experiences/teaching methods and of their relative enjoyment levels with regard to these experiences. Includes the questionnaire. (AYC)

  17. What Do You Enjoy about Coaching, Directing, or Advising?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this article, several teachers share their ideas on what they enjoy about coaching, directing, or advising. One of them, Mary Ann Yedinak, teaches middle school language arts, has a family, and has several partially written books still stored on her computer. However, she still wants to add an extracurricular activity such as Drama Club to her…

  18. Collaboration Handbook: Creating, Sustaining, and Enjoying the Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Michael; Ray, Karen

    This book provides activities and examples for learning about creating, sustaining, and enjoying new ways of working together. The book helps to develop a new language to deal with complicated situations on the journey to collaboration. The book is divided into four parts. Part 1, "How Do We Begin?" shares a story to develop the scenario. Part 2,…

  19. Lessons we most enjoy learning.

    PubMed

    Coleman, P L

    1993-03-01

    In the mid-1970s, the Philippine Commission on Population (POPCOM) began to use entertainment programs for reaching people with messages on population and development issues. 2 major motion pictures contained family planning (FP) messages. Radio dramas, print media, and theater also were used to convey FP messages. The early experiments were continued in the late 1980s through the work of the Philippine Center for Population and Development (PCPD). PCPD, with the assistance of the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) project, embarked on a program which used popular music to encourage young people to become sexually responsible adults. In 1990, the Philippine Non-Governmental Organization Council (PNGOC), the Department of Health (DOH) and JHU/PCS began an effort funded by USAID to form a coalition with the entertainment community for social development causes. DOH, JHU/PCS, and USAID wanted to promote FP and health through the Enter-Educate concept. PNGOC and JHU/PCS contacted over 20 entertainment organizations and held more than 75 conferences, work shops, and meetings which attended by more than 300 people. The movement of Entertainment for Social Change was launched in October 1991 with the creation of the Enter-Educate Foundation, Inc. (EEF). The aims of EEF include rewards, professional approach, and establishment of a network of dedicated entertainment and social development professionals. In 1993, a television comedy series will focus on FP as well as on maternal and child health. Further plans at the local level include: tree planting; discussions on migration; talks about FP; meetings on community population and environment activities; and networking of organizations involved with youth, the environment, and population. JHU/PCS provides technical assistance for the production, monitoring, and evaluation of the project. With these efforts, the EEF is attempting to focus on the country's biggest problems: population and the

  20. The Impact of Continuous and Interval Cycle Exercise on Affect and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Greeley, Samuel J.; Collins, Larry H.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of physical activity remain low despite public health efforts. One form of physical activity that provides significant physiological benefit but has not been evaluated in terms of affective and enjoyment responses is interval exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare affect and enjoyment assessed before, during, and after…

  1. Energy Expenditure During Xbox Kinect Play in Early Adolescents: The Relationship with Player Mode and Game Enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Katrien; Abeele, Vero Vanden; Gers, Brent; Seghers, Jan

    2015-12-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of active videogames to influence levels of physical activity. Most studies have investigated energy expenditure in general, without taking into account moderating factors such as player mode and game enjoyment. This study therefore examines whether children's energy expenditure and game enjoyment are higher when games are played in a two-player mode than in a single-player mode. Forty-three children from the 7th grade who exhibited an inactive lifestyle engaged in six sports exergames on an Xbox(®) Kinect(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) console. The player mode (single-player or two-player mode) was manipulated (within-subjects design). The primary parameters were "energy expenditure," which was measured with a SenseWear(®) device (Bodymedia Inc., Pittsburgh, PA), and "game enjoyment," which was assessed through self-report. On average, Kinect play elicits moderate physical activity (approximately 4 metabolic equivalents of task). Games that are played in a two-player mode elicit more energy than games that are played in a single-player mode. However, this was only the case for simultaneous play (boxing, dancing, and tennis), not for turn-based play (bowling, baseball, and golf). Furthermore, participants generally liked exergaming, regardless of their sex or the player mode. Finally, no significant correlation was found between energy expenditure and game enjoyment. This study has shown that Kinect play elicits physical activity of moderate intensity. Furthermore, Kinect play is generally enjoyed by both boys and girls. Simultaneous play may be the best suited to increase levels of physical activity in early adolescents who exhibit an inactive lifestyle.

  2. Relationships between expected, online and remembered enjoyment for food products.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric

    2014-03-01

    How enjoyable a food product is remembered to be is likely to shape future choice. The present study tested the influence that expectations and specific moments during consumption experiences have on remembered enjoyment for food products. Sixty-four participants consumed three snack foods (savoury, sweet and savoury-sweet) and rated expected and online enjoyment for each product. Twenty-four hours later participants rated remembered enjoyment and future expected enjoyment for each product. Remembered enjoyment differed to online enjoyment for two of the three products, resulting in the foods being remembered as less enjoyable than they actually were. Both expected enjoyment and specific moments during the consumption experience (e.g. the least enjoyable mouthful) influenced remembered enjoyment. However, the factors that shaped remembered enjoyment were not consistent across the different food products. Remembered enjoyment was also shown to be a better predictor of future expected enjoyment than online enjoyment. Remembered enjoyment is likely to influence choice behaviour and can be discrepant to actual enjoyment. Specific moments during a consumption experience can have disproportionately large influence on remembered enjoyment (whilst others are neglected), but the factors that determine which moments influence remembered enjoyment are unclear. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescents' Enjoyment of Graphic Horror: Effects of Viewers' Attitudes and Portrayals of Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary Beth

    1993-01-01

    Finds that more permissive sexual attitudes and lower levels of punitiveness were associated with adolescents' greater enjoyment of "slasher films." Shows that traditional attitudes toward females' sexuality were positively associated with gore-watching motivations and with greater enjoyment of previews featuring female victims. (SR)

  4. Why Do Schoolchildren Enjoy Reading? The Construction of an Explanatory Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellegen, Saskia; Frankhuisen, Jolanda

    In the early 1990s good readers in low-achieving countries saw reading mostly as a difficult, effortful process while those in high-achieving countries saw reading more as a pleasant, imaginative activity: for them reading was first and foremost enjoyable. This paper attempts to elucidate this concept of reading as enjoyment and tries to determine…

  5. Sensitivity to Differences between Enjoyment and Non-Enjoyment Smiles in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blampied, Meredith; Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden; Liberty, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of male children (5-15 years) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to the affective state of others was tested using an emotion recognition task. Only children without ASD could reliably differentiate between enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles. Results are considered in terms of the social impairments of children with…

  6. Cutting film violence: effects on perceptions, enjoyment, and arousal.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Gray, T; Donnerstein, E

    1999-10-01

    The authors investigated the effects of cutting specific graphic scenes of film violence on self-reports of arousal, enjoyability, and perceptions of violence among a sample of U.S. students. In 3 studies, they varied film exposure from 1 1/2 min in the 1st study to a complete motion picture (American vs. British version of same film) in the 3rd. In all 3 studies, the participants rated the cut versions as less violent than the uncut versions. The participants distinguished quite subtle differences in levels of violence, even when the cuts were minor and contextualized within an entire movie. Cutting the movie significantly increased its enjoyability for the women; for the men, there was no significant difference. Cutting violent films made no difference in arousal for the men but substantially lowered self-report levels of arousal for the women.

  7. Dimensions of Temperamental Activity Level and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglasi, Hedwig; French, Mila; Lohr, Lauren; Miller, Karen J.; Erwin, Holly Drewer; Rothman, Lee; Denny, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between children's activity level and adjustment has been based on a one-dimensional conceptualization of activity level and warrants re-examination. Current questionnaires conflate amount of physical movement with its appropriateness to the context, making it impossible to tell which aspect of activity level accounts for its…

  8. Leveraging Avatars in 3D Virtual Environments ("Second Life") for Interactive Learning: The Moderating Role of the Behavioral Activation System "vs." Behavioral Inhibition System and the Mediating Role of Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Seung-A. Annie

    2011-01-01

    Within the Entertainment-Education (E-E) framework, two experiments examined the effects of avatar-based e-health education targeting college students. Study 1 (between-subjects factorial design experiment: N = 94) tested the effects of message framing in e-learning and the moderating role of students' motivational systems on their enjoyment of…

  9. Planning for Enjoyment in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koops, Lisa Huisman; Keppen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Enjoyment is an important but often overlooked element in the music classroom. In this article, we review research literature related to enjoyment in musical interactions and discuss the role of enjoyment in the general music classroom. Drawing on research literature, our experience as general music teachers, and our research on enjoyment during…

  10. News Quantum physics: German Physical Society spring meeting Journal access: American Physical Society's online journals will be available for free in all US high schools Award: High-school physics teacher receives American award for excellence Teacher training: Fobinet offers coordination of teacher-training activities Astronomy: Astronomy fans see stars at Astrofest Conference: Delegates enjoy the workshops and activities at CPD conference Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-05-01

    Quantum physics: German Physical Society spring meeting Journal access: American Physical Society's online journals will be available for free in all US high schools Award: High-school physics teacher receives American award for excellence Teacher training: Fobinet offers coordination of teacher-training activities Astronomy: Astronomy fans see stars at Astrofest Conference: Delegates enjoy the workshops and activities at CPD conference Forthcoming events

  11. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  12. Enjoyment of music by elderly hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Leek, Marjorie R; Molis, Michelle R; Kubli, Lina R; Tufts, Jennifer B

    2008-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that hearing loss interferes with the enjoyment of music, although it is not known how widespread this problem currently is. To estimate the prevalence of music-listening difficulties among a group of elderly hearing aid wearers. Interview. Telephone interviews were conducted with patients who wore hearing aids. Questions regarding several aspects of music listening were included. Sixty-eight hearing-impaired people served as subjects. They had all been seen in the audiology clinic for hearing aid evaluation during the previous year. Subjects were asked questions concerning their use of hearing aids, the importance of listening to music in their lives, their habits and practices concerning music, and difficulties they experienced in listening to music. Almost 30% of the respondents reported that their hearing losses affected their enjoyment of music. About half of the respondents indicated that music was either too loud or too soft, although only about one-third reported difficulties with level contrasts within musical pieces. In contrast to a similar survey carried out 20 years ago, there were many fewer complaints about listening to music. This result may be due in large part to improvements in hearing aids, especially with regard to nonlinear compression. Although new hearing aid technologies have somewhat reduced problems of music enjoyment experienced by hearing-impaired people, audiologists should be aware that some 25-30% of patients may have difficulties with listening to music and may require extra attention to minimize those problems.

  13. Music enhances performance and perceived enjoyment of sprint interval exercise.

    PubMed

    Stork, Matthew J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2015-05-01

    Interval exercise training can elicit physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training, but with reduced time. However, the intense nature of specific protocols, particularly the "all-out" efforts characteristic of sprint interval training (SIT), may be perceived as being aversive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected music can reduce the potential aversiveness of an acute session of SIT by improving affect, motivation, and enjoyment, and to examine the effects of music on performance. Twenty moderately active adults (22 ± 4 yr) unfamiliar with interval exercise completed an acute session of SIT under two different conditions: music and no music. The exercise consisted of four 30-s "all-out" Wingate Anaerobic Test bouts on a cycle ergometer, separated by 4 min of rest. Peak and mean power output, RPE, affect, task motivation, and perceived enjoyment of the exercise were measured. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate changes in dependent measures over time and between the two conditions. Peak and mean power over the course of the exercise session were higher in the music condition (coefficient = 49.72 [SE = 13.55] and coefficient = 23.65 [SE = 11.30]; P < 0.05). A significant time by condition effect emerged for peak power (coefficient = -12.31 [SE = 4.95]; P < 0.05). There were no between-condition differences in RPE, affect, or task motivation. Perceived enjoyment increased over time and was consistently higher in the music condition (coefficient = 7.00 [SE = 3.05]; P < 0.05). Music enhances in-task performance and enjoyment of an acute bout of SIT. Listening to music during intense interval exercise may be an effective strategy for facilitating participation in, and adherence to, this form of training.

  14. Exploring the enjoyment of playing browser games.

    PubMed

    Klimmt, Christoph; Schmid, Hannah; Orthmann, Julia

    2009-04-01

    Browser games--mostly persistent game worlds that can be used without client software and monetary cost with a Web browser--belong to the understudied digital game types, although they attract large player communities and motivate sustained play. The present work reports findings from an online survey of 8,203 players of a German strategy browser game ("Travian"). Results suggest that multiplayer browser games are enjoyed primarily because of the social relationships involved in game play and the specific time and flexibility characteristics ("easy-in, easy-out"). Competition, in contrast, seems to be less important for browser gamers than for users of other game types. Findings are discussed in terms of video game enjoyment and game addiction.

  15. Students' Perceptions of Motivational Climate and Enjoyment in Finnish Physical Education: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Timo; Wang, C K John; Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify student clusters with homogenous profiles in perceptions of task- and ego-involving, autonomy, and social relatedness supporting motivational climate in school physical education. Additionally, we investigated whether different motivational climate groups differed in their enjoyment in PE. Participants of the study were 2 594 girls and 1 803 boys, aged 14-15 years. Students responded to questionnaires assessing their perception of motivational climate and enjoyment in physical education. Latent profile analyses produced a five-cluster solution labeled 1) 'low autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group', 2) 'low autonomy, relatedness, and high task and ego climate, 3) 'moderate autonomy, relatedness, task and ego climate' group 4) 'high autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group, and 5) 'high relatedness and task but moderate autonomy and ego climate' group. Analyses of variance showed that students in clusters 4 and 5 perceived the highest level of enjoyment whereas students in cluster 1 experienced the lowest level of enjoyment. The results showed that the students' perceptions of various motivational climates created differential levels of enjoyment in PE classes. Key pointsLatent profile analyses produced a five-cluster solution labeled 1) 'low autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group', 2) 'low autonomy, relatedness, and high task and ego climate, 3) 'moderate autonomy, relatedness, task and ego climate' group 4) 'high autonomy, relatedness, task, and moderate ego climate' group, and 5) 'high relatedness and task but moderate autonomy and ego climate' group.Analyses of variance showed that clusters 4 and 5 perceived the highest level of enjoyment whereas cluster 1 experienced the lowest level of enjoyment. The results showed that the students' perceptions of motivational climate create differential levels of enjoyment in PE classes.

  16. Enjoying Sad Music: Paradox or Parallel Processes?

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Emery

    2016-01-01

    Enjoyment of negative emotions in music is seen by many as a paradox. This article argues that the paradox exists because it is difficult to view the process that generates enjoyment as being part of the same system that also generates the subjective negative feeling. Compensation theories explain the paradox as the compensation of a negative emotion by the concomitant presence of one or more positive emotions. But compensation brings us no closer to explaining the paradox because it does not explain how experiencing sadness itself is enjoyed. The solution proposed is that an emotion is determined by three critical processes—labeled motivational action tendency (MAT), subjective feeling (SF) and Appraisal. For many emotions the MAT and SF processes are coupled in valence. For example, happiness has positive MAT and positive SF, annoyance has negative MAT and negative SF. However, it is argued that in an aesthetic context, such as listening to music, emotion processes can become decoupled. The decoupling is controlled by the Appraisal process, which can assess if the context of the sadness is real-life (where coupling occurs) or aesthetic (where decoupling can occur). In an aesthetic context sadness retains its negative SF but the aversive, negative MAT is inhibited, leaving sadness to still be experienced as a negative valanced emotion, while contributing to the overall positive MAT. Individual differences, mood and previous experiences mediate the degree to which the aversive aspects of MAT are inhibited according to this Parallel Processing Hypothesis (PPH). The reason for hesitancy in considering or testing PPH, as well as the preponderance of research on sadness at the exclusion of other negative emotions, are discussed. PMID:27445752

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Rideshare Fleet Adds EVs, Enjoys

    Science.gov Websites

    Fuels Data Center: Seattle Rideshare Fleet Adds EVs, Enjoys Success on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Rideshare Fleet Adds EVs, Enjoys Success on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Rideshare Fleet Adds EVs, Enjoys Success on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  18. Examining Attitudes, Enjoyment, Flow, and Physical Activity Levels in Pre-Service Teachers Utilizing the BLISS Model Compared to Traditional Dance Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christa Ann

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes two studies, based on data collection within a pre-existing collegiate course for pre-service teachers in a children's dance setting at a northwest public university. The overall purpose of these experimental studies was to compare traditional movement/dance with the influence of a relevance-based instructional model,…

  19. Self-efficacy and enjoyment of middle school children performing the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER).

    PubMed

    Kane, Irene; Robertson, Robert J; Fertman, Carl I; Nagle, Elizabeth F; McConnaha, Wendell R; Rabin, Bruce S

    2013-10-01

    Self-efficacy and enjoyment were examined among 34 middle school children (M age = 12.5 yr.) performing the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Exercise self-efficacy (running) and physical activity enjoyment were measured after viewing a video illustrating the PACER, and subsequently following a PACER test. Significantly greater pre- than post-exercise self-efficacy was reported; enjoyment scores did not differ. Ratings of self-efficacy were higher before exercise than after, but enjoyment scores were not significantly different. A significant correlation was found between post-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment, but not between pre-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment. Although positive correlations were found between PACER laps and pre-/post-exercise self-efficacy, correlations with ratings of enjoyment were not significant. Exercise self-efficacy was associated with children's beliefs about the task-specific PACER aerobic exercise; however, exercise enjoyment was stable. Children's self-efficacy and enjoyment beliefs should be considered when developing interventional strategies to promote aerobic exercise participation.

  20. The effect of running versus cycling high-intensity intermittent exercise on local tissue oxygenation and perceived enjoyment in 18–30-year-old sedentary men

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise format to improve exercise adherence, thereby targeting the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Exercise mode (cycling, running), if self-selected, will likely affect the physiological and enjoyment responses to HIIT in sedentary individuals. Differences in physiological and enjoyment responses, associated with the mode of exercise, could potentially influence the uptake and continued adherence to HIIT. It was hypothesised that in young sedentary men, local and systemic oxygen utilisation and enjoyment would be higher during a session of running HIIT, compared to a session of cycling HIIT. Methods A total of 12 sedentary men (mean ± SD; age 24 ± 3 years) completed three exercise sessions: a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill (MAX) followed by two experiment conditions, (1) free-paced cycling HIIT on a bicycle ergometer (HIITCYC) and (2) constant-paced running HIIT on a treadmill ergometer (HIITRUN). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the gastrocnemius (GN), the left vastus lateralis (LVL) and the right vastus lateralis (RVL) muscles, oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were measured during HIITCYC and HIITRUN. Results There was a higher HHb in the LVL (p = 0.001) and RVL (p = 0.002) sites and a higher VO2 (p = 0.017) and HR (p < 0.001) during HIITCYC, compared to HIITRUN. RPE was higher (p < 0.001) and PACES lower (p = 0.032) during HIITCYC compared to HIITRUN. Discussion In sedentary individuals, free-paced cycling HIIT produces higher levels of physiological stress when compared to constant-paced running HIIT. Participants perceived running HIIT to be more enjoyable than cycling HIIT. These findings have implications for selection of mode of HIIT for physical stress, exercise enjoyment and compliance.

  1. The effect of running versus cycling high-intensity intermittent exercise on local tissue oxygenation and perceived enjoyment in 18-30-year-old sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Kriel, Yuri; Askew, Christopher D; Solomon, Colin

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise format to improve exercise adherence, thereby targeting the chronic disease burden associated with sedentary behaviour. Exercise mode (cycling, running), if self-selected, will likely affect the physiological and enjoyment responses to HIIT in sedentary individuals. Differences in physiological and enjoyment responses, associated with the mode of exercise, could potentially influence the uptake and continued adherence to HIIT. It was hypothesised that in young sedentary men, local and systemic oxygen utilisation and enjoyment would be higher during a session of running HIIT, compared to a session of cycling HIIT. A total of 12 sedentary men (mean ± SD; age 24 ± 3 years) completed three exercise sessions: a maximal incremental exercise test on a treadmill (MAX) followed by two experiment conditions, (1) free-paced cycling HIIT on a bicycle ergometer (HIITCYC) and (2) constant-paced running HIIT on a treadmill ergometer (HIITRUN). Deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) in the gastrocnemius (GN), the left vastus lateralis (LVL) and the right vastus lateralis (RVL) muscles, oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical activity enjoyment (PACES) were measured during HIITCYC and HIITRUN. There was a higher HHb in the LVL ( p = 0.001) and RVL ( p = 0.002) sites and a higher VO 2 ( p = 0.017) and HR ( p < 0.001) during HIITCYC, compared to HIITRUN. RPE was higher ( p < 0.001) and PACES lower ( p = 0.032) during HIITCYC compared to HIITRUN. In sedentary individuals, free-paced cycling HIIT produces higher levels of physiological stress when compared to constant-paced running HIIT. Participants perceived running HIIT to be more enjoyable than cycling HIIT. These findings have implications for selection of mode of HIIT for physical stress, exercise enjoyment and compliance.

  2. [Subliminal perception and the levels of activation].

    PubMed

    Borgeat, F; Chabot, R; Chaloult, L

    1981-06-01

    The influence of the auditory subliminal messages on the level of activation has been evaluated through a double-blind study. Twenty consenting subjects were alternately submitted to activating and deactivating subliminal messages. Activation changes were estimated through the variations in the scores at the Mood Adjective Check List. Five out of this test's six factors concerned by the content of the subliminal messages responded differently according to the nature of these messages; four factors did so to a statistically significant degree. These results tend to indicate that auditory subliminal perceptions can influence the level of activation. The authors raise several questions, especially stressing that the parameters regulating subliminal response and susceptibility remain largely undefined and in need of systematic investigation.

  3. Leisure Participation and Enjoyment among the Elderly: Individual Characteristics and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Fu, Yang-Chih

    2008-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of adults in Taiwan, this study explored how often older adults participate in and how much they enjoy 2 mostly-solitary leisure activities (reading books and watching TV/DVDs/videos) and 2 mostly-social leisure activities (socializing with friends and engaging in physical activities). According to ordinal…

  4. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pyrethroids produce neurotoxicity that depends, in part, on the chemical structure. Common behavioral effects include locomotor activity changes and specific toxic syndromes (types I and II). In general these neurobehavioral effects correlate well with peak internal dose metrics. Products of cyhalothrin, a type II pyrethroid, include mixtures of isomers (e.g., λ-cyhalothrin) as well as enriched active isomers (e.g., γ-cyhalothrin). We measured acute changes in locomotor activity in adult male rats and directly correlated these changes to peak brain and plasma concentrations of λ- and γ-cyhalothrin using a within-subject design. One-hour locomotor activity studies were conducted 1.5 h after oral gavage dosing, and immediately thereafter plasma and brains were collected for analyzing tissue levels using LC/MS/MS methods. Both isomers produced dose-related decreases in activity counts, and the effective dose range for γ-cyhalothrin was lower than for λ-cyhalothrin. Doses calculated to decrease activity by 50% were 2-fold lower for the γ-isomer (1.29 mg/kg) compared to λ-cyhalothrin (2.65 mg/kg). Salivation, typical of type II pyrethroids, was also observed at lower doses of γ-cyhalothrin. Administered dose correlated well with brain and plasma concentrations, which furthermore showed good correlations with activity changes. Brain and plasma levels were tightly correlated across doses. While γ-cyhalothrin was 2-fold more potent based on administ

  5. Energy expenditure and enjoyment during video game play: differences by game type.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Bowling, J Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2011-10-01

    Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Energy expenditure (METs) and enjoyment were measured across 10 games in 100 young adults age 18-35 yr (50 women). All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < 0.001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322% (mean ± SD = 3.10 ± 0.89 METs) and 298% (2.91 ± 0.87 METs), which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 ± 0.28 METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 ± 0.16 METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < 0.001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than in overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < 0.001). Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior.

  6. Energy Expenditure and Enjoyment during Video Game Play: Differences by Game Type

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Methods Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents [METs]) and enjoyment were measured across ten games in 100 young adults aged 18 to 35 (50 females). Results All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < .001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322 (mean [SD] 3.10 [0.89] METs) and 298 (2.91 [0.87] METs) percent, which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 [0.28] METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 [0.16] METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < .001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < .001). Conclusions Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:21364477

  7. Benefits and Enjoyment of a Swimming Intervention for Youth With Cerebral Palsy: An RCT Study.

    PubMed

    Declerck, Marlies; Verheul, Martine; Daly, Daniel; Sanders, Ross

    2016-01-01

    To investigate enjoyment and specific benefits of a swimming intervention for youth with cerebral palsy (CP). Fourteen youth with CP (aged 7 to 17 years, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to III) were randomly assigned to control and swimming groups. Walking ability, swimming skills, fatigue, and pain were assessed at baseline, after a 10-week swimming intervention (2/week, 40-50 minutes) or control period, after a 5-week follow-up and, for the intervention group, after a 20-week follow-up period. The level of enjoyment of each swim-session was assessed. Levels of enjoyment were high. Walking and swimming skills improved significantly more in the swimming than in the control group (P = .043; P = .002, respectively), whereas fatigue and pain did not increase. After 20 weeks, gains in walking and swimming skills were retained (P = .017; P = .016, respectively). We recommend a swimming program for youth with CP to complement a physical therapy program.

  8. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  9. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  10. Disc Golf: Teaching a Lifetime Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastham, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Disc golf is a lifetime activity that can be enjoyed by students of varying skill levels and abilities. Disc golf follows the principles of ball golf but is generally easier for students to play and enjoy success. The object of disc golf is similar to ball golf and involves throwing a disc from the teeing area to the target in as few throws as…

  11. Fun and Enjoyment in Physical Education: Young People's Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dismore, Harriet; Bailey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Fun and enjoyment are recurring themes in physical education literature, although there has been some debate concerning the distinction between the two concepts. Whereas enjoyment is generally regarded as helpful in fostering positive attitudes towards physical education, fun has not always been considered an appropriate outcome of physical…

  12. Modeling Gameplay Enjoyment, Goal Orientations, and Individual Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, John M.; Atkinson, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between gameplay enjoyment, gaming goal orientations, and individual characteristics. A total of 301 participants were surveyed and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. This led to an expanded Gameplay Enjoyment Model (GEM) with 41 game design features that…

  13. Enjoy Successful Parenting: Practical Strategies You Can Use Today!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Roger W.

    A child's best interest is served when parents enjoy and are satisfied with their family responsibilities. This book, for parents of children ages 2-10, illustrates how children learn their communication styles, imitate their parents, and acquire and modify their own dispositions. So that the family may be enjoyed by everyone, children need good…

  14. Excellence and Enjoyment: The Logic of a "Contradiction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Department for Education and Skills in England published its Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners (DfES, 2004). It was preceded by Excellence and Enjoyment: a strategy for primary schools (DfES, 003). "Excellence and enjoyment" seems to constitute an ambiguity, even a contradiction. The government's view is…

  15. Excellence and Enjoyment: The Logic of a "Contradiction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Department for Education and Skills in England published its Five Year Strategy for Children and Learners (DfES, 2004). It was preceded by Excellence and Enjoyment: a strategy for primary schools (DfES, 2003). "Excellence and enjoyment" seems to constitute an ambiguity, even a contradiction. The government's view is…

  16. Empirical Taxonomies of Gameplay Enjoyment: Personality and Video Game Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, John M.; Atkinson, Robert K.; Lin, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to better understand how gameplay enjoyment relates to players' personality traits and video game preferences. This study demonstrated that the core design elements of games that lead to enjoyment can be empirically identified. Similarly, it showed that considering personality, an individual characteristic, can produce…

  17. Enjoyment and Behavioral Intention Predict Organized Youth Sport Participation and Dropout.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lauren A; Magee, Christopher A; Vella, Stewart A

    2017-11-01

    Dropout from organized youth sport has significant adverse health implications. Enjoyment and behavioral intentions have consistently been linked with participation and dropout; however, few studies have investigated these links using a prospective design. This study explored whether enjoyment and intentions to continue predicted dropout behavior at 1-year follow-up. Questionnaires were completed by 327 regular sport participants (mean age = 13.01 y at baseline). After 1 year, 247 individuals (75.5%) continued participating in their main sport and 26 individuals (8%) dropped out. A hierarchical logistic regression model estimated the probability of dropout. In step 1, the following covariates were included: age, sex, competition level, perceived competence, parental support, coach-athlete relationship, friendship quality, and peer acceptance. In step 2, enjoyment and intentions to continue were included. Step 1 indicated that age, parental support, coach-athlete relationship quality, and peer acceptance were significantly associated with dropout. Step 2 explained further variance in dropout, with both enjoyment and intentions inversely associated with dropout. Peer acceptance was the only covariate to remain significantly associated with dropout in step 2. Findings support the use of enjoyment and behavioral intentions as indicators of sport participation/dropout behavior and may aid the development of interventions aimed at preventing future dropout.

  18. Demographic and Practice Characteristics of Pathologists Who Enjoy Breast Tissue Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Natalia V.; Geller, Berta; Carney, Patricia A.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Onega, Tracy; Weaver, Donald L.; Frederick, Paul; Elmore, Joann G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Physician attributes, job satisfaction and confidence in clinical skills are associated with enhanced performance and better patient outcomes. We surveyed 252 pathologists to evaluate associations between enjoyment of breast pathology, demographic/clinical characteristics and diagnostic performance. Diagnostic performance was determined by agreement with patient cases previously reviewed by a panel of experienced pathologists. Eighty-three percent of study participants reported enjoying breast pathology. Pathologists who enjoy breast interpretation were more likely to review ≥10 cases/week (p=0.003), report breast interpretation expertise (p=0.013), and high levels of confidence interpreting breast pathology (p<0.001). These pathologists were less likely to report that the field was challenging (p<0.001) and that breast cases make them more nervous than other types of pathology (p<0.001). Enjoyment was not associated with diagnostic performance. Millions of women undergo breast biopsy annually, thus it is reassuring that although nearly a fifth of practicing pathologists who interpret breast tissue report not enjoying the field, precision is not impacted. PMID:25554017

  19. Motivational climate, goal orientation, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment within Finnish junior ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, T; Ntoumanis, N; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations among situational motivational climate, dispositional approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment in Finnish male junior ice hockey players. The sample comprised 265 junior B-level male players with a mean age of 17.03 years (SD = 0.63). Players filled questionnaires tapping their perceptions of coach motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment. For the statistical analysis, players were divided into high and low perceived sport ability groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed an indirect path from task-involving motivational climate via task-approach goal to enjoyment. Additionally, SEM demonstrated four other direct associations, which existed in both perceived ability groups: from ego-involving motivational climate to ego-approach and ego-avoidance goals; from ego-approach goal to ego-avoidance goal; and from task-avoidance goal to ego-avoidance goal. Additionally, in the high perceived sport ability group, there was an association from task-involving motivational climate to enjoyment. The results of this study reveal that motivational climate emphasizing effort, personal development and improvement, and achievement goal mastering tasks are significant elements of enjoyment in junior ice hockey. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Unconventional Consumption Methods and Enjoying Things Consumed: Recapturing the "First-Time" Experience.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ed; Smith, Robert W

    2018-06-01

    People commonly lament the inability to re-experience familiar things as they were first experienced. Four experiments suggest that consuming familiar things in new ways can disrupt adaptation and revitalize enjoyment. Participants better enjoyed the same familiar food (Experiment 1), drink (Experiment 2), and video (Experiments 3a-3b) simply when re-experiencing the entity via unusual means (e.g., eating popcorn using chopsticks vs. hands). This occurs because unconventional methods invite an immersive "first-time" perspective on the consumption object: boosts in enjoyment were mediated by revitalized immersion into the consumption experience and were moderated by time such that they were strongest when using unconventional methods for the first time (Experiments 1-2); likewise, unconventional methods that actively disrupted immersion did not elicit the boost, despite being novel (Experiments 3a-3b). Before abandoning once-enjoyable entities, knowing to consume old things in new ways (vs. attaining new things altogether) might temporarily restore enjoyment and postpone wasteful replacement.

  1. Musical backgrounds, listening habits, and aesthetic enjoyment of adult cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, K; Christ, A; Knutson, J F; Witt, S; Murray, K T; Tyler, R S

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the listening habits and musical enjoyment of postlingually deafened adults who use cochlear implants. Sixty-five implant recipients (35 females, 30 males) participated in a survey containing questions about musical background, prior involvement in music, and audiologic success with the implant in various listening circumstances. Responses were correlated with measures of cognition and speech recognition. Sixty-seven implant recipients completed daily diaries (7 consecutive days) in which they reported hours spent in specific music activities. Results indicate a wide range of success with music. In general, people enjoy music less postimplantation than prior to hearing loss. Musical enjoyment is influenced by the listening environment (e.g., a quiet room) and features of the music.

  2. The Comfortable Cafeteria Program for Promoting Student Participation and Enjoyment: An Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Demirjian, Louise; Horvath, Frances; Doxsey, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    A mixed-methods design was used to explore the outcomes of a 6-wk, occupational therapist–led Comfortable Cafeteria program designed to build cafeteria supervisors’ and students’ capacity to create a positive mealtime environment so that all students can successfully participate in and enjoy a healthy meal and socialization with peers. Students whose scores were in the low and mid-range at the outset had statistically significant improvements in pretest–posttest visual analog scale ratings of participation and enjoyment. Cafeteria supervisors demonstrated statistically significant improvements in their perceptions of knowledge and skills to supervise and to encourage healthy eating. Qualitative findings add further insight into the program, suggesting that students learned prosocial values (e.g., being kind, helping others), supervisors actively encouraged positive social interaction, and occupational therapists enjoyed implementing the program and recognized positive supervisor and student changes as a result of integrating services in the cafeteria. PMID:29689174

  3. The Comfortable Cafeteria Program for Promoting Student Participation and Enjoyment: An Outcome Study.

    PubMed

    Bazyk, Susan; Demirjian, Louise; Horvath, Frances; Doxsey, Lauri

    A mixed-methods design was used to explore the outcomes of a 6-wk, occupational therapist-led Comfortable Cafeteria program designed to build cafeteria supervisors' and students' capacity to create a positive mealtime environment so that all students can successfully participate in and enjoy a healthy meal and socialization with peers. Students whose scores were in the low and mid-range at the outset had statistically significant improvements in pretest-posttest visual analog scale ratings of participation and enjoyment. Cafeteria supervisors demonstrated statistically significant improvements in their perceptions of knowledge and skills to supervise and to encourage healthy eating. Qualitative findings add further insight into the program, suggesting that students learned prosocial values (e.g., being kind, helping others), supervisors actively encouraged positive social interaction, and occupational therapists enjoyed implementing the program and recognized positive supervisor and student changes as a result of integrating services in the cafeteria. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Energy expenditure and enjoyment of common children's games in a simulated free-play environment.

    PubMed

    Howe, Cheryl A; Freedson, Patty S; Feldman, Henry A; Osganian, Stavroula K

    2010-12-01

    To measure the energy expenditure and enjoyment of children's games to be used in developing a school-based intervention for preventing excessive weight gain. Healthy weight (body mass index [BMI] < 85th percentile) and overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) third-grade children (15 boys; 13 girls) were recruited. In a large gymnasium, children performed 10 games randomly selected from 30 games used in previous interventions. Total energy expenditure was measured with a portable metabolic unit and perceived enjoyment was assessed using a 9-point Likert scale of facial expressions. Mean physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE = total energy expenditure minus resting metabolism) and enjoyment of the games were adjusted for sex and BMI classification. PAEE and enjoyment were compared using a repeated-measures ANOVA with sex, BMI classification, and games as main effects. The games elicited a moderate intensity effort (mean ± standard deviation = 5.0 ± 1.3 metabolic equivalents, 123 ± 36 kcal/30 min). PAEE was higher for boys than for girls (0.12 ± 0.04 versus 0.11 ± 0.04 kcal/kg/min) and for healthy weight compared with overweight children (0.13 ± 0.04 versus 0.11 ± 0.03 kcal/kg/min). Twenty-two of the 30 games elicited a sufficiently high PAEE (≥ 100 kcal/30 min) and enjoyment (≥ neutral expression) for inclusion in future school-based interventions. Not all children's games are perceived as enjoyable or resulted in an energy expenditure that was sufficiently high for inclusion in future physical activity interventions to prevent the excess weight gain associated with childhood obesity. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Grounded Theory and Action Research to Raise Attainment in, and Enjoyment of, Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale, qualitative research project that critically reflects on the process and impact of using both grounded and action research to enhance attainment and enjoyment of reading, in such a way as to raise awareness at an individual and whole school level. The purpose of the project was to ascertain if the selected…

  6. Classroom Anxiety and Enjoyment in CLIL and Non-CLIL: Does the Target Language Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Audrey; Mettewie, Laurence; Galand, Benoit; Hiligsmann, Philippe; Van Mensel, Luk

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates pupils' anxiety and enjoyment in the classroom when learning a second or foreign language. The particularity of this study lies in the comparison of two target languages (English and Dutch) in two educational contexts (CLIL and non-CLIL) at different instruction levels (primary and secondary education). While most research…

  7. But I like PE: Factors Associated with Enjoyment of Physical Education Class in Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ward, Dianne S.; Conway, Terry L.; Pratt, Charlotte; Baggett, Chris D.; Lytle, Leslie; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined associations between physical education (PE) class enjoyment and sociodemographic, personal, and perceived school environment factors among early adolescent girls. Participants included 1,511 sixth-grade girls who completed baseline assessments for the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls, with 50% indicating they…

  8. Disentangling fun and enjoyment in exergames using an expanded design, play, experience framework: A narrative review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With exergames (as with physical activity in general), more intense and longer-duration game play should accrue more health benefits. Exergames, however, appear to be played for relatively short durations, often at medium or lower intensities. Ostensibly games are played for fun or enjoyment. Enhanc...

  9. What Do Children Most Enjoy about Summer Soccer Camp? Gender and Group Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rhys

    2005-01-01

    One hundred children attending a summer soccer camp in NE Ohio provided written data on what they most enjoyed about the camp. Findings indicated that, overall, they ranked "soccer games and skills" and "camp related activities" as the two leading major categories. In terms of gender group analysis (females = 49; males = 51)…

  10. Pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function and enjoyment in children diagnosed with cerebral palsy of various motor severities.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Liu, Wen-Yu; Yang, Tsui-Fen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of pediatric aquatic therapy on motor function, enjoyment, activities of daily living, and health-related quality of life for children with spastic cerebral palsy of various motor severities. Children with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned to a pediatric aquatic therapy group (n = 11; mean age = 85.0 ± 33.1 months; male : female = 4 : 7) or a control group (n = 13; mean age = 87.6 ± 34.0 months; male : female = 9 : 4). The statistic results indicate that the pediatric aquatic therapy group had greater average 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure following intervention than the control group (η(2) = 0.308, P = .007), even for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System level IV (5.0 vs 1.3). The pediatric aquatic therapy group had higher Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores than the control group at post-treatment (P = .015). These findings demonstrate that pediatric aquatic therapy can be an effective and alternative therapy for children with cerebral palsy even with poor Gross Motor Function Classification System level. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Enjoyment in nursing--experiences from the clinical milieu.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Lesley; Doull, Michelle; Ng Chok, Harrison; Mashingaidze, Gladys

    2016-03-01

    To present findings from a qualitative study which aimed to explore and describe experiences of enjoyment in nursing. The topic of 'enjoying nursing' is often part of job satisfaction surveys conducted in the workplace and in some studies it has been found to be the prime reason that nurses stay in the workforce. However, there is little research which explores the concept fully. Qualitative in-depth interviews. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 17 nurses in a local health district in Sydney, Australia. Data from digitally recorded individual interviews were transcribed and the content was analysed for themes relating to aspects of nursing that were enjoyable and others that were not. The major themes to emerge from the data describing enjoyment of nursing were: doing for others, supporting others and educating others. Themes that identified not enjoying nursing were related to the aggression of others, i.e. patients/clients, families or other staff in the workplace, as well as system issues. System issues referred mainly to the need for support from other nurses and management. Nurses still enjoy caring for patients and teaching others to care. This is the reason they remain in nursing even though the system and people are not always supportive or encouraging. Managers and educators can use these results to assist them to understand the importance of giving support to nursing staff to optimise their enjoyment of caring for their patients/clients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Enjoyment of Spicy Flavor Enhances Central Salty-Taste Perception and Reduces Salt Intake and Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Cui, Yuanting; Jin, Rongbing; Lang, Hongmei; Yu, Hao; Sun, Fang; He, Chengkang; Ma, Tianyi; Li, Yingsha; Zhou, Xunmei; Liu, Daoyan; Jia, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zhiming

    2017-12-01

    High salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension and is associated with cardiovascular events. Most countries exhibit a traditionally high salt intake; thus, identification of an optimal strategy for salt reduction at the population level may have a major impact on public health. In this multicenter, random-order, double-blind observational and interventional study, subjects with a high spice preference had a lower salt intake and blood pressure than subjects who disliked spicy food. The enjoyment of spicy flavor enhanced salt sensitivity and reduced salt preference. Salt intake and salt preference were related to the regional metabolic activity in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of participants. Administration of capsaicin-the major spicy component of chili pepper-enhanced the insula and OFC metabolic activity in response to high-salt stimuli, which reversed the salt intensity-dependent differences in the metabolism of the insula and OFC. In animal study, OFC activity was closely associated with salt preference, and salty-taste information processed in the OFC was affected in the presence of capsaicin. Thus, interventions related to this region may alter the salt preference in mice through fiber fluorometry and optogenetic techniques. In conclusion, enjoyment of spicy foods may significantly reduce individual salt preference, daily salt intake, and blood pressure by modifying the neural processing of salty taste in the brain. Application of spicy flavor may be a promising behavioral intervention for reducing high salt intake and blood pressure. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Enjoyable company in sharing stroke experiences; - lifestyle groups after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lund, Anne; Melhus, Mali; Sveen, Unni

    2018-03-01

    Even people with mild to moderate stroke will experience changes in their abilities to perform everyday occupations. Group interventions may be appropriate in late-stage rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to explore how the participants involved themselves in person-centered lifestyle groups after stroke in Norway. Semi-structured interviews were performed with six older adults with mild-to-moderate stroke who had participated in lifestyle groups over a period of nine months. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The participants involved themselves in the lifestyle groups in a variety of ways by creating enjoyable company in sharing stroke experiences, sharing knowledgeable interest, pushing and forcing each other forward and reflecting on self-worth. Through doing group activities together, they created various ways of being, belonging and becoming, addressing development of strategies for regaining self-belief and a sense of autonomy, and for adapting to everyday life post-stroke. The participants were active contributors in the groups and pushed each other and themselves regarding involvement in meaningful occupations. This active participation seemed to bring the participants' resources into focus and contrasted with the frequent negative perceptions of people post-stroke as 'victims'.

  14. The most enjoyable way to learn the periodic table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gümüşsoy, Verim; Kaya, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Constructivist learning allows students to be actively involved in the learning process and thus the learning to be permanent. It makes the lesson more interesting and enjoyable compared to classical learning where students are passive and get bored quickly. When students engage in activities during the learning process, they enjoy it more. And there is no doubt that games help this a lot. In this project, a game has been designed to make it more entertaining to learn the periodical table for the students. In this game, a huge periodical table (with empty columns) is drawn with acrylic paint in the school yard. Acrylic paint is preferred because it is resilient to outdoor conditions, quick drying and relatively durable. Besides its functionality in the game, the presence of the huge periodical table in the yard boosts students' motivation for scientific activities. Students are taught about the periodical table in their Chemistry lesson a week before the game is to be played. They are informed about the game and asked to bring some sportswear to wear during the game. On the game day, the class is divided into teams of five people. Each team wears a different color vest and is called by the color of the vest they are wearing. The starting point is drawn as far as possible from the periodical table. Furthermore, some question cards that cover the subject are used in the game. As an example from the game: one student from each team is asked to find the correct place by the atomic number of a certain element as described in the cards given to them. There is a time limit so the stopwatch is started as each student starts reading the information on the card. The student runs to the correct place of the certain element according to the clues on their given card. Then they stop and raise their hands. The teacher stops the stopwatch for that student. The teams gain points according to their speed and correct guesses. The game continues as other students are given different

  15. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contaminants Buy, Store & Serve Safe Food Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection Share ... it Email Print August 2004 Every year homemade ice cream causes several outbreaks of Salmonella infection with ...

  16. Adult-Supplied Structure and Children's Activity Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, C. J.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between preschool children's participation in play activities structured by adults and the level of motor activity children exhibited while in those activities, to test the hypothesis that children's motor activity levels vary according to the level of structure imposed on activities by adults. Subjects…

  17. Reduction of the Harmonic Series Influences Musical Enjoyment with Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Nemer, John S.; Kohlberg, Gavriel D.; Mancuso, Dean M.; Griffin, Brianna M.; Certo, Michael V.; Chen, Stephanie Y.; Chun, Michael B.; Spitzer, Jaclyn B.; Lalwani, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cochlear implantation is associated with poor music perception and enjoyment. Reducing music complexity has been shown to enhance music enjoyment in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In this study, we assess the impact of harmonic series reduction on music enjoyment. Study Design Prospective analysis of music enjoyment in normal-hearing (NH) individuals and CI recipients. Setting Single tertiary academic medical center. Patients NH adults (N=20) and CI users (N=8) rated the Happy Birthday song on three validated enjoyment modalities–musicality, pleasantness, and naturalness. Intervention Subjective rating of music excerpts. Main outcome measures Participants listened to seven different instruments play the melody, each with five levels of harmonic reduction (Full|F3+F2+F1+F0|F2+F1+F0|F1+F0|F0). NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation. Linear mixed effect models (LME) and likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the impact of harmonic reduction on enjoyment. Results NH listeners without simulation rated segments with the first four harmonics (F3+F2+F1+F0) most pleasant and natural (p<0.001|p=0.004). NH listeners with simulation rated the first harmonic alone (F0) most pleasant and natural (p<0.001|p=0.003). Their ratings demonstrated a positive linear relationship between harmonic reduction and both pleasantness (slope estimate=0.030|SE=0.004|p<0.001|LME) and naturalness (slope estimate=0.012|SE=0.003|p=0.003|LME). CI recipients also found the first harmonic alone (F0) to be most pleasant (p=0.003), with a positive linear relationship between harmonic reduction and pleasantness (slope estimate=0.029|SE=0.008|p<0.001|LME). Conclusions Harmonic series reduction increases music enjoyment in CI and NH individuals with or without CI simulation. Therefore, minimization of the harmonics may be a useful strategy for enhancing musical enjoyment among both NH and CI listeners. PMID:27755358

  18. Reduction of the Harmonic Series Influences Musical Enjoyment With Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Nemer, John S; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Mancuso, Dean M; Griffin, Brianna M; Certo, Michael V; Chen, Stephanie Y; Chun, Michael B; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is associated with poor music perception and enjoyment. Reducing music complexity has been shown to enhance music enjoyment in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. In this study, we assess the impact of harmonic series reduction on music enjoyment. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment in normal-hearing (NH) individuals and CI recipients. Single tertiary academic medical center. NH adults (N = 20) and CI users (N = 8) rated the Happy Birthday song on three validated enjoyment modalities-musicality, pleasantness, and naturalness. Subjective rating of music excerpts. Participants listened to seven different instruments play the melody, each with five levels of harmonic reduction (Full, F3+F2+F1+F0, F2+F1+F0, F1+F0, F0). NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation. Linear mixed effect models (LME) and likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the impact of harmonic reduction on enjoyment. NH listeners without simulation rated segments with the first four harmonics (F3+F2+F1+F0) most pleasant and natural (p <0.001, p = 0.004). NH listeners with simulation rated the first harmonic alone (F0) most pleasant and natural (p <0.001, p = 0.003). Their ratings demonstrated a positive linear relationship between harmonic reduction and both pleasantness (slope estimate = 0.030, SE = 0.004, p <0.001, LME) and naturalness (slope estimate = 0.012, SE = 0.003, p = 0.003, LME). CI recipients also found the first harmonic alone (F0) to be most pleasant (p = 0.003), with a positive linear relationship between harmonic reduction and pleasantness (slope estimate = 0.029, SE = 0.008, p <0.001, LME). Harmonic series reduction increases music enjoyment in CI and NH individuals with or without CI simulation. Therefore, minimization of the harmonics may be a useful strategy for enhancing musical enjoyment among both NH and CI listeners.

  19. Student Autonomy and its Effects on Student Enjoyment in a Traditional Mechanics Course for First-Year Engineering Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Janaki I.; Quinlivan, Brendan T.; Simonovich, Jennifer A.; Towers, Emily; Zadik, Oren H.; Zastavker, Yevgeniya V.

    2012-02-01

    In light of recent literature in educational psychology, this study investigates instructional support and students' autonomy at a small technical undergraduate school. Grounded theory is used to analyze twelve semi-structured open-ended interviews about engineering students' experiences in Introductory Mechanics that includes Lecture, Recitation, and Laboratory components. Using data triangulation with each course component as a unit of analysis, this study examines students' course enjoyment as a function of instructional support and autonomy. The Lecture utilizes traditional instructor-centered pedagogy with predominantly passive learning and no student autonomy. The Recitation creates an active learning environment through small group work with a moderate degree of autonomy. The Laboratory is designed around self-guided project-based activities with significant autonomy. Despite these differences, all three course components provide similar levels of instructional support. The data reveal that students enjoy the low autonomy provided by Lecture and Recitations while finding the Laboratory frustrating. Analyses indicate that the differences in autonomy contribute to students' misinterpretation of the three course components' value within the context of the entire course.

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05) and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05) in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    PubMed

    Thum, Jacob S; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor; Astorino, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05) and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05) in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. NCT:02981667.

  2. Dance-Based ExerGaming: User Experience Design Implications for Maximizing Health Benefits Based on Exercise Intensity and Perceived Enjoyment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thin, Alasdair G.; Poole, Nicola

    Dance is a form of exercise that is considered to have widespread popular appeal and in particular to adolescent females. Dance-based body-movement controlled video games are a popular form of ExerGaming that is being adopted for use in school-based physical activity health promotion programs. The results of this study indicate that the game play mechanics and skill demands of the dance-based ExerGames would appear to have limited the subjects' level of physical exertion over the period of study. After training there was an increase in enjoyment rating for the Step Aerobics game which appears related to a perceptible improvement in game performance. It is therefore recommended that ExerGames should be designed with very low initial skill demands in order to maximize the user's level of exertion and to realize and reward progress, thereby helping to promote an enjoyable exercise experience and counterbalance any sense of exertional discomfort. Keywords: exercise; health promotion; exergaming; user experience; design; video game; enjoyment.

  3. Enjoy Life in the Fast Lane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urshan, J.

    This guide to supermarket shopping provides information in an outline format. It first covers preliminary activities such as determining family needs, shopping on a budget, and planning at home. A number of suggestions are then made for the actual shopping. Topics include shopper aids (unit pricing, nutritional labeling, freshness coding), store…

  4. For Enrichment and Enjoyment: The Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Marjorie

    1981-01-01

    Describes three humanities activities, designed using the 1981 "California History/Social Science Framework," in which seventh-grade social studies students study medieval culture. Students design personal coats-of-arms, play a typical medieval game, listen to medieval stories and myths, and draw or illustrate stories using medieval…

  5. Parental Activity as a Determinant of Activity Level and Patterns of Activity in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalakanis, Lisa E.; Goldfield, Gary S.; Paluch, Rocco A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the level and pattern of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in obese children, examining predictors of their activity. Children and their parents wore accelerometers for several days and provided demographic data. Parental activity levels significantly and independently predicted and improved the prediction of children's…

  6. Development of Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routh, Donald K.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The open-field activity of 140 children 3-9 years old was observed. Children were either told to stay in one part of the room and play or were given free play instructions. Findings showed that open-field activity decreased with age; parents' activity ratings were also lower for older children. (CS)

  7. Reading enjoyment amongst non-leisure readers can affect achievement in secondary school.

    PubMed

    Mol, Suzanne E; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity "to see images" of a written story in the mind's eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap.

  8. Reading enjoyment amongst non-leisure readers can affect achievement in secondary school

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate determinants of differences in leisure reading behavior and school achievement. We specifically examined reading enjoyment, mental imagery, and sex as predictors in a large, age-homogeneous sample of Dutch secondary school students (N = 1,071). Results showed that the prevalence of leisure reading was low in both the lower, pre-vocational track (19.5%) and the higher, pre-academic track (32.5%). Boys read even less than girls. Almost all leisure readers enjoyed reading and engaged in mental imagery, i.e., the propensity “to see images” of a written story in the mind’s eye. Overall, boys who did not like to read for leisure had the poorest school performance. Non-leisure readers who reported that they enjoyed reading got higher school grades in the higher educational track. In the lower track, this was the case for girls. Our study findings imply that reading promotion programs should take into account individual differences in sex, achievement level, and reading enjoyment when aiming to decrease the academic achievement gap. PMID:25386154

  9. Identifying environmental, social, and psychological correlates of meeting the recommended physical activity levels for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-11-01

    Although physical activity reduces the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, a large proportion of the population is not sufficiently physically active. Therefore, the present study examined the environmental, social, and psychological correlates for meeting the 2 recommended physical activity criteria: ≥420 min per week of at least moderate-intensity activity (MPA criterion) and ≥210 min per week of vigorous activity (VPA criterion) for colon cancer prevention among Japanese adults. Cross-sectional study. The sample included 2000 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. An Internet-based survey was used to assess seven sociodemographic variables (e.g., education level, employment status), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, residential area), social variables (social support), psychological variables (self-efficacy, perceived positive (pros) and negative (cons) aspects of exercise), and physical activity. The adjusted odds of meeting each physical activity criterion by these variables were calculated. Overall, 22.3% of the study population met the criterion of MPA, and 7.3% met the criterion of VPA. Having high self-efficacy, fewer perceived cons, possessing home fitness equipment, reporting enjoyable scenery, and living in a rural area were significantly associated with meeting the recommended criteria. Participants who met the 2 activity recommendations differed by self-efficacy, cons, possession of home fitness equipment, reporting of enjoyable scenery, and residential area. These findings imply that strategies to promote more intense physical activities specifically in terms of these variables may be necessary for colon cancer prevention. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Having Fun on Facebook?: Mothers' Enjoyment as a Moderator of Mental Health and Facebook Use.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Renee; Buckner, Marjorie M; Ledbetter, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    This study reports results of a study that examined the extent to which contextual factors (i.e., income level and number of children) might predict a mother's mental health quality, which, in turn, may predict level of engagement with Facebook. Results supported this model, finding that mothers with more children and lower income possess lower mental health quality, and lower mental health quality predicted more frequent Facebook use. However, this pattern was qualified by a mother's level of enjoyment of Facebook, such that mental health quality did not significantly predict Facebook intensity when enjoyment of Facebook was low. This research extends practitioners' knowledge of mothers' mental health quality by identifying a behavior that may indicate lower mental health quality and enhance abilities to recognize mothers who may need support or treatment. Future directions for this research are included.

  11. Enjoy your food: on losing weight and taking pleasure.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Else; Mol, Annemarie

    2014-02-01

    Does healthy eating require people to control themselves and abstain from pleasure? This idea is dominant, but in our studies of dieting in The Netherlands we encountered professionals who work in other ways. They encourage their clients to enjoy their food, as only such joy provides satisfaction and the sense that one has eaten enough. Enjoying one's food is not easy. It depends on being sensitive. This does not come naturally but needs training. And while one kind of hunger may be difficult to distinguish from another, feeling pleasure may open the doors to feeling pain. What is more, sensitivity is not enough: enjoying one's food also depends on the food being enjoyable. A lot of care is required for that. But while engaging in such care is hard work, along the way clients are encouraged to no longer ask 'Am I being good?' but to wonder instead 'Is this good for me?' Both these questions are normative and focus on the person rather than on her socio-material context. However, in the situations related here the difference is worth making. For it entails a shift from externally controlling your behaviour to self-caringly enjoying your food. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Commitment, enjoyment and motivation in young soccer competitive players.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; Palou, Pere; Gili, Margarita; Ponseti, Xavier; Borras, Pere A; Vidal, Josep; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Villamarín, Francisco; Sousa, Catarina

    2010-11-01

    Building upon Deci's and Ryan (1985) Self-determination theory as well as the sportive behavioral correlates of the model of Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1976), this study tries to establish the relationship between motivation and commitment in youth sport. For this purpose 454 young competitive soccer players answered the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ) during the regular season. The SMS measures the three dimensions of the Motivational continuum (the Amotivation, the Extrinsic Motivation and the Intrinsic Motivation). The SCQ measures the Sportive Commitment and its composing factors such as the Enjoyment, the Alternatives to the sport, and the Social Pressure. Our findings provided a clear pattern of the influence of motivation in sport enjoyment and commitment, outlining the positive contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to enjoyment and commitment. Amotivation, contributes positively to alternatives to sport and negatively to enjoyment and commitment, It should be noted that extrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to enjoyment whereas intrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to commitment.

  13. Entry-Level Activities in System Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    System-level consultation or organizational development in schools is an area in great need of theoretical models and definitions. The three articles in this special issue provide a unique learning opportunity not only for consultation across borders but also for consultation within the same nation. In my commentary, I limit my remarks to a few…

  14. Perversity of Enjoyment? Preschool Music Activities Go Neoliberal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, Kristina; Zimmerman Nilsson, Marie-Helene

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of empirical studies that examine the influence of neoliberal ideas in preschool music and teaching. Neoliberal ideas have primarily been studied in a broader educational perspective and related to preschool policy reforms. The aim of this paper is to study preschool teachers' rhetoric concerning music contents and music activities…

  15. Previous Gardening Experience and Gardening Enjoyment Is Related to Vegetable Preferences and Consumption Among Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Fair, Cori N; Jennings, Rose; Warren, Judith L

    2016-10-01

    To examine if gardening experience and enjoyment are associated with vegetable exposure, preferences, and consumption of vegetables among low-income third-grade children. Cross-sectional study design, using baseline data from the Texas! Grow! Eat! Go! Twenty-eight Title I elementary schools located in different counties in Texas. Third-grade students (n = 1,326, 42% Hispanic) MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gardening experience, gardening enjoyment, vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Random-effects regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index percentile of child, estimated means and standard errors of vegetable consumption, exposure, and preference by levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Wald χ 2 tests evaluated the significance of differences in means of outcomes across levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Children with more gardening experience had greater vegetable exposure and higher vegetable preference and consumed more vegetables compared with children who reported less gardening experience. Those who reported that they enjoyed gardening had the highest levels of vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Garden-based interventions can have an important and positive effect on children's vegetable consumption by increasing exposure to fun gardening experiences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Super-leadership and work enjoyment: direct and moderated influences.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter F; Georgianna, Sibylle; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Roth, Anne C; Schreiber, Walter A; Sauerland, Martin; Muessigmann, Michael J; Jilg, Franziska

    2013-12-01

    Super-leadership is part of an approach called 'empowering leadership.' Within this approach, super-leadership is assumed to enable subordinates to lead themselves. The current study examined correlates of super-leadership. A questionnaire measuring two dimensions of super-leadership was used to analyze relationships between super-leadership and subordinates' work enjoyment, i.e., job satisfaction, subjective well-being, and emotional organizational commitment. In addition, moderating effects of the organizational context, i.e., organizational decentralization, on the relationships between super-leadership and work enjoyment were explored. 198 German employees from different occupations participated in the study. Latent moderator structural equation analysis revealed that the two factors of super-leadership, "coaching and communicative support" and "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility," had direct positive effects on subordinates' work enjoyment. Organizational decentralization moderated the effect of "coaching and communicative support" on work enjoyment but not the relations involving "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility." Conclusions for further research and practical applications were discussed.

  17. The Effect of Spoilers on the Enjoyment of Short Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, William H.; Betzner, Michelle; Autry, Kevin S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has provided evidence that the information provided before a story--a spoiler--may increase the enjoyment of that story, perhaps by increasing the processing fluency experienced during reading. In one experiment, we tested the reliability of these findings by closely replicating existing methods and the generality of these findings…

  18. Cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov enjoys tribal welcome from Shoshone Indians

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-09-01

    S75-20108 (September 1974) --- Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov (right), commander of the first (prime) crew of Soviet cosmonauts on the planned Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), enjoys a tribal welcome from Shoshone Indians during a hunting trip in the Lander, Wyoming area. Leonov was in the United States to take part in joint crew training at the Johnson Space Center.

  19. Mindful Music Listening Instruction Increases Listening Sensitivity and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mindful listening instruction on music listening sensitivity and music listening enjoyment. A pretest--posttest control group design was used. Participants, fourth-grade students (N = 42) from an elementary school in a large city in the Northeastern United States, were randomly assigned to two…

  20. Longitudinal Changes and Predictors of Adolescents' Enjoyment in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagestad, Pål

    2017-01-01

    Longitudinal studies on adolescents' enjoyment in physical education (PE) are lacking. This study examined students' self-reported enjoyment and predictors of enjoyment in PE in school among students from age 14 to 19, using questionnaires and interviews. From the results, enjoyment in PE increases among girls during high school, while students…

  1. Early Adolescents' Enjoyment Experienced in Learning Situations at School and Its Relation to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenauer, Gerda; Hascher, Tina

    2014-01-01

    While many studies confirm that positive emotions, including enjoyment, lead to better student achievement, less empirical evidence exists about possible mediator variables that link achievement to enjoyment. It is proposed that achievement and enjoyment form a circular dependency; enjoyment in learning leads to higher achievement but a degree of…

  2. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of School-Based Active Videogame Intervention on Chinese Children's Aerobic Fitness, Physical Activity Level, and Psychological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Lau, Patrick Wing Chung; Wang, Jing Jing; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    Active videogames (AVGs) that require body movements to play offer a novel opportunity to turn a traditionally sedentary behavior into a physically active one. We sought to determine the effect of a school-based AVG intervention on Chinese children's aerobic fitness, physical activity (PA) level, and PA-related psychological correlates. Eighty 8-11-year-old Chinese children (55 males) were recruited from one Hong Kong primary school and were allocated at random to either an AVG intervention or control group. Children in the intervention group played an AVG, Xbox 360, twice per week during after-school hours, each for 60 minutes over 12 weeks in duration. The control group received no intervention. Children's body-mass index (BMI), objective PA, aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen consumption [VO 2max ]), PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed. Compared with the control group, significant increases were found in the intervention group in VO 2max [mean and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.58 (0.74, 2.42) mL/(kg·min)], objective moderate-to-vigorous PA [6.73 (1.70, 11.76) min/day], and total PA [27.19 (9.33, 45.04) min/day], but not for BMI. No significant differences in PA task efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment were observed. A 12-week (60 minutes × twice per week) school-based AVG intervention can improve Chinese children's aerobic fitness and PA level. These findings indicated that AVGs could be used as an alternative means to engage Chinese children in PA in school setting. However, the treatment effects of AVGs on PA-related psychological correlates and body composition need more investigation.

  3. Enjoyment of exercise among people with arthritis: An inductive thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kibblewhite, Julia R; Treharne, Gareth J; Stebbings, Simon; Hegarty, Roisin Sm

    2017-09-01

    Past research into exercise among people with long-term health conditions has paid surprisingly little attention to the concept of enjoyment. This study explored enjoyment of exercise among people with arthritis. Semi-structured interviews were held with 12 participants aged 20-85 years. The transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: enjoyment of exercise in relation to other people, benefits of exercise in relation to enjoyment, working around barriers to enjoy exercise and finding an enjoyable balance to exercise. These themes highlight the relevance of enjoyment and how it could feature in advice about exercise for people with arthritis.

  4. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814...) For activities at the State and local levels to meet the performance goals established by the State... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.814 Other State-level...

  5. Physical activity levels in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Sherry, David D

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is paramount in the treatment of juvenile fibromyalgia, although some interventions use indirect methods to increase activity levels rather than address physical dysfunction head-on. New research explores the effects of a psychotherapeutic approach on levels of physical activity in adolescents with fibromyalgia.

  6. Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

  7. It's not how much you play, but how much you enjoy the game: the longitudinal associations between adolescents' self-esteem and the frequency versus enjoyment of involvement in sports.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of involvement in sports often has been concurrently and longitudinally associated with higher self-esteem. The interpretation of this association consistently has been framed as involvement in sports leading to higher levels of self-esteem over time (i.e., socialization effect), although no studies have tested whether higher levels of self-esteem lead to increased involvement in sports over time (i.e., selection effect). Another important aspect of involvement in sports that may be related to self-esteem is the degree to which youth enjoy sports. However, this aspect has received much less attention. To address these gaps in the literature, we first examined the bidirectional effects between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports with 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female; 92.4 % Canadian-born) over 4 years. Higher levels of self-esteem predicted greater involvement in sports over time, but greater involvement in sports did not predict higher levels of self-esteem over time, offering support only for selection effects. We then tested the bidirectional effects between the enjoyment of sports and self-esteem and found evidence of both socialization and selection effects. Specifically, greater enjoyment of sports predicted higher self-esteem over time, and higher self-esteem predicted greater enjoyment of sports over time. These novel findings suggest that adolescents with higher self-esteem play sports more frequently and enjoy sports more than adolescents with lower self-esteem. In addition, the degree to which adolescents enjoy sports may be more important for increasing self-esteem than the frequency with which adolescents play sports.

  8. Pleasures of the Mind: What Makes Jokes and Insight Problems Enjoyable

    PubMed Central

    Canestrari, Carla; Branchini, Erika; Bianchi, Ivana; Savardi, Ugo; Burro, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a parallel analysis of the enjoyment derived from humor and insight problem solving is presented with reference to a “general” Theory of the Pleasures of the Mind (TPM) (Kubovy, 1999) rather than to “local” theories regarding what makes humor and insight problem solving enjoyable. The similarity of these two cognitive activities has already been discussed in previous literature in terms of the cognitive mechanisms which underpin getting a joke or having an insight experience in a problem solving task. The paper explores whether we can learn something new about the similarities and differences between humor and problem solving by means of an investigation of what makes them pleasurable. In the first part of the paper, the framework for this joint analysis is set. Two descriptive studies are then presented in which the participants were asked to report on their experiences relating to solving visuo-spatial insight problems (Study 1) or understanding cartoons (Study 2) in terms of whether they were enjoyable or otherwise. In both studies, the responses were analyzed with reference to a set of categories inspired by the TPM. The results of Study 1 demonstrate that finding the solution to a problem is associated with a positive evaluation, and the most frequent explanations for this were reported as being Curiosity, Virtuosity and Violation of expectations. The results of Study 2 suggest that understanding a joke (Joy of verification) and being surprised by it (Feeling of surprise) were two essential conditions: when they were not present, the cartoons were perceived as not enjoyable. However, this was not enough to explain the motivations for the choice of the most enjoyable cartoons. Recognizing a Violation of expectations and experiencing a Diminishment in the cleverness or awareness initially attributed to the characters in the cartoon were the aspects which were most frequently indicated by the participants to explain why they enjoyed the

  9. The Enjoyment Cycle: A Phenomenology of Musical Enjoyment of 4- To 7-Year-Olds during Musical Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koops, Lisa Huisman

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe children's lived experience of enjoyment during musical play. Data sources included class video from 15 weeks of a 24-week extracurricular music class for 4- to 7-year-olds taught by the researcher, parent-filmed video of child participant music-making in home settings during the same…

  10. Interval training elicits higher enjoyment versus moderate exercise in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a robust and time-efficient approach to improve multiple health indices including maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max). Despite the intense nature of HIIT, data in untrained adults report greater enjoyment of HIIT versus continuous exercise (CEX). However, this has yet to be investigated in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). To examine differences in enjoyment in response to CEX and HIIT in persons with SCI. Repeated measures, within-subjects design. University laboratory in San Diego, CA. Nine habitually active men and women (age = 33.3 ± 10.5 years) with chronic SCI. Participants performed progressive arm ergometry to volitional exhaustion to determine VO 2 peak. During subsequent sessions, they completed CEX, sprint interval training (SIT), or HIIT in randomized order. Physical activity enjoyment (PACES), affect, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), VO 2 , and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Despite a higher VO 2 , RPE, and BLa consequent with HIIT and SIT (P < 0.05), PACES was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in response to HIIT (107.4 ± 13.4) and SIT (103.7 ± 12.5) compared to CEX (81.6 ± 25.4). Fifty-five percent of participants preferred HIIT and 45% preferred SIT, with none identifying CEX as their preferred exercise mode. Compared to CEX, brief sessions of submaximal or supramaximal interval training elicit higher enjoyment despite higher metabolic strain. The long-term efficacy and feasibility of HIIT in this population should be explored considering that it is not viewed as more aversive than CEX.

  11. Does familiarity affect the enjoyment of touchscreen games for people with dementia?

    PubMed

    Astell, Arlene J; Joddrell, Phil; Groenewoud, Hanny; de Lange, Jacomine; Goumans, Marleen; Cordia, Anneloes; Schikhof, Yvonne

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has indicated that people living with dementia are able to use touchscreen technology, which presents an opportunity to deliver meaningful and engaging activities for people to pass the time independently. The challenge is to identify suitable applications from the thousands that are currently available, and familiarity, where an app is a digital version of an existing real world game, may be one solution. To evaluate the concept of familiarity in gameplay with people living with dementia by comparing a known game with a novel game and measuring whether users are able to play these games independently and whether they enjoy doing so. Thirty older adults living with dementia were recruited from local care services. Each participant was assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 played a familiar game (Solitaire) and Group 2 played a novel game (Bubble Xplode). Each participant played the same game on three separate occasions within one week. Number of gameplay attempts, whether a checkpoint was reached and how much time to reach the checkpoint were measured. A brief post-session interview was conducted to assess the participants' enjoyment. Ninety percent of participants attempted gameplay independently with 17% of participants in the familiar group reaching the checkpoint compared with 93% playing the novel game. Regardless of which game was played or whether the checkpoint was reached, 88% of all participants reported enjoyment of the gaming sessions. People living with dementia can play touchscreen games independently, but familiarity does not ensure successful gameplay. Enjoyment appears to be independent of progression through a game. The potential of novel and unfamiliar games as meaningful activities that people with dementia can engage with independently should be further explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Doctors' enjoyment of their work and satisfaction with time available for leisure: UK time trend questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Doctors' job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8-10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1-3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Doctors’ enjoyment of their work and satisfaction with time available for leisure: UK time trend questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Doctors’ job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. Materials and methods We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Results Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8–10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1–3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Conclusions Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. PMID:26783328

  14. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Teaching Badminton Based on Student Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianyu; Moffit, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Badminton has been identified as a lifelong activity. It is an inexpensive sport and everyone--children, seniors, and individuals with disabilities--can reach a level of enjoyment in the game after mastering basic skills and tactics. In teaching badminton, teachers need to understand how students develop game play ability from a low level to an…

  16. Cultivating Engagement and Enjoyment in Exergames Using Feedback, Challenge, and Rewards.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews theoretical and empirical evidence related to three mechanisms for encouraging enjoyment during exergame play: Feedback, challenge, and rewards. A literature search and narrative review were conducted. Feedback is found in nearly all exergames, and richer, more in-depth feedback is associated with increased activity. Challenge is a vital component of any videogame, and exergames include physical as well as cognitive challenges. Flow states have traditionally been conceptualized as occurring when an optimal match between player skills and game challenge occurs. However, failure and retrial are necessary for feelings of overall satisfaction and fun, despite not necessarily being ideally fun or satisfying themselves. Rewards are a more complicated issue, with significant theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting positive and negative effects of reward systems. How rewards are integrated into the mechanics and storyline of the game likely impacts how they are perceived and, thus, their effectiveness. Finally, integration of these mechanisms into exergames requires specific attention to both cognitive and physical implementations. Movements that are not themselves enjoyable or engaging may lead to cheating and lower energy expenditure. Feedback, challenge, and rewards are promising mechanisms by which exergames could become more enjoyable. How these concepts are operationalized can affect physical and psychological reactions to exergames. Attention to these concepts in future exergame development and implementation would benefit theory, research, and practice.

  17. Cultivating Engagement and Enjoyment in Exergames Using Feedback, Challenge, and Rewards

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article reviews theoretical and empirical evidence related to three mechanisms for encouraging enjoyment during exergame play: Feedback, challenge, and rewards. Materials and Methods: A literature search and narrative review were conducted. Results: Feedback is found in nearly all exergames, and richer, more in-depth feedback is associated with increased activity. Challenge is a vital component of any videogame, and exergames include physical as well as cognitive challenges. Flow states have traditionally been conceptualized as occurring when an optimal match between player skills and game challenge occurs. However, failure and retrial are necessary for feelings of overall satisfaction and fun, despite not necessarily being ideally fun or satisfying themselves. Rewards are a more complicated issue, with significant theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting positive and negative effects of reward systems. How rewards are integrated into the mechanics and storyline of the game likely impacts how they are perceived and, thus, their effectiveness. Finally, integration of these mechanisms into exergames requires specific attention to both cognitive and physical implementations. Movements that are not themselves enjoyable or engaging may lead to cheating and lower energy expenditure. Conclusions: Feedback, challenge, and rewards are promising mechanisms by which exergames could become more enjoyable. How these concepts are operationalized can affect physical and psychological reactions to exergames. Attention to these concepts in future exergame development and implementation would benefit theory, research, and practice. PMID:26181675

  18. Enjoying hobbies is related to desirable cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Saihara, Keishi; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Ishida, Sanemasa; Kataoka, Tetsuro; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Orihara, Koji; Ogawa, Masakazu; Oketani, Naoya; Fukudome, Tsuyoshi; Atsuchi, Nobuhiko; Shinsato, Takuro; Okui, Hideki; Kubozono, Takuro; Ichiki, Hitoshi; Kuwahata, So; Mizoguchi, Etsuko; Fujita, Shoji; Takumi, Takuro; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Tomita, Kaai; Tei, Chuwa

    2010-03-01

    An unhealthy lifestyle can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanism by which lifestyle influences the development of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. Since coronary endothelial function is a predictor of cardiovascular prognosis, the goal of this study was to characterize the effect of enjoying hobbies on coronary endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. A total of 121 consecutive patients (76 men, 45 women) with almost normal coronary arteries underwent Doppler flow study of the left anterior descending coronary artery following sequential administration of papaverine, acetylcholine, and nitroglycerin. On the basis of responses to questionnaires, patients were divided into two groups; the Hobby group (n = 71) who enjoyed hobbies, and the Non-hobby group (n = 50) who had no hobbies. Cardiovascular outcomes were assessed at long-term follow-up using medical records or questionnaire surveys for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE).The average follow-up period was 916 +/- 515 days. There were no significant differences in demographics when comparing the two groups. The percent change in coronary blood flow and coronary artery diameter induced by acetylcholine was significantly greater in the Hobby group than in the Non-hobby group (49% +/- 77% vs 25% +/- 37%, P < 0.05, 4% +/- 13% vs -3% +/- 20%, P < 0.05, respectively). The MACE rate was significantly lower in the Hobby group than in the Non-hobby group (P < 0.01). Enjoyment of hobbies was the only independent predictor of MACE (odds ratio 8.1 [95% confidence interval 1.60, 41.90], P = 0.01) among the variables tested. In the early stages of arteriosclerosis, enjoying hobbies may improve cardiovascular outcomes via its favorable effects on coronary endothelial function.

  19. Enjoyment: A Conceptual Exploration and Overview of Experimental Evidence in the Context of Games for Health.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; van 't Riet, Jonathan; Short, Camille E

    2016-02-01

    Enjoyment is consistently noted as important for engaging audiences in games for health. However, as a term, enjoyment is often used interchangeably with a host of other terms, some of which overlap conceptually. This obscures what does and what does not constitute enjoyment, and in turn slows scientific progress by making the study of enjoyment and the synthesis of enjoyment-related research difficult. This article is aimed at improving our understanding of enjoyment by distinguishing enjoyment from other important constructs, such as fun and engagement, and by providing an overview of the experimental evidence on the determinants of enjoyment in videogames. Competence, narrative transportation, and relevance are identified as key factors related to enjoyment, and future studies examining these factors using games for health are recommended.

  20. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  1. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274

  2. Salivary Platelet Activating Factor Levels in Periodontal Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Factor Levels in Periodontal Disease 6. AUTHOR(S) Martha L. Garito, Major 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATO;N...ABSTRACT 98 0801 SALIVARY PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR LEVELS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The University of Texas Graduate...B.S., D.M.D. San Antonio, Texas May 1991 SALIVARY PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR LEVELS IN PERIODONTAL DISEASE Martha Laura Gar’to APPROVED: - Supervising

  3. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    PubMed

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ferromagnetic interaction model of activity level in workplace communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Yano, Kazuo

    2013-03-01

    The nature of human-human interaction, specifically, how people synchronize with each other in multiple-participant conversations, is described by a ferromagnetic interaction model of people’s activity levels. We found two microscopic human interaction characteristics from a real-environment face-to-face conversation. The first characteristic is that people quite regularly synchronize their activity level with that of the other participants in a conversation. The second characteristic is that the degree of synchronization increases as the number of participants increases. Based on these microscopic ferromagnetic characteristics, a “conversation activity level” was modeled according to the Ising model. The results of a simulation of activity level based on this model well reproduce macroscopic experimental measurements of activity level. This model will give a new insight into how people interact with each other in a conversation.

  5. From fragments to the whole: a comparison between cochlear implant users and normal-hearing listeners in music perception and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Ashlin J; Bartel, Lee; Friesen, Lendra; Shipp, David; Chen, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) allow many profoundly deaf individuals to regain speech understanding. However, the ability to understand speech does not necessarily guarantee music enjoyment. Enabling a CI user to recover the ability to perceive and enjoy the complexity of music remains a challenge determined by many factors. (1) To construct a novel, attention-based, diagnostic software tool (Music EAR) for the assessment of music enjoyment and perception and (2) to compare the results among three listener groups. Thirty-six subjects completed the Music EAR assessment tool: 12 normal-hearing musicians (NHMs), 12 normal-hearing nonmusicians (NHnMs), and 12 CI listeners. Subjects were required to (1) rate enjoyment of musical excerpts at three complexity levels; (2) differentiate five instrumental timbres; (3) recognize pitch pattern variation; and (4) identify target musical patterns embedded holistically in a melody. Enjoyment scores for CI users were comparable to those for NHMs and superior to those for NHnMs and revealed that implantees enjoyed classical music most. CI users performed significantly poorer in all categories of music perception compared to normal-hearing listeners. Overall CI user scores were lowest in those tasks requiring increased attention. Two high-performing subjects matched or outperformed NHnMs in pitch and timbre perception tasks. The Music EAR assessment tool provides a unique approach to the measurement of music perception and enjoyment in CI users. Together with auditory training evidence, the results provide considerable hope for further recovery of music appreciation through methodical rehabilitation.

  6. Self-perceptions of dispositional luck: relationship to DSM gambling symptoms, subjective enjoyment of gambling and treatment readiness.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Michael J A; Young, Matthew M; Hart, Kenneth E

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether having a gambling disorder is related to: (a) the personality trait of perceived personal luck and (b) subjective enjoyment associated with placing bets. We also examined whether the presence or absence of disordered gambling and wagering enjoyment are related to probability of treatment entry. In 2001, we surveyed 82 young adults at the University of Windsor who gambled, but were not in treatment. They completed measures assessing symptoms of pathological gambling (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994), dispositional luck (Steenbergh, Meyers, May, and Whelan, 2002), enjoyment of gambling (Ben-Tovim, Esterman, Tolchard, and Battersby, 2001), and attitudes toward treatment (adapted from Fisher and Turner, 1970). Results showed elevated perceptions of personal luck, enjoyment of gambling, and more negative attitudes toward seeking treatment among those who exhibited sub-clinical levels of disordered gambling (n = 41) compared to recreational gamblers (n = 41). Other results showed that, after controlling for the effects of personal luck, the strength of the positive relationship between level of disordered gambling and subjective pleasure of wagering was diminished. Removing the effects of personal luck also weakened the positive association between having a gambling problem and having a negative attitude toward seeking treatment. In light of these results, we suggest cognitive interventions that seek to prevent and treat problematic wagering in early stage gamblers might be efficacious to the extent to which they can modify these young people's belief that they are charmed by high levels of dispositional luck.

  7. The impact of pregnancy on physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Fell, Deshayne B; Joseph, K S; Armson, B Anthony; Dodds, Linda

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare women's levels of physical activity during early pregnancy and during the year before pregnancy, and to identify characteristics associated with discontinuing sports and exercise among women previously active during the year before pregnancy. Data collected from 1,737 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study and who had no contraindications for exercise were included in this analysis. Measures of physical activity (including household and care-giving activities, active living and sports and exercise activities) during early pregnancy were compared to the year before pregnancy. Log binomial regression was used to identify factors associated with discontinuing sports and exercise during pregnancy. There was a statistically significant decrease in all summary measures of physical activity during early pregnancy. The largest decreases were observed in sports and exercise activity. Among women active before pregnancy, age <35 years, multiparity, less than university education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m(2) and lower levels of pre-pregnancy exercise were associated with discontinuing sports and exercise activities during pregnancy. Most women reduced their physical activity level during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy compared with their level of activity during the year prior to pregnancy, particularly for sports and exercise, although a small proportion of women in this study actually increased their activity in this area during early pregnancy. Participation in sports and exercise activity during pregnancy is potentially modifiable and could favorably impact perinatal health and maternal post-partum weight. The results of this study suggests that pregnancy is an event that leads to a decrease in physical activity.

  8. Leisure participation-preference congruence of children with cerebral palsy: a Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment International Network descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Imms, Christine; King, Gillian; Majnemer, Annette; Avery, Lisa; Chiarello, Lisa; Palisano, Robert; Orlin, Margo; Law, Mary

    2017-04-01

    To examine participation-preference congruence, regional differences in participation-preference congruence, and predictors of whether children with cerebral palsy participate in preferred activities. The sample (n=236) included 148 males and 88 females aged 10 to 13 years, living in Victoria, Australia (n=110), Ontario (n=80), or Quebec (n=46), Canada. Ninety-nine (41.9%) were classed at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level I; 89 (37.7%) at GMFCS level II/III; and 48 (20.3%) at GMFCS level IV/V. Participants completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment and Preferences for Activity of Children questionnaires. Regional comparisons were performed using one-way analyses of variance and factors influencing participation-preference congruence were explored using multiple linear regression. The proportion of children doing non-preferred activities in each activity type was generally low (2-17%), with only one regional difference. Higher proportions were not doing preferred active physical (range 23.2-29.1% across regions), skill-based (range 21.7-27.9% across regions), and social activities (range 12.8-14.5% across regions). GMFCS level was the most important predictor associated with not doing preferred activities. Children with cerebral palsy did not always participate in preferred active physical and skill-based activities. Understanding discrepancies between preferences and actual involvement may allow families and rehabilitation professionals to address participation barriers. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  9. The surgical skills laboratory residency interview: an enjoyable alternative.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Travis M; Horgan, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The authors aimed to trial an alternative interviewing strategy by inviting residency candidates to our surgical anatomy laboratory. Interviews were coincident with surgical dissection. The authors hypothesized that residency candidates hoping to match into a surgical subspecialty might enjoy this unconventional interviewing strategy, which would mimic an operating room experience. On scheduled residency interview dates, formal, unstructured interviews were held with half of the neurosurgical faculty, and unstructured surgical skills laboratory-based interviews were held with the other half of the neurosurgical faculty. Interviews in the skills laboratory featured cases and corresponding surgical dissection guided by faculty. After the interview, the residency candidates were encouraged to complete an optional survey about their interview process. The survey results were pooled for analysis. Of 28 interviewed, 19 individuals responded to the survey. The survey respondents had favorable reviews of the all aspects of the interview process. When asked to report the most enjoyable part of the interview, all respondents listed the surgical skills laboratory. The average respondent scores for importance of the surgical skills laboratory interview (9.5 ± 1.1) compared with conventional interview with faculty (9.2 ± 1.0) or residents (9.1 ± 1.0) was not significantly different (p = 0.50, analysis of variance). The surgical skills laboratory interviews were reviewed favorably by the survey respondents. Nearly all respondents listed the surgical skills interview as the most enjoyable part of the interview experience. The authors advocate this residency interview strategy for surgical subspecialty residencies. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys viewing the STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Florida Congressman Dave Weldon enjoys the on-time launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on the sixth construction flight to the International Space Station. Weldon and other guests of NASA viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP viewing site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  11. Does arthroscopic rotator cuff repair improve patients' activity levels?

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Keith M; Chang, Peter S; Dannenbring, Tasha M; Foley, Elaine K

    2018-06-04

    Rotator cuff repair decreases pain, improves range of motion, and increases strength. Whether these improvements translate to an improvement in a patient's activity level postoperatively remains unknown. The Shoulder Activity Level is a valid and reliable outcomes survey that can be used to measure a patient's shoulder-specific activity level. Currently, there are no studies that examine the effect of rotator cuff repair on shoulder activity level. Preoperative patient-determined outcomes scores collected prospectively on patients undergoing rotator cuff repair were compared with postoperative scores at a minimum of 2 years. These scores included the Shoulder Activity Level, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form, Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation, and simple shoulder test. Inclusion criteria were patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Included were 281 shoulders from 273 patients with a mean follow-up of 3.7 years. The postoperative median Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (42 vs. 94), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (41 vs. 95), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (30 vs. 95), and simple shoulder test (4 vs. 11) scores were statistically significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P < .0001). The postoperative median Shoulder Activity Level score decreased compared with the preoperative score (12 vs. 11; P < .0001). Patients reported a statistically significant deterioration of their Shoulder Activity Level score after rotator cuff repair compared with their preoperative scores, although disease-specific and joint-specific quality of life scores all had statistically significantly improvement. This study suggests that patients generally have (1) significant improvements in their quality of life and (2) small deteriorations in activity level after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of

  12. Middle school-aged child enjoyment of food tastings predicts interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feon W.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND NEEDs for Bones (NFB), based on the Health Belief Model, is a 4-lesson osteoporosis-prevention curriculum for 11-14 year-olds. This study examined the relationship between enjoyment of food tastings and interest in NFB. METHODS NFB was administered by teachers as part of standard practice and evaluated after the 4th lesson using a 21-item survey. Significant clustering of students within classrooms required use of random-intercept multilevel ordinal regression models in SAS proc GLIMMIX, with students nested within classrooms. Analyses considered tasting experience, eating attitudes, sex, grade, and cohort. RESULTS Students (N = 1619; 50% girls) participated from 85 4th-8th grade classrooms (47% 6th grade; 31% 7th grade) in 16 Pennsylvania SNAP-Ed eligible schools over 2 academic years. For all foods tasted, students who did not enjoy the food tasting were less interested in the lesson than students who did enjoy the food tasting (all p < .001); refried beans (OR 0.30), soy milk (OR = 0.55), cranapple juice (OR = 0.51), sunflower kernels (OR = 0.48), and Swiss cheese (OR = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS Enjoyment of food tasting activities can predict interest in nutrition education on osteoporosis prevention, supporting resource allocation and inclusion of food tasting activities in school-age nutrition education. PMID:26032277

  13. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The purpose of…

  15. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  16. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  17. African American Preschool Children's Physical Activity Levels in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Bo; Reinhart-Lee, Tamara; Janisse, Heather; Brogan, Kathryn; Danford, Cynthia; Jen, K-L. C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels of urban inner city preschoolers while attending Head Start, the federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families. Participants were 158 African American children. Their physical activity during Head Start days was measured using programmed RT-3…

  18. The Role of Various Curriculum Models on Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Dean O.; Tarr, Susan J.; Killion, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that physical education curricula can be highly effective in increasing physical activity levels at school (Sallis & Owen, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of various curriculum models on physical activity. Total steps were measured on 1,111 subjects and three curriculum models were studied…

  19. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  20. Heparanase level and procoagulant activity are reduced in severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Matan, Moshe; King, Daniel; Peled, Eli; Ackerman, Shanny; Bar-Lavi, Yaron; Brenner, Benjamin; Nadir, Yona

    2018-02-01

    During severe sepsis, levels and activity of all coagulation proteins are reduced. Heparanase is implicated in angiogenesis and tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that heparanase also affected the hemostatic system. It forms a complex and increases the activity of the blood coagulation initiator tissue factor. To evaluate heparanase levels and procoagulant activity as predictors of sepsis severity. Twenty-one patients with non-trauma, non-surgical sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit and 35 controls were recruited. Plasma samples were drawn from the study participants on days 1 and 7 following admission. Heparanase levels and procoagulant activity on day 1 were significantly reduced in patients compared to controls (P < .0001, P < .0001, respectively). Day 1 heparanase procoagulant activity ≥350 ng/mL yielded a negative predictive value for severe sepsis of 89%. Additionally, heparanase procoagulant activity on day 7 correlated with the change in the APACHE score between days 1 and 7 (r = .66, P = .007). Heparanase procoagulant activity decreases during sepsis and returns to normal levels as soon as the patient recovers. Hence, it can be potentially used to predict the risk of severe sepsis. These findings need to be further explored in large-scale studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Correlation of Level of Trauma Activation With Emergency Department Intervention.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Michael C; Srivastava, Geetanjali

    2018-06-01

    In-hospital trauma team activation criteria are formulated to identify severely injured patients requiring specialized multidisciplinary care. Efficacy of trauma activation (TA) criteria is commonly measured by emergency department (ED) disposition, injury severity score, and mortality. Necessity of critical ED interventions is another measure that has been proposed to evaluate the appropriateness of TA criteria. Two-year retrospective cohort study of 1715 patients from our trauma registry at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center. We abstracted data on acute interventions, level and criterion of TA, ED disposition, and mortality. We report odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value, and frequency of acute interventions. Trauma activation was initiated for 947 (55%) of the 1715 patients. There were 426 ED interventions performed on 235 patients (14%); 67.8% were in level 1 activations; 17.6% in level 2, and 14.6% in level 3. Highest-level activations were highly associated with need for ED interventions (OR, 16.1; 95% CI, 11.5-22.4). The ORs for requiring an ED intervention were low for lower level activations (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5), trauma service consults (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), and certain mechanism-based criteria. The ORs for ED intervention for isolated motor vehicle collision (0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), isolated all-terrain vehicle rollover (0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.7), and suspected spinal cord injury (0.5; 95% CI, 0.1-3.7) were significantly lower than 1. Highest-level activation criteria correlate with high utilization of ED resources and interventions. Lower level activation criteria and trauma service consult criteria are not highly correlated with need for ED interventions. Downgrading isolated motor vehicle collision and all-terrain vehicle rollovers and suspected spinal cord injury to lower level activations could decrease the overtriage rate, and adding age-specific bradycardia as a physiologic criterion could improve our

  2. The development of video game enjoyment in a role playing game.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Werner; Ryffel, Fabian; von Pape, Thilo; Karnowski, Veronika

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the development of video game enjoyment over time. The results of a longitudinal study (N=62) show that enjoyment increases over several sessions. Moreover, results of a multilevel regression model indicate a causal link between the dependent variable video game enjoyment and the predictor variables exploratory behavior, spatial presence, competence, suspense and solution, and simulated experiences of life. These findings are important for video game research because they reveal the antecedents of video game enjoyment in a real-world longitudinal setting. Results are discussed in terms of the dynamics of video game enjoyment under real-world conditions.

  3. Are income-related differences in active travel associated with physical environmental characteristics? A multi-level ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Rind, Esther; Shortt, Niamh; Mitchell, Richard; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Pearce, Jamie

    2015-06-05

    characteristics. Whilst more affluent populations enjoy advantages on some health outcomes, they will still benefit from increasing their levels of physical activity through active travel. Benefits of active travel to the whole community would include reduced vehicle emissions, reduced carbon consumption, the preservation or enhancement of infrastructure and the presentation of a 'normalised' behaviour.

  4. Effects of Small-Sided Games vs. Interval Training in Aerobic Fitness and Physical Enjoyment in Young Elite Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Juan; Lerga, Javier; Sánchez, Felipe; Villagra, Federico; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Small-Sided Games (SSG) vs. Interval Training (IT) in soccer training on aerobic fitness and physical enjoyment in youth elite soccer players during the last 8 weeks of the season. Seventeen U-16 male soccer players (age = 15.5 ± 0.6 years, and 8.5 years of experience) of a Spanish First Division club academy were randomized to 2 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 9) and IT group (n = 8). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 11 sessions with different SSGs, whereas the IT group performed the same number of sessions of IT. Players were tested before and after the 6-week training intervention with a continuous maximal multistage running field test and the counter movement jump test (CMJ). At the end of the study, players answered the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES). During the study, heart rate (HR) and session perceived effort (sRPE) were assessed. SSGs were as effective as IT in maintaining the aerobic fitness in elite young soccer players during the last weeks of the season. Players in the SSG group declared a greater physical enjoyment than IT (P = 0.006; ES = 1.86 ± 1.07). Coaches could use SSG training during the last weeks of the season as an option without fear of losing aerobic fitness while promoting high physical enjoyment. PMID:26331623

  5. Extraction of Children's Friendship Relation from Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Aki; Shintani, Kimio; Katsuki, Takuya; Kihara, Shin'ya; Ueda, Mari; Kaneda, Shigeo; Haga, Hirohide

    Children learn to fit into society through living in a group, and it's greatly influenced by their friend relations. Although preschool teachers need to observe them to assist in the growth of children's social progress and support the development each child's personality, only experienced teachers can watch over children while providing high-quality guidance. To resolve the problem, this paper proposes a mathematical and objective method that assists teachers with observation. It uses numerical data of activity level recorded by pedometers, and we make tree diagram called dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering with recorded activity level. Also, we calculate children's ``breadth'' and ``depth'' of friend relations by using more than one dendrogram. When we record children's activity level in a certain kindergarten for two months and evaluated the proposed method, the results usually coincide with remarks of teachers about the children.

  6. An integrative review of the enjoyment of sadness associated with music.

    PubMed

    Eerola, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K; Peltola, Henna-Riikka; Putkinen, Vesa; Schäfer, Katharina

    2017-11-23

    The recent surge of interest towards the paradoxical pleasure produced by sad music has generated a handful of theories and an array of empirical explorations on the topic. However, none of these have attempted to weigh the existing evidence in a systematic fashion. The present work puts forward an integrative framework laid out over three levels of explanation - biological, psycho-social, and cultural - to compare and integrate the existing findings in a meaningful way. First, we review the evidence pertinent to experiences of pleasure associated with sad music from the fields of neuroscience, psychophysiology, and endocrinology. Then, the psychological and interpersonal mechanisms underlying the recognition and induction of sadness in the context of music are combined with putative explanations ranging from social surrogacy and nostalgia to feelings of being moved. Finally, we address the cultural aspects of the paradox - the extent to which it is embedded in the Western notion of music as an aesthetic, contemplative object - by synthesising findings from history, ethnography, and empirical studies. Furthermore, we complement these explanations by considering the particularly significant meanings that sadness portrayed in art can evoke in some perceivers. Our central claim is that one cannot attribute the enjoyment of sadness fully to any one of these levels, but to a chain of functionalities afforded by each level. Each explanatory level has several putative explanations and its own shift towards positive valence, but none of them deliver the full transformation from a highly negative experience to a fully enjoyable experience alone. The current evidence within this framework ranges from weak to non-existent at the biological level, moderate at the psychological level, and suggestive at the cultural level. We propose a series of focussed topics for future investigation that would allow to deconstruct the drivers and constraints of the processes leading to

  7. Acute cardiorespiratory, perceptual and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval exercise in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Malik, Adam A; Williams, Craig A; Bond, Bert; Weston, Kathryn L; Barker, Alan R

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to examine adolescents' acute cardiorespiratory and perceptual responses during high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and enjoyment responses following HIIE and work-matched continuous moderate intensity exercise (CMIE). Fifty-four 12- to 15-year olds (27 boys) completed 8 × 1-min cycling at 90% peak power with 75-s recovery (HIIE) and at 90% of the gas exchange threshold (CMIE). Absolute oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), percentage of maximal [Formula: see text] (%[Formula: see text]), heart rate (HR), percentage of maximal HR (%HR max ) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected during HIIE. Enjoyment was measured using the physical activity enjoyment scale (PACES) following HIIE and CMIE. Boys elicited higher absolute [Formula: see text] during HIIE work (p < .01, effect size (ES) > 1.22) and recovery (p < .02, ES > 0.51) intervals but lower %[Formula: see text] during HIIE recovery intervals compared to girls (p < .01, ES > 0.67). No sex differences in HR and %HR max were evident during HIIE and 48 participants attained ≥90% HR max . Boys produced higher RPE at intervals 6 (p = .004, ES = 1.00) and 8 (p = .003, ES = 1.00) during HIIE. PACES was higher after HIIE compared with CMIE (p = .003, ES = 0.58). Items from PACES "I got something out of it", "It's very exciting" and "It gives me a strong feeling of success" were higher after HIIE (all p < .01, ES > 0.32). The items "I feel bored" and "It's not at all interesting" were higher after CMIE (all p < .01, ES > 0.46). HIIE elicits a maximal cardiorespiratory response in most adolescents. Greater enjoyment after HIIE was due to elevated feelings of reward, excitement and success and may serve as a strategy to promote health in youth.

  8. Click-Evoked Auditory Efferent Activity: Rate and Level Effects.

    PubMed

    Boothalingam, Sriram; Kurke, Julianne; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2018-05-07

    There currently are no standardized protocols to evaluate auditory efferent function in humans. Typical tests use broadband noise to activate the efferents, but only test the contralateral efferent pathway, risk activating the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), and are laborious for clinical use. In an attempt to develop a clinical test of bilateral auditory efferent function, we have designed a method that uses clicks to evoke efferent activity, obtain click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs), and monitor MEMR. This allows for near-simultaneous estimation of cochlear and efferent function. In the present study, we manipulated click level (60, 70, and 80 dB peak-equivalent sound pressure level [peSPL]) and rate (40, 50, and 62.5 Hz) to identify an optimal rate-level combination that evokes measurable efferent modulation of CEOAEs. Our findings (n = 58) demonstrate that almost all click levels and rates used caused significant inhibition of CEOAEs, with a significant interaction between level and rate effects. Predictably, bilateral activation produced greater inhibition compared to stimulating the efferents only in the ipsilateral or contralateral ear. In examining the click rate-level effects during bilateral activation in greater detail, we observed a 1-dB inhibition of CEOAE level for each 10-dB increase in click level, with rate held constant at 62.5 Hz. Similarly, a 10-Hz increase in rate produced a 0.74-dB reduction in CEOAE level, with click level held constant at 80 dB peSPL. The effect size (Cohen's d) was small for either monaural condition and medium for bilateral, faster-rate, and higher-level conditions. We were also able to reliably extract CEOAEs from efferent eliciting clicks. We conclude that clicks can indeed be profitably employed to simultaneously evaluate cochlear health using CEOAEs as well as their efferent modulation. Furthermore, using bilateral clicks allows the evaluation of both the crossed and uncrossed elements of the auditory

  9. Plasma catalase activity and malondialdehyde level in patients with cataract.

    PubMed

    Ateş, N A; Yildirim, O; Tamer, L; Unlü, A; Ercan, B; Muşlu, N; Kanik, A; Hatungil, R; Atik, U

    2004-08-01

    Oxidative mechanisms play a major role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of cataract, especially in age-related cataract. Our study aims to investigate systemic oxidant and antioxidant markers in cataract patients. The activity of erythrocyte catalase and the level of malondialdehyde in plasma were measured in 40 patients with cataract and 60 healthy control subjects. The malondialdehyde level, as an index of lipid peroxidation, was determined by thiobarbitüric acid reaction according to Yagi. The determination of catalase activity was measured by a method that was defined by Beutler. Catalase enzyme activity and malondialdehyde level were evaluated to find out whether there was a significant difference in these variables. Analysis of variance was used by forming a general linear model that takes age and gender as the covariate. CAT activity was found to be 13 920.2 +/- 847.9 U/l in cataract patients and 16 061.3 +/- 1126.6 U/l in control subjects. CAT activity in cataract patients was significantly lower than the control subjects (P = 0.008). Plasma MDA level is significantly higher in patients with cataract 4.47 +/- 0.35 nmol/ml compared to the control subjects 2.94 +/- 0.26 nmol/ml (P = 0.0001). There was no significant difference between different cataract subgroups when erythrocyte CAT activities and plasma MDA levels were compared (P = 0.322, 0.062). This study shows that oxidant/antioxidant balances alter in the presence of cataract.

  10. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2008-01-01

    To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.

  11. Spelling for Writing: Student Activity Book. Level 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Howard

    The Level 5 activity book is designed to help children learn that writing messages and stories will help them see the value of learning to spell. The workbook's program is based on the ideas that accurate spelling contributes to the clarity of written messages; spelling accuracy shows attention to detail, sending a positive message to teachers and…

  12. Cardiovascular effects of variations in habitual levels of physical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, C. G.; Mitchell, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in human cardiovascular adaption to stress, particularly adaption to different levels of physical activity are determined along with quantitative noninvasive methods for evaluation of cardiovascular function during stess in normal subjects and in individuals with latent or manifest cardiovascular disease. Results are summarized.

  13. Genetic Influences on Mechanically-Assessed Activity Level in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Rogers, Hannah; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2007-01-01

    Background: Activity level is an important component of children's temperament, as well as being part of the core symptom domain of hyperactivity-impulsivity within attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Yet it is poorly understood, due partly to limitations on parent and teacher ratings, which are typically used as measurements of these…

  14. Peer Presence and Sex Differences in Motor Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; Keats, James G.

    The hypothesis that boys are more stimulated than girls to high levels of motor activity by the presence of same-sex peers was examined by exposing preschoolers to a standardized setting under two conditions, alone and in triads. If true, the "contagion" effect would result in larger sex differences under the triad condition than under…

  15. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  16. 34 CFR 300.814 - Other State-level activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other State-level activities. 300.814 Section 300.814 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF...

  17. Facial Feedback and Social Input: Effects on Laughter and Enjoyment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Helt, Molly S; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Both social input and facial feedback appear to be processed differently by individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested the effects of both of these types of input on laughter in children with ASD. Sensitivity to facial feedback was tested in 43 children with ASD, aged 8-14 years, and 43 typically developing children matched for mental age (6-14), in order to examine whether children with ASD use bodily feedback as an implicit source of information. Specifically, children were asked to view cartoons as they normally would (control condition), and while holding a pencil in their mouth forcing their smiling muscles into activation (feedback condition) while rating their enjoyment of the cartoons. The authors also explored the effects of social input in children with ASD by investigating whether the presence of a caregiver or friend (companion condition), or the presence of a laugh track superimposed upon the cartoon (laugh track condition) increased the children's self-rated enjoyment of cartoons or the amount of positive affect they displayed. Results showed that the group with ASD was less affected by all three experimental conditions, but also that group differences seemed to have been driven by one specific symptom of ASD: restricted range of affect. The strong relationship between restricted affect and insensitivity to facial feedback found in this study sheds light on the implications of restricted affect for social development in ASD.

  18. N-acetyltransferase 2 activity and folate levels

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen; Strnatka, Diana; McQueen, Charlene A.; Hunter, Robert J.; Erickson, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To determine whether increased N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity might have a toxic effect during development and an influence on folate levels since previous work has shown that only low levels of exogenous NAT can be achieved in constitutionally transgenic mice (Cao, et al, 2005) Main Methods A human NAT1 tet-inducible construct was used that would not be expressed until the inducer was delivered. Human NAT1 cDNA was cloned into pTRE2 and injected into mouse oocytes. Two transgenic lines were crossed to mouse line TgN(rtTahCMV)4Uh containing the CMV promoted “teton.”Measurements of red blood cell folate levels in inbred strains of mice were performed. Key findings Only low levels of human NAT1 could be achieved in kidney (highly responsive in other studies) whether the inducer, doxycycline, was given by gavage or in drinking water.An inverse correlation of folate levels with Nat2 enzyme activity was found. Significance Since increasing NAT1 activity decrease folate in at least one tissue, the detrimental effect of expression of human NAT1 in combination with endogenous mouse Nat2 may be a consequence of increased catabolism of folate. PMID:19932120

  19. Low glutathione peroxidase activity levels in patients with vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Zedan, Hatem; Abdel-Motaleb, Amira Ali; Kassem, Nahed Mahmoud Ali; Hafeez, Heba Ahmed Abdel; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwhahed

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an idiopathic skin disease characterized by white areas on the skin due to loss of the functional melanocytes, with possible involvement of oxidative stress. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects cells against oxidative damage. To examine serum GPx levels in patients with vitiligo and to relate the findings to the clinical features. The study group included 60 patients with vitiligo and 30 matching healthy controls. GPx activity was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found a significant decrease in serum GPx activity level in the patients with vitiligo compared to the healthy controls (0.29 ± 0.14 versus 0.47 ± 0.13, p < .001). The levels were significantly low in skin phenotypes III and IV (p < .001). Higher levels were also observed with increasing age (≥ 14 years), prolonged disease duration (≥ 3 years), and generalized and extensive vitiligo (< 50%). However, these variations were statistically insignificant. Low levels of serum GPx activity, indicative of a disturbed oxidant-antioxidant system, may contribute to the development of vitiligo. © 2014 Canadian Dermatology Association.

  20. Changing memory of food enjoyment to increase food liking, choice and intake.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne

    2012-10-28

    Novel ways to increase liking and intake of food are needed to encourage acceptance of healthier food. How enjoyable we remember food to have been is likely to be a significant predictor of food choice. Two studies examined whether remembered enjoyment of eating a food can be increased and whether this makes individuals more likely to eat that food in the future. In Study One, a simple manipulation of instructing participants to rehearse what they found enjoyable about a food immediately after eating it was used to increase remembered enjoyment (relative to controls). In a separate study; Study Two, the effect of increasing remembered enjoyment on food choice was tested by examining whether the manipulation to increase remembered enjoyment resulted in participants choosing to eat more of a food as part of a later buffet lunch. The experimental manipulation increased remembered enjoyment for the food (Study One). A change in remembered enjoyment was shown to have a significant effect on the amount of a food participants chose to eat the following day for lunch (Study Two). The present studies suggest that remembered enjoyment can be increased via a simple act of rehearsal, resulting in a later increase in the amount of food chosen and eaten. Interventions based on altering remembered enjoyment of healthy food choices warrant further investigation.

  1. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  2. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  3. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  4. Effect of Learning Activity on Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels and Effort/Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Lee, Amelia M.; Xiang, Ping; Kosma, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The type of learning activity offered in physical education may influence students' motivational beliefs, physical activity participation and effort/persistence in class. However, most empirical studies have focused on the individual level rather than on the learner-content interactions. Accordingly, the potential effects of learning activities on…

  5. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  6. Secular trends in storm-level geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis is made of K-index data from groups of ground-based geomagnetic observatories in Germany, Britain, and Australia, 1868.0-2009.0, solar cycles 11-23. Methods include nonparametric measures of trends and statistical significance used by the hydrological and climatological research communities. Among the three observatory groups, German K data systematically record the highest disturbance levels, followed by the British and, then, the Australian data. Signals consistently seen in K data from all three observatory groups can be reasonably interpreted as physically meaninginful: (1) geomagnetic activity has generally increased over the past 141 years. However, the detailed secular evolution of geomagnetic activity is not well characterized by either a linear trend nor, even, a monotonic trend. Therefore, simple, phenomenological extrapolations of past trends in solar and geomagnetic activity levels are unlikely to be useful for making quantitative predictions of future trends lasting longer than a solar cycle or so. (2) The well-known tendency for magnetic storms to occur during the declining phase of a sunspot-solar cycles is clearly seen for cycles 14-23; it is not, however, clearly seen for cycles 11-13. Therefore, in addition to an increase in geomagnetic activity, the nature of solar-terrestrial interaction has also apparently changed over the past 141 years. ?? Author(s) 2011.

  7. Theory-based physical activity beliefs by race and activity levels among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Maria; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    Given the benefits of physical activity and the high proportion of inactivity among older adults, the purpose was to elicit theory-based behavioral, normative, and control physical activity beliefs among 140 educationally and economically diverse older adults and compare their beliefs by race (Blacks vs. Whites) and physical activity levels (inactive/underactive vs. highly active individuals). This was an elicitation study that took place in eight, mostly rural community settings in a Southeastern US state, such as Council of Aging Offices, retirement centers, and churches. Participants' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were elicited via in person interviews. A valid and reliable questionnaire was also used to assess their physical activity levels. According to the content analysis, inactive/underactive participants reported fewer physical activity advantages than highly active participants. Common physical activity advantages between the two groups were overall health, emotional functioning, and physical functioning. Similar physical activity advantages were reported among Blacks and Whites with overall health being the most important advantage. The most common physical activity disadvantages and barriers for all four groups were falls, injuries, pain, and health issues. Inactive/underactive individuals and Blacks tended to report more disadvantages and barriers than their peers. Common physical activity supporters were family members, friends and peers, and health-care professionals. In their physical activity motivational programs, health promoters should reinforce physical activity benefits, social support, access to activity programs, and safety when intervening among older adults.

  8. Physical activity levels among children attending family day care.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kelly R; Trost, Stewart G

    2014-01-01

    To objectively measure the physical activity (PA) levels of children attending family day care programs. A total of 114 children from 47 family day care centers wore an accelerometer for the duration of their time in care. Time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and total PA was calculated using previously validated cut points. Children accumulated 5.8 ± 3.2 minutes of MVPA and 10.4 ± 4.4 minutes of total PA per hour of attendance. Boys exhibited significantly higher levels of PA than girls. Among healthy weight children, 4- and 5-year-olds exhibited significantly higher levels of PA than 2- and 3-year-olds. Overweight and obese 4- and 5-year-olds exhibited significantly lower levels of PA than their healthy weight counterparts. Children attending family day care participate in low levels of PA during the child care day. The results highlight the need for effective programs to promote PA in family day care. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical Activity Levels and Well-Being in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bae, Wonyul; Ik Suh, Young; Ryu, Jungsu; Heo, Jinmoo

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the interconnectedness of different intensity levels of physical activity and psychological (life satisfaction and positive affect) and physical (physical health) well-being. Participants were from the National Study of Midlife in the United States with assessments in 2004 and aged 25 to 74 living in the United States were included in the analyses. We conducted bivariate correlations to examine significant relationships among the study variables. In addition, after multicollinearity among the independent variable was checked, a series of hierarchical regression analyses with physical health, positive affect, and life satisfaction as criterion variables were conducted. The results showed that light physical activities were positively associated with physical health and life satisfaction in summer, whereas light physical activities and all dependent variables were positively correlated in winter. Furthermore, engaging in moderate physical activities was positively related only with physical health. Meanwhile, vigorous physical activities were not associated with life satisfaction, physical health, and positive affect in summer and winter.

  10. Effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognition, task enjoyment and creative thinking in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Müller, U.; Rowe, J.B.; Rittman, T.; Lewis, C.; Robbins, T.W.; Sahakian, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. Methods A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. Results Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Cognitive Enhancers’. PMID:22820554

  11. Effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognition, task enjoyment and creative thinking in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Müller, U; Rowe, J B; Rittman, T; Lewis, C; Robbins, T W; Sahakian, B J

    2013-01-01

    Modafinil, a putative cognitive enhancing drug, has previously been shown to improve performance of healthy volunteers as well as patients with attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia, mainly in tests of executive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of modafinil on non-verbal cognitive functions in healthy volunteers, with a particular focus on variations of cognitive load, measures of motivational factors and the effects on creative problem-solving. A double-blind placebo-controlled parallel design study evaluated the effect of 200 mg of modafinil (N = 32) or placebo (N = 32) in non-sleep deprived healthy volunteers. Non-verbal tests of divergent and convergent thinking were used to measure creativity. A new measure of task motivation was used, together with more levels of difficulty on neuropsychological tests from the CANTAB battery. Improvements under modafinil were seen on spatial working memory, planning and decision making at the most difficult levels, as well as visual pattern recognition memory following delay. Subjective ratings of enjoyment of task performance were significantly greater under modafinil compared with placebo, but mood ratings overall were not affected. The effects of modafinil on creativity were inconsistent and did not reach statistical significance. Modafinil reliably enhanced task enjoyment and performance on several cognitive tests of planning and working memory, but did not improve paired associates learning. The findings confirm that modafinil can enhance aspects of highly demanding cognitive performance in non-sleep deprived individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrocortical activity distinguishes between uphill and level walking in humans.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J Cortney; Lukos, Jamie R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if electrocortical activity is different between walking on an incline compared with level surface. Subjects walked on a treadmill at 0% and 15% grades for 30 min while we recorded electroencephalography (EEG). We used independent component (IC) analysis to parse EEG signals into maximally independent sources and then computed dipole estimations for each IC. We clustered cortical source ICs and analyzed event-related spectral perturbations synchronized to gait events. Theta power fluctuated across the gait cycle for both conditions, but was greater during incline walking in the anterior cingulate, sensorimotor and posterior parietal clusters. We found greater gamma power during level walking in the left sensorimotor and anterior cingulate clusters. We also found distinct alpha and beta fluctuations, depending on the phase of the gait cycle for the left and right sensorimotor cortices, indicating cortical lateralization for both walking conditions. We validated the results by isolating movement artifact. We found that the frequency activation patterns of the artifact were different than the actual EEG data, providing evidence that the differences between walking conditions were cortically driven rather than a residual artifact of the experiment. These findings suggest that the locomotor pattern adjustments necessary to walk on an incline compared with level surface may require supraspinal input, especially from the left sensorimotor cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal areas. These results are a promising step toward the use of EEG as a feed-forward control signal for ambulatory brain-computer interface technologies.

  13. Leisure Activities, Caregiving Demands, and Catecholamine Levels in Dementia Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Chattillion, Elizabeth A.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Roepke, Susan K.; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Allison, Matthew; Ziegler, Michael G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether satisfaction from leisure activities moderates the relationship between caregiving demands (i.e., hours per day spent caring for a spouse with dementia) and resting levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI). Spousal caregivers (N=107; mean age 73.95±8.12 years) were assessed in home for plasma levels of NE and EPI, amount of care provided, and leisure satisfaction. Regression was used to determine whether leisure satisfaction moderated the relationship between hours providing care per day and catecholamine levels. A significant interaction was found between hours caregiving and leisure satisfaction for NE, but not for EPI. Post hoc regressions were conducted for both NE and EPI. At low leisure satisfaction, time spent caring for a spouse was positively associated with plasma NE (β = .41; p = .005) and EPI (β = .44; p = .003). In contrast, at high levels of satisfaction, time caregiving was not significantly associated with plasma NE (β = −.08; p = .57) or EPI (β = .23; p = .12). These findings suggest that leisure satisfaction may protect caregivers from increases in catecholamines, which have been implicated in cardiovascular risk. Further support for these findings may impact psychological treatments for distressed caregivers. PMID:22149759

  14. What Leads to Player's Enjoyment and Achievement in a Mobile Learning Game?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touati, Achraf; Baek, Youngkyun

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated students' perceptions of competence and enjoyment of a mobile game within the context of mobile game-based learning. The proposed model showed that perceived competence and game attitude were the main predictors of enjoyment, while no direct relationship was found between perceived competence and gaming achievement. The…

  15. Designing Websites for Learning and Enjoyment: A Study of Museum Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Aleck C. H.; Gregor, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on an exploratory research study that examined the design of websites that encourage both learning and enjoyment. This study examines museum websites that offer educational materials. As part of their mission, most museums provide the general public with educational materials for study and enjoyment. Many museums use the…

  16. Mapping the Interrelationships of Reading Enjoyment, Attitudes, Behaviour and Attainment: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina; De Zoysa, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    It is frequently said or implicitly assumed that there is a positive relationship between enjoyment, attitudes, behaviour and attainment, with pupils who enjoy reading or writing having more positive attitudes towards it, doing it more and thereby getting better at it. This paper explores to what extent this is an assumption or to what extent it…

  17. How Can We Enhance Enjoyment of Secondary School? The Student View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; See, Beng Huat

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers enjoyment of formal education for young people aged 14 to 16, largely from their own perspective, based on the view of around 3000 students in England. The data include documentary analysis, official statistics, interviews and surveys with staff and students. Enjoyment of school tends to be promoted by factors such as…

  18. EGameFlow: A Scale to Measure Learners' Enjoyment of E-Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Fong-Ling; Su, Rong-Chang; Yu, Sheng-Chin

    2009-01-01

    In an effective e-learning game, the learner's enjoyment acts as a catalyst to encourage his/her learning initiative. Therefore, the availability of a scale that effectively measures the enjoyment offered by e-learning games assist the game designer to understanding the strength and flaw of the game efficiently from the learner's points of view.…

  19. Joyous Reading: Aspects of Literature Enjoyment for Black/African American Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Sherea

    2017-01-01

    This study primarily explores the types of books African American children in a local fourth grade classroom like and enjoy. Books students are interested in reading and other related aspects that contribute to their literary enjoyment are also explored. It is during the upper elementary years that many students who eventually express little or no…

  20. [Level of physical activity and smoking in undergraduate students].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elizângela Sofia Ribeiro; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Mayer, Anamaria Fleig

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the level of physical activity in undergraduate students and to investigate its potential association with smoking. A cross-sectional study with a stratified sample proportional to the total number of students was carried out in Gurupi, Central-West Brazil, in 2005. The sample comprised 871 subjects. The IPAQ-8 short version was applied to assess the level of physical activity. Smoking status was evaluated by a modified World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire and the magnitude of smokers' nicotine dependence was quantified using the Fagerström nicotine dependence scale. The frequencies, prevalences and prevalence ratios were determined by Yates' chi-square test or Fisher's exact test in the entire sample and stratified by area, course, shift and gender, with a 5% statistical significance level. Mean age was 25 years old (SD+/-8) and mean age at first smoking experience was 17 years old (SD+/-4). The prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking was 29.9% and 7.2%, respectively. The overall prevalence of sedentary smokers and non-smokers was 8.5%, and 91.5%, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. A higher prevalence of smoking and physical inactivity was found in those over 25 (48.6%, p <0.05). Nicotine dependence was "very low" in most subjects (68.2%, p <0.05). Smoking was more prevalent in males (10.8%, p <0.05) and the level of physical inactivity was not different in both males and females (p >0.05). Physical inactivity was seen on both smokers and non-smokers in the same proportion and no association was found between these two variables. Low prevalences of physical inactivity and smoking found in the study may be explained by available ongoing preventive and education programs, which should be implemented in the long run.

  1. The motive for sensory pleasure: enjoyment of nature and its representation in painting, music, and literature.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, Robert; Sucharski, Ivan L; Yalowitz, Steven; Kent, Robert J; Loomis, Ross J; Jones, Jason R; Paylor, Sarah; Aselage, Justin; Mueller, Meta Steiger; McLaughlin, John P

    2010-04-01

    Eight studies assessed the motive for sensory pleasure (MSP) involving a general disposition to enjoy and pursue pleasant nature-related experiences and avoid unpleasant nature-related experiences. The stated enjoyment of pleasant sights, smells, sounds, and tactile sensations formed a unitary construct that was distinct from sensation seeking, novelty preference, and need for cognition. MSP was found to be related to (a) enjoyment of pleasant nature scenes and music of high but not low clarity; (b) enjoyment of writings that portrayed highly detailed nature scenes; (c) enjoyment of pleasantly themed paintings and dislike of unpleasant paintings, as distinct from findings with Openness to Experience; (d) choice of pleasant nature scenes over exciting or intellectually stimulating scenes; (e) view duration and memory of artistically rendered quilts; (f) interest in detailed information about nature scenes; and (g) frequency of sensory-type suggestions for improvement of a museum exhibit.

  2. The Importance of Parents' Behavior in their Children's Enjoyment and Amotivation in Sports.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro A; Leo, Francisco M; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Amado, Diana; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2013-03-01

    The main aim of the research was to examine the relationship between motivational orientations and parents' behavior with regard to the players' motivational orientation, motivational climate, enjoyment and amotivation. The sample comprised 723 athletes (M = 12.37, SD = 1.48) and 723 parents (M = 46.46, SD = 2.56). Players were male and female who belonged to federative basketball, handball, football and volleyball teams. Parents and athletes completed questionnaires that assessed motivational orientations, parents' involvement in the practice as well as enjoyment and motivation in the sport. Results showed a positive relationship between parents' support of the sport and players' enjoyment and a negative relationship with players' amotivation. Moreover, in players who perceived more pressure from their parents, there was a positive association with amotivation and a negative one with enjoyment. Lastly, it was emphasized that appropriate parental participation can promote an increase of players' enjoyment of and motivation for sport.

  3. The Importance of Parents’ Behavior in their Children’s Enjoyment and Amotivation in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro A.; Leo, Francisco M.; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Amado, Diana; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the research was to examine the relationship between motivational orientations and parents’ behavior with regard to the players’ motivational orientation, motivational climate, enjoyment and amotivation. The sample comprised 723 athletes (M = 12.37, SD = 1.48) and 723 parents (M = 46.46, SD = 2.56). Players were male and female who belonged to federative basketball, handball, football and volleyball teams. Parents and athletes completed questionnaires that assessed motivational orientations, parents’ involvement in the practice as well as enjoyment and motivation in the sport. Results showed a positive relationship between parents’ support of the sport and players’ enjoyment and a negative relationship with players’ amotivation. Moreover, in players who perceived more pressure from their parents, there was a positive association with amotivation and a negative one with enjoyment. Lastly, it was emphasized that appropriate parental participation can promote an increase of players’ enjoyment of and motivation for sport. PMID:23717366

  4. Affective and enjoyment responses in high intensity interval training and continuous training: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho; Santos, Tony Meireles; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Deslandes, Andréa Camaz

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) showed controversial results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of HIIT and MICT on affective and enjoyment responses. The PRISMA Statement and the Cochrane recommendation were used to perform this systematic review and the database search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Eight studies investigating the acute affective and enjoyment responses on HIIT and MICT were included in the present systematic review. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated for Feeling Scale (FS), Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) and Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES). The MICT was used as the reference condition. The overall results showed similar beneficial effects of HIIT on PACES and EES responses compared to MICT with SMDs classified as small (PACES-SMD = 0.49, I2 = 69.3%, p = 0.001; EES-SMD = 0.48, I2 = 24.1%, p = 0.245) while for FS, the overall result showed a trivial effect (FS-SMD = 0.19, I2 = 78.9%, p<0.001). Most of the comparisons performed presented positive effects for HIIT. For the FS, six of 12 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For PACES, six of 10 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For EES, six of seven comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT also involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. Based on the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that HIIT exercise may be a viable strategy for obtaining positive psychological responses. Although HIIT exercise may be recommended for obtaining positive psychological responses, chronic studies should clarify the applicability of HIIT for exercise adherence.

  5. Affective and enjoyment responses in high intensity interval training and continuous training: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Tony Meireles; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Deslandes, Andréa Camaz

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) showed controversial results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of HIIT and MICT on affective and enjoyment responses. The PRISMA Statement and the Cochrane recommendation were used to perform this systematic review and the database search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Eight studies investigating the acute affective and enjoyment responses on HIIT and MICT were included in the present systematic review. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated for Feeling Scale (FS), Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) and Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES). The MICT was used as the reference condition. The overall results showed similar beneficial effects of HIIT on PACES and EES responses compared to MICT with SMDs classified as small (PACES–SMD = 0.49, I2 = 69.3%, p = 0.001; EES–SMD = 0.48, I2 = 24.1%, p = 0.245) while for FS, the overall result showed a trivial effect (FS–SMD = 0.19, I2 = 78.9%, p<0.001). Most of the comparisons performed presented positive effects for HIIT. For the FS, six of 12 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For PACES, six of 10 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For EES, six of seven comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT also involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. Based on the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that HIIT exercise may be a viable strategy for obtaining positive psychological responses. Although HIIT exercise may be recommended for obtaining positive psychological responses, chronic studies should clarify the applicability of HIIT for exercise adherence. PMID:29874256

  6. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  7. Mediating role of activity level in the depressive realism effect.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Fernando; Matute, Helena; A Vadillo, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Several classic studies have concluded that the accuracy of identifying uncontrollable situations depends heavily on depressive mood. Nondepressed participants tend to exhibit an optimistic illusion of control, whereas depressed participants tend to better detect a lack of control. Recently, we suggested that the different activity levels (measured as the probability of responding during a contingency learning task) exhibited by depressed and nondepressed individuals is partly responsible for this effect. The two studies presented in this paper provide further support for this mediational hypothesis, in which mood is the distal cause of the illusion of control operating through activity level, the proximal cause. In Study 1, the probability of responding, P(R), was found to be a mediator variable between the depressive symptoms and the judgments of control. In Study 2, we intervened directly on the mediator variable: The P(R) for both depressed and nondepressed participants was manipulated through instructions. Our results confirm that P(R) manipulation produced differences in the participants' perceptions of uncontrollability. Importantly, the intervention on the mediator variable cancelled the effect of the distal cause; the participants' judgments of control were no longer mood dependent when the P(R) was manipulated. This result supports the hypothesis that the so-called depressive realism effect is actually mediated by the probability of responding.

  8. Differences in leisure-time activities according to level of physical activity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Jose Carlos

    2008-03-01

    The main goals of this study were: (1) to examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) involvement and other leisure activities in a sample of Portuguese youth and (2) to analyze gender differences in PA and leisure-time activity structure. The sample comprised 1123 adolescents that were classified according to PA levels as active (n = 589) and nonactive (n = 534). A questionnaire assessing leisure-time activities was used. Girls were significantly more engaged in social leisure, dutiful, and individual artistic activities during leisure time, whereas boys were more involved in sports and computer and TV viewing activities. Significant associations between PA and social leisure were found in girls (r = .18, P < or = .001) and boys (r = .13, P < or = .01) after adjustment for age. The same was found between level of PA and sports engagement during leisure (girls: r = .56, P < or = .001; boys: r = .51, P < or = .001). In girls (r = .10, P < or = .05), but not in boys, a statistically significant association was found between PA and individual artistic activities. This study has certain implications for health-related PA promotion efforts. Our data give additional reinforcement to the importance of organized and nonorganized sports/PA during leisure time for overall levels of PA in adolescents.

  9. Objectively assessed physical activity levels in Spanish cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casado, Ana; Verdugo, Ana Soria; Solano, María J Ortega; Aldazabal, Itziar Pagola; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Alejo, Lidia Brea; del Hierro, Julio R Padilla; Palomo, Isabel; Aguado-Arroyo, Oscar; Garatachea, Nuria; Cebolla, Héctor; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    To objectively assess physical activity (PA) levels in a cohort of Spanish cancer survivors. Descriptive, cross-sectional. The Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada and two healthcare centers in Madrid, Spain. 204 cancer survivors and 115 adults with no history of cancer. Participants wore a triaxial accelerometer for seven or more consecutive days to assess PA levels. Body mass index (BMI), indirect indicators of adiposity (waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio), and cardiorespiratory fitness also were determined. Light, moderate, vigorous, and total PA (sum of the former). Most (94%) of the cancer survivors met international recommendations for moderate PA, but very few (3%) fulfilled those (75 minutes or more per week) for vigorous PA. Except for lower total (minute per day, p=0.048) and vigorous PA levels (p<0.001 for both minute per day and minute per week) recorded in the cancer survivors group, no between-group differences were detected (p>0.05). A high percentage of the survivors (33%) were obese (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2), and many also showed poor cardiorespiratory fitness (45% were below the 8 metabolic equivalent threshold). Although cancer survivors overall met international PA recommendations for a healthy lifestyle, their BMI and cardiorespiratory profiles were not within the healthy range. Cancer survivors need to be informed about healthy lifestyle habits and should be regularly monitored.

  10. Using Patient Perceptions of Relative Benefit and Enjoyment to Assess Auditory Training

    PubMed Central

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Sommers, Mitchell S.; Mauzé, Elizabeth; Schroy, Catherine; Barcroft, Joe; Spehar, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients seeking treatment for hearing-related communication difficulties are often disappointed with the eventual outcomes, even after they receive a hearing aid or a cochlear implant. One approach that audiologists have used to improve communication outcomes is to provide auditory training (AT), but compliance rates for completing AT programs are notoriously low. Purpose The primary purpose of the investigation was to conduct a patient-based evaluation of the benefits of an AT program, I Hear What You Mean, in order to determine how the AT experience might be improved. A secondary purpose was to examine whether patient perceptions of the AT experience varied depending on whether they were trained with a single talker’s voice or heard training materials from multiple talkers. Research Design Participants completed a 6-week auditory training program and were asked to respond to a post-training questionnaire. Half of the participants heard the training materials spoken by six different talkers and half heard the materials produced by only one of the six talkers. Study Sample Participants included 78 adult hearing-aid users and 15 cochlear-implant users for a total of 93 participants who completed the study, ages 18 to 89 years (M=66 years, SD=16.67 years). Forty-three females and 50 males participated. The mean better ear pure-tone average for the participants was 56 dB HL (SD=25 dB). Intervention Participants completed the single- or multiple-talker version of the 6-week computerized AT program, I Hear What You Mean, followed by completion of a post-training questionnaire in order to rate the benefits of overall training, the training activities, and to describe what they liked best and what they liked least. Data Collection and Analysis After completing a 6-week computerized AT program participants completed a post-training questionnaire. Seven-point Likert scaled responses to whether understanding spoken language had improved were converted to

  11. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  12. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  13. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  14. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhaowei; Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  15. Relationship between physical activity level and psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and issues in children and adolescents with asthma: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Westergren, Thomas; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Ommundsen, Yngvar; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Fegran, Liv

    2017-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic airway disease which may reduce capability for physical activity. In healthy peers, physical activity is influenced by psychosocial and socioeconomic factors. Knowledge about the role of these factors has not been mapped in children and adolescents with asthma. The main objective of this scoping review was to identify psychosocial and socioeconomic factors associated with physical activity level in children and adolescents with asthma in the literature. The specific objectives were to map the instruments used to measure these factors, report on the construction and validation of these instruments, map psychosocial and socioeconomic issues related to physical activity level reported in qualitative studies, and identify gaps in knowledge about the relationship between psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and physical activity level in children and adolescents with asthma. Children and adolescents with asthma aged six to 18 years. Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors related to physical activity level and participation. All physical activity contexts. Quantitative and qualitative primary studies in English, with no date limit. The databases searched included nine major databases for health and sports science, and five databases for unpublished studies. After screening and identification of studies, the reference lists of all identified reports were searched, and forward citation searches were conducted using four databases. The following data were extracted: (a) relevant study characteristics and assessment of physical activity level, (b) instruments used to assess psychosocial and socioeconomic factors, (c) association between physical activity level and these factors, (d) construction and validation of instruments, and (e) psychosocial and socioeconomic issues related to physical activity participation. Twenty-one quantitative and 13 qualitative studies were included. In cross-sectional studies, enjoyment, physical self

  16. “I Am Very, Very Proud of Myself”: Improving Youth Activity Levels Using Self-Determination Theory in Program Development

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Judy B.

    2013-01-01

    Many adolescents are not meeting recommended levels for physical activity. Increasing physical activity among urban African American youth is both a challenge and a public health priority. Most research in community-based interventions has taken a didactic approach, focusing on skill and knowledge development alone, with inconclusive results. This 10-week progressive activity intervention with adolescents in an urban faith community introduced a self-determination theory (SDT) approach with the aim of promoting the adoption of self-management skills necessary for sustaining activity. Components of SDT included relatedness, competence, and autonomy. Together with didactics, aligning activities with participant interests, and using existing social structures for health message delivery, the approach led to high satisfaction ratings for the three components of SDT along with improved skills, knowledge, and outcomes in cardiovascular fitness. Understanding and utilizing approaches that enhance enjoyment, personal choice, confidence, and social affiliation may lead to more lasting healthy activity behaviors and attitudes than didactic approaches alone in this and other adolescent populations. The SDT is reviewed in the context of this youth intervention. PMID:24350215

  17. What Counts When it Comes to School Enjoyment and Aspiration in the Middle Grades.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan L; Mann, Michael J; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Curtis, Reagan; Schimmel, Christine J

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents, and the middle level educators who work with them, face many exciting but demanding challenges during this key period of development. According to stage-environment fit theory, the degree to which middle grades students perceive a good fit between their school environment and their needs impacts their academic and life outcomes. The authors endeavored to build on middle level research by studying the extent to which students' needs are supported by school environment factors and how this "fit" relates to two academic outcome variables: school enjoyment and aspiration. The sample consisted of middle grades students ( N = 1,027) between the ages of 10 and 14. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted. After controlling for age, ethnicity, and gender, four subscales (Social Skills Needs, Mental Health Needs, Academic and Career Needs, and School Support) were entered as potential predictors. Both models were significant and accounted for ~20% of the variance. This study suggests that middle level educators, counselors, and administrators may benefit from considering ways to enhance the match between students' and the middle grades' learning environment, especially by considering non-academic factors as a way to provide indirect, but powerful, support for academic and life success.

  18. High-intensity compared to moderate-intensity training for exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Katie M; Patel, Pratik M; O'Neal, Joshua L; Heinrich, Bryan S

    2014-08-03

    Understanding exercise participation for overweight and obese adults is critical for preventing comorbid conditions. Group-based high-intensity functional training (HIFT) provides time-efficient aerobic and resistance exercise at self-selected intensity levels which can increase adherence; behavioral responses to HIFT are unknown. This study examined effects of HIFT as compared to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training (ART) on exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions. A stratified, randomized two-group pre-test posttest intervention was conducted for eight weeks in 2012 with analysis in 2013. Participants (n = 23) were stratified by median age (< or ≥ 28) and body mass index (BMI; < or ≥ 30.5). Participants were physically inactive with an average BMI of 31.1 ± 3.5 kg/m2, body fat percentage of 42.0 ± 7.4%, weight of 89.5 ± 14.2 kg, and ages 26.8 ± 5.9 years. Most participants were white, college educated, female, and married/engaged. Both groups completed 3 training sessions per week. The ART group completed 50 minutes of moderate aerobic exercise each session and full-body resistance training on two sessions per week. The HIFT group completed 60-minute sessions of CrossFit™ with actual workouts ranging from 5-30 minutes. Participants completed baseline and posttest questionnaires indicating reasons for exercise initiation (baseline), exercise enjoyment, and exercise intentions (posttest). Adherence was defined as completing 90% of exercise sessions. Daily workout times were recorded. Participants provided mostly intrinsic reasons for exercise initiation. Eighteen participants adhered (ART = 9, 81.8%; HIFT = 9, 75%). HIFT dropouts (p = .012) and ART participants (p = .009) reported lower baseline exercise enjoyment than HIFT participants, although ART participants improved enjoyment at posttest (p = .005). More HIFT participants planned to continue the same exercise than ART participants (p = .002). No significant changes in

  19. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  20. Activity level in the lab: Overlap with shyness indicates it is more than pure motoric activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in ...

  1. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA. Two hundred…

  2. Activity Level in the Lab: Overlap with Shyness Indicates It is More than Pure Motoric Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in a novel setting with novelty seeking phenotypes,…

  3. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P < 0.05) following interval running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P < 0.05) ratings of perceived exertion (14 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). There was no difference (P < 0.05) in average heart rate (88 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 3% maximum heart rate), average VO(2) (71 ± 6 vs. 73 ± 4%VO(2max)), total VO(2) (162 ± 16 vs. 166 ± 27 L) or energy expenditure (811 ± 83 vs. 832 ± 136 kcal) between protocols. The greater enjoyment associated with high-intensity interval running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  4. Why Atens Enjoy Enhanced Accessibility For Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent; Adamo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    (SBDB), comprising 37.7% of known NEOs. Apollos have orbits crossing Earth's with periods greater than Earth's. An Apollo is therefore defined to have perihelion less than 1.017 AU and a greater than 1.0 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Apollos numbered 4080 in the SBDB, comprising 53.9% of known NEOs. Atens have orbits crossing Earth's with periods less than Earth's. An Aten is therefore defined to have aphelion greater than 0.983 AU and a less than 1.0 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Atens numbered 618 in the SBDB, comprising 8.2% of known NEOs. Atiras have orbits everywhere inferior to (inside of) Earth's. An Atira is therefore defined to have aphelion less than 0.983 AU. As of 2011.0 UT, Atiras numbered 11 in the SBDB, comprising 0.1% of known NEOs. It is no surprise that the largest n values are chiefly associated with Apollos and Atens. Because these orbits cross Earth's, distance to be covered in a given round trip mission time delta-t can be far less than is possible for Amors or Atiras . This delta-t or the sum of mission propulsive impulse magnitudes delta-v can more frequently be minimized to enhance NHATS compliance for Apollos and Atens than is generally the case for Amors and Atiras. A less intuitive trend in NHATS results is that Atens nearly outnumber the more numerous Apollos among the most compliant NEOs as measured by n. This trend is completely out of proportion to the degree Atens are represented among the known NEO population. A theory based on geocentric NEO dynamics is presented by this paper to explain why Atens enjoy inherently greater accessibility than do Apollos. Another trend evident from mapping into (a, e, i) space is the dearth of known NEOs at low e when a < 1 AU. Underrepresentation of Atens and Atiras in the NEO catalog is at least in part attributable to observing exclusively from a perspective near Earth. Generally inferior Aten and Atira orbits are rarely, if ever, in Earth's night sky. Until a comprehensive NEO survey is conducted from an

  5. Girls' physical activity levels during organized sports in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guagliano, Justin M; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to objectively examine the physical activity (PA) levels of girls during organized sports (OS) and to compare the levels between games and practices for the same participants. The secondary aims of this study were to document lesson context and coach behavior during practices and games. Participants were 94 girls recruited from 10 teams in three OS (netball, basketball, and soccer) from the western suburbs of Sydney. Each participant wore an ActiGraph GT3X monitor for the duration of one practice and one game. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time was concurrently used to document lesson context and coach behavior. Girls spent a significantly higher percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) during practices compared with games (33.8% vs 30.6%; t = 2.94, P < 0.05). Girls spent approximately 20 min·h(-1) in MVPA during practices and approximately 18 min·h(-1) in MVPA during games. An average of 2957 and 2702 steps per hour were accumulated during practices and games, respectively. However, girls spent roughly two-thirds of their OS time in light PA or sedentary. On the basis of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time findings, coaches spent a large proportion of practice time in management (15.0%) and knowledge delivery (18.5%). An average of 13.0 and 15.8 occurrences per hour were observed during games and practices where coaches promoted PA. For every hour of game play or practice time, girls accumulated approximately one third of the recommended 60 min of MVPA time and approximately one quarter of the 12,000 steps that girls are recommended to accumulate daily. For this population, OS seems to make a substantial contribution to the recommended amounts of MVPA and steps for participating girls. OS alone, however, does not provide amounts of PA sufficient to meet daily recommendations for adolescent girls.

  6. Talking Less during Social Interactions Predicts Enjoyment: A Mobile Sensing Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Tseng, Vincent Wen-Sheng; Costa, Jean; Okeke, Fabian; Choudhury, Tanzeem; Dunn, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Can we predict which conversations are enjoyable without hearing the words that are spoken? A total of 36 participants used a mobile app, My Social Ties, which collected data about 473 conversations that the participants engaged in as they went about their daily lives. We tested whether conversational properties (conversation length, rate of turn taking, proportion of speaking time) and acoustical properties (volume, pitch) could predict enjoyment of a conversation. Surprisingly, people enjoyed their conversations more when they spoke a smaller proportion of the time. This pilot study demonstrates how conversational properties of social interactions can predict psychologically meaningful outcomes, such as how much a person enjoys the conversation. It also illustrates how mobile phones can provide a window into everyday social experiences and well-being. PMID:27438475

  7. Predicting having condoms available among adolescents: the role of personal norm and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Jellema, Ilke J; Abraham, Charles; Schaalma, Herman P; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van Empelen, Pepijn

    2013-05-01

    Having condoms available has been shown to be an important predictor of condom use. We examined whether or not personal norm and goal enjoyment contribute to predicting having condoms available in the context of cognition specified by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Prospective survey study, with a baseline and follow-up measurement (at 3 months). Data were gathered using an online survey. In total 282 adolescents (mean age = 15.6, 74% female adolescents) completed both questionnaires. At baseline, demographics, sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, descriptive norm, personal norm, and enjoyment towards having condoms available were measured. At T2 (3 months later) having condoms available was measured. Direct and moderating effects of personal norm and goal enjoyment were examined by means of hierarchical linear regression analyses. Regression analyses yielded a direct effect of self-efficacy and personal norm on condom availability. In addition, moderation of the intention-behaviour relation by goal enjoyment added to the variance explained. The final model explained approximately 35% of the variance in condom availability. Personal norm and goal enjoyment add to the predictive utility of a TPB model of having condoms available and may be useful intervention targets. What is already known about this subject? Having condoms available is an important prerequisite for actual condom use. The theory of planned behaviour has successfully been applied to explain condom availability behaviour. The theory of planned behaviour has been criticized for not adequately taking into account affective motivation. What does this study add? Personal norm and goal enjoyment add to the predictive utility of the model. Personal norm explains condom availability directly, enjoyment increases intention enactment. Personal norm and goal enjoyment therefore are useful intervention targets. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Effects of curricular activity on students' situational motivation and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students'situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve students in grades 7-9 participated in three activities (cardiovascular fitness, ultimate football, and Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) in physical education. ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers were used to measure students' PA levels for three classes for each activity. Students also completed a Situational Motivation Scale (Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) at the end of each class. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that students spent significantly higher percentages of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in fitness and football classes than they did in DDR class. Students reported higher lM and IR toward fitness than DDR They also scored higher in IR toward fitness than football. In contrast, students displayed significantly lower AM toward fitness than football and DDR Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that IM was the only positive predictor for time in MVPA (p = .02), whereas AM was the negative predictor (p < .01). The findings are discussed in regard to the implications for educational practice.

  9. Influence of mental imagery on spatial presence and enjoyment assessed in different types of media.

    PubMed

    Weibel, David; Wissmath, Bartholomäus; Mast, Fred W

    2011-10-01

    Previous research studies on spatial presence point out that the users' imagery abilities are of importance. However, this influence has not yet been tested for different media. This is surprising because theoretical considerations suggest that mental imagery comes into play when a mediated environment lacks vividness. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence mental imagery abilities can have on the sensation of presence and enjoyment in different mediated environments. We presented the participants (n = 60) a narrative text, a movie sequence, and a computer game. Across all media, no effect of mental imagery abilities on presence and enjoyment was found, but imagery abilities marginally interacted with the mediated environment. Individuals with high imagery abilities experienced more presence and enjoyment in the text condition. The results were different for the film condition: here, individuals with poor imagery abilities reported marginally higher enjoyment ratings, whereas the presence ratings did not differ between the two groups. Imagery abilities had no influence on presence and enjoyment within the computer game condition. The results suggest that good imagery abilities contribute to the sensations of presence and enjoyment when reading a narrative text. The results for this study have an applied impact for media use because their effectiveness can depend on the individual mental imagery abilities.

  10. Pair programming and secondary school girls' enjoyment of programming and the subject Information Technology (IT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebenberg, Janet; Mentz, Elsa; Breed, Betty

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study that examined how pair programming shapes the experience of secondary school girls taking IT as a subject, with respect to their enjoyment of programming and the subject itself. The study involved six Grade 11 girls who were doing solo programming in Grade 10 and pair programming in their following Grade. The results showed that the girls enjoyed the subject more when programming in pairs due to improved comprehension of the task. They especially enjoyed the socialization and communication brought about by pair programming. The assistance, support, motivation, focus and encouragement they received from partners when stuck or while fixing errors made the programming experience more enjoyable for them. The increased enjoyment brought about by pair programming resulted in the perception of greater learning in the subject IT and also to greater interest in it. It also led to greater persistence in dealing with problems. Pair programming should be implemented right from the start of Grade 10 since it may lead to greater enjoyment of programming and the subject IT in general. The approach may also lead to more girls being attracted to the subject.

  11. Music Engineering as a Novel Strategy for Enhancing Music Enjoyment in the Cochlear Implant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D.; Mancuso, Dean M.; Chari, Divya A.; Lalwani, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Enjoyment of music remains an elusive goal following cochlear implantation. We test the hypothesis that reengineering music to reduce its complexity can enhance the listening experience for the cochlear implant (CI) listener. Methods. Normal hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9) evaluated a piece of country music on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version along with 20 modified, less complex, versions created by including subsets of the musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation processing. Results. Compared to the original song, modified versions containing only 1–3 instruments were less enjoyable to the NH listeners but more enjoyable to the CI listeners and the NH listeners with CI simulation. Excluding vocals and including rhythmic instruments improved enjoyment for NH listeners with CI simulation but made no difference for CI listeners. Conclusions. Reengineering a piece of music to reduce its complexity has the potential to enhance music enjoyment for the cochlear implantee. Thus, in addition to improvements in software and hardware, engineering music specifically for the CI listener may be an alternative means to enhance their listening experience. PMID:26543322

  12. Music Engineering as a Novel Strategy for Enhancing Music Enjoyment in the Cochlear Implant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Mancuso, Dean M; Chari, Divya A; Lalwani, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    Enjoyment of music remains an elusive goal following cochlear implantation. We test the hypothesis that reengineering music to reduce its complexity can enhance the listening experience for the cochlear implant (CI) listener. Normal hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9) evaluated a piece of country music on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version along with 20 modified, less complex, versions created by including subsets of the musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments both with and without CI simulation processing. Compared to the original song, modified versions containing only 1-3 instruments were less enjoyable to the NH listeners but more enjoyable to the CI listeners and the NH listeners with CI simulation. Excluding vocals and including rhythmic instruments improved enjoyment for NH listeners with CI simulation but made no difference for CI listeners. Reengineering a piece of music to reduce its complexity has the potential to enhance music enjoyment for the cochlear implantee. Thus, in addition to improvements in software and hardware, engineering music specifically for the CI listener may be an alternative means to enhance their listening experience.

  13. Lay health advisor activity levels: definitions from the field.

    PubMed

    Altpeter, M; Earp, J A; Bishop, C; Eng, E

    1999-08-01

    One type of lay health advisor model assumes that an effective mechanism for reaching the underserved is through informal advice-givers called natural helpers. Despite the growing use of this approach, few programs have defined what an active lay health advisor does within the natural helping process. To explore perceptions and definitions of lay health advisors' activity, we conducted semistructured, in-person interviews with four field staff who coordinate the advisors' activities in a breast cancer screening program. These staff viewed lay health advisor activity as fluctuating over the course of a year, occurring along a continuum of participation (inactive, moderately active, active, and superactive), and reflecting varying degrees of proactivity and participation in multiple activities. These results suggest an empirical process for refining the definition of an active lay health advisor, improving advisors' productivity in achieving outreach objectives, and managing and monitoring their ongoing activities.

  14. Exergaming: Hope for future physical activity? or blight on mankind?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and maybe even light physical activity, have been related to better health, motor skills, and cognitive outcomes in virtually all age and ability groups. However, most people in general are not prone to enjoy and participate in substantial amo...

  15. Activation Levels, Handling, and Storage of Activated Components in the Target Hall at FRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgobiani, D.; Bennett, R.; Bollen, G.; Kostin, M.; Ronningen, R.

    2018-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a major new scientific user facility under construction in the United States for nuclear science research with beams of rare isotopes. 400 kW beam operations with heavy ions ranging from oxygen to uranium will create a high radiation environment for many components, particularly for the beam line components located in the target hall, where approximately 100 kW of beam power are dissipated in the target and another 300 kW are dissipated in the beam dump. Detailed studies of the component activation, their remote handling, storage, and transport, have been performed to ensure safe operation levels in this environment. Levels of activation are calculated for the beam line components within the FRIB target hall.

  16. Zizek's Rhetorical Matrix: The Symptomatic Enjoyment of Postmodern Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Argues that Slavoj Zizek's writings show why the turn to theory could actually hurt the field of composition by increasing the discipline's level of ideological misrecognition concerning the economics and politics of higher education. Argues that educators should stop using theory as a virtual way of escaping their own real practices. (SG)

  17. How Learning Mathematics Can Be Made More Enjoyable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Apice, Ciro; Manzo, Rosanna

    2004-01-01

    New information technologies can act as a Trojan horse offering activities that will require major changes in the teaching-learning process. Computer aided learning applications are able to offer advanced students the opportunity to improve their skills and to maintain their motivation. In the spirit of "learning by doing", they are…

  18. The effect of gender and level of vision on the physical activity level of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakcı; Kitiş, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between 8 and 16 years participated in the study. The physical activity level of cases was evaluated with a physical activity diary (PAD) and one-mile run/walk test (OMR-WT). No difference was found between the PAD and the OMR-WT results of low vision and blind children and adolescents. The visually impaired children and adolescents were detected not to participate in vigorous physical activity. A difference was found in favor of low vision boys in terms of mild, moderate activities and OMR-WT durations. However, no difference was found between physical activity levels of blind girls and boys. The results of our study suggested that the physical activity level of visually impaired children and adolescents was low, and gender affected physical activity in low vision children and adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Distancing-Embracing model of the enjoyment of negative emotions in art reception.

    PubMed

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Why are negative emotions so central in art reception far beyond tragedy? Revisiting classical aesthetics in the light of recent psychological research, we present a novel model to explain this much discussed (apparent) paradox. We argue that negative emotions are an important resource for the arts in general, rather than a special license for exceptional art forms only. The underlying rationale is that negative emotions have been shown to be particularly powerful in securing attention, intense emotional involvement, and high memorability, and hence is precisely what artworks strive for. Two groups of processing mechanisms are identified that conjointly adopt the particular powers of negative emotions for art's purposes. The first group consists of psychological distancing mechanisms that are activated along with the cognitive schemata of art, representation, and fiction. These schemata imply personal safety and control over continuing or discontinuing exposure to artworks, thereby preventing negative emotions from becoming outright incompatible with expectations of enjoyment. This distancing sets the stage for a second group of processing components that allow art recipients to positively embrace the experiencing of negative emotions, thereby rendering art reception more intense, more interesting, more emotionally moving, more profound, and occasionally even more beautiful. These components include compositional interplays of positive and negative emotions, the effects of aesthetic virtues of using the media of (re)presentation (musical sound, words/language, color, shapes) on emotion perception, and meaning-making efforts. Moreover, our Distancing-Embracing model proposes that concomitant mixed emotions often help integrate negative emotions into altogether pleasurable trajectories.

  20. Metabolic Enzymes Enjoying New Partnerships as RNA-Binding Proteins.

    PubMed

    Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In the past century, few areas of biology advanced as much as our understanding of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Initially considered unimportant in terms of gene regulation, crucial cellular fate changes, cell differentiation, or malignant transformation are now known to involve 'metabolic remodeling' with profound changes in the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes. This review focuses on the recent identification of RNA-binding activity of numerous metabolic enzymes. We discuss possible roles of this unexpected second activity in feedback gene regulation ('moonlighting') and/or in the control of enzymatic function. We also consider how metabolism-driven post-translational modifications could regulate enzyme-RNA interactions. Thus, RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Taste, Enjoyment, and Desire of Flavors Change After Sleeve Gastrectomy-Short Term Results.

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, Michele A Janse; Strodl, Esben; White, Katherine M; Lockie, Philip David

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) incidence continues to increase worldwide because of its efficacy and low surgical risks. This study aimed to investigate satisfaction with eating and the change in taste perception, desire, and enjoyment of flavor changes and associations with extent of percentage excess weight loss (%excess weight loss (EWL)) post-LSG. One hundred six participants completed an online questionnaire 4 to 6 weeks as well as 6 to 8 months post-LSG bariatric surgery. The questionnaire included study-specific questions about changes in taste, desire, and enjoyment of eight major categories of flavor, as well as the Suter Quality of Alimentation Questionnaire to measure satisfaction with eating. The majority of participants reported a post-surgery increase in the intensity of the flavor of sweet (60, 55%) and fatty (57, 70%) at both time points, respectively. Participants also reported a decreased enjoyment for sweet (77, 61%) and fatty (77, 83%) flavors and decreased desire for fatty (83, 84%) and sweet (82, 68%) flavors at both time periods. This study found an increase in intensity of flavor of all eight taste modalities and a decrease in desire and enjoyment of all taste modalities except salty and savory flavors following surgery. Participants reported an increased acuity of spicy flavors and fatty tastes over time, and the desire and enjoyment of sweet, bitter, and metallic flavors increased over time. Changes in savory enjoyment over a 6- to 8-month period post-LSG were weakly associated with extent of % EWL at 6 months post-surgery. The participants reported average (40, 37%), good (33, 42%), and excellent (15, 11%) satisfaction with eating at both time points. This preliminary study indicates that subjective changes in taste, desire, and enjoyment of flavors of eight taste modalities are very common after LSG.

  2. Understanding the Relationship Between Exergame Play Experiences, Enjoyment, and Intentions for Continued Play.

    PubMed

    Limperos, Anthony M; Schmierbach, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally understood that exergames can be beneficial, more research is needed to understand how in-game experiences influence enjoyment and the likelihood for continued use of these types of games. Therefore, the objective of this research is to understand how player performance in an exergame affects psychological responses (autonomy, competence, and presence), enjoyment of the experience, and likelihood for future play. Sixty-two college students (mean age, 20.32 years) participated in an experiment where they played a challenge event on the "Biggest Loser" exergame for the Nintendo (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™ console. Participants were given up to two chances to see if they could "win" the challenge event. A lab assistant recorded player performance for each session in minutes and seconds (range, 30 seconds-10 minutes). The attempt in which the participant achieved the greatest amount of time playing was used as a measure of player performance. After playing, subjects filled out a questionnaire with items pertaining to enjoyment, competence, autonomy, presence, and future intentions for continued use of the exergame. The results suggest that player achievement (longer time spent playing) directly and indirectly predicts feelings of autonomy, competence, presence, enjoyment, and future intentions to play. Individuals who performed better felt more autonomous and experienced greater presence, leading to greater enjoyment. Enjoyment and presence were found to mediate the relationship between player performance and future intentions to play an exergame. This study suggests that performance in exergames is related to psychological experiences that fuel enjoyment and the likelihood for future exergame use. The theoretical and practical significances of these findings are discussed, as well as future research involving exergames.

  3. Impact of Noise Reduction Algorithm in Cochlear Implant Processing on Music Enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Mancuso, Dean M; Griffin, Brianna M; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    Noise reduction algorithm (NRA) in speech processing strategy has positive impact on speech perception among cochlear implant (CI) listeners. We sought to evaluate the effect of NRA on music enjoyment. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment. Academic medical center. Normal-hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9). Subjective rating of music excerpts. NH and CI listeners evaluated country music piece on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version and 20 modified, less complex versions created by including subsets of musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments through CI simulation and CI listeners listened to the segments with their usual speech processing strategy, with and without NRA. Decreasing the number of instruments was significantly associated with increase in the pleasantness and naturalness in both NH and CI subjects (p < 0.05). However, there was no difference in music enjoyment with or without NRA for either NH listeners with CI simulation or CI listeners across all three modalities of pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness (p > 0.05): this was true for the original and the modified music segments with one to three instruments (p > 0.05). NRA does not affect music enjoyment in CI listener or NH individual with CI simulation. This suggests that strategies to enhance speech processing will not necessarily have a positive impact on music enjoyment. However, reducing the complexity of music shows promise in enhancing music enjoyment and should be further explored.

  4. Effect of exercise training on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease: the moderating effect of health behavior and disease knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Blom, Nico A; van Dijk, Arie P J; Helbing, Wim A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized exercise program on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with congenital heart disease and to know what the moderating impact of their baseline health behavior and disease knowledge is. Included were 93 patients, aged 10 to 25, with surgical repair for tetralogy of Fallot or with a Fontan circulation for single-ventricle physiology, of 5 participating centers of pediatric cardiology in The Netherlands. They were randomly allocated, stratified for age, gender, and type of congenital heart disease to a 12-week period with either: (1) three times per week standardized exercise training or (2) care as usual (randomization ratio 2:1). At baseline and after 12 weeks, participants completed Web-based questionnaires and were interviewed by phone. Primary analyses tested changes from baseline to follow-up in sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in the exercise group vs. control group. Secondary analyses concerned the moderating influence of baseline health behavior and disease knowledge on changes from baseline to follow-up, and comparison with normative data. At follow-up, the exercise group reported a decrease in passive leisure-time spending (watching television and computer usage) compared with controls. Exercise training had no effect on sports enjoyment and active leisure-time spending. Disease knowledge had a moderating effect on improvement in sports enjoyment, whereas health behavior did not. Compared with normative data, patients obtained similar leisure time scores and lower frequencies as to drinking alcohol and smoking. Exercise training decreased passive, but not active, leisure-time spending. It did not influence sports enjoyment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An elevated level of physical activity is associated with normal lipoprotein(a) levels in individuals from Maracaibo, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Aparicio, Daniel; Rojas, Edward; Peñaranda, Lianny; Finol, Freddy; Acosta, Luis; Mengual, Edgardo; Rojas, Joselyn; Arráiz, Nailet; Toledo, Alexandra; Colmenares, Carlos; Urribarí, Jesica; Sanchez, Wireynis; Pineda, Carlos; Rodriguez, Dalia; Faria, Judith; Añez, Roberto; Cano, Raquel; Cano, Clímaco; Sorell, Luis; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death worldwide. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in which concentrations are genetically regulated. Contradictory results have been published about physical activity influence on Lp(a) concentration. This research aimed to determine associations between different physical activity levels and Lp(a) concentration. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was made in 1340 randomly selected subjects (males = 598; females = 712) to whom a complete clinical history, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Lp(a) level determination were made. Statistical analysis was carried out to assess qualitative variables relationship by chi2 and differences between means by one-way analysis of variance considering a P value <0.05 as statistically significant. Results are shown as absolute frequencies, percentages, and mean +/- standard deviation according to case. Physical activity levels were ordinal classified as follows: low activity with 24.3% (n = 318), moderate activity with 35.0% (n = 458), and high physical activity with 40.8% (n = 534). Lp(a) concentration in the studied sample was 26.28 +/- 12.64 (IC: 25.59-26.96) mg/dL. Lp(a) concentration according to low, moderate, and high physical activity levels were 29.22 +/- 13.74, 26.27 +/- 12.91, and 24.53 +/- 11.35 mg/dL, respectively, observing statistically significant differences between low and moderate level (P = 0.004) and low and high level (P < 0.001). A strong association (chi2 = 9.771; P = 0.002) was observed among a high physical activity level and a normal concentration of Lp(a) (less than 30 mg/dL). A lifestyle characterized by high physical activity is associated with normal Lp(a) levels.

  6. Postgraduation Activities: All Degree Levels in Pennsylvania, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehman, George E., Jr.

    Results of a survey of 1984 Pennsylvania college graduates are presented. A total of 47,055 graduates of 145 institutions were surveyed, including the associate, bachelor's, master's, doctoral, and first-professional levels. Information is provided on proportions of graduates in each degree field and level that are: employed full-time in their…

  7. Advancing the Physical Activity Curriculum at the Collegiate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Bradley; Odenheimer Brin, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess college students' pre- and post- health-related, fitness levels, as determined by the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) five components of fitness, in a one-credit, graded college course and to objectively measure any differences between those pre- and post- health-related fitness levels.…

  8. Distant Interactions and Their Effects on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that physical activity patterns of health-related behavior are established in childhood and may continue into adulthood. Recent findings showing a relationship between the onset of chronic diseases and sedentary lifestyles support the importance of examining Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA). One…

  9. Cooperative autoinhibition and multi-level activation mechanisms of calcineurin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Wang, Jue; Ma, Lei; Lu, Chang; Wang, Jie; Wu, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CN), a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit A and an essential regulatory subunit B, plays critical functions in various cellular processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and T cell activation. It is the target of the most widely used immunosuppressants for transplantation, tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A. However, the structure of a large part of the CNA regulatory region remains to be determined, and there has been considerable debate concerning the regulation of CN activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of full-length CN (β isoform), which revealed a novel autoinhibitory segment (AIS) in addition to the well-known autoinhibitory domain (AID). The AIS nestles in a hydrophobic intersubunit groove, which overlaps the recognition site for substrates and immunosuppressant-immunophilin complexes. Indeed, disruption of this AIS interaction results in partial stimulation of CN activity. More importantly, our biochemical studies demonstrate that calmodulin does not remove AID from the active site, but only regulates the orientation of AID with respect to the catalytic core, causing incomplete activation of CN. Our findings challenge the current model for CN activation, and provide a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of CN activity regulation. PMID:26794871

  10. Are Volunteer Satisfaction and Enjoyment Related to Cessation of Volunteering by Older Adults?

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris; Infurna, Frank J; Hutchinson, Ianeta

    2016-05-01

    Previous research indicates that volunteer satisfaction and enjoyment do not exert direct effects on the cessation of volunteering by older adults. This study examined whether satisfaction with and enjoyment of volunteering indirectly affect volunteer cessation via hours volunteered. Our sample consisted of participants in the Americans' Changing Lives study (N = 380) who were 65 years old and older and who volunteered at Wave 1. Volunteer satisfaction, volunteer enjoyment, hours volunteered, and several covariates were assessed at Wave 1, and volunteer cessation was assessed 3 years later at Wave 2. Volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment were positively associated with hours volunteered, and more hours volunteered was associated with decreased likelihood of volunteer cessation. The indirect effects of volunteer satisfaction and volunteer enjoyment on volunteer cessation via hours volunteered were -.023 (p = .059) and -.036 (p = .015), respectively. The dynamics of volunteer cessation are important because a volunteer shortage is forecasted and because the benefits of volunteering may attenuate when volunteering stops. Future research should test the proposed causal sequence using longitudinal data with at least 3 waves. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Association Between Developmental Assets and Sexual Enjoyment among Emerging Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Galinsky, Adena M.; Sonenstein, Freya L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between three key developmental assets and an aspect of sexual health, sexual enjoyment, which has rarely been studied in young adults, although its importance is stressed in all recent sexual health policy statements. Methods Using data from Wave III (2001 – 2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and multiple logistic and ordered logistic regression, we explored the associations between sexual pleasure and autonomy, self-esteem and empathy among 3,237 respondents ages 18–26 in heterosexual relationships of three or more month duration. We also examined the distribution of sexual pleasure across various socio-demographic groups. Results Compared to young women, young men reported more regular orgasms and more enjoyment of two kinds of partnered sexual behavior. Sexual enjoyment was not associated with age, race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Among women, autonomy, self-esteem, and empathy co-varied positively with all three sexual enjoyment measures. Among men, all associations were in the same direction, but not all were statistically significant. Conclusions A substantial gender difference in enjoyment of partnered sexual behavior exists among emerging adults in the United States. This study is the first to use a representative population sample to find a relationship between developmental assets and a positive aspect of sexual health - sexual pleasure. PMID:21575822

  12. Driving comfort, enjoyment and acceptance of automated driving - effects of drivers' age and driving style familiarity.

    PubMed

    Hartwich, Franziska; Beggiato, Matthias; Krems, Josef F

    2018-02-23

    Automated driving has the potential to improve the safety and efficiency of future traffic and to extend elderly peoples' driving life, provided it is perceived as comfortable and joyful and is accepted by drivers. Driving comfort could be enhanced by familiar automated driving styles based on drivers' manual driving styles. In a two-stage driving simulator study, effects of driving automation and driving style familiarity on driving comfort, enjoyment and system acceptance were examined. Twenty younger and 20 older drivers performed a manual and four automated drives of different driving style familiarity. Acceptance, comfort and enjoyment were assessed after driving with standardised questionnaires, discomfort during driving via handset control. Automation increased both age groups' comfort, but decreased younger drivers' enjoyment. Younger drivers showed higher comfort, enjoyment and acceptance with familiar automated driving styles, whereas older drivers preferred unfamiliar, automated driving styles tending to be faster than their age-affected manual driving styles. Practitioner Summary: Automated driving needs to be comfortable and enjoyable to be accepted by drivers, which could be enhanced by driving style individualisation. This approach was evaluated in a two-stage driving simulator study for different age groups. Younger drivers preferred familiar driving styles, whereas older drivers preferred driving styles unaffected by age.

  13. Stimulant Drugs and Activity Level in Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; Cunningham, Charles E.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the study involving 14 hyperactive boys (5-12 years old) indicated that activity and attention span are affected by methylphenidate even in highly stimulating, informal settings. (Author/SBH)

  14. Playground Designs to Increase Physical Activity Levels during School Recess: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escalante, Yolanda; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Backx, Karianne; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    School recess provides a major opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. Various studies have described strategies to increase levels of physical activity. The purpose of this systematic review is therefore to examine the interventions proposed as forms of increasing children's physical activity levels during recess. A…

  15. Cross-cultural validation of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Longo, E; Badia, M; Orgaz, B; Verdugo, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite growing interest in the topic of participation, the construct has not yet been assessed in children and adolescents with and without cerebral palsy (CP) in Spain. As there are no available instruments to measure participation in leisure activities which have been adapted in this country, the goal of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). The sample comprised 199 children and adolescents with CP and 199 without CP, between 8 and 18 years of age, from seven regions in Spain. The adaptation of the original version of CAPE was carried out through translation and backward translation, and the validity of the instrument was analysed. Construct validity was assessed through the correlation of the diverse CAPE domains and the quality of life domains (KIDSCREEN questionnaire). Discriminant validity was established by comparing children and adolescents with CP and typically developing children and adolescents. For test-retest reliability, the children and adolescents with and without CP completed the CAPE questionnaire twice within 4 weeks. The correlations found between the CAPE domains and the quality of life domains show that the CAPE presents construct validity. The CAPE discriminated children and adolescents with CP from those without any disability in the results of participation. According to most CAPE domains, typically developing children and adolescents engage in a greater number of activities than children and adolescents with CP. Test-retest reliability for the Spanish version of CAPE was adequate. The study provides a valid instrument to assess the participation of children and adolescents with and without CP who live in Spain. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. ActivityAware: An App for Real-Time Daily Activity Level Monitoring on the Amulet Wrist-Worn Device.

    PubMed

    Boateng, George; Batsis, John A; Halter, Ryan; Kotz, David

    2017-03-01

    Physical activity helps reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and obesity. The ability to monitor a person's daily activity level can inform self-management of physical activity and related interventions. For older adults with obesity, the importance of regular, physical activity is critical to reduce the risk of long-term disability. In this work, we present ActivityAware , an application on the Amulet wrist-worn device that measures daily activity levels (sedentary, moderate and vigorous) of individuals, continuously and in real-time. The app implements an activity-level detection model, continuously collects acceleration data on the Amulet, classifies the current activity level, updates the day's accumulated time spent at that activity level, logs the data for later analysis, and displays the results on the screen. We developed an activity-level detection model using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). We trained our classifiers using data from a user study, where subjects performed the following physical activities: sit, stand, lay down, walk and run. With 10-fold cross validation and leave-one-subject-out (LOSO) cross validation, we obtained preliminary results that suggest accuracies up to 98%, for n=14 subjects. Testing the ActivityAware app revealed a projected battery life of up to 4 weeks before needing to recharge. The results are promising, indicating that the app may be used for activity-level monitoring, and eventually for the development of interventions that could improve the health of individuals.

  17. Gaming across different consoles: exploring the influence of control scheme on game-player enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Limperos, Anthony M; Schmierbach, Michael G; Kegerise, Andrew D; Dardis, Frank E

    2011-06-01

    Many studies have investigated how different technological features impact the experience of playing video games, yet few have focused on how control schemes may affect the play experience. This research employed a between-subjects design to explore the relationship between the type of console played (Nintendo Wii, Playstation 2) and feelings of flow and enjoyment during the game-play experience. Results indicated that participants reported greater feelings of control and enjoyment with a traditional control scheme (Playstation 2) than with the more technologically advanced control scheme (Nintendo Wii). Further mediation analysis showed that enjoyment was driven by the sense of control that participants experienced and not simply by whether they won the game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  19. Exercise motivation, self-efficacy, and enjoyment as indicators of adult exercise behavior among the transtheoretical model stages.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yasufumi; Sato, Yasuto; Ishizaka, Yuko; Yamakado, Minoru; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2012-03-01

    To better understand the role of motivation in determining exercise participation at the population level, we performed a questionnaire survey of 385 Japanese adults (mean age: 55.0 years, SD: 10.9 years). At baseline, the motivation subscales (intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and external regulation), self-efficacy, and enjoyment all showed significant differences across the stages of change for exercise. Intrinsic motivation and enjoyment had similar findings, with the highest scores being noted in the maintenance stage. Among the 385 subjects, 183 completed the follow-up questionnaire 3 months later. After 3 months, most of the participants (86.9%) who were in the maintenance stage at baseline remained in the same stage. The number of participants who dropped to a lower stage after 3 months was 23. The changes of exercise stage over the 3-month period differed significantly for identified regulation, introjected regulation, and motivation. There were significant time and group interactions for intrinsic motivation and identified regulation. These findings suggest the importance of intrinsic motivation and identified regulation for performance of regular exercise, as well as the role of introjected regulation for promoting behavioral change among Japanese adults.

  20. Highlands County Energy Education Activities--High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Presented are five instructional units, developed by the Tri-County Teacher Education Center, for the purpose of educating secondary school students on Florida's unique energy problems. Unit one provides a series of value clarification and awareness activities as an introduction to energy. Unit two uses mathematics exercises to examine energy…

  1. Opciones (Options). Spanish Correspondence. Level 1. Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James W.

    The purpose of this learning activity packet is to acquaint students of Spanish as a second language with letter-writing in Spanish. Upon completion of the packet, students should be able to: (1) identify some of the major differences in mailing customs between the U.S. and Hispanic countries, (2) read and write mailing and return adresses, (3)…

  2. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  3. Deliberate practice theory: perceived relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice: study II.

    PubMed

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2009-10-01

    This study, based on the theory of deliberate practice, examined the practice relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment aspects of the theory. 25 college undergraduates practiced playing a melody on an electronic keyboard for three 20-min. practice sessions. Following each session, the perceived relevance of the practice for improving performance of the melody, the effort needed to learn the melody, and the inherent enjoyment of the practice were each rated on 10-point scales. Findings were consistent with theory and similar to previous studies also involving music practice and other tasks.

  4. Does regional disadvantage affect health-related sport and physical activity level? A multi-level analysis of individual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Pamela; Downward, Paul; Lera-López, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the role of regional government quality in health-related participation in sport and physical activity among adults (18-64 years) in 28 European countries. The importance of the analysis rests in the relative autonomy that regional and local governments have over policy decisions connected with sport and physical activity. While existing studies have focussed on economic and infrastructural investment and expenditure, this research investigates the quality of regional governments across 208 regions within 28 European countries. The individual-level data stem from the 2013 Eurobarometer 80.2 (n = 18,675) and were combined with regional-level data from Eurostat. An individual's level of participation in sport and physical activity was measured by three variables reflecting whether an individual's activity level is below, meets, or exceeds the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results of multi-level analyses reveal that regional government quality has a significant and positive association with individual participation in sport and physical activity at a level meeting or exceeding the guidelines. The impact is much larger than that of regional gross domestic product per capita, indicating that regional disadvantage in terms of political quality is more relevant than being disadvantaged in terms of economic wealth.

  5. Chemistry and biological activity of coumarins at molecular level.

    PubMed

    Garro, Hugo A; García, Celina; Martín, Víctor S; Tonn, Carlos E; Pungitore, Carlos R

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic coumarins were prepared in high yields using ionic liquids as an environmental friendly alternative. 3,4-Dimethyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (3ab) and 3-isopropyl-4-methyl-5,7-dihydroxycoumarin (3bc) showed interesting activity against Taq DNA polymerase with IC50 values of 115.7 microM and 82.2 microM, respectively. Also, 4-methyl-7-hydroxycoumarin (3aa) and 4-methyl-5,7-dihydroxycoumarin (3ba) exhibited inhibitory activity against MMLV-RT with IC50 values of 23.5 microM and 18.3 microM, respectively. These inhibitors could have importance as antiretroviral chemotherapeutic agents and also for the development of antitumor drugs.

  6. Efficient Strategies for Active Interface-Level Network Topology Discovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Network Information Centre API Application Programming Interface APNIC Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre ARIN American Registry for Internet Numbers...very convenient Application Programming Interface ( API ) for easy primitive implementation. Ark’s API facilitates easy development and rapid...prototyping – important attributes as the char- acteristics of our primitives evolve. The API allows a high-level of abstraction, which in turn leads to rapid

  7. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy, including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. “Wildlife” and “fish” were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies. PMID:27011729

  8. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  9. System-level integration of active silicon photonic biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplatine, L.; Al'Mrayat, O.; Luan, E.; Fang, C.; Rezaiezadeh, S.; Ratner, D. M.; Cheung, K.; Dattner, Y.; Chrostowski, L.

    2017-02-01

    Biosensors based on silicon photonic integrated circuits have attracted a growing interest in recent years. The use of sub-micron silicon waveguides to propagate near-infrared light allows for the drastic reduction of the optical system size, while increasing its complexity and sensitivity. Using silicon as the propagating medium also leverages the fabrication capabilities of CMOS foundries, which offer low-cost mass production. Researchers have deeply investigated photonic sensor devices, such as ring resonators, interferometers and photonic crystals, but the practical integration of silicon photonic biochips as part of a complete system has received less attention. Herein, we present a practical system-level architecture which can be employed to integrate the aforementioned photonic biosensors. We describe a system based on 1 mm2 dies that integrate germanium photodetectors and a single light coupling device. The die are embedded into a 16x16 mm2 epoxy package to enable microfluidic and electrical integration. First, we demonstrate a simple process to mimic Fan-Out Wafer-level-Packaging, which enables low-cost mass production. We then characterize the photodetectors in the photovoltaic mode, which exhibit high sensitivity at low optical power. Finally, we present a new grating coupler concept to relax the lateral alignment tolerance down to +/- 50 μm at 1-dB (80%) power penalty, which should permit non-experts to use the biochips in a"plug-and-play" style. The system-level integration demonstrated in this study paves the way towards the mass production of low-cost and highly sensitive biosensors, and can facilitate their wide adoption for biomedical and agro-environmental applications.

  10. Steroid hormone levels associated with passive and active smoking

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Soldin, Steven J.; O’Mara, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Cigarette tobacco smoke is a potent environmental contaminant known to adversely affect health including fertility and pregnancy. Objective To examine the associations between second-hand cigarette tobacco-smoke exposure, or active smoking and serum concentrations of steroid hormones using tandem mass spectrometry. Design Healthy women (18–45 y) from the general community in the Metropolitan Washington, DC were recruited at the follicular stage of their menstrual cycle. Participants were assigned to one of three study groups: active smokers (N= 107), passive smokers (N= 86), or non-smokers (N= 100). Classifications were based on a combination of self-reporting and serum cotinine concentrations. Methods Serum androgens, estrogens, progestins, androstenedione, aldosterone, cortisol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 11-deoxycortisol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25-OHVitD3) and cotinine were measured by isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) (API-5000). Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to assess median differences among the three groups, with Dunn’s multiple comparison test for post hoc analysis. Results Serum estrone, estradiol, and estriol concentrations were lower in active and passive smokers than in non-smokers. The three study groups differed significantly in serum concentrations of 16-OHE1, aldosterone and 25-OHVitD3, as well as in the ratios of many of the steroids. Pair-wise comparison of the groups demonstrated significant differences in hormone concentrations between (i) smokers and nonsmokers for aldosterone: (ii) passive smokers and non-smokers for aldosterone, progesterone and estriol. Moreover, for smokers and passive smokers, there were no significant differences in these hormone concentrations. Conclusions Smoke exposure was associated with lower than normal median steroid hormone concentrations. These processes may be instrumental in explaining some adverse effects of

  11. Activity level in the lab: Overlap with shyness indicates it is more than pure motoric activity.

    PubMed

    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2017-09-01

    The observation that children's activity level (AL) differs between novel and familiar situations is well established. What influences individual differences in how AL is different across these situations is less well understood. Drawing on animal literature, which links rats' AL when 1st placed in a novel setting with novelty seeking phenotypes, and child temperament literature, which links AL, novelty response, and shyness, we hypothesized that shyness would be an important component of children's AL in a novel situation. We examined this using mechanically assessed AL from 2 situations (the home and the lab) and 2 measures of shyness (1 parent-rated and 1 observer-rated) on up to 313 twin pairs (145 monozygotic and 168 dizygotic), at 2 and 3 years of age. Biometric genetic models removed from lab AL the variance shared with home AL, representing what was different in AL when the child entered the lab compared to the home. We report that almost half (43%) of the genetic component of AL in the lab was independent of AL in the home, and this unique genetic component shared genetic covariance with shyness. Shyness influences AL in a novel situation such as the lab, indicating that mechanically assessed AL represents more than global motoric activity and provides information on a child's temperamental response to novelty. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Evaluating University Physical Activity Courses from Student and Instructor Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Christina; Parker, Tonya; Tiemersma, Karol; Lewis, Colleen

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey of student and faculty perspectives within a university-level instructional physical activity (PA) program. The results revealed that students enrolled in the courses primarily for enjoyment and to stay fit. A majority of students ranked the quality of instruction as excellent, were interested in new…

  13. Investigating Essential Factors on Students' Perceived Accomplishment and Enjoyment and Intention to Learn in Web Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yulei; Dang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Web development is an important component in the curriculum of computer science and information systems areas. However, it is generally considered difficult to learn among students. In this study,we examined factors that could influence students' perceptions of accomplishment and enjoyment and their intention to learn in the web development…

  14. The Effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Listening Sensitivity and Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, William Todd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Mindful Listening Instruction on Music Listening Sensitivity and Music Listening Enjoyment. The type of mindfulness investigated in this study was of the social-psychological type, which shares both commonalities with and distinctions from meditative mindfulness. Enhanced context awareness,…

  15. Differences between Children and Adults in the Recognition of Enjoyment Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Colle, Livia

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the differences between 8-year-olds (n = 80) and adults (n = 80) in recognition of felt versus faked enjoyment smiles by using a newly developed picture set that is based on the Facial Action Coding System. The authors tested the effect of different facial action units (AUs) on judgments of smile authenticity. Multiple…

  16. Developmental Coordination Disorder and Reported Enjoyment of Physical Education in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Mandigo, James; Wade, Terrance; Faught, Brent E.; Flouris, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are less likely to enjoy participating in physical education (PE) than children without motor coordination difficulties. However, no studies have attempted to quantify this relationship or examine potentially modifiable mediating variables. Using a large sample (N = 590) of children (aged 9…

  17. The Role of Graphic and Sanitized Violence in the Enjoyment of Television Dramas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…

  18. Book Clubs in Developmental Reading: Building Reading Comprehension, Fostering Reading Enjoyment, and Engaging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

  19. An Enjoyable Learning Experience in Personalising Learning Based on Knowledge Management: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hao; Song, Donglei; Yu, Tao; Tavares, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    Many attempts at personalisation have been made in education. They all collect learning data and analyse learning behaviours, and ultimately achieve personalised learning dynamically. However, further research is needed on the ways to effectively access and analyse information about learning within an enjoyable environment and with positive…

  20. Antecedents of Academic Emotions: Testing the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model for Academic Enjoyment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    The present study focused on students' academic enjoyment as predicted by achievement in multiple academic domains. Assumptions were based on Marsh's internal/external (I/E) frame of reference model and Pekrun's control-value theory of achievement emotions, and were tested in a sample of 1380 German students from grades 5 to 10. Students' academic…

  1. Pair Programming and Secondary School Girls' Enjoyment of Programming and the Subject Information Technology (IT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebenberg, Janet; Mentz, Elsa; Breed, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study that examined how pair programming shapes the experience of secondary school girls taking IT as a subject, with respect to their enjoyment of programming and the subject itself. The study involved six Grade 11 girls who were doing solo programming in Grade 10 and pair programming in their following Grade.…

  2. Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in Students' Use of Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of weblogs (blogs) used in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to blog has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The main purpose of this study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence blogging…

  3. Gender Differences in Reading Achievement and Enjoyment of Reading: The Role of Perceived Teaching Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochweber, Jan; Vieluf, Svenja

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which classroom-specific relationships between students' gender and their reading achievement and enjoyment of reading are associated with student-perceived teaching quality. Based on a sample of 10,543 ninth-grade students from 427 classrooms, multilevel analyses revealed that effective classroom management,…

  4. Enjoyment and Consumption of Defiant Rock Music as a Function of Adolescent Rebelliousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleich, Susan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of adolescent rebelliousness highlights a study of high school students that explored the relationship between rebelliousness as a personality trait and the enjoyment of defiant rock music. Hypotheses tested are discussed, the use of MTV concept music videos is explained, gender differences are considered, and further research is…

  5. 26 CFR 1.674(a)-1 - Power to control beneficial enjoyment; scope of section 674.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... grantor is treated as the owner of a portion of trust if the grantor or a nonadverse party has a power... of time such that the grantor would not be treated as an owner under section 673 if the power were a... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Power to control beneficial enjoyment; scope of...

  6. Promoting Enjoyment in Girls' Physical Education: The Impact of Goals, Beliefs, and Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Liu, W. C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the network of relationships between sport ability beliefs, achievement goals, self-determination and female students' enjoyment in school physical education (PE). Female secondary students (n = 343) from a single-sex secondary school in Singapore participated in the survey. They were assessed on sport ability beliefs, goal…

  7. Enjoying God's Death: "The Passion of the Christ" and the Practices of an Evangelical Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Publics are not simply a product of common attention to texts, but are also animated by an economy of tropes and affects that relies on processes of metonymic connection, metaphorical condensation, and affective investment. Drawing on Jacques Lacan's theory of enjoyment and his treatments of metaphor and metonymy as rhetorical forms, this essay…

  8. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  9. Mastery, Enjoyment, Tradition and Innovation: A Reflective Practice Model for Instrumental and Vocal Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a model to assist music teachers in reflecting on their teaching practice in relation to their aims and values. Initially developed as a workshop aid for use on a music education MA program, the model is intended to provoke critical engagement with two prominent tensions in music education: that between mastery and enjoyment,…

  10. Pediatric Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q): Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endicott, Jean; Nee, John; Yang, Ruoyong; Wohlberg, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The pediatric version of the Short Form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q) was developed to aid in the assessment of an important aspect of life experience in children and adolescents. Method: The reliability and validity of the PQ-LES-Q was tested using data from a sample of 376 outpatient…

  11. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  12. Physical activity levels and preferences of ethnically diverse visitors to Georgia State Parks

    Treesearch

    Lincoln Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; Michael Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Parks provide many outdoor recreation opportunities that encourage physical activity and healthy lifestyles, and research has recently begun to explore the demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with park-based activity levels, particularly outside of urban areas. This study used a mixed methods approach to investigate physical activity levels and...

  13. Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bagge, J; Gaida, J E; Danielson, P; Alfredson, H; Forsgren, S

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity affects the pain symptoms for Achilles tendinosis patients. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and their receptors have been detected in human Achilles tendon. This pilot study aimed to compare serum BDNF and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNFRI) levels in Achilles tendinosis patients and healthy controls and to examine the influence of physical activity, and BMI and gender, on these levels. Physical activity was measured with a validated questionnaire, total physical activity being the parameter analyzed. Physical activity was strongly correlated with BDNF among tendinosis women [Spearman's rho (ρ)=0.90, P<0.01] but not among control women (ρ=-0.08, P=0.83), or among tendinosis and control men. Physical activity was significantly correlated with sTNFRI in the entire tendinosis group and among tendinosis men (ρ=0.65, P=0.01), but not in the entire control group or among control men (ρ=0.04, P=0.91). Thus, the physical activity pattern is related to the TNF and BDNF systems for tendinosis patients but not controls, the relationship being gender dependent. This is new information concerning the relationship between physical activity and Achilles tendinosis, which may be related to pain for the patients. This aspect should be further evaluated using larger patient materials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. The effects of gamelike features and test location on cognitive test performance and participant enjoyment

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Andy; Woods, Andy T.; Lawrence, Natalia S.; Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task. We tested three gamified variants of the Go-No-Go task, delivered both in the laboratory and online. In the first version of the task participants were rewarded with points for performing optimally. The second version of the task was framed as a cowboy shootout. The third version was a standard Go-No-Go task, used as a control condition. We compared reaction time, accuracy and subjective measures of enjoyment and engagement between task variants and study location. We found points to be a highly suitable game mechanic for gamified cognitive testing because they did not disrupt the validity of the data collected but increased participant enjoyment. However, we found no evidence that gamelike features could increase engagement to the point where participant performance improved. We also found that while participants enjoyed the cowboy themed task, the difficulty of categorising the gamelike stimuli adversely affected participant performance, increasing No-Go error rates by 28% compared to the non-game control. Responses collected online vs. in the laboratory had slightly longer reaction times but were otherwise very similar, supporting other findings that online crowdsourcing is an acceptable method of data collection for this type of research. PMID:27441120

  15. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important

  16. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  17. Associations of Affective Responses During Free-Living Physical Activity and Future Physical Activity Levels: an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yue; Chou, Chih-Ping; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam; Dunton, Genevieve

    2017-08-01

    Affective response during physical activity may influence motivation to perform future physical activity behavior. However, affective response during physical activity is often assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. The current study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity performed by adults, and determined whether these affective responses predict future moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels after 6 and 12 months. At baseline, electronic EMA surveys were randomly prompted across 4 days asking about current activities and affective states (e.g., happy, stressed, energetic, tired). Affective response during physical activity was operationalized as the level of positive or negative affect reported when concurrent physical activity (e.g., exercise or sports) was also reported. Data were available for 82 adults. Future levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured using accelerometers, worn for seven consecutive days at 6 and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Feeling more energetic during physical activity was associated with performing more minutes of daily MVPA after both 6 and 12 months. Feeling less negative affect during physical activity was associated with engaging in more daily MVPA minutes after 12 months only. This study demonstrated how EMA can be used to capture affective responses during free-living physical activity. Results found that feelings more energetic and less negative during physical activity were associated with more future physical activity, suggesting that positive emotional benefits may reinforce behavior.

  18. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Alan J.; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L.

    2014-01-01

    Although activity participation is promoted as cognitively protective, critical questions of causality remain. In a cohort followed every 5 years from age 75 to 85 years, potential reciprocal associations between level and change in leisure activity participation and level and change in cognitive abilities were examined. Participants in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, a longitudinal study of aging, completed standardized cognitive ability tests and reported their leisure activity participation (11 activities defined a leisure activity score) at ages 75, 80, and 85. Higher leisure activity was associated with higher cognitive ability (significant correlations ranged from 0.15 to 0.31, p < 0.05). Between ages 75 and 85, participation in leisure activities and cognitive ability declined significantly. Growth curve models, which provided latent variables for level of and 10-year change in both leisure activity and cognitive ability, confirmed the positive association between levels of leisure activity and cognitive ability (path coefficient = 0.36, p < 0.001); however, neither leisure activity level nor change in leisure activity were associated with cognitive change. Although a positive association between leisure activity and cognitive ability was reported—the likely precedents of this are discussed—there was no evidence that a higher level or maintenance of leisure activity was protective against cognitive decline across a 10-year follow-up. PMID:25352824

  19. 76 FR 24038 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-NEW; Level 1...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...-2011-0012] Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Level 1 Assessment and Level 3 Evaluations for the Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) AGENCY: Federal... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Collection of Information Title: Level 1 Assessment and Level 3 Evaluations for the...

  1. Compendium of Interdisciplinary Activities for an Introductory Course in Communication Systems at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasko, David J.

    This compendium of interdisciplinary learning activities is designed to assist technology education instructors who are conducting an introductory secondary-level course in communication technology. The 12 activities, which are sequenced from introductory, low-cost activities to more advanced and more involved activities, deal with the following…

  2. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Serum paraoxonase activity and oxidative stress levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax.

    PubMed

    Karadas, S; Aslan, M; Ceylan, M R; Sunnetcioglu, M; Bozan, N; Kara, H; Demir, H

    2017-07-01

    Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by the aerobic sporeforming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It has been suggested that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of B. anthracis. The aim of this study was to investigate serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen patients with cutaneous anthrax and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The serum MDA levels, SOD levels, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and catalase activities were measured using a spectrophotometer. The serum SOD levels, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and catalase activities were significantly lower in patients with cutaneous anthrax than in controls (for all, p < 0.001), whereas MDA levels were significantly higher ( p < 0.001). No significant correlation was found between serum paraoxonase activity, arylesterase activity, SOD levels, and MDA levels (all, p > 0.05) in patients with cutaneous anthrax. The current study was the first to show decreased antioxidant levels and increased oxidant levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax. Therefore, decreased PON1 activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous anthrax.

  4. Teaching Methods for Modelling Problems and Students' Task-Specific Enjoyment, Value, Interest and Self-Efficacy Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Leiss, Dominik; Pekrun, Reinhard; Blum, Werner; Muller, Marcel; Messner, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was part of the DISUM-project, 224 ninth graders from 14 German classes from middle track schools (Realschule) were asked about their enjoyment, interest, value and self-efficacy expectations concerning three types of mathematical problems: intra-mathematical problems, word problems and modelling problems. Enjoyment, interest,…

  5. Misclassification of Physical Activity Level Due to Exclusion of Workplace Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate…

  6. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  7. Televised entertainment-education to prevent adolescent alcohol use: perceived realism, enjoyment, and impact.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its impact on alcohol drinking behavior. Viewers perceived the E-E narratives to be credible and enjoyable but did not relate to the characters in the narratives. However, exposure to the E-E intervention predicted desired changes in alcohol drinking behavior, intentions to decrease alcohol use, and perceived normative pressure, especially in less educated viewers. These findings demonstrate that E-E is a promising strategy to target adolescent alcohol use. Future research will focus on the individual processes and story elements that account for the positive results.

  8. Enjoyment and its discontents: Ecclesiastes in dialogue with Freud on the stewardship of joy.

    PubMed

    Browning Helsel, Philip

    2010-03-01

    The book of Ecclesiastes has frequently been mischaracterized as a cynical or pessimistic work. Instead, this article recommends Ecclesiastes, following Eunny P. Lee, as contributing to pastoral theology through its embodied and pragmatic theology of enjoyment in which practices of joy revitalize the human spirit. However, there are some who are unable to experience satisfaction. The absence of reflection on this problem in Ecclesiastes scholarship is considered the starting point of pastoral theology, and is addressed by a turn to the frequently misunderstood passage in 7:16-18, bringing it into conversation with the structural [corrected] model of the human person developed by Freud. At the same time, the interpersonal aspects of enjoyment found in Ecclesiastes critique Freud by suggesting how the fragmented parts of self-experience can be held together in an interpersonal context.

  9. Gender differences and the effect of contextual features on game enjoyment and responses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Fang

    2010-10-01

    This article explores the effect of gender and contextual features on emotional reactions, identification toward game characters, and game enjoyment. Two aspects of contextual features are specifically examined: the moral justification of game characters and violence. An experiment was conducted by allowing participants to play either a morally justified character of a non-violent game, a morally justified character of a violent game, or a morally unjustified character of a violent game. The results show that participants felt less guilty and identified with the characters more when playing the morally justified characters of the non-violent game. Furthermore, males and females demonstrate different patterns of enjoyment to different contextual features of video games. The implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Soluble CD30 serum level in HCV-positive chronic active hepatitis: A surrogate marker of disease activity?

    PubMed

    Foschi, F G; Gramenzi, A; Castelli, E; Cursaro, C; Pagani, S; Margotti, M; D'Errico, A; Andreone, P; Stefanini, G F; Bernardi, M

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, high levels of CD30s, a glycoprotein preferentially expressed and released by T lymphocytes producing Th(2)-type cytokines, were seen in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C, and a correlation with histological activity of the disease was found. CD30s levels were assayed in the sera of 29 HCV RNA-positive patients with histologically proven chronic active hepatitis and in 30 healthy blood donors. Thirteen of 29 (45%) HCV patients had CD30s serum levels above the normal range (>20 U/ml). Mean CD30s serum levels were significantly higher in HCV patients than in controls (P<0.0005). A positive correlation was found between serum CD30s levels and both the histological activity index (r=0.59, P=0.001) and ALT serum levels (r=0.5; P=0.006). The raised CD30s level found in more severe HCV liver disease indirectly suggests activation and expansion of Th(2)cells. CD30s levels could represent a useful surrogate marker of activity in chronic HCV infections. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Prevalence of physical activity levels by ethnicity among adults in Hawaii, BRFSS 2001.

    PubMed

    Mampilly, Carrie M; Yore, Michelle M; Maddock, Jay E; Nigg, Claudio R; Buchner, David; Heath, Gregory W

    2005-10-01

    Few studies have examined the differences in physical activity levels between subgroups of Asian or Pacific Islanders living in the United States. This study compared levels of physical activity for three subgroups of Asian or Pacific Islanders residing in Hawaii. Data on Native Hawaiian/Part Native Hawaiian (N=585), Filipino (N=548), Japanese (N=871), and White (N=1728) adults were obtained from the Hawaii 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which contained more detailed questions on ethnicity than are collected by most states. Six physical activity categories were compared: inactive, insufficient (some activity but less than recommended activity), moderate activity (> or = 30 minutes of moderate activity > or = 5 days a week), vigorous activity (> or = 20 minutes of vigorous activity > or = 3 days a week), recommended activity (meeting either moderate or vigorous activity requirements), and a recently suggested target of > or = 60 minutes of moderate activity 7 days a week or > or = 20 minutes of vigorous activity > or = 4 days a week. Among Asians or Pacific Islanders, Native Hawaiians/Part Native Hawaiians were most active (38.9% moderate and 23.9% vigorous), followed by Japanese (32.1%, 20.4%) and Filipinos (31.8%, 18.6%). Whites were more active than any of these three subgroups (47.2%, 35.4%). Differences in physical activity levels between subgroups of Asians or Pacific Islanders in Hawaii suggests that aggregated data for all subgroups obscures important information about disparities in activity levels. State efforts to reduce disparities in activity levels should take into account differences between Asian or Pacific Islander subgroups.

  12. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  13. Differences in Physical Activity Levels between Urban and Rural School Children in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.; Bennett, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to examine differences in physical activity levels between urban and rural primary school children. The sample consisted of 256 Greek-Cypriot children and their parents from two schools representing urban areas and three schools representing rural areas. Children's activity levels were assessed for 4 weekdays in the winter and…

  14. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  15. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  16. Reading Enjoyment, Behaviour and Attitudes in Pupils Who Use Accelerated Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina; Cunningham, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Do pupils who use Accelerated Reader (AR) think differently about reading, do they enjoy reading more and do they do it more often than pupils who do not use AR? We explore this question using two sources of data. The first utilises data from our 2014 annual literacy survey in which more than 32,000 children and young people aged 8 to 18…

  17. Enjoyment and other reasons for electronic cigarette use: Results from college students in New York.

    PubMed

    Saddleson, M L; Kozlowski, L T; Giovino, G A; Goniewicz, M L; Mahoney, M C; Homish, G G; Arora, A

    2016-03-01

    Young people are more likely to have experimented with e-cigarettes (e-cigs) compared with older adults. Few studies identify reasons for experimentation/use of e-cigs among young people; we sought to discover what drives college students to use e-cigs. Undergraduate students (ages 18-23) at four universities in New York State were surveyed. Among e-cig ever users (n=429), reasons for use were examined. A multinomial logistic regression model analyzed the relative risk of reasons for using e-cigs among discontinued, current non-daily and current daily e-cig users. Using e-cigs for enjoyment was associated with current non-daily (RR=2.11, 95% CI=1.18-3.75) and current daily use (RR=19.1, 95% CI=3.71-98.54). Non-daily use was related to use because e-cigs are less toxic than cigarettes (RR=2.80, 95% CI=1.75-4.50). More daily users reported use to quit smoking compared with either non-daily or discontinued users (53.3% vs. 12.2% and 13.3%, respectively; p<0.05). Among current users, 72.3% used for enjoyment, compared with 42.9% of discontinued users (p<0.05). In contrast to adults, who often report e-cig use to quit smoking, young people are less likely to use for this reason. The exception was daily e-cig users, who often reported use for quitting/reduction of smoking. Rather, college students report usage reasons related to affect (e.g. enjoyment). Overall, enjoyment was reported more often than was use for quitting smoking; affective reasons likely play a role in the popularity of e-cigs and should be considered in future assessments of e-cig users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy expenditure and enjoyment of small-sided soccer games in overweight boys.

    PubMed

    Toh, Sharon H; Guelfi, Kym J; Wong, Patricia; Fournier, Paul A

    2011-06-01

    When space is limited, it would be preferable to play multiple small-sided soccer games (SSG) simultaneously on small courts, rather than a single game, to maximise participation. Given that the layouts of most gymnasiums incorporate several badminton courts, we examined whether energy expenditure and enjoyment of SSG on a badminton court (6.1×13.4 m) were comparable to larger court dimensions (volleyball and basketball courts; 9×18 m and 14.2×26.5 m, respectively). Twelve overweight boys played 30 min three-a-side SSG on each court in a counterbalanced design. During SSG, energy expenditure was estimated via accelerometry, heart rate was monitored and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and enjoyment were obtained. Energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than the basketball court (p<.05). Mean% HR(max) was significantly lower on the badminton court than the volleyball and basketball courts (p<.05). There was no effect of court size on RPE or enjoyment (p>.05). These results suggest that it may be preferable to play SSG on a larger court when space is available. Alternatively, when space is limited the difference in energy expenditure between court sizes can be accounted for by an additional 2.3 min of play on a badminton court. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assistive technology use and human rights enjoyment: a cross-sectional study in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Borg, Johan; Larsson, Stig; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Rahman, Asm Atiqur; Bari, Nazmul; Khan, Ahm Noman

    2012-09-19

    About half a billion people with disabilities in developing countries have limited access to assistive technology. The Convention on the Rights of persons with Disabilities requires governments to take measures to ensure provision of such technologies. To guide implementation of these measures there is a need for understanding health outcomes from a human rights perspective. The objective of this study was therefore to explore the relation between assistive technology use and enjoyment of human rights in a low-income country. Data was collected in eight districts of Bangladesh through interviews of people with hearing impairments using and not using hearings aids, and people with ambulatory impairments using and not using manual wheelchairs (N = 583). Using logistic regression, self-reported outcomes on standard of living, health, education, work, receiving information and movement were analyzed. The adjusted likelihood of reporting greater enjoyment of human rights was significantly higher among people using hearing aids compared to non-users for all outcomes except working status. Compared to non-users, users of wheelchairs reported a significantly higher adjusted likelihood of good ambulatory performance and a significantly lower adjusted likelihood of reporting a positive working status. Further analyses indicated that physical accessibility to working places and duration of wheelchair use had a statistically significant impact on the likelihood of reporting positive work outcomes. The findings support the notion that assistive technology use increases the likelihood of human rights enjoyment, particularly hearing aid use. Physical accessibility should always be addressed in wheelchair provision.

  20. Older parents enjoy better filial piety and care from daughters than sons in China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zeng; George, Linda; Sereny, Melanie; Gu, Danan; Vaupel, James W.

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the unique datasets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey using logistic regression and controlling for various covariates. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that disabled older parents are more satisfied with care provided by daughters than sons and that older parents enjoy greater filial piety from and better relationships with daughters than sons. The daughter-advantages of enjoying greater filial piety from and better relationships with children are stronger among the oldest-old aged 80+ than the young-old aged 65–79, and surprisingly more profound in rural areas than urban areas, while son-preference is much more prevalent among rural residents. We also discuss why China’s rigorous fertility policy until October-2015 and much less-developed pension system in rural areas substantially contribute to sustaining traditional son-preference and a high sex ratio at birth (SRB) when fertility is low. We recommend China take integrative public health policy actions of informing the public that having daughter(s) is beneficial for old age care, developing the rural pension system and implementing the universal two-child policy as soon as possible. We believe that these policy actions would help to reduce son-preference, bring down the high SRB, and enable more future elderly parents to enjoy better care from their children and healthier lives. PMID:28529965

  1. The Role of Trait and State Absorption in the Enjoyment of Music

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of state versus trait characteristics on our enjoyment of music. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, particularly preference for music that evokes negative emotions. The sample consisted of 128 participants who were asked to listen to two pieces of self-selected music and rate the music on variables including preference and felt and expressed emotions. Participants completed a brief measure of state absorption after listening to each piece, and a trait absorption inventory. State absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, whereas trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music, with chi-square analyses demonstrating greater enjoyment of negative emotions in music among individuals with high trait absorption. This is the first study to show that state and trait absorption have separable and distinct effects on a listener’s music experience, with state characteristics impacting music enjoyment in the moment, and trait characteristics influencing music preference based on its emotional content. PMID:27828970

  2. The Role of Trait and State Absorption in the Enjoyment of Music.

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah E; Schubert, Emery; Wilson, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the role of state versus trait characteristics on our enjoyment of music. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of state and trait absorption upon preference for music, particularly preference for music that evokes negative emotions. The sample consisted of 128 participants who were asked to listen to two pieces of self-selected music and rate the music on variables including preference and felt and expressed emotions. Participants completed a brief measure of state absorption after listening to each piece, and a trait absorption inventory. State absorption was strongly positively correlated with music preference, whereas trait absorption was not. Trait absorption was related to preference for negative emotions in music, with chi-square analyses demonstrating greater enjoyment of negative emotions in music among individuals with high trait absorption. This is the first study to show that state and trait absorption have separable and distinct effects on a listener's music experience, with state characteristics impacting music enjoyment in the moment, and trait characteristics influencing music preference based on its emotional content.

  3. Perceived enjoyment, concentration, intention, and speed violation behavior: Using flow theory and theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Atombo, Charles; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhang, Hui; Wemegah, Tina D

    2017-10-03

    Road accidents are an important public health concern, and speeding is a major contributor. Although flow theory (FLT) is a valid model for understanding behavior, currently the nature of the roles and interplay of FLT constructs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework when attempting to explain the determinants of motivations for intention to speed and speeding behavior of car drivers is not yet known. The study aims to synthesize TPB and FLT in explaining drivers of advanced vehicles intentions to speed and speed violation behaviors and evaluate factors that are critical for explaining intention and behavior. The hypothesized model was validated using a sample collected from 354 fully licensed drivers of advanced vehicles, involving 278 males and 76 females on 2 occasions separated by a 3-month interval. During the first of the 2 occasions, participants completed questionnaire measures of TPB and FLT variables. Three months later, participants' speed violation behaviors were assessed. The study observed a significant positive relationship between the constructs. The proposed model accounted for 51 and 45% of the variance in intention to speed and speed violation behavior, respectively. The independent predictors of intention were enjoyment, attitude, and subjective norm. The independent predictors of speed violation behavior were enjoyment, concentration, intention, and perceived behavioral control. The findings suggest that safety interventions for preventing speed violation behaviors should be aimed at underlying beliefs influencing the speeding behaviors of drivers of advanced vehicles. Furthermore, perceived enjoyment is of equal importance to driver's intention, influencing speed violation behavior.

  4. The influence of active seating on car passengers' perceived comfort and activity levels.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S; Kamp, I; van Veen, S A T; Vink, P; Bosch, T

    2015-03-01

    New technologies have led to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary behaviour is characterised by physical inactivity and is associated with several health risks. This excessive sitting does not only take place in the office or at home, but also during daily commute. Therefore, BMW AG developed an active seating system for the back seat of a car, consisting of sensors in the back rest that register upper body movements of the passenger, with which the passenger controls a game. This study evaluated three different aspects of active seating compared to other tasks (reading, working on laptop, and gaming on tablet). First, discomfort and comfort perception were measured in a 30-minute driving test. Discomfort was very low for all activities and participants felt significantly more challenged, more fit and more refreshed during active seating. Second, heart rate was measured, indicating a light intensity, but nevertheless non-sedentary, activity. Third, average and variability in activity of six postural muscles was measured by electromyography (EMG), showing a higher muscle activity and higher muscle variability for active seating compared to other activities. Active seating might stimulate movements, thereby increasing comfort and well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the human activity profile questionnaire as a measure of physical activity levels in older community-dwelling women.

    PubMed

    Bastone, Alessandra de Carvalho; Moreira, Bruno de Souza; Vieira, Renata Alvarenga; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the Human Activity Profile (HAP) by comparing scores with accelerometer data and by objectively testing its cutoff points. This study included 120 older women (age 60-90 years). Average daily time spent in sedentary, moderate, and hard activity; counts; number of steps; and energy expenditure were measured using an accelerometer. Spearman rank order correlations were used to evaluate the correlation between the HAP scores and accelerometer variables. Significant relationships were detected (rho = .47-.75, p < .001), indicating that the HAP estimates physical activity at a group level well; however, scatterplots showed individual errors. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine HAP cutoff points on the basis of physical activity level recommendations, and the cutoff points found were similar to the original HAP cutoff points. The HAP is a useful indicator of physical activity levels in older women.

  6. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    PubMed

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Biological/Genetic Regulation of Physical Activity Level: Consensus from GenBioPAC.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, J Timothy; DE Geus, Eco J C; Booth, Frank W; Bray, Molly S; DEN Hoed, Marcel; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kelly, Scott A; Pomp, Daniel; Saul, Michael C; Thomis, Martine A; Garland, Theodore; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity unquestionably maintains and improves health; however, physical activity levels globally are low and not rising despite all the resources devoted to this goal. Attention in both the research literature and the public policy domain has focused on social-behavioral factors; however, a growing body of literature suggests that biological determinants play a significant role in regulating physical activity levels. For instance, physical activity level, measured in various manners, has a genetic component in both humans and nonhuman animal models. This consensus article, developed as a result of an American College of Sports Medicine-sponsored round table, provides a brief review of the theoretical concepts and existing literature that supports a significant role of genetic and other biological factors in the regulation of physical activity. Future research on physical activity regulation should incorporate genetics and other biological determinants of physical activity instead of a sole reliance on social and other environmental determinants.

  8. Physical activity level and associated factors among civil servants in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Jiang, Xun; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Yuhai; Xu, Yongyong; Shang, Lei

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated physical activity levels and associated factors among civil servants in Xi'an, China, to provide reference data for the implementation of health improvement strategies among civil servants. A cross-section study. A random sample of 1000 civil servants aged 18-60 years and employed by the Xi'an civic government was assessed by using the Chinese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations between physical activity and sociodemographic characteristics, family history of chronic disease, and existing disease were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and binary logistic regression. The response rate was 92.4%. The median physical activity score was 2227 metabolic equivalents of task (MET) minutes per week (interquartile range [IQR]: 1308-3802METmin/week). Among the 924 participants, 7.4% did not meet minimum recommendations for physical activity, 57.3% had moderate activity levels, and 35.4% had high activity levels. Participants spent most of their time on occupational activities (median: 869METmin/week, IQR: 228-1953METmin/week). Female sex (odds ratio [OR]:0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.29-0.55), age≥51 years (OR: 0.45, 95%CI: 0.27-0.75), and family history of chronic disease (OR: 0.67, 95%CI: 0.48-0.94) were associated with significantly lower odds of a high activity level. Most civil servants in Xi'an, China, have moderate activity levels. Some have high activity levels, but few engage in vigorous-intensity physical activity. Interventions to encourage a high level of physical activity are needed, especially for women, older civil servants, and those with family histories of chronic disease. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Children's Activity Levels in Different Playground Environments: An Observational Study in Four Canadian Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in moderate to vigorous amounts of physical activity is needed for young children to grow and develop to their full potential and the playground environment can help play a role. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical activity levels of children in preschool settings during outdoor playground activity time. Four…

  10. Motor Performance of Women as a Function of Age and Physical Activity Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta; Busch, Sharman

    Two studies compared motor skills of women in terms of the influence of age and activity level. In the first study, simple and choice reaction time, balance, flexibility, and grip strength of older active women were compared with that of older inactive women, and active and inactive younger women. Except for grip strength, scores of older active…

  11. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  12. Levels and Characteristics of Physical Activity among a College Student Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kim; Staten, Ruth R.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Noland, Melody

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels and the relationships between activity and personal characteristics among a cohort of college students and to determine personal characteristics that predict activity. A sample of 1,700 undergraduates was mailed a survey that requested demographic information and assessed health…

  13. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  14. Serum Adipocytokine Levels as Surrogate Markers for Disease Activity of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Hwan; Jang, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, You Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Joo Sung

    2017-05-01

    Determining inflammatory activity is crucial for assessing disease activity and for tailoring therapy in patients with Crohn׳s disease (CD). This study aimed to evaluate adipocytokine levels in patients with CD and to determine whether they can serve as surrogate markers for disease activity. Serum samples and information regarding the clinical features of patients in the CD Network Project registry were collected from March 2009 to February 2012. Patients with CD and disease duration of at least 2 years were enrolled in this study. Fasting serum leptin, adiponectin, obestatin and ghrelin levels were measured, and their correlation with clinical features of the patients was analyzed. Serum adipocytokine levels were evaluated according to disease activity as determined by CD activity index score. A total of 153 patients with CD were included. Serum ghrelin levels negatively correlated with patient age (P = 0.041) and age at diagnosis (P = 0.017), and positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P = 0.017). Multiple regression analysis showed that serum ghrelin levels were related only to CRP levels (P = 0.032). Like ghrelin, serum leptin levels were also related to CRP levels (P < 0.001). Obestatin and adiponectin levels were not related to CRP levels. Serum adipocytokine levels did not significantly differ across different disease locations or behaviors. Serum ghrelin levels were significantly lower in patients with CD with a history of surgery than in those without (P = 0.007). Serum ghrelin and leptin levels may be useful as surrogate markers for disease activity in patients with CD. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  16. Baby and Toddler Learning Fun: 50 Interactive and Developmental Activities To Enjoy with Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sally

    Based on the view that almost every interaction a parent has with an infant is an opportunity to help the baby learn more about the world, this book provides parents with simple and effective ways to enrich their infant's environment and to boost their childs language, motor, and social skills. Introductory remarks describe the learning areas…

  17. Recreational physical activity levels in healthy older women: the importance of fear of falling.

    PubMed

    Bruce, David G; Devine, Amanda; Prince, Richard L

    2002-01-01

    To examine whether fear of falling is a probable cause of reduced recreational physical activity levels in healthy older women. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal study. One thousand five hundred older, ambulatory women (aged 70-85), selected at random from the electoral roll. Self-reported recreational physical activity levels and fear of falling, demographic variables, anthropometric variables and measures of disability, and physical and cognitive function. The study subjects had low levels of physical and cognitive impairments; 24.1% of the group was obese (body mass index> 30). Twenty-six percent of the women did not participate in recreational physical activity; 39% participated in sufficient activity to gain probable health benefits. Although the women who did not participate in recreational activities were most likely to report fear of falling (45.2%), it was common in the group as a whole (33.9%), including the most active women (27.0%). Independent risk factors for nonparticipation in physical activity were fear of falling (odds ratio (OR)=0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.54-0.90, P=.006), obesity (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.38-0.66, P=.001), and slower times on the timed up-and-go test (OR=0.88, 95% CI=0.84-0.92, P=.001). Fear of falling was also independently associated with lower recreational physical activity levels in women who were active (beta=-0.09, P=.003). Subgroup analysis suggested that fear of falls affected activity levels at a predisability stage in women with mildly impaired mobility. Fear of falling is common in healthy, high-functioning older women and is independently associated with reduced levels of participation in recreational physical activity. Fear of falling is an important psychological barrier that may need to be overcome in programs attempting to improve activity levels in older women.

  18. Relationship between diet and physical activity level in adolescents from post-grammar schools.

    PubMed

    Dmitruk, Agnieszka; Kunicka, Izabela; Popławska, Helena; Hołub, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate diet and physical activity are vital determinants of psychophysical development in children and adolescents. The aim of the study was to analyse an association between dietary habits and physical activity levels of adolescents from post-grammar schools. The study included 110 girls and 65 boys between 16 and 19 years of age from two post-grammar schools in Biała Podlaska in Poland. They were subjected to a diagnostic survey providing information on their diet (number of meals a day, their regularity, frequency of bread, dairy, meat, fish, sweet, fruit, vegetable and fast food consumption, preferred ways of food processing). Physical activity levels were determined with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire--Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Based on these data, the respondents were stratified to high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Due to small number of participants presenting with low physical activity levels, we did not include this group in further analyses. The significance of differences in the dietary habits of adolescents presenting with high and moderate physical activity levels was verified with the χ2 test. Most girls and boys presented with high levels of physical activity. However, we did not find an evident relationship between dietary habits and physical activity levels. Girls from high and moderate physical activity groups differed solely in terms of the number of daily meals, frequency of meat and sweet consumption, and significant intergroup differences observed among boys pertained to the frequencies of whole-wheat bread, meat and fast food consumption. The abovementioned food products were consumed more often by girls and boys presenting with high physical activity levels. The dietary mistakes observed in physically active adolescents from post-secondary schools justify intensification of their dietary education programs.

  19. The level of physical activity affects the health of older adults despite being active

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, Lorena; Muñoz-García, Daniel; La Touche, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Health care in the ageing population is becoming a crucial issue, due to the quality of life. Physical activity, is of primary importance for older adults. This report compared the physical activity in two active older adults population with functionality, quality of life, and depression symptoms. A cross-sectional study was developed with 64 older adults. Physical activity was assessed through the Yale Physical Activity Survey for classification into a less activity (LA) group and a more activity (MA) group. Afterwards, the other health variables were measured through specific questionnaires: the quality of life with the EuroQol (EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, EQ-5D), functionality with the Berg balance scale (BBS) and depression symptoms with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). There is a statistical significant difference between groups for the BBS (t=2.21; P=0.03, d=0.27). The Pearson correlation analysis shows in LA group a moderate correlation between the BBS and age (r=−0.539; P<0.01) and EQ-5D (r=0.480; P<0.01). Moreover, both groups had a moderate negative correlation between GDS and the the EQ-5D time trade-off (r=−0.543; P=0.02). Active older adults with different amounts of physical activity differ in the BBS. This functional score was higher in the MA group. When observing to quality of life, only the LA group was negatively associated with age while in both groups were associated with depression index. PMID:27419115

  20. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  1. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma.

  2. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  3. Physical activity and sex hormone levels in estradiol- and placebo-treated postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Farzana; Bernstein, Leslie; Hodis, Howard N; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Mack, Wendy J

    2011-10-01

    Postmenopausal changes in the hormonal milieu in women with or without hormone therapy are hypothesized to be the pathway for a number of menopause-associated modifications in physiology and disease risk. Physical activity may modify these changes in women's hormone profiles. The crucial yet complex relationship between physical activity and physiologic and pharmacologic sex hormone levels in postmenopausal women has not been investigated sufficiently. Using structured recall, physical activity was assessed longitudinally during a period of 2 years in 194 postmenopausal women (90 randomized to 1 mg 17β-estradiol treatment daily and 104 randomized to placebo) in the Estrogen in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Trial. The levels of physical activity were correlated with the serum sex hormone and the serum hormone-binding globulin levels in each treatment group. Among the placebo-treated women, total energy expenditure was positively associated with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG; P < 0.001) and inversely associated with testosterones (total, bioavailable, or free) and androstenedione (P < 0.001 for all), as well as with estradiol (P = 0.02). In estradiol-treated women, estradiol levels were inversely associated with total energy expenditure (P = 0.002) and weekly hours spent in moderate or more vigorous physical activity (P = 0.001). Physical activity is associated with lower serum levels of estradiol in both hormone therapy-treated and untreated women. In placebo-treated women only, physical activity is associated with reduced androgen levels and elevated SHBG levels.

  4. [Levels of physical activity in an urban population from Temuco, Chile].

    PubMed

    Serón, Pamela; Muñoz, Sergio; Lanas, Fernando

    2010-10-01

    Physical activity plays a crucial role in the protection against cardiovascular diseases. To assess the level of physical activity in a group of subjects living in urban Temuco. Cross sectional study in a random sample of 1091 women aged 52 ± 10 years and 444 men aged 54 ± 10 years , living in Temuco, Chile. The level of physical activity was measured using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Age, gender, educational and socioeconomic level were also determined in study subjects. Median energy expenditure was 2150 and 1600 MET-minute/ week in men and women, respectively (p = 0,001). It decreased with age from a median of 1965 MET-minute/ week in those younger than 50 years old to 1647 MET-minute/ week among subjects aged between 51 and 60 years old and to 1485 MET-minute/ week among those older than 60 years. (p = 0,001). The frequency of high, moderate and low physical activity levels were 15.6, 66 and 18.4 % respectively. These levels were associated with gender, age, educational and socioeconomic level. There was a high frequency of low and moderate levels of physical activity in the urban population of Temuco, associated with female gender, advanced age and middle socioeconomic level.

  5. Net superoxide levels: steeper increase with activity in cooler female and hotter male lizards.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Cissy; Healey, Mo; Wilson, Mark; Tobler, Michael; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2012-03-01

    Ectotherms increase their body temperature in response to ambient heat, thereby elevating their metabolic rate. An often inferred consequence of this is an overall upregulation of gene expression and energetic expenditure, and a concomitant increased production of reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) and, perhaps, a shortened lifespan. However, recent work shows that this may be a superficial interpretation. For example, sometimes a reduced temperature may in fact trigger up-regulation of gene expression. We studied temperature and associated activity effects in male and female Australian painted dragon lizards (Ctenophorus pictus) by allowing the lizards to bask for 4 h versus 12 h, and scoring their associated activity (inactive versus active basking and foraging). As predicted, long-basking lizards (hereafter 'hot') showed heightened activity in both sexes, with a more pronounced effect in females. We then tested for sex-specific effects of basking treatment and activity levels on the increase in net levels of superoxide. In males, short-baskers (hereafter 'cold') had significantly more rapidly decreasing levels of superoxide per unit increasing activity than hot males. In females, however, superoxide levels increased faster with increasing activity in the cold than in the hot basking treatment, and females earlier in the ovarian cycle had lower superoxide levels than females closer to ovulation. In short, males and females differ in how their levels of reactive oxygen species change with temperature-triggered activity.

  6. Physical activity, but not fitness level, is associated with depression in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, A; Williams, P; Deane, F P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the fitness and physical activity levels of people referred to a nutrition and physical activity program for the management of mental health in general practice. General practitioners referred 109 patients being treated for depression and/or anxiety to a lifestyle intervention program. All participants completed anthropometric measurements and questionnaires including the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Active Australia Survey. Aerobic fitness was measured with the YMCA step test and muscular fitness was measured with repeated chair stands and arm curls. Fitness scores were compared to population norms, and physical activity levels were compared to population norms and national recommendations. Eighty percent of participants were overweight or obese. A greater proportion of study participants (51%) than the general Australian population (38%) met the recommended 150 minutes per week spent in moderate physical activity. However, participants demonstrated lower than average levels of fitness and participated in low levels of vigorous physical activity. Levels of physical activity, but not fitness, were inversely correlated with DASS scores. Patients presenting with depression and/or anxiety should be screened for physical activity behaviours and encouraged to meet the National Physical Activity Guidelines.

  7. Examining differences in physical activity levels by employment status and/or job activity level: Gender-specific comparisons between the United States and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Lydia; Berrigan, David; Van Domelen, Dane; Sjöström, Michael; Hagströmer, Maria

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between employment status and job activity level with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, stratified by gender and country. Cross-sectional study design. Data from working age adults (18-65 years) from two cross-sectional studies, the Swedish 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 Attitude Behavior and Change Study (ABC; n=1165) and the 2003-2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n=4201), were stratified by employment status (employed and not employed) and job activity level (active, sedentary and mixed). PA in counts×min(-1) and time spent in sedentary, low and moderate or higher intensity were measured with accelerometers. Analyses were conducted in 2012-2013. In NHANES, the employed had significantly higher counts×min(-1) and spent more time in moderate or higher intensity PA than those not employed. In ABC, no significant differences were observed between employed and unemployed. Adults with active versus sedentary occupations had higher counts×min(-1) and less sedentary time in both the USA and Sweden and in both men and women. For example, counts×min(-1) were 20-40% greater in active versus sedentary jobs. Employment status is related to PA and sedentary time among men and women in the USA but not in Sweden. Among the employed, occupational PA is associated with total PA and sedentary time for both genders and in both countries. Comparisons of PA levels based on objective measurements can refine understanding of country differences in activity. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  8. Fitness levels and physical activity among class A drug users entering prison.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jan; Butt, Christine; Dawes, Helen; Foster, Charlie; Neale, Joanne; Plugge, Emma; Wheeler, Carly; Wright, Nat

    2012-12-01

    Physical activity could benefit drug users' physiological and mental health. Previous research has suggested that physical activity levels change when drug users enter prison. Twenty-five class A drug users who were new to prison answered physical activity and drug use cross-sectional questionnaires, took a submaximal fitness test and wore a pedometer for 1 week. Participants' mean aerobic capacity was estimated as 49 mls O2/kg/min (±12 SD). Their mean self-reported walking distance outside of prison was 4.67 miles on an average day (±4.14 SD). Pedometer data suggest they walked a mean of 1.8 miles/day in prison. Many class A drug users entering prison had high levels of fitness and physical activity before admission, often gained from walking. Walking activity reduced when they entered prison, posing a challenge to maintaining healthy activity levels.

  9. Physical activity levels of older adults receiving a home care service.

    PubMed

    Burton, Elissa; Lewin, Gill; Boldy, Duncan

    2013-04-01

    The 3 study objectives were to compare the activity levels of older people who had received a restorative home care service with those of people who had received "usual" home care, explore the predictors of physical activity in these 2 groups, and determine whether either group met the minimum recommended activity levels for their age group. A questionnaire was posted to 1,490 clients who had been referred for a home care service between 2006 and 2009. Older people who had received a restorative care service were more active than those who had received usual care (p = .049), but service group did not predict activity levels when other variables were adjusted for in a multiple regression. Younger individuals who were in better physical condition, with good mobility and no diagnosis of depression, were more likely to be active. Investigation of alternatives to the current exercise component of the restorative program is needed.

  10. Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level.

    PubMed

    Richter, H O; Zetterberg, C; Forsman, M

    2015-07-01

    To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work. The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19-47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through -3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through -3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and trapezius muscle activity were recorded in parallel. General estimating equation analyses showed that trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time in all four lens conditions. A concurrent effect of accommodation response on trapezius muscle activity was observed with the minus lenses irrespective of whether incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present or not. Trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time during the near work task. The increase in muscle activity over time may be caused by an increased need of mental effort and visual attention to maintain performance during the visual tasks to counteract mental fatigue.

  11. Associations between perceived institutional support, job enjoyment, and intentions to work in the United Kingdom: national questionnaire survey of first year doctors.

    PubMed

    Lachish, Shelly; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor

    2016-05-23

    Identifying factors that improve job satisfaction of new doctors and ease the difficult transition from student to doctor is of great interest to public health agencies. Studies to date have focused primarily on the value of changes to medical school curricula and induction processes in this regard, but have overlooked the extent to which institutional support can influence new doctors' enjoyment of and attitude to work. Here, we examine variation in the perceived level of support received by new medical graduates in the United Kingdom (UK) from their employer and whether this influences enjoyment of and attitudes to the first postgraduate year, and whether doctors who perceived a lower level of support were less inclined to intend a long term career in medicine in the UK. All UK medical graduates of 2012 were surveyed in 2013 in a cross-sectional study, towards the end of their first post-graduate year (the 'F1' year of the 2-year Foundation Training Programme for new UK doctors). We used linear regression to assess whether the level of support doctors reported receiving from their employing Trust (Very Good, Good, Adequate, Poor, or Very Poor) was associated with the extent to which they enjoyed their F1 year. Similarly, we assessed the strength of associations between self-reported level of Trust support and doctors' responses to 12 statements about fundamental aspects of their working lives, each assessed on a 5-point scale of agreement. Using χ (2) tests we examined whether doctors' intentions to practise medicine in the UK varied with the level of support they reported receiving from their Trust. The response rate was 45 % (2324/5171). Of 2324 responding junior doctors, 63.8 % reported receiving 'Very Good' (23.6 %) or 'Good' (40.2 %) initial support from their Trust, while a further 27.4 % stated they received 'Adequate' support. 'Poor' support was reported by 5.8 % and 'Very Poor' support by 2.2 %. We found very strong positive associations between

  12. Parents' and Children's Perceptions of the Keep It Moving! After-School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Wegner, Rebekah L.; Miller, Daniel J.; Liebert, Mina L.; Smith, Jennifer Howard

    2015-01-01

    After-school PA programs have been used as an outlet to help children increase PA levels. To attract children and their parents, it is important to understand perceptions about programs. With child and parent input, researchers and practitioners will better be able to increase PA with activities the children enjoy and encourage increased PA. A…

  13. Physical activity levels and patterns of 11-14 year-old Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kin-Isler, Ayse; Asci, F Hulya; Altintas, Atakan; Guven-Karahan, Bengu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined age and gender differences in physical activity levels and various physical activity patterns of 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents and also determined if these differ between genders. Six hundred and fifty girls and 666 boys between the ages of 11 and 14 years constituted the sample of this study. Participants self-reported physical activity levels and patterns were determined by a Weekly Activity Checklist. A 2 x 4 (Gender x Age) MANOVA revealed overall significant main effect of gender and age on the physical activity level of adolescents; however, gender x age interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an interaction effect was not significant. The findings indicated an age-related decline in physical activity level, an increase in participation in low activities, and a decrease in participation in moderate and vigorous activities in 11-14-year-old Turkish adolescents. In addition it was found that boys were more active than girls and participated more in moderate and vigorous activities.

  14. Physical activity levels and participation in sport in Irish people with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Sherlock, E; O'Donnell, J S; White, B; Blake, C

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity and sport are associated with a range of health and social benefits. The aim of this study was to assess the level of sports participation and physical activity of Irish people with haemophilia (PWH). A questionnaire was administered to Irish PWH attending the National Centre for Hereditary Coagulation Disorders over a 3-month period. This included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL). Comparisons with EU average data from European Physical Activity Surveillance System for physical activity scores (IPAQ) were made using independent t-tests and percentage variance. Relationships between age, functional limitation (based on HAL) and IPAQ scores were tested with Pearson's correlation. Sixty-one questionnaires were completed, representing 12% of the Irish haemophilia population. Age ranged from 16 to 63; all levels of severity were included. Forty-six percent of Irish PWH achieved a high level of physical activity, but overall physical activity [total metabolic equivalents of task (MET) min] in the group was only 66% of the EU average. Elderly patients and those with more functional limitations (with lower HAL scores) were significantly less active. Sports participation levels were in line with other PWH at 66%. Although 55% reported bleeds resulting from sport and 31% reported having had a significant injury attributable to sport, overall sport was viewed in a positive light. Irish PWH are physically active and play a wide range of sports. Further efforts are needed to achieve optimal safety and to ensure that maximum benefit is gained.

  15. White blood cell counts mediate the effects of physical activity on prostate-specific antigen levels.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Richart, Sarah M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether white blood cell (WBC) level mediated the relationship between physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; 1,726 U.S. adult men (aged 40 years or older) provided complete data on the study variables. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for a 7-day period to measure their physical activity behavior, and PSA and WBC levels were obtained from a blood sample. After adjustments, results showed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely associated with WBC count (b = - .03; 95% CI [ - 0.04, - 0.006; p = .01), and WBC count (b = .10; 95% CI [0.009, 0.18; p = .04) was positively associated with PSA. Both the Sobel (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 2.0; p = .03) and the Aroian (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 1.9; p = .03) tests demonstrated that WBC mediated the relationship between physical activity and PSA. Additionally, among 107 participants with prostate cancer, survivors engaging in more MVPA had lower levels of WBC (b = - .04; 95% CI [ - 0.09, - 0.0009; p = .04). Conclusion Physical activity may influence PSA levels through WBC modulation; however, future research is needed to determine the direction of causality. Additionally, prostate cancer survivors engaging in higher levels of MVPA had lower levels of WBC, underscoring the importance of promoting physical activity among prostate cancer survivors.

  16. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Activity Levels in Catatonic Schizophrenia Decrease after Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Misako; Miyaoka, Tsuyoshi; Araki, Tomoko; Hayashida, Maiko; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Horiguchi, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in schizophrenia has been detected by electrophysiological methods, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Several studies have suggested that measuring salivary alpha-amylase activity levels is useful for evaluating the ANS activity and that sAA levels increase in schizophrenia and correlate with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) scores. However, no study has examined the relationship between sAA activity levels and symptoms of schizophrenia with catatonic state. We present the case of a 59-year-old female with persistent catatonic schizophrenia treated by electroconvulsive therapy. We evaluated the ANS activity by measuring sAA activity levels before and after ECT, and we evaluated her symptoms using the BPRS and Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS). ECT was highly effective and BPRS and BFCRS scores substantially decreased. sAA activity levels decreased from 125 kU/l to 33 kU/l. sAA activity levels could be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia with catatonic state.

  17. Activation of β-adrenoceptor facilitates active avoidance learning through enhancement of glutamate levels in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Feng, Hao; Chen, Ling; Wang, Wei-Yao; Yue, Xue-Ling; Jin, Qing-Hua

    2017-10-18

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely accepted as the best studied model for neurophysiological mechanisms that could underlie learning and memory formation. Despite a number of studies indicating that β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is involved in the modulation of learning and memory as well as LTP, few studies have used glutamate release as a visual indicator in awake animals to explore the role of β-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of propranolol (an antagonist of β-adrenoceptor) and isoproterenol (an agonist of β-adrenoceptor) on extracellular concentrations of glutamate and amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential were measured in the DG region during active avoidance learning in freely moving conscious rats. In the control group, the glutamate level in the DG was significantly increased during the acquisition of active avoidance behavior and returned to basal level following extinction training. In propranolol group, antagonism of β-adrenoceptors in the DG significantly reduced the change in glutamate level, and the acquisition of the active avoidance behavior was significantly inhibited. In contrast, the change in glutamate level was significantly enhanced by isoproterenol, and the acquisition of the active avoidance behavior was significantly accelerated. Furthermore, in all groups, the changes in glutamate level were accompanied by corresponding changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude and active avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that activation of β-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal DG facilitates active avoidance learning by modulations of glutamate level and synaptic efficiency in rats.

  18. Serum vaspin levels are associated with physical activity or physical fitness in Japanese: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Wada, Jun; Nakatsuka, Atsuko; Sakano, Noriko; Teshigawara, Sanae; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tabata, Izumi; Numata, Takeyuki

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the link between serum vaspin levels and physical activity and/or physical fitness in Japanese. A total of 156 subjects (81 men and 75 women) was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum vaspin levels, physical activity by uniaxial accelerometers, peak oxygen uptake, and metabolic risk parameters were evaluated. We also assessed anthropometric and body composition parameters. Serum vaspin levels were over the level of 10 ng/mL in 15 subjects (9.6 %: Vaspin High group). In Vaspin Low group (<5 ng/mL: 74 men and 67 women), serum vaspin levels were 0.12 ± 0.18 ng/mL in men and 0.39 ± 0.70 ng/mL in women. Peak oxygen uptake was significantly and positively correlated with serum vaspin levels even after adjusting for age, physical activity evaluated by Σ[metabolic equivalents × h per week (METs[Symbol: see text]h/w)], BMI, and other confounding factors in men. In turn, physical activity was significantly and positively correlated with serum vaspin levels even after adjusting for confounding factors in women. Serum vaspin levels were closely associated with physical fitness in men and physical activity in women independent of body composition in this Japanese cohort.

  19. Habitual physical activity and estradiol levels in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Jasienska, Grazyna; Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Thune, Inger; Lipson, Susan F; Ellison, Peter T

    2006-10-01

    Variation in the risk of breast cancer observed among women and among populations may be explained by variation in lifetime exposure to estrogens. The suppressive effect of exercise on estradiol levels in women is well documented, but it is unknown whether habitual (i.e. typical daily) physical activity has a similar effect. Epidemiological data suggest that physical activity is one of the few modifiable factors capable of reducing the risk of breast cancer in women. We investigated whether variation in the amount of habitual activity corresponds to variation in estradiol levels in women of reproductive age. One hundred and thirty-nine regularly menstruating women 24-37 years of age collected daily saliva samples for one complete menstrual cycle and kept a daily log of physical activity. Saliva samples were analyzed for concentration of estradiol. We observed a negative relationship between habitual physical activity and salivary levels of estradiol. Mean estradiol was 21.1 pmol/l in the low, 17.9 pmol/l in the moderate and 16.6 pmol/l in the high activity group (all pairwise differences were statistically significant at P<0.009). A strong association exists between physical activity and levels of estradiol among women of reproductive age. A modern lifestyle, characterized by reduced physical activity, may therefore contribute to a rise in the levels of estradiol produced during menstrual cycles and thus to higher cumulative lifetime exposure to estradiol, resulting in a higher risk of breast cancer.

  20. Does feedback on daily activity level from a Smart watch during inpatient stroke rehabilitation increase physical activity levels? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun; Steins, Dax; Sun, Shanbin; Li, Fei; Amor, James D; James, Christopher J; Xia, Zhidao; Dawes, Helen; Izadi, Hooshang; Cao, Yi; Wade, Derick T

    2018-03-09

    Practicing activities improves recovery after stroke, but many people in hospital do little activity. Feedback on activity using an accelerometer is a potential method to increase activity in hospital inpatients. This study's goal is to investigate the effect of feedback, enabled by a Smart watch, on daily physical activity levels during inpatient stroke rehabilitation and the short-term effects on simple functional activities, primarily mobility. A randomized controlled trial will be undertaken within the stroke rehabilitation wards of the Second Affiliated hospital of Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China. The study participants will be stroke survivors who meet inclusion criteria for the study, primarily: able to participate, no more than 4 months after stroke and walking independently before stroke. Participants will all receive standard local rehabilitation and will be randomly assigned either to receive regular feedback about activity levels, relative to a daily goal tailored by the smart watch over five time periods throughout a working day, or to no feedback, but still wearing the Smart watch. The intervention will last up to 3 weeks, ending sooner if discharged. The data to be collected in all participants include measures of daily activity (Smart watch measure); mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index and 10-metre walking time); independence in personal care (Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Index); overall activities (the World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale, 12-item version); and quality of life (the Euro-Qol 5L5D). Data will be collected by assessors blinded to allocation of the intervention at baseline, 3 weeks or at discharge (whichever is the sooner); and a reduced data set will be collected at 12 weeks by telephone interview. The primary outcome will be change in daily accelerometer activity scores. Secondary outcomes are compliance and adherence to wearing the watch, and changes in mobility

  1. What Matters When Children Play: Influence of Social Cognitive Theory and Perceived Environment on Levels of Physical Activity Among Elementary-Aged Youth

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Brook E.; Nigg, Claudio R.; Long, Camonia; Amato, Katie; Anwar, Mahabub-Ul; Kutchman, Eve; Anthamatten, Peter; Browning, Raymond C.; Brink, Lois; Hill, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) has often been used as a guide to predict and modify physical activity (PA) behavior. We assessed the ability of commonly investigated SCT variables and perceived school environment variables to predict PA among elementary students. We also examined differences in influences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic students. Design This analysis used baseline data collected from eight schools who participated in a four-year study of a combined school-day curriculum and environmental intervention. Methods Data were collected from 393 students. A 3-step linear regression was used to measure associations between PA level, SCT variables (self-efficacy, social support, enjoyment), and perceived environment variables (schoolyard structures, condition, equipment/supervision). Logistic regression assessed associations between variables and whether students met PA recommendations. Results School and sex explained 6% of the moderate-to-vigorous PA models' variation. SCT variables explained an additional 15% of the models' variation, with much of the model's predictive ability coming from self-efficacy and social support. Sex was more strongly associated with PA level among Hispanic students, while self-efficacy was more strongly associated among non-Hispanic students. Perceived environment variables contributed little to the models. Conclusions Our findings add to the literature on the influences of PA among elementary-aged students. The differences seen in the influence of sex and self-efficacy among non-Hispanic and Hispanic students suggests these are areas where PA interventions could be tailored to improve efficacy. Additional research is needed to understand if different measures of perceived environment or perceptions at different ages may better predict PA. PMID:24772004

  2. Level of agreement between physical activity levels measured by ActiHeart and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in persons with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Moss, Sarah J; Czyz, Stanislaw H

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of agreement between objective physical activity (PA) (ActiHeart ® ) and subjective proxy-respondent International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version (IPAQ-S) data in adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Fifty-eight participants wore ActiHeart ® monitors for seven consecutive days. Caregivers of each participant completed the IPAQ-S on behalf of the participant. Total PA, time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous activity as well as time spent being sedentary were assessed by the IPAQ-S and the ActiHeart ® . Results were compared by means of correlation analyses. The level of agreement was presented with Bland-Altman plots. Objective PA (ActiHeart ® ) was higher (225.57 ± 91.96 min/week) than IPAQ-S PA reported by care-givers (177.06 ± 309.17 min/week). Weak significant correlations were observed between the ActiHeart ® and IPAQ-S instruments for sedentary behavior (r = 0.31; p = 0.04); no significant correlations for light (r= -0.04; p = 0.8), moderate (r= -0.07; p = 0.63), or vigorous PA (r= -0.2; p = 0.18) were found. Limited agreement between objectively determine PA (ActiHeart ® ) and IPAQ-S was found. IPAQ-S is inaccurate when determining PA in persons with ID as it significantly underestimates the true levels of PA in this cohort. Implications for Rehabilitation Persons with intellectual disability (ID) report insufficient physical activity for health benefits. Physical activity is often determined by means of subjective proxy reporting. Objective physical activity measurements by means of combined heart rate and accelerometer are necessary to determine accurate levels of physical activity in persons with ID. Exercise interventions should be based on objective physical activity measurements.

  3. [Physical activity levels among Colombian adults: inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status].

    PubMed

    González, Silvia; Lozano, Óscar; Ramírez, Andrea; Grijalba, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide studies show inequalities in physical activity levels related to socio-demographic characteristics. In Colombia, among the countries in Latin America with the highest inequality, the evidence related to inequalities in physical activity is limited. It is imperative to identify disparities in physical activity in the country, to guide the design of public policies aimed at promoting physical activity. 1) To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of meeting physical activity recommendations; 2) to assess inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status in meeting physical activity recommendations, and 3) to assess the trends in physical activity prevalence within a five-year period. A secondary analysis of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey was conducted. The sample included 27,243 adults. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure leisure time and transport domains. Socioeconomic status was measured by the Sisben level. Compared to men, women were less likely to meet physical activity recommendations in all domains. Compared to adults from high socioeconomic-status households, low socioeconomic-status adults had a lower prevalence of meeting physical activity recommendations during leisure time and the highest prevalence of using a bicycle for transport. The factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations differed by gender and physical activity domain. Household and individual variables explained 13.6% of the inequalities observed by gender, and 23.2% of the inequalities by socioeconomic status. In a five-year period, the prevalence of physical activity in leisure time decreased, while the physical activity of walking for transport increased and biking for transport did not change. Future interventions to increase physical activity levels in Colombia must consider inequalities by gender and socioeconomic status. Of special concern is the low prevalence of meeting physical activity

  4. PRN 96-8: Toxicologically Significant Levels of Pesticide Active Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice sets out EPA's interpretation of the term toxicologically significant as it applies to contaminants in pesticide products that are also pesticide active ingredients. It provides risk-based concentration levels of such contaminants.

  5. Capturing system level activities and impacts of mental health consumer-run organizations.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Rich; Nelson, Geoffrey; Hausfather, Nadia; Ochocka, Joanna

    2007-06-01

    Since the 1970s mental health consumer-run organizations have come to offer not only mutual support, but they have also adopted agendas for broader social change. Despite an awareness of the need for system level efforts that create supportive environments for their members, there has been limited research demonstrating how their system level activities can be documented or their impacts evaluated. The purpose of this paper is to feature a method of evaluating systems change activities and impacts. The paper is based on a longitudinal study evaluating four mental health consumer-run organizations in Ontario, Canada. The study tracked system level activities and impacts using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. The article begins by describing the development and implementation of these methods. Next it offers a critical analysis of the methods used. It concludes by reflecting on three lessons learned about capturing system level activities and impacts of mental health consumer-run organizations.

  6. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  7. Activity Level Assessment Using a Smart Cushion for People with a Sedentary Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Ma, Congcong; Li, Wenfeng; Gravina, Raffaele; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Qimeng; Fortino, Giancarlo

    2017-10-03

    As a sedentary lifestyle leads to numerous health problems, it is important to keep constant motivation for a more active lifestyle. A large majority of the worldwide population, such as office workers, long journey vehicle drivers and wheelchair users, spends several hours every day in sedentary activities. The postures that sedentary lifestyle users assume during daily activities hide valuable information that can reveal their wellness and general health condition. Aiming at mining such underlying information, we developed a cushion-based system to assess their activity levels and recognize the activity from the information hidden in sitting postures. By placing the smart cushion on the chair, we can monitor users' postures and body swings, using the sensors deployed in the cushion. Specifically, we construct a body posture analysis model to recognize sitting behaviors. In addition, we provided a smart cushion that effectively combine pressure and inertial sensors. Finally, we propose a method to assess the activity levels based on the evaluation of the activity assessment index (AAI) in time sliding windows. Activity level assessment can be used to provide statistical results in a defined period and deliver recommendation exercise to the users. For practical implications and actual significance of results, we selected wheelchair users among the participants to our experiments. Features in terms of standard deviation and approximate entropy were compared to recognize the activities and activity levels. The results showed that, using the novel designed smart cushion and the standard deviation features, we are able to achieve an accuracy of (>89%) for activity recognition and (>98%) for activity level recognition.

  8. Levels of physical activity in patients with severe psoriasis: a cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Tiago; Alexandre, José Manuel; Mendonça, Denisa; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Silva, Berta Martins; Selores, Manuela

    2014-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, secondary to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and premature atherosclerosis. Physical activity is a vital component in prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have examined the level of physical activity in psoriasis patients, using validated questionnaires or other objective assessment tools. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare physical activity undertaken by patients with severe psoriasis and healthy controls, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S), a validated instrument for assessing physical activity. Ninety patients with severe plaque-type psoriasis and 160 healthy subjects were enrolled in the present study. Physical activity was evaluated using IPAQ-S. Psoriasis patients had reduced levels of physical activity compared with non-psoriasis patients, regardless of sex or whether the variable was continuous or categorical. The odds ratio for low-level physical activity for psoriasis patients, compared with controls, was 3.42 (95% CI 1.47-7.91), indicating that this severe psoriasis population did not undertake recommended levels of physical activity. Psoriasis patients exhibit decreased levels of physical activity, possibly for both psychological and physiological reasons. The lack of physical activity may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in psoriasis patients, in addition to the intrinsic risks related to systemic inflammation and psoriasis-linked comorbidities. Regular physical activity should be encouraged in all psoriasis patients because of its beneficial effects on systemic inflammation and cardiometabolic comorbidities associated with psoriasis.

  9. Activity Level Assessment Using a Smart Cushion for People with a Sedentary Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenfeng; Gravina, Raffaele; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Qimeng

    2017-01-01

    As a sedentary lifestyle leads to numerous health problems, it is important to keep constant motivation for a more active lifestyle. A large majority of the worldwide population, such as office workers, long journey vehicle drivers and wheelchair users, spends several hours every day in sedentary activities. The postures that sedentary lifestyle users assume during daily activities hide valuable information that can reveal their wellness and general health condition. Aiming at mining such underlying information, we developed a cushion-based system to assess their activity levels and recognize the activity from the information hidden in sitting postures. By placing the smart cushion on the chair, we can monitor users’ postures and body swings, using the sensors deployed in the cushion. Specifically, we construct a body posture analysis model to recognize sitting behaviors. In addition, we provided a smart cushion that effectively combine pressure and inertial sensors. Finally, we propose a method to assess the activity levels based on the evaluation of the activity assessment index (AAI) in time sliding windows. Activity level assessment can be used to provide statistical results in a defined period and deliver recommendation exercise to the users. For practical implications and actual significance of results, we selected wheelchair users among the participants to our experiments. Features in terms of standard deviation and approximate entropy were compared to recognize the activities and activity levels. The results showed that, using the novel designed smart cushion and the standard deviation features, we are able to achieve an accuracy of (>89%) for activity recognition and (>98%) for activity level recognition. PMID:28972556

  10. Leisure-time physical activity behavior: structured and unstructured choices according to sex, age, and level of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Esculcas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of this cross-sectional survey were (a) to describe the associations between sex, age, and physical activity behavior and (b) to describe the age and sex-related associations with the choice of structured (formal) and unstructured (nonformal) physical activity programs. At baseline, data were selected randomly from 1,013 students, from the 7th to the 12th grades. A response rate of 73% (n = 739) was obtained. Accordingly, the sample of this study consisted of 594 adolescents (304 females and 290 males) with mean age of 15.9 years (range 13-20). Physical activity was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A questionnaire about leisure activities was applied to the sample to define the nominal variable "nature of physical activity." The data showed that significantly more girls than boys (p < or = .001) belonged to the sedentary group (80.7% girls) and low activity group (64.5% girls). Boys more frequently belonged to the more active groups (92.1%; p < or = .001). The older participants were more engaged in formal physical activities, whereas the younger mostly chose informal ones whatever their level of physical activity. There were more significant differences in girls' physical activity groups (chi 2 = 20.663, p < or = .001) than in boys' (chi 2 = 7.662, p < or = .05). Furthermore, active girls chose more structured physical activities than their sedentary counterparts (18.8% vs. 83.3%). However, boys preferred unstructured activities regardless of physical activity group (83.7% vs. 58.5%; p < or = .05). It can be concluded that as age increased, organized sports activities became a relatively more important component of total weekly activity for both male and female participants.

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) levels are increased in active acromegaly patients.

    PubMed

    Karci, Alper Cagri; Canturk, Zeynep; Tarkun, Ilhan; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2017-07-01

    During follow-up of acromegaly patients, there is a discordance rate of 30% between the measurements of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels. Further tests are required to determine disease activity in patients with discordant results. This study was planned to investigate an association of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B with disease activity in acromegaly patients. In this study, 64 acromegaly patients followed in our clinic were divided into two groups according to the 2010 consensus criteria for cure of acromegaly as patients with active disease (n = 24) and patients with controlled disease (n = 40). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and cathepsin B levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The mean serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level was significantly higher in the active acromegaly patients than in the controlled acromegaly patients (150.1 ± 54.5 ng/mL vs. 100.2 ± 44.6 ng/mL; p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between the active and controlled acromegaly patients regarding serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin B levels (p = 0.205 and p = 0.598, respectively). Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels of 118.3 ng/mL and higher had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 77.5% in determining active disease. The risk of active acromegaly was 3.3 fold higher in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of >118.3 ng/mL than in the patients with a matrix metalloproteinase-2 level of <118.3 ng/mL. In this study, serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level is increased in the active acromegaly patients and a threshold value in determining active disease was defined for serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 level. This study is the first to compare acromegaly patients having active or controlled disease in terms of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9

  12. Dynamic optimization and conformity in health behavior and life enjoyment over the life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bejarano, Hernán D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Rassenti, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines individual and social influences on investments in health and enjoyment from immediate consumption. Our lab experiment mimics the problem of health investment over a lifetime (Grossman, 1972a,b). Incentives to find the appropriate expenditures on life enjoyment and health are given by making in each period come period a function of previous health investments. In order to model social effects in the experiment, we randomly assigned individuals to chat/observation groups. Groups were permitted to freely chat between repeated lifetimes. Two treatments were employed: In the Independent-rewards treatment, an individual's rewards from investments in life enjoyment depend only on his choice and in the Interdependent-rewards treatment; rewards not only depend on an individual's choices but also on their similarity to the choices of the others in their group, generating a premium on conformity. The principal hypothesis is that gains from conformity increase variance in health behavior among groups and can lead to suboptimal performance. We tested three predictions and each was supported by the data: the Interdependent-rewards treatment (1) decreased within-group variance, (2) increased between-group variance, and (3) increased the likelihood of behavior far from the optimum with respect to the dynamic problem. We also test and find support for a series of subsidiary hypotheses. We found: (4) Subjects engaged in helpful chat in both treatments; (5) there was significant heterogeneity among both subjects and groups in chat frequencies; and (6) chat was most common early in the experiment, and (7) the interdependent rewards treatment increased strategic chat frequency. Incentives for conformity appear to promote prosocial behavior, but also increase variance among groups, leading to convergence on suboptimal strategies for some groups. We discuss these results in light of the growing literature focusing on social networks and health outcomes. PMID

  13. STS-45 blue shift crewmembers enjoy eating a meal on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Commander Charles F. Bolden retrieves a straw from his meal tray assembly secured on the middeck ceiling as other blue shift crewmembers around him enjoy eating their meals. Below Bolden, Pilot Brian Duffy balances a meal tray assembly on his lap as a food package and spoon freefloat between his hands. Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout, holding a food package and a spoon, steadies himself while eating by positioning his feet under a forward locker handhold strap. In the background, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Kathryn D. Sullivan prepares to take a bite of food.

  14. Deliberate practice theory: relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice.

    PubMed

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2008-10-01

    This study examined three assumptions of the theory of deliberate practice for practice playing music on an electronic keyboard. 40 undergraduate students, divided into two separate groups, practiced one of two music sequences and rated the relevance of practice for improving performance on the sequences, the amount of effort needed to learn the sequences, and the inherent enjoyment of practice sessions. Findings for each assumption were consistent with those suggested by theory but also showed that perceptions are affected by the amount of practice completed and performance of the skill.

  15. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  16. Early androgens, activity levels and toy choices of children in the second year of life.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Saenz, Janet

    2012-09-01

    The hypothesis that stronger preferences for active play styles contribute to stronger preferences for male-typical toys was examined in 47 boys and 37 girls at 19-months of age using ambulatory monitoring technology (i.e., actigraphy) to measure activity levels during contact with male-typical, female-typical, and gender-neutral toys. Digit ratios and salivary testosterone levels were measured earlier in children at 3-4 months of age. There were no significant sex differences in digit ratios, salivary testosterone levels, or overall activity levels during toy play. In contrast, contact times showed large sex differences in infants' toy preferences. The within-sex comparisons showed that infant girls had significant preferences for female-typical toys over male-typical toys, whereas infant boys showed only a small preference for male-typical toys over female-typical toys. More male-typical digit ratios in early infancy predicted higher activity counts during toy play and less female-typical toy preferences in girls. However, in both sexes, activity levels were unrelated to toy preferences suggesting that factors other than activity level preferences contribute to the early emergence of gender-linked toy preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Playground usage and physical activity levels of children based on playground spatial features.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Anne K; Knapp, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Being outdoors is one of the strongest correlates of physical activity in children. Playgrounds are spaces especially designed to enable and foster physical activity in children. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the spatial features of public playgrounds and the usage and physical activity levels of children playing in them. A quantitative, observational study was conducted of ten playgrounds in one district of a middle-sized town in Germany. Playground spatial features were captured using an audit instrument and the playground manual of the town. Playground usage and physical activity levels of children were assessed using a modified version of the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth. Negative binomial models were used to analyze the count data. The number of children using the playgrounds and the number of children actively playing in them were higher in those with more varied facilities and without naturalness. Girls played more actively in playgrounds without multi-purpose areas. Cleanliness, esthetics, play facility quality, division of functional areas and playground size were not related to any outcome variable. Playground spatial features are related to playground usage and activity levels of the children in the playgrounds. Playgrounds should offer a wide variety of play facilities and provide spaces for diverse play activities to respond to the needs of large numbers of different children and to provide activity-friendly areas enabling their healthy development.

  18. Are children's activity levels determined by their genes or environment? A systematic review of twin studies.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Abigail; Smith, Lee; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H M; Sawyer, Alexia; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of physical activity to paediatric health warrants investigation into its determinants. Objective measurement allows a robust examination of genetic and environmental influences on physical activity. To systematically review the evidence on the extent of genetic and environmental influence on children's objectively-measured activity levels from twin studies. Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments and all Ovid Databases. Search terms: "accelerometer" OR "actometer" OR "motion sensor" OR "heart rate monitor" OR "physical activity energy expenditure" AND "twin". Limited to Human, English language and children (0-18 years). Seven sets of analyses were included in the review. Six analyses examined children's daily-life activity and found that the shared environment had a strong influence on activity levels (weighted mean 60%), with a smaller contribution from genetic factors (weighted mean 21%). Two analyses examined short-term, self-directed activity in a standard environment and found a smaller shared environment effect (weighted mean 25%) and a larger genetic estimate (weighted mean 45%). Although genetic influences may be expressed when children have brief opportunities for autonomous activity, activity levels in daily-life are predominantly explained by environmental factors. Future research should aim to identify key environmental drivers of childhood activity.

  19. Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable's the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. PMID:25887930

  20. IL-18 Serum Level in Adult Onset Still's Disease: A Marker of Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Colafrancesco, Serena; Priori, Roberta; Alessandri, Cristiano; Perricone, Carlo; Pendolino, Monica; Picarelli, Giovanna; Valesini, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Immunological factors seem to play a pivotal role in Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD). Among all, IL-18 cytokine is overexpressed and drives the inflammatory process. Objective. We aimed to investigate the levels of IL-18 in sera of Italian patients with AOSD and to assess its possible role as a marker of disease activity. Methods. IL-18 serum levels were determined by ELISA in 26 Italian patients with AOSD. Disease activity was assessed using Pouchot's criteria. As controls, 21 patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 21 patients with Sjogren's Syndrome (SS), 20 patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), and 21 healthy subjects (normal human sera, NHS) were evaluated. Results. IL-18 serum levels were significantly higher in patients with active AOSD than in non-active (P = 0.001) and control groups (RA P = 0.0070, SS P = 0.0029, SLE P = 0.0032, NHS P = 0.0004). A significant correlation between IL-18 serum levels and disease activity (P < 0.0001), and laboratory parameters as ferritin (P = 0.0127) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.0032) was demonstrated. Conclusions. Higher levels of IL-18 are detected in active AODS patients and correlate with disease activity and inflammatory laboratory features. ROC-AUC analysis of the serum concentration of IL-18 suggests that it can be considered a diagnostic marker of AOSD. This paper supports the targeting of this cytokine as a possible therapeutic option in AOSD. PMID:22762008

  1. Correlates of physical activity level among hemodialysis patients in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S W; Chan, Y M; Lim, T S

    2011-12-01

    There is mounting evidence demonstrating the importance of adequate physical activity to promote better well-being among hemodialysis patients. Available data pertaining to the levels of physical activity and its determinants among hemodialysis patients is, however, scarce in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are hence to determine the levels of physical activity and it associated factors among hemodialysis patients. A total of 70 subjects were recruited from three dialysis centres in Selangor. A face-to-face interview was conducted to obtain socio-demographic data and subjects' knowledge on dietary sources. Medical history, biochemical parameters and weight status were obtained from medical records. Physical activity level (PAL) was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). A total of 81.4% and 18.6% of the respondents had low and moderate PALs, respectively. Thus, none of the respondents had high PAL. Serum creatinine, education level, personal income and knowledge score on potassium-related medical complications were factors found to correlate significantly with PAL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher PAL was predicted by a lower knowledge score on dietary sodium source, higher education and higher serum creatinine. Despite consistent documentation of the potential positive impact of physical exercise on hemodialysis outcomes, the level of physical activity remains low among these patients. It is hoped that these findings can add to the existing body of knowledge and serve as a supporting document for the formulation of appropriate interventions to improve the status of physical activity among hemodialysis patients in Malaysia.

  2. Auto-induction for high level production of biologically active reteplase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Maghsoudi, Nader; Maghsoudi, Amirhossein; Niazi, Sepideh; Soleiman, Morvarid

    2018-06-07

    Reteplase is a third generation tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) with a modified structure and prolonged half-life in comparison to native tPA. As a non-glycosylated protein, reteplase is expressed in Escherichia coli. Due to presence of several disulfide bonds, high level production of reteplase is complicated and needs extra steps for conversion to biologically active form. Auto-induction represents a method for high-yield growth of bacterial cells and higher expression of recombinant proteins. Here we have tried to optimize the auto-induction procedure for soluble and active expression of reteplase in E. coli. Results showed that using auto-induction strategy at 37 °C, Rosetta-gami (DE3) had the highest level of active and soluble reteplase production in comparison to E. coli strains BL21 (DE3), and Shuffel T7. Temperature dominantly affected the level of active reteplase production. Decreasing the temperature to 25 and 18 °C increased the level of active reteplase by 20 and 60%, respectively. The composition of auto-induction medium also dramatically changed the active production of reteplase in cytoplasm. Using higher enriched auto-induction medium, super broth base including trace elements, significantly increased biologically active reteplase by 30%. It is demonstrated here that auto-induction is a powerful method for expression of biologically active reteplase in oxidative cytoplasm of Rosetta-gami. Optimizing expression condition by decreasing temperature and using an enriched auto-induction medium resulted in at least three times higher level of active reteplase production. Production of correctly folded and active reteplase in spite of its complex structure helps for removal of inefficient and cumbersome step of refolding. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Teaching Future Middle Level Educators to Craft Learning Activities That Enhance Young Adolescent Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Jason T.

    2016-01-01

    As social and academic forces begin to collide for young adolescents at the beginning of the middle level experience, students experience an unfortunate drop in their creativity. Appropriately trained middle level teachers have the potential to lessen this problem through the use of carefully selected open-ended learning activities that increase…

  4. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  5. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  6. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  7. Development of Speaking Skills through Activity Based Learning at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ul-Haq, Zahoor; Khurram, Bushra Ahmed; Bangash, Arshad Khan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses an effective instructional method called "activity based learning" that can be used to develop the speaking skills of students in the elementary school level. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of activity based learning on the development of the speaking skills of low and high achievers…

  8. Applying Active Learning at the Graduate Level: Merger Issues at Newco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Bruce K.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that active learning can benefit students in public relations and integrated communication courses at the graduate level. Describes how three active learning approaches--research and field work, student accountabilities for learning, and student reflection and reflexive exercises--were used in a graduate class project to help a Fortune 50…

  9. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  10. Physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Low, Sok Teng; Balaraman, Thirumalaya

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] To find the physical activity level and fall risk among the community-dwelling Malaysian older adults and determine the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted in which, the physical activity level was evaluated using the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity questionnaire and fall risk with Fall Risk Assessment Tool. Subjects recruited were 132 community-dwelling Malaysian older adults using the convenience sampling method. [Results] The majority of the participants were under the category of under-active regular light-activities and most of them reported low fall risk. The statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test did not show a significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk. [Conclusion] The majority of community-dwelling Malaysian older adults are performing some form of physical activity and in low fall risk category. But this study did not find any significant correlation between physical activity level and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia.

  11. [Impact of level of physical activity on healthcare utilization among Korean adults].

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyun; Park, Seungmi

    2012-04-01

    This study was done to identify the impact of physical activity on healthcare utilization among Korean adults. Drawing from the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV-2), data from 6,521 adults who completed the Health Interview and Health Behavior Surveys were analyzed. Association between physical activity and healthcare utilization was tested using the χ²-test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios of using outpatient and inpatient healthcare for different levels of physical activity after adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors. A generalized linear model applying a negative binomial distribution was used to determine how the level of physical activity was related to use of outpatient and inpatient healthcare. Physically active participants were 16% less likely to use outpatient healthcare (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97) and 23% less likely to use inpatient healthcare (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.93) than physically inactive participants. Levels of outpatient and inpatient healthcare use decreased as levels of physical activity increased, after adjusting for relevant factors. An independent association between being physically active and lower healthcare utilization was ascertained among Korean adults indicating a need to develop nursing intervention programs that encourage regular physical activity.

  12. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  13. Influence of gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling on students' enjoyment and achievement in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Mark; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-11-01

    This research investigates the influence that gender, single-sex and co-educational schooling can have on students' mathematics education in second-level Irish classrooms. Although gender differences in mathematics education have been the subject of research for many years, recent results from PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) show that there are still marked differences between the achievement and attitude of male and female students in Irish mathematics classrooms. This paper examines the influence of gender in more detail and also investigates the impact of single-sex or co-educational schooling. This is a follow on study which further analyses data collected by the authors when they designed a pedagogical framework and used this to develop, implement and evaluate a teaching intervention in four second-level Irish schools. The aim of this pedagogical framework was to promote student interest in the topic of algebra through effective teaching of the domain. This paper further analyses the quantitative data collected and investigates whether there were differences in students' enjoyment and achievement scores based on their gender and whether they attended single-sex or co-educational schools.

  14. Multidrug-Resistant TB: Implementing the Right to Health through the Right to Enjoy the Benefits of Scientific Progress.

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Cox, Helen; Coomans, Fons

    2016-06-01

    The right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress (REBSP) is a little-known but potentially valuable right that can contribute to rights-based approaches to addressing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). We argue that better understanding of the REBSP may help to advance legal and civil society action for health rights. While the REBSP does not provide an individual entitlement to have a new drug developed for MDR-TB, it sets up entitlements to expect a state to establish a legislative and policy framework aimed at developing scientific capacity to address the most important health issues and at disseminating the outcomes of scientific research. By making scientific findings available and accessible, people can be enabled to claim the use of science for social benefits. Inasmuch as the market fails to address neglected diseases such as MDR-TB, the REBSP provides a potential counterbalance to frame a positive obligation on states to both marshal their own resources and to coordinate the actions of multiple other actors towards this goal, including non-state actors. While the latter do not hold the same level of accountability as states, the REBSP can still enable the recognition of obligations at a level of "soft law" responsibilities.

  15. Older Adults' Opinions on Fall Prevention in Relation to Physical Activity Level.

    PubMed

    Tuvemo Johnson, Susanna; Martin, Cathrin; Anens, Elisabeth; Johansson, Ann-Christin; Hellström, Karin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe older adults' opinions regarding actions to prevent falls and to analyze differences in the opinions of highly versus less physically active older adults. An open-ended question was answered by 262 individuals aged 75 to 98 years living in the community. The answers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, and differences in the categories were compared between highly and less physically active persons. Physical activity was measured according to a five-level scale. The content analysis resulted in eight categories: assistive devices, avoiding hazards, behavioral adaptive strategies, being physically active, healthy lifestyle, indoor modifications, outdoor modifications, and seeking assistance. Behavioral adaptive strategies were mentioned to a greater extent by highly active people, and indoor modifications were more often mentioned by less active older adults. Support for active self-directed behavioral strategies might be important for fall prevention among less physically active older adults.

  16. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  17. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-08-15

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  18. Physical activity level and physical functionality in nonagenarians compared to individuals aged 60-74 years.

    PubMed

    Frisard, Madlyn I; Fabre, Jennifer M; Russell, Ryan D; King, Christina M; DeLany, James P; Wood, Robert H; Ravussin, Eric

    2007-07-01

    Functional dependence and the risks of disability increase with age. The loss of independence is thought to be partially due to a decrease in physical activity. However, in populations, accurate measurement of physical activity is challenging and may not provide information on functional impairment. This study therefore assessed physical functionality and physical activity level in a group of nonagenarians (11 men/11 women; 93+/-1 years, 66.6+/-2.4 kg, body mass index [BMI]=24+/-1 kg/m2) and a group of participants aged 60-74 years (17 men/15 women; 70+/-1 years, 83.3+/-3.0 kg, BMI=29+/-1 kg/m2) from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study. Physical activity level was calculated from total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR). Physical functionality was assessed using the Reduced Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance Test (CS-PFP10). Nonagenarians had lower absolute (p<.001) and adjusted (p<.007) TEE compared to participants aged 60-74 years which was attributed to a reduction in both RMR and physical activity level. Nonagenarians also had reduced functional performance (p<.001) which was correlated with activity level (r=0.68, p<.001). When compared to individuals aged 60-74 years, 73% of the reduction in TEE in nonagenarians can be attributed to a reduction in physical activity level, the remaining being accounted for by a reduction in RMR. The reduced physical activity in nonagenarians is associated with less physical functionality. This study provides the first objective comparison of physical functionality and actual levels of physical activity in older individuals.

  19. A phosphatase threshold sets the level of Cdk1 activity in early mitosis in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Stacy L.; Enciso, Germán; Dephoure, Noah; Gygi, Steven P.; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Kellogg, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    Entry into mitosis is initiated by synthesis of cyclins, which bind and activate cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1). Cyclin synthesis is gradual, yet activation of Cdk1 occurs in a stepwise manner: a low level of Cdk1 activity is initially generated that triggers early mitotic events, which is followed by full activation of Cdk1. Little is known about how stepwise activation of Cdk1 is achieved. A key regulator of Cdk1 is the Wee1 kinase, which phosphorylates and inhibits Cdk1. Wee1 and Cdk1 show mutual regulation: Cdk1 phosphorylates Wee1, which activates Wee1 to inhibit Cdk1. Further phosphorylation events inactivate Wee1. We discovered that a specific form of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2ACdc55) opposes the initial phosphorylation of Wee1 by Cdk1. In vivo analysis, in vitro reconstitution, and mathematical modeling suggest that PP2ACdc55 sets a threshold that limits activation of Wee1, thereby allowing a low constant level of Cdk1 activity to escape Wee1 inhibition in early mitosis. These results define a new role for PP2ACdc55 and reveal a systems-level mechanism by which dynamically opposed kinase and phosphatase activities can modulate signal strength. PMID:21849476

  20. Social and productive activities and health among partnered older adults: A couple-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jack; Bolano, Danilo

    2018-04-16

    We theorize and test the health of older adults as a result of their activity engagement, as well as a product of their spouse's engagement. We draw on 15 waves of couple-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. Using responses of time engaged in nine different activities, we estimate Latent Class Models to describe activity profiles of partnered older adults. Given potential health selections into activity engagement, we lag older adults' activity engagement by one wave to examine its association with subsequent health. We then investigate associations between the lag of the spouse's activities with respondents' health, controlling for their own activity engagement at the previous wave. We find four activity profiles for men, and three for women. Respondents who were predominantly engaged in community activities generally report better subsequent health. Beyond their own activity engagement, for both older men and women, having a partner who was also community engaged associate with better subsequent health, though for older women, there were little differences between having a husband who was community engaged or inactive. Our findings highlight the value of considering activities of partnered older adults at the couple level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Canadian population trends in leisure-time physical activity levels, 1981-1998.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Marny J; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2002-12-01

    Age, sex, geographic and temporal trends in leisure-time physical activity levels were examined using data from five national surveys conducted between 1981 and 1998. Physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) was higher among men compared to women, and in younger versus older adults. AEE increased from Eastern to Western Canada, with a significant temporal trend of increasing AEE. The prevalence of physical inactivity (expending <12.6 kJ x kg(-1) x day(-1) has decreased; however, it remains high (women: 77%; men: 74%). The high prevalence of physical inactivity emphasizes the importance of population-level physical activity surveillance and interventions.

  2. Evidence that elevated CO2 levels can indirectly increase rhizosphere denitrifier activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Stark, J. M.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined the influence of elevated CO2 concentration on denitrifier enzyme activity in wheat rhizoplanes by using controlled environments and solution culture techniques. Potential denitrification activity was from 3 to 24 times higher on roots that were grown under an elevated CO2 concentration of 1,000 micromoles of CO2 mol-1 than on roots grown under ambient levels of CO2. Nitrogen loss, as determined by a nitrogen mass balance, increased with elevated CO2 levels in the shoot environment and with a high NO3- concentration in the rooting zone. These results indicated that aerial CO2 concentration can play a role in rhizosphere denitrifier activity.

  3. THE EFFECT OF GAMBLING ACTIVITIES ON HAPPINESS LEVELS OF NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Mark R; Nastally, Becky L; Waterman, Amber

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effect of participating in simulated gambling activities on happiness levels of 3 nursing home residents. A 4-component analysis was used to measure objective responses associated with happiness during baseline, varying durations of engagement in simulated gambling activities, and 2 follow-up periods. Results indicated that all residents exhibited a higher percentage of happiness levels while engaged in simulated gambling activities compared with baseline. Follow-up assessment took place 10 min and 30 min following the intervention; no lasting effects were observed. PMID:21358915

  4. Depression and insomnia are independently associated with satisfaction and enjoyment of life in medication-overuse headache patients.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Lamis, Dorian A; Serafini, Gianluca; Ricci, Federica; Migliorati, Monica; Bellini, Samantha; Erbuto, Denise; Mazza, Marianna; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Martelletti, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Objective Medication-overuse headache is often comorbid with emotional disturbances and disordered personality traits. The aim of the present study was to determine whether depression and insomnia complaints were associated with satisfaction and enjoyment with one's own life in medication-overuse headache patients, and whether insomnia complaints were able to explain part of the variance of Quality of Life explained by depression. Methods Participants were 187 consecutive adult outpatients admitted to the Regional Referral Headache Centre of the Sant'Andrea Hospital in Rome, Italy. Patients were administered the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory - II, and the Athens Insomnia Scale. Results The Beck Depression Inventory was associated with all the dimensions of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, with more severe depression being associated independently with lower satisfaction and enjoyment with one's own life. The Athens Insomnia Scale was independently and significantly associated only with physical health, such that patients with more insomnia complaints were 3.1 times ( p < 0.001) more likely to report lower physical health satisfaction. Conclusions Our findings confirmed that medication-overuse headache patients has a negative impact on quality of life and suggested that depression and insomnia were independently associated with satisfaction and enjoyment of life in medication-overuse headache patients. The early recognition and appropriate treatment of comorbid psychopathological symptoms are crucial to improve satisfaction and enjoyment of life in medication-overuse headache patients.

  5. Explaining physical activity levels from a self-efficacy perspective: the physical activity counseling trial.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Chris M; Fortier, Michelle; Sweet, Shane; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Hogg, William; Reid, Robert D; Sigal, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    The Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) trial compared the effects of a 13-week primary care physical activity (PA) intervention that incorporated a PA counselor into a health care practice compared to a control condition on PA over a 25-week period and showed group differences in PA were present at 6 and 13 weeks. The main purpose was to examine the mediating effect of 6-week task and barrier self-efficacy on the intervention versus control group/13-week PA relationships. A secondary purpose was to determine whether task and barrier self-efficacy were significantly related to PA throughout the trial for both groups. Participants were primarily sedentary individuals who received a 2- to 4-min PA intervention from their primary care provider, after which they were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 61) or control condition (n = 59). Self-reported PA and task (barrier) self-efficacy measures were obtained during (i.e., baseline, 6 and 13 weeks) and after (i.e., 19 and 25 weeks) the intervention in both groups. Six-week task and barrier self-efficacy had a small mediating effect. Furthermore, barrier self-efficacy had a significant relationship with PA throughout the trial, whereas the relationship between task self-efficacy and PA became significantly weaker as the trial progressed. PAC interventions among primarily sedentary individuals should be partly based on barrier and task self-efficacy. However, the stability of the task self-efficacy/PA relationship needs further examination.

  6. [PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SCREE TIME AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FROM BOGOTÁ, COLOMBIA].

    PubMed

    Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2015-11-01

    to investigate the association between objective measures of physical activity levels, physical fitness and screen time in Colombia children and adolescents from Bogota, Colombia. a sample of 149 healthy Colombian youth, children and adolescents (9-17.9 years old) participated in the study. Physical activity level was assessed over 7 days using an accelerometer. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip waist, subscapular/ triceps skinfold thicknesses and self-reported screen time (television/internet and videogame-viewing time) were measured. Aerobic capacity, handgrip strength, standing broad jump, vertical jump, speed/agility and flexibility were used as indicators of physical fitness. in girls with a high level of physical activity had favorable aerobic capacity (r = 0.366) and inverse relationship with subscapular/triceps skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.257) and (r = -0,237) p < 0.05, respectively. In boys, vigorous physical activity were associated with higher values of flexibility (r = 0.277) and aerobic capacity (r = 0.347), p < 0.05. Finally, the participants who watched 2 h or less of television per day showed 1.81 times (95%CI 1.401 to 2.672) that met physical activity guidelines. the healthy Colombian youth who reported moderate to vigorous objective measures of physical activity levels, presented higher levels in physical fitness especially in aerobic capacity and flexibility and lower values in subscapular/triceps skinfold thicknesses. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Indoor Levels of Formaldehyde and Other Pollutants and Relationship to Air Exchange Rates and Human Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huangfu, Y.; O'Keeffe, P.; Kirk, M.; Walden, V. P.; Lamb, B. K.; Jobson, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports results on an indoor air quality study conducted on six homes in summer and winter, contrasting indoor and outdoor concentrations of O3, CO, CO2, NOx, PM2.5, and selected volatile organic hydrocarbons measured by PTR-MS. Data were collected as 1 minute averages. Air exchange rates of the homes were determined by CO2 tracer release. Smart home sensors, recording human activity level in various places in the home, and window and doors openings, were utilized to better understand the link between human activity and indoor air pollution. From our study, averaged air exchange rates of the homes ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 hour-1 and were greatly affected by the ventilation system type and window and door openings. In general, a negative correlation between air exchange rate and indoor VOCs levels was observed, with large variation of pollutant levels between the homes. For most of the VOCs measured in the house, including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, summer levels were much higher than winter levels. In some homes formaldehyde levels displayed a time of day variation that was linked to changes in indoor temperature. During a wildfire period in the summer of 2015, outdoor levels of PM2.5, formaldehyde, and benzene dramatically increased, significantly impacting indoor levels due to infiltration. Human activities, such as cooking, can significantly change the levels of most of the compounds measured in the house and the levels can be significantly elevated for short periods of time, with peak levels can be several orders higher compared with typical levels. The data suggest that an outcome of state energy codes that require new homes to be energy efficient, and as a consequence built with lower air exchange rates, will be unacceptable levels of air toxics, notably formaldehyde.

  8. Use of a consumer market activity monitoring and feedback device improves exercise capacity and activity levels in COPD.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Kaljo, Indira; Donnelly, Seamas

    2014-01-01

    COPD is associated with a gradual decline in physical activity, which itself contributes to a worsening of the underlying condition. Strategies that improve physical activity levels are critical to halt this cycle. Wearable sensor based activity monitoring and persuasive feedback might offer a potential solution. However it is not clear just how much intervention might be needed in this regard - i.e. whether programmes need to be tailored specifically for the target clinical population or whether more simple activity monitoring and feedback solutions, such as that offered in consumer market devices, might be sufficient. This research was carried out to investigate the impact of 4 weeks of using an off the shelf consumer market activity monitoring and feedback application on measures of physical activity, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in a population of 10 Stage I and II COPD patients. Results demonstrate a significant and positive effect on exercise capacity (measured using a 6-minute walk test) and activity levels (measured in terms of average number of steps per hour) yet no impact on health related quality of life (St Georges Respiratory Disease Questionnaire).

  9. Optics and Light Activities for Teachers of all Grade Levels from Easily Obtainable Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Richard; Hendricks, Curtis; Lucatorto, Lynn; McNeilus, Thomas; Thornton, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Several hands-on activities in light and optics covering selected topics will be discussed in the context of home labs and how such activities can be incorporated into a distance-learning or online web-based course utilizing the latest communication technologies and the Internet. The presentation will focus on activities that can be constructed from easy to obtain supplies as well as a commercially available kit that we are having made available. Activities for teachers at the elementary level will focus on understanding light rays, shadows, and reflection from plane surfaces; at the middle school level will focus on curved mirrors and lenses, dispersion, and drawing ray diagrams; at the high school level will focus on Snell's law, the lens equation, wave interference, polarization, Young's experiment, and diffraction. A distance-learning, web-based course based on these home labs will be described. )

  10. Associations between the lower esophageal sphincter function and the level of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Waśko-Czopnik, Dorota; Jóźków, Paweł; Dunajska, Katarzyna; Mędraś, Marek; Paradowski, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a very frequent and multifactorial disease. It has been found that GERD is associated with obesity, smoking, esophagitis, diet and lifestyle. Physical activity is among the factors involved in the occurrence of GERD. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between the different parameters of lower esophageal pressure (LES) and the level of everyday physical activity in patients with GERD. The authors examined 100 consecutive patients who underwent manometry and pH-metry because of symptoms suggesting GERD. Physical activity was assessed by means of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). In accordance with IPAQ categorical scoring, the authors divided the studied subjects into 3 groups according to their level of physical activity. The investigation comprised 59 men and 41 women, with the mean age 49 ± 14 years. The authors analyzed the relationships between the LES parameters (pressure, total LES length and HPZ length) and physical activity. The authors did not find any significant correlations between the studied parameters and the amount of physical activity. The authors also did not observe any association between the LES pressure and the level of physical activity. The subgroups distinguished on the basis of LESP did not differ as to the amount of everyday physical activity as well. Although most data indicates that intense exercise exacerbates GERD symptoms, the authors did not find any associations between LES parameters and physical activity. In view of the present results maintaining the recommended level of everyday physical activity does not interfere with the mechanisms of GERD.

  11. Enjoying food without caloric cost: The impact of brief mindfulness on laboratory eating outcomes.

    PubMed

    Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Della Porta, Matthew D; Kiken, Laura G; Tillman, Shanna

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have been increasingly applied to treat eating-related problems ranging from obesity to eating disorders. Yet few studies have empirically examined the mechanisms of a mindful approach to eating. The current studies examine the potential of brief mindfulness instructions to enhance the psychological and behavioral dimensions of eating. In three experiments (total N = 319 undergraduates), we examined whether brief mindfulness instructions would enhance the positive sensory experience involved in tasting food as well as healthy eating behaviors. Relative to distraction control instructions, the first two studies demonstrated that brief mindfulness instructions increased the enjoyment of a commonly pleasurable food (chocolate; Study 1), and a food with generally more mixed associations (raisins; Study 2). The third study replicated and extended these findings to show that brief mindfulness instructions also led to lower calorie consumption of unhealthy food relative to distracted or no-instruction control conditions, an effect mediated by greater eating enjoyment. Findings demonstrated the power of brief mindfulness instructions to positively impact both health-relevant behavior and sensory experience associated with eating food. Implications for both theory and clinical applications of mindfulness are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical Activity Level of Ambulatory Stroke Patients: Is it Related to Neuropsychological Factors?

    PubMed

    Ersöz Hüseyinsinoğlu, Burcu; Kuran Aslan, Gökşen; Tarakci, Devrim; Razak Özdinçler, Arzu; Küçükoğlu, Hayriye; Baybaş, Sevim

    2017-06-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for stroke and stroke recurrence. There is insufficient knowledge about the physical activity (PA) level in stroke patients who are ambulatory in the subacute phase. Our aim was to compare the PA level between ambulatory stroke patients and a population of the same age and to investigate neuropsychological factors that could affect the PA level in the same stroke group. Eighty-five subacute stroke patients and 58 healthy subjects were included. Patients' demographic features, disease-related features, and comorbidities were recorded. The PA level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Version and a pedometer (OMRON Walking style II). The Apathy Rating Scale was applied to determine the apathy level. Depression level was investigated by the Geriatric Depression Scale. The standardized Mini-mental State Examination was performed to assess the cognitive status. The PA level was significantly higher in the healthy group than in the stroke group (p<0.001). Step count and walking distance were significantly higher in healthy group (p=0.001 and p=0.04, respectively). The PA level of men was significantly higher than that of women (p=0.03). Participants who were classified as level 4 had a lower PA level than those who were classified as level 5 according to the Functional Ambulation Category. There was no relationship between the PA level and the apathy, cognitive, and depression levels in the stroke patients (p>0.05). Subacute stroke patients have a lower PA level than healthy subjects. This is not related to neuropsychological factors. The reasons for minor deficits related to ambulation should be researched further while developing strategies for increasing the PA level of subacute stroke patients.

  13. Activity and circadian rhythm influence synaptic Shank3 protein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Sarowar, Tasnuva; Chhabra, Resham; Vilella, Antonietta; Boeckers, Tobias M; Zoli, Michele; Grabrucker, Andreas M

    2016-09-01

    Various recent studies revealed that the proteins of the Shank family act as major scaffold organizing elements in the post-synaptic density of excitatory synapses and that their expression level is able to influence synapse formation, maturation and ultimately brain plasticity. An imbalance in Shank3 protein levels has been associated with a variety of neuropsychological and neurodegenerative disorders including autism spectrum disorders and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Given that sleep disorders and low melatonin levels are frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders, and that circadian rhythms may be able to modulate Shank3 signaling and thereby synaptic function, here, we performed in vivo studies on CBA mice using protein biochemistry to investigate the synaptic expression levels of Shank3α during the day in different brain regions. Our results show that synaptic Shank3 protein concentrations exhibit minor oscillations during the day in hippocampal and striatal brain regions that correlate with changes in serum melatonin levels. Furthermore, as circadian rhythms are tightly connected to activity levels in mice, we increased physical activity using running wheels. The expression of Shank3α increases rapidly by induced activity in thalamus and cortex, but decreases in striatum, superimposing the circadian rhythms of different brain regions. We conclude that synaptic Shank3 proteins build highly dynamic platforms that are modulated by the light:dark cycles but even more so driven by activity. Using wild-type CBA mice, we show that Shank3 is a highly dynamic and activity-regulated protein at synapses. In the hippocampus, changes in synaptic Shank3 levels are influenced by circadian rhythm/melatonin concentration, while running activity increases and decreases levels of Shank3 in the cortex and striatum respectively. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. The Effects of Altered Membrane Cholesterol Levels on Sodium Pump Activity in Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suparna; Dasgupta, Anindya

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of overt hypothyroidism (OH) start at the early stage of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase (the sodium pump) is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a vital role in cellular activities in combination with membrane lipids. We evaluated the effects of early changes in thyroid hormone and membrane cholesterol on sodium pump activity in SCH and OH patients. In 32 SCH patients, 35 OH patients, and 34 euthyroid patients, sodium pump activity and cholesterol levels in red blood cell membranes were measured. Serum thyroxine (T₄) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Differences in their mean values were analysed using post hoc analysis of variance. We assessed the dependence of the sodium pump on other metabolites by multiple regression analysis. Sodium pump activity and membrane cholesterol were lower in both hypothyroid groups than in control group, OH group exhibiting lower values than SCH group. In SCH group, sodium pump activity showed a significant direct dependence on membrane cholesterol with an inverse relationship with serum TSH levels. In OH group, sodium pump activity depended directly on membrane cholesterol and serum T₄ levels. No dependence on serum cholesterol was observed in either case. Despite the presence of elevated serum cholesterol in hypothyroidism, membrane cholesterol contributed significantly to maintain sodium pump activity in the cells. A critical reduction in membrane cholesterol levels heralds compromised enzyme activity, even in the early stage of hypothyroidism, and this can be predicted by elevated TSH levels alone, without any evident clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  15. Does Activity Space Size Influence Physical Activity Levels of Adolescents? - A GPS study of an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nolan C; Voss, Christine; Frazer, Amanda D; Hirsch, Jana A; McKay, Heather A; Winters, Meghan

    2016-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is closely linked with child and youth health, and active travel may be a solution to enhancing PA levels. Activity spaces depict the geographic coverage of one's travel. Little is known about activity spaces and PA in adolescents. To explore the relation between adolescent travel (using a spatial measure of activity space size) and daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), with a focus on school days. In Fall 2012, we used Global Positioning Systems to manually identify trips and generate activity spaces for each person-day; quantified by area for 39 students (13.8±0.6 years, 38% female) attending high school in urban Downtown Vancouver, Canada. We assessed the association between activity space area and MVPA using multi-level regression. We calculated total, school-day and trip-based MVPA for each valid person-day (accelerometry; ≥ 600 min wear time). On school days, students accrued 68.2 min/day (95% CI 60.4-76.0) of MVPA. Daily activity spaces averaged 2.2 km 2 (95% CI 1.3-3.0). There was no association between activity space size and school-day MVPA. Students accrued 21.8 min/day (95% CI 19.2-24.4) of MVPA during school hours, 19.4 min/day (95% CI 15.1-23.7) during travel, and 28.3 min/day (95% CI 22.3-34.3) elsewhere. School and school travel are important sources of PA in Vancouver adolescents, irrespective of activity space area covered.

  16. Physical Activity Levels During Acute Inpatient Admission After Hip Fracture are Very Low.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Sarah J; Arnold, Meaghan; Hua, Carol; Schenck, Amie; Batten, Sarah; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2015-09-01

    Hip fractures are very common in older adults and result in serious health consequences. Early mobilization post-surgical intervention for hip fractures is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine physical activity levels during an acute inpatient admission of patients after surgery for hip fracture. The observational study was completed on an orthopaedic ward in an acute general hospital. Twenty patients (18 women, mean age ± standard deviation, 79.1 ± 9.3 years) post-surgical intervention for a hip fracture were included. Physical activity levels were measured using an accelerometer to record the percentage of time spent in lying/sitting, standing and walking, number of steps taken and average energy expenditure. Physical activity levels were extremely low, with participants spending an average of 99% of the day either lying or sitting and a little more than 1% of the day either standing or walking (16 min). Participants took an average of 35.7 ± 80.4 steps per day. Patients received more physiotherapy intervention on weekdays compared with weekends. There was no significant difference in activity levels between weekdays to weekends. No measures of physical activity were associated with length of stay. A mild to moderate association (r = 0.26-0.41) was observed between the measures of physical activity and the amount of physiotherapy received during the weekdays. Physical activity levels during an acute inpatient admission surgery for hip fracture are very low. Patients may have difficulty completing basic activities of daily living post-discharge into the community. Physical activity should be optimized as early in the rehabilitation process as able. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Differ According to Education Level in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kankaanpää, Anna; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (2009–2011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays. PMID:27403958

  18. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  19. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the red blood cells of sea level and high altitude natives.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, J; Caceda, R; Gamboa, A; Monge-C, C

    2000-01-01

    Red blood cell carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity has not been studied in high altitude natives. Because CA is an intraerythocytic enzyme and high altitude natives are polycythemic, it is important to know if the activity of CA per red cell volume is different from that of their sea level counterparts. Blood was collected from healthy subjects living in Lima (150m) and from twelve subjects from Cerro de Pasco (4330m), and hematocrit and carbonic anhydrase activity were measured. As expected, the high altitude natives had significantly higher hematocrits than the sea level controls (p = 0.0002). No difference in the CA activity per milliliter of red cells was found between the two populations. There was no correlation between the hematocrit and CA activity.

  20. Accuracy of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah A.; Baxter, Kimberley A.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Truby, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2, completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = −0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity. PMID:25247095

  1. Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?

    PubMed

    Daley, Amanda J

    2009-08-01

    Physical inactivity among children is a serious public health problem. It has been suggested that high levels of screen time are contributory factors that encourage sedentary lifestyles in young people. As physical inactivity and obesity levels continue to rise in young people, it has been proposed that new-generation active computer- and video-console games (otherwise known as "exergaming") may offer the opportunity to contribute to young people's energy expenditure during their free time. Although studies have produced some encouraging results regarding the energy costs involved in playing active video-console games, the energy costs of playing the authentic versions of activity-based video games are substantially larger, highlighting that active gaming is no substitute for real sports and activities. A small number of exergaming activities engage children in moderate-intensity activity, but most do not. Only 3 very small trials have considered the effects of exergaming on physical activity levels and/or other health outcomes in children. Evidence from these trials has been mixed; positive trends for improvements in some health outcomes in the intervention groups were noted in 2 trials. No adequately powered randomized, controlled trial has been published to date, and no trial has assessed the long-term impact of exergaming on children's health. We now need high-quality randomized, controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of exergaming, as well as its clinical relevance; until such studies take place, we should remain cautious about its ability to positively affect children's health.

  2. Muscular patterns and activation levels of auxiliary breathing muscles and thorax movement in classical singing.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Viggo

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the findings in seven studies exploring muscular patterns and muscle activation levels in selected muscles by classical singers. In addition, the relationship of these muscles to thorax (TX) movement was investigated. Loading levels and respiratory phasing of upper trapezius (TR), sternocleidomastoideus (STM) and the scalenes (SC) were investigated in vocalization tasks with variation in vocal loudness and pitch. Further, muscle activity in the posterior neck (PN) was investigated in inhalation and phonation and, finally, TR, intercostal (INT), lateral abdominal (OBL) and anterior abdominal (RC) muscle loading in student and professional singers was examined. Muscle activity was recorded by use of an ambulatory four-channel monitoring system (Physiometer PHY 400, Premed, Norway). TX movement was traced with two strain gauge sensors (RES-117) placed around the upper TX and lower TX. A phasing of upper TR activity to INT and OBL activity was discovered, all muscles supporting the expiration phase. During phonation, TR contributes in the compression of the upper TX, thus serving as an accessory muscle of expiration. TR activity is reduced with short breathing cycles and is mostly inactive in simplified speaking tasks. During phonation, professional opera singers activate the expiratory-phased TR, INT, OBL and RC muscles to higher levels than student singers do. STM and SC show correlated activity patterns during inhalation and phonation by classical singers. During demanding singing, expiratory-phased STM and SC activity peaks produce a counterforce to the compression of upper TX at high pitches. As breathing demands are lowered, STM and SC activity are reduced and attain inspiratory phasing. Substantial muscle activity is observed in PN during inhalation and phonation. EMG biofeedback performed on TR and STM have a secondary effect of lowering EMG activity in PN. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Psychological changes among Muslim students participating in a faith-based school physical activity program.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-12-01

    Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution to school-time changes in PA among Muslim adolescents. Forty-three (27 girls, 16 boys; M(age) = 12.3 +/- 1.0 years) students at 1 Islamic middle school participated. Prebaseline and postprogram enjoyment and motivation were measured using the shortened PA Enjoyment Scale and the Situational Motivation Scale, respectively. Pedometer step counts were measured daily during a 2-week baseline and 8 weeks of Virtual Umra. The Reliable Change Index and Cohen's d were used to analyze individual- and group-level changes in enjoyment and motivation, respectively. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) was used to analyze program and gender effects over time. Partial correlations examined the relationships between psychological correlates and PA change. One third of the sample expressed greater enjoyment postprogram (p < .001, d = 0.99), while motivation was unaffected (p > .05; range, d = - 0.02 to 0.32). RM-MANOVA revealed that boys increased their steps, whereas girls reduced their step number through the program. Enjoyment increased and extrinsic motivation and amotivation decreased. Partial correlations revealed that enjoyment and more self-determined behavioral regulations were positively associated with non-physical education (PE)-day PA change; only intrinsic motivation was positively associated with PE-day PA change. Virtual Umra was associated with increased enjoyment of PA but needs further modification to more positively impact girls' PA.

  4. Neuropeptide Levels as well as Neprilysin Activity Decrease in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Erin, Nuray; İpekçi, Tümay; Akkaya, Bahar; Özbudak, İrem Hicran; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide (CGRP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and Substance P (SP) are sensory neuropeptides which may alter cancer growth through modulation of chronic inflammation. We recently reported that SP suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through neuroimmune modulation. These neuropeptides are hydrolyzed by Neprilysin (NEP) to bioactive fragments. Decreased activity of NEP was reported in clear cell and chromophobe type renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is however not known how the levels of neuropeptides hydrolyzed with NEP changes in RCC. Decrease activity of SP and CGRP containing sensory nerve endings was previously reported to increase cancer metastasis in animal models. It is however not known how peptidergic nerve endings are altered in RCC. Hence we here evaluated the levels of neuronal and non-neuronal neuropeptides and NEP activity in RCC including papillary type as well as neighboring uninvolved kidney. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy and diagnosed with RCC. NEP activity, levels and expression were determined using flourogenic substrate, western blot and qPCR respectively in freshly-frozen tissues. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed. Neuronal and non-neuronal levels of CGRP, SP and VIP levels were determined using two-step acetic acid extraction. Levels and activity of NEP were markedly decreased in RCC regardless of subtype. Similar levels of VIP were detected in first and second extractions. VIP levels were higher in clear cell and papillary RCC compared to nearby kidney tissue. VIP levels of neighboring kidney tissue of papillary type RCC was significantly lower compared to kidney samples from clear cell RCC. CGRP levels were higher in second extraction. Similar to VIP levels, CGRP levels of neighboring kidney tissue from clear cell and chromophobe type RCC was significantly lower compared to corresponding tumor samples, an effect observed in the second

  5. Moderate levels of activation lead to forgetting in the think/no-think paradigm.

    PubMed

    Detre, Greg J; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J; Norman, Kenneth A

    2013-10-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. Copyright

  6. Moderate Levels of Activation Lead to Forgetting In the Think/No-Think Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Detre, Greg J.; Natarajan, Annamalai; Gershman, Samuel J.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001), researchers have found that suppressing retrieval of a memory (in the presence of a strong retrieval cue) can make it harder to retrieve that memory on a subsequent test. This effect has been replicated numerous times, but the size of the effect is highly variable. Also, it is unclear from a neural mechanistic standpoint why preventing recall of a memory now should impair your ability to recall that memory later. Here, we address both of these puzzles using the idea, derived from computational modeling and studies of synaptic plasticity, that the function relating memory activation to learning is U-shaped, such that moderate levels of memory activation lead to weakening of the memory and higher levels of activation lead to strengthening. According to this view, forgetting effects in the think/no-think paradigm occur when the suppressed item activates moderately during the suppression attempt, leading to weakening; the effect is variable because sometimes the suppressed item activates strongly (leading to strengthening) and sometimes it does not activate at all (in which case no learning takes place). To test this hypothesis, we ran a think/no-think experiment where participants learned word-picture pairs; we used pattern classifiers, applied to fMRI data, to measure how strongly the picture associates were activating when participants were trying not to retrieve these associates, and we used a novel Bayesian curve-fitting procedure to relate this covert neural measure of retrieval to performance on a later memory test. In keeping with our hypothesis, the curve-fitting procedure revealed a nonmonotonic relationship between memory activation (as measured by the classifier) and subsequent memory, whereby moderate levels of activation of the to-be-suppressed item led to diminished performance on the final memory test, and higher levels of activation led to enhanced performance on the final test. PMID:23499722

  7. Decline in physical activity level in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Carmen L; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Nathan, Paul C; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Hudson, Melissa M; Castellino, Sharon M; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T; Brinkman, Tara M; Krull, Kevin R; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to identify demographic and health-related predictors of declining physical activity levels over a four-year period among participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included 7,287 ≥5-year childhood cancer survivors and 2,107 siblings who completed multiple follow-up questionnaires. Participants were classified as active if they met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for physical activity. Generalized linear models were used to compare participants whose physical activity levels declined from active to inactive over the study to those who remained active. In addition, selected chronic conditions (CTCAE v4.03 Grade 3 and 4) were evaluated as risk factors in an analysis limited to survivors only. The median age at last follow-up among survivors and siblings was 36 (range, 21-58) and 38 (range, 21-62) years, respectively. The rate of decline did not accelerate over time among survivors when compared with siblings. Factors that predicted declining activity included body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) [RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.46, P < 0.01], not completing high school (RR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.60, P < 0.01), and female sex (RR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.22-1.44, P < 0.01). Declining physical activity levels were associated with the presence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions (P = 0.034), but not with the presence of cardiac (P = 0.10), respiratory (P = 0.92), or neurologic conditions (P = 0.21). Interventions designed to maximize physical activity should target female, obese, and less educated survivors. Survivors with chronic musculoskeletal conditions should be monitored, counseled, and/or referred for physical therapy. Clinicians should be aware of low activity levels among subpopulations of childhood cancer survivors, which may heighten their risk for chronic illness. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. A pediatric correlational study of stride interval dynamics, energy expenditure and activity level.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Denine; Sejdic, Ervin; Zabjek, Karl; Chau, Tom

    2014-08-01

    The strength of time-dependent correlations known as stride interval (SI) dynamics has been proposed as an indicator of neurologically healthy gait. Most recently, it has been hypothesized that these dynamics may be necessary for gait efficiency although the supporting evidence to date is scant. The current study examines over-ground SI dynamics, and their relationship with the cost of walking and physical activity levels in neurologically healthy children aged nine to 15 years. Twenty participants completed a single experimental session consisting of three phases: 10 min resting, 15 min walking and 10 min recovery. The scaling exponent (α) was used to characterize SI dynamics while net energy cost was measured using a portable metabolic cart, and physical activity levels were determined based on a 7-day recall questionnaire. No significant linear relationships were found between a and the net energy cost measures (r < .07; p > .25) or between α and physical activity levels (r = .01, p = .62). However, there was a marked reduction in the variance of α as activity levels increased. Over-ground stride dynamics do not appear to directly reflect energy conservation of gait in neurologically healthy youth. However, the reduction in the variance of α with increasing physical activity suggests a potential exercise-moderated convergence toward a level of stride interval persistence for able-bodied youth reported in the literature. This latter finding warrants further investigation.

  9. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Correlation between knowledge about the consequences of obesity and physical activity levels among university students].

    PubMed

    Ocampo-Mascaró, Javier; Silva-Salazar, Vera; da Costa-Bullón, A Daniel

    2015-12-02

    Obesity is a growing public health issue. One of the main strategies to prevent it is physical activity. To determine if a correlation exists between awareness of the consequences of obesity and physical activity level. A cross-sectional study performed on a group of 215 students was conducted in 2013 and 2014. Non-health related program students were selected by convenience sampling at a university in Lima, Peru. Their physical activity level was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and knowledge about the consequences of obesity was assessed using the Obesity Risk Knowledge-10 scale (ORK-10). Each student was also asked to record the source where they obtained whatever information they knew about the topic. The median age of the participants was 20 (interquartile range of 4; 22-18), and 63% of the participants were female. According to the IPAQ, 53.9% of the participants recorded high levels of physical activity, 35.4% recorded moderate levels, and 10.7%, recorded low levels. While a low correlation between the ORK-10 score and the amount of METs/minute/week spent was found (rs=0.06), it was not significant (p=0.38). We found that people who were informed by the media or by healthcare personnel achieved higher scores on the ORK-10 scale than those who used other sources of information (p<0,05). There is a very low correlation between the knowledge about the consequences of obesity and a person’s physical activity level. A multidisciplinary approach that includes all determinants of physical activity is necessary in order to attain changes in people’s behavior.

  11. Effect of level of chronic immune system activation on the lactational performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Sauber, T E; Stahly, T S; Nonnecke, B J

    1999-08-01

    The effect of the level of chronic immune system (IS) activation on sow lactational performance was determined in 11 pairs of littermate, primiparous sows. Sows with a low level of IS activation were created by rearing the animals via early weaning, isolated rearing schemes. During lactation, two levels of IS activation were achieved in each littermate sow pair by subcutaneous administration of either 0 (saline) or 5 microg/kg of sow BW of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a mineral oil adjuvant emulsion on d 2 and 10 of lactation. Litters were standardized to 13 pigs by 8 h postpartum. Sows were offered daily 6.0 kg of a corn-soy diet formulated to contain a minimum of 250% of the dietary nutrient concentrations estimated to be needed by lactating sows. Based on antibody titers to LPS and serum concentrations of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), high IS sows mounted an immune response to the LPS during lactation, and low IS sows maintained a low level of IS activation. Over an 18-d lactation, a high level of chronic activation of the sows' immune systems depressed daily sow feed intakes by .56 kg, litter weight gains by .32 kg, and daily milk by 1.4 kg, milk energy by 1.7 Mcal, and milk protein yields by 71 g, but did not alter sow body weight loss. The reductions in yields of milk and milk nutrients likely were because of proinflammatory cytokine-induced inhibition of the lactogenic hormones resulting from high chronic IS activation. Based on these data, the level of chronic IS activation alters the lactational performance of sows.

  12. The Influence of Red Fruit Oil on Creatin Kinase Level at Maximum Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollo Sinaga, Fajar; Hotliber Purba, Pangondian

    2018-03-01

    Heavy physical activities can cause the oxidative stress which resulting in muscle damage with an indicator of elevated levels of Creatin Kinase (CK) enzyme. The oxidative stress can be prevented or reduced by antioxidant supplementation. One of natural resources which contain antioxidant is Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus) Oil (RFO). This study aims to see the effect of Red Fruit Oil on Creatin Kinase (CK) level at maximum physical activity. This study is an experimental research by using the design of randomized control group pretest-posttest. This study was using 24 male mice divided into four groups, the control group was given aquadest, the treatment groups P1, P2, and P3 were given the RFO orally of 0.15 ml/kgBW, 0.3 ml/kgBW, and 0.6 ml/kgBW, respectively, for a month. The level of CK was checked for all groups at the beginning of study and after the maximum physical activity. The obtained data were then tested statistically by using t-test and ANOVA. The result shows the RFO supplementation during exercise decreased the CK level in P1, P2, and P3 groups with p<0.05, and the higher RFO dosage resulted in decreased CK level at p<0.05. The conclusion of this study is the Red Fruit Oil could decrease the level of CK at maximum physical activity.

  13. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Thomas; Lanner, Johanna T

    2016-12-01

    Reduced oxygen (O 2 ) levels (hypoxia) are present during embryogenesis and exposure to altitude and in pathologic conditions. During embryogenesis, myogenic progenitor cells reside in a hypoxic microenvironment, which may regulate their activity. Satellite cells are myogenic progenitor cells localized in a local environment, suggesting that the O 2 level could affect their activity during muscle regeneration. In this review, we present the idea that O 2 levels regulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenesis and muscle regeneration in hypoxia and depict therapeutic strategies using changes in O 2 levels to promote muscle regeneration. Severe hypoxia (≤1% O 2 ) appears detrimental for myogenic differentiation in vitro, whereas a 3-6% O 2 level could promote myogenesis. Hypoxia impairs the regenerative capacity of injured muscles. Although it remains to be explored, hypoxia may contribute to the muscle damage observed in patients with pathologies associated with hypoxia (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Hypoxia affects satellite cell activity and myogenesis through mechanisms dependent and independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transplantation of hypoxia-conditioned myoblasts are beneficial procedures to enhance muscle regeneration in animals. These therapies may be clinically relevant to treatment of patients with severe muscle damage.-Chaillou, T. Lanner, J. T. Regulation of myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration: effects of oxygen levels on satellite cell activity. © FASEB.

  14. Motility, ATP levels and metabolic enzyme activity of sperm from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Burness, Gary; Moyes, Christopher D; Montgomerie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Male bluegill displays one of two life history tactics. Some males (termed "parentals") delay reproduction until ca. 7 years of age, at which time they build nests and actively courts females. Others mature precociously (sneakers) and obtain fertilizations by cuckolding parental males. In the current study, we studied the relations among sperm motility, ATP levels, and metabolic enzyme activity in parental and sneaker bluegill. In both reproductive tactics, sperm swimming speed and ATP levels declined in parallel over the first 60 s of motility. Although sneaker sperm initially had higher ATP levels than parental sperm, by approximately 30 s postactivation, no differences existed between tactics. No differences were noted between tactics in swimming speed, percent motility, or the activities of key metabolic enzymes, although sperm from parentals had a higher ratio of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to citrate synthase (CS). In both tactics, with increasing CPK and CS activity, sperm ATP levels increased at 20 s postactivation, suggesting that capacities for phosphocreatine hydrolysis and aerobic metabolism may influence interindividual variation in rates of ATP depletion. Nonetheless, there was no relation between sperm ATP levels and either swimming speed or percent of sperm that were motile. This suggests that interindividual variation in ATP levels may not be the primary determinant of variation in sperm swimming performance in bluegill.

  15. Time course of EEG background activity level before spontaneous awakening in infants.

    PubMed

    Zampi, Chiara; Fagioli, Igino; Salzarulo, Piero

    2002-12-01

    This research aimed to investigate the time course of the cortical activity level preceding spontaneous awakening as a function of age and state. Two groups of infants (1-4 and 9-14 weeks of age) were continuously monitored by polygraphic recording and behavioural observation during the night. The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded by the C3-O1 lead was analysed through an automatic analysis method which provides, for each 30-s epoch, a single measure, time domain based, of the EEG synchronization. The EEG parameter values were computed in the 6 min preceding each awakening out of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and out of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The EEG background activity level did not change in the minutes preceding awakening out of REM sleep. Awakening out of NREM sleep was preceded by a change of EEG activity level in the direction of higher activation with different time course according to the age. Both REM and NREM sleep results suggest that a high level of EEG activity is a prerequisite for the occurrence of a spontaneous awakening.

  16. Effect of Cognitive Activity Level on Duration of Post-Concussion Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Naomi J.; Mannix, Rebekah C.; O’Brien, Michael J.; Gostine, David; Collins, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cognitive activity level on duration of post-concussion symptoms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients who presented to a Sports Concussion Clinic within 3 weeks of injury between October 2009 and July 2011. At each visit, patients completed a scale that recorded their average level of cognitive activity since the previous visit. The product of cognitive activity level and days between visits (cognitive activity-days) was calculated and divided into quartiles. Kaplan-Meier Product Limit method was used to generate curves of symptom duration based on cognitive activity level. To adjust for other possible predictors of concussion recovery, we constructed a Cox proportional hazard model with cognitive activity-days as the main predictor. RESULTS: Of the 335 patients included in the study, 62% were male, 19% reported a loss of consciousness, and 37% reported experiencing amnesia at the time of injury. The mean age of participants was 15 years (range, 8–23) and the mean number of previous concussions was 0.76; 39% of athletes had sustained a previous concussion. The mean Post-Concussion Symptom Scale score at the initial visit was 30 (SD, 26). The overall mean duration of symptoms was 43 days (SD, 53). Of all variables assessed, only total symptom burden at initial visit and cognitive activity level were independently associated with duration of symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Increased cognitive activity is associated with longer recovery from concussion. This study supports the use of cognitive rest and adds to the current consensus opinion. PMID:24394679

  17. A visual grading study for different administered activity levels in bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Agnetha; Karlsson, Henrik; Nilsson, Kerstin A; Geijer, Håkan; Olsson, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the administered activity levels versus visual-based image quality using visual grading regression (VGR) including an assessment of the newly stated image criteria for whole-body bone scintigraphy. A total of 90 patients was included and grouped in three levels of administered activity: 400, 500 and 600 MBq. Six clinical image criteria regarding image quality was formulated by experienced nuclear medicine physicians. Visual grading was performed in all images, where three physicians rated the fulfilment of the image criteria on a four-step ordinal scale. The results were analysed using VGR. A count analysis was also made where the total number of counts in both views was registered. The administered activity of 600 MBq gives significantly better image quality than 400 MBq in five of six criteria (P<0·05). Comparing the administered activity of 600 MBq to 500 MBq, four criteria of six show significantly better image quality (P<0·05). The administered activity of 500 MBq gives no significantly better image quality than 400 Mbq (P<0·05). The count analysis shows that none of the three levels of administrated activity fulfil the recommendations by the EANM. There was a significant improvement in perceived image quality using an activity level of 600 MBq compared to lower activity levels in whole-body bone scintigraphy for the gamma camera equipment end set-up used in this study. This type of visual-based grading study seems to be a valuable tool and easy to implement in the clinical environment. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Are physical activity levels associated with better health outcomes in people with epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Häfele, César Augusto; Freitas, Matheus Pintanel; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Rombaldi, Airton José

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity in three categories (inactive, insufficiently active and active) with health outcomes in people with epilepsy. The dependent variables and the instruments used in the study were: a) quality of life - measured by Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 for adults and Quality of Life in Epilepsy for Adolescents, b) side effects of medication - measured by Adverse Events Profile, c) depression - measured by Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, and d) state and trait anxiety - measured by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physical activity levels were analyzed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for adults in the commuting and leisure domains and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Simple and multiple linear regression was used in the statistical analysis. The cross-sectional study with one hundred and one individuals was conducted in Pelotas/RS, Brazil, at the Neurology Clinic of the Faculty of Medicine of the Federal University of Pelotas. In the crude analysis, physical activity was positively associated with quality of life (p<0.001) and negatively associated with depression (p=0.046), state of anxiety (p=0.014), trait of anxiety (p=0.015) and side effect of medication (p=0.01). In addition, physical activity levels explained 10% of the quality of life (R 2 =0.10). In the adjusted analysis, physical activity remained associated with side effect of medication (p=0.014) and was not associated with trait anxiety (p=0.066). However, quality of life showed a positive linear trend (p=0.001) while depression (p=0.033) and anxiety state (p=0.004) showed a negative trend according to physical activity levels. Physical activity was associated with health outcomes, and can be a nonpharmacological treatment in people with epilepsy for improving health and life conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between hearing impairment and lower levels of physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gispen, Fiona E; Chen, David S; Genther, Dane J; Lin, Frank R

    2014-08-01

    To determine whether hearing impairment, highly prevalent in older adults, is associated with activity levels. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2005-06). Individuals aged 70 and older who completed audiometric testing and whose physical activity was assessed subjectively using questionnaires and objectively using body-worn accelerometers (N=706). Hearing impairment was defined according to the speech-frequency (0.5-4 kHz) pure-tone average in the better-hearing ear (normal <25.0 dB, mild 25.0-39.9 dB, moderate or greater ≥40 dB). Main outcome measures were self-reported leisure time physical activity and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Both were quantified using minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity and categorized as inactive, insufficiently active, or sufficiently active. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Individuals with moderate or greater hearing impairment had greater odds than those with normal hearing of being in a lower category of physical activity as measured according to self-report (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.11-2.28) and accelerometry (OR=1.70, 95% CI=0.99-2.91). Mild hearing impairment was not associated with level of physical activity. Moderate or greater hearing impairment in older adults is associated with lower levels of physical activity independent of demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Future research is needed to investigate the basis of this association and whether hearing rehabilitative interventions could affect physical activity in older adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Joy, exercise, enjoyment, getting out: a qualitative study of older people's experience of cycling in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zander, Alexis; Passmore, Erin; Mason, Chloe; Rissel, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Cycling can be an enjoyable way to meet physical activity recommendations and is suitable for older people; however cycling participation by older Australians is low. This qualitative study explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling among older people through an age-targeted cycling promotion program. Seventeen adults who aged 50-75 years participated in a 12-week cycling promotion program which included a cycling skills course, mentor, and resource pack. Semistructured interviews at the beginning and end of the program explored motivators, enablers, and barriers to cycling. Fitness and recreation were the primary motivators for cycling. The biggest barrier was fear of cars and traffic, and the cycling skills course was the most important enabler for improving participants' confidence. Reported outcomes from cycling included improved quality of life (better mental health, social benefit, and empowerment) and improved physical health. A simple cycling program increased cycling participation among older people. This work confirms the importance of improving confidence in this age group through a skills course, mentors, and maps and highlights additional strategies for promoting cycling, such as ongoing improvement to infrastructure and advertising.