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Sample records for level microwave irradiation

  1. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1989-05-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure.

  2. Psychoactive-drug response is affected by acute low-level microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of various psychoactive drugs were studied in rats exposed for 45 min in a circularly polarized, pulsed microwave field (2450 MHz; SAR 0.6 W/kg; 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps). Apomorphine-induced hypothermia and stereotypy were enhanced by irradiation. Amphetamine-induced hyperthermia was attenuated while stereotypy was unaffected. Morphine-induced catalepsy and lethality were enhanced by irradiation at certain dosages of the drug. Since these drugs have different modes of action on central neural mechanisms and the effects of microwaves depend on the particular drug studied, these results show the complex nature of the effect of microwave irradiation on brain functions.

  3. Acute low-level microwave exposure and central cholinergic activity: studies on irradiation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake was measured in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus of rats after acute exposure (45 min) to pulsed (2 microseconds, 500 pps) or continuous-wave 2,450-MHz microwaves in cylindrical waveguides or miniature anechoic chambers. In all exposure conditions, the average whole-body specific absorption rate was at 0.6 W/kg. Decrease in choline uptake was observed in the frontal cortex after microwave exposure in all of the above irradiation conditions. Regardless of the exposure system used, hippocampal choline uptake was decreased after exposure to pulsed but not continuous-wave microwaves. Striatal choline uptake was decreased after exposure to either pulsed or continuous-wave microwaves in the miniature anechoic chamber. No significant change in hypothalamic choline uptake was observed under any of the exposure conditions studied. We conclude that depending on the parameters of the radiation, microwaves can elicit specific and generalized biological effects.

  4. Effect of microwave irradiation on TATB explosive.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weifei; Zhang, Tonglai; Huang, Yigang; Yang, Li; Li, Gang; Li, Haibo; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Hui

    2009-09-15

    Finished TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) explosive safety under 800W microwave irradiation was experimented. No burning, deflagration and detonation were observed during 30-min continuous irradiation and no remarkable change were observed after irradiation according to HPLC, particles size analysis, and differential thermal analysis. Wet TATB sampled from synthesis line was irradiated with microwave vacuum method and irradiated TATB was measured to accord with military standard specifications including appearance, moisture and volatile, chloride content, HPLC, mean particle size, DTA exothermic peak, ash, acetone soluble content, PH value, etc. Microwave vacuum desiccation was deemed laborsaving, energy-efficient, and practicable compared to conventional processing method.

  5. Influences of Microwave Irradiation on Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, H.; Abe, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kudo, I.; Saito, K.; Okuda, T.

    2004-12-01

    An experimental facility to evaluate the long-duration influence of microwave to environment, a so-called long duration microwave exposure facility (LDMEF), was constructed in Tsukuba in 1994, and so far irradiation tests on plants accumulated over 40,000 hours have been conducted with the aid of 2.45 GHz magnetron. The LDMEF consists of a pair of outdoor electromagnetically isolated areas, one under the influence of microwave irradiation with a 500 W magnetron and one without microwave irradiation. The growth rates of plants in both areas were compared and evaluated with the experimental data for the temperature distribution in the soil and power distribution of microwave. Although any appreciable influence of microwave was not noticed in the power density less than 10 mW/cm2 , the experimental results showed a significant growth rate enhancement when the power density became over 10 mW/cm2 . However, the growth was rather depressed when the power density increased over 15 mW/cm2 . These effects are well explained by the temperature and moisture in the soil which are also under an appreciable influence of microwave irradiation [1,2]. In this context, we newly constructed an indoor irradiation facility, in which the growth conditions of plants under a constant soil temperature can be maintained. In addition, irradiation with a 5.8 GHz magnetron will be conducted in the new facility. In parallel to a series of indoor and outdoor irradiation tests on plants, the influence of microwave irradiation on the growth pattern of albino mouse will be conducted. This experiment will be the first experimental evaluation for the influence of microwave irradiation on animals.

  6. SOLVENT FREE CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-expedited solvent-free synthetic processes will be described that involve the exposure of neat reactants to microwave (MW) irradiation in the presence of supported reagents or catalysts on mineral oxides. Recent developments will be presented on the synthetic utility o...

  7. Influence of microwave irradiation on enzyme kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavelkić, V. M.; Stanisavljev, D. R.; Gopčević, K. R.; Beljanski, M. V.

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro effect of 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation on porcine pepsin activity under controlled temperature and absorbed microwave power via kinetic parameters was evaluated. Kinetic study with respect of time of irradiation demonstrated the existence of an inactivation effect of microwaves at pH 2 on pepsin molecule. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-bromphenol blue (BPB) complex was used as substrate for the assay of pepsin by kinetic method. Depending on absorbed microwave dose, the degree of caused inactivation varies from 39.11 to 45.91% for 5 and 20 min of pepsin MW irradiation, respectively. The V maxapp and K mapp were calculated for low (5 min of MW irradiation) and higher specific absorbed dose (20 min of MW irradiation), as well as for untreated enzyme, from double reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk plot. The effect of microwaves on substrate (BSA-BPB complex) was also investigated. For reaction performed with MW irradiated substrate for 5 min the reaction rate was decreased for 15.15%, while for 20 min of substrate irradiation reaction rate was decreased for 25.52% compared to the control reaction.

  8. Preparation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Containing Powdered Tea Leaves with Enriched Levels of Bioactive Compounds by Means of Microwave Irradiation Technique.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hironori; Iwao, Yasunori; Izumikawa, Masahiro; Sano, Syusuke; Ishida, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a microwave treatment process has been applied to prepare orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing powdered tea leaves with enriched levels of the anti-inflammatory compounds such as chafuroside A (CFA) and chafuroside B (CFB). The use of distilled water as the adsorbed and granulation solvents in this preparation process afforded tablets with a long disintegration time (more than 120 s). The CFA and CFB contents of these tablets did not also change after 4 min of microwave irradiation due to the tablet temperature, which only increased to 100°C. In contrast, the tablet temperature increased up to 140°C after 3 min of microwave irradiation when a 1.68 M Na2HPO4 solution instead of distilled water. Notably, the disintegration time of these tablets was considerably improved (less than 20 s) compared with the microwave-untreated tablets, and there were 7- and 11-fold increases in their CFA and CFB contents. In addition, the operational conditions for the preparation of the tablets were optimized by face-centered composite design based on the following criteria: tablet hardness greater than 13 N, disintegration time less than 30 s and friability less than 0.5%. The requirements translated into X1 (the amount of granulation solvent), X2 (tableting pressure) and X3 (content of the powdered tea leaves) values of 45%, 0.43 kN and 32%, respectively, and the ODTs containing powdered tea leaves prepared under these optimized conditions were found to show excellent tablet properties and contain enriched levels of CFA and CFB.

  9. Surface tension profiles of nanofluid containing surfactant during microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Asakuma, Y.; Saptoro, A.; Phan, C.

    2017-06-01

    Manipulation of the surface tension is useful in improving heat and mass transfer performances of nanofluids in thermal systems. In our previous study, the effect of microwave irradiation on the reduction of surface tension of nanofluids (Fe2O3) was found even after it was turned off. In this study, a synergistic effect of microwave irradiation and surfactant addition (SDS) was investigated to obtain further surface tension reduction of nanofluid. Experimental results indicate that surfactant addition is effective for wider particle number density in reducing surface tension, and the reduction level strongly depends on the surfactant concentration. On the other hand, effect of the number density on the surface tension reduction is less significant for the same concentration of surfactant. From the obtained data, a combination of microwave irradiation and surfactant addition shows potential to be used as a promising method to manipulate surface tension of nanofluids.

  10. Microwave Irradiation on Halloysite-Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espino, Omar; Yust, Brian; Chipara, Dorina; Ajayan, Pullickel; Chipara, Alin; Chipara, Mircea; Utrgv Collaboration; Rice Collaboration

    Halloysite is an unique cyllindrical nanoclay characterized by poor electrical and thermal conductivity, which may become the filler of choice for the reinforcement of polymeric matrix, where electrical or thermal insulation are required. The main limits in the use of halloysite as replacement for carbon nanotube (CNT) are: 1. Smaller aspect ratio as halloysites are typically shorter than CNTs. 2. Smaller Young modulus of halloysites compared with CNTs. 3. Reduced thermal stability due to the loss of water upon heating. A research on halloysite dispersed within isotactic polypropylene is reported. To improve the interface between the halloysite and the polymeric matrix a microwave irradiation step has been considered. The local heating of the halloysite nanotubes is mediated by the absorbed/structural water content of the nanoclay. Nanocomposites loaded by various amounts of halloysite ranging from 0 % to 20 % wt. have been prepared by melt mixing by using a Haake RheoMixer. The as obtained nanocomposites have been subjected to microwave irradiation at 75 W in an Anton Paar Monowave 300 system and various irradiation times ranging from 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. The effect of microwave irradiation has been studied by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy

  11. Effects of microwave power and microwave irradiation time on pretreatment efficiency and characteristics of corn stover using combination of steam explosion and microwave irradiation (SE-MI) pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Pang, Feng; Xue, Shulin; Yu, Shengshuan; Zhang, Chao; Li, Bing; Kang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    The effects of microwave power and microwave irradiation time on pretreatment efficiency and characteristics of corn stover were investigated based on a new process named combination of steam explosion and microwave irradiation (SE-MI) pretreatment. Results showed that with microwave power and microwave irradiation time increasing, glucose and xylose that released into hydrolyzate, as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yields and sugar yields of glucose and xylose were all slightly increased after SE-MI pretreatment. The maximum sugar yield was 72.1 g per 100 g glucose and xylose in feedstock, achieved at 540 W microwave power and 5 min microwave irradiation time. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of biomass was 15.6-19.9% lower for SE-MI pretreatment with microwave effect than that without microwave effect. However, low microwave power and short microwave irradiation time were favorable for SE-MI pretreatment considering energy consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Constant-dose microwave irradiation of insect pupae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Richard G.

    Pupae of the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor L. were subjected to microwave irradiation for 1.5-24 hours at power density levels adjusted to produce a total dosage of approximately 1123 J/g in each insect for every experiment. Insects without visible blemishes were exposed in a standing wave irradiation system such that half of them were exposed in the plane of maximum electric field (E field) and the other half were exposed in the plane of maximum magnetic field (H field). Both E field and H field insects exhibited nearly the same specific absorption rate (SAR) for pupal orientation parallel to the magnetic field vector at 5.95 GHz. Irradiations were conducted both with and without the use of a ventilating fan to control the temperature rise in the irradiation chamber. Abnormal development as a result of the microwave exposure was seen only in the high-power, short-duration experiment without chamber ventilation. This result suggests a thermal interaction mechanism for explanation of observed microwave-induced abnormalities. A study of the time course of the average temperature rise in the irradiated insects indicates that teratological effects for this configuration have a temperature threshold of approximately 40°C.

  13. [Application of microwave irradiation technology to the field of pharmaceutics].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Bing; Shi, Nian-Qiu; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xing-Lin

    2014-03-01

    Microwaves can be directly transformed into heat inside materials because of their ability of penetrating into any substance. The degree that materials are heated depends on their dielectric properties. Materials with high dielectric loss are more easily to reach a resonant state by microwaves field, then microwaves can be absorbed efficiently. Microwave irradiation technique with the unique heating mechanisms could induce drug-polymer interaction and change the properties of dissolution. Many benefits such as improving product quality, increasing energy efficiency and reducing times can be obtained by microwaves. This paper summarized characteristics of the microwave irradiation technique, new preparation techniques and formulation process in pharmaceutical industry by microwave irradiation technology. The microwave technology provides a new clue for heating and drying in the field of pharmaceutics.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) using microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun Jung; Batchelor, Bill

    2009-07-01

    A procedure using microwave irradiation was studied to develop a fast and reliable method for synthesizing pyrite. Pyrite was successfully synthesized within a few minutes via reaction of ferric iron and hydrogen sulfide under the influence of irradiation by a conventional microwave oven. The SEM-EDX study revealed that the nucleation and growth of pyrite occurred on the surface of elemental sulfur, where polysulfides are available. Compared to conventional heating, using microwave energy results in rapid (<1 min) formation of smaller particulates of pyrite. Higher levels of microwave power can form pyrite even faster, but faster reaction can lead to the formation of pyrite with defects.

  15. Using wet microalgae for direct biodiesel production via microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-03-01

    To address the large energy consumption of microalgae dewatering and to simplify the conventional two-step method (cellular lipid extraction and lipid transesterification) for biodiesel production, a novel process for the direct conversion of wet microalgae biomass into biodiesel by microwave irradiation is proposed. The influences of conventional thermal heating and microwave irradiation on biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass were investigated. The effects of using the one-step (simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification) and two-step methods were also studied. Approximately 77.5% of the wet microalgal cell walls were disrupted under microwave irradiation. The biodiesel production rate and yield from wet microalgae biomass obtained through the one-step process using microwave irradiation were 6-fold and 1.3-fold higher than those from wet microalgae obtained through the two-step process using conventional heating.

  16. Inactivation of Clostridium difficile spores by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Chankhamhaengdecha, Surang; Singhakaew, Sombat; Ounjai, Puey; Janvilisri, Tavan

    2016-04-01

    Spores are a potent agent for Clostridium difficile transmission. Therefore, factors inhibiting spores have been of continued interest. In the present study, we investigated the influence of microwave irradiation in addition to conductive heating for C. difficile spore inactivation in aqueous suspension. The spores of 15 C. difficile isolates from different host origins were exposed to conductive heating and microwave irradiation. The complete inhibition of spore viability at 10(7) CFU/ml was encountered following microwave treatment at 800 W for 60 s, but was not observed in the conductive-heated spores at the same time-temperature exposure. The distinct patterns of ultrastructural alterations following microwave and conductive heat treatment were observed and the degree of damages by microwave was in the exposure time-dependent manner. Microwave would therefore be a simple and time-efficient tool to inactivate C. difficile spores, thus reducing the risk of C. difficile transmission.

  17. SOLVENT-FREE CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-expedited solvent-free synthetic processes will be described that involve the exposure of neat reactants to microwave (MW) irradiation in the presence of supported reagents or catalysts on mineral oxides. Recent developments will be presented on the synthetic utility o...

  18. Variable frequency microwave moisture leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    A variable frequency microwave system was examined to replace an existing carousel resistance heating line as the method for drying of mouth swabs for the pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical manufacturer located in Northern Illinois had a resistive heating system that was not drying product satisfactorily, thus requiring additional ambient drying time even after a 30-minute drying cycle. Since the swabs are used for the healthcare industry, the amount of moisture present after drying was critical to avoid the formation of mold on the product that could have lead to dissatisfied customers. Variable frequency microwave moisture leveling allowed better product quality while turning the manufacturing operation into just in time delivery. During pilot scale testing, a 300 times cycle improvement was realized for variable frequency microwave compared to the conventional carousel resistive drying unit (24 hours to 5 minutes). The projected total cost of the variable frequency microwave system is $1 million, with 25% of the cost in the microwave unit and 70% of the cost in a new autobagging system. The author projected a $0.58 million saving per year in reduced operational costs with productivity increases. Although the project would have had a 1.8 year payback time, it was not implemented due to the capital expense and risk of an unknown technology.

  19. Denture disinfection by microwave irradiation: a randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniela Garcia; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Dovigo, Lívia Nordi; Palomari Spolidorio, Denise Madalena; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of two exposure times of microwave irradiation on the disinfection of complete dentures. Biofilm samples were collected from dentures of 30 patients, who were randomly divided into two experimental groups of 15 subjects each: Group 1-patients had their maxillary denture microwaved for 3 min (650W); Group 2-patients had their maxillary denture microwaved for 2 min (650W). Denture biofilm samples were taken with swabs, before (left side surfaces) and after (right side surfaces) microwave irradiation. All microbial material was plated on selective media for Candida spp., Staphylococcus spp., mutans streptococci and a non-selective media. After incubation (48 h/37 degrees C), the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL) was counted. Microorganisms which grew on selective media were identified using biochemical methods. The data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's post-test (alpha=0.05). Microwave irradiation for 3 min (Group 1) resulted in sterilization of all dentures evaluated. After microwave irradiation for 2 min (Group 2), a significant decrease in Candida spp. (P=0.0062), Staphylococcus spp. (P=0.0178), mutans streptococci (P=0.0047) and non-identified species (P<0.0001) was achieved in comparison with the cfu/mL obtained before irradiation. The colonies grown after 2 min of microwave irradiation were identified as Candida albicans, non-aureus Staphylococci and Streptococcus mutans. Microwave irradiation for 3 min may be a potential treatment to prevent cross-contamination.

  20. [Sorption characteristics of surfactant onto bentonite using microwave irradiation].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Wu; Zhu, Li-Zhong; Cai, Wei-Jian

    2007-11-01

    The sorption curve of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) onto bentonite by microwave irradiation was studied. The effects of microwave reaction time and CPC concentration on interlayer spacing and organic carbon content of organobentonite were tested, respectively. Thermodynamics and kinetics of sorption of CPC onto bentonite by microwave irradiation were studied. The saturated adsorption amount of CPC to bentonite with microwave irradiation time from 90 s to 120 s was equal to that of conventional sorption, up to 0.001 63 mol x g(-1). On the condition of microwave irradiation time with 2 min and concentration of CPC with 1.20 mmol x L(-1), the interlayer spacing was attained to 2.44 nm at the best, and organic carbon content was 23.45%. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the typical layer morphological structure of bentonite was not devastated by microwave. Contrast to conventional sorption, sorption of CPC onto bentonite was greatly influenced by microwave, velocity constant of sorption reaction was increased 107.6 times, and free energy of sorption reaction system was decreased.

  1. Improving enzyme immobilization in mesocellular siliceous foams by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anming; Liu, Mingqing; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Cheng; Du, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Shemin; Shen, Shubao; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2008-09-01

    Microwave irradiation was used to immobilize papain and penicillin acylase in mesocellular siliceous foams (MCFs) at low temperature. The maximum loading of papain reached 984.1 mg/g, 1.26 times that obtained using the conventional, non-microwave-assisted method. The half-life (t(0.5)) of papain immobilized in MCFs by microwave irradiation at 80 degrees C was 17 h, 5.21 times that of papain immobilized by conventional means. The activities of papain and penicillin acylase immobilized with the microwave-assisted method were 779.6 U/mg and 141.8 U/mg respectively, 1.86 and 1.39 times of those obtained without microwave immobilization. Using microwave irradiation it only took 140 s for penicillin acylase, an enzyme of large dimensions, to be immobilized in MCFs. In contrast, it took 15 h to do the same using the conventional method. The results showed that microwave irradiation improved the adsorption and immobilization of enzymes in mesocellular siliceous foams.

  2. Degradation of phenol under combined irradiation of microwaves and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Lin; Ondruschka, Bernd; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2008-11-01

    A novel combined system of irradiation by microwaves and ultrasound is used to efficiently destroy phenol in aqueous solutions via sono-generated hydroxyl radicals and H2O2, in conjunction with the rapid thermal effect of microwaves on polar chemicals. Microwave irradiation enhances the sono-degradation of phenol without any additional catalyst although the effect is more marked when H2O2 is added. The degradation of phenol by MW or US alone or by combined irradiation of MW-US follows zero order kinetics. Degradation rate constants and yields of the main intermediates, catechol and hydroquinone, follow the order of MW-US > MW > US. The degradation rate also increases with higher reaction temperature in the MW reactor. The synergistic effects of MW and US were observed at 93 degrees C without addition of H2O2 and at 60 degrees C with addition of H2O2.

  3. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  5. 'GREENER' SOLVENT-FREE CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) irradiation of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or 'doped' surfaces is presented which is applicable to a wide range of cleavage...

  6. Application of Intermittent Microwave Irradiation to Western Blot Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    We established a shortened protocol for Western blot analysis using intermittent microwave irradiation. With this method, the procedure is completed within 1 h after applying the primary antibody, and thus greatly saves time. This procedure appears to be applicable to any antibody based on our experience of several years.

  7. In situ neutron diffraction studies of single crystals and powders during microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew; Ibberson, Richard; Robb, Graeme; Whittaker, Gavin; Wilson, Chick; Youngson, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Microwave dielectric heating has become an important method in chemical synthesis and materials processing over the past 15 years, and in the case of the reactions in solutions, there is a well-developed understanding of heating mechanisms and their influence on reaction rate. In the solid-state however, there is much less clarity, despite the advantages to be gained from better insight into the way in which such electromagnetic radiation may couple directly to charge carriers, accelerating reactions in good conductors. The related issue of the influence of microwave irradiation on biological systems, in particular, proteins, and the way in which this may pose hazards to health is similarly poorly understood despite the obvious relevance this may have to the current debate on the influence of electromagnetic radiation, in particular, microwave transmission, on human health. One reason for the paucity of fundamental insight in both fields is because most work has been performed with microwave equipment whose design is derived from that of a domestic oven, and which is not ideal for in situ studies of microwave driven processes. We have been developing new methods of irradiating a variety of solid samples while measuring structural parameters through a range of diffraction techniques, and describe apparatus that will enable X-ray or neutron scattering measurements to be performed on powders or single crystals under microwave irradiation with controlled power level. We also describe preliminary studies of a single crystal of the molecular solid aspirin, and a powder of the microwave-susceptible ionic material BaTiO3, during microwave irradiation.

  8. 'GREENER' CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or 'doped' surfaces is presented which is applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cycl...

  9. GREENER CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greener solvent-free protocols involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica and clay which are applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cyclization, oxidation and reduction reaction...

  10. GREENER CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greener solvent-free protocols involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica and clay which are applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cyclization, oxidation and reduction reaction...

  11. 'GREENER' CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or 'doped' surfaces is presented which is applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cycl...

  12. Continuous system with microwave irradiation to obtain alkyl benzoates.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Ana; Jaimes, María; Chávez, Gerson; Bravo, Bélgica; Ysambertt, Fredy; Márquez, Nelson

    2005-12-15

    In this study, a continuous linear alcohol derivatization is developed. Reaction of alcohol group (ROH) with benzoyl chloride (BC) is carried out in an on-line system with UV detection. All reaction conditions, as flow rate (FR), ROH/BC molar ratio, wavelength, temperature, microwave (MW) irradiation and reaction coil size (internal diameter and length) were optimized. 0.5mLmin(-1), 2.49 [BC]/[ROH], 230nm, 60 degrees C or medium power (225W) when MW irradiation was used and a reactor coil of 159muL (0.5mmx810mm) were the optimum conditions. The on-line system with microwave irradiation was more efficient than the one with a water bath heating. The developed system reduces analysis time consumption, reagent amounts and this system was used to evaluate the composition of commercial samples of alcohols polyethoxylated (surfactants).

  13. Hydrolytic fragmentation of seed gums under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Singh, V; Tiwari, A

    2009-03-01

    The seed gum solutions of Ipomoea purga, Ipomoea palmata, Ipomoea dasysperma, Cyanaposis tetragonolobus (Guar gum) and Crotolaria medicaginea were microwave (MW) irradiated and their degradation to oligo and monosaccharides was investigated. The gum solutions were fragmented into oligosaccharides/constituent monosaccharides depending upon the length of MW exposure in presence of catalytic amount of mineral acid or even when no acid was used. A mechanism for the microwave induced hydrolytic degradation of the seed gums has been proposed. The MW exposure time required for the partial and complete degradation of the gums was found dependent on the types of the linkages and degree of the branching present in the gums.

  14. Control of airborne and liquid-borne fungal and pet allergens using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the dog, cat allergens (Can f 1 and Fel d 1) and fungal allergens (Alt a 1 and Asp f 1) were aerosolized and exposed to the microwave irradiation (2450 MHz) at different output powers for up to 2 min. The allergen bioaerosols were collected by a BioSampler, and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Control and microwave-irradiated Asp f 1 allergens were also tested with IgEs in human blood sera samples. For airborne Asp f 1 and Alt a 1 allergens, the allergenicity was shown to decrease about 50% when exposed to microwave irradiation at 385 and 119 W and relatively no change at 700 W. For airborne Can f 1 allergen, the allergenicity was shown to increase about 70% when exposed to the irradiation at 385 W, but remained relatively unchanged at 700 and 119 W. In contrast, airborne Fel d 1 allergen was observed to lose allergenicity completely at 700 W, and retained about 40% and 80% at 385 and 119 W, respectively. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests showed that changes detected in IgE levels in human blood sera mixtures were not statistically significant for the control and microwave-irradiated waterborne Asp f 1 allergens. This study implies that although certain allergenicity reductions were observed for some allergens in certain cases, particular care should be taken when the microwave irradiation is used to disinfect food, water, and air because of its complex effects.

  15. Synthesis of nanosize BPO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Jiang, Heng; Gong, Hong; Zhang, Jun

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Nanosize BPO{sub 4} are prepared under microwave-irradiation conditions. ► This reaction is only performed at less than 640 W power for 2.5–5 min. ► The particles of sample irradiated at 400 W are 40–90 nm in size and well dispersed. ► A simple, fast and green procedure for synthesis of nanosize BPO{sub 4} is developed. -- Abstract: Nanosize BPO{sub 4} was synthesized using H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (85%) as raw materials under microwave irradiation. This reaction was performed at powers lower than 640 W and irradiation time ranging from 2.5 min to 5 min, which were only a fraction of the time required for conventional synthetic procedures. The structure of the as-prepared BPO{sub 4} is analogous to that of a high cristobalite. The particle sizes of the samples irradiated at 640 and 400 W range from 40 nm to 90 nm and 30 nm to 60 nm, respectively. The effects of different conditions on the experimental outcome are also discussed.

  16. Response of Aspergillus nidulans and Physarum polycephalum to microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mezykowski, T; Bal, J; Debiec, H; Kwarecki, K

    1980-06-01

    The influence of microwaves on genetic processes in Aspergillus nidulans and Physarum polycephalum was investigated. Suspensions of organisms were exposed in the far zone to 2450-MHz waves at 10 mW/cm2 for one hour in both CW and pulsed (1 microsecond, 600 pps) fields. Spores of A. nidulans were irradiated before and during germination. No changes in survival rate or in frequency of morphological mutation were found. Polycephalum under the influence of CW microwaves incorporated 3H-Thymine into DNA at a rate five times that of controls and twice that of thermal controls. The accelerated synthesis may reflect more efficient volume heating by microwaves, or in the presence of microthermal gradients in suspensions, or field-specific influences in concern with focal or volume heating.

  17. Fast Transmethylation of Serum Lipids using Microwave Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu Hong; Loewke, James D.; Hyun, Duk Y.; Leazer, Jay; Hibbeln, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave irradiation as the energy source for one–step direct transesterification of fatty acids in human serum lipids was examined in solvent system of methanol: hexane: acetyl chloride based on Lepage & Roy assay. Innovative and explosion proof single–mode or multimode microwave accelerate reaction system was employed. Recoveries were calculated as the percentage of fatty acid concentrations measured by microwave assay to those by reference method Lepage & Roy assay that utilized conductive heating at 100 °C for 60 min. At conditions of 100 °C for 1 min in Single–mode (S4–100×1), or 125 °C for 5 min in Multimode (M5–125×5), the recoveries were 100–103% for the total fatty acids and 96–106% for each categorized fatty acid, including saturates, monounsaturates, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA. For individual PUFA, the mean recoveries were 102–105% for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3; 99, 109, and 95% for 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, respectively. Thus, fatty acid concentrations determined by microwave fatty acid assay were accurate to those results by the reference method, when the microwave conditions were optimal. In summary, the microwave irradiation could replace conductive heating in one–step direct transesterification, and reduce duration from 60 min to 5 min or less. This methodology may be applied in both the absolute and relative quantification of serum total fatty acids. PMID:23015312

  18. Fast transmethylation of serum lipids using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu Hong; Loewke, James D; Hyun, Duk Y; Leazer, Jay; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2012-11-01

    Microwave irradiation as the energy source for one-step direct transesterification of fatty acids in human serum lipids was examined in a solvent system of methanol: hexane: acetyl chloride based on a Lepage & Roy assay. Innovative and explosion proof single-mode or multimode microwave accelerated reaction system was employed. Recoveries were calculated as the percentage of fatty acid concentrations measured by microwave assay to those by the reference method of the Lepage & Roy assay that utilized conductive heating at 100 °C for 60 min. Under conditions of 100 °C for 1 min in Single-mode (S4-100 × 1), or 125 °C for 5 min in Multimode (M5-125 × 5), the recoveries were 100-103 % for the total fatty acids and 96-106 % for each categorized fatty acid, including saturates, monounsaturates, n-6 PUFA, and n-3 PUFA. For individual PUFA, the mean recoveries were 102-105 % for 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3; 99, 109, and 95 % for 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3, respectively. Thus, fatty acid concentrations determined by microwave fatty acid assay were accurate to those results by the reference method, when the microwave conditions were optimal. In summary, the microwave irradiation could replace conductive heating in one-step direct transesterification, and reduce the duration from 60 min to 5 min or less. This methodology may be applied in both the absolute and relative quantification of serum total fatty acids.

  19. Reproduction of Japanese quail after microwave irradiation (2.45 GHz CW) during embryogeny.

    PubMed

    Gildersleeve, R P; Galvin, M J; McRee, D I; Thaxton, J P; Parkhurst, C R

    1987-01-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos were irradiated continuously in ovo with 2.45-GHz continuous wave radiation during the first 12 days of embryogenesis at an incident power of 5 mW/cm2 and a specific absorption rate of 4.03 mW/g. The internal temperature of irradiated and nonirradiated (sham) eggs was 37.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C, which is the optimum temperature for incubating quail eggs. At 35 days after hatching irradiated and sham-irradiated males were paired with irradiated or sham-irradiated females and daily records of reproductive performance were collected through 224 days of age. Progeny were hatched from each of the male-female pairs, and progeny reproductive performance was measured from 35 through 168 days of age. Hatchability was not affected by irradiation during embryogeny. Mortality after hatching, egg production, egg weight, fertility, hatchability of eggs produced, and reproductive performance of the progeny were not affected by irradiation during embryogeny. These observations indicate that irradiation of quail embryos with low-level microwave radiation does not affect the reproductive capacity of the hatchlings or of progeny produced from quail irradiated during incubation.

  20. Nonthermal effect of microwave irradiation in nonaqueous enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hui-da; Sun, Shi-yu; Hu, Xue-yi; Xia, Yong-mei

    2012-03-01

    Microwave has nonthermal effects on enzymatic reactions, mainly caused by the polarities of the solvents and substrates. In this experiment, a model reaction with caprylic acid and butanol that was catalyzed by lipase from Mucor miehei in alkanes or arenes was employed to investigate the nonthermal effect in nonaqueous enzymatic esterification. With the comparison of the esterification carried by conventional heating and consecutive microwave irradiation, the positive nonthermal effect on the initial reaction rates was found substrate concentration-dependent and could be vanished ostensibly when the substrate concentration was over 2.0 mol L(-1). The polar parameter log P well correlates the solvent polarity with the microwave effect, comparing to dielectric constant and assayed solvatochromic solvent polarity parameters. The log P rule presented in conventional heating-enzymatic esterification still fits in the microwaved enzymatic esterification. Alkanes or arenes with higher log P provided positive nonthermal effect in the range of 2 ≤ log P ≤ 4, but yielded a dramatic decrement after log P = 4. Isomers of same log P with higher dielectric constant received stronger positive nonthermal effect. With lower substrate concentration, the total log P of the reaction mixture has no obvious functional relation with the microwave effect.

  1. ADVANCES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, ISBN 81-901238-5-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    16. Abstract Advances in Green Chemistry: Chemical Syntheses Using Microwave Irradiation
    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predomi...

  2. ADVANCES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, ISBN 81-901238-5-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    16. Abstract Advances in Green Chemistry: Chemical Syntheses Using Microwave Irradiation
    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predomi...

  3. Vaccine Biotechnology by Accelerated Electron Beam and Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, Gabriela D.; Togoe, Iulian I.; Tudor, Laurentiu M.; Martin, Diana I.; Manaila, Elena N.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Iacob, Nicusor I.; Oproiu, Constantin V.

    2007-04-01

    A new biotechnology for obtaining a commercial vaccine that contains either Fusobacterium necrophorum (F.n.) exotoxins inactivated by accelerated electron beam (EB) and microwave (MW) irradiation, or exotoxins isolated from F.n. cultures irradiated with EB+MW, is presented. This vaccine is designed for prophylaxis of ruminant infectious pododermatitis (IP) produced by F.n. Also, the research results concerning the effects of combined chemical adjuvant and EB+MW irradiation on F.n. immune capacity are discussed. The vaccine's efficacy will be tested in ruminant farms in which IP evolves. It is expected that this new vaccine to offer a better protection, more than 60%, which is the best presently obtained result in ruminant farms.

  4. Effectiveness of microwave irradiation on the disinfection of complete dentures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mariana Montenegro; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Machado, Ana Lúcia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of microwave irradiation on the disinfection of simulated complete dentures. Eighty dentures were fabricated in a standardized procedure and subjected to ethylene oxide sterilization. The dentures were individually inoculated (10(7) cfu/mL) with tryptic soy broth (TSB) media containing one of the tested microorganisms (Candida albicans, Streptoccus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). After 48 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C, 40 dentures were individually immersed in 200 mL of water and submitted to microwave irradiation at 650 W for 6 minutes. Forty nonirradiated dentures were used as positive controls. Replicate aliquots (25 microL) of suspensions were plated at dilutions of 10(-3) to 10(-6) on plates of selective media appropriate for each organism. All plates were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. TSB beakers with the microwaved dentures were incubated at 37 degrees C for 7 more days. After incubation, the number of colony-forming units was counted and the data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test (alpha = .05). No evidence of growth was observed at 48 hours for S. aureus, B. subtilis, and C. albicans. Dentures contaminated with P. aeruginosa showed small growth on 2 plates. After 7 days incubation at 37 degrees C, no growth was visible in the TSB beakers of S. aureus and C. albicans. Turbidity was observed in 3 broth beakers, 2 from P. aeruginosa and 1 from B. subtilis. Microwave irradiation for 6 minutes at 650 W produced sterilization of complete dentures contaminated with S. aureus and C. albicans and disinfection of those contaminated with P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis.

  5. Mechanism for microwave heating of 1-(4'-cyanophenyl)-4-propylcyclohexane characterized by in situ microwave irradiation NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tasei, Yugo; Yamakami, Takuya; Kawamura, Izuru; Fujito, Teruaki; Ushida, Kiminori; Sato, Motoyasu; Naito, Akira

    2015-05-01

    Microwave heating is widely used to accelerate organic reactions and enhance the activity of enzymes. However, the detailed molecular mechanism for the effect of microwave on chemical reactions is not yet fully understood. To investigate the effects of microwave heating on organic compounds, we have developed an in situ microwave irradiation NMR spectroscopy. (1)H NMR spectra of 1-(4'-cyanophenyl)-4-propylcyclohexane (PCH3) in the liquid crystalline and isotropic phases were observed under microwave irradiation. When the temperature was regulated at slightly higher than the phase transition temperature (Tc=45 °C) under a gas flow temperature control system, liquid crystalline phase mostly changed to the isotropic phase. Under microwave irradiation and with the gas flow temperature maintained at 20 °C, which is 25 °C below the Tc, the isotropic phase appeared stationary as an approximately 2% fraction in the liquid crystalline phase. The temperature of the liquid crystalline state was estimated to be 38 °C according to the line width, which is at least 7 °C lower than the Tc. The temperature of this isotropic phase should be higher than 45 °C, which is considered to be a non-equilibrium local heating state induced by microwave irradiation. Microwaves at a power of 195 W were irradiated to the isotropic phase of PCH3 at 50 °C and after 2 min, the temperature reached 220 °C. The temperature of PCH3 under microwave irradiation was estimated by measurement of the chemical shift changes of individual protons in the molecule. These results demonstrate that microwave heating generates very high temperature within a short time using an in situ microwave irradiation NMR spectrometer.

  6. Transesterification of soybean oil by using the synergistic microwave-ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Wei; Nie, Jing; Lu, Lin-Guang; Wang, Shen-Peng; Li, Zu-Guang; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2017-11-01

    Microwave and ultrasound have been demonstrated to be outstanding process intensification techniques for transesterification of oil. According to their mechanisms, simultaneous effects can surely bring about better enhancement than sole microwave or ultrasound. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the important factors and their suitable levels in the KOH-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil with methanol by using synergistic assistance of microwave-ultrasound (CAMU). The feasibility of application of CAMU in transesterification of oil was demonstrated. When the dosage of methanol, soybean oil and KOH were 15.4g, 34.7g (with methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 12:1) and 1g, respectively, and the microwave power, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic mode, reaction temperature and reaction time were 700W, 800W, 1:0, 65°C and 6min, respectively, the transesterification reached 98.0% of yield, being the highest yield among all the results obtained; while by using 600W of microwave plus stirring instead of CAMU, only 57.4% of yield could be obtained. Compared with other reaction techniques, the transesterification by applying novel CAMU was found to have remarkable advantages. Furthermore, by monitoring the variation of real-time temperature and microwave power during transesterification reactions with different microwave operation time and by taking comparison of the corresponding yield, it was demonstrated that the main reason for the acceleration of microwave-assisted transesterification was the polarization and further activation of reactants caused by microwave irradiation, but not the factor of fast heating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microwave irradiation of nanohydroxyapatite from chicken eggshells and duck eggshells.

    PubMed

    Sajahan, Nor Adzliana; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) by chicken (CES) and duck eggshells (DES) as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3). CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH4)2HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  8. Microwave irradiation and quasiparticles in a superconducting double dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, N. J.; Esmail, A. A.; Pollock, F. A.; Edwards, M.; Lovett, B. W.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    We study the interaction of the charge states of a superconducting double dot, comprising two superconducting islands coupled by a Josephson junction, with microwaves between 2 and 55 GHz. We observe resonant transitions between even-parity charge states at relatively low frequencies and breaking of Cooper pairs under higher-frequency irradiation, allowing our device to act as a click detector for microwave photons. By applying a magnetic field and tuning the pair-breaking energy, we perform spectroscopy on the environment in our cryostat and determine the temperature of a nonequilibrium photon bath. Finally, we exploit the band structure of our device to break Cooper pairs dependent on the symmetry of the initial Cooper pair state.

  9. Recent applications of microwave irradiation to medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Jesús; Oehlrich, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The demands made on the pharmaceutical industry are changing at an unprecedented pace, making modern drug discovery dependent on high speed organic synthesis. Over the last few years, different technologies have been introduced in medicinal chemistry laboratories in order to improve their productivity. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis is proving to be instrumental in the rapid synthesis of compounds with new and improved biological activities. This review highlights the application of this approach as a way to explore analogue synthesis in medicinal chemistry over the last 3 years. We describe a number of examples taken from the literature that are related to various targets within different therapeutic areas. Clearly microwave irradiation is becoming a fundamental tool for optimizing key steps in the synthesis of target compounds within the field of drug discovery.

  10. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Sajahan, Nor Adzliana; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) by chicken (CES) and duck eggshells (DES) as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3). CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH4)2HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:25383364

  11. Changes in Thermoregulatory Behavior during Microwave Irradiation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Voluntary behavioral action is an organism’s first defense against exogenous thermal challenge. Endotherms and ectotherms alike use behavioral...level. For ectothermic species, these behaviors represent most of the thermoregulatory response available to the organism. For endothermic species, these

  12. An evaluation of the effect of microwave irradiation on bone decalcification aimed to DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Kei; Ogawa, Yoshinori

    2013-09-01

    An effect of intermittent microwave irradiation on decalcification of compact bone followed by DNA extraction was verified. In order to perform quantitative analysis regarding the degree of decalcification, Cubic bone specimens were prepared from bovine metacarpal bone and micro-focus X-ray CT imaging was applied to measure precise volume of decalcified area in the cubes. Microwave irradiation was performed under strict control of temperature using commercially available experimental device which is designed for advancing tissue fixation, decalcification, and antigen-antibody reaction by intermittent microwave. The integrity of the DNA obtained from irradiated specimen was also examined by PCR analysis. The results of morphological analysis with CT imaging showed that microwave irradiation has a positive effect on decalcification though that effect is not so drastic. The results obtained from PCR analysis showed that microwave irradiation decrease amplifiable DNA, suggesting that we should be careful to use microwave for the purpose of bone DNA extraction.

  13. [Development of the Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture after microwave irradiation].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, O O; Berezovskaia, M A; Datsenko, A I

    2012-01-01

    Effect of the microwave irradiation on the subsequent development of the Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture is studied. The number of cells in the suspension was controlled and photoluminescence measurements were performed for 25 days to estimate the functional state of the cells. The exposure at a dose of 80 J/g is shown to negligibly affect the green alga, whereas the 122 J/g dose led to deterioration of the functional state and, thereafter, to the death of most cells. However, the survivors intensively developed, the culture restored the normal state for 20 days, reached and later even left behind the control sample in development.

  14. Changes in thermoregulatory behavior during microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.

    1981-10-01

    Voluntary behavioral action is an organism's first defense against exogenous thermal challenge. Endotherms and ectotherms alike use behavioral strategies whenever possible to counteract inhospitable alterations in the exchange of thermal energy between their bodies and the environment. Responses as diverse as the thermotropisms of unicellular organisms and the complex behavior-plus-technology of man's lunar walk share a common purpose--that of providing a hospitable microclimate so that the internal body temperature may be regulated with precision at a characteristic (neutral) level. For ectothermic species, these behaviors represent most of the thermoregulatory response available to the organism. For endothermic species, these behaviors represent most of the thermoregulatory response available to the organism. For endothermic species, these behaviors ensure minimal involvement of innate mechanisms of heat production and heat loss during thermoregulation, thus conserving the body's energy stores and water.

  15. Microwave irradiation biodiesel processing of waste cooking oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motasemi, Farough; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-06-01

    Major part of the world's total energy output is generated from fossil fuels, consequently its consumption has been continuously increased which accelerates the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and also increases the price of these valuable limited resources. Biodiesel is a renewable, non-toxic and biodegradable diesel fuel which it can be the best environmentally friendly and easily attainable alternative for fossil fuels. The costs of feedstock and production process are two important factors which are particularly against large-scale biodiesel production. This study is intended to optimize three critical reaction parameters including intensity of mixing, microwave exit power and reaction time from the transesterification of waste cooking oil by using microwave irradiation in an attempt to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. To arrest the reaction, similar quantities of methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1) and potassium hydroxide (2% wt) as the catalyst were used. The results showed that the best yield percentage (95%) was obtained using 300W microwave exit power, 300 rpm stirrer speed (intensity of mixing) and 78°C for 5 min. It was observed that increasing the intensity of mixing greatly ameliorates the yield percentage of biodiesel (up to 17%). Moreover, the results demonstrate that increasing the reaction time in the low microwave exit power (100W) improves the yield percentage of biodiesel, while it has a negative effect on the conversion yield in the higher microwave exit power (300W). From the obtained results it was clear that FAME was within the standards of biodiesel fuel.

  16. Gold Nanoparticles and Microwave Irradiation Inhibit Beta-Amyloid Amyloidogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Eyleen; Olmedo, Ivonne; Bastus, Neus G.; Guerrero, Simón; Puntes, Víctor F.; Giralt, Ernest; Kogan, Marcelo J.

    2008-11-01

    Peptide-Gold nanoparticles selectively attached to β-amyloid protein (Aβ) amyloidogenic aggregates were irradiated with microwave. This treatment produces dramatic effects on the Aβ aggregates, inhibiting both the amyloidogenesis and the restoration of the amyloidogenic potential. This novel approach offers a new strategy to inhibit, locally and remotely, the amyloidogenic process, which could have application in Alzheimer’s disease therapy. We have studied the irradiation effect on the amyloidogenic process in the presence of conjugates peptide-nanoparticle by transmission electronic microscopy observations and by Thioflavine T assays to quantify the amount of fibrils in suspension. The amyloidogenic aggregates rather than the amyloid fibrils seem to be better targets for the treatment of the disease. Our results could contribute to the development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit the amyloidogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease.

  17. Gold Nanoparticles and Microwave Irradiation Inhibit Beta-Amyloid Amyloidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Peptide-Gold nanoparticles selectively attached to β-amyloid protein (Aβ) amyloidogenic aggregates were irradiated with microwave. This treatment produces dramatic effects on the Aβ aggregates, inhibiting both the amyloidogenesis and the restoration of the amyloidogenic potential. This novel approach offers a new strategy to inhibit, locally and remotely, the amyloidogenic process, which could have application in Alzheimer’s disease therapy. We have studied the irradiation effect on the amyloidogenic process in the presence of conjugates peptide-nanoparticle by transmission electronic microscopy observations and by Thioflavine T assays to quantify the amount of fibrils in suspension. The amyloidogenic aggregates rather than the amyloid fibrils seem to be better targets for the treatment of the disease. Our results could contribute to the development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit the amyloidogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease.

  18. Comparison of chromatographic band profiles obtained under microwave irradiated and non-irradiated reversed-phase liquid chromatography column

    SciTech Connect

    Galinada, Wilmer; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-08-01

    The possible influence of the application of microwave energy to a reversed-phase liquid chromatography column on the mass transfer kinetics and the thermodynamics of equilibrium between mobile and stationary phases was examined. Chromatograms of propylbenzene and phenol were recorded under the same experimental conditions, on the same column, successively irradiated and not. The effect of microwave irradiation on the mass transfer kinetics was determined by measuring the second moment of small pulses of propylbenzene in a 70:30 (v/v) solution of methanol in water and microwave outputs of 15 and 30 W. The effect of microwave irradiation on the equilibrium thermodynamics was determined by measuring the elution time of breakthrough curves of phenol at high concentrations in a 20:80 (v/v) solution of methanol and water and microwave outputs of 15, 50, and 150 W. A qualitative comparison of the profiles of the propylbenzene peaks obtained with and without irradiation suggests that this irradiation affects significantly the peak shapes. However, a qualitative comparison of the profiles of the breakthrough curves of phenol obtained with and without irradiation suggests that this irradiation has no significant effect on their shapes. The peak sharpening observed may be due to an increase in the diffusivity, resulting from the dielectric polarization under microwave irradiation. This effect is directly related to an increase of the rate of mass transfers in the column. In contrast, the similarity of the overloaded band profiles at high concentrations suggests that the equilibrium thermodynamics is unaffected by microwave irradiation. This may be explained by the transparence of the stationary phase to microwaves at 2.45 GHz. The column temperature was measured at the column outlet under irradiation powers of 15, 30, 50, and 150 W. It increases with increasing power, the corresponding effluent temperatures being 25 {+-} 1, 30 {+-} 1, 35 {+-} 1, and 45 {+-} 1 C, respectively.

  19. Synergistic effect of microwave irradiation and CaF2 on vanadium leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-peng; Zhang, Yi-min; Huang, Jing; Liu, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The effect and mechanism of microwave irradiation on vanadium leaching were studied via a comparison between microwave heating and conventional heating. The results show a synergistic effect of microwave irradiation and calcium fluoride (CaF2) on the vanadium leaching efficiency. It is confirmed that the vanadium leaching process can be improved by microwave irradiation when CaF2 is present. The leaching rate of vanadium under microwave irradiation is increased by 8%-15% when 5wt% CaF2 is added; by contrast, in the absence of CaF2, the leaching rate is almost unaffected compared to that by conventional heating. Morphological analysis reveals that the particles are gradually eroded by acid under microwave irradiation, whereas some of the fine particles in samples subjected to conventional heating are tightly covered by a flocculent silicate product. Moreover, a large amount of Al and V and a small amount of Si are dissolved from samples under microwave heating, as revealed by the elemental analysis of leachates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis also indicates a higher mass transfer coefficient in the diffusion layer of the raw material by microwave irradiation. When CaF2 is present, the reaction energy barrier is lowered and the leaching process is controlled by the tightly covered product layer, resulting in a prominent effect of microwave irradiation.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of swelling induced-orally disintegrating tablets by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Susumu; Itai, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    A major challenge in the development of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) is to achieve a good balance between tablet hardness and disintegration time. In this study, an advanced method was demonstrated to improve these opposing properties in a molded tablet using a one-step procedure that exploits the swelling induced by microwave treatment. Wet molded tablets consisting of the delta form of mannitol and silicon dioxide were prepared and microwave-heated to generate water vapor inside the tablets. This induced either swelling or shrinking of tablets, in the extent of each being dependent on tablet formulation and manufacturing conditions. A two-level full factorial design method was used to evaluate the effects of several variables in formulation and manufacturing conditions on the tablet properties, hardness, disintegration time and change in shape. The variables investigated in this study were: ratio of silicon dioxide in formulation, water volume added in granulation, ratio of water absorbed by silicon dioxide prior to granulation, and microwave irradiation time. Swelling of tablet by microwave irradiation was observed in the batches with high ratio of silicon dioxide and low levels of water volume. The disintegration time was clearly shortened by induction of the swelling, while tablet hardness increased. We demonstrated that the water vapor generated by microwave irradiation promoted a change in the crystalline form of mannitol from delta to beta, and that this may have contributed to an increase in tablet hardness. Additionally, it was found that new solid bridges were formed between the granules in the tablet via the pathway from dissolution of mannitol in water vapor to congelation, resulting in an increase in tablet hardness. Thus, both tablet hardness and disintegration properties of the molded tablets were improved by the proposed one-step method and the appropriate ranges for variables are indicated. In addition, multiple regression modeling was

  1. Quantum phase-slip junction under microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Marco, A.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Rastelli, G.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the dynamics of a quantum phase-slip junction (QPSJ), a dual Josephson junction, connected to a microwave source with frequency ωmw. With respect to an ordinary Josephson junction, a QPSJ can sustain dual Shapiro steps, consisting of well-defined current plateaus at multiple integers of e ωmw/π in the current-voltage (I -V ) characteristic. The experimental observation of these plateaus has been elusive up to now. We argue that thermal as well as quantum fluctuations can smear the I -V characteristic considerably. In order to understand these effects, we study a current-biased QPSJ under microwave irradiation and connected to an inductive and resistive environment. We find that the effect of the fluctuations is governed by the resistance of the environment and by the ratio of the phase-slip energy and the inductive energy. Our results are of interest for experiments aiming at the observation of dual Shapiro steps in QPSJ devices for the definition of a new quantum current standard.

  2. Fast and Controllable Crystallization of Perovskite Films by Microwave Irradiation Process.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qipeng; Yang, Songwang; Gao, Qianqian; Lei, Lei; Yu, Yu; Shao, Jun; Liu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    The crystal growth process significantly influences the properties of organic-inorganic halide perovskite films along with the performance of solar cell devices. In this paper, we adopted the microwave irradiation to treat perovskite films through a one-step deposition method for several minutes at a fixed output power. It is found that the specific microwave irradiation process can evaporate the solvent directly and heat perovskite film quickly. In comparison with the conventional thermal annealing process, a microwave irradiation process assisted fast and controllable crystallization of perovskite films with less energy-loss and time-consumption and therefore resulted in the enhancement in the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cells.

  3. Microwaves and cellular immunity. I. Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, E E; Makar, V R; Novoselova, E G; Sadovnikov, V B

    1999-10-01

    Whole body microwave sinusoidal irradiation of male NMRI mice with 8.15-18 GHz (1 Hz within) at a power density of 1 microW/cm2 caused a significant enhancement of TNF production in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T lymphocytes. Microwave radiation affected T cells, facilitating their capacity to proliferate in response to mitogenic stimulation. The exposure duration necessary for the stimulation of cellular immunity ranged from 5 h to 3 days. Chronic irradiation of mice for 7 days produced the decreasing of TNF production in peritoneal macrophages. The exposure of mice for 24 h increased the TNF production and immune proliferative response, and these stimulatory effects persisted over 3 days after the termination of exposure. Microwave treatment increased the endogenously produced TNF more effectively than did lipopolysaccharide, one of the most potential stimuli of synthesis of this cytokine. The role of microwaves as a factor interfering with the process of cell immunity is discussed.

  4. Synergistic Effects of Combined Electron Beam and Microwave Irradiation on Microorganisms Inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, Gabriela D.; Martin, Diana I.; Manaila, Elena N.; Togoe, Iulian I.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Iacob, Nicusor I.; Ighigeanu, Adelina I.; Oproiu, Constantin V.

    2007-04-01

    Comparative results obtained by using separate and combined electron beam (EB) and microwave (MW) on microorganisms inactivation in natural products such as minced beef, wheat bran, wheat flour and sewage sludge are presented. The combination of advantages of both, EB and MW, in microbiological decontamination process, i.e. the EB high efficiency and MW high selectivity and volumetric heating assures higher material microbiological safety, extends the kind range of microorganisms to be inactivated, reduces the absorbed dose level and irradiation time, and decreases the process costs.

  5. Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste for Syngas Production by Microwave Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V.; Regupathi, Iyyaswami

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we discuss the application of microwave-irradiated pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) for total recovery of useful gases and energy. The MSW pyrolysis under microwave irradiation highly depends on the process parameters, like microwave power, microwave absorbers, and time of irradiation. The thoroughness of pyrolysis and product recovery were studied by changing the abovesaid variables. Pyrolysis of MSW occurs in the power rating range of 450-850 W-outside this power rating range, pyrolysis is not possible. Experiments were carried out using various microwave absorbers (i.e., graphite, charcoal, and iron) to enhance the pyrolysis even at lower power rating. The results show that the pyrolysis of MSW was possible even at low power ratings. The major composition of the pyrolysis gaseous product were analyzed with GC-MS which includes CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, etc.

  6. Magnetically separable nanoferrite-anchored glutathione: Aqueous homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A highly active, stable and magnetically separable glutathione based organocatalyst provided good to excellent yields to symmetric biaryls in the homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation. Symmetrical biaryl motifs are present in a wide range of natural p...

  7. Speedy fabrication of diameter-controlled Ag nanowires using glycerolunder microwave irradiation conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diameter-controlled Ag nanowires were rapidly fabricated (1 min) using inexpensive, abundant, and environmentally-friendly glycerol as both reductant and solvent under non-stirred microwave irradiation conditions; no Ag particles were formed using conventional heating methods. Th...

  8. Magnetically separable nanoferrite-anchored glutathione: Aqueous homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A highly active, stable and magnetically separable glutathione based organocatalyst provided good to excellent yields to symmetric biaryls in the homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation. Symmetrical biaryl motifs are present in a wide range of natural p...

  9. Selective oxidation of glycosyl sulfides to sulfoxides using magnesium monoperoxyphthalate and microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Yi; Patkar, Laxmikant Narhari; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2004-04-16

    A protocol that uses moist magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MMPP) as an oxidant under microwave irradiation rapidly yields a variety of glycosyl sulfoxides from corresponding sulfides in high yields with high selectivity.

  10. Effect of microwave irradiation on TATB explosive (II): temperature response and other risk.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weifei; Zhang, Tonglai; Zuo, Jun; Huang, Yigang; Li, Gang; Han, Chao; Li, Jinshan; Huang, Hui

    2010-01-15

    TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) explosives were safely irradiated with microwave and showed no visible change according to XPS and XRD spectra. Temperature of TATB sample increased quickly at the beginning and gently during sequent continuous irradiation with temperature less than 140 degrees C after 60 min, 480 W irradiation, and increased more quickly in 300 g at 480 W than in 150 g at 480 W, both implied that heat dissipation was in the majority of microwave energy. Two major risk factors in microwave irradiation were concerned including overheating which should be avoidable with temperature monitor and microwave discharge which should be controllable experimentally though dielectric breakdown mechanism was not elucidated theoretically yet.

  11. Brønsted acid-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of pyrrole derivatives accelerated by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bachu, Prabhakar; Akiyama, Takahiko

    2009-07-15

    The Brønsted acid-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of pyrrole derivatives was developed. Microwave irradiation accelerated the Nazarov cyclization significantly at 40 degrees C to give cyclopenta[b]pyrrole derivatives in excellent yields with high trans selectivity.

  12. Effects of irradiation on fungi and fumonisin B(1) in corn, and of microwave-popping on fumonisins in popcorn.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, K L; Trucksess, M W; Devries, J W; Bean, G

    2007-07-01

    Fumonisins are metabolites produced in corn primarily by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme) and are toxic to humans and animals. Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is the primary fumonisin produced and is found frequently in corn kernels, some of which may be used as food or food ingredients. A three-part study was conducted to determine the effects of gamma- and electron beam irradiation on the levels of fumonisins in naturally contaminated field corn, and the effects of microwave-popping on fumonisins in selected, naturally contaminated popcorn. To date, no effective means have been found to reduce consistently mycotoxin levels once foods are contaminated. Aqueous solutions of FB(1) at various concentrations, samples of whole corn, and samples of ground corn containing known levels of FB(1) were irradiated with various levels of cobalt and electron beam irradiation. Popcorn samples, taken from the reject streams of popcorn processing, were popped using normal microwave-popping conditions. FB(1) in aqueous solutions was reduced by 99.7% using a minimal level of irradiation (0.5 kGray). Gamma- and electron beam irradiation did not significantly reduce levels of FB(1) in whole and ground corn. Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. fungi were totally eliminated at 30 kGray in ground corn and at 100 kGray in whole corn. The normal commercial cleaning processes for microwave popcorn before packaging reduced fumonisins to <0.03 microg g(-1) for the cleaned product stream. Microwave popping of popcorn from reject streams of the cleaning operation that contained fumonisins resulted in significant reduction of the mould toxin.

  13. SOLVENT-FREE APPROACH TO EXPEDITIOUS ORGANIC SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are accelerated because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The application of MW ir...

  14. GREENER AND CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF NOBLE NANOSTRUCTURES IN AQUEOUS MEDIA USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted spontaneous reduction of gold salts is described using sugar solutions such as alpha-D-glucose, sucrose and maltose, etc. The expeditious reactions are conducted in aqueous media using microwave irradiation wherein the reduction occurs within 30 to 60 seconds ...

  15. SOLVENT-FREE APPROACH TO EXPEDITIOUS ORGANIC SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are accelerated because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The application of MW ir...

  16. GREENER AND CONTROLLED SYNTHESIS OF NOBLE NANOSTRUCTURES IN AQUEOUS MEDIA USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted spontaneous reduction of gold salts is described using sugar solutions such as alpha-D-glucose, sucrose and maltose, etc. The expeditious reactions are conducted in aqueous media using microwave irradiation wherein the reduction occurs within 30 to 60 seconds ...

  17. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lloyd, David; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the "internet of things" is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  18. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian; Lloyd, David

    2016-08-29

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  19. Evaluation of direct transesterification of microalgae using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee Loong; Idris, Ani

    2014-12-01

    Nannochloropsis sp. wet biomass was directly transesterified under microwave (MW) irradiation in the presence of methanol and various alkali and acid catalyst. Two different types of direct transesterification (DT) were used; one step and two step transesterification. The biodiesel yield obtained from the MWDT was compared with that obtained using conventional method (lipid extraction followed by transesterification) and water bath heating DT method. Findings revealed that MWDT efficiencies were higher compared to water bath heating DT by at least 14.34% and can achieve a maximum of 43.37% with proper selection of catalysts. The use of combined catalyst (NaOH and H2SO4) increased the yield obtained by 2.3-folds (water bath heating DT) and 2.87-folds (MWDT) compared with the one step single alkaline catalyst respectively. The property of biodiesel produced by MWDT has high lubricating property, good cetane number and short carbon chain FAME's compared with water bath heating DT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Steady States of the Inhomogenous Microwave Irradiated Quantum Hall Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auerbach, Assa; Finkler, Ilya; Halperin, Bertrand; Yacoby, Amir

    2005-03-01

    To explain the observation of Zero-Resistance states (ZRS) in Microwave irradiated Quantum Hall gases[1], it has been proposed[2] that under appropriate conditions the sample will break into domains of photogenerated fields. In the absence of disorder induced pinning, motion of domain walls results in a ZRS state. In order to treat the effects of long wavelength disorder, we construct a Lyapunov functional for systems with uniform Hall conductivity. We use it to derive stability conditions on the domain structure and to compute the conductance. We show that weak white noise disorder does not destroy the ZRS although it produces current fluctuations. In contrast, separable and correlated disorder pin the domain walls, and produce a finite conductance and a photovoltage as demonstrated by one dimensional, and simple two dimensional, potentials.1. R.G. Mani et.al. Nature, 420, 646 (2002); M.A. Zudov et.al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 046807 (2003).2. A.V. Andreev, I.L. Aleiner, and A.J. Millis, PRL 91, 056803 (2003).

  1. Advances on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwaves.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Gao, Li; Ma, Jing-Xiang; Jin, Xin; Yao, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yi

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the research background and chemistry of desulfurization and denitrification technology using microwave irradiation. Microwave-induced catalysis combined with activated carbon adsorption and reduction can reduce nitric oxide to nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to sulfur from flue gas effectively. This paper also highlights the main drawbacks of this technology and discusses future development trends. It is reported that the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide using microwave irradiation has broad prospects for development in the field of air pollution control.

  2. Preparation of ultrafiltration membrane by phase separation coupled with microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Suryani, Puput Eka; Purnama, Herry; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-29

    Preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membrane is still a big challenge in the membrane field. In this paper, polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) coupled with microwave irradiation. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) were used as additives to improve membrane hydrophilicity. In this study, the concentration of additive, irradiation time and microwave power was varied. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the performances were tested by adsorptive and ultrafiltration fouling experiments. The results show that the irradiation time and irradiation power are very important parameter that influence the membrane characteristic. In addition, type and concentration of additive are other important parameters. The results suggest that microwave irradiation is the most important parameter influencing the membrane characteristic. Both pure water flux and fouling resistance increase with increasing irradiation time, power irradiation, and additive concentration. PES membrane with addition of 10% w/w PEG and irradiated by 130 W microwave power for 180 seconds is the best membrane performance.

  3. Preparation of ultrafiltration membrane by phase separation coupled with microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, Puput Eka; Purnama, Herry; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    Preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membrane is still a big challenge in the membrane field. In this paper, polyether sulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) coupled with microwave irradiation. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) were used as additives to improve membrane hydrophilicity. In this study, the concentration of additive, irradiation time and microwave power was varied. The membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the performances were tested by adsorptive and ultrafiltration fouling experiments. The results show that the irradiation time and irradiation power are very important parameter that influence the membrane characteristic. In addition, type and concentration of additive are other important parameters. The results suggest that microwave irradiation is the most important parameter influencing the membrane characteristic. Both pure water flux and fouling resistance increase with increasing irradiation time, power irradiation, and additive concentration. PES membrane with addition of 10% w/w PEG and irradiated by 130 W microwave power for 180 seconds is the best membrane performance.

  4. Control of the microwave characteristics of composite materials filled with carbon nanotubes using UV irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Skripal', A. V.; Romanov, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    The complex permittivities of composite materials that are based on the two-component epoxy binder with various volume concentrations of the UV-irradiated multilayer carbon nanotubes are determined using the microwave transmission spectra. The effect of the UV-irradiation time on the mean conductivity of the nanotubes in the composite in the microwave range is studied. It is demonstrated that the limitations on the working volume of the chamber in which the UV irradiation of the carbon nanotubes is performed substantially affects the electrophysical characteristics of the nanotubes.

  5. Microwave irradiation as an alternative method for disinfection of denture base acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Consani, R; Sardi, J; Mesquita, M; Macêdo, A; Takahashi, J

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of microwave irradiation as an alternative method for disinfection of different types of denture base acrylic resins. Twenty-four samples for each conventional, microwaved and characterized heat-cured acrylic resin were made and subjected to sterilization with ethylene oxide for the groups: 1) irradiated samples; 2) non-irradiated samples; and 3) samples without yeast. Each group was subdivided according to inoculation with C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis. The samples were inoculated with 100 µL of inoculum of each species of Candida and later placed in an incubator at 37 °C for 1 hr to perform the first adhesion. After this time, each well was supplemented with sterile media and the plate was once again taken to a stove for incubation at 37 °C for 6 hr. The samples were immersed in 100 mL of sterile water and irradiated with microwave at 650 W for 3 min. Control samples were considered as the non-irradiated group. After incubation for 48 hr, irradiated and non-irradiated samples were subjected to a digital colony counter. Control group (non-irradiated) showed microbial growth for resins and the means of ufc/mL were without statistically significant differences. Microwave irradiated samples (experimental group) promoted no viable colonies for all Candida species and types of acrylic resins. The means of ufc/mL were without statistically significant differences. Microwave irradiation was an effective method for disinfection of the acrylic resins inoculated with C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis.

  6. Application of Microwave Irradiation and Heat to Improve Gliadin Detection and Ricin ELISA Throughput with Food Samples.

    PubMed

    Garber, Eric A E; Thole, Joseph

    2015-06-11

    The utility of microwave irradiation to accelerate the onset of equilibrium and improve ELISA performance was examined using ELISAs for the detection of the plant toxin ricin and gliadin. The ricin ELISA normally requires several one hour incubations at 37 °C, a total assay time of approximately five hours, and employs a complex buffer containing PBS, Tween-20®, and non-fat milk. Different energy levels and pulse designs were compared to the use of abbreviated incubation times at 37 °C for the detection of ricin in food. The use of microwave irradiation had no significant advantage over the application of heat using an oven incubator and performed worse with some foods. In contrast, a gliadin ELISA that relied on 30 min incubation steps at room temperature and a salt-based buffer performed better upon irradiation but also displayed improvement upon incubating the microtiter plate at 37 °C. Whether microwave irradiation was advantageous compared to incubation in an oven was inconclusive. However, by abbreviating the incubation time of the ricin ELISA, it was possible to cut the assay time to less than 2 hours and still display LOD values < 10 ppb and recoveries of 78%-98%.

  7. Effects of Normothermic Conditioned Microwave Irradiation on Cultured Cells Using an Irradiation System with Semiconductor Oscillator and Thermo-regulatory Applicator

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Mamiko; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Mitani, Tomohiko; Kawase, Masaya; Matsumura, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Takako; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Tabuse, Katsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of microwave irradiation under normothermic conditions on cultured cells. For this study, we developed an irradiation system constituted with semiconductor microwave oscillator (2.45 GHz) and thermos-regulatory applicator, which could irradiate microwaves at varied output powers to maintain the temperature of cultured cells at 37 °C. Seven out of eight types of cultured cells were killed by microwave irradiation, where four were not affected by thermal treatment at 42.5 °C. Since the dielectric properties such as ε’, ε” and tanδ showed similar values at 2.45 GHz among cell types and media, the degree of microwave energy absorbed by cells might be almost the same among cell types. Thus, the vulnerability of cells to microwave irradiation might be different among cell types. In HL-60 cells, which were the most sensitive to microwave irradiation, the viability decreased as irradiation time and irradiation output increased; accordingly, the decrease in viability was correlated to an increase in total joule. However, when a high or low amount of joules per minute was supplied, the correlation between cellular viability and total joules became relatively weak. It is hypothesized that kinds of cancer cells are efficiently killed by respective specific output of microwave under normothermic cellular conditions. PMID:28145466

  8. Improvement of coal water slurry property through coal physicochemical modifications by microwave irradiation and thermal heat

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Yanchang Li; Jianzhong Liu; Kefa Cen

    2008-07-15

    To improve the coal water slurry (CWS) property made from Chinese Shenhua coal with high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, microwave irradiation and thermal heat were employed to modify the coal physicochemical property. Microwave irradiation reduces the inherent moisture and reforms the oxygenic function groups, while it decreases the total specific surface area. Thermal heat markedly decreases the inherent moisture, volatile, and oxygen contents, while it dramatically increases the total specific surface area. Therefore, microwave irradiation gives a higher CWS concentration and a better rheological behavior than thermal heat, while it remarkably reduces the operation time and energy consumption. The maximum CWS concentration given by microwave irradiation at 420 W for 60 s is 62.14%, which is not only higher than that of 60.41% given by thermal heat at 450{sup o}C for 0.5 h but also higher than the initial 58.23%. Meanwhile, the minimum shear stress given by microwave irradiation is 36.4 Pa at the shear rate of 100 s{sup -1}, which is not only lower than that of 42.4 Pa given by thermal heat but also lower than the initial 79.8 Pa. The minimum unit energy consumption of 0.115 kWh/(kg of coal) and electricity cost of 4.6 U.S. $/(ton of coal) for CWS concentration promotion by 1% are obtained at 420 W for 20 s in the microwave oven. The unit energy consumptions for CWS concentration promotion and inherent moisture removal by thermal heat are, respectively, 214 and 22.5 times higher than those by microwave irradiation, while the energy use efficiencies are on the converse. 27 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The microwave heating mechanism of N-(4-methoxybenzyliden)-4-butylaniline in liquid crystalline and isotropic phases as determined using in situ microwave irradiation NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tasei, Yugo; Tanigawa, Fumikazu; Kawamura, Izuru; Fujito, Teruaki; Sato, Motoyasu; Naito, Akira

    2015-04-14

    Microwave heating effects are widely used in the acceleration of organic, polymerization and enzymatic reactions. These effects are primarily caused by the local heating induced by microwave irradiation. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms associated with microwave heating effects on the chemical reactions are not yet well understood. This study investigated the microwave heating effect of N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA) in liquid crystalline and isotropic phases using in situ microwave irradiation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, by obtaining (1)H NMR spectra of MBBA under microwave irradiation. When heated simply using the temperature control unit of the NMR instrument, the liquid crystalline MBBA was converted to the isotropic phase exactly at its phase transition temperature (Tc) of 41 °C. The application of microwave irradiation at 130 W for 90 s while maintaining the instrument temperature at 20 °C generated a small amount of isotropic phase within the bulk liquid crystal. The sample temperature of the liquid crystalline state obtained during microwave irradiation was estimated to be 35 °C by assessing the linewidths of the (1)H NMR spectrum. This partial transition to the isotropic phase can be attributed to a non-equilibrium local heating state induced by the microwave irradiation. The application of microwave at 195 W for 5 min to isotropic MBBA while maintaining an instrument temperature of 50 °C raised the sample temperature to 160 °C. In this study, the MBBA temperature during microwave irradiation was estimated by measuring the temperature dependent chemical shifts of individual protons in the sample, and the different protons were found to indicate significantly different temperatures in the molecule. These results suggest that microwave heating polarizes bonds in polar functional groups, and this effect may partly explain the attendant acceleration of organic reactions.

  10. Dechlorination of organochloride waste mixture by microwave irradiation before forming solid recovered fuel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Han-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Jian-Wen; Zhou, Yue-Yun

    2016-11-22

    In order to form a modified solid recovered fuel (SRF) with low chlorine content, high calorific value and well combustion performance, low temperature microwave irradiation was applied to remove the chlorine of the organochloride waste mixture before they were mixed to form SRF. The optimizing conditions of final temperature, microwave absorbents and heating rate were also detected to obtain high dechlorination ratio and high ratio of hydrogen chloride (HCl) to volatiles. In the temperature range of 220-300°C, 280°C would be chose as the optimal low microwave modified temperature concerning at which the dechlorination ratio was high and ratio of HCl to volatiles was relatively high as well; The use of microwave absorbents of graphite and silicon carbide (SiC) had a pronounced effect on the dechlorination of organochloride waste mixture, and the dechlorination ratio was increased significantly which could be reached to 87%, almost 20% higher than absorbent absent sample; The heating rate should set be not too fast nor too slow, and there was no big difference between the heating rate of 13°C/min and 15°C/min; The content of Cl of modified SRF is dramatically decreased and reaches to a low level 0.328%. Hence, the modified SRF can be ascended from the third class to the second class according to the Finland chlorine Classes I-III. Moreover, the combustibility of modified SRF was substantial improved compared to the traditional SRF. The low heating value was almost 20.56MJ/kg which is close to the LHV of lignite coal and bituminous coal in China, and it increased by 60% over that of traditional SRF. Removing chlorine of organochloride waste mixture before they are mixed with other kinds of combustible waste to form a modified SRF which is expected to be an alternative fuel for combustion in the future.

  11. GREENER SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An introduction of our interest in the microwave-assisted greener synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic compounds will be presented. It involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports, such as alumina, sili...

  12. GREENER SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An introduction of our interest in the microwave-assisted greener synthesis of a variety of heterocyclic compounds will be presented. It involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports, such as alumina, sili...

  13. Investigation on the rapid degradation of congo red catalyzed by activated carbon powder under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohong; Shan, Yabo; Wang, Jun; Ling, Hongjie; Zang, Shuliang; Gao, Wei; Zhao, Zhe; Zhang, Huachun

    2007-08-17

    Azo dyestuff-congo red in aqueous solution can be degraded rapidly under microwave irradiation in the presence of activated carbon powder. The results showed that the degradation ratio could reach 87.79% for 25 mL total volume with 50mg/L congo red and 2.0 g/L activated carbon powder under 1.5 min microwave irradiation. Furthermore, within the same irradiation time, congo red could be degraded fully by increasing addition amount (e.g. 3.6g/L) of activated carbon powder and the degradation ratio was up to 96.49%. Otherwise, with the same addition amount, congo red also could be degraded completely by prolonging irradiation time (e.g. 2.5 min) and the degradation ratio was up to 97.88%. In addition, the influences of microwave irradiation time, initial concentration of congo red, addition amount and used times of activated carbon powder as well as solution acidity on the degradation were discussed in details adopting UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra, ion chromatography, high phase liquid chromatography (HPLC) and TOC analysis technologies. Here, the method using activated carbon powder as catalyst under microwave irradiation shows many advantages including high degradation ratios, short reaction time, low costs, no intermediates and no secondary pollution. Therefore, it may be fit for dealing with various azo dyestuff wastewaters on a large scale.

  14. Observation of bubble formation in water during microwave irradiation by dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakuma, Yusuke; Munenaga, Takuya; Nakata, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    A microwave reactor was designed for in situ observation of nano- and micro-bubbles, and size profiles during and after irradiation were measured with respect to irradiation power and time. Bubble formation in water during irradiation was observed even at temperatures below the boiling point of water. The maximum size strongly depended on radiation power and time, even at a given temperature. Nano-particles in the dispersion medium were found to play an important role in achieving more stable nucleation of bubbles around particles, and stable size distributions were obtained from clear autocorrelation by a dynamic light scattering system. Moreover, a combination of microwave induction heating and the addition of nano-particles to the dispersion medium can prevent heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles on the cell wall. Quantitative nano-bubble size profiles obtained by in situ observation provide useful information regarding microwave-based industrial processes for nano-particle production.

  15. Effects of Electron Beam and Microwave Irradiation on Human Blood Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Diana I.; Stan, Dana E.; Radu, Roxana R.; Cinca, Sabin A.; Margaritescu, Irina D.; Chirita, Doru I.; Craciun, Gabriela D.; Manaila, Elena N.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Iacob, Nicusor I.; Oproiu, Constantin V.

    2007-04-01

    The effects of separated and combined accelerated electron beam (EB) of 6.23 MeV and microwave (MW) of 2.45GHz irradiation on proteins in samples of human serum, human plasma and human integral blood are presented. Also, it was studied the effect of separate and combined EB and MW irradiation on proteins irradiated in samples of human integral blood, without and in the presence of a synthetic compound solution (S.C.S.) which is expected to exhibit various biological actions, such as to diminish or to increase the irradiation effects.

  16. Effects of Electron Beam and Microwave Irradiation on Human Blood Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Diana I.; Craciun, Gabriela D.; Manaila, Elena N.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Iacob, Nicusor I.; Oproiu, Constantin V.; Stan, Dana E.; Radu, Roxana R.; Margaritescu, Irina D.; Chirita, Doru I.

    2007-04-23

    The effects of separated and combined accelerated electron beam (EB) of 6.23 MeV and microwave (MW) of 2.45GHz irradiation on proteins in samples of human serum, human plasma and human integral blood are presented. Also, it was studied the effect of separate and combined EB and MW irradiation on proteins irradiated in samples of human integral blood, without and in the presence of a synthetic compound solution (S.C.S.) which is expected to exhibit various biological actions, such as to diminish or to increase the irradiation effects.

  17. Mechanism for microwave heating of 1-(4‧-cyanophenyl)-4-propylcyclohexane characterized by in situ microwave irradiation NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasei, Yugo; Yamakami, Takuya; Kawamura, Izuru; Fujito, Teruaki; Ushida, Kiminori; Sato, Motoyasu; Naito, Akira

    2015-05-01

    Microwave heating is widely used to accelerate organic reactions and enhance the activity of enzymes. However, the detailed molecular mechanism for the effect of microwave on chemical reactions is not yet fully understood. To investigate the effects of microwave heating on organic compounds, we have developed an in situ microwave irradiation NMR spectroscopy. 1H NMR spectra of 1-(4‧-cyanophenyl)-4-propylcyclohexane (PCH3) in the liquid crystalline and isotropic phases were observed under microwave irradiation. When the temperature was regulated at slightly higher than the phase transition temperature (Tc = 45 °C) under a gas flow temperature control system, liquid crystalline phase mostly changed to the isotropic phase. Under microwave irradiation and with the gas flow temperature maintained at 20 °C, which is 25 °C below the Tc, the isotropic phase appeared stationary as an approximately 2% fraction in the liquid crystalline phase. The temperature of the liquid crystalline state was estimated to be 38 °C according to the line width, which is at least 7 °C lower than the Tc. The temperature of this isotropic phase should be higher than 45 °C, which is considered to be a non-equilibrium local heating state induced by microwave irradiation. Microwaves at a power of 195 W were irradiated to the isotropic phase of PCH3 at 50 °C and after 2 min, the temperature reached 220 °C. The temperature of PCH3 under microwave irradiation was estimated by measurement of the chemical shift changes of individual protons in the molecule. These results demonstrate that microwave heating generates very high temperature within a short time using an in situ microwave irradiation NMR spectrometer.

  18. [Research on degradation of methylene blue by coal bottom ash-microwave irradiation method].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Wei; Li, Na; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-De

    2010-05-01

    Coal bottom ash is rich in metals and transition metals, and with microwave irradiation these metals can effectively degradate organic matter. Methylene blue degradation by coal bottom ash-microwave irradiation mainly through hydroxyl radicals to degrade organic matter, and metals and rare metals in bottom ash can be used as a catalyst for deep oxidation of organic matter, can reduce processing costs, and reduce environmental pollution. In the present paper the main parameters including the amount of coal bottom ash, H2O2 dosage and time of microwave irradiation were investigated. The UV-visible spectra of methylene blue were determined. The results show that: under coal bottom ash and H2O2 microwave condition the degeneration rate of methylene blue was almost 100%. The dosage of coal ash can accelerate the reaction process, speeding up the degradation of methylene blue. The increase of H2O2 may provide more * OH and speed up the reaction process, but when up to a certain amount, the influence is weakened. The lengthening of microwave time may enhance the reaction temperature, and urge the methylene blue to degrade completely. For 0.125 g x L(-1) of methylene blue, by adding 1.0 g coal bottom ash, 5 mL H2O2 and under mesotherm microwave temperature for 4 min, the methylene blue can be all degradated.

  19. Effect of ionic liquid properties on lipase stabilization under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Song, Zhiyan; Olubajo, Olarongbe; Zanders, Lavezza; Campbell, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) as neoteric solvents and microwave irradiation as alternative energy source are becoming two important tools for many enzymatic reactions. However, it is not well understood what properties of ILs govern the enzyme stabilization, and whether the microwave irradiation could activate enzymes in ILs. To tackle these two important issues, the synthetic activities of immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozyme 435) were examined in more than twenty ILs through microwave heating. Under microwave irradiation, enhanced enzyme activities were observed when the enzyme was surrounded by a layer of water molecules. However, such enhancement diminished when the reaction system was dried. To understand the effect of IL properties, the enzyme activities under microwave irradiation were correlated with the viscosity, polarity and hydrophobicity (log P) of ILs, respectively. The initial reaction rates bear no direct relationship with the viscosity and polarity (in terms of dielectric constant and EN T ) of ILs, but have a loose correlation (a bell curve) with log P values. The enzyme stabilization by ILs was explained from aspects of hydrogen-bond basicity of anions, dissolution of the enzyme, ionic association strength of anions, and substrate ground-state stabilization by ILs.

  20. Influence of microwave irradiation on boron concentrate activation with an emphasis on surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Liu, Yajing; Xue, Xiangxin; Duan, Peining

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we employed microwave irradiation for activating boron concentrate, an abundant but low-grade boron mineral resource in China. The boron concentrate was pretreated by microwave irradiation based on TG-DTG-DSC analysis, and the influence of each parameter on processing efficiency was characterized using chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, FTIR and particle distribution analysis. Subsequently, the surface properties of boron concentrate and the mechanism of microwave irradiation was analyzed. Our results indicate that microwave irradiation decreased the processing temperature and shortened the roasting time by accelerating dehydroxylation and oxidation reactions in the boron concentrate, reducing the particle diameter and damaging the microstructure of the minerals, and it increased the B2O3 activity of boron from 64.68% to 86.73%, greater than the optimal conventional treatment. Compared with the simple thermal field, microwave roasting obviously increased ability of the boron concentrate to absorb OH- in the leachant and promoted boron leaching by expanding the contact area of the mineral exposed to leachant, boosting the amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ on mineral surfaces, and increasing the hydrophilicity of the boron concentrate respectively. It enhanced the γSVLW and γSV- of boron concentrate from 29.15 mJ/m2 and 5.07 mJ/m2 to 37.07 mJ/m2 and 12.41 mJ/m2.

  1. Nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} (Hausmannite) by microwave irradiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, S.K.; Naik, S.D.; Sonawane, R.S.; Kale, B.B. . E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com; Pavaskar, Neela; Mandale, A.B.; Das, B.K.

    2006-03-09

    The present investigation reports, the novel synthesis of nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder with nanorods using microwaves and its physicochemical characterization. The nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder has been prepared using manganese nitrate as a precursor and effect of ethanolamine and ethylenediamine on particle morphology has been studied. The microwave irradiation has been carried out in the range 50-500 W and it was observed that formation of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} takes place at 50 W. TEM analysis demonstrated nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder and nanorods with an average diameter of about 10 nm. The structural study by XRD indicates that these nano-powders have pure tetragonal phase. The phase pure samples were characterized using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for both Mn 2p and Mn 3s levels. The values of binding energies are consistent with the relative values reported in the literature. The metallic impurity levels have been characterized using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES)

  2. Effect of microwave irradiation on phosphoramidite couplings on controlled pore glass.

    PubMed

    Grünefeld, Peter; Richert, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    The chain extension step in the synthesis of DNA oligomers on controlled pore glass was shown to be higher yielding when the reaction mixture is irradiated with microwaves. Both a commercial thymidine 3'-phosphoramidite building block and a 3'-phosphoramidite of protected 1'-aminomethylthymidine were coupled using dilute solutions that give only partial conversion. In either case, higher coupling yields were observed when microwaves were used. The results of our exploratory experiments suggest that microwave-assisted DNA syntheses might require fewer equivalents of phosphoramidites and/or shorter coupling times than those performed at room temperature.

  3. Rapid solid-phase peptide synthesis using thermal and controlled microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bacsa, Bernadett; Desai, Bimbisar; Dibó, Gábor; Kappe, C Oliver

    2006-10-01

    A rapid and efficient microwave-assisted solid-phase synthesis method is described for the preparation of the nonapeptide WDTVRISFK, using conventional Fmoc/Bu(t) orthogonal protection strategy. The synthesis protocol is based on the use of cycles of pulsed microwave irradiation with intermittent cooling of the reaction during the removal of the Fmoc protecting group and during the coupling. The desired nonapeptide was obtained in highest yield and purity by employing MicroKan technology. The chemical reactions were carried out in a single-mode microwave reactor, equipped with a fiber-optic probe to monitor the reaction temperature continuously.

  4. Syntheses of new tuberculosis inhibitors promoted by microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Maria; Gising, Johan; Odell, Luke R.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) represents a major public health problem. The growing number of (extensively) multi-drug resistance cases indicates that there is an urgent need for discovery of new anti-TB entities, addressed towards new and specific targets, and continuous development of fast and efficient synthetic strategies to access them easily. Microwave-assisted chemistry is well suited for small-scale laboratory synthetic work, allowing full control of reaction conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and time. Microwave-assisted high-speed organic synthesis is especially useful in the lead optimization phase of drug discovery. To illustrate the advantages of modern microwave heating technology, we herein describe applications and approaches that have been useful for the synthesis of new drug-like anti-TB compounds. PMID:24666224

  5. Dissipative electronic transport through double quantum dots irradiated with microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Tobias; Aguado, Ramon; Platero, Gloria

    2003-03-01

    Double quantum dots in the strong Coulomb blockade regime are realizations of two-level systems defined from two tunnel--splitted ground states, which are separated by a large energy gap from the remaining many--particle states. The interactions between electrons and bosonic degrees of freedom (photons, phonons) in these systems can be tested and manipulated in electronic transport experiments [1]. Monochromatic classical radiation (AC fields, microwaves) gives rise to various non-linear effects such as photo-sidebands or dynamical localization (coherent supression of tunneling) that show up in the time-averaged, stationary electronic current [2]. On the other hand, quantum noise of a dissipative environment strongly influences the transport properties of coupled quantum dots [3,4]. In this contribution, we quantitatively investigate the combined influence of a classical, monochromatic time-dependent AC field and a dissipative boson environment on the non-linear transport through a double quantum dot. We develop a Floquet-like theory [5] that takes into account the effect of the electron reservoirs (leads) and can be numerically evaluated for arbitrary strong AC fields and arbitrary boson environment. In limiting cases we reproduce previous analytical results (polaron tunneling, Tien-Gordon formula). [1] T. Fujisawa, T. H. Oosterkamp, W. G. van der Wiel, B. W. Broer, R. Aguado, S. Tarucha, and L. P. Kouwenhoven, Science 282, 932 (1998); R. H. Blick, D. Pfannkuche, R. J. Haug, K. v. Klitzing, and K. Eberl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4032 (1998). [2] T. H. Stoof, Yu. V. Nazarov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1050 (1996). [3] T. Brandes, B. Kramer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3021 (1999); T. Brandes, F. Renzoni, R. H. Blick, Phys. Rev. B 64, 035319 (2001); T. Brandes, T. Vorrath, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075341 (2002). [4] R. Aguado and L. P. Kouwenhoven, Phys. Rev. Lett, 84, 1986 (2000). [5] M. Grifoni, P. Hänggi, Phys. Rep. 304, 229 (1998).

  6. CHEMISTRY UNDER NON-TRADITIONAL CONDITIONS: SOLVENT-FREE SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) irradiation of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or "doped" surfaces is presented which is applicable to a wide range of cleava...

  7. CHEMISTRY UNDER 'GREENER' CONDITIONS: SOLVENT-FREE SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent-free approach is emphasized that involves microwave (MW) irradiation of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or 'doped' surfaces which is applicable to a wide range of cleavag...

  8. "GREENER" CHEMICAL SYNTHETIC PROCESSES USING ENZYMATIC, MECHANOCHEMICAL MIXING, OR MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several newer strategies, such as solvent-free (dry media), solid-supported with and without microwave (MW) irradiation, and mechanochemical mixing (grinding); and the use of room temperature ionic liquids, supercritical carbon dioxide, and water as reaction media that can be com...

  9. Green synthesis of noble nanometals (Au, Pt, Pd) using glycerol under microwave irradiation conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newer application of glycerol in the field of nanomaterials synthesis has been developed from both the economic and environmental points of view. Glycerol can act as a reducing agent for the fabrication of noble nanometals, such as Au, Pt, and Pd, under microwave irradiation. T...

  10. Facile synthesis of glycosylated Fmoc amino acid building blocks assisted by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nianhuan; Fung, Gabriel; Malekan, Hamed; Ye, Long; Kurth, Mark J; Lam, Kit S

    2010-10-13

    The synthesis of glycosylated Fmoc amino acids by reaction of mono- and disaccharide peracetates with Fmoc amino acids having free carboxyl groups was rapidly promoted by Lewis acids (SnCl(4), BF(3)·Et(2)O) under microwave irradiation. The products are useful building blocks for the synthesis of glycopeptides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CHEMISTRY UNDER NON-TRADITIONAL CONDITIONS: SOLVENT-FREE SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW) irradiation of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or "doped" surfaces is presented which is applicable to a wide range of cleava...

  12. CHEMISTRY UNDER 'GREENER' CONDITIONS: SOLVENT-FREE SYNTHESIS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent-free approach is emphasized that involves microwave (MW) irradiation of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or 'doped' surfaces which is applicable to a wide range of cleavag...

  13. Green synthesis of noble nanometals (Au, Pt, Pd) using glycerol under microwave irradiation conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newer application of glycerol in the field of nanomaterials synthesis has been developed from both the economic and environmental points of view. Glycerol can act as a reducing agent for the fabrication of noble nanometals, such as Au, Pt, and Pd, under microwave irradiation. T...

  14. "GREENER" CHEMICAL SYNTHETIC PROCESSES USING ENZYMATIC, MECHANOCHEMICAL MIXING, OR MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several newer strategies, such as solvent-free (dry media), solid-supported with and without microwave (MW) irradiation, and mechanochemical mixing (grinding); and the use of room temperature ionic liquids, supercritical carbon dioxide, and water as reaction media that can be com...

  15. PREPARATION OF NOVEL METALLIC AND BIMETALLIC CROSS-LINKED POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile method utilizing microwave irradiation is described that accomplishes the cross-linking reaction of PVA with metallic and bimetallic systems. Nanocomposites of PVA-cross-linked metallic systems such as Pt, Cu, and In and bimetallic systems such as Pt-In, Ag-Pt, Pt-Fe, Cu...

  16. NOVEL METALLIC AND BIMETALLIC CROSS-LINKED POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES PREPARED UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile microwave irradiation approach that results in a cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with metallic and bimetallic systems is described. Nanocomposites of PVA cross-linked metallic systems such as Pt, Cu, and In and bimetallic systems such as Pt-In, Ag-P...

  17. Suppression of twins in b-oriented MFI molecular sieve films under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Yanshuo; Cai, Rui; Yang, Weishen

    2012-07-11

    Twin growth in the synthesis of b-oriented MFI films is successfully suppressed by applying microwave irradiation on a b-oriented MFI seed layer, relying on the nucleation-related bottleneck effect. Electrochemical oxidation experiments demonstrated the importance of twin suppression in enhancing the diffusion of guest molecules in MFI films.

  18. PREPARATION OF NOVEL METALLIC AND BIMETALLIC CROSS-LINKED POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile method utilizing microwave irradiation is described that accomplishes the cross-linking reaction of PVA with metallic and bimetallic systems. Nanocomposites of PVA-cross-linked metallic systems such as Pt, Cu, and In and bimetallic systems such as Pt-In, Ag-Pt, Pt-Fe, Cu...

  19. NOVEL METALLIC AND BIMETALLIC CROSS-LINKED POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) NANOCOMPOSITES PREPARED UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A facile microwave irradiation approach that results in a cross-linking reaction of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with metallic and bimetallic systems is described. Nanocomposites of PVA cross-linked metallic systems such as Pt, Cu, and In and bimetallic systems such as Pt-In, Ag-P...

  20. Amphiphilic derivatives of chitosan using microwave irradiation. Toward an eco-friendly process to chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    Petit, C; Reynaud, S; Desbrieres, J

    2015-02-13

    Conventional heating and microwave irradiation have been compared for the synthesis of chitosans grafted with alkyl chains. Reaction time (1-60 min), temperature (25 and 40 °C) and chitosan molar mass have been studied onto the yield of alkylation. The irradiation mode has been scrupulously controlled to highlight the effect of the use of microwaves. The chemical structure of modified polymers (degree of alkylation) is determined from NMR. In relation to the rheological behavior and surface tension measurements, the evolution of hydrophobic interactions is studied as a function of the yield of alkylation. A maximum of intrinsic viscosity and hydrodynamic diameter was observed for a degree of alkylation of around 10%. All the results tend to prove that microwave assisted synthesis is a powerful method to obtain modified chitosan under extremely low reaction time without any degradation and/or property modifications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction.

  2. Critical parameters for sterilization of oil palm fruit by microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarah, Maya; Taib, M. R.

    2017-08-01

    Study to evaluate critical parameters for microwave irradiation to sterilize oil palm fruit was carried out at power density of 560 to 1120 W/kg. Critical parameters are important to ensure moisture loss during sterilization exceed the critical moisture (Mc) but less than maximum moisture (Mmax). Critical moisture in this study was determined according to dielectric loss factor of heated oil palm fruits at 2450 MHz. It was obtained from slope characterization of dielectric loss factor-vs-moisture loss curve. The Mc was used to indicate critical temperature (Tc) and critical time (tc) for microwave sterilization. To ensure moisture loss above critical value but not exceed maximum value, the combinations of time-temperature for sterilization of oil palm fruits by microwave irradiation were 6 min and 75°C to 17 min and 82°C respectively.

  3. Microwave irradiation induced band gap tuning of MoS2-TiO2 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Jyoti; Mohanty, T.

    2016-05-01

    The MoS2-TiO2 nanocomposites have been synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by different microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The crystallinity of these nanocomposites has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Raman spectrum of MoS2-TiO2 nanocomposites consists of three distinct peaks (E1 g, E1 2g and A1g) which are associated with TiO2 and MoS2. The morphological study is carried out by scanning electron microscope. The effect of microwave irradiation on the band gap of MoS2-TiO2 nanocomposites has been investigated; it is observed that the microwave irradiation causes decrease in the band gap of MoS2-TiO2 nanocomposites. The microwave treated MoS2-TiO2 thin films offers a novel process route in treating thin films for commercial applications.

  4. EFFICIENT AND GREENER CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The diverse nature of chemical entities requires various ‘green’ strategic pathways in our quest towards attaining sustainability. A solvent-free approach involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and rec...

  5. ‘GREENER’ CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION (PRAGUE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    'Greener' solvent-free protocols involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica and clay which are applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cyclization, oxidation and reduction reacti...

  6. ‘GREENER’ CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION (PRAGUE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    'Greener' solvent-free protocols involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica and clay which are applicable to a wide range of cleavage, condensation, cyclization, oxidation and reduction reacti...

  7. EFFICIENT AND GREENER CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The diverse nature of chemical entities requires various ‘green’ strategic pathways in our quest towards attaining sustainability. A solvent-free approach involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and rec...

  8. The disinfection of impression materials by using microwave irradiation and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu-Ri; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2014-10-01

    Microwave irradiation and immersion in solutions have been recommended for denture disinfection. However, the effect of dry conditions and impression materials has not been completely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of microwave irradiation and hydrogen peroxide for the disinfection of dental impression materials. Specimens (diameter 10 mm, thickness 2 mm) were made with polyvinyl siloxane. Experimental groups were treated with hydrogen peroxide (group H), microwave irradiation (group M), and a combination of both hydrogen peroxide and microwave irradiation (group MH) for 1 minute, 2 minutes, and 3 minutes. The control group was untreated. The total sample size was 120. The specimens were divided into 2 groups, those exposed to Streptococcus mutans and those exposed to Escherichia coli. The disinfection effect and physical properties (contact angle, compatibility with gypsum, strain in compression, tear strength) were evaluated. All 3 groups (H, M, MH) were effective in reducing the number of colony forming units (CFU) per unit volume (mL) for both S mutans and E coli compared with the control. The most significant reduction in the CFU/mL of both bacteria was noted in the MH group and was used to compare either treatment alone (P<.05). No statistically significant difference was noted between the control and treatment groups in terms of all of the physical properties tested (P>.05). Microwave irradiation was identified as a useful disinfection method against S mutans and E coli, especially when combined with H2O2, without adversely affecting the physical properties of dental impression materials. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  10. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W Y; Wu, M H; Wu, K L; Lin, M H; Teng, H H; Tsai, Y F; Ko, C C; Yang, E C; Jiang, J A; Barnett, L R; Chu, K R

    2014-08-01

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  11. A microwave applicator for uniform irradiation by circularly polarized waves in an anechoic chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, W. Y.; Wu, M. H.; Wu, K. L.; Lin, M. H.; Teng, H. H.; Barnett, L. R.; Chu, K. R.; Tsai, Y. F.; Ko, C. C.; Yang, E. C.; Jiang, J. A.

    2014-08-15

    Microwave applicators are widely employed for materials heating in scientific research and industrial applications, such as food processing, wood drying, ceramic sintering, chemical synthesis, waste treatment, and insect control. For the majority of microwave applicators, materials are heated in the standing waves of a resonant cavity, which can be highly efficient in energy consumption, but often lacks the field uniformity and controllability required for a scientific study. Here, we report a microwave applicator for rapid heating of small samples by highly uniform irradiation. It features an anechoic chamber, a 24-GHz microwave source, and a linear-to-circular polarization converter. With a rather low energy efficiency, such an applicator functions mainly as a research tool. This paper discusses the significance of its special features and describes the structure, in situ diagnostic tools, calculated and measured field patterns, and a preliminary heating test of the overall system.

  12. Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets from bulk graphite using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Hoon; Oh, Jinwoo; Son, Jeong Gon; Kim, Heesuk; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2014-05-14

    Using simple microwave irradiation under the presence of sodium amide as a nitrogen source, preparation of nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets has been successfully demonstrated. It is notable that exfoliation and nitrogen doping of graphite to nitrogen-doped graphene simultaneously occurred during the microwave irradiation within a minute, and nitrogen content of the doped graphene could reach up to 8.1%. It was also found that the binding configuration of nitrogen atom on graphitic layer consisted of various nitrogen-containing moieties such as pyridine-N, pyrrolic-N, and quaternary-N, and their composition was changed as a function of irradiation power. Although formation of undoped reduced graphene oxide by microwave irradiation resulted in slight increase of electrical conductivity because of the reductive recovery of oxidized graphite to graphene, nitrogen doping involved during irradiation induced much more notable increase of electrical conductivity more than 300 S cm(-1). Furthermore, nitrogen-doped graphene showed highly enhanced capacitive performance than that of undoped reduced graphene oxide, the specific capacitance of 200 F/g (current density of 0.5 A/g), which ascribes the pseudocapacitive effect from the incorporation of nitrogen atom on graphitic layer.

  13. Promotion of nucleation for nano-particle formation by two-stage microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, S.; Matsumura, S.; Asakuma, Y.; Saptoro, A.

    2017-06-01

    Microwave has been widely used for nano-particle synthesis because rapid growth and mono-dispersed particle size can be obtained. In our previous work, it was found that bubble formation during the irradiation is greatly affected by particle size and suspension density. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly understood, especially pertinent to superheat behavior caused by the higher power when colloidal particle of ferric hydroxide was produced by heating ferric chloride solution under the irradiation. In this study, to prevent superheat behavior, two-stage irradiation was proposed in nano-particle formation process. Based on in-situ measurement data, such as the profiles of bubble size, final particle size and brightness of scattering light of suspension, it is evident that nucleation of nano-particle is promoted by higher power of the first irradiation. As a result, particle number density became higher, and then microwave absorbance energy was evenly distributed to each particle. Due to suppression of heat generation in a particle, bubble size became smaller. Two-stage irradiation became more advantageous in obtaining smaller particle than continuous irradiation because lower power of the second irradiation prevents superheat behavior.

  14. Preliminary microwave irradiation of water solutions changes their channel-modifying activity.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, E E; Geletyuk, V I; Kazachenko, V N; Chemeris, N K

    1995-06-05

    Earlier we have shown that millimetre microwaves (42.25 GHz) of non-thermal power, upon direct admittance into an experiment bath, greatly influence activation characteristics of single Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels (in particular, the channel open state probability, Po). Here we present new data showing that similar changes in Po arise due to the substitution of a control bath solution for a preliminary microwave irradiated one of the same composition (100 mmol/l KCl with Ca2+ added), with irradiation time being 20-30 min. Therefore, due to the exposure to the field the solution acquires some new properties that are important for the channel activity. The irradiation terminated, the solution retains a new state for at least 10-20 min (solution memory). The data suggest that the effects of the field on the channels are mediated, at least partially, by changes in the solution properties.

  15. Effect of Different Energy Levels of Microwave on Disinfection of Dental Stone Casts

    PubMed Central

    Robati Anaraki, Mahmood; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Moslehifard, Elnaz; Momtaheni, Ali; Sigari, Pooyan

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Current chemical methods may not efficiently disinfect dental stone casts. The aim of this study was to investigate if microwave irradiation is effective for disinfection of stone casts. Materials and methods In this laboratory study, three groups (n = 162) of prepared spherical stone beads as carriers with a diameter of 10 mm were inoculated by separately soaking in three broth culture media, each containing a study microorganism—Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus or Candida albicans. Six inoculated carriers were used for every test, including irradiation in a household microwave oven at 300, 450, 600 or 900 W energy level, or soaking in 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.25% or 0.50% concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution, at 1, 2, or 3-minute test times. Positive and negative control groups were considered for each test. All treated carriers were then individually transferred to nutrient broth culture medium and one milliliter from each tube was cultured in nutrient agar media over night. Colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) was counted, and multi-factor ANOVA was used to analyze data (α = 0.05). Results Microwave irradiation at 600 W resulted in high-level disinfection in 3 minutes. Immersion of the stone casts in hypochlorite solution at 0.06% concentration resulted in disinfection after 2 minutes. Conclusion According to the results, high level disinfection of the stone casts can be achieved by microwave irradiation at 600 W in 3 minutes, similar to a validated chemical method. PMID:24082984

  16. Low Temperature Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes by Direct Microwave Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-09

    REPORT DATE 09 AUG 2007 2. REPORT TYPE FInal 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2005 to 08-11-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Microwave synthesis of nano ...after completing the analysis of synthesized CNTs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nanotechnology, Carbon nano tubes 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...compounds such as thiophene, and sulfur was detected as a sulfide phase from the catalyst surface even in micro -contents. In our experiments, Y-junction

  17. Direct conversion of cellulose to 1-(furan-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethanone in zinc chloride solution under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Li, Gang; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Song-Mei; Fan, Hong-Xian; Lv, Xiao-Na

    2011-10-18

    Conversion of cellulose to 1-(furan-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethanone has been demonstrated in concentrated zinc chloride solution under microwave irradiation. Compared with the conventional oil-bath heating mode, microwave irradiation significantly reduced the reaction time and increased the yield of 1-(furan-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethanone. A typical degradation reaction with cellulose produced 1-(furan-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethanone in 12.0% molar yield in ZnCl(2) solution (ZnCl(2)-H(2)O ratio=2.25:1, w/w) with microwave irradiation at 600 W for 5 minutes at 135°C. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A 3D Level Set Method for Microwave Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Colgan, Timothy J.; Hagness, Susan C.; Van Veen, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conventional inverse-scattering algorithms for microwave breast imaging result in moderate resolution images with blurred boundaries between tissues. Recent 2D numerical microwave imaging studies demonstrate that the use of a level set method preserves dielectric boundaries, resulting in a more accurate, higher resolution reconstruction of the dielectric properties distribution. Previously proposed level set algorithms are computationally expensive and thus impractical in 3D. In this paper we present a computationally tractable 3D microwave imaging algorithm based on level sets. Methods We reduce the computational cost of the level set method using a Jacobian matrix, rather than an adjoint method, to calculate Frechet derivatives. We demonstrate the feasibility of 3D imaging using simulated array measurements from 3D numerical breast phantoms. We evaluate performance by comparing full 3D reconstructions to those from a conventional microwave imaging technique. We also quantitatively assess the efficacy of our algorithm in evaluating breast density. Results Our reconstructions of 3D numerical breast phantoms improve upon those of a conventional microwave imaging technique. The density estimates from our level set algorithm are more accurate than those of conventional microwave imaging, and the accuracy is greater than that reported for mammographic density estimation. Conclusion Our level set method leads to a feasible level of computational complexity for full 3D imaging, and reconstructs the heterogeneous dielectric properties distribution of the breast more accurately than conventional microwave imaging methods. Significance 3D microwave breast imaging using a level set method is a promising low-cost, non-ionizing alternative to current breast imaging techniques. PMID:26011863

  19. A Comparative Study Between Microwave Irradiation and Sodium Hypochlorite Chemical Disinfection: A Prosthodontic View

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Kashish; Gupta, Rupesh; Solanki, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prosthodontic procedures involving dental impressions, stone casts, record bases and prostheses may cause transmission of microorganisms between the patient, the dentist, auxiliary staff and laboratory personnel. In recent times, microwave radiation has gained wider acceptance in the field of applied science and has been used to reduce concentrations of bacteria and fungi, to dry dental casts,and to sterilize preparation media. Objective: This in-vitro study was conducted to compare microwave irradiation and 0.07% sodium hypochlorite chemical disinfection. The study also evaluated the effect of microwave irradiation and 0.07% sodium hypochlorite chemical disinfection on the dimensional stability of Kalstone casts. Materials and Methods: Forty impressions were made and divided into two groups of 20 each. Each group was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. Each impression was divided into three parts and marked A, B, C. Impressions were then poured in kalastone. Part A of 20 kalastone casts were microwave disinfected, and Part B were chemically disinfected (0.07% NaOCl) while Part C were not disinfected and used as control. Results: On comparing the significant difference was seen in the microbial load between microwave and chemical disinfection (Z=56.480; p<0.001). Conclusion: On the basis of observations made for the antimicrobial assessment the microwave irradiated Kala stone casts proved to be a better disinfection method when compared with 0.07% sodium hypochlorite chemically disinfected incorporated cast. No significant difference was seen in the dimensional stability of Kala stone discs. PMID:24959515

  20. Growth and development of mice offspring after irradiation in utero with 2,450-MHz microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, E.; Carter, H.B.; House, D.

    1984-12-01

    Mice offspring irradiated in utero with 2,450-MHz radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 0 or 28 mW/cm2 (whole-body averaged specific absorption rate . 0 or 16.5 W/kg) for 100 minutes daily on days 6 through 17 of gestation were evaluated for maturation and development on days 1, 5, 10, 12, 15, and 17 of age. The tests used to determine differences in developmental age in the two treatment groups were body weight, urine concentrating ability, brain weight, tolerance to ouabain, and bone lengths. Fifteen sham-irradiated and 26 RF-irradiated litters, normalized to eight pups/litter, were used in this study. Mean body weight of the microwave-irradiated offspring were significantly (p . .0003) decreased only on day 1 of age. Brain weight on days 10, 12, and 17 were significantly lower in microwave-irradiated pups (p . .01). There were no significant differences in the two groups in urine concentrating ability on day 5, ouabain tolerance on day 15, or bone length on days 5, 10, 12, and 17. It is concluded that there is a persistent delay in postnatal development of the brain after RF irradiation with 16.5 W/kg during gestation.

  1. An efficient protocol for the solid-phase synthesis of glycopeptides under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martin, Fayna; Hinou, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Takahiko; Hayakawa, Shun; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2012-02-28

    A standardized and smooth protocol for solid-phase glycopeptides synthesis under microwave irradiation was developed. Double activation system was proved to allow for highly efficient coupling of Tn-Ser/Thr and bulky core 2-Ser/Thr derivatives. Versatility and robustness of the present strategy was demonstrated by constructing a Mucine-1 (MUC1) fragment and glycosylated fragments of tau protein. The success of this approach relies on the combination of microwave energy, a resin consisting totally of polyethylene glycol, a low excess of sugar amino acid and the "double activation" method.

  2. Microstructural Characterization of Cermet Cladding Developed Through Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dheeraj; Sharma, Apurbba Kumar

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, cladding of hardfacing WC10Co2Ni powder on austenitic stainless steel has been developed through a novel processing technique. The clads were developed using microwave hybrid heating. The clad of average thickness ~2 mm has been developed through the exposure of microwave radiation at frequency 2.45 GHz and power 900 W for the duration of 360 s. The developed clads were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, and measurement of Vicker's microhardness. The microstructure study of the clad showed good metallurgical bonding with substrate and revealed that clads are free from any visible interface cracking. Clads were formed with partial dilution of a thin layer of the substrate. The cermet microstructure mainly consists of relatively soft metallic matrix phase and uniformly distributed hard carbide phase with skeleton-like structure. The developed clads exhibit an average microhardness of 1064 ± 99 Hv. The porosity of developed clad has been significantly less at approximately 0.89%.

  3. Dissecting competitive mechanisms: thionation vs. cycloaddition in the reaction of thioisomunchnones with isothiocyanates under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, David; Avalos, Martín; Babiano, Reyes; Cintas, Pedro; Jiménez, José L; Light, Mark E; Palacios, Juan C

    2009-10-16

    This paper documents in detail the reaction of 1,3-thiazolium-4-olates (thioisomunchnones) with aryl isothiocyanates. Having demonstrated with a chiral model that thionation occurs under these conditions to provide 1,3-thiazolium-4-thiolates and that this process is actually a stepwise domino reaction (J. Org. Chem. 2009, 74, 3698-3705), we extend this study to monocyclic thioisomunchnones. Herein, competition between thionation and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition takes place. The process is synthetically disappointing at room temperature requiring prolonged reaction times for completion. The protocol has been subsequently investigated by using both microwave dielectric heating and conventional thermal heating (oil bath) in DMF at 100 degrees C with an accurate internal reaction temperature measurement. Although a slight acceleration was observed for reactions conducted under microwave irradiation, for most cases the observed yields and chemoselectivities were quite similar. Thus one can conclude that, within experimental errors, the reactivity is not related to nonthermal effects in agreement with recent reassessments on this subject, particularly by Kappe and associates (J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 36; J. Org. Chem. 2009, 74, 6157). The whole reaction system, which includes numerous heavy atoms, can be computationally modeled with a hybrid ONIOM[B3LYP/6-31G(d):PM3] level. This reproduces well experimental results and suggests a sequential mechanism. To further corroborate the nonconcertedness, the potential energy surface (PES) has been constructed for simplified models, locating the corresponding stationary points. In doing so, we introduce for the first time a useful and convenient mathematical protocol to locate the stationary points along a reaction path. The protocol is quite simple and should convince many organic chemists that certain daunting theoretical treatments can be made easy.

  4. Design and optimization of a microwave irradiated and resonant continuous biochemical reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, A.; Casu, S.; Desogus, F.; Djuric, N.; Mazzarella, G.

    2016-07-01

    The design of a microwave irradiated enzyme (biochemical) reactor is here presented. It consists of a suitable higher-order mode resonant cavity which contains several tubes where the solution containing reagents and products flow in the laminar flow regime. The process evolution under irradiation has then been simulated using the COMSOL multiphysics environment. As an example, the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of sucrose has been considered. The results of the multiphysics simulation show that such a reactor can be used to effectively perform the reaction process in the optimal conditions for maximizing the reaction rate and preventing the enzyme deactivation by a precise knowledge of the temperature distribution and its strict control.

  5. Rapid synthesis of antimicrobial paper under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    kamel, Samir

    2012-11-06

    The silver-nanoparticle (AgNP) containing paper was successfully prepared. The AgNP is deposited by the in situ reduction of silver nitrate on the acrylamide grafted bagasse paper sheets in the presence of citrate molecules as stabilizing agent. In the present paper, grafting of acrylamide onto bagasse paper sheets using potassium persulfate was carried out under the influence of microwave radiations (MWR). The modified paper sheets were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of the prepared paper sheets were also investigated against G+ve bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, G-ve bacterium Pseudomomas aeruginosa, and yeast Candida albicans, which are model microorganisms for testing bactericidal properties. The AgNP containing paper sheets exhibited antibacterial activity.

  6. Self-Oscillations of a spontaneous electric field in a nonequilibrium two-dimensional electron system under microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, S. I.

    2015-07-01

    Self-oscillations of a microwave photovoltage with irregular interruptions have been discovered in the states with vanishing dc dissipation emerging in two-dimensional electron systems under microwave irradiation. The observed picture can be caused by transitions between a stable pole and a limiting cycle in the phase space of the systems (Andronov-Hopf bifurcation) that occur owing to fluctuations.

  7. Preparation of starch-poly-glutamic acid graft copolymers by microwave irradiation and the characterization of their properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and poly-y-glutamic acid (PGA) were produced in an aqueous solution using microwave irradiation. The microwave reaction conditions were optimized with regard to temperature and pH. The temperature of 180 deg C and pH 7.0 were the best reaction conditions resulti...

  8. A microwave-irradiated Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine provides partial protection against experimental challenge in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microwave irradiation, as opposed to formalin exposure, has not routinely been used in the preparation of killed vaccines despite the advantages of decreased chemical toxicity, ability to kill cells quickly, ease of completion requiring only a standard microwave, and potential increased protein cons...

  9. Microwave effect in the fast synthesis of microporous materials: which stage between nucleation and crystal growth is accelerated by microwave irradiation?

    PubMed

    Jhung, Sung Hwa; Jin, Taihuan; Hwang, Young Kyu; Chang, Jong-San

    2007-01-01

    Microporous materials, such as silicalite-1 and VSB-5 molecular sieves, have been synthesized by both microwave irradiation (MW) and conventional electric heating (CE). The accelerated syntheses by microwave irradiation can be quantitatively investigated by various heating modes conducted in two steps such as MW-MW, MW-CE, CE-MW, and CE-CE (in the order of nucleation-crystal growth). In the case of synthesis by MW-CE or CE-MW, the heating modes were changed for the second step just after the appearance of X-ray diffraction peaks in the first step. We have quantitatively demonstrated that the microwave irradiation accelerates not only the nucleation but also crystal growth. However, the contribution to decrease the synthesis time by microwave irradiation is larger in the nucleation stage than in the step of crystal growth. The crystal size increases in the order of MW-MWmicrowave-nucleated precursor can be explained in terms of the fact that the microwave-nucleated samples have higher population of nuclei with smaller size than the samples nucleated by conventional heating.

  10. Tissue structure of rat brain after microwave irradiation using maximum magnetic field component.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Y; Okada, M; Maruyama, Y

    1986-05-14

    A novel microwave instrument has recently been designed by New Japan Radio Co. Ltd., to provide more homogeneous distribution of the rapidly deposited heat in the rodent brain. Being the first commercial unit which concentrates the maximum magnetic field component of irradiation, rather than the usual electric field, it provides complete enzymatic inactivation in a typical rat brain when a power of 9 kW (90% of maximum) is applied for 0.80 s at the standard operating frequency of 2450 MHz. Tissue structural integrity was investigated in animals sacrificed by this approach or by the usual decapitation to see if any tissue disruption or pressure-induced spreading, a major problem with other microwave devices, might also be of concern for this new unit. Histological examination of tissue samples employed both light and electron microscopy. Using Luxol Fast Blue in the light microscopy, the microwave irradiated tissues exhibited a decreased affinity for the staining agent, an appearance of slight vacuoles, and the disappearance of fine fibrils in the parenchyma. However, the interfacial areas between distinct brain regions remained well preserved. Electron microscopic observation indicated that microwave irradiated tissue caused protein denaturation accompanied by the aggregation of nuclear chromatin, the disappearance of Nissl bodies, ribosomes and neurofilaments, and noticeably irregular myelin sheaths. However, the essential structure of nerve cell membranes and synaptic membranes were maintained, and synaptic vesicles were clearly defined. These results indicated that the rapid heating of brain tissue with maximal magnetic field concentration of the irradiation does not result in significant tissue disruption, pressure-induced spreading or cell breakdown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The Convenient Synthesis of Unsaturated Nucleoside Analogues in Water under Microwave Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ran; Sun, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A convenient method for the regioselective synthesis of unsaturated nucleoside analogs in water under microwave irradiation was developed. All pyrimidine and purine nucleoside derivatives were exclusively alkylated at N1 and N9 respectively in good to excellent yields. In addition, this system could tolerate a broad range of functional groups, such as chloro, bromo, iodo, alkyl, amino, and hydroxyl groups. More importantly, the reaction scale could be enlarged to 50 mmol which made this route attractive for industrial application.

  12. Rapid Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of (Quinazolin-4-Ylamino)Methyl-Phosphonates Through Microwave Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hui; Hu, Deyu; Wu, Jian; He, Ming; Jin, Linhong; Yang, Song; Song, Baoan

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the simple synthesis of new (quinazolin-4-ylamino) methylphosphonates via microwave irradiation. Substituted-2-aminobenzonitrile reacted with 1,1-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylmethanamine at a reflux condition to obtain N′-(substituted-2-cyanophenyl)-N,N-dimethylformamidine (1). The subsequent reaction of this intermediate product with α-aminophosphonate (2) in a solution containing glacial acetic acid in 2-propanol through microwave irradiation resulted in the formation of (quinazolin-4-ylamino)methyl-phosphonate derivatives 3a to 3x, which were unequivocally characterized by the spectral data and elemental analysis. The influence of the reaction conditions on the yield of 3a was investigated to optimize the synthetic conditions. The relative optimal conditions for the synthesis of 3a include a 1:1 molar ratio of N′-(2-cyanophenyl)-N,N-dimethylformamidine to diethyl amino(phenyl)methylphosphonate and a 4:1 volume ratio of isopropanol to HOAc in the solvent mixture, at a reaction temperature of 150 °C, with a microwave power of 100 W and a corresponding pressure of 150 psi for 20 min in the microwave synthesizer. The yield of 3a was approximately 79%, whereas those of 3b to 3x were approximately 77% to 86%. Some of the synthesized compounds displayed weak to good anti-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activity. PMID:22837660

  13. In Situ Free Radical Growth Mechanism of Platinum Nanoparticles by Microwave Irradiation and Electrocatalytic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inwati, Gajendra Kumar; Rao, Yashvant; Singh, Man

    2016-10-01

    Microwave irradiation was employed for spherical-shaped platinum nanoparticle (Pt NPs) preparation. Spherical Pt NPs indexed with (111) facets were prepared using Pt(II) precursor salt, glycerol as solvent and reducing agent, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a shape directer under microwave irradiation for 3-5 min at 300 °C. Electron spin resonance (ESR) peak at 336.000 mT (milli Tesla) confirmed the free radical formation from aqueous glycerol solution which acted as reducing species under microwave. The 2-8-nm diameter of particles was obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Dynamic light scattering was used to optimize the microwave dose followed by 33 and 48 nm size and 51 and 67 mV zeta potential of Pt NPs, respectively. The PVP was demonstrated as shape controlling agent investigated by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The electrocatalytic performance of as-prepared Pt colloids was investigated using cyclic voltammetry which showed a higher catalytic activity for ethanol redox reaction.

  14. High-molecular-weight poly(Gly-Val-Gly-Val-Pro) synthesis through microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Mitsuaki; Endo, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we synthesized a polypeptide from its pentapeptide unit using microwave irradiation. Effective methods for polypeptide synthesis from unit peptides have not been reported. Here, we used a key elastin peptide, H-GlyValGlyValPro-OH (GVGVP), as the monomer peptide. It is difficult to obtain poly(Gly-Val-Gly-Val-Pro) (poly(GVGVP)) from the pentapeptide unit of elastin, GVGVP, via polycondensation. Poly(GVGVP) prepared from genetically recombinant Escherichia coli is a well-known temperature-sensitive polypeptide, and this temperature sensitivity is known as the lower critical solution temperature. When microwave irradiation was performed in the presence of various additives, the pentapeptide (GVGVP) polycondensation reaction proceeded smoothly, resulting in a product with a high molecular weight in a relatively good yield. The reaction conditions, like microwave irradiation, coupling agents, and solvents, were optimized to increase the reaction efficiency. The product exhibited a molecular weight greater than Mr 7000. Further, the product could be synthesized on a gram scale. The synthesized polypeptide exhibited a temperature sensitivity that was similar to that of poly(GVGVP) prepared from genetically recombinant E. coli. Therefore, this technique offers a facile and quick approach to prepare polypeptides in large amounts. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evaluation effect of microwave irradiation on the amount of volatile compounds, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenoids from Thymus kotschyanus Boiss with four methods.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Piryaei, Marzieh; Papzan, Abdolhamid

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds from Thymus kotschyanus Boiss with four methods, headspace single-drop microextraction, microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction, microwave distillation extraction and hydrodistillation, for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by simplex method.

  16. Amorphization within the tablet: Using microwave irradiation to form a glass solution in situ.

    PubMed

    Doreth, Maria; Hussein, Murtadha Abdul; Priemel, Petra A; Grohganz, Holger; Holm, René; Lopez de Diego, Heidi; Rades, Thomas; Löbmann, Korbinian

    2017-03-15

    In situ amorphization is a concept that allows to amorphize a given drug in its final dosage form right before administration. Hence, this approach can potentially be used to circumvent recrystallization issues that other amorphous formulation approaches are facing during storage. In this study, the feasibility of microwave irradiation to prepare amorphous solid dispersions (glass solutions) in situ was investigated. Indomethacin (IND) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K12 (PVP) were tableted at a 1:2 (w/w) ratio. In order to study the influence of moisture content and energy input on the degree of amorphization, tablet formulations were stored at different relative humidity (32, 43 and 54% RH) and subsequently microwaved using nine different power-time combinations up to a maximum energy input of 90kJ. XRPD results showed that up to 80% (w/w) of IND could be amorphized within the tablet. mDSC measurements revealed that with increasing microwaving power and time, the fractions of crystalline IND and amorphous PVP reduced, whereas the amount of in situ formed IND-PVP glass solution increased. Intrinsic dissolution showed that the dissolution rate of the microwaved solid dispersion was similar to that of a quench cooled, fully amorphous glass solution even though the microwaved samples contained residual crystalline IND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antigen recovery and preservation using the microwave irradiation of biological samples for transmission electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Aïoun, Josiane; Chat, Sophie; Bordat, Christian; Péchoux, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Most studies using microwave irradiation (MWI) for the preparation of tissue samples have reported an improvement in structural integrity. However, there have been few studies on the effect of microwave (MW) on antigen preservation during sample preparation prior to immunolocalization. This report documents our experience of specimen preparation using an automatic microwave apparatus to obtain antigen preservation and retrieval. We tested the effects of MW processing vs. conventional procedures on the morphology and antigenicity of two different tissues: the brain and mammary gland, whose chemical composition and anatomical organization are quite different. We chose to locate the transcription factor PPARβ/δ using immunocytochemistry on brain tissue sections from hamsters. Antigen retrieval protocols involving MWI were used to restore immunoreactivity. We also studied the efficiency of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of both PPARγ and caveolin-1 following MWI vs. conventional treatment, on mammary gland tissue from mice at 10 days of lactation. Our findings showed that the treatment of tissue samples with MWI, in the context of a process lasting just a few hours from fixation to immunolocalization, enabled similar, or even better, results than conventional protocols. The quantification of immunolabeling for cav-1 indicated an increase in density of up to three-fold in tissues processed in the microwave oven. Furthermore, MW treatment permitted the localization of PPARβ/δ in glutaraldehyde-fixed specimens, which was impossible in the absence of MWI. This study thus showed that techniques involving the use of microwaves could largely improve both ultrastructure and immunodetection.

  18. Resonant Phase Escape from the First Resistive State of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy Intrinsic Josephson Junctions under Strong Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yusaku; Kakehi, Daiki; Takekoshi, Shuho; Ishikawa, Kazuki; Ayukawa, Shin-ya; Kitano, Haruhisa

    2016-07-01

    We report a study of the phase escape in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy intrinsic Josephson junctions under the strong microwave irradiation, focusing on the switch from the first resistive state (2nd SW). The resonant double-peak structure is clearly observed in the switching current distributions below 10 K and is successfully explained by a quantum-mechanical model on the quantum phase escape under the strong microwave field. These results provide the first evidence for the formation of the energy level quantization for the 2nd SW, supporting that the macroscopic quantum tunneling for the 2nd SW survives up to ˜10 K.

  19. Recovery of phosphate from the supernatant of activated sludge pretreated by microwave irradiation through chemical precipitation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dean; Huang, Haiming; Jiang, Yang; Ding, Li

    2015-05-14

    This paper presents a technology of releasing phosphate from activated sludge by using a combined process of microwave irradiation and anaerobic stirring, followed by phosphate recovery from the resulting supernatant via chemical precipitation without addition of chemicals, except for a pH regulator. A series of experiments was conducted to examine the effects of microwave irradiation time, sludge solution pH, sludge concentration, and anaerobic stirring time on the release of phosphate. The results revealed that all of these parameters had a significant effect on the release of phosphate via the proposed combined process, and the combination of 180 s of microwave irradiation and 1 h of anaerobic stirring was found to give optimal phosphate release. When the sludge solution was acidized before pretreatment, the phosphate concentration of the supernatant increased rapidly. A 25 g/L sludge concentration was found to be optimal for the release of phosphate, beyond this concentration, there was no increase in the phosphate release. Under the optimal conditions of phosphate release (irradiation time, 180 s; solution pH, 2; sludge concentration, 25 g/L; anaerobic stirring time, 1 h), the total orthophosphate (PT) concentration in the supernatant reached 396 mg/L, accompanied by high concentrations of metal cations such as Ca, Mg, K, Al, and Fe. When the pH of the supernatant was adjusted to 9-10, the recovery efficiency of phosphate reached approximately 95 %. The analysis results indicated that the main components of the collected precipitates were amorphous calcium phosphate and struvite, which can be used as alternate phosphate minerals.

  20. Four-level microwave-microwave double resonance in NH3ṡHe gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Dean B.; Schwendeman, R. H.

    1987-06-01

    Four-level microwave-microwave double-resonance measurements have been carried out for a number of pump-probe pairs in the inversion spectrum of NH3 in dilute mixtures of NH3 in He. The results completely confirm corresponding measurements previously carried out by Oka with a different apparatus in a different laboratory [Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 9, 127 (1973)]. The original data had been questioned by Davis and Green on the basis of a comparison of observed and calculated results [J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2170 (1983)].

  1. Preparation and structural characterization of poly-mannose synthesized by phosphoric acid catalyzation under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haisong; Cheng, Xiangrong; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2015-05-05

    Poly-mannose with molecular weight of 2.457 kDa was synthesized using d-mannose as substrate and phosphoric acid as catalyst under the condition of microwave irradiation for the first time. The optimum reaction conditions were microwave output power of 900 W, temperature 115°C, proton concentration 2.5 mol/L, and microwave irradiation time 5 min. The actual maximum yield was 91.46%. After purified by Sepherdex G-25 column chromatography, the structural features of poly-mannose were investigated by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC), high-performance gel-permeation chromatography (HPGPC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy analysis ((1)H, (13)C, COSY, TOCSY, HMQC, and HMBC). HPAEC analysis showed that the composition of synthetic polysaccharides was d-mannose, its purity was demonstrated by HPGPC as a single symmetrical sharp peak, and additionally IR spectra demonstrated the polymerization of d-mannose. Methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy revealed that the backbone of poly-mannose consisting of (1→3)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked α-d-Manp, and (1→6)-linked α-d-Manp residues, and the main chain were branched at the O-2, O-3, O-4, O-6 position.

  2. Preparation of Cu-Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anodes using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Shamiul; Hill, Josephine M.

    A microwave irradiation process is used to deposit Cu nanoparticles on the Ni/YSZ anode of an electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The reaction time in the microwave is only 15 s for the deposition of 6 wt% Cu (with respect to Ni) from a solution of Cu(NO 3) 2·3H 2O and ethylene glycol (HOCH 2CH 2OH). The morphology of the deposited Cu particles is spherical and the average size of the particles is less than 100 nm. The electrochemical performance of the microwave Cu-coated Ni/YSZ anodes is tested in dry H 2 and dry CH 4 at 1073 K, and the anodes are characterized with scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed oxidation. The results indicate that preparation of the anodes by the microwave technique produces similar performance trend as those reported for Cu-Ni/YSZ/CeO 2 anodes prepared by impregnation. Specifically, less carbon is formed on the Cu-Ni/YSZ than on conventional Ni/YSZ anodes when exposed to dry methane and the carbon that does form is more reactive.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel from palm oil assisted by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Da Rós, Patrícia C M; Freitas, Larissa; Perez, Victor H; de Castro, Heizir F

    2013-04-01

    Optimal conditions for enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel from palm oil and ethanol were determined with lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens immobilized on epoxy polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol hybrid composite under a microwave heating system. The main goal was to reduce the reaction time preliminarily established by a process of conventional heating. A full factorial design assessed the influence of ethanol-to-palm oil (8:1-16:1) molar ratio and temperature (43-57 °C) on the transesterification yield. Microwave irradiations varying from 8 to 15 W were set up according to reaction temperature. Under optimal conditions (8:1 ethanol-to-oil molar ratio at 43 °C), 97.56 % of the fatty acids present in the palm oil were converted into ethyl esters in a 12-h reaction, corresponding to a productivity of 64.2 mg ethyl esters g⁻¹ h⁻¹. This represents a sixfold increase from the process carried out under conventional heating, thus proving to be a potential tool for enhancing biochemical modification of oils and fats. In general, advantages of the new process include: (1) microwaves speed up the enzyme-catalyzed reactions; (2) there are no destructive effects on the enzyme properties, such as stability and substrate specificity, and (3) the microwave assistance allows the entire reaction volume to be heated uniformly. These bring benefits of a low energy demand and a faster conversion of palm oil into biodiesel.

  4. Temperature of denture base resin under different protocols of microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sesma, Newton; Gil, Carlos; Kolikauskas, William Antunes; Silva, Rafael Andrade; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the temperature of dentures after different microwave irradiation protocols. Two complete dentures (one maxillary and one mandibular denture) were irradiated separately 4 times for each of the following 5 protocols: dentures immersed in water (G1- 6 min, G2- 3 min); dentures kept dry (G3- 6 min); dentures placed in the steam sterilizer (G4- 6 min, G5- 3 min). The final temperature of the dentures was gauged in a thin and in a thick area of each denture with an infrared thermometer. All groups presented an increase in the resin base temperature. The thin areas of the dentures underwent greater heating than the thick areas. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the final mean temperatures of dentures immersed in water for 6 (G1) and 3 min (G2). However, the final mean temperatures recorded in G1 and G2 exceeded 71°C and were significantly higher (<0.001) than the final mean temperatures recorded in the other groups. It may be concluded that denture base resins subjected to microwave irradiation immersed in water may be exposed to deleterious temperatures.

  5. Photonic microwave signals with zeptosecond-level absolute timing noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Giunta, Michele; Hänsel, Wolfgang; Lezius, Matthias; Joshi, Abhay; Datta, Shubhashish; Alexandre, Christophe; Lours, Michel; Tremblin, Pierre-Alain; Santarelli, Giorgio; Holzwarth, Ronald; Le Coq, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Photonic synthesis of radiofrequency (RF) waveforms revived the quest for unrivalled microwave purity because of its ability to convey the benefits of optics to the microwave world. In this work, we perform a high-fidelity transfer of frequency stability between an optical reference and a microwave signal via a low-noise fibre-based frequency comb and cutting-edge photodetection techniques. We demonstrate the generation of the purest microwave signal with a fractional frequency stability below 6.5 × 10-16 at 1 s and a timing noise floor below 41 zs Hz-1/2 (phase noise below -173 dBc Hz-1 for a 12 GHz carrier). This outperforms existing sources and promises a new era for state-of-the-art microwave generation. The characterization is achieved through a heterodyne cross-correlation scheme with the lowermost detection noise. This unprecedented level of purity can impact domains such as radar systems, telecommunications and time-frequency metrology. The measurement methods developed here can benefit the characterization of a broad range of signals.

  6. Degradation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and its precursor dimethylamine (DMA) in mineral micropores induced by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    He, Yuanzhen; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-05-01

    Removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in drinking water treatment poses a significant technical challenge due to its small molecular size, high polarity and water solubility, and poor biodegradability. Degradation of NDMA and its precursor, dimethylamine (DMA), was investigated by adsorbing them from aqueous solution using porous mineral sorbents, followed by destruction under microwave irradiation. Among the mineral sorbents evaluated, dealuminated ZSM-5 exhibited the highest sorption capacities for NDMA and DMA, which decreased with the density of surface cations present in the micropores. In contrast, the degradation rate of the sorbed NDMA increased with the density of surface cations under microwave irradiation. Evolutions of the degradation products and C/N ratio indicate that the sorbed NDMA and DMA could be eventually mineralized under continuous microwave irradiation. The degradation rate was strongly correlated with the bulk temperature of ZSM-5 and microwave power, which is consistent with the mechanism of pyrolysis caused by formation of micro-scale "hot spots" within the mineral micropores under microwave irradiation. Compared to existing treatment options for NDMA removal, microporous mineral sorption coupled with microwave-induced degradation has the unique advantages of being able to simultaneously remove NDMA and DMA and cause their full mineralization, and thus could serve as a promising alternative method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced biocatalysis mechanism under microwave irradiation in isoquercitrin production revealed by circular dichroism and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, An; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Fu-An; Wang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    An efficient and rapid process for isoquercitrin production by hesperidinase-catalyzed hydrolysis of rutin was successfully developed under microwave irradiation detecting the affinity by circular dichroism (CD) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. A maximum isoquercitrin yield of 91.5±2.7% was obtained in 10min with the conditions of 10g/L hesperidinase, 2g/L rutin, 30°C and microwave power density 88.9W/L. Enzymatic reaction rate and Vm/Km in the microwave reactor were 6.34-fold higher than in a continuous flow microreactor and 1.24-fold higher than in a biphasic system. CD and SPR analysis results also showed that hesperidinase has a better selectivity and affinity (3.3-fold than in a batch reactor) to generate isoquercitrin under microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation greatly improved the reaction efficiency and productivity, leading to a more positive economical assessment. The binding affinity indicates the presence of strong multivalent interactions between rutin and hesperidinase under microwave irradiation.

  8. Electron thermalization and attachment in pulse-irradiated oxygen studied by time-resolved microwave conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warman, John M.; Cooper, Ronald

    The microwave conductivity of oxygen gas following nanosecond pulsed irradiation has been studied for pressures from 5 to 50 torr. The conductivity is found to decrease by a factor of approx. 20 in the early stages ( tN < 2 x 10 11 s cm -3) following the pulse. This is attributed to a decrease in the electron collision frequency as the initial excess energy of the electrons becomes degraded. A further decrease found at longer times is due to the three-body attachment of electrons to O 2 with a rate constant of 2.4 x 10 -30 cm 6s -1. Above a pressure of approx. 30 torr significant attachment begins to occur while electrons are still superthermal. The time at which the microwave signal is within 10% of the value corresponding to thermal energies is given by τ thP ≈ 15 μs.torr.

  9. Water-soluble loratadine inclusion complex: analytical control of the preparation by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Nacsa, A; Ambrus, R; Berkesi, O; Szabó-Révész, P; Aigner, Z

    2008-11-04

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients are poorly soluble in water. The rate-determining step of absorption is the dissolution of these drugs. Inclusion complexation with cyclodextrin derivatives can lead to improved aqueous solubility and bioavailability of pharmacons due to the formation of co-crystals through hydrogen-bonding between the components. Inclusion complexes of loratadine were prepared by a convenient new method involving microwave irradiation and the products were compared with those of a conventional preparation method. Dissolution studies demonstrated that the solubility and rate of dissolution of loratadine increased in both of the methods used. The interactions between the components were investigated by thermal analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared studies. The microwave treatment did not cause any chemical changes in the loratadine molecule.

  10. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES FOR CATALYST PREPARATION: USE OF ULTRASOUND AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION FOR THE PREPARATION OF VANADIUM PHOSPHORUS OXIDE CATALYST AND THEIR ACTIVITY FOR HYDROCARBON OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) has been prepared using ultrasound and microwave irradiation methods and compared with the catalyst prepared by conventional method for both the phase composition and activity for hydrocarbon oxidation. It is found that ultrasound irradiation metho...

  11. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES FOR CATALYST PREPARATION: USE OF ULTRASOUND AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION FOR THE PREPARATION OF VANADIUM PHOSPHORUS OXIDE CATALYST AND THEIR ACTIVITY FOR HYDROCARBON OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) has been prepared using ultrasound and microwave irradiation methods and compared with the catalyst prepared by conventional method for both the phase composition and activity for hydrocarbon oxidation. It is found that ultrasound irradiation metho...

  12. Device for timing and power level setting for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursu, M.-P.; Buidoş, T.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the microwaves are widely used for various technological processes. The microwaves are emitted by magnetrons, which have strict requirements concerning power supplies for anode and filament cathodes, intensity of magnetic field, cooling and electromagnetic shielding. The magnetrons do not tolerate any alteration of their required voltages, currents and magnetic fields, which means that their output microwave power is fixed, so the only way to alter the power level is to use time-division, by turning the magnetron on and off by repetitive time patterns. In order to attain accurate and reproducible results, as well as correct and safe operation of the microwave device, all these requirements must be fulfilled. Safe, correct and reproducible operation of the microwave appliance can be achieved by means of a specially built electronic device, which ensures accurate and reproducible exposure times, interlocking of the commands and automatic switch off when abnormal operating conditions occur. This driving device, designed and realized during the completion of Mr.Ursu's doctoral thesis, consists of a quartz time-base, several programmable frequency and duration dividers, LED displays, sensors and interlocking gates. The active and passive electronic components are placed on custom-made PCB's, designed and made by means of computer-aided applications and machines. The driving commands of the electronic device are delivered to the magnetron power supplies by means of optic zero-passing relays. The inputs of the electronic driving device can sense the status of the microwave appliance. The user is able to enter the total exposure time, the division factor that sets the output power level and, as a novelty, the clock frequency of the time divider.

  13. Microwave irradiation of human brain tissue: production of microscopic slides within one day.

    PubMed Central

    Boon, M E; Marani, E; Adriolo, P J; Steffelaar, J W; Bots, G T; Kok, L P

    1988-01-01

    A three step method using microwave irradiation enabled microscopic slides of human brain tissue to be obtained within one working day: steps 1 and 2 hardened and solidified brain tissue; step 3 completed formalin fixation. The efficacy and precision of the method was compared with slides of conventionally processed brain tissue that had been fixed in formalin for six weeks. The microscopic quality of the sections was excellent with good presentation of brain tissue and equalled that of conventionally processed slides. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:3290268

  14. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol by microwave irradiation enhanced advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zhihui, Ai; Peng, Yang; Xiaohua, Lu

    2005-08-01

    In this work the synergistic effects of several microwave assisted advanced oxidation processes (MW/AOPs) were studied for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The efficiencies of the degradation of 4-CP in dilute aqueous solution for a variety of AOPs with or without MW irradiation were compared. The results showed that the synergistic effects between MW and H2O2, UV/H2O2, TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) resulted in a high degradation efficiency for 4-CP. The potential of MW/AOPs for treatment of industrial wastewater is discussed.

  15. Soft-mold-induced self-construction of polymer patterns under microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Wu, Chia-Tien; Chen, Mei-Fen; Chen, Jem-Kun; Chu, Tieh-Chi

    2007-05-01

    In this study, the authors used a soft-mold-induced self-construction method to fabricate three-dimensional patterns under microwave irradiation for 1min. The authors estimated the actual pattern growth temperature using a fluorescence probe technique. The temperature at which pattern growth originated was, by necessity, higher than the glass transition temperature of the novolak resist. Electrostatic forces and surface tension effects under the electromagnetic field contributed significantly to the pattern growth, and the use of an antisticking agent allowed easy demolding.

  16. Enaminones in heterocyclic synthesis: a novel route to tetrahydropyrimidines, dihydropyridines, triacylbenzenes and naphthofurans under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Al-Mousawi, Saleh Mohammed; El-Apasery, Morsy Ahmed; Elnagdi, Mohamed H

    2009-12-25

    Condensation of phthalimidoacetone (1) with DMFDMA (N,N-Dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal) has afforded enaminone 2. Refluxing 2 with equimolecular amounts of benzaldehyde and urea in acetic acid afforded a mixture of tetrahydropyrimidine 5 and the dihydropyridine 6. Compound 2 undergoes self-condensation on heating in acetic acid or under microwave irradiation in presence of acidic zeolite to give 1,3,5-triacylbenzene 9. Reacting enaminone 11a with naphthoquinone 15 afforded the naphthofuran 18. The possible formation of the aldehyde 19 was excluded based on an HMQC experiment, which revealed that the carbonyl carbon is not linked to any hydrogen.

  17. Effect of e-beam irradiation and microwave heating on the fatty acid composition and volatile compound profile of grass carp surimi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Haiyan; Ye, Qingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of e-beam irradiation(1-7 kGy) and irradiation coupled to microwave heating (e-I-MC, 70 °C internal temperature) on the fatty acid composition and volatile compound profile of grass carp surimi. Compared to control samples, e-beam irradiation generated three novel volatile compounds (heptane, 2,6-dimethyl-nonane, and dimethyl disulfide) and increased the relative proportions of alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Meanwhile, e-I-MC significantly increased aldehyde levels and generated five heterocyclic compounds along with these three novel compounds. No significant difference in volatile compounds were detected in e-I-MC samples with increasing irradiation dose (p>0.05), comparing to the control group. E-beam irradiation at 5 and 7 kGy increased the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and decreased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids (p≤0.05), but did not affect the content of trans fatty acid levels (p>0.05). Irradiation, which had no significant effects on (Eicosapentaenoic acid) EPA, decreased (Docose Hexaenoie Acid) DHA levels. In the e-I-MC group, SFA levels increased and PUFA levels decreased. Additionally, MUFA levels were unaffected and trans fatty acid levels increased slightly following e-I-MC.

  18. Enhancing the various solvent extraction method via microwave irradiation for extraction of lipids from marine microalgae in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee Loong; Idris, Ani

    2014-11-01

    The types of microalgae strains and the method used in lipid extraction have become crucial factors which influence the productivity of crude oil. In this paper, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were chosen as the strains and four different methods were used to extract the lipids: Hara and Radin, Folch, Chen and Bligh and Dyer. These methods were performed by using conventional heating and microwave irradiation methods. Results revealed that highest lipid yield from the different species was obtained using different extraction methods; both under microwave irradiation. The lipid yield for Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. was highest when Hara and Radin (8.19%), and Folch (8.47%) methods were used respectively under microwave irradiation. The lipids extracted were then transesterified to biodiesel and the quality of the biodiesel was analyzed using the gas chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation and comparison of high-level microwave oven disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts.

    PubMed

    Meghashri, K; Kumar, Prasanna; Prasad, D Krishna; Hegde, Rakshit

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microwave disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. A total of 120 casts were prepared from a silicone mold using Type III dental stone. Of the 120 casts, 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Staphylococcus aureus and 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Then, the casts were disinfected with microwave irradiation and chemical disinfection using the microwave oven and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Bacteriologic procedures were performed; the cfu/ml for each cast was calculated as a weighted mean. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. The untreated casts showed Brain heart infusion broth counts of 106 log cfu/ml compared to irradiated and chemically disinfected casts, in which 105 log reduction of cfu/ml was seen. These results satisfied the requirements of current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory. The results obtained for chemical disinfection were in equivalence with microwave disinfection. Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it was found that microwave disinfection of casts for 5 min at 900 W gives high-level disinfection that complies with the current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory and microwave disinfection method is an effective and validated method as chemical disinfection. How to cite the article: Meghashri K, Kumar P, Prasad DK, Hegde R. Evaluation and comparison of high-level microwave oven disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):56-60 .

  20. Evaluation and Comparison of High-Level Microwave Oven Disinfection with Chemical Disinfection of Dental Gypsum Casts

    PubMed Central

    Meghashri, K; Kumar, Prasanna; Prasad, D Krishna; Hegde, Rakshit

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microwave disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 casts were prepared from a silicone mold using Type III dental stone. Of the 120 casts, 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Staphylococcus aureus and 60 casts were contaminated with 1 ml suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Then, the casts were disinfected with microwave irradiation and chemical disinfection using the microwave oven and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite. Bacteriologic procedures were performed; the cfu/ml for each cast was calculated as a weighted mean. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: The untreated casts showed Brain heart infusion broth counts of 106 log cfu/ml compared to irradiated and chemically disinfected casts, in which 105 log reduction of cfu/ml was seen. These results satisfied the requirements of current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory. The results obtained for chemical disinfection were in equivalence with microwave disinfection. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it was found that microwave disinfection of casts for 5 min at 900 W gives high-level disinfection that complies with the current infection control guidelines for the dental laboratory and microwave disinfection method is an effective and validated method as chemical disinfection. How to cite the article: Meghashri K, Kumar P, Prasad DK, Hegde R. Evaluation and comparison of high-level microwave oven disinfection with chemical disinfection of dental gypsum casts. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):56-60 . PMID:25083033

  1. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (<0.05) and R(2) values indicated that the selected models were consistent. Linear equations were obtained for oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An efficient combination of Zr-MOF and microwave irradiation in catalytic Lewis acid Friedel-Crafts benzoylation.

    PubMed

    Doan, Tan L H; Dao, Thong Q; Tran, Hai N; Tran, Phuong H; Le, Thach N

    2016-05-04

    A zirconium-based metal-organic framework, an effective heterogeneous catalyst, has been developed for the Friedel-Crafts benzoylation of aromatic compounds under microwave irradiation. Constructed by a Zr(iv) cluster and a linker 1,4-bis(2-[4-carboxyphenyl]ethynyl)benzene (H2CPEB), the MOF, possessing large pores and high chemical stability, was appropriate for the enhancement of Lewis acid activity under microwave irradiation. The reaction studies demonstrated that the material could give high yields for a few minutes and maintain its reactivity and structure over several cycles.

  3. Investigation of supramolecular structure of the rare and rare-earth elements nanoparticles carrier when modified using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, I. A.; Lysak, G. V.; Malinovskaya, T. D.; Skvortsova, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an IR and XRD study of the polypropylene fibrous nanoparticles carrier when its surface modified with rare and rare-earth elements nanoparticles using microwave irradiation, by the example of SnO2/TiO2 hetero-nanoparticles. The paper shows that the smectic mesomorph structure of the non-modified polypropylene fibrous carrier transforms into the monoclinic α-crystalline due to microwave irradiation. At the same time, the carrier material remains stereoregular and keeps its helical structure.

  4. Microwave Irradiation Effect on the Dispersion and Thermal Stability of RGO Nanosheets within a Polystyrene Matrix.

    PubMed

    Alsharaeh, Edreese H; Othman, Ali A; Aldosari, Mohammad A

    2014-07-18

    Polystyrene-reduced graphene oxide (PSTY/RGO) composites were prepared via the in situ bulk polymerization method using two different preparation techniques. The general approach is to use microwave irradiation (MWI) to enhance the exfoliation and the dispersion of RGO nanosheets within the PSTY matrix. In the first approach, a mixture of GO and styrene monomers (STY) were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method facilitated by microwave irradiation (MWI) to obtain R-(GO-PSTY) composites. In the second approach, a mixture of RGO and STY monomers were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method to obtain RGO-(PSTY) composites. The two composites were characterized by FTIR, ¹H-NMR, XRD, SEM, HRTEM, TGA and DSC. The results indicate that the composite obtained using the first approach, which involved MWI, had a better morphology and dispersion with enhanced thermal stability, compared with the composites prepared without MWI. Moreover, DSC results showed that the Tg value of the composites after loading the RGO significantly increased by 24.6 °C compared to the neat polystyrene.

  5. The influence of double flask investing on tooth displacement in dentures processed by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Farias Neto, Arcelino; Sousa, Rodrigo L dos Santos; Rizzatti-Barbosa, Célia M

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the bimaxillary flask (BMF) and two different investing materials on first molar inclination in dentures processed by microwave irradiation. The BMF may minimise tooth displacement, saving time and improving occlusion. Forty pairs of dentures were randomised into four groups: stone wall in monomaxillary flask; silicone wall in BMF; stone wall in BMF; acrylic resin retentions and silicone in BMF. Dentures were processed by microwave irradiation. Two referential points were established on tooth surface. A microscope and a digital pachymeter were used to measure the distance between these points, and the angles α (right maxillary molar), β (left maxillary molar), α' (right mandibular molar) and β' (left mandibular molar) were calculated by the law of cosines. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis (5% significance). No difference was observed among the groups (p > 0.05). In the intra-group analysis, α was significantly different for groups I, II and III; α', for groups II and IV; β, for all groups; β', for groups III and IV. First molar inclination was similar for monomaxillary and BMFs. The use of stone or silicone as investing materials presented the same effect on tooth inclination. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Controlled synthesis of snowflake-like self-assemblies palladium nanostructures under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ting; Ma, Yue; Yang, Hanmin Li, Jinlin

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated the synthesis of snowflake-like palladium nanostructures for the first time. • We discussed the influencing factors on the synthesis of snowflake-like Pd nanostructures. • The molar ratio of H{sub 2}Pd{sub 4} to PVP at 5 is the optimal selection. • The growth process was discussed. - Abstract: Self-assembly snowflake-like palladium nanostructures were synthesized under microwave irradiation using H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} as precursor, benzyl alcohol as both solvent and reducing agent, and PVP as stabilizer. The Pd snowflake-like nanostructures were formed and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction. The TEM images showed that the Pd nano-snowflakes were self-assemblies organized by hundreds of small spherical nanoparticles. Pd snowflake-like nanostructures with well-defined shape and uniform size can be obtained by tuning the concentration of palladium precursor, the molar ratio of H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}/PVP, as well as the heating time by microwave irradiation. The possible growing process of the snowflake-like Pd structures was also proposed on the basis of investigating the properties of as-synthesized Pd nanostructures under different conditions.

  7. Graft polymerization of guar gum with acryl amide irradiated by microwaves for colonic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Gul, Yousra; Munir, Hira; Anjum, Fozia; Zuber, Mohammad; Jamil, Tahir; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2013-11-01

    This article is aimed to discuss the modification of guar gum through microwave irradiation by varying the time of irradiation. The characterization of the modified products was carried out using FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The FT-IR spectrum of the pure guar gum (GG) sample showed a broad peak at 3298 cm(-1) while the modified GG sample displayed a peak at 1541 cm(-1) which was absent in the crude sample. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the increase in crystallinity due to grafting of the sample with polyacrylamide (GG-g-PAM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that granular form of guar gum was changed into fibrillar structure after grafting. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the modified samples was also carried out and discussed. The role of guar gum as a matrix for controlled release of drug triamcinolone was evaluated. The GG-acrylamide grafted samples presented a correlation between drug release and time of microwave exposure. The results revealed that such modified product has potential applications in colonic drug delivery system.

  8. Effect of microwave irradiation on the molecular and structural properties of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Bezáková, Zuzana; Hermannová, Martina; Dřímalová, Eugenie; Malovíková, Anna; Ebringerová, Anna; Velebný, Vladimír

    2008-09-05

    Hyaluronan (Na(+) salt of hyaluronic acid, HA) was extensively depolymerised by HCl-catalyzed hydrolysis at pH 3 for up to 500min under temperature-controlled microwave irradiation. The effects of microwave heating on the hydrodynamic properties of the polysaccharide were determined by SEC-MALLS and viscometry. The weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of HA decreased from 1.44×10(6) to ∼5000, reaching the region of higher oligosaccharides. The scission of HA chains was found to proceed randomly during the whole degradation process. Treatment of the Mw and intrinsic viscosity data according to the Mark-Houwink equation, [η]=k×Mw(α) suggested three relationships with α1=0.46 for Mw>500,000, α2=0.84 for Mw between 500,000 and 50,000, and α3=1.13 for Mw<50,000. The results revealed that HA with Mw>10,000 adopts a stiffish coil conformation in solution. As monitored by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques, the primary structure of the HA chains was maintained during the microwave-assisted hydrolysis at pH 3 at 105°C. At reaction times larger than 240min, uv spectroscopy suggested the depolymerisation of HA was accompanied by formation of by-products produced by side reaction.

  9. Adding denture cleanser to microwave disinfection regimen to reduce the irradiation time and the exposure of dentures to high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Senna, Plinio M; Sotto-Maior, Bruno S; Silva, Wander J da; Del Bel Cury, Altair A

    2013-03-01

    The microwave energy is an efficient disinfection method; however, it can generate high temperatures that can result in distortion of the dentures. To evaluate whether the addition of an enzymatic cleanser to microwave disinfection regimen would disinfect dentures with shorter irradiation time. Seven resin discs colonized with Candida albicans biofilm were placed on the palatal surface of sterile dentures to be randomly assigned to the following treatments: immersion in distilled water for 3 min with 0 (DW), 1 (DW + M1), 2 (DW + M2), or 3 min (DW + M3) of microwave irradiation; or immersion in denture cleanser for 3 min with 0 (DC), 1 (DC + M1), 2 (DC + M2) or 3 min (DC + M3) of irradiation. After the treatments, the viable cells were counted by a blinded examiner. The temperature was measured immediately after irradiation. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests (α = 0.05). No viable cells were found after DC + M2, DC + M3, and DW + M3 treatments, of which DC + M2 achieved the lowest temperature. No significant difference was found between the effectiveness of DW, DW + M1 and DC treatments (p > 0.05). Within the limits of this study, the association of a denture cleanser and microwave energy is efficient to disinfect dentures in lower irradiation time and temperature. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Evaluation of effectiveness of microwave irradiation for disinfection of silicone elastomeric impression material.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Abhilasha; Vinod, V; Bhasin, Vinny; Mathew, Xavier; Sajjan, Suresh; Ahmed, Syed Tauqheer

    2013-06-01

    Use of domestic microwave oven has been suggested as a method of disinfecting a number of dental materials used in dental practice. This study was done to analyse the effect of microwave irradiation on vinyl polysiloxane putty impression material (3M ESPE, Express™ STD) contaminated with test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans. 180 square shaped specimens of addition silicon putty material were prepared and divided into 3 groups for three test organisms. The 3 groups were subdivided into 4 subgroups (n = 15) for different exposure parameters (control group 5, 6 and 7 min exposure at 650 W. The specimens were contaminated using standard inoculums of test organism and then were irradiated using domestic microwaves. Broth cultures of the control and test group specimens were plated on selective media culture plates. Colonies formed were counted. Data analyses included Kruskal-Walli's ANOVA and Mann-Whitney's tests. Nil values shows complete elimination of C. albicans and P. aeruginosa after 5, 6 and 7 min exposure. Staphylococcus aureus showed colonies with the mean value of 7.6 × 10(3) ± 2.3 × 10(3), 4.6 × 10(3) ± 2.6 × 10(3) after 5 and 6 min respectively and nil values after 7 min exposure. 5 min exposure caused complete elimination of C. albicans and P. aeruginosa strains, while 7 min exposure eliminated S. aureus completely.

  11. Thin-layer liquid crystal thermometry of cells in vitro during hyperthermal microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J E; McCulloch, D; Harrison, G H; Cheung, A Y

    1982-01-01

    A nonperturbing technique of thin-layer liquid crystal thermometry was developed to quantitate heating of Chinese hamster ovary cells and the bacterium Serratia marcescens when exposed to 2450-MHz microwave fields at 0.2-0.5 W/cm2. Cells suspended in culture medium were injected into 5-cm glass microcapillary tubes coated on the inside with a thin layer of liquid crystal. The tubes were sealed and placed parallel to the electric field in a watertight waveguide exposure chamber where they were heated by circulating temperature-controlled water. Even at high circulation rates, liquid crystal color changes indicated local microwave capillary tube heating of 0.1-0.25 degrees C. Precision of measurement was 0.02 degrees C. Observations during microwave heating were significantly different from observations without microwaves at the 1% level, and heating increased as circulating water flow was reduced from 300 ml/s to 100 ml/s. The results of a cell survival assay following hyperthermal treatment were in good agreement with expectations based on the observations of microwave heating using liquid crystals.

  12. The effect of low- and high-power microwave irradiation on in vitro grown Sequoia plants and their recovery after cryostorage.

    PubMed

    Halmagyi, A; Surducan, E; Surducan, V

    2017-06-24

    Two distinct microwave power levels and techniques have been studied in two cases: low-power microwave (LPM) irradiation on in vitro Sequoia plants and high-power microwave (HPM) exposure on recovery rates of cryostored (-196°C) Sequoia shoot apices. Experimental variants for LPM exposure included: (a) in vitro plants grown in regular conditions (at 24 ± 1°C during a 16-h light photoperiod with a light intensity of 39.06 μEm(-2) s(-1) photosynthetically active radiation), (b) in vitro plants grown in the anechoic chamber with controlled environment without microwave irradiation, and (c) in vitro plants grown in the anechoic chamber with LPM irradiation for various times (5, 15, 30, 40 days). In comparison to control plants, significant differences in shoot multiplication and growth parameters (length of shoots and roots) were observed after 40 days of LPM exposure. An opposite effect was achieved regarding the content of total soluble proteins, which decreased with increasing exposure time to LPM. HPM irradiation was tested as a novel rewarming method following storage in liquid nitrogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report using this type of rewarming method. Although, shoot tips subjected to HPM exposure showed 28% recovery following cryostorage compared to 44% for shoot tips rewarmed in liquid medium at 22 ± 1 °C, we consider that the method represent a basis and can be further improved. The results lead to the overall conclusion that LPM had a stimulating effect on growth and multiplication of in vitro Sequoia plants, while the HPM used for rewarming of cryopreserved apices was not effective to achieve high rates of regrowth after liquid nitrogen exposure.

  13. Inclusion of fenofibrate in a series of mesoporous silicas using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Waters, Laura J; Hussain, Talib; Parkes, Gareth; Hanrahan, John P; Tobin, Joseph M

    2013-11-01

    A selection of porous silicas were combined with a model drug using a recently developed, controlled microwave heating process to determine if the application of microwave irradiation could enhance subsequent drug release. Five mesoporous silica types were investigated (core shell, core shell rehydrox, SBA-15, silica gel, SYLOID®) and, for comparison, one non-porous silica (stober). These were formulated using a tailored microwave heating method at drug/excipient ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5. In addition, all experiments were performed both in the presence and absence of water, used as a fluidising media to aid interaction between drug and support, and compared with results obtained using more traditional heating methods. All formulations were then characterised using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Pharmaceutical performance was investigated using in vitro drug release studies. A significant enhancement in the release profile of fenofibrate was observed for formulations prepared using microwave heating in the absence of water for five of the six silica based formulations. Of all the formulations analysed, the greatest extent of drug release within the experimental 30 min was the 1:5 core shell rehydrox achieving a total of 86.6 ± 2.8%. The non-porous (stober) particles did not exhibit an increased release of the drug under any experimental conditions studied. This anomaly is thought to be a result of the comparatively small surface area of the silica particles, thus preventing the adsorption of drug molecules.

  14. Effects of acute low-level microwaves on pentobarbital-induced hypothermia depend on exposure orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    Two series of experiments were performed to study the effects of acute exposure (45 min) to 2,450-MHz circularly polarized, pulsed microwaves (1 mW/cm2, 2-mus pulses, 500 pps, specific absorption rate (SAR) 0.6 W/kg) on the actions of pentobarbital in the rat. In the first experiment, rats were irradiated with microwaves and then immediately injected with pentobarbital. Microwave exposure did not significantly affect the extent of the pentobarbital-induced fall in colonic temperature. However, the rate of recovery from the hypothermia was significantly slower in the microwave-irradiated rats and they also took a significantly longer time to regain their righting reflex. In a second experiment, rats were first anesthetized with pentobarbital and then exposed to microwaves with their heads either pointing toward the source of microwaves (anterior exposure) or pointing away (posterior exposure). Microwave radiation significantly retarded the pentobarbital-induced fall in colonic temperature regardless of the orientation of exposure. However, the recovery from hypothermia was significantly faster in posterior-exposed animals compared to those of the anterior-exposed and sham-irradiated animals. Furthermore, the posterior-exposed rats took a significantly shorter time to regain their righting reflex than both the anterior-exposed and sham-irradiated animals.

  15. A novel property of gold nanoparticles: Free radical generation under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, Nava Raj; Shvydka, Diana; Parsai, E. Ishmael

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are known to be effective mediators in microwave hyperthermia. Interaction with an electromagnetic field, large surface to volume ratio, and size quantization of nanoparticles (NPs) can lead to increased cell killing beyond pure heating effects. The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility of free radical generation by GNPs in aqueous media when they are exposed to a microwave field. Methods: A number of samples with 500 mM 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) in 20 ppm GNP colloidal suspensions were scanned with an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/electron spin resonance spectrometer to generate and detect free radicals. A fixed (9.68 GHz) frequency microwave from the spectrometer has served for both generation and detection of radicals. EPR spectra obtained as first derivatives of intensity with the spectrometer were double integrated to get the free radical signal intensities. Power dependence of radical intensity was studied by applying various levels of microwave power (12.5, 49.7, and 125 mW) while keeping all other scan parameters the same. Free radical signal intensities from initial and final scans, acquired at the same power levels, were compared. Results: Hydroxyl radical (OH⋅) signal was found to be generated due to the exposure of GNP–DMPO colloidal samples to a microwave field. Intensity of OH⋅ signal thus generated at 12.5 mW microwave power for 2.8 min was close to the intensity of OH⋅ signal obtained from a water–DMPO sample exposed to 1.5 Gy ionizing radiation dose. For repeated scans, higher OH⋅ intensities were observed in the final scan for higher power levels applied between the initial and the final scans. Final intensities were higher also for a shorter time interval between the initial and the final scans. Conclusions: Our results observed for the first time demonstrate that GNPs generate OH⋅ radicals in aqueous media when they are exposed to a microwave field. If OH

  16. Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine by selective heating under microwave irradiation used for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binghui; Luan, Zhaokun; Li, Mingming

    2005-08-01

    Low-temperature synthesis of allyl dimethylamine (ADA) by selective heating under microwave irradiation (MI) used for water treatment is investigated. The effect of MI, ultrasound irradiation (UI) and conventional heating on yield of ADA, reaction time and the flocculation efficiency of polydiallyl dimethylammunion chloride (PDADMAC) prepared form ADA were studied. The results show that by selective heating at low temperature, MI not only increases yield of ADA and reduces reaction time, but also greatly enhances the flocculation efficiency of PDADMAC.

  17. Influence of microwave irradiation on the mass-transfer kinetics of propylbenzene in reversed-phase liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Galinada, Wilmer; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-09-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the kinetics of mass transfer in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was studied by measuring its influence on the band profile of propylbenzene in a C{sub 18}-silica column eluted with an aqueous solution of methanol and placed inside a microwave oven. The elution peaks were measured by the pulse-response method, under linear conditions. The amount of microwave energy induced into the column was varied based on the microwave input power. The experimental data were analyzed using the conventional method of moment analysis and the lumped pore diffusion model. With input powers of 15 and 30 W, the effluent temperatures were 25 {+-} 1 and 30 {+-} 1 C, respectively. The effect of microwave irradiation on the mass transfer of the studied solute was determined by comparing the band profiles obtained under the same experimental conditions, at the same temperature, with and without irradiation. The values of the intraparticle diffusion coefficient, D{sub e}, measured with microwave irradiation were ca. 20% higher than those obtained without irradiation. Derived from the method of moments, the values of D{sub e} at 15 W (25 {+-} 1 C) and 0 W (25 {+-} 1 C) were 8.408 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and 6.947 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, while these values at 30 W (30 {+-} 1 C) and 0 W (30 {+-} 1 C) were 9.389 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and 7.848 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively. The values of the surface diffusivity, D{sub S}, also increased with increasing power of the microwave irradiation. It is assumed that the increase in intraparticle diffusion for propylbenzene was caused by the molecular excitation of the organic modifier that has a higher dielectric loss than the solute. The values of D{sub e} were also analyzed and determined using the POR model. There was an excellent agreement between the results of the two independent methods. These preliminary results suggest that microwave

  18. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...

  19. Photocatalytic Decomposition of Methylene Blue Over MIL-53(Fe) Prepared Using Microwave-Assisted Process Under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nguyen Duy; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Iron-based MIL-53 crystals with uniform size were successfully synthesized using a microwave-assisted solvothermal method and characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and DRS. We also investigated the photocatalytic activity of MIL-53(Fe) for the decomposition of methylene blue using H2O2 as an electron acceptor. From XRD and SEM results, the fully crystallized MIL-53(Fe) materials were obtained regardless of preparation method. From DRS results, MIL-53(Fe) samples prepared using microwave-assisted process displayed the absorption spectrum up to the visible region and then they showed the high photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. The MIL-53(Fe) catalyst prepared by two times microwave irradiation showed the highest activity.

  20. Ionic liquid as a promising biobased green solvent in combination with microwave irradiation for direct biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2016-04-01

    The wet biomass microalgae of Nannochloropsis sp. was converted to biodiesel using direct transesterification (DT) by microwave technique and ionic liquid (IL) as the green solvent. Three different ionic liquids; 1-butyl-3-metyhlimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl], 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium methyl sulphate [EMIM][MeSO4] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3]) and organic solvents (hexane and methanol) were used as co-solvents under microwave irradiation and their performances in terms of percentage disruption, cell walls ruptured and biodiesel yields were compared at different reaction times (5, 10 and 15 min). [EMIM][MeSO4] showed highest percentage cell disruption (99.73%) and biodiesel yield (36.79% per dried biomass) after 15 min of simultaneous reaction. The results demonstrated that simultaneous extraction-transesterification using ILs and microwave irradiation is a potential alternative method for biodiesel production.

  1. Behavioral effects of chlorpromazine and diazepam combined with low-level microwaves. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.R.; Schrot, J.; Banvard, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Previous research findings on the interaction between drugs and microwave radiation were extended to chlorpromazine and to diazepam. The drugs were combined with a 1 mW/cm/sub 2/ pulsed microwave field (2.8 GHz) and effects were measured on a fixed interval (FI 1) schedule of food reinforcement with rats. Dose-effect functions with and without sham irradiation were established for each drug. At effective doses chlorpromazine consistently decreased rate of responding and reduced with-interval response patterning. Low to moderate doses of diazepam produced little change or increases in response rate, and higher doses produced a decline in response rate. Response patterning within intervals was reduced by increasing doses of diazepam. The animals were exposed to the microwave field alone before test sessions combining the drugs with microwave radiation. Microwave exposure alone did not affect FI performance. Microwave radiation in combination with either drug did not produce any alterations in the dose-effect functions.

  2. Nonlinear Correction to Absorption Spectrum under Irradiation of Microwave Field in Conventional BCS Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jujo, Takanobu

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the absorption spectrum of s-wave superconductors under microwave pump field irradiation. The third-order response function is calculated in the dirty limit with the electron-phonon interaction included at finite temperatures. We find that the nonlinear correction to the linear absorption shows peculiar behavior when the pump field frequency is smaller than the superconducting gap. At finite temperatures, a negative nonlinear correction exists, which is caused by thermally excited quasiparticles. The vertex correction by impurity scattering is found to contain a dissipation mechanism by inelastic scattering (interaction between electrons and acoustic phonons) or nonlocality. We need this mechanism to obtain finite absorption in a nonequilibrium stationary state under a monochromatic external field. Although this term originates from the deformation of a one-particle state, there is also a final-state interaction (the amplitude mode). The latter term represents two-photon excitation and is almost independent of temperature.

  3. Changes of amino acid gradients in brain tissues induced by microwave irradiation and other means

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, C.F.; Parsons, J.E.; Oh, C.C.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Baldwin, R.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Focused microwave irradiation to the head (FMI) has been used extensively by neurochemists for rapid inactivation of enzymatic activity in brain tissues and the preservation, for in vitro analysis, of in vivo substrate concentrations. Periodically the suitability of this technique for regional studies has been questioned. Evidence has now been obtained, on the basis of altered concentration gradients for GABA and taurine from the Substantia Nigra (SN) to an Adjacent Dorsal Area (ADJ), that FMI not only inactivates enzymes, but also facilitates rapid diffusion of small molecules from areas of high concentrations to adjacent areas of lower concentration. To a lesser extent, the implantation of plastic injection cannulas also decreased these concentration gradients. These results offer clear evidence that FMI is ill suited and unreliable for studies designed to map and compare the in vivo regional concentrations of diffusible organic molecules (such as amino acids) in brain tissues. Any invasive technique that compromises membrane barriers is likely to produce smaller similar effects.

  4. Efficient synthesis of boron-containing α-acyloxyamide analogs via microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Pin-Yi; Lin, Chia-Hung; Chen, Hsien-Chi; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Pan, Po-Shen

    2013-08-08

    In this report, a Passerini three-component reaction utilizing boron-containing carboxylic acids or aldehydes is discussed. The reaction was carried out in water and facilitated by the use of microwave irradiation. This methodology allowed for the efficient formation of a broad range of boron-containing α-acyloxyamides under mild conditions within a short time. Two series of boron-containing α-acyloxyamides were synthesized and subsequently screened for cytotoxicity using the MTT cell viability assay. Two potential lead compounds were found to have potent activity against the HepG2 cancer cell line, demonstrating the potential of this methodology for use in the development of novel pharmaceuticals.

  5. Synthesis by microwave irradiation of a substituted benzoxazine parallel library with preferential relaxant activity for guinea pig trachealis.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Giuseppe; Perissutti, Elisa; Santagada, Vincenzo; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Severino, Beatrice; Cirillo, Donatella; di Villa Bianca, Roberta d'Emmanuele; Lippolis, Laura; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2004-10-01

    An efficient, facile, and practical parallel combinatorial synthesis of substituted-benzoxazines under microwave irradiation was described. The procedure involved the use of a microwave oven especially designed for organic synthesis suitable for parallel synthesis of solution libraries. A demonstration 19-membered library of substituted N,N-dimethyl- and N-methyl-benzoxazine amide derivatives, structurally related to the potassium channel opener cromakalim, was generated by both conventional and microwave procedures, achieving a reduction from 7 h to 30-36 min in library generation time for the microwave approach. All the synthesized compounds were tested using the in vitro models of rat aorta and guinea pig trachea rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine and carbachol, respectively. All N,N-dimethyl amide derivatives showed a relaxant activity higher on guinea pig trachea rings than on rat aorta rings.

  6. Comparative efficacy of microwave, visible light and ultrasound irradiation for green synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones in fruit juice medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Tanay; Padan, Simarjit Kaur; Gupta, Richa; Bedi, Pooja; Singh, Gurinderpal

    2017-07-01

    Dihydropyrimidinones (DHPM) were synthesized via multi component condensation reaction employing urea, ethyl acetoacetate and aromatic aldehydes as reactants. Apple, pomegranate, grape juice were used individually as biodegradable, eco friendly, and green reaction medium whereas microwave, visible light and ultrasound irradiation were applied individually as green source of energy for carrying out the aforesaid reactions. It was observed that the reactions under microwave irradiation were taking minimum time to go for completion whereas the reactions under ultrasound and visible light irradiation were taking approximately same time duration to form products. This is the first of its kind study where the three different reaction methodologies based on three different sources of green energies were compared with each other for their effectiveness and efficiency towards multi component condensation reactions.

  7. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C B; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications.

  8. Rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Cissus quadrangularis extract using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvanasree, S. R.; Harini, D.; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) using the aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) by microwave irradiation. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the solution obtained from reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) by CQE revealed a sharp surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 530 nm confirming the presence of AuNP. The formation of AuNP was optimal at a pH of 9. The AuNP was characterised by FT-IR, SEM, HR-TEM, SAED, XRD, TGA, DLS and Zeta potential measurements. The results indicated that microwave assisted synthesis produced well dispersed, small sized, uniform nanoparticles when compared to conventional room temperature synthesis. The spherical nanoparticle had an average size of 12.0 ± 3.2 nm as revealed through TEM. The crystalline nature of AuNP was confirmed through HR-TEM, SAED and XRD. The FT-IR and TGA data revealed the presence of the CQE components on the surface of the AuNP particles which serve as the capping agent. Upon incubation, the particles did not lyse the red blood corpuscles (RBCs) indicating that they are biocompatible. A possible mechanism for the formation of AuNP in the presence of CQE is proposed.

  9. Rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles with Cissus quadrangularis extract using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanasree, S R; Harini, D; Rajaram, Anantanarayanan; Rajaram, Rama

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) using the aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) by microwave irradiation. The UV-Visible spectroscopy of the solution obtained from reduction of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) by CQE revealed a sharp surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 530 nm confirming the presence of AuNP. The formation of AuNP was optimal at a pH of 9. The AuNP was characterised by FT-IR, SEM, HR-TEM, SAED, XRD, TGA, DLS and Zeta potential measurements. The results indicated that microwave assisted synthesis produced well dispersed, small sized, uniform nanoparticles when compared to conventional room temperature synthesis. The spherical nanoparticle had an average size of 12.0±3.2 nm as revealed through TEM. The crystalline nature of AuNP was confirmed through HR-TEM, SAED and XRD. The FT-IR and TGA data revealed the presence of the CQE components on the surface of the AuNP particles which serve as the capping agent. Upon incubation, the particles did not lyse the red blood corpuscles (RBCs) indicating that they are biocompatible. A possible mechanism for the formation of AuNP in the presence of CQE is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities

    PubMed Central

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:27304672

  11. Microwave irradiation--A green and efficient way to pretreat biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Qu, Yongshui; Yang, Yongqing; Chang, Senlin; Xu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    As a non-traditional heating way, microwave irradiation (MWI) has long been used for lignocellulose pretreatment with the advent of commercial microwave oven since the 1970s. MWI pretreatment using MWI as heating source is similar to other pretreatment methods. Although MWI pretreatment solves some problems caused by other pretreatment methods, such as low heating rate and thermal efficiency, uneven heating, it brings some new challenges such as reaction vessel selection and pretreatment process design. Over 30 years of development, researchers have achieved good pretreatment performance with MWI which has been applied gradually from laboratory scale to pilot-scale. It should be noted that MWI pretreatment is facing some problems: high cost of pretreatment, short of large-scale equipment, the non-thermal effects in pretreatment is still controversial. If MWI pretreatment reaction mechanism could be further clarified and large-scale industrialized reactor be designed, MWI pretreatment might be widely used in biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of microwave irradiation on xylanase production from wheat bran and biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Woldesenbet, Fantahun; Virk, Antar Puneet; Gupta, Naveen; Sharma, Prince

    2012-05-01

    Microwave irradiation (MWI) was used as pretreatment of wheat bran and eucalyptus kraft pulp to examine its effect on xylanase production by Bacillus halodurans FNP 135 using solid state fermentation and biobleaching with xylanase, respectively. Irradiation of wheat bran under optimized conditions (600 W, 6 min, and 20 % consistency) resulted in 56.8, and 31.7 % increase in xylanase yield and water absorbance of wheat bran and 17.3 % reduction in reducing sugars content. Optimized MWI of kraft pulp at 850 W, 2 min, and 20 % consistency led to 0.9 % increase in brightness, 10 % decrease in kappa number, 7.7 % increase in water absorbance, 4.6 % decrease in tear factor, 0.9 % increase in burst factor, and 7.5 % increase in viscosity. Also, MWI enhanced xylanase-mediated biobleaching by increasing brightness (1.1 %) and decreasing kappa number (14.3 %) and leading to a total of about 20 % reduction in chlorine consumption. MWI is an economical, efficient, and environment-friendly pretreatment of wheat bran and pulp for enhanced enzyme yield and rapid heating, respectively.

  13. Effect of microwave irradiation on cellular disintegration of Gram positive and negative cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bi Wen; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, KwangHyun; Ahn, Johng-Hwa; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-06-01

    This research investigated the effect of microwave irradiation (MWI) on cell disintegration in municipal secondary sludge (MSS). A representative MSS Gram-positive bacterium (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were pure cultured separately and treated using MWI. Compared to untreated controls, MWI significantly increased the soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) (1.8-4.0-fold), soluble protein concentration (1.1-1.8-fold), and soluble carbohydrate concentration (3.2-14.1-fold), with greater increase in the Gram-negative bacteria. After MSS was MWI-treated with different irradiation times, from 0 to 9 min, soluble COD increased gradually from 0.14 to 2.38 g/L (i.e., 72-fold). Effective disintegration of Gram-negative cell walls and of MSS by MWI was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. These findings suggest that MWI could be an effective pretreatment method for MSS that is dominated by Gram-negative microorganisms.

  14. Microwave-irradiation-assisted hybrid chemical approach for titanium dioxide nanoparticle synthesis: microbial and cytotoxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Rajendran, Bhavapriya; Avadhani, Ganesh S; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-06-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. It is used for protection against UV exposure due to its light-scattering properties and high refractive index. Though TNPs are increasingly used, the synthesis of TNPs is tedious and time consuming; therefore, in the present study, microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach was used for TNP synthesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that TNPs can be synthesized only in 2.5 h; however, the commonly used chemical approach using muffle furnace takes 5 h. The activity of TNP depends on the synthetic protocol; therefore, the present study also determined the effect of microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach synthetic protocol on microbial and cytotoxicity. The results showed that TNP has the best antibacterial activity in decreasing order from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The IC50 values of TNP for HCT116 and A549 were found to be 6.43 and 6.04 ppm, respectively. Cell death was also confirmed from trypan blue exclusion assay and membrane integrity loss was observed. Therefore, the study determines that the microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach is time-saving; hence, this technique can be upgraded from lab scale to industrial scale via pilot plant scale. Moreover, it is necessary to find the mechanism of action at the molecular level to establish the reason for greater bacterial and cytotoxicological toxicity. Graphical abstract A graphical representation of TNP synthesis.

  15. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    PubMed

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly stereoselective synthesis of (Z,E)-1-halo-1,3-dienol esters via rearrangement of Fischer chromium chloro-carbenes using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kashinath, Dhurke; Mioskowski, Charles; Falck, J R; Goli, Mohan; Meunier, Stéphane; Baati, Rachid; Wagner, Alain

    2009-05-07

    Functionalized (Z,E)-1-halo-1,3-dienol esters are synthesized in a highly stereoselective manner via CrCl2-mediated rearrangement of allylic trihalomethylcarbinol esters induced by microwave irradiation.

  17. Hydrogenolysis of lignins: influence of the pretreatment using microwave and ultrasound irradiations.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Adilson R; Schuchardt, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Hydrolytic eucalyptus lignin was converted to oils by hydrogenolysis. The lignin was obtained by acid hydrolysis of eucalyptus chips from two semi-industrial sources in Brazil: FTI and Coalbra. Hydrogenolysis was performed in an 1-L reactor using lignin/water ratio 1/4 (w/v), pH 9 (adjusted with NaOH), 0.1 g sodium formate/g lignin, 20 MPa (argon pressure) at 280 degrees C for 15 min. After reaction, the products were filtered and the solids extracted with chloroform/ethanol 3/1 (v/v). The solvent was evaporated from the organic phase and a dark oil was obtained. The solid remaining after extraction was weighed to calculate the conversion. Without pretreatment conversions were 41.3 and 47.9% for Coalbra and FTI, respectively. The oil yields were 22.7-27.6% for Coalbra and FTI, respectively. Using microwave pretreatment (30 min of irradiation at 490 W) the conversions were 41.6-50.5% and the oil yields increased slightly to 25.2-31.4%. The polymeric chains in the lignin breakdown due to the action of water near the boiling point under microwave irraditation. On the other hand, by using ultrasound (30 min at 50 degrees C in a ultrasound bath of 25 kHz and 0.8 W/cm2) the conversions were 35.2-46.9% and oil yields were 22.0-27.1%. Ultrasound favors the formation of radicals that probably caused the reticulation of lignins, decreasing the conversion and yield. Oils analyzed by infrared spectroscopy showed an increase in C=O bond intensities, compared with the original lignins.

  18. Progesterone and estradiol plasma levels in neonatally irradiated cycling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Freud, A.; Sod-Moriah, U.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Female rats which were exposed to a single low dose of gamma irradiation (6R or 15R) at the age of 8 days produce smaller litters when mature than untreated controls. The possibility that the impaired fertility resulted from altered ovarian activity as reflected by changes in plasma levels of progesterone or estardiol was investigated. Plasma levels of both steroids were determined throughout the day of proestrus. Progesterone level was also determined in 6R animals on the day of weaning. The maturity of such irradiated rats was assessed by observing the time of vaginal opening. The results indicated that the preovulatory peak of progesterone was delayed in the 6R rats whereas in the 15R group its levels were significantly lower. On the other hand no differences in estradiol plasma levels were noticed between the groups. The higher level of progesterone in the 6R animals was not evident on the day of weaning and was even in both groups, but vaginal opening in the irradiated rats was significantly delayed. The elevated level of progesterone might be responsible, among other endocrine changes, for the lower fertility of neonatally irradiated mature female rats.

  19. [Experimental data on reaction of neurons of the brain to low-intensity package-pulsing microwave irradiation].

    PubMed

    Moiseeva, N V

    1996-01-01

    In experiments on non-movement rabbits with help specially made from organic glass of micromanipulator and non-artefactions electrodes and wires study the bioelectrical activity separate neurons on moment of package-pulsing microwaves irradiation (1.5 GHz, duration of pulse-0.4 ms, frequency their recurrences 1000 Hz, duration of packs-16 ms, frequency their recurrences-0.12 Hz, energy-0.3 mW/sm2). The results of experiments are compared with control series, where is carried out false irradiation.

  20. Alkaline solubilization and microwave irradiation as a combined sludge disintegration and minimization method.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ilgin; Sanin, F Dilek

    2009-05-01

    Commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline solubilization (using NaOH) and a relatively new technology of microwave (MW) irradiation (160 degrees C) were combined as a pretreatment method of waste activated sludge (WAS) in this study. First alkaline and MW pretreatment methods were examined separately, then their combination for different conditions was investigated in terms of their effect on COD solubilization, turbidity and capillary suction time (CST). For combined pretreatments, soluble COD to total COD ratio (SCOD/TCOD) of WAS increased from 0.005 (control) to 0.18, 0.27, 0.34 and 0.37 for combined methods of MW and pH-10, 11, 12 and 12.5, respectively. Deteriorated dewaterability due to alkaline pretreatment was also improved due to the incorporation of MW irradiation. Further, with small scale batch anaerobic reactors, pH-10, pH-12, MW (alone), MW+pH-10 and MW+pH-12 pretreated WAS samples were anaerobically digested. Highest total gas and methane productions were achieved with MW+pH-12 pretreatment with 16.3% and 18.9% improvements over control reactor, respectively. Finally the performance of MW+pH-12 pretreatment was examined with 2L anaerobic semi-continuous reactors for 92 days and compared to that of the control reactors. These reactors were operated at an SRT of 15 days. After steady state, 43.5% and 55% improvements were obtained in respective daily total gas and methane productions. TS, VS and TCOD reductions were improved by 24.9%, 35.4% and 30.3%, respectively based on a relative calculation with respect to control reactors. This way combined alkaline-microwave treatment proved to be an effective sludge minimization method. Pretreated digested sludge had 22% improved dewaterability than unpretreated digested sludge. Higher SCOD and NH(3)-N concentrations were measured in the pretreated digested sludge supernatant; however, PO(4)-P concentration did not increase much.

  1. [Dependence of changes in summary bioelectric activity of the brain on low-intensity microwave irradiation from density of flow energy].

    PubMed

    Luk'ianova, S N; Makarov, V P; Rynskov, V V

    1996-01-01

    In present experimental research has found the confirmation the opinion existing in literature about absence of direct proportional dependence effects of low-intensity microwave from density of flow of energy. Work submits the analysis electroencephalograms various areas of the cortex brain of rabbits on 6 GHz microwave irradiation with energy 0.03-0.40 MW/sm2.

  2. Effectiveness of two disinfectant solutions and microwave irradiation in disinfecting complete dentures contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Karen Tereza; Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Machado, Ana Lucia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm on dentures can be aspirated, thus causing infections such as aspiration pneumonia. The authors evaluated the efficacy of two disinfectant solutions and microwave irradiation in disinfecting complete dentures contaminated with MRSA. The authors contaminated 36 simulated complete dentures with MRSA and divided them into four equal groups: a positive control group consisting of dentures that were not disinfected; a group that soaked in 1 percent sodium hypochlorite for 10 minutes; a group that soaked in 2 percent chlorhexidine gluconate for 10 minutes; and a group that underwent microwave irradiation at 650 watts for three minutes. The authors quantified colony counts and evaluated the long-term effectiveness of disinfection. All dentures from the control group showed substantial microbial growth on the plates (6.24 log(10) colony-forming units per milliliter). The authors observed no evidence of microbial growth on plates of any disinfected dentures. After seven days' incubation, the authors observed broth turbidity in all beakers containing the dentures disinfected with 1 percent sodium hypochlorite. Soaking in chlorhexidine gluconate solution and microwave irradiation resulted in complete disinfection of all dentures contaminated with MRSA in both the short and the long term. Soaking in sodium hypochlorite solution was effective only as a short-term disinfectant. Microwave irradiation and 2 percent chlorhexidine gluconate may have a disinfective application in dental offices and institutions in which denture wearers are treated, thus improving the longevity and quality of life of patients and reducing the burden of disease caused by MRSA.

  3. Microbial short-chain fatty acid production and extracellular enzymes activities during in vitro fermentation of polysaccharides from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. treated with microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie-Lun; Nie, Shao-Ping; Li, Chang; Fu, Zhi-Hong; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2013-06-26

    Effects of microwave irradiation on microbial short-chain fatty acid production and the activites of extracellular enzymes during in vitro fermentation of the polysaccharide from Plantago asiatica L. were investigated in this study. It was found that the apparent viscosity, average molecular weight, and particle size of the polysaccharide decreased after microwave irradiation. Reducing sugar amount increased with molecular weight decrease, suggesting the degradation may derive from glycosidic bond rupture. The polysaccharide surface topography was changed from large flakelike structure to smaller chips. FT-IR showed that microwave irradiation did not alter the primary functional groups in the polysaccharide. However, short-chain fatty acid productions of the polysaccharide during in vitro fermentation significantly increased after microwave irradiation. Activities of microbial extracellular enzymes xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylosidase, and glucuronidase in fermentation cultures supplemented with microwave irradiation treated polysaccharide were also generally higher than those of untreated polysaccharide. This showed that microwave irradiation could be a promising degradation method for the production of value-added polysaccharides.

  4. Extractive-transesterification of algal lipids under microwave irradiation with hexane as solvent.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William; Hernandez, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study describes the use of microwaves (MW) for enhanced extractive-transesterification of algal lipids from dry algal biomass (Chlorella sp.). Two different single-step extractive-transesterification methods under MW irradiation were evaluated: (1) with ethanol as solvent/reactant and sodium hydroxide catalyst; and (2) with ethanol as reactant and hexane as solvent (sodium hydroxide catalyst). Biodiesel (fatty-acid-ethyl-esters, FAEE) yields from these two methods were compared with the conventional Bligh and Dyer (BD) method which followed a two-step extraction-transesterification process. The maximum lipid yields for MW, MW with hexane and BD methods were 20.1%, 20.1%, and 13.9%, respectively; while the FAEE conversion of the algal lipids were 96.2%, 94.3%, and 78.1%, respectively. The algae-biomass:ethanol molar ratio of 1:250-500 and 2.0-2.5% catalyst with reaction times around 6min were determined as optimum conditions for both methods. This study confers that the single-step non-conventional methods can contribute to higher algal lipid and FAEE yields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regioselective synthesis and ab initio calculations of fused heterocycles thermally and under microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Mostafa E.; Ahmed, Ashour A.; Shaaban, Mohamed R.; Shibl, Mohamed F.; Farag, Ahmad M.

    2015-09-01

    Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, and pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole, pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazole ring systems incorporating phenylsulfonyl moiety were synthesized via the reaction of 3-(N,N-dimethylamino)-1-(thiophen-2-yl)-2-(phenylsulfonyl)prop-2-en-1-one derivatives with the appropriate aminoazoles as 1,3-binucleophiles and 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylacetonitrile using conventional methods as well as microwave irradiation. The regioselectivity of the cyclocondensation reactions was confirmed both experimentally by alternative synthesis of reaction products and theoretically using ab initio quantum chemical calculations namely the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The theoretical work was carried out using the Becke, three parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr hybrid functional (B3LYP) combined with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. It was found that the final cyclocondensation reaction product depends mainly on the initial addition to the activated double bond by the nitrogen atom of the 1,3-binucleophiles that has the higher electron density.

  6. Microwave irradiation for shortening the processing time of samples of flagellated bacteria for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Chavarría, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Microwave irradiation (MWI) has been applied to the development of rapid methods to process biological samples for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this paper we propose two simple and quick techniques for processing bacteria (Proteus mirabilis and Vibrio mimicus) for SEM using MWI. In the simplest methodology, the bacteria were placed on a cover-glass, air-dried, and submitted to conductivity stain. The reagent used for the conductivity stain was the mordant of a light microscopy staining method (10 ml of 5% carbolic acid solution, 2 g of tannic acid, and 10 ml of saturated aluminum sulfate 12-H2O). In the second method the samples were double fixed (glutaraldehyde and then osmium), submitted to conductivity stain, dehydrated through a series of ethanol solutions of increasing concentration, treated with hexamethyldisilazine (HMDS), and dried at 35 degrees C for 5 minutes. In both methods the steps from fixation to treatment with HMDS were done under MWI for 2 minutes in an ice-water bath, in order to dissipate the heat generated by the MWI. Although both techniques preserve bacterial morphology adequately, the latter, technique showed the best preservation, including the appearance of flagella, and that process was completed in less than 2 hours at temperatures of MWI between 4 to 5 degrees C.

  7. Effects of morphology on photocatalytic performance of Zinc oxide nanostructures synthesized by rapid microwave irradiation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajbafvala, Amir; Ghorbani, Hamed; Paravar, Asieh; Samberg, Joshua P.; Kajbafvala, Ehsan; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, two different chemical solution methods were used to synthesize Zinc oxide nanostructures via a simple and fast microwave assisted method. Afterwards, the photocatalytic performances of the produced ZnO powders were investigated using methylene blue (MB) photodegradation with UV lamp irradiation. The obtained ZnO nanostructures showed spherical and flower-like morphologies. The average crystallite size of the flower-like and spherical nanostructures were determined to be about 55 nm and 28 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) and UV-vis analysis were used for characterization of the synthesized ZnO powders. Using BET N2-adsorption technique, the specific surface area of the flower-like and spherical ZnO nanostructures were found to be 22.9 m2/gr and 98 m2/gr, respectively. Both morphologies show similar band gap values. Finally, our results depict that the efficiency of photocatalytic performance in the Zinc oxide nanostructures with spherical morphology is greater than that found in the flower-like Zinc oxide nanostructures as well as bulk ZnO.

  8. Fabrication of hexagonal ZnO nanorods on porous carbon matrix by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P; Vijaya, J Judith; Kennedy, L John

    2013-04-01

    The hexagonal ZnO nanorods supported activated carbon (ZSAC) was successfully prepared using zinc nitrate hexahydrate and urea through microwave irradiation. The method of preparation is simple and cost effective. The activated carbon (AC) with high surface area (446.44 m2/g), pore volume (00.21 cm3/g) and average pore diameter (01.89 nm) was employed as a matrix support for the growth of ZnO nanorods. The XRD results affirm the formation of wurtzite ZnO nanostructures. The FT-IR studies disclose the presence of varied functional groups present in ZSAC. The HR-SEM images reveal the pore morphology of AC and hexagonal shape of ZnO nanorods formed. The E(g) value obtained from Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra is about 3.43 eV. The photoluminescence emissions reveal the defects in the crystal lattice. The ZSAC thus prepared would perform substantial role in the area of catalysis.

  9. [Modification of the effects of microwave irradiation on biochemical processes by using foreign protein].

    PubMed

    Podkovkin, V G; Uglova, I B

    1998-01-01

    The biochemical data on the influence of electromagnetic fields in microwave range on the hormonal-mediator regulation systems are presented. The possibility of biological effects modification under combined action of microwave radiation and foreign protein is discussed.

  10. Environmentally friendly chemical recycling of poly(bisphenol-A carbonate) through phase transfer-catalysed alkaline hydrolysis under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsintzou, Georgia P; Antonakou, Eleni V; Achilias, Dimitris S

    2012-11-30

    The various and widespread uses of polycarbonate (PC) polymers require a meaningful and environmentally friendly disposal method. In this study, depolymerisation of polycarbonate with water in a microwave reactor is suggested as a recycling method. Hydrolysis was investigated in an alkaline (NaOH) solution using a phase-transfer catalyst. All of the experiments were carried out in a sealed microwave reactor, in which the reaction pressure, temperature and microwave power were continuously controlled and recorded. In the hydrolysis products, bisphenol-A monomer was obtained and identified by FTIR measurements. PC degradation higher than 80% can be obtained at 160°C after a microwave irradiation time of either 40 min or 10 min using either a 5 or 10% (w/v) NaOH solution, respectively. GPC, TGA and DSC measurements of the PC residues revealed that surface erosion is the degradation mechanism. First-order reaction kinetics were estimated by implementing a simple kinetic model. Finally, greater than 85% degradation was achieved when waste CDs were treated with the same method. The results confirm the importance of the microwave power technique as a promising recycling method for PC-based waste plastics, resulting in monomer recovery in addition to substantial energy savings.

  11. Zero-resistance states in Hall bars at low microwave frequency irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Iñarrea, J.

    2013-12-04

    We report on theoretical studies of recently discovered radiation-induced resistance oscillations and zero resistance states in Hall bars when the irradiation frequency is very low. In this situation the photon energy is much smaller than the spacing between the Landau levels and therefore interlevel transitions are excluded. We apply the radiation-driven electron orbit model concluding that the resistance suppression is a manifestation of “long-wavelength” resistance oscillations where only one complete oscillation is observed.

  12. Rapid preparation of expanded graphite by microwave irradiation for the extraction of triazine herbicides in milk samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengshuang; Zhao, Qi; Yan, Xu; Li, Huiyu; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Long; Zhou, Tianyu; Li, Yi; Ding, Lan

    2016-04-15

    In this study, we proposed a rapid and efficient method for the preparation of the expanded graphite (EG). The exfoliation process was accelerated by microwave irradiation, and the preparation time was greatly shortened. The obtained EG was worm-like in shape and exhibits well exfoliated structure. It was successfully applied as solid-phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent to extract and clean up the triazine herbicides in milk, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The parameters affecting the performance of extraction and LC-MS analysis were evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits of triazines are in the range of 0.03-0.12 ng mL(-1). At the spiked level (0.4 ng mL(-1)), the recoveries of triazines are in the range of 82.5±2.5% to 97.5±7.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine six triazines in six milk samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fast solid state synthesis of metal vanadates and chalcogenides using microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidhyanathan, B.; Ganguli, M.; Rao, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    Metal vanadates and chalcogenides have been prepared in rapid time scales using a domestic microwave oven. The products exhibit high phase purity and homogeneity. The thermal and spectroscopic properties of the microwave prepared metal vanadates match well with those prepared by conventional methods. The most important advantages in microwave assisted synthesis appear to be the very short time scales required for the preparation and the selectivity in energy transfer from microwave field.

  14. 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Shahin, S; Mishra, V; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, C M

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.

  15. Microwave irradiation on carbon black: Studies on the transformation of particles into nano-balls, nano-sticks and nano-onion like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asokan, Vijayshankar; Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Rajavel, Krishnamoorthy; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard

    2016-12-01

    The solid-state transformation behavior of carbon black (CB) nanoparticles after irradiated with microwave energy was studied with and without influence of a metal catalyst. The CB sample was exposed to microwave radiation at power of 900 W from the oven and collected after 15 min and after 30 min and 45 min of irradiation. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction measurements, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples prepared without catalyst shows that microwave irradiation can transform CB nanoparticles into nano-balls and nano-stick like structures. While nanoballs of almost 300-500 nm diameter are visible in all the samples irrespective of microwave irradiation time, amorphous nano-stick like structure are present only in the sample collected after 30 min of microwave irradiation. CB irradiated together with a metal catalyst resulted in metal-encapsulated onion like structures with perfectly arranged graphene layers.

  16. An approach of ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction for two coumarins preparation from Cortex fraxini.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zaizhi; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2015-10-23

    Ionic liquids/lithium salts solvent system was successfully introduced into the separation technique for the preparation of two coumarins (aesculin and aesculetin) from Cortex fraxini. Ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (ILSMP-UMSE) procedure was developed and optimized for the sufficient extraction of these two analytes. Several variables which can potentially influence the extraction yields, including pretreatment time and temperature, [C4mim]Br concentration, LiAc content, ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (UMSE) time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among seven variables, UMSE time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were the statistically significant variables and these three factors were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimal extraction conditions and find out operability ranges with maximum extraction yields. Under optimum operating conditions, ILSMP-UMSE showed higher extraction yields of two target compounds than those obtained by reference extraction solvents. Method validation studies also evidenced that ILSMP-UMSE is credible for the preparation of two coumarins from Cortex fraxini. This study is indicative of the proposed procedure that has huge application prospects for the preparation of natural products from plant materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave irradiation: synthesis and characterization of α-ketoamide and bis (α-ketoamide) derivatives via the ring opening of N-acetylisatin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The carbonyl group at position 2 of N-acetylisatin behaves as an amide which is more susceptible to nucleophilic attack via ring-opening in the presence of nucleophiles. Because of this behavior, in the present work we describe the microwave synthesis of a series of α-ketoamide and bis-(α-ketoamide) derivatives via the facile ring-opening of N-acylisatin with different amines and diamines. The microwave irradiation afforded the product in less reaction time, higher yield and purity. Reaction of N-acylisatin with methanol under microwave irradiation afforded the α-phenylglyoxyl methyl ester derivatives with excellent yields and purities. Aminolysis of the ester derivatives with piperidine and morpholine afforded the same α-ketoamide derivatives obtained from direct aminolysis of N-acylisatin. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by FT-IR, NMR, X-ray and elemental analysis. Results Reaction of N-acetylisatin and N-propoionylsatin with different amines and diamines afforded a series of α-ketoamide and bis-(α-ketoamide) derivatives respectively via the ring opening of N-acylisatins. The reaction was performed under conventional condition as well as microwave irradiation. The microwave irradiation afforded the product in less reaction time, higher yield and purity. Reaction of N-acylisatin with methanol under microwave irradiation afforded the α-phenylglyoxyl methyl ester derivatives in excellent yields and purities as observed from their spectral data. A plausible mechanism involves nucleophilic attack by methanol at C2 carbonyl carbon of N-acetylisatin and subsequent ring opening to generate the α-ketoester. Aminolysis of α-ketoester with amine afforded the same α-ketoamide which is obtained by direct aminolysis of N-acylisatin. The IR, NMR spectra, microanalyses, and single crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed the structures of the synthesized compounds. Conclusions In conclusion, we have demonstrated that microwave

  18. Microwave irradiation induced band gap tuning of MoS{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Shakya, Jyoti; Mohanty, T.

    2016-05-23

    The MoS{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites have been synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by different microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The crystallinity of these nanocomposites has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The Raman spectrum of MoS{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites consists of three distinct peaks (E{sup 1} {sub g}, E{sup 1} {sub 2g} and A{sub 1g}) which are associated with TiO{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}. The morphological study is carried out by scanning electron microscope. The effect of microwave irradiation on the band gap of MoS{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites has been investigated; it is observed that the microwave irradiation causes decrease in the band gap of MoS{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The microwave treated MoS{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} thin films offers a novel process route in treating thin films for commercial applications.

  19. The effect of gamma and microwave irradiation of wheat grain on development parameters of some stored grain pests.

    PubMed

    Warchalewski, J R; Pradzynska, A; Gralik, J; Nawrot, J

    2000-12-01

    Wheat grain was treated with different doses of gamma irradiation or different times of microwaves. Gamma rays (0.05-10 kGy) caused statistically significant differences in soluble protein contents and kernel hardness. Microwave treatment (15-180 s) resulted in some statistically significant changes in moisture and soluble protein contents. Mortality, intensity of feeding, fertility of adults, progeny number and development time of larvae of the granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius L.) on treated grain were observed. On the basis of progeny number and larval development time the coefficient of food value (CFV) was calculated. Some statistical differences were stated in studied parameters, however no one in all calculated coefficients of food values. The same treated grain was also used as a food for larvae of the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum Duv.) and Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella Zell.). Mortality of larvae and their development time were studied. Only gamma irradiated wheat grain at the dose 0.1 kGy used as a food for larvae of T. confusum Duv. caused statistically significant extension of development time by 7 days, when comparing to the control food. On the other hand, microwave treatment of wheat grain used as food significantly shorten the development time of larvae in both species.

  20. Microwave energy for post-calcination treatment of high-level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.J.; Berreth, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes generated from nuclear fuel reprocessing require treatment for effective long-term storage. Heating by microwave energy is explored in processing of two possible waste forms: (1) drying of a pelleted form of calcined waste; and (2) vitrification of calcined waste. It is shown that residence times for these processes can be greatly reduced when using microwave energy rather than conventional heating sources, without affecting product properties. Compounds in the waste and in the glass frit additives couple very well with the 2.45 GHz microwave field so that no special microwave absorbers are necessary.

  1. Development of a Backbone Cyclic Peptide Library as Potential Antiparasitic Therapeutics Using Microwave Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Qvit, Nir; Kornfeld, Opher S

    2016-01-26

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are intimately involved in almost all biological processes and are linked to many human diseases. Therefore, there is a major effort to target PPIs in basic research and in the pharmaceutical industry. Protein-protein interfaces are usually large, flat, and often lack pockets, complicating the discovery of small molecules that target such sites. Alternative targeting approaches using antibodies have limitations due to poor oral bioavailability, low cell-permeability, and production inefficiency. Using peptides to target PPI interfaces has several advantages. Peptides have higher conformational flexibility, increased selectivity, and are generally inexpensive. However, peptides have their own limitations including poor stability and inefficiency crossing cell membranes. To overcome such limitations, peptide cyclization can be performed. Cyclization has been demonstrated to improve peptide selectivity, metabolic stability, and bioavailability. However, predicting the bioactive conformation of a cyclic peptide is not trivial. To overcome this challenge, one attractive approach it to screen a focused library to screen in which all backbone cyclic peptides have the same primary sequence, but differ in parameters that influence their conformation, such as ring size and position. We describe a detailed protocol for synthesizing a library of backbone cyclic peptides targeting specific parasite PPIs. Using a rational design approach, we developed peptides derived from the scaffold protein Leishmania receptor for activated C-kinase (LACK). We hypothesized that sequences in LACK that are conserved in parasites, but not in the mammalian host homolog, may represent interaction sites for proteins that are critical for the parasites' viability. The cyclic peptides were synthesized using microwave irradiation to reduce reaction times and increase efficiency. Developing a library of backbone cyclic peptides with different ring sizes facilitates a

  2. Target detection using microwave irradiances from natural sources: A passive, local and global surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Detection of metal objects on or near the Earth's surface was investigated using existing, passive, microwave sensors operating from Earth orbit. The range equations are derived from basic microwave principles and theories and the expressions are given explicitly to estimate the signal to noise ratio for detecting metal targets operating as bistatic scatterers. Actual measurements are made on a range of metal objects observed from orbit using existing passive microwave receiving systems. The details of the measurements and the results are tabulated and discussed. The advantages of a passive microwave sensor as it is applied to surveillance of metal objects as viewed from aerial platforms or from orbit, are examined.

  3. Microwave synthesis of zeolites. 2. Effect of vessel size, precursor volume, and irradiation method.

    PubMed

    Panzarella, Bernard; Tompsett, Geoffrey A; Yngvesson, K Sigfrid; Conner, W Curtis

    2007-11-08

    The enhancement of synthesis reactions under microwave heating is dependent on many complex factors. We investigated the importance of several reaction engineering parameters relevant to microwave synthesis. Of interest to this investigation were the reaction vessel size, volume of precursor reacted, microwave power delivery, and microwave cavity design. The syntheses of NaY zeolite and beta-zeolite were carried out under a number of varying conditions to determine the influence of these parameters on the nucleation rate, the crystallization rate, and the particle size and morphology. The rates of NaY and beta-zeolite nucleation and crystallization were more rapid in the multimode CEM MARS-5 oven compared to the more uniform field CEM Discover. The faster synthesis rate in the MARS-5 may be the result of the multimode microwave electric field distribution. Slower rates of NaY and beta-zeolite formation observed in the Discover and a circular waveguide may be the result of a more uniform microwave electric field distribution. Changes in reaction vessel size and precursor volume during the microwave synthesis of beta- and NaY zeolite were found to influence the rate of zeolite formation. These results indicate that reactor geometry needs to be considered in the design of systems used for microwave synthesis. Comparative synthesis reactions were carried out with conventional heating, and microwave heating was shown to be up to over an order of magnitude faster for most of these syntheses.

  4. The formation of hollow poly(methyl methacrylate)/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite cylinders by microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Feng, Jiyun; Hu, Xijun; Ng, Ka Ming

    2009-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite particles with 1, 2 and 4 wt% of MWCNTs were prepared by mechanical grinding of PMMA and MWCNT powders in a mortar at room temperature. Both scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering characterizations revealed that these nanocomposite particles consist of a PMMA core and a MWCNT shell. The PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite particles were used to fabricate the corresponding nanocomposites in the form of a hollow cylinder with various diameters and heights under 700 W microwave irradiation within 1 min. A mechanism for the fast microwave assisted forming process is proposed. These experimental results may lead to a new technology for forming hollow polymeric articles that is different from the conventional injection and blowing process.

  5. The formation of hollow poly(methyl methacrylate)/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite cylinders by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Feng, Jiyun; Hu, Xijun; Ming Ng, Ka

    2009-03-04

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite particles with 1, 2 and 4 wt% of MWCNTs were prepared by mechanical grinding of PMMA and MWCNT powders in a mortar at room temperature. Both scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering characterizations revealed that these nanocomposite particles consist of a PMMA core and a MWCNT shell. The PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite particles were used to fabricate the corresponding nanocomposites in the form of a hollow cylinder with various diameters and heights under 700 W microwave irradiation within 1 min. A mechanism for the fast microwave assisted forming process is proposed. These experimental results may lead to a new technology for forming hollow polymeric articles that is different from the conventional injection and blowing process.

  6. Evaluation of microwave irradiation for analysis of carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, cyanogen, ethyl formate, methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, propylene oxide, and phosphine in hay.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yonglin; Mahon, Daphne

    2007-01-10

    Fumigant residues in hay were "extracted" by microwave irradiation. Hay, in gastight glass flasks, was placed in a domestic microwave oven, and fumigants were released into the headspace by microwave irradiation. Power settings for maximum release of fumigants were determined for carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS(2)), cyanogen (C(2)N(2)), ethyl formate (EF), methyl bromide (CH(3)Br), sulfuryl fluoride (SF), propylene oxide (PPO), and phosphine (PH(3)). Recoveries of fortified samples were >91% for COS, CS(2), CH(3)Br, SF, PPO, and PH(3) and >76% for C(2)N(2) and EF. Completeness of extraction was assessed from the amount of fumigant retained by the microwaved hay. This amount was determined from further microwave irradiation and was always small (<5% of the amount obtained from the initial procedure). Limits of quantification were <0.1 mg/kg for COS, CS(2), C(2)N(2), EF, and PH(3) and <0.5 mg/kg for CH(3)Br, SF, and PPO. These low limits were essentially due to the absence of interference from solvents and no necessity to inject large-volume gas samples. The microwave method is rapid and solvent-free. However, care is required in selecting the appropriate power setting. The safety implications of heating sealed flasks in microwave ovens should be noted.

  7. Changes in human EEG caused by low level modulated microwave stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hinrikus, Hiie; Parts, Maie; Lass, Jaanus; Tuulik, Viiu

    2004-09-01

    This study focuses on the effect of low level microwave radiation on human EEG alpha and theta rhythms. During the experiment, 20 healthy volunteers were exposed to a 450 MHz microwaves with 7 Hz on-off modulation. The field power density at the scalp was 0.16 mW/cm2. Signals from the following EEG channels were used: FP1, FP2, P3, P4, T3, T4, O1, and O2. The experimental protocol consisted of one cycle of short term photic and ten cycles of the repetitive microwave stimulation. The changes caused by photic as well as microwave stimulation were more regular on the alpha rhythm. In the majority of cases, photic stimulation caused changes in the EEG energy level in the occipital and microwave stimulation in the frontal region. Our experimental results demonstrated that microwave stimulation effects became apparent, starting from the third stimulation cycle. Changes varied strongly from subject to subject. Therefore, photic and microwave exposure did not cause statistically significant changes in the EEG activity level for the whole group. For some subjects, clear tendencies of changes in microwave on-off cycles were noticeable.

  8. Alkylation of 2,4-(1H,3H)-quinazolinediones with dialkyl carbonates under microwave irradiations.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Ignacio Alfredo; Guerrero, Leticia; Espinoza, Karla Alejandra; Meza, Martha Cecilia; Rodríguez, Jesús Ramón

    2009-05-20

    Alkylation is a very important chemical reaction which modifies the biological properties of drugs. Quinazolinedione derivatives are of considerable interest due to their wide array of pharmacological properties.We now report application of a practical alkylation procedure to several quinazolinediones, including pelanserine (5f), which shows antihypertensive properties, 1-methyl-3-(2'-phenylethyl)-1H,3H-quinazoline-2,4-dione (1ab) and 1-methyl-3-[2'-(4'-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-lH,3H-quinazoline-2,4-dione (1ae), which had been isolated from natural sources. The alkylation was optimized using dimethyl and diethyl carbonates under microwave irradiations.

  9. A facile synthesis of arylazonicotinates for dyeing polyester fabrics under microwave irradiation and their biological activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Al-Mousawi, Saleh M; El-Apasery, Morsy A; Mahmoud, Huda M

    2012-09-27

    A as textile dyes and the fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good washing and perspiration fastness and series of 2-hydroxy- and 2-amino-6-substituted-5-arylazonicotinate monoazo compounds 7a-e and 9a-c were prepared via condensation of 3-oxo-3-substituted-2-arylhydrazonals 2a-e with active methylene nitriles 3a-d using microwave irradiation as an energy source. These substances were then tested moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized compounds against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  10. Environmental remediation by an integrated microwave/UV illumination technique. 8. Fate of carboxylic acids, aldehydes, alkoxycarbonyl and phenolic substrates in a microwave radiation field in the presence of TiO2 particles under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Hojo, Fukuyo; Hidaka, Hisao; Serpone, Nick

    2004-04-01

    Thermal and nonthermal effects originating when a system is subjected to a microwave radiation field in the TiO2-photocatalyzed transformation of model substances containing various functional groups (e.g., benzoic acid, phthalic acid, o-formylbenzoic acid, phthalaldehyde, succinic acid, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, and phenol) have been examined under simultaneous irradiation by ultraviolet (UV) and microwave (MW) radiations. Characteristics of the microwave effects and the fate of each substrate during the microwave-assisted photocatalytic process were monitored by UV absorption spectroscopy, HPLC methods, total organic carbon assays, and identification of intermediates using electrospray mass spectral techniques. Microwave thermal and nonthermal effects were delineated by comparing results from MW-generated internal heat versus conventional external heating, and at constant ambient temperature under a microwave field. Factors involved in the nonthermal component of the microwave radiation were inferred for the initial adsorption of the substrate and its subsequent degradation occurring on the surface of TiO2 particles. Microwave effects bear on the mechanism through which a model substrate undergoes oxidative degradation. A characteristic feature of these effects was briefly examined by considering the behavior of polar (dipole moments) substrates in a microwave radiation field.

  11. Evaluation the microwave heating of spinel crystals in high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J. H.; Washington, A. L.

    2015-08-18

    In this report, the microwave heating of a crystal-free and a partially (24 wt%) trevorite-crystallized waste glass simulant were evaluated. The results show that a 500 mg piece of partially crystallized waste glass can be heated from room-temperature to above 1600 °C (as measured by infrared radiometry) within 2 minutes using a single mode, highly focused, 2.45 GHz microwave, operating at 300 W. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the partially crystallized glass experiences an 87 % reduction in trevorite following irradiation and thermal quenching. When a crystal-free analogue of the same waste glass simulant composition is exposed to the same microwave radiation it could not be heated above 450 °C regardless of the heating time.

  12. Physiological changes in rats after exposure to low levels of microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.; Behari, J. )

    1990-08-01

    The effects of exposure to sublethal levels of microwaves were studied. Young albino rats of both sexes were exposed for 60 days to 7.5-GHz microwaves (1.0-KHz square wave modulation, average power 0.6 mW/cm2) for 3 h daily. During and after microwave exposure several physiological parameters were measured in both control and exposed animals. It was found that the animals exposed to microwaves tended to eat and drink less and thus showed a smaller gain in body weight. Some of the hematological parameters and organ weights were also significantly different. It is proposed that a nonspecific stress response due to microwave exposure and mediated through the central nervous system is responsible for the observed physiological changes.

  13. Surfactant-free synthesis of metallic bismuth spheres by microwave-assisted solvothermal approach as a function of the power level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada Flores, Miriam; Santiago Jacinto, Patricia; Reza San Germán, Carmen M.; Rendón Vázquez, Luis; Borja Urby, Raúl; Cayetano Castro, Nicolás

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the synthesis of micro- and nano-sized spheres of metallic bismuth by microwave-assisted solvothermal method is reported. The synthesis method was carried out at different power levels and at a unique frequency of microwave irradiation. The sphere sizes were controlled by the microwave power level and the concentration of dissolved precursor. Structural and morphological characterization was performed by SEM, HRTEM, EELS and XRD. The results demonstrated that rhombohedral zero valent Bi spheres were synthesized after microwave radiation at 600 and 1200 W. However, if the power level is decreased to 120W, a monoclinic phase of Bi2O3 is obtained with a flake-like morphology. In comparison with a conventional hydrothermal process, the microwave-assisted solvothermal approach provides many advantages such as shorter reaction time, optimum manipulation of morphologies and provides a specific chemical phase and avoids the mixture of structural phases and morphologies which is essential for further applications such as drug delivery or functionalization with organic materials, thanks to its biocompatibility.

  14. Surfactant-free synthesis of metallic bismuth spheres by microwave-assisted solvothermal approach as a function of the power level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada Flores, Miriam; Santiago Jacinto, Patricia; Reza San Germán, Carmen M.; Rendón Vázquez, Luis; Borja Urby, Raúl; Cayetano Castro, Nicolás

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the synthesis of micro- and nano-sized spheres of metallic bismuth by microwave-assisted solvothermal method is reported. The synthesis method was carried out at different power levels and at a unique frequency of microwave irradiation. The sphere sizes were controlled by the microwave power level and the concentration of dissolved precursor. Structural and morphological characterization was performed by SEM, HRTEM, EELS and XRD. The results demonstrated that rhombohedral zero valent Bi spheres were synthesized after microwave radiation at 600 and 1200 W. However, if the power level is decreased to 120W, a monoclinic phase of Bi2O3 is obtained with a flake-like morphology. In comparison with a conventional hydrothermal process, the microwave-assisted solvothermal approach provides many advantages such as shorter reaction time, optimum manipulation of morphologies and provides a specific chemical phase and avoids the mixture of structural phases and morphologies which is essential for further applications such as drug delivery or functionalization with organic materials, thanks to its biocompatibility.

  15. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of phase controlled BiVO4 nanocrystals and research on photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui Ming; Liu, Jing Bing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Wen Xiong; Yan, Hui

    2008-05-01

    Pure tetragonal and monoclinic phases BiVO4 were prepared from aqueous Bi (NO3)3 and NaVO3 solutions by a rapid microwave-assisted method that employed accurate controlling of microwave irradiation time and power. The highly crystalline phase converted irreversibly from tetragonal to monoclinic BiVO4 with gradually elongated irradiation time gradually, which is further proved by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis and Raman measurements. These variations of phase structures led to different photocatalytic properties under visible light.

  16. Facile synthesis of lead iodide nanostructures by microwave irradiation technique and their structural, morphological, photoluminescence and dielectric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkir, Mohd.; Yahia, I. S.; AlFaify, S.; Abutalib, M. M.; Muhammad, Shabbir

    2016-04-01

    Lead iodide (PbI2) nanostructures have been synthesized by co-precipitation, hydrothermal and rapidly by microwave irradiation techniques. SEM analysis indicated the formation of well aligned nanocrystals and nanorods of average diameter between 100 nm and 400 nm. The powder X-ray diffraction and FT-Raman spectroscopic analysis confirms the formation of a 2H-PbI2 polytypic predominantly. These studies also show that there is no extra phase due to impurity in the synthesized nanostructures. The optical energy band gap of nanostructures prepared by co-precipitation, hydrothermal and microwave irradiation techniques were found to be 2.283, 2.493, 2.542 eV and 2.331. 2.350, 2.375 eV calculated from UV-Vis absorption and diffuse reflectance data, respectively, which shows a clear blue shift in the wavelength due to confinement effect. Photoluminescence spectrum was recorded at different excitation wavelengths and shows clear blue shift in the emission peak which is due to the recombination of free excitons with band to band type transition and also may be due to confinement effect. Further the dielectric studies have been performed and a good enhancement in the dielectric constant has been observed due to small size of the fabricated nanostructures in comparison to bulk material.

  17. A novel and efficient method for the immobilization of thermolysin using sodium chloride salting-in and consecutive microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Fangkai; Du, Fangchuan; Wang, Anming; Gao, Weifang; Wang, Qiuyan; Yin, Xiaopu; Xie, Tian

    2012-07-01

    Sodium chloride salting-in and microwave irradiation were combined to drive thermolysin molecules into mesoporous support to obtain efficiently immobilized enzyme. When the concentration of sodium chloride was 3 M and microwave power was 40 W, 93.2% of the enzyme was coupled to the support by 3 min, and the maximum specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 17,925.1 U mg(-1). This was a 4.5-fold increase in activity versus enzyme immobilized using conventional techniques, and a 1.6-fold increase versus free enzyme. Additionally, the thermal stability of the immobilized thermolysin was significantly improved. When incubated at 70°C, there was no reduction in activity by 3.5h, whereas free thermolysin lost most of its activity by 3h. Immobilization also protected the thermolysin against organic solvent denaturation. The microwave-assisted immobilization technique, combined with sodium chloride salting-in, could be applied to other sparsely soluble enzymes immobilization because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PROCESS INTENSIFICATION: OXIDATION OF BENZYL ALCOHOL USING A CONTINUOUS ISOTHERMAL REACTOR UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past two decades, several investigations have been carried out using microwave radiation for performing chemical transformations. These transformations have been largely performed in conventional batch reactors with limited mixing and heat transfer capabilities. The reacti...

  19. PROCESS INTENSIFICATION: OXIDATION OF BENZYL ALCOHOL USING A CONTINUOUS ISOTHERMAL REACTOR UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past two decades, several investigations have been carried out using microwave radiation for performing chemical transformations. These transformations have been largely performed in conventional batch reactors with limited mixing and heat transfer capabilities. The reacti...

  20. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (αij) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.18 to -4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.81 to -7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  1. Non-linear transport in microwave-irradiated 2D electron systems at the cyclotron resonance subharmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hung-Sheng; Hatke, Anthony; Zudov, Michael; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2009-03-01

    We study microwave photoresistivity oscillations in a high mobility two-dimensional electron system subject to strong dc electric fields. We find [1] that near the second subharmonic of the cyclotron resonance the frequency of the resistivity oscillations with dc electric field is twice the frequency of the oscillations at the cyclotron resonance, its harmonics, or in the absence of microwave radiation. This observation is discussed in terms of the microwave-induced sidebands in the density of states and the interplay between different scattering processes in the separated Landau level regime. [1] A. T. Hatke, H.-S. Chiang, M. A. Zudov, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. accepted for publication.

  2. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  3. Electromagnetically induced transparency in the four-level system driven by bichromatic microwave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Sun, Ke-jia; Zhang, Su-heng; Feng, Xiao-min

    2014-11-01

    We present a theoretical study on the nonlinear behaviors of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance subject to two microwave driving fields in a four-level atom system. The probe absorption spectrum is obtained by solving numerically the relevant equations of density matrix. It is shown that there are two pairs of the EIT windows in the probe absorption spectrum. The two pairs of EIT windows have symmetry with respect to the resonance frequency of the probe field, and the separation is equal to the Rabi frequency of the resonant microwave driving field. But in each pair, the splitting of two EIT windows is dominated to the strength of detuning microwave driving field.

  4. Mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect on nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hinrikus, Hiie; Bachmann, Maie; Karai, Denis; Lass, Jaanus

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the mechanism of the effect of low-level modulated microwave radiation on brain bioelectrical oscillations. The proposed model of excitation by low-level microwave radiation bases on the influence of water polarization on hydrogen bonding forces between water molecules, caused by this the enhancement of diffusion and consequences on neurotransmitters transit time and neuron resting potential. Modulated microwave radiation causes periodic alteration of the neurophysiologic parameters and parametric excitation of brain bioelectric oscillations. The experiments to detect logical outcome of the mechanism on physiological level were carried out on 15 human volunteers. The 450-MHz microwave radiation modulated at 7, 40 and 1000 Hz frequencies was applied at the field power density of 0.16 mW/cm(2). A relative change in the EEG power with and without radiation during 10 cycles was used as a quantitative measure. Experimental data demonstrated that modulated at 40 Hz microwave radiation enhanced EEG power in EEG alpha and beta frequency bands. No significant alterations were detected at 7 and 1000 Hz modulation frequencies. These results are in good agreement with the theory of parametric excitation of the brain bioelectric oscillations caused by the periodic alteration of neurophysiologic parameters and support the proposed mechanism. The proposed theoretical framework has been shown to predict the results of experimental study. The suggested mechanism, free of the restrictions related to field strength or time constant, is the first one providing explanation of low-level microwave radiation effects.

  5. Preparation of Ru Nanoparticles Supported on Al2O3 by Using Conventional Microwave Oven: Effect of Irradiation Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rini, Ari Sulistyo; Radiman, Shahidan; Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar

    2011-12-01

    Ru nanoparticles supported Al2O3 with uniform particle size have been synthesized by using conventional microwave oven in three different powers. RuCl3.nH2O, ethylene glycol, polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) were used as metal precursor, solvent and stabilizing agent, respectively. Beside irradiation power, effect of PVP and preparation route were also studied in this paper. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis, XRD, Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), and TEM. The XRD pattern of Ru/Al2O3 catalysts did not show noticeable difference among each other. The powders were then analyzed further by SAXS technique. TEM image confirmed the nanosized (about 2 nm in average) of colloidal and supported ruthenium that obtained in all irradiation power. Ruthenium nanoparticles were also uniformly distributed over the support. The surface fractal distribution of ruthenium nanoparticles was examined by using SAXS. The irradiation power and the addition of PVP are strongly correlated with the surface fractal distribution of the nanoparticle.

  6. Synergetic pretreatment of sewage sludge by microwave irradiation in presence of H2O2 for enhanced anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Prorot, Audrey; Marin, Juan; Droste, Ronald L; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2008-11-01

    A microwave-enhanced advanced hydrogen peroxide oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was studied in order to investigate the synergetic effects of MW irradiation on H(2)O(2) treated waste activated sludges (WAS) in terms of mineralization (permanent stabilization), sludge disintegration/solubilization, and subsequent anaerobic biodegradation as well as dewaterability after digestion. Thickened WAS sample pretreated with 1gH(2)O(2)/g total solids (TS) lost 11-34% of its TS, total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total biopolymers (humic acids, proteins and sugars) via advanced oxidation. In a temperature range of 60-120 degrees C, elevated MW temperatures (>80 degrees C) further increased the decomposition of H(2)O(2) into OH* radicals and enhanced both oxidation of COD and solubilization of particulate COD (>0.45 micron) of WAS indicating that a synergetic effect was observed when both H(2)O(2) and MW treatments were combined. However, at all temperatures tested, MW/H(2)O(2) treated samples had lower first-order mesophilic (33+/-2 degrees C) biodegradation rate constants and ultimate (after 32 days of digestion) methane yields (mL per gram sample) compared to control and MW irradiated WAS samples, indicating that synergistically (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) generated soluble organics were slower to biodegrade or more refractory than those generated during MW irradiation.

  7. Comparison of the effects of microwave irradiation with different intensities on the biodegradability of sludge from the dairy- and meat-industry.

    PubMed

    Beszédes, Sándor; László, Zsuzsanna; Horváth, Zsuzsanna H; Szabó, Gábor; Hodúr, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation is a relatively new possibility of conditioning and pretreating for wastewater sludge. Following its application in the telecommunications and food-industries, the environmental use of this technique has come into the limelight in recent years, and has become increasingly popular. Various publications have dealt with the examination of the effects of MW irradiation in municipal sludge-handling processes. We focused on the effects of MW irradiation at different power levels on solubilization (sCOD/tCOD), biodegradation and anaerobic digestion of sludge from the food-industry. For evaluating the efficiency of MW pre-treatment, the changes in the soluble fraction of the organic matter, the VS/TS ratio, the biogas yield, the methane content in the biogas, and the rate of batch mesophilic digestion were used as control parameters. Additionally, the energetic efficiency of MW pre-treatment was also examined. The results were compared with those of conventional heat (CH) treatments of the same sludge. The MW treatment proved to increase both the sCOD/tCOD and the VS/TS ratio. Furthermore, the biogas and methane yields increased during the digestion of the MW-pretreated food-industry sludge. A higher MW power level generally enhanced the biogas and methane production. Energetically, the most economic pre-treatment of sludge from dairy and meat processing was at a power level of 1.5 Wg(-1) and 2.5 Wg(-1) MW respectively; the surplus energy content of the enhanced biogas product could not compensate the extra energy demand of the stronger MW pre-treatments.

  8. Microwave irradiation and cold exposure. Final report, 18 July 1984-17 July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.

    1988-08-17

    A pilot study investigated the consequences of chronic exposure (40 h/wk) to 2450-MHz CW microwaves, or sham exposure, in a cold (18 C) environment on the thermoregulatory responses, both behavioral and physiological, of squirrel monkeys. Four animals exposed to microwaves at 20 mW/cm/sup 2/ exhibited responses that indicated slight amelioration of the mild cold stress while four sham-exposed animals sustained no thermoregulatory deficits. Although the sample size was too small to yield statistically reliable data, general trends in the results support the view that exposure to microwaves of moderate intensity in the work environment is benign in terms of long-term effects on thermoregulatory processes.

  9. Measurement of evaporation rates of different kind of aqueous solutions under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Unak, Turan; Ekim, Selen; Sarican, Gözde; Cetin, Cigdem; Unak, Gülcan

    2012-01-01

    The evaporation rate of water is, of course, different under the same heating conditions of different aqueous solutions. Under conventional heating conditions, the evaporation rate of water is much higher than the evaporation rate of water of aqueous solutions of different kinds of solute materials, which is well accordance with the classical Raoult's law. The results obtained in this study have clearly shown that the chemical characteristics of dissolved materials in water very seriously affect the evaporation rates of water under the microwave heating. This generally causes contradictory results to Raoult's law and this can be explained with the additional microwave energy absorption by the ionic or molecular solute materials found in the solutions other than the microwave energy absorption by water molecules themselves.

  10. Rapid and efficient functionalized ionic liquid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions associated with microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang; Liu, Jing; Leng, Wenguang; Gao, Yanan

    2014-01-17

    Five quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) and two tetrabutylphosphonium ILs were prepared and characterized. An environmentally benign and convenient functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system was thus explored in the aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes with acetone. The aldol reactions proceeded more efficiently through microwave-assisted heating than through conventional thermal heating. The yield of products obtained under microwave heating for 30 min was approximately 90%, and the ILs can be recovered and reused at least five times without apparent loss of activity. In addition, this catalytic system can be successfully extended to the Henry reactions.

  11. Rapid and Efficient Functionalized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions Associated with Microwave Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang; Liu, Jing; Leng, Wenguang; Gao, Yanan

    2014-01-01

    Five quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) and two tetrabutylphosphonium ILs were prepared and characterized. An environmentally benign and convenient functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system was thus explored in the aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes with acetone. The aldol reactions proceeded more efficiently through microwave-assisted heating than through conventional thermal heating. The yield of products obtained under microwave heating for 30 min was approximately 90%, and the ILs can be recovered and reused at least five times without apparent loss of activity. In addition, this catalytic system can be successfully extended to the Henry reactions. PMID:24445262

  12. Effect of low-level laser irradiating point on immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, ChangSong; Qi, Qiong-fang; Xin, Jiang

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports that cellular immune function was observed when He-Ne laser was used to irradiate `zusanli' point in rats using various power, time, and periods. The indicator was a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) by MTT colorimetric analysis. The best irradiating condition was determined, the effect and both virtues and defects of the laser were compared with those of electropuncture. The results show (1) LTT was enhanced in the group of laser irradiating point, but LTT was not enhanced in non-point (t' test, P < 0.01). (2) Lower power -- 2 mW or 5 mW of irradiating for 15 - 20 min, was better; 10 mW or 20 mW of irradiating for 10 - 15 min was suitable. Prolonged irradiating time did not enhance the immune function of the rats. On the contrary, immune function was inhibited. (3) A 7-day period of irradiating was best (once a day, 10 mW for 10 min). Enhanced LTT was not seen when irradiation days were added (SNK, P > 0.05). (4) Laser irradiation point and electropuncture were compared with vehicle control, LTT in the former two groups was enhanced significantly (ANOVA, P < 0.01), and laser irradiating point and electropuncture had the same effect (SNK, P > 0.05). The data suggest that laser irradiating point was able to enhance cell immunity and the enhancement of LTT had a point specific characteristic. The best condition of laser irradiating point was 2 mW for 15 - 20 min, and 10 mW or 20 mW for 10 - 15 min. The best period was 7-day irradiation. The results show laser irradiating the point may activate the main and collateral channels system, then modify the immune function of the body. Our observations provide experimental evidence for proper clinical application of laser irradiating points. The paper theoretically discusses and analyzes the experiment results in detail.

  13. EFFECT OF POLY (ETHYLENE GLYCOL) ON THE FORMATION OF NANOSTRUCTURES: A FACILE SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANORODS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bulk synthesis of silver nanorods employing poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) under microwave irradiation is reported. The formation of nanorods or particulate morphology is dependent on the PEG concentration. This greener method uses no surfactants or reducing agents and employs a b...

  14. EFFECT OF POLY (ETHYLENE GLYCOL) ON THE FORMATION OF NANOSTRUCTURES: A FACILE SUSTAINABLE APPROACH FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANORODS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bulk synthesis of silver nanorods employing poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) under microwave irradiation is reported. The formation of nanorods or particulate morphology is dependent on the PEG concentration. This greener method uses no surfactants or reducing agents and employs a b...

  15. Microwave absorption by magnetite: a possible mechanism for coupling nonthermal levels of radiation to biological systems.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, J L

    1996-01-01

    The presence of trace amounts of biogenic magnetite (Fe3O4) in animal and human tissues and the observation that ferromagnetic particles are ubiquitous in laboratory materials (including tissue culture media) provide a physical mechanism through which microwave radiation might produce or appear to produce biological effects. Magnetite is an excellent absorber of microwave radiation at frequencies between 0.5 and 10.0 GHz through the process of ferromagnetic resonance, where the magnetic vector of the incident field causes precession of Bohr magnetons around the internal demagnetizing field of the crystal. Energy absorbed by this process is first transduced into acoustic vibrations at the microwave carrier frequency within the crystal lattice via the magnetoacoustic effect; then, the energy should be dissipated in cellular structures in close proximity to the magnetite crystals. Several possible methods for testing this hypothesis experimentally are discussed. Studies of microwave dosimetry at the cellular level should consider effects of biogenic magnetite.

  16. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sandoval, C.E.; Connors, M.P.; Sheridan, T.J.; Sexton, F.W.; Slayton, E.M.; Heise, J.A.; Foster, C.

    1994-09-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10{sup 10} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-{mu}m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2} [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)].

  17. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R. )

    1994-12-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10[sup 10] to 2 [times] 10[sup 14] protons/cm[sup 2]. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10[sup [minus]5] errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-[mu]m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10[sup 14] protons/cm[sup 2] [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad (GaAs)].

  18. Effects of microwave (2.45 GHz) irradiation on some biological characters of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Kaouther; Daghfous, Douraid; Landoulsi, Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of sub-lethal doses of microwave radiation on some biological characteristics in Salmonella typhimurium. The aim was to show the relationship between this treatment and the development of radiotolerance in this pathogen because there is a need for more information on physiological responses of pathogens to sub-lethal doses of microwave radiation. So, the bacterial strain was treated with a dose of 3600J (40-s exposure with power P=90 W) to cause cellular damage. The results have shown that the exposure of bacteria to microwaves resulted in a significant inhibition of cellular growth. This treatment has notably increased the effectiveness of the most tested antibiotics by the amelioration or the appearance of sensitivity in exposed bacteria. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis was performed to demonstrate the modification of the fatty acids (FA) composition. Results obtained have shown that this treatment had a significant effect on the FA content with an increase of unsaturated FA percentage. The acquisition of sensitivity to the sodium deoxycholate and the significant increase in the amount of extracellular proteins in exposed bacteria has confirmed the weakening of the bacterial membrane by microwaves. This study represents one of the few demonstrating the modifications on the bacterial membrane as a cellular response to survive the non-ionising radiation stress.

  19. BULK SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANORODS IN POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted (MW), surfactantless, greener approach to bulk synthesis of silver nanorods employing poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) is described. An aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO-3,- 0.1 M, 4 mL) and 4 mL of PEG (molecular weight 300) were mixed at room temperature t...

  20. Rapid conversion of sorbitol to isosorbide in hydrophobic ionic liquids under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Murata, Kengo; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Okagawa, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kaiso, Kouji; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    Sorbitol was effectively converted to isosorbide by treatment with [TMPA][NTf2 ] in the presence of catalytic amounts of TsOH under microwave heating at 180 °C. The reaction completed within 10 min and isosorbide was isolated to about 60%. Ionic liquids were readily recovered by an extraction treatment and reused several times.

  1. GREENER ORGANIC SYNTHESES UNDER NON-TRADITIONAL CONDITIONS USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND IRRADIATION AND MECHANOCHEMICAL MIXING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent-free mechanochemical methods that involve the use of hypervalent iodine reagents at room temperature are described for the synthesis of heterocyclic entities and conversion of ketones into -keto sulfones in high yields. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW...

  2. MICROWAVE IRRADIATION IN BENIGN SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLES, NOBLE NANOMETALS AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief historic account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds [1] from in situ generated reacti...

  3. MICROWAVE IRRADIATION IN BENIGN SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC MOLECULES, NOBLE NANOMETALS AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief historic account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds [1] from in situ generated reacti...

  4. SOLVENT-FREE REDUCTION OF AROMATIC NITRO COMPOUNDS WITH ALUMINA-SUPPORTED HYDRAZINE UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a solvent-free microwave-expedited process, aromatic nitro compounds are readily reduced to the corresponding amino compounds in good yield with hydrazine hydrate supported on alumina in presence of FeCl3, 6H2), Fe(III) oxide hydroxide or Fe(III) oxides.

  5. MICROWAVE IRRADIATION IN BENIGN SYNTHESIS OF ORGANIC MOLECULES, NOBLE NANOMETALS AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief historic account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds [1] from in situ generated reacti...

  6. MICROWAVE IRRADIATION IN BENIGN SYNTHESIS OF HETEROCYCLES, NOBLE NANOMETALS AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A brief historic account of reactions involving microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants or catalyzed by mineral support surfaces, such as alumina, silica, clay, or their ‘doped’ versions, for the rapid one-pot assembly of heterocyclic compounds [1] from in situ generated reacti...

  7. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  8. Expeditious synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using Vitamin B12 under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A greener synthesis protocol for noble nanometals is developed using vitamin B12 as a reducing and capping agent in conjunction with the use of microwaves. Successful assembly of nanoparticles or microparticles with varied shapes and sizes have been demonstrated. The synthesized ...

  9. BULK SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANORODS IN POLY(ETHYLENE GLYCOL) USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-assisted (MW), surfactantless, greener approach to bulk synthesis of silver nanorods employing poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) is described. An aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO-3,- 0.1 M, 4 mL) and 4 mL of PEG (molecular weight 300) were mixed at room temperature t...

  10. Microwave-Irradiation-Assisted HVAC Filtration for Inactivation of Viral Aerosols (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    thermal effect. In addition, Betti (2004) reported a non-thermal effect of microwaves against plants and viruses at a sublethal temperature, and Wu and...Staphylococcus aureus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 39: 13–16. EPA (1984). USEPA Manual Methods for Virology , US Environmental Protection Agency

  11. ‘Greener’ Chemical Syntheses Using Mechanochemical Mixing or Microwave and Ultrasound Irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various emerging ‘greener’ strategic pathways researched primarily in the author’s own laboratory are summarized. They include solvent-free mechanochemical methods and microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and recyclabl...

  12. ‘Greener’ Chemical Syntheses Using Mechanochemical Mixing or Microwave and Ultrasound Irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various emerging ‘greener’ strategic pathways researched primarily in the author’s own laboratory are summarized. They include solvent-free mechanochemical methods and microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of less-expensive and recyclabl...

  13. GREENER ORGANIC SYNTHESES UNDER NON-TRADITIONAL CONDITIONS USING MICROWAVE AND ULTRASOUND IRRADIATION AND MECHANOCHEMICAL MIXING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent-free mechanochemical methods that involve the use of hypervalent iodine reagents at room temperature are described for the synthesis of heterocyclic entities and conversion of ketones into -keto sulfones in high yields. A solvent-free approach that involves microwave (MW...

  14. Assessment of cochlear damage after microwave irradiation. Final report, 30 September 1985-17 February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bohne, B.A.; Gruner, M.M.; Bassen, H.I.

    1988-02-26

    The objective of this project was to determine whether or not excessive exposure to microwaves results in permanent damage to the inner ear. A group of 15 chinchillas was exposed for one hour to pulsed microwaves (1250 MHz) of 20 usec duration and 0.1-Hz repetition rate and an average power of 1 Watt. The specific absorption rate of various measurement sites in the head ranged from 2-8 Wkg. The exposures were done at the WRAIR Microwave Laboratory, Washington, D.C. Seven animals were sham-exposed for one hour using the same apparatus and sedation. For the sham exposures, the microwave equipment was powered but no radiation was delivered. The cochleas from 20 control chinchillas of the same age range as the animals in the study were available for comparison purposes. The controls had spent their entire lives in sound-treated animal quarters at Washington University in St. Louis, MO. The cochleas from all animals were processed for histological evaluation as plastic-embedded flat preparations. Some animals were processed less than 24 hour after their exposures; the rest were processed after a month or more of recovery. In each cochlea, the following quantitative data were obtained: the extent and pattern of degeneration in the sensory-cell populations; the number of missing pillar cells; the extent and location of degeneration of the stria vascularis and of the myelinated nerve fibers in the osseous spiral lamina.

  15. SOLVENT-FREE REDUCTION OF AROMATIC NITRO COMPOUNDS WITH ALUMINA-SUPPORTED HYDRAZINE UNDER MICROWAVE IRRADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a solvent-free microwave-expedited process, aromatic nitro compounds are readily reduced to the corresponding amino compounds in good yield with hydrazine hydrate supported on alumina in presence of FeCl3, 6H2), Fe(III) oxide hydroxide or Fe(III) oxides.

  16. On the acid-base properties of microwave irradiated hydrotalcite-like compounds containing Zn2+ and Mn2+.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Alvaro; Lima, Enrique

    2009-04-09

    Microwave irradiated lamellar double hydroxides containing different divalent metals (Mn2+, Zn2+, or Mg2+) were prepared with Al3+ as the trivalent metal. Samples containing Mn2+ and Zn2+ were unstable at 400 degrees C, leading to formation of mixed oxides and spinel phases. Acid-base properties of the samples were characterized by nitromethane and CO2 adsorption followed by FTIR spectroscopy. Decomposition of adsorbed nitromethane leads to isocyanate species that acts as probe molecules of acid-base sites at the surface. These properties determine the ability of materials to retain CO2. Indeed, whereas Mn-O sites are able to interact directly with CO2 molecules, Mg-O and Zn-O are able to form carbonate species as a result of the CO2 sorption.

  17. A Novel Method for Preparation of Gold NanoBipyramids Using Microwave Irradiation and Its Application in Immunosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Trong Phat; Ngo, Vo Ke Thanh; Nguyen, Dang Giang; Nguyen, Hoang Phuong Uyen; Nghiem, Quoc Dat; Lam, Quang Vinh; Huynh, Thanh Dat

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanobipyramids (NBPs) have attracted attention for producing smart sensing devices as diagnostic tools in biotechnological and medical applications, because they show more advantageous plasmonic properties than comparable gold nanorods. Normally, NBPs were synthesized using seed-mediated growth process at room temperature. In this report, our group describes a method for synthesising of NBPs using microwave irradiation with ascorbic acid reduction and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide + silver nitrate (AgNO3) as capping agents. The advantages of this method are a highly effective approach to fast and uniform NBPs. The product was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction. As an application in quartz crystal microbalance immunosensors, NBPs is conjugated with the chloramphenicol antibodies for signal amplification to detect chloramphenicol residuals in the QCM system.

  18. Physi-chemical and sorption properties of biochars prepared from peanut shell using thermal pyrolysis and microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Gang; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Fangyuan; Dong, Xudong; Zhou, Dandan; Liang, Ni; Wu, Min; Pan, Bo; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2017-08-01

    Microwave irradiation (MW) is an effective technique in heating and pyrolysis. This study compared the properties of peanut shell-biochars produced using MW and muffle furnace (FN). At the same pyrolysis temperature, MW biochars preserved more biomass (as indicated by their higher yields and higher abundance of functional groups) and possessed larger surface areas due to the high abundance of micropores. MW biochars generally exhibited higher adsorption of carbamazepine (CBZ) and bisphenol A (BPA) than FN biochars. However, their surface area-normalized sorption was lower, suggesting that the inner pores may not be fully available to CBZ and BPA sorption. We observed significant free radical signals in both types of biochars. Although CBZ and BPA did not degrade in the biochar sorption systems, the potential role of stronger free radical signals in MW biochars for organic contaminant control may not be overlooked in studies with other chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the in situ bulk polymerization of PMMA containing graphene sheets using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Aldosari, Mohammad A; Othman, Ali A; Alsharaeh, Edreese H

    2013-03-11

    Polymethylmethacrylate-graphene (PMMA/RGO) nanocomposites were prepared via in situ bulk polymerization using two different preparation techniques. In the first approach, a mixture of graphite oxide (GO) and methylmethacrylate monomers (MMA) were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator. After the addition of the reducing agent hydrazine hydrate (HH), the product was reduced via microwave irradiation (MWI) to obtain R-(GO-PMMA) composites. In the second approach, a mixture of graphite sheets (RGO) and MMA monomers were polymerized using a bulk polymerization method with a free radical initiator to obtain RGO-(PMMA) composites. The composites were characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and Raman spectroscopy and XRD, SEM, TEM, TGA and DSC. The results indicate that the composite obtained using the first approach, which involved MWI, had a better morphology and dispersion with enhanced thermal stability compared with the composites prepared without MWI.

  20. The novel and economical way to synthesize CuS nanomaterial of different morphologies by aqueous medium employing microwaves irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafees, Muhammad; Ali, Salamat; Rasheed, Khalid; Idrees, Saima

    2012-06-01

    CuS nano/submicro materials with different morphologies were synthesized with spherical, tubular, leaf-like and strip type structures in a simple aqueous system under microwave irradiation and sunlight and employing Cu (CH3COO)2, CuSO4·5H2O, CuCl2, and as copper source and H2NCSNH2, Na2S2O3·5H2O and CH3CSNH2 as sulfur sources. The starting materials were used without assistance of any surfactant or template. An X-ray powder diffraction pattern confirms that the product was CuS with hexagonal phase. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphologies of the product. Different Phase transitions in CuS with respect to temperature are studied by DSC/TGA. The dependence of morphologies of product on different experimental conditions was also discussed.

  1. Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoflakes prepared by one step microwave irradiation technique: Effect of Cu concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandare, S. P.; Dhole, S. D.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dahiwale, S. S.

    2016-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoflakes were synthesized in one step by microwave irradiation method. Controlling the secondary phases in Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS) material is critical, but it is necessary to control secondary phases in order to achieve the high efficiency solar cells made from CZTS. In the recent years, CZTS has shown its growing importance in thin film photovoltaic application because of its favorable optical and electrical properties. In this work, a systematic study has been carried out by properly controlling the copper concentration to get the pure phase of CZTS. X-ray diffraction shows the CZTS kesterite structure. Optical band gap estimated from UV-Visible spectroscopy was around 1.37eV. Systematic Raman study reveals the suppression of Cu2S peak with variation in copper concentration which otherwise was not clear from XRD and UV-visible data.

  2. TL/OSL properties of beta irradiated Al2O3 Nanophosphor synthesized by microwave combustion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Satyanarayana; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Chauhan, Naveen; Singh, Fouran

    2017-05-01

    Stable α-phase of Al2O3 is synthesized by combustion method usingtemperature controlled microwave oven. Crystalline phase is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD)and average crystallite size is found to be 75 nm. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve of Al2O3 is studied in UV, blue and open (visible) windows after beta irradiation. A prominent TL glow with peak at 472 K along with shoulders at 416 and 513 K are observed in all three windows. These peaks may be ascribed to F, F2 and F+- centers. Highest TL intensity isobserved inopen window. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) studies in UV and blue windows shows highest intensityin UV window. TL/OSL of phosphor shows linearresponse with beta dose upto 6.16 Gy.TL/OSL properties viz fading,repeatabilityand MDDare studied. TL kinetic parameters are estimated by deconvolution with computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) techniques.

  3. A new approach to difficult Fischer synthesis: the use of zinc chloride catalyst in triethylene glycol under controlled microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lipińska, Teodozja M; Czarnocki, Stefan J

    2006-02-02

    [reaction: see text]. Application of triethylene glycol with catalytic quantity of zinc chloride (ZnCl2/TEG) is described as a new and efficient reaction medium for a difficult Fischer synthesis, leading to sensitive indoles. Transformation of the 3-acetyl-1-methylthiocycloalka[c]pyridine phenylhydrazones and p-methoxyphenylhydrazones into the 2-(2-pyridyl)indoles and 5-methoxy-2-(2-pyridyl)indoles, which are the synthons in our total synthesis of the sempervirine-type alkaloids, is carried out under controlled microwave irradiation in dry zinc chloride solution (0.16 M) in TEG. This protocol produces indoles from acetophenone or cyclohexanone via their phenylhydrazones in excellent yields.

  4. Rapid photocatalytic destruction of pentachlorophenol in F-Si-comodified TiO(2) suspensions under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaogui; Fu, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Gao, Zhanqi

    2009-01-30

    A novel photocatalysis material, F-Si-comodified TiO(2) (FST) powder, was synthesized by ultrasound-assisted hydrolysis. The prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, respectively. XRD analysis indicated that the phase of FST was pure anatase and Si atoms suppressed the growth of titania crystalline, XPS spectra showed that FST was composed of Ti, O, Si and F element, the band gap energy of FST calculated according to the spectrum of UV-vis absorption was 3.26 eV. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the spin-trap reagent has been applied to detect free radical intermediates generated from FST. ESR results showed the concentration of the active species (OH) on FST is higher than those on F-doping TiO(2) (FT), Si-modifying TiO(2) (ST) and P25 titania. The degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the microwave-assisted photocatalysis (MAPC) process was faster than other processes including microwave-assisted direct photolysis (MADP), microwave process alone (MP) and dark process (DP). The photocatalytic activity of FST is much higher than that of ST, FT and P25 titania. It may be attributed to its strong capacity of absorption to the UV-vis irradiation and more hydroxyl radical on surface of FST. In MPAC process, 40 mg L(-1) PCP was completely degraded in 20 min and its corresponding mineralization efficiency was 71%, the pH of solutions decreased from 10.3 to 6.47 and the dechlorination was completed in 12 min. The intermediates products of PCP in MAPC process identified by GC/MS were trichlorophenols (TCP), tetrachlorophenols (TTCP) and tetrachlorocatechol (TTCC) and the possible mechanism of PCP degradation is proposed.

  5. Effects of cytoplasm and reactant polarities on acid-catalyzed lipid transesterification in wet microalgal cells subjected to microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Cheng, Jun; Qiu, Yi; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    The polarities of the cytoplasm and reactants were measured through dielectric spectroscopy, contact angle test, NMR, and FTIR to investigate the mechanisms underlying acid-catalyzed lipid transesterification in wet microalgal cells subjected to microwave irradiation. Organics with apolar functional groups in the cytoplasm decreased the contact angle of methanol against triglyceride by 13.92°, which subsequently increased transesterification efficiency by 2.4 times. The microalgal biomass, given its higher hydrophilicity index of 1.96 than lipids, was more accessible to hydrophilic alcohols, which subsequently promoted transesterification. Water in the cytoplasm promoted the dielectric constant of methanol and increased the contact angle of methanol against triglyceride by 20.51°, which subsequently decreased transesterification efficiency by 72.6%. The inhibitory effect of water on transesterification weakened with the prolonged carbon lengths of the alcohols because of decreased polarity. Microwave decreased the electric constants of alcohols and reduced the polarity difference between alcohols and lipids, thereby improving transesterification efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of starch-poly-glutamic acid graft copolymers by microwave irradiation and the characterization of their properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyuan; Krietemeyer, Elizabeth F; Finkenstadt, Victoria L; Solaiman, Daniel; Ashby, Richard D; Garcia, Rafael A

    2016-04-20

    Graft copolymers of waxy maize starch and poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) were produced in an aqueous solution using microwave irradiation. The microwave reaction conditions were optimized with regard to temperature and pH. The temperature of 180°C and pH7.0 were the best reaction conditions resulting in a PGA graft of 0.45% based on nitrogen analysis. The average graft content and graft efficiency for the starch-PGA graft copolymer prepared at 180°C and pH7.0 were 4.20% and 2.73%, respectively. The starch-PGA graft copolymer produced at 180°C and pH7.0 could absorb more than 20 times its own weight amount of water and form a gel. The preliminary rheology study revealed that the starch-PGA graft copolymer gel exhibited viscoelastic solid behavior while the control sample of waxy starch showed viscoelastic liquid behavior.

  7. Improvement in gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors using microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Kwang-Won; Cho, Won-Ju

    2014-11-24

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) post-deposition-annealing (PDA) treatment on the gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) and compared the results with a conventional thermal annealing PDA treatment. The MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs exhibited enhanced electrical performance as well as improved long-term stability with increasing microwave power. The positive turn-on voltage shift (ΔV{sub ON}) as a function of stress time with positive bias and varying temperature was precisely modeled on a stretched-exponential equation, suggesting that charge trapping is a dominant mechanism in the instability of MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs. The characteristic trapping time and average effective barrier height for electron transport indicate that the MWI-PDA treatment effectively reduces the defects in a-IGZO TFTs, resulting in a superior resistance against gate bias stress.

  8. Developing an on-line derivatization of FAs by microwave irradiation coupled to HPLC separation with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Bélgica; Chávez, Gerson; Piña, Nolberto; Ysambertt, Fredy; Márquez, Nelson; Cáceres, Ana

    2004-12-15

    The development of analytical methods for routine simultaneous identification and quantification of carboxylic fatty acids (CFAs) are required in different fields, such as, pharmaceutical cosmetics, food products and formulations of water-microemulsion-oil systems. Determination of CFAs has been developed mainly by gas chromatography (GC). As an alternative to GC, liquid chromatography (LC) has better sensitivity and selectivity. However, most CFAs show no useful absorption in ultraviolet-violet (UV-Vis) region, one of the more used detection technique in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order to allow the use of UV-Vis detection, the use of pre-column derivatization has been reported to increase sensitivity and selectivity. Therefore, establishment of a simpler and faster on-line method with complete separation is needed for the screening of large numbers of samples. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH.), benzoil chloride (BC), and phenylhydrazine (PH) were used for derivatization of different FAs by microwaves radiation (MW). After the on-line derivatization, products were separated and quantified by HPLC. Reactor coil was placed inside of microwaves oven at 450W. Parameters as flow, amount of reagents, irradiation time, and chromatographic conditions were optimized. The continuous analysis using the MW-HPLC-UV system provided high sensitivity and reduced both the amount of reagent used and the analysis times. This proposed method can be used for the routine analysis of FAs contained in water-microemulsion-oil systems, to quantify the total acid fraction in each phase.

  9. Chelant-induced reclamation of indium from the spent liquid crystal display panels with the aid of microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rahman, Ismail M M; Egawa, Yuji; Sawai, Hikaru; Begum, Zinnat A; Maki, Teruya; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2013-06-15

    Indium is a rare metal that is mostly consumed as indium tin oxide (ITO) in the fabrication process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The spent LCD panels, termed as LCD-waste hereafter, is an increasing contributor of electronic waste burden worldwide and can be an impending secondary source of indium. The present work reports a new technique for the reclamation of indium from the unground LCD-waste using aminopolycarboxylate chelants (APCs) as the solvent in a hyperbaric environment and at a high-temperature. Microwave irradiation was used to create the desired system conditions, and a substantial abstraction of indium (≥80%) from the LCD-waste with the APCs (EDTA or NTA) was attained in the acidic pH region (up to pH 5) at the temperature of ≥120 °C and the pressure of ~50 bar. The unique point of the reported process is the almost quantitative recovery of indium from the LCD-waste that ensured via the combination of the reaction facilitatory effect of microwave exposure and the metal extraction capability of APCs. A method for the selective isolation of indium from the extractant solution and recycle of the chelant in solution is also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Highly efficient, quick and green synthesis of biarlys with chitosan supported catalyst using microwave irradiation in the absence of solvent.

    PubMed

    Baran, Talat; Açıksöz, Eda; Menteş, Ayfer

    2016-05-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a quick reaction that had high activity with a small amount of catalyst, which could be an eco-friendly alternative technique for the synthesis of biarlys in Suzuki coupling reactions. First, a novel chitosan Schiff base supported Pd(II) catalyst was synthesized, and its structure was illuminated with FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TG/DTG, SEM/EDAX, XRD, ICP-OES, UV-vis, magnetic moment, and molar conductivity techniques. Subsequently, the catalytic activity of the catalyst was tested in Suzuki C-C reactions under microwave irradiation using a solvent-free reaction condition. The catalytic tests showed an excellent activity with a small load of the catalyst (0.02 mol%) in 4 min. The catalyst showed seven runs without loss of activity, and high values of turnover numbers (TON) and turnover frequency (TOF) were obtained. The novel biopolymer supported Pd(II) catalyst provided much faster reaction times, higher yields, and reusability under microwave heating compared to classic heating methods.

  11. Desilication of ZSM-5 zeolites for mesoporosity development using microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Zubair; Jun, Jong Won; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Microwaves have beneficial effects on desilication of zeolites. • Produced mesopores with microwaves have narrow pore-size distribution. • Advantages and disadvantages of various desilicating agents were also reported. - Abstract: Mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite was obtained by desilication in alkaline solutions with microwave (MW) and conventional electric (CE) heating under hydrothermal conditions. Both methods were effective in the production of mesoporous zeolites; however, MW was more efficient than CE as it led to well-defined mesopores with relatively small sizes and a narrow size distribution within a short treatment time. Moreover, the mesoporous ZSM-5 obtained through this method was effective in producing less bulky products from an acid-catalyzed reaction, specifically the butylation of phenol. Finally, various bases were found to have advantages and disadvantages in desilication. NaOH was the most reactive; however, macroporosity could develop easily under a severe condition. Ammonia water was weakly reactive; however, it could be used to precisely control the pore architecture, and no ion exchange is needed for acid catalysis. Organic amines such as ethylenediamine can also be used in desilication.

  12. The Enhancing Effect of Microwave Irradiation and Ultrasonic Wave on the Recovery of Zinc Sulfide Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun; Zhang, Libo; Lv, Chao; Li, Shiwei; Peng, Jinhui; Ma, Aiyuan; Chen, Weiheng; Xie, Feng

    2017-07-01

    A novel process for the treatment of zinc sulfide ores is discussed in this paper, which consists of two procedures: microwave roasting pretreatment and synergistic chelation. What's more, the reaction mechanism also has been studied. By comparing XRD patterns before and after roasting, it can be concluded that microwave truly alleviates the reaction energy, and adding Na2O2 avoids the emission of SO2. % recovery of zinc can reaches 72.47 % on conditions of adding Na2O2 25 %, microwave activating temperature 500 °C, holding time 10 min, leaching temperature 40 °C, ultrasonic wave power 1,800 W, leaching time 4.5 h and solid to liquid ratio 10:1 in ammonium chloride solution whose total ammonium concentrate is 7.5 mol/L (c(NH3)T=7.5 mol/L). The molar ratio of NH4Cl and NH3·H2O is 1:1 (c(NH4Cl): c(NH3·H2O)=1:1). The effect of ultrasonic wave power in this process is to shorten reaction time.

  13. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p < 0.05). There was a intensity peak at about 10 m from the station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p < 0.05), but the inside or outside of glass-window appears almost no change (p > 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  14. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied. PMID:25705676

  15. Estimation of radiofrequency power leakage from microwave ovens for dosimetric assessment at nonionizing radiation exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  16. Irradiation creep in austenitic and ferritic steels irradiated in a tailored neutron spectrum to induce fusion reactor levels of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Grossbeck, M.L.; Gibson, L.T.; Jitsukawa, S.

    1996-04-01

    Six austenitic stainless steels and two ferritic alloys were irradiated sequentially in two research reactors where the neutron spectrum was tailored to produce a He production rate typical of a fusion device. Irradiation began in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor where an atomic displacement level of 7.4 dpa was achieved and was then transferred to the High Flux Isotope Reactor for the remainder of the irradiation to a total displacement level of 19 dpa. Temperatures of 60 and 330{degree}C are reported on. At 330{degree}C irradiation creep was found to be linear in stress and fluence with rates in the range of 1.7 - 5.5 x 10{sup -4}% MPa{sup -1} dpa{sup -1}. Annealed and cold-worked materials exhibited similar creep rates. There is some indication that austenitic alloys with TiC or TiO precipitates had a slightly higher irradiation creep rate than those without. The ferritic alloys HT-9 and Fe-16Cr had irradiatoin creep rates about 0.5 x 10{sup -4}% MPa{sup -1} dpa{sup -1}. No meaningful data could be obtained from the tubes irradiated at 60{degree}C because of damage to the tubes.

  17. Study of deep level characteristics in the neutrons irradiated Si structures by combining pulsed and steady-state spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubas, E.; Kalendra, V.; Ceponis, T.; Uleckas, A.; Tekorius, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Velicka, A.

    2012-11-01

    The standard methods, such as capacitance deep level transient spectroscopy (C-DLTS) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) techniques are unsuitable for the analysis of heavily irradiated devices. In this work, therefore, several steady-state and pulsed techniques have been combined to comprehensively evaluate parameters of radiation defects and functional characteristics of the irradiated Si pin detectors. In order to understand defects created by radiation and evaluate their evolution with fluence, C-DLTS and TSC techniques have been employed to make a baseline identification of the radiation induced traps after irradiation with a rather small neutron fluence of 1012 cm-2. The steady-state photo-ionization spectroscopy (PIS) technique has been involved to correlate thermal- and photo- activation energies for definite radiation defects. A contactless technique for simultaneous measurements of the carrier lifetime and the parameters of deep levels based on microwave probed pulsed photo-conductivity (MW-PC) spectroscopy has been applied to correlate carrier capture cross-sections and densities of the identified different radiation defects. A technique for spectroscopy of deep levels in junction structures (BELIV) based on measurements of barrier capacitance charging current transient changes due to additional spectrally resolved pulsed illumination has been applied to evaluate the functional characteristics of the irradiated diodes. Pulsed spectroscopic measurements were implemented by combining the analysis of generation current and of barrier capacitance charging transients modified by a single fs pulse of illumination generated by an optical parametric oscillator of varied wavelength in the range from 0.5 to 10 μm. Several deep levels with activation energy in the range of 0.18-0.8 eV have been resolved from spectral analysis in the samples of Si grown by magnetic field applied Czochralski (MCz) technology.

  18. Hydrophilic and blue fluorescent N-doped carbon dots from tartaric acid and various alkylol amines under microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghan; Xu, Shusheng; Yang, Zhi; Shu, Mengjun; He, Guili; Huang, Da; Zhang, Liling; Li, Li; Cui, Daxiang; Zhang, Yafei

    2015-09-01

    The desired control of particle size, doping element composition, and surface structure of carbon dots (CDs) are vital for understanding the fluorescence mechanism and exploring their potential applications. Herein, nitrogen-doped CDs (N-doped CDs) have been synthesized with tartaric acid and various alkylol amines (monoethanolamine, biethanolamine and triethanolamine) under microwave irradiation. A systematic investigation was performed to characterize the N-doped CDs. It is found that with increasing nitrogen proportion, the fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of N-doped CDs increases, whereas cell toxicity decreases. In other words, N-doped CDs synthesized by tartaric acid and monoethanolamine have the highest nitrogen content, the highest fluorescent quantum yield, the longest lifetime and the lowest cell toxicity. A corresponding mechanism has been proposed. Moreover, as-synthesized N-doped CDs have been applied for selectively detecting the Fe3+ ion and writing letters as a fluorescent ink.The desired control of particle size, doping element composition, and surface structure of carbon dots (CDs) are vital for understanding the fluorescence mechanism and exploring their potential applications. Herein, nitrogen-doped CDs (N-doped CDs) have been synthesized with tartaric acid and various alkylol amines (monoethanolamine, biethanolamine and triethanolamine) under microwave irradiation. A systematic investigation was performed to characterize the N-doped CDs. It is found that with increasing nitrogen proportion, the fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of N-doped CDs increases, whereas cell toxicity decreases. In other words, N-doped CDs synthesized by tartaric acid and monoethanolamine have the highest nitrogen content, the highest fluorescent quantum yield, the longest lifetime and the lowest cell toxicity. A corresponding mechanism has been proposed. Moreover, as-synthesized N-doped CDs have been applied for selectively detecting the Fe3+ ion and writing

  19. Thawing of foods in a microwave oven: I. Effect of power levels and power cycling.

    PubMed

    Chamchong, M; Datta, A K

    1999-01-01

    Microwave thawing is faster than other methods, but it can produce significant non-uniformity of heating. The objective of this study was to perform comprehensive experimentation and heat transfer modeling to relate the time to thaw and the non-uniformity of thawing to power cycling, power level and the surface heat transfer coefficient. The governing energy equation was formulated with an exponential decay of the microwave flux from the surface. Surface microwave flux was obtained from the measured temperature rise using inverse heat transfer analysis. Gradual phase change was formulated as an apparent specific heat, and was obtained for the experimental material tylose from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The temperatures were measured immediately following heating with a fast response thermocouple. Dielectric properties were measured above freezing. Results show that the microwave flux at the surface and its decay are affected by the changes in the power level. Power cycling has an almost identical effect as continuous power at the reduced level of the average cycled power. As power level increases, the surface flux increases by the same fraction. At higher power levels, however, the outside thaws relatively faster. A "shield" develops due to a much reduced microwave penetration depth at the surface. This thawing time at higher power levels is reduced considerably. Temperature increases initially are non-uniform since the surface is heated at a faster rate than the interior. In keeping with the assumption that once the temperature reaches 100 degrees C, all energy absorbed goes into evaporation, and subsequent temperature is maintained at 100 degrees C. Thus, eventually, non-uniformity starts to decrease.

  20. Microwave cytotoxicity: lack of in vitro evidence of nonthermal effects at high power levels

    SciTech Connect

    Sapareto, S.A.; Li, G.C.; White, K.A.; Hahn, G.M.; Vaguine, V.A.; Giebeler, R.H.; Tanabe, E.

    1982-01-01

    A unique cylindrical microwave cavity chamber for the exposure of mammalian cells was designed and built. The cavity was used to determine whether or not microwaves (896 or 434-460 MHz) are capable of affecting cellular survival via nonthermal mechanisms other than those resulting from equivalent thermal exposures. Chinese hamster ovary (HA-1) cells or radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) mouse cells were grown directly on gold-plated copper disks to assure optimum heat dissipation and accurate thermal dosimetry. The temperature was controlled precisely (+/-0.1/sup o/C and was measured continuously during microwave exposures. Microwave power levels of 135 W/cm/sup 3/ of absorbed power maintained for 30 min caused no discernible decrease in cellular survival of proliferating cells compared to that measured in appropriate heat controls over a temperature range of 12 to 46/sup o/C. In addition, RIF mouse cells were exposed similarly in Hanks' balanaced salt solution (HBSS). Again, no additional decrease in survival beyond that due to heating was observed for microwave exposure in full medium; however, a significant decrease in survival was noted when cells were treated in HBSS which was at pH 6.9-7.2. This phenomenon may have implications in tumors with significant portions of the population at low pH or with low nutrient concentrations. Since these absorbed power levels are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that will be necessary to hear and maintain tumors at hyperthermic treatment temperatures for cancer therapy, these results suggest that cellular destruction in proliferating cells can be predicted by the heat effect and that any microwave-specific nonthermal effects encountered in vivo will likely be due to problems of thermal dosimetry of physiological factors related to this mode of heat distribution.

  1. Cranial irradiation regulates CREB-BDNF signaling and variant BDNF transcript levels in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Son, Yeonghoon; Yang, Miyoung; Kang, Sohi; Lee, Sueun; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Juhwan; Park, Seri; Kim, Joong-Sun; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Shin, Taekyun; Kim, Sung-Ho; Wang, Hongbing; Moon, Changjong

    2015-05-01

    The brain can be exposed to ionizing radiation in various ways, and such irradiation can trigger adverse effects, particularly on learning and memory. However, the precise mechanisms of cognitive impairments induced by cranial irradiation remain unknown. In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays roles in neurogenesis, neuronal survival, neuronal differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. The significance of BDNF transcript variants in these contexts is becoming clearer. In the present study, both object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning task performance in adult C57BL/6 mice were assessed 1 month after a single exposure to cranial irradiation (10 Gy) to evaluate hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction following such irradiation. Furthermore, changes in the levels of BDNF, the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, and BDNF transcript variants were measured in the hippocampus 1 month after cranial irradiation. On object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning tasks, mice evaluated 1 month after irradiation exhibited significant memory deficits compared to sham-irradiated controls, but no apparent change was evident in locomotor activity. Both phosphorylated CREB and BDNF protein levels were significantly downregulated after irradiation of the hippocampus. Moreover, the levels of mRNAs encoding common BDNF transcripts, and exons IIC, III, IV, VII, VIII, and IXA, were significantly downregulated after irradiation. The reductions in CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression induced by differential regulation of BDNF hippocampal exon transcripts may be associated with the memory deficits evident in mice after cranial irradiation.

  2. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (P<0.05), obviously by e-beam irradiation compared to gamma-ray and X-ray (P<0.05). The redness of pork sausages was increased by gamma-ray irradiation, whereas it decreased by e-beam irradiation depending on absorbed dose level. No significant changes in overall acceptability were observed for pork sausages regardless of irradiation source (P>0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Lipid oxidation of samples was accelerated by irradiation depending on irradiation sources and dose levels during storage at 30 °C. E-beam reduced total aerobic bacteria of beef patties more effectively, while gamma-ray considerably decreased microbes in pork sausages as irradiation dose increased. The results of this study indicate that quality attributes of meat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  3. Preparation of Pd supported on La(Sr)-Mn-O Perovskite by microwave Irradiation Method and Its Catalytic Performances for the Methane Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Yuan, Fulong; Niu, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a series of palladium supported on the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3.15 perovskite catalysts (Pd/LSM-x) with different Pd loading were prepared by microwave irradiation processing plus incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by XRD, TEM, H2-TPR and XPS. These catalysts were evaluated on the lean CH4 combustion. The results show that the Pd/LSM-x samples prepared by microwave irradiation processing possess relative higher surface areas than LSM catalyst. The addition of Pd to the LSM leads to the increase in the oxygen vacancy content and the enhancement in the mobility of lattice oxygen which play an important role on the methane combustion. The Pd/LSM-3 catalysts with 4.2wt% Pd loading exhibited the best performance for CH4 combustion that temperature for 10% and 90% of CH4 conversion is 315 and 520 °C.

  4. Preparation of Pd supported on La(Sr)-Mn-O Perovskite by microwave Irradiation Method and Its Catalytic Performances for the Methane Combustion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yuan, Fulong; Niu, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-01-19

    In this work, a series of palladium supported on the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3.15 perovskite catalysts (Pd/LSM-x) with different Pd loading were prepared by microwave irradiation processing plus incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by XRD, TEM, H2-TPR and XPS. These catalysts were evaluated on the lean CH4 combustion. The results show that the Pd/LSM-x samples prepared by microwave irradiation processing possess relative higher surface areas than LSM catalyst. The addition of Pd to the LSM leads to the increase in the oxygen vacancy content and the enhancement in the mobility of lattice oxygen which play an important role on the methane combustion. The Pd/LSM-3 catalysts with 4.2wt% Pd loading exhibited the best performance for CH4 combustion that temperature for 10% and 90% of CH4 conversion is 315 and 520 °C.

  5. Preparation of Pd supported on La(Sr)-Mn-O Perovskite by microwave Irradiation Method and Its Catalytic Performances for the Methane Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Yuan, Fulong; Niu, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a series of palladium supported on the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3.15 perovskite catalysts (Pd/LSM-x) with different Pd loading were prepared by microwave irradiation processing plus incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized by XRD, TEM, H2-TPR and XPS. These catalysts were evaluated on the lean CH4 combustion. The results show that the Pd/LSM-x samples prepared by microwave irradiation processing possess relative higher surface areas than LSM catalyst. The addition of Pd to the LSM leads to the increase in the oxygen vacancy content and the enhancement in the mobility of lattice oxygen which play an important role on the methane combustion. The Pd/LSM-3 catalysts with 4.2wt% Pd loading exhibited the best performance for CH4 combustion that temperature for 10% and 90% of CH4 conversion is 315 and 520 °C. PMID:26781628

  6. Fast transmethylation of total lipids in dried blood by microwave irradiation and its application to a population study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu Hong; Hanson, Jennifer A; Strandjord, Sarah E; Salem, Nicholas M; Dretsch, Michael N; Haub, Mark D; Hibbeln, Joseph R

    2014-08-01

    A methodology combining finger-pricked blood sampling, microwave accelerated fatty acid assay, fast gas chromatography data acquisition, and automated data processing was developed, evaluated and applied to a population study. Finger-pricked blood was collected on filter paper previously impregnated with 0.05 mg of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene and air-dried at room temperature. Transmethylation was accelerated by microwave irradiation in an explosion-proof multimode microwave reaction system. The chemical procedure was based on a one-step direct transmethylation procedure catalyzed by acetyl chloride. The short-term stability of PUFA in blood dried on filter paper and storage at room temperature was examined using venous blood. The recoveries ranged from 97 to 101 % for the categorized fatty acids as well as the ratios of n-6 to n-3 PUFA and the n-3 % highly unsaturated fatty acid. Specifically, recoveries were 99, 98, 97, and 97 % for linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (ARA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), respectively. The mol% (mean ± SD, 95 % confidence interval) of fatty acid composition in subjects from the population study was determined as 36.2 ± 3.8 (35.8, 36.7), 23.2 ± 3.0 (22.8, 23.5), 36.8 ± 3.5 (36.4, 37.2) and 3.79 ± 1.0 (3.68, 3.91) for the saturated, monounsaturated, n-6 and n-3 PUFA, respectively. Individually, the mean mol% (95 % CI) was 22.6 (22.3, 22.9) for 18:2n-6, 9.5 (9.3, 9.7) for ARA, 0.51 (0.49, 0.53) for ALA, 0.42 (0.38, 0.47) for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and 1.67 (1.61, 1.73) for DHA. This methodology provides an accelerated yet high-efficiency, chemically safe, and temperature-controlled transmethylation, with diverse laboratory applications including population studies.

  7. High-peak-irradiance microwave-powered UV lamps for processing of coatings, inks, and adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    The number and variety of applications for UV curable inks, coatings, and adhesives continue to expand at a rapid pace, and pose new design challenges to increase cure efficiency, speed, and the physical properties of the cured polymer film. The latest developments in microwave powered lamps for industrial processing are presented. Among these are: (1) the selection and control of the lamp emission spectra to match the optical properties of the film and its photoinitiator, (2) sustained high power lamp operation at 6 kilowatts, and (3) the use of absorptive dichroic reflectors to mange the relative components of UV and infrared energy in the highly focused radiation delivered to surfaces being processed. The design considerations of high powered UV lamps and dichroic reflectors for them are presented.

  8. Pyrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch biomass pellets using multimode microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-12-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch pellets were subjected to pyrolysis in a multimode microwave (MW) system (1 kW and 2.45 GHz frequency) with and without the MW absorber, activated carbon. The ratio of biomass to MW absorber not only affected the temperature profiles of the EFB but also pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas. The highest bio-oil yield of about 21 wt.% was obtained with 25% MW absorber. The bio-oil consisted of phenolic compounds of about 60-70 area% as detected by GC-MS and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Ball lightning (plasma arc) occurred due to residual palm oil in the EFB biomass without using an MW absorber. The bio-char can be utilized as potential alternative fuel because of its heating value (25 MJ/kg). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microwave irradiation assisted, one pot synthesis of simple and complex metal oxide nanoparticles: a general approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate a standard approach for the growth of binary/ternary metal oxide nanostructures within 5 min at a low temperature (<100 °C) by using metal acetylacetonates as the starting precursor material and microwave as the source of energy in the presence/absence of a surfactant. Nanoparticles of some functionally advanced binary/ternary metal oxides (MnO2, Fe2O3, NiO, CdO, Ga2O3, Gd2O3, ZnFe2O4, ZnMn2O4) are synthesized and the structure/microstructure is analyzed to ensure the phase and crystallinity. This synthesis procedure can be extended to the large scale production of many other simple and complex metal oxides.

  10. Synthesis and application of DNA-CdS nanowires within a minute using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Subrata; Lee, Hyungoo; Liang, Hong

    2009-01-05

    A very fast, electroless, microwave method is described to synthesize electrically conductive CdS nanowires on DNA just within 60 s. The electrical characterization indicates that the CdS wires are continuous, have very low contact resistance, and exhibit Ohmic behavior. Highly selective deposition on DNA is obtained by specific complexation between the Cd(II) ion and DNA, followed by decomposition of thioacetamide to S(2-) to form CdS. The nanowires are found to have a diameter of 140-170 nm and a length of approximately 8-12 microm. The one-step process developed here does not perturb the overall conformation of the DNA chain. The nanowires we fabricated can be used as building blocks for functional nanodevices, tiny computers, sensors, and optoelectronics.

  11. SOLVENT-FREE CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION. 32ND ACS CENTRAL REGIONAL MEETING, MAY 16-19, 2000, ABSTRACTS & PROGRAM, NORTHERN KENTUCKY CONVENTION CENTER, COVINGTON, KY. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, 1999, P. 121.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-expedited solvent-free synthetic processes will be described that involve the exposure of neat reactants to microwave (MW) irradiation in the presence of supported reagents or catalysts on minineral oxides. Recent developments will be presented on the synthetic utility...

  12. Efficient degassing of dissolved oxygen in aqueous media by microwave irradiation and the effect of microwaves on a reaction catalyzed by Wilkinson's catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Shohei; Sakamoto, Shintaro; Serpone, Nick

    2014-04-01

    To the extent that some reactions are oxygen-sensitive, we herein examined the degassing of dissolved oxygen in water and in 2-propanol solvent by microwave heating with regard to the effects of the microwave frequency (2.45 GHz versus 915 MHz), and with regard to when samples are subjected to electric-field-rich and magnetic-field rich 2.45-GHz microwaves. Changes in the quantity of dissolved oxygen were ascertained by monitoring its concentration in such solvents when exposed to microwave and conventional heating using a polarographic technique and by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. The specific microwave (non-thermal) effect played a role in the degassing process on comparing results between microwave heating and conventional heating under identical temperature conditions. The 915-MHz microwaves were more effective, at least at 60 °C, owing to their greater penetration into the solutions. No significant differences were found when degassing was carried out on exposing the water sample to 2.45-GHz microwaves with the sample located within the waveguide at positions rich in either the electric field or the magnetic field (T=80 °C). Conversion of cyclohexanone to cyclohexanol via hydrogen transfer in the presence of Wilkinson's catalyst and 2-propanol solvent (hydrogen source) was also investigated to assess the effect(s) that microwaves might have on this oxygen-sensitive reaction with respect to product yields in contrast to conventional heating by the oil-bath method.

  13. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of a library of bioactive dispiro-oxindolo/acenaphthoquino andrographolides via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Abhijit; Bharitkar, Yogesh P; Chakraborty, Debanjana; Mondal, Susanta Kumar; Singal, Nupur; Mondal, Shyamal; Maity, Arindam; Paira, Rupankar; Banerjee, Sukdeb; Mondal, Nirup B

    2013-01-14

    Dispiro-pyrrolidino/pyrrolizidino fused oxindoles/acenaphthoquinones have been derived from andrographolide via azomethine ylide cycloaddition to the conjugated double-bond under microwave (MW) irradiation. The reactions are chemo-, stereo-, and regioselective in nature. Change in amino acid from sarcosine/N-benzyl glycine to l-proline changes the regiochemistry. A representative library of 40 compounds along with in vitro anticancer evaluation is reported.

  14. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  15. Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive Cu and N-Codoped AC/TiO2 Photocatalyst Through Microwave Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ye, Bang-Ce; Liu, Dandan

    2016-12-01

    N-Cu-activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique through microwave irradiation to modify the visible-light response of TiO2. Their structure, surface chemical composition, and optical absorption properties were characterized. The results showed that the codoped particles had a higher surface area and smaller particle size than pure AC/TiO2 and monodoped AC/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N-Cu-AC/TiO2 showed that Cu atoms replaced Ti atom sites, whereas N atoms occupied the O atom sites and interstitial sites in the TiO2 lattice, which changed the electric and band-gap structures of the photocatalyst. N or Cu monodoping of AC/TiO2 reduced the energy band gap of TiO2 from 2.86 eV to 2.81 or 2.61 eV, respectively. In (N, Cu)-codoped AC/TiO2, N and Cu were incorporated into the TiO2 framework and narrowed the band gap of TiO2 to 2.47 eV, causing a large red shift and enhancing visible-light utilization efficiency. Photocatalytic activities were further examined by formaldehyde degradation under visible-light irradiation. N-Cu-AC/TiO2 was found to have the highest activity (ca. 94.4 % formaldehyde degradation efficiency) and to be easily recyclable. These results show an important and innovative method of improving AC/TiO2 activity by modifying the nonmetallic and metallic species.

  16. Synthesis of Visible-Light-Responsive Cu and N-Codoped AC/TiO2 Photocatalyst Through Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fei; Wu, Zhansheng; Yan, Yujun; Ye, Bang-Ce; Liu, Dandan

    2016-06-01

    N-Cu-activated carbon (AC)/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique through microwave irradiation to modify the visible-light response of TiO2. Their structure, surface chemical composition, and optical absorption properties were characterized. The results showed that the codoped particles had a higher surface area and smaller particle size than pure AC/TiO2 and monodoped AC/TiO2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of N-Cu-AC/TiO2 showed that Cu atoms replaced Ti atom sites, whereas N atoms occupied the O atom sites and interstitial sites in the TiO2 lattice, which changed the electric and band-gap structures of the photocatalyst. N or Cu monodoping of AC/TiO2 reduced the energy band gap of TiO2 from 2.86 eV to 2.81 or 2.61 eV, respectively. In (N, Cu)-codoped AC/TiO2, N and Cu were incorporated into the TiO2 framework and narrowed the band gap of TiO2 to 2.47 eV, causing a large red shift and enhancing visible-light utilization efficiency. Photocatalytic activities were further examined by formaldehyde degradation under visible-light irradiation. N-Cu-AC/TiO2 was found to have the highest activity (ca. 94.4 % formaldehyde degradation efficiency) and to be easily recyclable. These results show an important and innovative method of improving AC/TiO2 activity by modifying the nonmetallic and metallic species.

  17. Sustained molecular oxygen activation by solid iron doped silicon carbide under microwave irradiation: Mechanism and application to norfloxacin degradation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Chen, Jing; Hou, Huijie; Pan, Hong; Ma, Xiaoxue; Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Linling; Crittenden, John C

    2017-09-11

    Sustained molecular oxygen activation by iron doped silicon carbide (Fe/SiC) was investigated under microwave (MW) irradiation. The catalytic performance of Fe/SiC for norfloxacin (NOR) degradation was also studied. Rapid mineralization in neutral solution was observed with a pseudo-first-order rate constant of 0.2239 min(-1) under 540 W of MW irradiation for 20 min. Increasing Fe/SiC rod and MW power significantly enhanced the degradation and mineralization rate with higher yield of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fe shell corrosion and subsequent Fe(0/II) oxidation by molecular oxygen with MW activation was the key factor for NOR degradation through two-electron-transfer by Fe(0) under acidic conditions and single-electron-transfer by Fe(II) under neutral-alkaline solution. Removal rate of NOR was significantly affected by solution pH, showing higher degradation rates at both acidic and alkaline conditions. The highest removal efficiencies and rates at alkaline pH values were ascribed to the contribution of bound Fe(II) species on the Fe shell surface due to the hydroxylation of Fe/SiC. ·OH was the main oxidizing specie for NOR degradation, confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and radical scavenger tests. DFT calculations were conducted on the reaction/activation energies of the transition/final states of NOR/degradation products, combined with intermediate identification with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-quadruple mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS), the piperazinyl ring was the most reactive site for ·OH attack, followed by further ring-opening and stepwise oxidation. In this study, Fe/SiC were proved to be an excellent catalyst for the treatment of fluoroquinolone antibiotics with MW activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Thermocompensatory reactions of rabbits in response to microwave irradiation at different environmental temperatures].

    PubMed

    Kolganova, O I; Zhavronkov, L P; Petin, V G; Drozd, A I; Glushakova, V S; Panferova, T A

    2001-01-01

    Thermogenic effectiveness of electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of UHF range (7 GHz) in the dependence on intensity (10-100 mW/cm2) and environmental temperature was studied in experiments with rabbits. Synergistic interaction of EMI and high ambient temperature was established. The existence of optimal EMI and high ambient temperature was established. The existence of optimal EMI intensity at which the synergy was maximal was shown. It is concluded that this interaction should be taken into account for hygienic standardization of nonionizing EMI.

  19. Preserving effects of melatonin on the levels of glutathione and malondialdehyde in rats exposed to irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, O; Comoğlu, S; Yardimci, S; Akmansu, M; Bozkurt, G; Sürücü, S

    2008-03-01

    In this study we investigated whether pretreatment with melatonin was protective against the injury of the central nervous system (CNS) in rats receiving LD(50) whole body irradiation. The wistar rats were randomized into four groups: i) the control group (CG), ii) melatonin-administered group (MG; 1 mg/kg body weight), iii) irradiated group (RG; 6.75 Gy, one dose), and iv) melatonin-administered and irradiated group (MRG). Blood samples were drawn from the rats 24 h after the treatment and plasma glutathione levels were assayed. Plasma glutathione level was significantly higher in RG than CG. The melatonin pretreatment prevented GSH increase induced by irradiation. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels of rat cerebral cortex were determined in all groups after 24 h. Cortical malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly higher in the RG. The melatonin pretreatment prevented cortical MDA increase induced by irradiation. Cortical GSH was significantly lower in RG than the CG. The melatonin pretreatment prevented cortical GSH decrease induced by irradiation. Tissue samples were obtained from cerebral cortex and hypothalamus which also were affected by ionizing irradiation in the CNS and were evaluated with electron microscopy. Histopathological findings showed that LD(50) whole body irradiation resulted in damage of the neuronal cells of CNS. The results obtained from this study demonstrated that pretreatment with melatonin prevented the damage that develops in CNS following irradiation. The beneficial effect of melatonin can be related to protection of the CNS from oxidative injury and preventing the decrease in the level of cortical glutathione.

  20. The Influence of Chronic Exposure to Low Level Pulsed Microwave Radiation on Performance and Cognitive Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-15

    response having defint .’e survival value for the animal (reinforced, low rate bar pressing) was markedly retarded, in comparison both with the...Foremost would be the need to handle a large number of animals in virtually identical fashion so that statistically adequate control and experimental...rat be irradiated independently, that is free of interaction with its neighbors, that the irradiation levels be stable for all animals in a group and

  1. Phase Transformation of VO2 Nanoparticles Assisted by Microwave Heating

    PubMed Central

    Sikong, Lek.

    2014-01-01

    The microwave assisted synthesis nowadays attracts a great deal of attention. Monoclinic phase VO2 (M) was prepared from NH4VO3 and H2C2O4 · 2H2O by a rapid microwave assisted technique. The synthesis parameters, microwave irradiation time, microwave power, and calcinations temperature were systematically varied and their influences on the structure and morphology were evaluated. The microwave power level has been carried out in range 180–600 W. TEM analysis demonstrated nanosized samples. The structural and morphological properties were measured using XRD, TEM, and thermal analyses. The variations of vanadium phase led to thermochromic properties. PMID:24688438

  2. Interaction of irradiation and microwave-induced hyperthermia in the Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma model

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, C.F.; Seibert, G.B.; Block, N.L.

    1988-10-01

    The interaction of radiation and hyperthermia was systematically studied in the Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma, the preeminent animal model for human prostatic cancer. Subcutaneous tumors (produced by injection of 10(7) cells) were treated when they had reached a volume of about 1 cm3, which occurred about 3 weeks after implantation. With the use of a randomized complete factorial design, four factors were examined. Each agent was used at one of three dose levels. For radiation, these were 5, 15, and 25 Gy; for hyperthermia, 42 degrees C for 15 minutes, 43 degrees C for 30 minutes, and 44 degrees C for 60 minutes. Two sequences (hyperthermia plus irradiation and irradiation plus hyperthermia) and five time delays between agents (0, 12, 24, 48, and 120 hours) were used. The growth delay (the time it took for the initial tumor volume to double) of subcutaneously implanted tumor served to quantitate treatment effect. Significant (P less than .05) statistical interactions were observed for several combinations of factors and individual factors. Hyperthermia plus irradiation was more effective than irradiation plus hyperthermia except at the delay time between treatments of 0 hours. Peak growth delay occurred when the time between treatments was 0-24 hours and depended on agent doses. Many combinations produced therapeutic synergy.

  3. Novel synthesis of holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) by microwave irradiation method for anode in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharaeh, Edreese; Ahmed, Faheem; Aldawsari, Yazeed; Khasawneh, Majdi; Abuhimd, Hatem; Alshahrani, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    In this work, holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) was synthesized by the deposition of silver (Ag) nanoparticles onto the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets followed by nitric acid treatment to remove Ag nanoparticles by microwave irradiation to form a porous structure. The HRGO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. These novel HRGO exhibited high rate capability with excellent cycling stability as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The results have shown an excellent electrochemical response in terms of charge/discharge capacity (423 mAh/g at 100 mA/g). The cyclic performance was also exceptional as a high reversible capacity (400 mAh/g at 100 mA/g) was retained for 100 charge/discharge cycles. This fascinating electrochemical performance can be ascribed to their specific porous structure (2–5 nm pores) and high surface area (457 m2/g), providing numerous active sites for Li+ insertion, high electrical conductivity, low charge-transfer resistance across the electrolyte–electrode interface, and improved structural stability against the local volume change during Li+ insertion–extraction. Such electrodes are envisioned to be mass scalable with relatively simple and low-cost fabrication procedures, thereby providing a clear pathway toward commercialization.

  4. Microwave irradiated Ni-MnOx/C as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation in KOH solution for fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, R. M. Abdel

    2015-12-01

    Ni-MnOx/C electrocatalyst was synthesized by the reduction of nickel precursor salt on MnOx/C powder using NaBH4 and the deposition process was motivated with the aid of microwave irradiation. Finer nickel nanoparticles were detected in Ni-MnOx/C using transmission electron microscopy with a lower particle size of 4.5 nm compared to 6 nm in Ni/C. Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were applied to study the electrocatalytic activity of Ni-MnOx/C for methanol oxidation in 0.5 M KOH solution. The presence of 7.5 wt.% MnOx in Ni-MnOx/C enhanced the oxidation current density by 1.43 times. The catalytic rate constant of methanol oxidation at Ni-MnOx/C was calculated as 3.26 × 103 cm3 mol-1 s-1. An appreciable shift in the maximum frequency at the transition from the resistive to capacitive regions to a higher value in Bode plots of Ni-MnOx/C was shown when compared to Ni/C. It was accompanied by lowered phase angle values. The lowered Warburg impedance value (W) of Ni-MnOx/C at 400 mV confirmed the faster methanol diffusion rate at its surface.

  5. Surfactant free rapid synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by a microwave irradiation method for the treatment of bone infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vani, R.; Bharathi Raja, Subramaniya; Sridevi, T. S.; Savithri, K.; Niranjali Devaraj, S.; Girija, E. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2011-07-01

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHAp) rods of size 40-75 nm long and 25 nm wide (resembling bone mineral) were synthesized under microwave irradiation without using any surfactants or modifiers. The surface area and average pore size of the nHAp were found to be 32 m2 g - 1 and 4 nm, respectively. Rifampicin (RIF) and ciprofloxacin (CPF) loaded nHAp displayed an initial burst followed by controlled release (zero order kinetics). Combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp showed enhanced bacterial growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E coli) compared to individual agent loaded nHAp and pure nHAp. In addition, decreased bacterial adhesion (90%) was observed on the surface of CPF plus RIF loaded nHAp. The biocompatibility test toward MG63 cells infected with micro-organisms showed better cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) for the combination of CPF and RIF loaded nHAp. The influence on cell viability of infected MG63 cells was attributed to the simultaneous and controlled release of CPF and RIF from nHAp, which prevented the emergence of subpopulations that were resistant to each other. Hence, apart from the issue of the rapid synthesis of nHAp without surfactants or modifiers, the simultaneous and controlled release of dual drugs from nHAp would be a simple, non-toxic and cost-effective method to treat bone infections.

  6. Novel synthesis of holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) by microwave irradiation method for anode in lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Alsharaeh, Edreese; Ahmed, Faheem; Aldawsari, Yazeed; Khasawneh, Majdi; Abuhimd, Hatem; Alshahrani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    In this work, holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) was synthesized by the deposition of silver (Ag) nanoparticles onto the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets followed by nitric acid treatment to remove Ag nanoparticles by microwave irradiation to form a porous structure. The HRGO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. These novel HRGO exhibited high rate capability with excellent cycling stability as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The results have shown an excellent electrochemical response in terms of charge/discharge capacity (423 mAh/g at 100 mA/g). The cyclic performance was also exceptional as a high reversible capacity (400 mAh/g at 100 mA/g) was retained for 100 charge/discharge cycles. This fascinating electrochemical performance can be ascribed to their specific porous structure (2–5 nm pores) and high surface area (457 m2/g), providing numerous active sites for Li+ insertion, high electrical conductivity, low charge-transfer resistance across the electrolyte–electrode interface, and improved structural stability against the local volume change during Li+ insertion–extraction. Such electrodes are envisioned to be mass scalable with relatively simple and low-cost fabrication procedures, thereby providing a clear pathway toward commercialization. PMID:27457356

  7. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD.

  8. Improving the electrical catalytic activity of Pt/TiO2 nanocomposites by a combination of electrospinning and microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Qi; Cai, Mei; Li, Jinru; Rong, Huilin; Jiang, Long

    2011-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges in preparing TiO2-based oxygen electrodes for PEM fuel cells is increasing the electrical catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticle/TiO2 composites by improving the dispersion of Pt. This article describes a new way for improving the dispersion of Pt nanoparticles by depositing them on TiO2 fibers and using microwave irradiation. The Pt nanoparticles used in this experiment is about 5 nm in diameter and the diameter of TiO2 fibers could be controlled ranging from 30 to 60 nm and Pt nanoparticles still keep their size when the deposition amount is increased on the surface of TiO2 fibers. The Pt nanoparticles were highly dispersed without agglomeration even at a weight percentage of composites as high as 40%. The position of Pt nanoparticles located in the fiber and the composition of Pt/TiO2, which had great influence on the electric conductivity and electrical catalytic activity of the composite, could be easily controlled.

  9. One pot synthesis, structural and spectral analysis of some symmetrical curcumin analogues catalyzed by calcium oxide under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Elavarasan, S; Bhakiaraj, D; Chellakili, B; Elavarasan, T; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2012-11-01

    A series of sixteen number of curcumin analogues have been synthesized under microwave irradiation using calcium oxide as a catalyst. The synthesized compounds have been characterized using FT-IR, MS, elemental analysis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic techniques. The UV-Vis absorption studies for these compounds have been studied in order to provide the electronic transitions taking place in the molecule. When compared to the curcumin ((1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one), the absorption maxima, λ(max) for all the synthesized curcumin analogues with a variety of substituents gets blue shifted i.e., hypsochromic shift was observed. This shift may be assigned to the change of dipole moment within the solvated molecule. Theoretical calculations regarding the optimization of the synthesized molecules, electronic properties like highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and mapped electron density surface diagrams were done. The geometrical energy, dipole moments and heat of formation values have also been calculated using the ArgusLab package by AM1 semi-empirical method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on the morphology of AWO 4 (A = Ca, Sr) prepared by cyclic microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtem, Titipun; Kaowphong, Sulawan; Thongtem, Somchai

    2008-09-01

    AWO 4 (A = Ca, Sr) was prepared from metal salts [Ca(NO 3) 2·4H 2O or Sr(NO 3) 2], Na 2WO 4·2H 2O and different moles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in water by cyclic microwave irradiation. The structure of AWO 4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of nanoparticles in clusters with different morphologies; spheres, peaches with notches, dumb-bells and bundles, influenced by CTAB. Six Raman vibrational peaks of scheelite structure were detected at 908, 835, 793, 399, 332 and 210 cm -1 for CaWO 4 and 917, 833, 795, 372, 336 and 192 cm -1 for SrWO 4, which are assigned as ν1(A g), ν3(B g), ν3(E g), ν4(B g), ν2(A g) and νf.r.(A g), respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra provided the evidence of W-O stretching vibration in [WO 4] 2- tetrahedrons at 793 cm -1 for CaWO 4 and 807 cm -1 for SrWO 4. The peaks of photoluminescence (PL) spectra were at 428-434 nm for CaWO 4, and 447-451 nm for SrWO 4.

  11. Novel synthesis of holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) by microwave irradiation method for anode in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Alsharaeh, Edreese; Ahmed, Faheem; Aldawsari, Yazeed; Khasawneh, Majdi; Abuhimd, Hatem; Alshahrani, Mohammad

    2016-07-26

    In this work, holey reduced graphene oxide (HRGO) was synthesized by the deposition of silver (Ag) nanoparticles onto the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets followed by nitric acid treatment to remove Ag nanoparticles by microwave irradiation to form a porous structure. The HRGO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Raman spectroscopy. These novel HRGO exhibited high rate capability with excellent cycling stability as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The results have shown an excellent electrochemical response in terms of charge/discharge capacity (423 mAh/g at 100 mA/g). The cyclic performance was also exceptional as a high reversible capacity (400 mAh/g at 100 mA/g) was retained for 100 charge/discharge cycles. This fascinating electrochemical performance can be ascribed to their specific porous structure (2-5 nm pores) and high surface area (457 m(2)/g), providing numerous active sites for Li(+) insertion, high electrical conductivity, low charge-transfer resistance across the electrolyte-electrode interface, and improved structural stability against the local volume change during Li(+) insertion-extraction. Such electrodes are envisioned to be mass scalable with relatively simple and low-cost fabrication procedures, thereby providing a clear pathway toward commercialization.

  12. Highly Sensitive Ethanol Sensor Based on Au-Decorated SnO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized Through Precipitation and Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Fang-Xian; Lian, Xiao-Xue; Zou, Yun-Ling; Wang, Qiong; Zhou, Qing-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Gold (Au)-decorated SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized through a precipitation and microwave irradiation process. The as-prepared products were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the as-prepared products consisted of nanometer-scale tetragonal crystalline SnO2 and face-centered cubic gold metal NPs. The gas sensing measurements showed that the sensor based on Au-decorated SnO2 NPs exhibited an extremely high response (239.5) toward 500-ppm ethanol at a relatively low working temperature (220°C). In addition, the response and recovery times of this sensor to ethanol were 1 s and 31 s, respectively. The excellent gas sensing performance of the synthesized NPs in terms of high response, fast response-recovery, superior selectivity, and good stability was attributed to the small nanometer size of the particles, Schottky barrier, and Au NP catalysis. Finally, we demonstrated that our Au-decorated SnO2 NPs could be a potential candidate for use in highly sensitive and selective gas sensors for ethanol.

  13. A novel combined pretreatment of ball milling and microwave irradiation for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huadong; Li, Hongqiang; Luo, Hao; Xu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was performed as a mode substrate to investigate its potential ability of bioconversion in a novel combined pretreatment of ball milling (BM) and/or microwave irradiation (MWI). The variation of structure characteristics of MCC before/after pretreatment were investigated, including crystallinity index (CrI), size of crystal (S(C)), specific surface area (SSA) and degree of polymerization (DP). Their correlation with the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was differentiated by an optimized equation which indicated the rate of hydrolysis was much more sensitive to CrI than SSA and DP. To achieve the same or higher glucose yield of BM for 3h and 6h, BM for 1h with MWI for 20min could save 54.8% and 77.40% energy consumption, respectively. Moreover, chemicals were not required in this process. It is concluded that the combination of BM and short time MWI is an environment-friendly, economical and effective approach to treat biomass.

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide under microwave irradiation with starch as an ideal reductant and stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yujie; Luo, Zhimin; Yuwen, Lihui; Tian, Jing; Zhu, Xingrong; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-02-01

    A facile aqueous solution procedure has been developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) (RGO/Ag NPs) with starch as an ideal reductant and stabilizer in one pot under microwave irradiation. Graphene oxide and Ag(NH3)2+ were reduced simultaneously by starch in the process of forming Ag NPs. The size of Ag NPs decorated on the RGO sheets is about 20-50 nm and the average size of Ag NPs on RGO is 34 nm calculated by X-ray diffraction. RGO and RGO/Ag NPs prepared with starch show good stability in aqueous solution. With the decoration of Ag NPs on RGO, Raman intensity of RGO increased evidently. Antimicrobial activity of RGO/Ag NPs was investigated against the gram negative bacteria Pseudomonous aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of RGO/Ag NPs is 0.2 wt%. The antimicrobial activity of RGO/Ag NPs is stronger than Ag NPs because of the synergic effect of RGO and Ag NPs.

  15. Vibrational spectroscopy studies of structural changes in lignin under microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arapova, O. V.; Bondarenko, G. N.; Chistyakov, A. V.; Tsodikov, M. V.

    2017-09-01

    Structural changes that occur in lignin surface-modified with nickel nanoparticles during microwave- assisted dry reforming (DR) are studied via vibrational spectroscopy. IR spectroscopy reveals that the nickel deposition has a considerable effect on the structural characteristics of lignin. It is found that nickel deposition from an acetate salt substantially reduces the intensity of absorption bands at 1700 cm-1. This finding suggests that Ni(2+) interacts mostly with formate groups, which are subsequently oxidized to carboxylate groups. It is shown that with the deposition of metallic nickel particles from a colloidal nickel solution in toluene prepared via metal vapor synthesis, the nickel particles do not interact with the surface functional groups of the lignin. Deep conversion of an organic mass of lignin by DR to form synthesis gas reduces the intensity of the absorption bands of the identified functional groups and raises the intensity of the absorption bands of the aromatic rings. Raman spectroscopy shows that during lignin conversion, the aromatic rings condense partially to form amorphized graphite. In operando studies reveal that the DR of nickel-modified lignin heated to 200-400°C results in the isolation of vanillic oxygenates that are probably intermediate products of reforming.

  16. Joule-heating-supported plasma filamentation and branching during subcritical microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Kageyama, Yoshiaki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2017-05-01

    Breakdown physics induced by a subcritical microwave was numerically reproduced by using a two-dimensional effective diffusion model for plasma transport and combining it with Maxwell's equations and a neutral gas dynamics equation. A discrete plasma structure was obtained when E0,rms/Ec ≧0.69 , where E0,rms is the root-mean-square of the incident electric field and Ec is the breakdown threshold, because an overcritical field that exceeded the breakdown threshold was formed in a region away from the bulk plasma by the wave reflection when the plasma reflectivity was increased by joule heating. However, a continuous plasma structure with a branching pattern was formed when E0,rms/Ec <0.69 because the enhanced electric-field region away from the bulk plasma never exceeded the breakdown threshold even when the plasma reflectivity increased. The propagation speed of the plasma front drastically decreased when E0,rms/Ec <0.69 because the plasma propagation was sustained by strong gas expansion, which required more time than wave-reflection and ionization processes.

  17. Ozone degradation of residual carbon in biological samples using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W; Chalk, S J; Kingston, H M

    1997-03-01

    In an attempt to produce complete oxidation of a biological matrix, bovine liver, ozone was investigated as an additional, potentially non-contaminating, oxidizing reagent after nitric acid digestion. Experiments were carried out to determine the decomposition efficiency of residual carbon species, primarily o-, m- and p-nitrobenzoic acids (NBAs), using ozone. The NBAs were degraded by purging sample digests with ozone, while heating the solutions with microwave energy at atmospheric pressure. The effects of the degradation temperature and solution pH on the ozonation of NBAs were determined. Solid phase extraction (C18) was used to extract NBAs from the acid digestate solutions prior to HPLC analysis. Reversed phase HPLC was used to determine NBA concentrations in digest solutions. After 2.5 h of purging ozone at 80 degrees C, 33.65 +/- 3.80% o-NBA degradation, 19.39 +/- 1.74% m-NBA degradation, and 26.47 +/- 3.36% p-NBA degradation were obtained.

  18. Optimization of microwave Hydrogen plasma discharges to mimic Lyman alpha (121.6 nm) solar irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilan, Y.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Es-Sebbar, E.-T.; Jolly, A.; Arzoumanian, E.; Fray, N.; Cottin, H.

    2011-10-01

    We present the results obtained in low pressure microwave plasmas sustained in flowing mixtures of H2/He with the addition of Ar. We investigated experimentally their properties in terms of VUV emissions and photons fluxes using a VUV spectrometer. The spectra are dominated by Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm and H2 band emissions around 160 nm. The addition of Ar in the H2/He mixture largely affects the line emission. Lyman alpha emission increases by a factor of 2 in the presence of 20% Ar while the H2 bands decreases. This is a way to improve the monochromaticity of the lamp. Chemical actinometry method is used to determine the photons flux. We measured the temporal evolution of CO production issued from CO2 photolysis. A photon flux of 4.1015 s-1 is obtained for a power of 100 W. The photon flux varies linearly with the power at a rate of 6.1013 s1.W1. Those results are applied to studies on methane photolysis and help to explain mismatch between photochemical models and experiments.

  19. Doping dependent properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faheem; Arshi, Nishat; Anwar, M S; Koo, Bon Heun

    2014-11-01

    In this work, undoped and Cr-doped single-crystalline ZnO nanorods were prepared by a facile microwave assisted solution method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that Cr-doped ZnO was comprised of single phase nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure up to 5% Cr doping, however, secondary phase ZnCr2O4 appeared upon further increasing the Cr dopant concentration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and TEM micrographs suggested that the undoped nanorods with an average length of -~2 μm and a diameter in the range of 150-200 nm, respectively were observed. Interestingly, the size of nanorods decreased with the increase of Cr concentration in ZnO. Optical studies depicted that the energy bandgap was decreased with the increase of Cr concentration. Raman scattering spectra of Cr-doped ZnO revealed the lower frequency shift of E2(high) phonon mode with the increase in concentration of Cr dopant, suggested the successful doping of Cr into Zn site in ZnO. Magnetic studies showed that Cr-doped ZnO exhibited room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) and the value of magnetization was continuously decreased with the increase in Cr doping.

  20. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of Ag/ZnO nanocomposites and their photocatalytic activities under ultraviolet and visible-light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dafeng; Pu, Xipeng; Li, Huaiyong; Yu, Young Moon; Shim, Jae Jeong; Cai, Peiqing; Kim, Sun Il; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a microwave-assisted combustion method. • Ag/ZnO nanocomposites exhibited improved photocatalytic activities under UV irradiation. • Poorer photocatalytic performances were obtained under visible-light irradiation. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a rapid one-step microwave-assisted combustion method. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. XRD results showed that hexagonal ZnO and cubic Ag were obtained. Ag nanoparticles were chemically attached on the surface of ZnO. The decrease in the energy band gap of Ag/ZnO nanocomposites and the photoluminescence quenching were observed while the Ag content was increased. Furthermore, the introduction of Ag nanoparticles leads to significantly improved photocatalytic activities in the case of ultraviolet irradiation, but in the case of visible-light irradiation opposite results were obtained. The corresponding mechanism was discussed in detail.

  1. [Low level laser irradiation in the visible spectra induces HeLa cells proliferation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-qin; Wang, Yu-hua; Chen, Jiang-xu; Zheng, Li-qin; Xie, Shu-sen

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of low level laser irradiation on the proliferation of HeLa cells using 405 nm diode laser, 514 nm argon laser, 633 nm He-Ne laser, or 785 nm diode laser, The cells were seeded on 96-well microplates for 24 h in 5% fetal bovine serum containing medium, then irradiated with the laser at dose of 100 and 1 000 J x m(-2), respectively. At the time point of 24, 48, 72 h after irradiation, cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. The results show that 405, 633 and 785 nm laser irradiation induces wavelength-dependent and time-dependent proliferation. 633 nm laser irradiation results in a stimulatory proliferation effect that is most significant, whereas 514 nm laser irradiation produces little increase in cell proliferation. Low level laser irradiation increases cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. 1 000 J x m(-2) laser irradiation is more effective in increasing cell proliferation than 100 J x m(-2) laser irradiation using 405 nm diode laser, 633 nm He-Ne laser, or 785 nm diode laser, but not as effective as using 514 nm argon laser.

  2. Microwave irradiation affects ion pairing in aqueous solutions of alkali halide salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohorič, Tomaž; Bren, Urban

    2017-01-01

    Using the molecular dynamics simulations with separate thermostats for translational and rotational degrees of freedom, we investigate the effects of water's rotational motion on the ion pairing of ionic solutes in aqueous solutions. The situation with rotational temperature higher than the translational one, Trot>Ttrs , is mimicking the non-equilibrium effects of microwaves on model solutions of alkali halide salts. The simulations reveal that an increase in the rotational temperature at constant translational temperature exerts significant changes in the structure of the solution. The latter are reflected in increased pairing of the oppositely charged ions, which can be explained by the weaker ability of rotationally excited water to screen and separate the opposite charges. It seems that Collins' law of matching water affinities retains its validity also in the non-equilibrium situation where the rotational temperature exceeds the translational one. On the other hand, the equilibrium effect (i.e., an increase in the solution's overall temperature T ≡Trot = Ttrs) favors the formation of small-small (NaCl), while it has a little effect on large-large (CsI) ion pairs. This is in accordance with water becoming less polar solvent upon a temperature increase. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of excited translational motion of water (and ions) on the ion pairing by increasing the translational temperature, while keeping the rotational one unchanged (i.e., Ttrs>Trot ). Interestingly, in certain cases the faster translational motion causes an increase in correlations. The temperature variations in the like-ion association constants, Kas++ and Kas-, are also examined. Here the situation is more complex but, in most cases, a decrease in the ion pairing is observed.

  3. The Quality Characteristics of Salted Ground Pork Patties Containing Various Fat Levels by Microwave Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Lim, Seung Taek; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of fat level on the microwave cooking properties of ground pork patties with NaCl (1.5%). Ground pork patties were processed from pork hams to achieve fat levels of 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, respectively. Each patty was cooked from a thawed state to 75℃ in a microwave oven at full power (700 W). After microwave cooking, protein content, moisture content, fat retention, and shear force values in patties decreased as fat level increased from 10 to 25%. As fat level increased, cooking time decreased but total cooking loss and drip loss were increased, whereas slight differences in diameter reduction and thickness of patties were observed. In raw patties, 10% fat patties had lower L* values and higher a* values compared to patties with more fat, but these differences were reduced when patties were cooked. Patties with 10% fat showed a more pink color on the surface and interior than patties with a higher fat content but more air pockets were noted in higher-fat patties. Higher-fat patties were more tender, juicy, and oily than lower-fat patties. PMID:27621696

  4. Controversial effects of low level laser irradiation on the proliferation of human osteoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölükbaşı Ateş, Gamze; Ak, Ayşe.; Garipcan, Bora; Yüksel, Šahru; Gülsoy, Murat

    2015-03-01

    Low level laser irradiation (LLLI) is the application of red or near infrared lasers irradiating between 600-1100 nm with an output power of 1-500 mW. Several researches indicate that LLLI modulates cellular mechanisms and leads to enhance proliferation. Although the biological mechanisms are not fully understood, it is known that the effects depend on several parameters such as wavelength, irradiation duration, energy level, beam type and energy density. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of low level laser irradiation at varying energy densities with two different wavelengths (635 nm and 809 nm) on the proliferation of human osteoblasts in vitro. The cells are seeded on 96 well plates (105cells/well) and after 24 h incubation cells are irradiated at energy densities 0.5 J/cm2, 1 J/cm2 and 2 J/cm2. Cell viability test is applied after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h in order to examine effects of laser irradiation on osteoblast proliferation. 635 nm light irradiation did not appear to have significant effect on the proliferation of osteoblasts as compared to the control. On the other hand, 809 nm laser irradiation caused significant (p ≤ 0.01) biostimulation effect on the osteoblast cell cultures at 48 h and 72 h. In conclusion, irradiation of both wavelengths did not cause any cytotoxic effects. 809 nm light irradiation can promote proliferation of human osteoblasts in vitro. On the other hand, 635 nm light irradiation has no positive effect on osteoblast proliferation. As a result, LLLI applied using different wavelengths on the same cell type may lead to different biological effects.

  5. Low-level laser irradiation promotes the recovery of atrophied gastrocnemius skeletal muscle in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Jiro; Kataoka, Hideki; Sakamoto, Jyunya; Origuchi, Tomoki; Okita, Minoru; Yoshimura, Toshiro

    2009-09-01

    Low-level laser (LLL) irradiation promotes proliferation of muscle satellite cells, angiogenesis and expression of growth factors. Satellite cells, angiogenesis and growth factors play important roles in the regeneration of muscle. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of LLL irradiation on rat gastrocnemius muscle recovering from disuse muscle atrophy. Eight-week-old rats were subjected to hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks, after which they were released and recovered. During the recovery period, rats underwent daily LLL irradiation (Ga-Al-As laser; 830 nm; 60 mW; total, 180 s) to the right gastrocnemius muscle through the skin. The untreated left gastrocnemius muscle served as the control. In conjunction with LLL irradiation, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected subcutaneously to label the nuclei of proliferating cells. After 2 weeks, myofibre diameters of irradiated muscle increased in comparison with those of untreated muscle, but did not recover back to normal levels. Additionally, in the superficial region of the irradiated muscle, the number of capillaries and fibroblast growth factor levels exhibited significant elevation relative to those of untreated muscle. In the deep region of irradiated muscle, BrdU-positive nuclei of satellite cells and/or myofibres increased significantly relative to those of the untreated muscle. The results of this study suggest that LLL irradiation can promote recovery from disuse muscle atrophy in association with proliferation of satellite cells and angiogenesis.

  6. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  7. Central nervous system transplantation benefited by low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochkind, S.; Lubart, Rachel; Wollman, Yoram; Simantov, Rabi; Nissan, Moshe; Barr-Nea, Lilian

    1990-06-01

    Effect of low-level laser irradiation on the central nervous system transplantation is reported. Ernbryonal brain allografts were transplanted into the brain of 20 adult rats and peripheral nerve graft transplanted into the severely injured spinal cord of 16 dogs. The operated wound of 10 rats and 8 dogs were exposed daily for 21 days to lowpower laser irradiation CW HeNe laser (35 mW, 632.8 run, energy density of 30 J/cm2 at each point for rats and 70 J/cm2 at each point for dogs). This study shows that (i) the low-level laser irradiation prevents extensive glial scar formation (a limiting factor in CNS regeneration) between embryonal transplants and host brain; (ii) Dogs made paraplegic by spinal cord injury were able to walk 3-6 months later. Recovery of these dogs was effected by the implantation of a fragment of autologous sciatic nerve at the site of injury and subsequently exposing the dogs to low-level laser irradiation. The effect of laser irradiation on the embryonal nerve cells grown in tissue culture was also observed. We found that low-level laser irradiation induced intensive migration of neurites outward of the aggregates 15-22 The results of the present study and our previous investigations suggest that low-level laser irradiation is a novel tool for treatment of peripheral and central nervous system injuries.

  8. [Comparison of the acrylamide level in microwaved popcorn with that of ordinarily heated one].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shiyu; Xia, Yongmei; Liu, Xuefeng; Hu, Xueyi

    2007-03-01

    To establish a method of examining acrylamide in cooked popcorn. Solid phase extraction/gas chromatography (SPE/GC) was established with N, N-dimethyl acrylamide as internal standard. The detection limit and the quantification limit were estimated at 3 microg/L and 10 microg/L, respectively, and the linear correlation coefficient was 0.9969. Seven commercial popcorn samples with different flavors were collected and tested in this paper. The RSD of acrylamide level of caramel sweet popcorn microwaved was 1.95 % (n = 6). When the commercial popcorns of caramel sweet and cream salted were microwaved (A and D) or conventional heated (A' and D'), the acrylamide levels reached [Am]A = 1017 microg/kg, [Am]D = 146.5 microg/kg, [Am]A, = 2206 microg/kg and [Am]D = 970.1 microg/kg, respectively. The microwaved popcorns tested are safer in general because the acrylamide level of them except that with high simple sugar content is obviously lower than that of ordinarily heated one.

  9. Comparative effects of extremely high power microwave pulses and a brief CW irradiation on pacemaker function in isolated frog heart slices.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, A G; Mathur, S P; Doyle, J; Stuck, B E; Kiel, J L; Murphy, M R

    2000-05-01

    The existence of specific bioeffects due to high peak power microwaves and their potential health hazards are among the most debated but least explored problems in microwave biology. The present study attempted to reveal such effects by comparing the bioeffects of short trains of extremely high power microwave pulses (EHPP, 1 micros width, 250-350 kW/g, 9.2 GHz) with those of relatively low power pulses (LPP, 0.5-10 s width, 3-30 W/g, 9.2 GHz). EHPP train duration and average power were made equal to those of an LPP; therefore both exposure modalities produced the same temperature rise. Bioeffects were studied in isolated, spontaneously beating slices of the frog heart. In most cases, a single EHPP train or LPP immediately decreased the inter-beat interval (IBI). The effect was proportional to microwave heating, fully reversible, and easily reproducible. The magnitude and time course of EHPP- and LPP-induced changes always were the same. No delayed or irreversible effects of irradiation were observed. The same effect could be repeated in a single preparation numerous times with no signs of adaptation, sensitization, lasting functional alteration, or damage. A qualitatively different effect, namely, a temporary arrest of preparation beats, could be observed when microwave heating exceeded physiologically tolerable limits. This effect also did not depend on whether the critical temperature rise was produced by LPP or EHPP exposure. Within the studied limits, we found no indications of EHPP-specific bioeffects. EHPP- and LPP-induced changes in the pacemaker rhythm of isolated frog heart preparation were identical and could be entirely attributed to microwave heating.

  10. Microwave-assisted asymmetric organocatalysis. A probe for nonthermal microwave effects and the concept of simultaneous cooling.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Masood; Stiasni, Nikola; Barbieri, Vera; Kappe, C Oliver

    2007-02-16

    A series of five known asymmetric organocatalytic reactions was re-evaluated at elevated temperatures applying both microwave dielectric heating and conventional thermal heating in order to probe the existence of specific or nonthermal microwave effects. All transformations were conducted in a dedicated reactor setup that allowed accurate internal reaction temperature measurements using fiber-optic probes. In addition, the concept of simultaneous external cooling while irradiating with microwave power was also applied in all of the studied cases. This method allows a higher level of microwave power to be administered to the reaction mixture and, therefore, enhances any potential microwave effects while continuously removing heat. For all of the five studied (S)-proline-catalyzed asymmetric Mannich- and aldol-type reactions, the observed rate enhancements were a consequence of the increased temperatures attained by microwave dielectric heating and were not related to the presence of the microwave field. In all cases, in contrast to previous literature reports, the results obtained either with microwave irradiation or with microwave irradiation with simultaneous cooling could be reproduced by conventional heating at the same reaction temperature and time in an oil bath. No evidence for specific or nonthermal microwave effects was obtained.

  11. Effects of ionic conduction on hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose induced by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2016-02-10

    This study investigated the effects of ionic conduction of electrolytes under microwave field to facilitate hydrothermal hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose (Avicel), typical model biomass substrates. Addition of 0.1M NaCl was effective to improve reducing sugar yield by 1.61-fold at unit energy (kJ) level. Although Avicel cellulose was highly recalcitrant to hydrothermal hydrolysis, addition of 0.1M MgCl2 improved reducing sugar yield by 6.94-fold at unit energy (kJ). Dielectric measurement of the mixture of corn starch/water/electrolyte revealed that ionic conduction of electrolytes were strongly involved in facilitating hydrothermal hydrolysis of polysaccharides.

  12. Fabrication of high-performance ultra-thin-body SnO{sub 2} thin-film transistors using microwave-irradiation post-deposition annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Kwang-Won; Moon, Sung-Wan; Cho, Won-Ju

    2015-01-26

    We report on the fabrication of high-performance ultra-thin-body (UTB) SnO{sub 2} thin-film transistors (TFTs) using microwave-irradiation post-deposition annealing (PDA) at a low process temperature (<100 °C). We confirm that the electrical characteristics of SnO{sub 2} TFTs become drastically enhanced below a body thickness of 10 nm. The microwave-annealed UTB SnO{sub 2} TFTs with a thickness of 5 nm exhibited increased optical transmittance, as well as remarkable transfer characteristics: a high mobility of 35.4 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, a drain current on/off ratio of 4.5 × 10{sup 7}, a steep subthreshold gate voltage swing of 623 mV/dec, and a clear enhancement-mode behavior. Additionally, the microwave-annealed SnO{sub 2} TFTs exhibited a better positive gate-bias stress/negative gate-bias stress immunity than thermally annealed SnO{sub 2} TFTs. Therefore, the thickness of the UTB SnO{sub 2} TFTs, as well as the microwave-annealing process, are both shown to be essential for transparent and flexible display technology.

  13. [The electroporation effects of high power pulse microwave and electromagnetic pulse irradiation on the membranes of cardiomyocyte cells and the mechanism therein involved].

    PubMed

    Deng, Hua; Wang, Dewen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Shuiming; Chen, Jiankui; Zhang, Sa; Dong, Bo; Wang, Xiaomin

    2005-08-01

    Though there is ongoing public concern on potential hazards and risk of electromagnetic radiation, the bioeffects mechanism of electromagnetic fields remains obscure. Heart is one of the organs susceptive to electromagnetic fields (EMF). This study was designed to assess the influence of high power pulse microwave and electromagnetic pulse irradiation on cardiomyocytes, to explore the critical mechanism of electromagnetic fields, and to explain the regular course of injury caused by exposure to pulse EMF. Cultured cardiomyocytes were irradiated by high power pulse microwave and electromagnetic pulse first, then a series of apparatus including atom force microscope, laser scanning confocal microscope and flow cytometer were used to examine the changes of cell membrane conformation, structure and function. After irradiation, the cardiomyocytes pulsated slower or stop, the cells conformation was abnormal, the cells viability declined, and the percentage of apoptosis and necrosis increased significantly (P< 0.01). The cell membrane had pores unequal in size, and lost its penetration character. The concentration of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+ and P3+ in cell culture medium increased significantly (P< 0.01). and the concentration of Ca2+ in cells ([Ca2+]i) decreased significantly (P<0.01). The results indicated that cardiomyocytes are susceptible to non-ionizing radiation. Pulse electromagnetic field can induce cardiomyocytes electroporation, and can do great damage to cells conformation, structure and function. Electroporation is one of the most critical mechanisms to explain the athermal effects of electromagnetic radiation.

  14. Experimental study on an S-band near-field microwave magnetron power transmission system on hundred-watt level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Jiang, Wan; Yang, Yang; Yu, Chengyang; Huang, Kama; Liu, Changjun

    2015-11-01

    A multi-magnetron microwave source, a metamaterial transmitting antenna, and a large power rectenna array are presented to build a near-field 2.45 GHz microwave power transmission system. The square 1 m2 rectenna array consists of sixteen rectennas with 2048 Schottky diodes for large power microwave rectifying. It receives microwave power and converts them into DC power. The design, structure, and measured performance of a unit rectenna as well as the entail rectenna array are presented in detail. The multi-magnetron microwave power source switches between half and full output power levels, i.e. the half-wave and full-wave modes. The transmission antenna is formed by a double-layer metallic hole array, which is applied to combine the output power of each magnetron. The rectenna array DC output power reaches 67.3 W on a 1.2 Ω DC load at a distance of 5.5 m from the transmission antenna. DC output power is affected by the distance, DC load, and the mode of microwave power source. It shows that conventional low power Schottky diodes can be applied to a microwave power transmission system with simple magnetrons to realise large power microwave rectifying.

  15. Extremely low-level microwaves attenuate immune imbalance induced by inhalation exposure to low-level toluene in mice.

    PubMed

    Novoselova, Elena G; Glushkova, Olga V; Khrenov, Maxim O; Novoselova, Tatyana V; Lunin, Sergey M; Fesenko, Eugeny E

    2017-05-01

    To clarify whether extremely low-level microwaves (MW) alone or in combination with p38 inhibitor affect immune cell responses to inhalation exposure of mice to low-level toluene. The cytokine profile, heat shock proteins expression, and the activity of several signal cascades, namely, NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IRF-3, p38 MAPK, and TLR4 were measured in spleen lymphocytes of mice treated to air-delivered toluene (0.6 mg/m(3)) or extremely low-level microwaves (8.15-18 GHz, 1μW/cm(2), 1 Hz swinging frequency) or combined action of these two factors. A single exposure to air-delivered low-level toluene induced activation of NF-κB, SAPK/JNK, IFR-3, p38 MAPK and TLR4 pathways. Furthermore, air toluene induced the expression of Hsp72 and enhanced IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α in blood plasma, which is indicative of a pro-inflammatory response. Exposure to MW alone also resulted in the enhancement of the plasma cytokine values (e.g. IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) and activation of the NF-κB, MAPK p38, and especially the TLR4 pathways in splenic lymphocytes. Paradoxically, pre-exposure to MW partially recovered or normalized the lymphocyte parameters in the toluene-exposed mice, while the p38 inhibitor XI additionally increased protective activity of microwaves by down regulating MAPKs (JNK and p38), IKK, as well as expression of TLR4 and Hsp90-α. The results suggest that exposure to low-intensity MW at specific conditions may recover immune parameters in mice undergoing inhalation exposure to low-level toluene via mechanisms involving cellular signaling.

  16. Expression of fas protein on CD4+T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on the Expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne laser in the cases of psoriasis. Methods:the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was determined in the casee of psoriasis(n=5) pre and post-low level laser irradiation(30 min、60min and 120min)by flow cytometry as compared withthe control(n=5). Results:In the cases of psoriasis,the expression of CD4+T FAS protein 21.4+/-3.1% was increased significantly than that of control group 16.8+/-2.1% pre-irradiation, p<0.05in the control,there is no difference between pre and post- irradiation,p>0.05in the cases , the expression of CD4+T Fas protein wae positively corelated to the irradiation times, when the energy density arrived to 22.92J/cm2(60 minutes)and 45.84J/cm2(120minutes), the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was increased significantly as compared with pre-irradiation,p<0.05.Conclusion: The expression of CD4+T Fas protein may be increased by low level He-Ne laser irradiation ,the uncontrolled status of apoptosis could be corrected.

  17. Transcranial low-level infrared laser irradiation ameliorates depression induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham S

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial low-level infrared laser is a modality of therapy based on the principle of photons delivered in a non-invasive manner through the skull for the treatment of some neurological conditions such as psychological disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegenerative diseases among others. In the present study, effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation with different radiation powers (80, 200, and 400 mW, continuous wave) were investigated on normal animals subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Results indicated that there are changes in FST parameters in animals irradiated with laser; the lowest dose provoked a significant increase in animal activity (swimming and climbing) and a significant decrease in animal's immobility, while the highest laser dose resulted in a complete inverse action by significantly increasing animal immobility and significantly decreasing animal activity with respect to control animals. The lowest dose (80 mW) of transcranial laser irradiation has then utilized on animals injected with a chronic dose of reserpine (0.2 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days) served as an animal model of depression. Laser irradiation has successfully ameliorated depression induced by reserpine as indicated by FST parameters and electrocorticography (ECoG) spectral analysis in irradiated animals. The findings of the present study emphasized the beneficial effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation on normal and healthy animals. Additionally, it indicated the potential antidepressant activity of the low dose of infrared laser irradiation.

  18. Power Spectrum Analysis and Missing Level Statistics of Microwave Graphs with Violated Time Reversal Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białous, Małgorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał; Dietz, Barbara; Sirko, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    We present experimental studies of the power spectrum and other fluctuation properties in the spectra of microwave networks simulating chaotic quantum graphs with violated time reversal invariance. On the basis of our data sets, we demonstrate that the power spectrum in combination with other long-range and also short-range spectral fluctuations provides a powerful tool for the identification of the symmetries and the determination of the fraction of missing levels. Such a procedure is indispensable for the evaluation of the fluctuation properties in the spectra of real physical systems like, e.g., nuclei or molecules, where one has to deal with the problem of missing levels.

  19. Power Spectrum Analysis and Missing Level Statistics of Microwave Graphs with Violated Time Reversal Invariance.

    PubMed

    Białous, Małgorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Ławniczak, Michał; Dietz, Barbara; Sirko, Leszek

    2016-09-30

    We present experimental studies of the power spectrum and other fluctuation properties in the spectra of microwave networks simulating chaotic quantum graphs with violated time reversal invariance. On the basis of our data sets, we demonstrate that the power spectrum in combination with other long-range and also short-range spectral fluctuations provides a powerful tool for the identification of the symmetries and the determination of the fraction of missing levels. Such a procedure is indispensable for the evaluation of the fluctuation properties in the spectra of real physical systems like, e.g., nuclei or molecules, where one has to deal with the problem of missing levels.

  20. Low dose of continuous-wave microwave irradiation did not cause temperature increase in muscles tissue adjacent to titanium alloy implants--an animal study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dongmei; Xu, Yiming; Fu, Tengfei; Zhang, Han; Feng, Xianxuan; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Lan; Bai, Yuehong

    2013-12-23

    Research studies on the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on implants in vitro have failed to investigate temperature changes in the tissues adjacent to the implants under microwave therapy. We therefore, used a rabbit model in an effort to determine the impact of microwave therapy on temperature changes in tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implants and the safety profile thereof. Titanium alloy internal fixation plates were implanted in New Zealand rabbits in the middle of femur. Microwave therapy was performed by a 2450 MHz microwave generator 3 days after the surgery. Temperature changes of muscles adjacent to the implants were recorded under exposure to dose-gradient microwave radiation from 20w to 60w. Significant difference between control and microwave treatment group at peak temperatures (T(peak)) and temperature gap (T(gap) = T(peak)-T(vally)) were observed in deep muscles (T(peak), 41.63 ± 0.21°C vs. 44.40 ± 0.17°C, P < 0.01; T(gap), 5.33 ± 0.21°C vs. 8.10 ± 0.36°C, P < 0.01) and superficial muscles (T(peak), 41.53 ± 0.15°C vs. 42.03 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.04; T(gap), 5.23 ± 0.21°C vs. 5.80 ± 0.17°C, P = 0.013) under 60 w, and deep muscles (T(peak), 40.93 ± 0.25°C vs. 41.87 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.01; T(gap), 4.73 ± 0.20°C vs. 5.63 ± 0.35°C, P = 0.037) under 50w, but not under 20, 30 and 40w. Our results suggest that low-dose (20w-40w) continuous-wave microwave irradiation delivered by a 2450 MHz microwave generator might be a promising treatment for patients with titanium alloy internal fixation, as it did not raise temperature in muscle tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implant.

  1. Low dose of continuous – wave microwave irradiation did not cause temperature increase in muscles tissue adjacent to titanium alloy implants – an animal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research studies on the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on implants in vitro have failed to investigate temperature changes in the tissues adjacent to the implants under microwave therapy. We therefore, used a rabbit model in an effort to determine the impact of microwave therapy on temperature changes in tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implants and the safety profile thereof. Methods Titanium alloy internal fixation plates were implanted in New Zealand rabbits in the middle of femur. Microwave therapy was performed by a 2450 MHz microwave generator 3 days after the surgery. Temperature changes of muscles adjacent to the implants were recorded under exposure to dose-gradient microwave radiation from 20w to 60w. Results Significant difference between control and microwave treatment group at peak temperatures (Tpeak) and temperature gap (Tgap= Tpeak-Tvally) were observed in deep muscles (Tpeak, 41.63 ± 0.21°C vs. 44.40 ± 0.17°C, P < 0.01; Tgap, 5.33 ± 0.21°C vs. 8.10 ± 0.36°C, P < 0.01) and superficial muscles (Tpeak, 41.53 ± 0.15°C vs. 42.03 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.04; Tgap, 5.23 ± 0.21°C vs. 5.80 ± 0.17°C, P = 0.013) under 60 w, and deep muscles (Tpeak, 40.93 ± 0.25°C vs. 41.87 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.01; Tgap, 4.73 ± 0.20°C vs. 5.63 ± 0.35°C, P = 0.037) under 50w, but not under 20, 30 and 40w. Conclusion Our results suggest that low-dose (20w-40w) continuous-wave microwave irradiation delivered by a 2450 MHz microwave generator might be a promising treatment for patients with titanium alloy internal fixation, as it did not raise temperature in muscle tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implant. PMID:24365389

  2. Regiospecific one-pot synthesis of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine derivatives in the solid state under microwave irradiations.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Dipak; Gohain, Mukut; Thakur, Ashim J

    2006-07-01

    Electron rich 6-[(dimethylamino)methylene]amino uracil 1, undergoes [4+2] cycloaddition reactions with various in situ generated glyoxylate imine and imine oxides 6 to provide novel pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine derivatives of biological significance, after elimination of dimethylamine from the (1:1) cycloadducts and oxidative aromatisation. This procedure provides a convenient method for the direct synthesis of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidines in excellent yields when carried out in the solid state and under microwave irradiations.

  3. Selective oxidation of rhodinol to citral using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-platinum black system under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, D. J. W.; Latip, J.; Hasbullah, S. A.; Sastrohamidjojo, H.

    2014-09-03

    The oxidation method utilising H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-Pt black system was successfully adapted in the oxidation of rhodinol which is a mixture form of geraniol and citronellol. This green oxidation found to be selectively converted geraniol to citral using conventional method. The implementation of microwave irradiation (175 Watt, 90°C, 30 mins) and a higher molar of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} further improved the conversion rate (72.6%) and selectivity (81%) as compared to the conventional method.

  4. Changes in roughness of denture base and reline materials by chemical disinfection or microwave irradiation. Surface roughness of denture base and reline materials

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, Ana Lucia; GIAMPAOLO, Eunice Teresinha; VERGANI, Carlos Eduardo; de SOUZA, Juliana Feltrin; JORGE, Janaina Habib

    2011-01-01

    Objective The effect of disinfection by immersion in sodium perborate solution and microwave irradiation on surface roughness of one denture base resin (Lucitone 550 -L), 3 hard chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II-TR, New Truliner-NT, Ufi Gel hard-UH) and 3 resilient reline materials (Trusoft-T; Sofreliner-S, Dentusil-D) was evaluated. Material and methods Thirty specimens of each material were made and divided into 3 groups: Control - not disinfected; P - daily disinfection by immersing in sodium perborate solution (3.8%); MW - microwave disinfection (6 min/650 W). Roughness measurements were made after polymerization (baseline) and after 1, 3 and 28 days. Roughness differences relative to the baseline readings were analyzed by Student's t-test (P=0.05). Results At baseline, Trusoft showed the highest (P<0.001) mean surface roughness (3.54 µm), and its surface roughness was significantly reduced after 28 days of disinfection by immersion in sodium perborate (P=0.013). Roughness measurements of material Trusoft were not performed after microwave disinfection due to the severe alterations on the surface. In the 3 groups evaluated, changes in roughness were significant for materials Ufi Gel hard (from 0.11 to 0.26 µm; P≤0.041) and New Truliner (0.19 to 0.76 µm; P≤0.019). The roughness of materials Lucitone 550 (0.37 µm), Tokuyama Rebase II (0.37 µm), Sofreliner (0.49 µm) and Dentusil (0.38 µm) remained unaffected (P>0.05). Conclusions The roughness of the hard reline materials Ufi Gel hard and New Truliner was adversely affected by microwave disinfection, immersion in water or in sodium perborate. Microwave disinfection caused severe alterations on the surface of the resilient liner Trusoft. PMID:21986658

  5. Changes in roughness of denture base and reline materials by chemical disinfection or microwave irradiation: surface roughness of denture base and reline materials.

    PubMed

    Machado, Ana Lucia; Giampaolo, Eunice Teresinha; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Jorge, Janaina Habib

    2011-10-01

    The effect of disinfection by immersion in sodium perborate solution and microwave irradiation on surface roughness of one denture base resin (Lucitone 550 -L), 3 hard chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II-TR, New Truliner-NT, Ufi Gel hard-UH) and 3 resilient reline materials (Trusoft-T; Sofreliner-S, Dentusil-D) was evaluated. Thirty specimens of each material were made and divided into 3 groups: Control - not disinfected; P - daily disinfection by immersing in sodium perborate solution (3.8%); MW - microwave disinfection (6 min/650 W). Roughness measurements were made after polymerization (baseline) and after 1, 3 and 28 days. Roughness differences relative to the baseline readings were analyzed by Student's t-test (P=0.05). At baseline, Trusoft showed the highest (P<0.001) mean surface roughness (3.54 µm), and its surface roughness was significantly reduced after 28 days of disinfection by immersion in sodium perborate (P=0.013). Roughness measurements of material Trusoft were not performed after microwave disinfection due to the severe alterations on the surface. In the 3 groups evaluated, changes in roughness were significant for materials Ufi Gel hard (from 0.11 to 0.26 µm; P<0.041) and New Truliner (0.19 to 0.76 µm; P<0.019). The roughness of materials Lucitone 550 (0.37 µm), Tokuyama Rebase II (0.37 µm), Sofreliner (0.49 µm) and Dentusil (0.38 µm) remained unaffected (P>0.05). The roughness of the hard reline materials Ufi Gel hard and New Truliner was adversely affected by microwave disinfection, immersion in water or in sodium perborate. Microwave disinfection caused severe alterations on the surface of the resilient liner Trusoft.

  6. Exocytosis sensitivity to growth hormone-releasing hormone in subsets of GH cells in rats under different corticosterone conditions. Ultrastructural study using microwave irradiation for fixation and immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hitoshi; Han, Fang; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) cells in the rat anterior pituitary have been morphologically classified into three subtypes: type I (mature) containing large secretory granules about 350 nm in diameter, type II (intermediate) containing a mixture of large and small granules, and type III (immature) containing small granules about 150 nm in diameter. However, the functional implications of morphological heterogeneity, especially the different sensitivities to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) under different corticosteroid conditions have not been elucidated to date. In the present study, by application of microwave irradiation (MWI) for fixation and immunocytochemistry, new findings of the exocytotic response have been revealed among the subsets of GH cells following adrenalectomy (ADX), corticosterone treatment and/or GRH treatment. The MWI gave effective results for fixation, especially for the permeability of the fixative, and showed good results for immunoelectron microscopy using the protein-A gold method. Moreover, the use of MWI greatly shortened the fixation, processing and immunolabeling times without compromising the quality of ultrastructural preservation and the specificity of labeling. The number of exocytotic figures was low in all subtypes of GH cells in the sham-operated control rats. GRH treatment induced a significant increase in exocytosis in each subtype of GH cells, particularly in type I (mature) and type II (intermediate) GH cells in the control rats. GRH injection to rats for 4 days after ADX also showed an increase in exocytosis, but the degree was significantly less in comparison with the GRH injection in the control group. Corticosterone replacement given to ADX rats induced a clear recovery of the exocytotic response to GRH to the control level. Serum GH content measured by radioimmunoassay correlated with these morphological results. These results suggest that the secretion of GH stimulated by GRH is closely related to corticosteroids, and

  7. Afferent mechanisms of microwave-induced biological effects. Final report, June 1980-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.

    1987-08-12

    Effects of low-level microwave irradiation on neurological function were investigated in the rat. Results can be summarized in the following statements: (1) acute exposure effects the response of an animal to psychoactive drugs and changes cholinergic activity in the brain; (2) effects of microwaves are classically conditionable to environmental cues after repeated exposure. Tolerance can also develop after repeated exposure; and (3) endogenous opioids play a mediating role in certain neurological effects of microwaves. These data further our understanding on the neurological effects of microwave exposure and may have important implications in certain occupational situations in which repeated exposure to low-level microwaves is unavoidable.

  8. Are plants grown under low visible irradiance sensitive to low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Stephan D.; Caldwell, Martyn M.; Ryel, Ron J.

    2005-08-01

    A critical question in ultraviolet-B radiation research is how different portions of the solar spectrum influence plant UV B sensitivity. Field-grown plants show only subtle responses to supplemental UV-B radiation in many aspects of growth, yet plants grown under low visible light (as in most growth chambers and greenhouses) show much more discernible changes. Here we assess a specific aspect of UV-B sensitivity in plants grown under lower PAR: when one maintains a constant proportion of UV-B to PAR, but different absolute irradiance levels, does plant sensitivity to UV-B change? We conducted field experiments at near-ambient PAR and enhanced UV-B, and also with reduced irradiance in both wavebands, on three species. Each of these species occurs in both open and shaded habitats. We found the grass Setaria viridis sensitive to UV-B radiation only when grown at lower irradiances, while the forb Geranium viscosissimum was only sensitive to UV-B at the higher irradiances. In the grass Elymus glaucus, UV-B sensitivity did not appear to be influenced by the irradiance levels. Species appear to respond differently to these changes in irradiance levels, and an array of physiological and anatomical mechanisms are likely involved.

  9. Effects of hydration levels on the bandwidth of microwave resonant absorption induced by confined acoustic vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Hung-Pin; Yeh, Shih-Chia; Wu, Chih-Yu; Wang, Chung-Hsiung; Luo, Tang-Nian; Chen, Yi-Jan; Liu, Shen-Iuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2009-10-01

    We found the hydration levels on the capsid surface of viruses can affect the bandwidth of microwave resonant absorption (MRA) induced by the confined acoustic vibrations (CAV). By decreasing the pH value of solution down to 5.2 or inactivating the capsid proteins, we enhanced the surface hydrophilicity and increased the magnitude of surface potentials. Both of these surface manipulations raised the surface affinity to water molecules and narrowed the bandwidths of CAV-induced MRA. Our results validate the viscoelastic transition of hydration shells.

  10. A Green Protocol for Synthesis of MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] Spinels Under Microwave Irradiation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuvasravana, R.; George, P. P.

    Nanosized metal aluminates MAl2O4, [M=Cu and Co] are synthesized from their nitrates solution by using pomegranate peel extract as fuel in microwave combustion. MAl2O4 [M=Cu and Co] nanoparticles are grown in microwave assisted synthesis followed by annealing at 700∘C. The nanoparticles have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-VIS spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PXRD analysis has confirmed their spinel composition. The green protocol and microwave combustion route for spinel synthesis are rapid, simple, without any hazardous chemicals as reducing or stabilizing agents and economical.

  11. Biodiesel production from lipids in wet microalgae with microwave irradiation and bio-crude production from algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    A cogeneration process of biodiesel and bio-crude was proposed to make full use of wet microalgae biomass. High-grade biodiesel was first produced from lipids in wet microalgae through extraction and transesterification with microwave irradiation. Then, low-grade bio-crude was produced from proteins and carbohydrates in the algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction. The total yield (40.19%) and the total energy recovery (67.73%) of the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude were almost equal to those of the bio-oil obtained from raw microalgae through direct hydrothermal liquefaction. Upon microwave irradiation, proteins were partially hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were apt for deaminization under the hydrothermal condition of the algal residue. Hence, the total remaining nitrogen (16.02%) in the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude was lower than that (27.06%) in the bio-oil. The cogeneration process prevented lipids and proteins from reacting to produce low-grade amides and other long-chain nitrogen compounds during the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae.

  12. Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaogang; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Fangyu; Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, α-helix, and β-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains.

  13. Realization of microwave amplification, attenuation, and frequency conversion using a single three-level superconducting quantum circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan-Jun; Ding, Jiang-Hao; Peng, Z. H.; Liu, Yu-xi

    2017-04-01

    Using different configurations of applied strong driving and weak probe fields, we find that only a single three-level superconducting quantum circuit (SQC) is enough to realize amplification, attenuation, and frequency conversion of microwave fields. Such a three-level SQC has to possess Δ -type cyclic transitions. Different from the parametric amplification (attenuation) and frequency conversion in nonlinear optical media, the real energy levels of the three-level SQC are involved in the energy exchange when these processes are completed. We quantitatively discuss the effects of amplification (attenuation) and the frequency conversion for different types of driving fields. The values and conditions are obtained for the optimal gains for amplification (attenuation) and the optimal conversion efficiencies. Our study provides a method to amplify (attenuate) microwave, realize frequency conversion, and also lay a foundation for generating single or entangled microwave photon states using a single three-level SQC.

  14. Weak extremely high frequency microwaves affect pollen-tube emergence and growth in kiwifruit: pollen grain irradiation and water-mediated effects.

    PubMed

    Calzoni, Gian Lorenzo; Borghini, Francesco; Del Giudice, Emilio; Betti, Lucietta; Dal Rio, Francesca; Migliori, Manuela; Trebbi, Grazia; Speranza, Anna

    2003-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of weak-intensity extremely high frequency (EHF) microwaves in a model system-the plant organism pollen grain-lacking the placebo effect, available in large populations, to ensure accurate statistical analysis, and whose sensitivity is closely relevant to animal and human biology. This study was blinded using an in vitro pollen germination technique. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: Pollen of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) was either directly irradiated or grown in a medium prepared with irradiated water, using a CromoStim 2000, (PromoPharma, Republic of San Marino) designed for EHF microwave resonance therapy (MRT). It produces weak intensity EHF radiations (40-78 GHz), either continuous wave (cw) or modulated, at a 10 Hz-frequency, with infrared (IR) carried to 635-950 nm, and with an impedance (IPD) of 10(-21) W/Hz cm(2) and a power supply from 0 to 20 mW. Pollen-tube emergence was expressed as a percent of grains producing a tube and tube elongation was measured at 4 hours of incubation by a turbidimetric assay (A(500)) of cultures, expressed as the net absorbance increase over time 0. At days 2 and 4 during aging, both percent of germination and tube growth significantly and consistently improved over controls in kiwifruit pollen grains irradiated for 30 minutes at day 0 at 10 Hz frequency with the CromoStim 2000. Highly significant effects, either stimulant or inhibitory, were also observed on kiwifruit pollen (stressed or not) growing in a medium prepared with water previously irradiated either cw or modulated. Irradiated water affected pollen germination immediately and even after several days following EHF treatment. Either direct or indirect EHF irradiation performed by the CromoStim 2000 is effective on pollen growth processes. In both cases, water seemed to play a primary role. According to the quantum electrodynamical coherence theory, our work could also have implications for homeopathy, suggesting a

  15. Two-Dimensional Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy: Applications to Multi-Level Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotopp, Kelly M.; Wilcox, David S.; Shirar, Amanda J.; Dian, Brian C.

    2010-06-01

    Two-dimensional chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy has been used to study rotational energy level connectivity of 1,3-difluoroacetone and m-methylbenzaldehyde. In this series of experiments, non-selective polarizing pulse sequences were used to probe both progressively and regressively connected systems through coherences of coupled rotational energy levels. Coherence propagation among shared energy levels will be demonstrated on 1,3-difluoroacetone. Ab initio calculations predict that the methyl rotor barrier of m-methylbenzaldehyde is less than 35 cm-1 therefore giving rise to large A-E splitting. Furthermore there are two conformers of m-methylbenzaldehyde making the assignment of the rotational spectrum extremely difficult. We will show how coherence propagation demonstrated by 1,3-difluoroacetone can be applied in a general way to assign complex ground state rotational spectra such as m-methylbenzaldehyde.

  16. Detection of Low Level Microwave Radiation Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Vis-à-vis Genotoxicity in Brain of Fischer Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Pravin Suryakantrao; Megha, Kanu; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Ahmed, Rafat Sultana; Chandna, Sudhir; Abegaonkar, Mahesh Pandurang; Tripathi, Ashok Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-ionizing radiofrequency radiation has been increasingly used in industry, commerce, medicine and especially in mobile phone technology and has become a matter of serious concern in present time. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the possible deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damaging effects of low-level microwave radiation in brain of Fischer rats. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on male Fischer rats exposed to microwave radiation for 30 days at three different frequencies: 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz. Animals were divided into 4 groups: Group I (Sham exposed): Animals not exposed to microwave radiation but kept under same conditions as that of other groups, Group II: Animals exposed to microwave radiation at frequency 900 MHz at specific absorption rate (SAR) 5.953 × 10−4 W/kg, Group III: Animals exposed to 1800 MHz at SAR 5.835 × 10−4 W/kg and Group IV: Animals exposed to 2450 MHz at SAR 6.672 × 10−4 W/kg. At the end of the exposure period animals were sacrificed immediately and DNA damage in brain tissue was assessed using alkaline comet assay. Results: In the present study, we demonstrated DNA damaging effects of low level microwave radiation in brain. Conclusion: We concluded that low SAR microwave radiation exposure at these frequencies may induce DNA strand breaks in brain tissue. PMID:23833433

  17. Low-level visible light (LLVL) irradiation promotes proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lipovsky, Anat; Oron, Uri; Gedanken, Aharon; Lubart, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Low-level visible light irradiation was found to stimulate proliferation potential of various types of cells in vitro. Stem cells in general are of significance for implantation in regenerative medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low-level light irradiation on the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs were isolated from the bone marrow, and light irradiation was applied at energy densities of 2.4, 4.8, and 7.2 J/cm(2). Illumination of the MSCs resulted in almost twofold increase in cell number as compared to controls. Elevated reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production was also observed in MSCs cultures following illumination with broadband visible light. The present study clearly demonstrates the ability of broadband visible light illumination to promote proliferation of MSCs in vitro. These results may have an important impact on wound healing.

  18. Coherent interaction with two-level fluctuators using near field scanning microwave microscopy

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, S. E.; Danilov, A. V.; Kubatkin, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Near field Scanning Microwave Microscopy (NSMM) is a scanning probe technique that non-invasively can obtain material properties on the nano-scale at microwave frequencies. While focus has been on developing room-temperature systems it was recently shown that this technique can potentially reach the quantum regime, opening up for applications in materials science and device characterization in solid state quantum information processing. In this paper we theoretically investigate this new regime of NSMM. Specifically we show that interaction between a resonant NSMM probe and certain types of two-level systems become possible when the NSMM probe operates in the (sub-) single photon regime, and we expect a high signal-to-noise ratio if operated under the right conditions. This would allow to detect single atomic material defects with energy splittings in the GHz range with nano-scale resolution, provided that individual defects in the material under study are well enough separated. We estimate that this condition is fulfilled for materials with loss tangents below tan δ ∼ 10−3 which holds for materials used in today’s quantum circuits and devices where typically tan δ < 10−5. We also propose several extensions to a resonant NSMM that could improve sensitivity and functionality also for microscopes operating in a high power regime. PMID:26597218

  19. Coherent interaction with two-level fluctuators using near field scanning microwave microscopy.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, S E; Danilov, A V; Kubatkin, S E

    2015-11-24

    Near field Scanning Microwave Microscopy (NSMM) is a scanning probe technique that non-invasively can obtain material properties on the nano-scale at microwave frequencies. While focus has been on developing room-temperature systems it was recently shown that this technique can potentially reach the quantum regime, opening up for applications in materials science and device characterization in solid state quantum information processing. In this paper we theoretically investigate this new regime of NSMM. Specifically we show that interaction between a resonant NSMM probe and certain types of two-level systems become possible when the NSMM probe operates in the (sub-) single photon regime, and we expect a high signal-to-noise ratio if operated under the right conditions. This would allow to detect single atomic material defects with energy splittings in the GHz range with nano-scale resolution, provided that individual defects in the material under study are well enough separated. We estimate that this condition is fulfilled for materials with loss tangents below tan δ ∼ 10(-3) which holds for materials used in today's quantum circuits and devices where typically tan δ < 10(-5). We also propose several extensions to a resonant NSMM that could improve sensitivity and functionality also for microscopes operating in a high power regime.

  20. A low-level field effect transistor model for the design of microwave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvet, S.; Degout, R.; Obregon, J.

    1981-04-01

    A simplified model of a field effect transistor composed of R, L and C elements is presented for use in the design of active microwave circuits. The model is based on the equivalent circuit for an MES GaAs FET at low signal levels, with minor influences on circuit behavior neglected, and is determined by relating measured dispersion parameters in a particular frequency range with the equivalent circuit. The parameters of the model can then be optimized by computer so that the model verifies the preliminary dispersion measurements. An electrical model of an FET has been used in the definition of flat-constant-gain wideband microwave amplifiers operating in the regions 6-18 and 1-13 GHz by the decomposition of the model transfer function into three simple functions relative to the entrance circuit, the transconductance, and the exit circuit of the transistor. The use of an electrical model of the FET has been found to be a more rational and effective means of circuit design than the conventional black box FET representation.

  1. Monitoring PAI-1 and VEGF Levels in 6 Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Xenografts During Fractionated Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bayer, Christine; Kielow, Achim; Schilling, Daniela; Maftei, Constantin-Alin; Zips, Daniel; Yaromina, Ala; Baumann, Michael; Molls, Michael; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are regulated by hypoxia and irradiation and are involved in neoangiogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo whether changes in PAI-1 and VEGF during fractionated irradiation could predict for radiation resistance. Methods and Materials: Six xenografted tumor lines from human squamous cell carcinomas (HSCC) of the head and neck were irradiated with 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 daily fractions of 2 Gy. The PAI-1 and VEGF antigen levels in tumor lysates were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The amounts of PAI-1 and VEGF were compared with the dose to cure 50% of tumors (TCD{sub 50}). Colocalization of PAI-1, pimonidazole (hypoxia), CD31 (endothelium), and Hoechst 33342 (perfusion) was examined by immunofluorescence. Results: Human PAI-1 and VEGF (hVEGF) expression levels were induced by fractionated irradiation in UT-SCC-15, UT-SCC-14, and UT-SCC-5 tumors, and mouse VEGF (msVEGF) was induced only in UT-SCC-5 tumors. High hVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation sensitivity after 5 fractions (P=.021), and high msVEGF levels were significantly associated with radiation resistance after 10 fractions (P=.007). PAI-1 staining was observed in the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm of fibroblast-like stroma cells, and individual tumor cells at all doses of irradiation. Colocalization studies showed PAI-1 staining close to microvessels. Conclusions: These results indicate that the concentration of tumor-specific and host-specific VEGF during fractionated irradiation could provide considerably divergent information for the outcome of radiation therapy.

  2. Variation in cyclic nucleotide levels and lysosomal enzyme activities in the irradiated rat

    SciTech Connect

    Trocha, P.J.; Catravas, G.N.

    1980-09-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats causes not only a release of hydrolases from the lysosomes but also fluctuations in the cyclic nucleotide levels in spleen and liver tissues. Significant increases in lysosomal enzyme activities were further observed in spleen following radiation treatment. At 3 to 6 hr after rats were exposed to ..gamma.. radiation, transient increases in both cGMP and cAMP levels were accompanied with the release of ..beta..-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase enzymes from lysosomes in liver and spleen tissues. A second transitory release and activation of lysosomal hydrolases and an increase in cAMP levels occurred between 2 and 5 days after irradiation in spleen but not in liver. On Days 7 and 8, there was a third release of lysosomal hydrolases and a slight increase in the spleen cAMP concentration before they returned to near-control values. Cyclic GMP levels in the spleen decreased on the third day after irradiation, remained suppressed until Day 9, and then increased to levels higher than normal physiological values. The liver cGMP concentration remained unchanged between 9 hr and 11 days after irradiation.

  3. Identification of low level gamma-irradiation of meats by high sensitivity comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Saito, Akiko; Ito, Hitoshi; Toyoda, Masatake

    2002-03-01

    The detection of low levels of irradiation in meats (pork, beef, and chicken) using the new comet assay was investigated in order to assess the capability of the procedure. The new assay includes a process that improves its sensitivity to irradiation and a novel evaluation system for each slide (influence score and comet-type distribution). Samples used were purchased at retailers and were irradiated at 0.5 and 2kGy at 0°C. The samples were processed to obtain comets. Slides were evaluated by typing comets, calculating the influence score and analyzing the comet-type distribution chart of shown on the slide. Influence scores of beef, pork, and chicken at 0kGy were 287(SD=8.0), 305 (SD=12.9), and 320 (SD=21.0), respectively. Those at 500Gy, were 305 (SD=5.3), 347 (SD=10.6), and 364 (12.6), respectively. Irradiation levels in food were successfully determined. Sensitivity to irradiation differed among samples (chicken>pork>beef).

  4. Effects of intermittent flow and irradiance level on back reef Porites corals at elevated seawater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.W.; Birkeland, C.

    2007-01-01

    Corals inhabiting shallow back reef habitats are often simultaneously exposed to elevated seawater temperatures and high irradiance levels, conditions known to cause coral bleaching. Water flow in many tropical back reef systems is tidally influenced, resulting in semi-diurnal or diurnal flow patterns. Controlled experiments were conducted to test effects of semi-diurnally intermittent water flow on photoinhibition and bleaching of the corals Porites lobata and P. cylindrica kept at elevated seawater temperatures and different irradiance levels. All coral colonies were collected from a shallow back reef pool on Ofu Island, American Samoa. In the high irradiance experiments, photoinhibition and bleaching were less for both species in the intermittent high-low flow treatment than in the constant low flow treatment. In the low irradiance experiments, there were no differences in photoinhibition or bleaching for either species between the flow treatments, despite continuously elevated seawater temperatures. These results suggest that intermittent flow associated with semi-diurnal tides, and low irradiances caused by turbidity or shading, may reduce photoinhibition and bleaching of back reef corals during warming events. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-sacrificial templating synthesis of porous quaternary Cu-Fe-Sn-S semiconductor nanotubes via microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lunhong; Jiang, Jing

    2012-12-14

    Uniform quaternary Cu(2)FeSnS(4) (CITS) nanotubes of outer diameter 400-800 nm and thickness 100-200 nm have been synthesized for the first time by a simple, rapid and easily scaled-up microwave nonaqueous route using benzyl alcohol as the microwave absorbing solvent. An interesting in situ generated one-dimensional Cu(Tu)Cl nanorod acting as a self-sacrificial template was crucial for the formation of the well-defined CITS nanotubes. Based on the designed time-dependent experiments, a formation mechanism for the CITS nanotubes was also proposed. The resulting CITS nanotubes had a strong absorption in the visible region with a bandgap of 1.71 eV that was optimal for photovoltaic applications. Our study provided a microwave nonaqueous route generally applicable for the synthesis of quaternary chalcogenide semiconductor nanotubes.

  6. Effects of Altered Levels of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase and Irradiation on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Female Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yani; Leu, David; Chui, Jennifer; Fike, John R.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study. Methods and Materials: Female wild-type, EC-SOD-null (KO), and EC-SOD bigenic mice with neuronal-specific expression of EC-SOD (OE) were subjected to a single dose of 5-Gy gamma rays to the head at 8 weeks of age. Progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and long-term survival of newborn neurons were determined. Results: Similar to results from male mice, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation both resulted in significant reductions in mature newborn neurons in female mice. EC-SOD deficiency reduced long-term survival of newborn neurons whereas irradiation reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Overexpression of EC-SOD corrected the negative impacts from EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation and normalized the production of newborn neurons in OE mice. Expression of neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 were significantly reduced by irradiation in wild-type mice, but the levels were not changed in KO and OE mice even though both cohorts started out with a lower baseline level. Conclusion: In terms of hippocampal neurogenesis, EC-SOD deficiency and irradiation have the same overall effects in males and females at the age the studies were conducted.

  7. Low-level He-Ne laser in intravascular irradiation treatment of schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu-Xue; Fu, Zheng-Hua

    1998-11-01

    Intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation is a new therapy developed in recent years. In our hospital it was applied in the treatment and observation of 220 cases of schizophrenia, among which certain effect was achieved and about which the detail was collated and elaborated.

  8. Research of epidermal cellular vegetal cycle of intravascular low level laser irradiation in treatment of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Bao, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Mei-Jue

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To research epidermal cellular vegetal cycle and the difference of DNA content between pre and post Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation treatment of psoriasis. Method: 15 patients suffered from psoriasis were treated by intravascular low level laser irradiation (output power: 4-5mw, 1 hour per day, a course of treatment is 10 days). We checked the different DNA content of epidermal cell between pre and post treatment of psoriasis and 8 natural human. Then the percentage of each phase among the whole cellular cycle was calculated and the statistical analysis was made. Results: The mean value of G1/S phase is obviously down while G2+M phase increased obviously. T test P<0.05.The related statistical analysis showed significant difference between pre and post treatments. Conclusions: The Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis is effective according to the research of epidermal cellular vegetal cycle and the difference DNA content of Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation between pre and post treatment of psoriasis

  9. Deep levels induced by high fluence proton irradiation in undoped GaAs diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, A.; Cavallini, A.; Polenta, L.; Canali, C.; Nava, F.; Ferrini, R.; Galli, M.

    1998-12-31

    Semi-insulating liquid encapsulated Czochralski grown GaAs has been investigated after irradiation at high fluences of high-energy protons. Electron beam induced current observations of scanning electron microscopy evidenced a radiation stimulated ordering. An analysis has been carried out of the deep levels associated with defects as a function of the irradiation fluence, using complementary current transient spectroscopies. By increasing the irradiation fluence, the concentration of the native traps at 0.37 eV together with that of the EL2 defect significantly increases and, at the same time, two new electron traps at 0.15 eV and 0.18 eV arise and quickly increase in density.

  10. Low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle inflammation: evaluation of irradiation parameters.

    PubMed

    Mantineo, Matías; Pinheiro, João P; Morgado, António M

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of different irradiation parameters in low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for treating inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and analysis of muscle tissue. We used continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illuminations (830 nm). Animals were divided into five groups per wavelength (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mW), and a control group. LLLT was applied during 5 days with a constant irradiation time and area. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Inflammatory cells were counted using microscopy. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 Hz). For continuous irradiation, treatment effects occurred for all doses, with a reduction of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokines and inflammatory cells. Continuous irradiation at 830 nm was more effective, a result explained by the action spectrum of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). Best results were obtained for 40 mW, with data suggesting a biphasic dose response. Pulsed wave irradiation was only effective for higher frequencies, a result that might be related to the rate constants of the CCO internal electron transfer process.

  11. Low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle inflammation: evaluation of irradiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, Matías; Pinheiro, João P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of different irradiation parameters in low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for treating inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of rats through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and analysis of muscle tissue. We used continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illuminations (830 nm). Animals were divided into five groups per wavelength (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mW), and a control group. LLLT was applied during 5 days with a constant irradiation time and area. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Inflammatory cells were counted using microscopy. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 Hz). For continuous irradiation, treatment effects occurred for all doses, with a reduction of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokines and inflammatory cells. Continuous irradiation at 830 nm was more effective, a result explained by the action spectrum of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO). Best results were obtained for 40 mW, with data suggesting a biphasic dose response. Pulsed wave irradiation was only effective for higher frequencies, a result that might be related to the rate constants of the CCO internal electron transfer process.

  12. Low-level Ga-Al-As laser irradiation enhances osteoblast proliferation through activation of Hedgehog signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiushi; Qu, Zhou; Chen, Yingxin; Liu, Shujie; Zhou, Yanmin

    2014-12-01

    Low-level laser irradiation has been reported to promote bone formation, but the molecular mechanism is still unclear. Hedgehog signaling pathway has been reported to play an important role in promoting bone formation. The aim of the present study was to examine whether low-level Ga-Al-As laser (808 nm) irradiation could have an effect on Hedgehog signaling pathway during osteoblast proliferation in vitro. Mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 was cultured in vitro. The cultures after laser irradiation (3.75J/cm2) were treated with recombinant N-terminals Sonic Hedgehog (N-Shh)or Hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine (cy). The experiment was divided into 4 group, group 1:laser irradiation, group 2: laser irradiation and N-Shh, group 3: laser irradiation and cy, group 4:control with no laser irradiation. On day 1,2 and 3,cell proliferation was determined by cell counting, Cell Counting Kit-8.On 12 h and 24 h, cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Proliferation activity of laser irradiation and N-Shh group was remarkably increased compared with those of laser irradiation group. Proliferation activity of laser irradiation and cy group was remarkably decreased compared with those of laser irradiation group, however proliferation activity of laser irradiation and cy group was remarkably increased compared with those of control group. These results suggest that low-level Ga-Al-As laser irradiation activate Hedgehog signaling pathway during osteoblast proliferation in vitro. Hedgehog signaling pathway is one of the signaling pathways by which low-level Ga-Al-As laser irradiation regulates osteoblast proliferation.

  13. Microwave Limb Sounder Measurements Depicting the Relationship Between Nitrous Oxide Levels and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Aura's Microwave Limb Sounder measures nitrous oxide, which is unaffected by stratospheric chemical processes. By studying changes in its levels, scientists can better understand how air is moving around and how ozone is affected by that air motion, allowing them to differentiate those changes from the ones caused by chemical ozone destruction. In these cross-sections of nitrous oxide (top) and ozone (bottom) data from Aura, changes in the levels of these two chemicals at various temperatures and latitudes are depicted over time. The white contour shows the approximate location of the polar vortex boundary.

    The left panel data were collected on January 23, 2005, near the beginning of chemical ozone destruction this winter. Virtually all chemical loss occurred before March 10 (center panel). Ozone destruction extended throughout the polar vortex from about 15-20 kilometers (9-13 miles), but occurred only in the outer part of the vortex from 20-25 kilometers (13-16 miles). The differences between the two days are depicted in the right panel. The largest observed difference is about a 1.2 parts per million by volume decrease in ozone. Plots of nitrous oxide show a decrease in the region in the outer part of the vortex where most ozone loss occurs, indicating that air from above (where nitrous oxide is lower) has moved into this region. This downward motion brings higher ozone into the region where chemical loss is occurring, thus partially masking the effects of chemical loss. Calculations using Microwave Limb Sounder data to separate dynamical and chemical effects indicate maximum chemical ozone loss of approximately 2 parts per million by volume (approximately 60 percent) in the outer part of the vortex near 18-21 kilometers (11-13 miles), and approximately 1.5 parts per million by volume when averaged throughout the whole vortex region.

  14. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. The author has discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with X-rays also elevates ZPP two- to three-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12 to 14 post-irradiation and peaks between days 18 to 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 to 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms which cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  15. Chiral recyclable dimeric and polymeric Cr(III) salen complexes catalyzed aminolytic kinetic resolution of trans-aromatic epoxides under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kureshy, Rukhsana I; Prathap, K Jeya; Singh, Surendra; Agrawal, Santosh; Khan, Noor-Ul H; Abdi, Sayed H R; Jasra, Raksh V

    2007-11-01

    Aminolytic kinetic resolution (AKR) of trans-stilbene oxide and trans-beta-methyl styrene oxide proceeded smoothly under microwave irradiation using chiral dimeric and polymeric Cr(III) salen complexes as efficient catalysts, giving regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective anti-beta-amino alcohols in high yields (49%) and chiral purity (ee up to 94%) in case of 4-methylaniline within 2 min. The kinetic resolution system is approximately five times faster than traditional oil bath heating at 70 degrees C and 420 times faster than the reaction conducted at room temperature with concomitant recovery of respective chirally enriched epoxides (ee, 92%) in excellent yields (up to 48%). The catalyst 1 worked well in terms of enantioselectivity than the catalyst 2, but both the catalysts were easily recovered and reused five times with the retention of its efficiency.

  16. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoflakes prepared by one step microwave irradiation technique: Effect of Cu concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kandare, S. P.; Dhole, S. D.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dahiwale, S. S.

    2016-05-23

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) nanoflakes were synthesized in one step by microwave irradiation method. Controlling the secondary phases in Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS) material is critical, but it is necessary to control secondary phases in order to achieve the high efficiency solar cells made from CZTS. In the recent years, CZTS has shown its growing importance in thin film photovoltaic application because of its favorable optical and electrical properties. In this work, a systematic study has been carried out by properly controlling the copper concentration to get the pure phase of CZTS. X-ray diffraction shows the CZTS kesterite structure. Optical band gap estimated from UV-Visible spectroscopy was around 1.37eV. Systematic Raman study reveals the suppression of Cu{sub 2}S peak with variation in copper concentration which otherwise was not clear from XRD and UV-visible data.

  17. Microwave-irradiated preparation of reduced graphene oxide-Ni nanostructures and their enhanced performance for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hanxun; Qiu, Feilong; Han, Xuebin; Li, Jing; Yang, Junhe

    2017-06-01

    Here we report an environmentally friendly, one-pot strategy toward preparation of nickel nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene-oxide (Ni-RGO) nanostructures, by employing Ni(AC)2 as nickel source and ethylene glycol as both solvent and reducing agent via a facile microwave irradiation heating approach. The results show that Ni nanoparticles with an average diameter of around 40 nm are homogeneously anchored onto the surface of RGO sheets. As compared to the pure Ni nanoparticles and RGO sheets, Ni-RGO composites with over 64 wt% loading of Ni nanoparticles possess superior catalytic activities and selectivity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The corresponding kinetic reaction rate constant (defined as κ) is even four-fold compared to pure Ni nanoparticles. Such promising composites show great potential for friendly treatment of industrial waste containing nitrophenol in a simple, sustainable and green way.

  18. Efficient pallado-catalyzed C6-(het)arylation of Imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines under microwave irradiations.

    PubMed

    Pellegatti, Laurent; Vedrenne, Emeline; Leger, Jean-Michel; Jarry, Christian; Routier, Sylvain

    2010-07-12

    A versatile protocol for the preparation of a library of 5,6-(het)bisarylated imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazines is described. Target compounds were obtained in fairly good yields, starting from ethoxy-7-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazine and a large panel of bromoaryl derivatives, using palladium catalysis under microwave irradiation. Compatibility with various chemical groups and heterocycles was proven. Steric and electronic effects do not have any effect on the efficiency of the reaction. Purifications were performed without any difficulties, and the structure of a final compound was proven by crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  19. Effect of different sulphur precursors on morphology and band-gap on the formation of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) particles with microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, Bharati; Vijaylakshmi, S.; Sharma, Pratibha

    2016-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising semiconductor material for ecological cost effective thin film Photovoltaic (PV) devices. As it contains earth abundant and non-toxic elements, it has the advantages over commercially available CIGS and CdTe thin film PV devices. In the present work, the pure phase Cu2ZnSnS4 particles were successfully synthesised with microwave irradiation. The morphology and phase study was carried out for the samples prepared with two different sulphur precursors viz. thiourea and thioacetamide (TAA). CZTS particles with thiourea as sulphur precursor are more crystalline than CZTS particles with TAA. The band gap of 1.654eV and 1.713eV were calculated for the samples prepared with thiourea and TAA respectively.

  20. Testing zinc chloride as a new catalyst for direct synthesis of cellulose di- and tri-acetate in a solvent free system under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Ragab, Safaa; El Sikaily, Amany

    2016-10-20

    This research demonstrates the effect of ZnCl2 as a catalyst on the esterification of commercial cotton cellulose using acetic anhydride in order to obtain di- and tri-cellulose acetates under microwave irradiation. It was discovered that microwave irradiation significantly increased the yield and reduced the reaction time. It was found that the maximum yield for cellulose triacetates was 95.83% under the reaction conditions that were as follows: 3min reaction time, 200mg of ZnCl2 catalyst and 20ml of Ac2O for 5g cellulose. However, the cellulose acetate obtained in this manner had the highest DS (2.87). The cellulose di-acetate was produced with the maximum yield of 89.97% and with the highest DS (2.69) using 25ml Ac2O, 200mg of ZnCl2 for 5g cellulose and in 3min reaction time. The effect of some factors such as the amount of used catalyst, the quantity of acetic acid anhydride and the reaction time of the esterification process have been investigated. The production of di- and tri-cellulose acetate and the degree of substitution were confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal stability was investigated using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The molecular weight and the degree of polymerization were obtained using Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The analysis confirmed the successful synthesis of di- and tri-cellulose acetate without degradation during the reaction; these results were found to be in contrast to some recent studies. The present study reveals that ZnCl2 is a new catalyst; it is effective as well as inexpensive and is a low toxicity catalyst for usage in cellulose esterification.

  1. [Levels of the electromagnetic field in the vicinity of therapeutic devices using radiofrequency and microwaves].

    PubMed

    Scandurra, G

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an analysis made on the electromagnetic field levels around RF and MW equipment used for medical purposes to achieve induced thermogenesis in body areas affected by disease. An irradiation diagram was constructed for some of the most widely used devices in clinical practice and measurements were made on RF devices to identify the influence of obstacles in determining electric field levels, such as accessories or persons present in the working environment. Electric field and power density levels were checked, as can be measured at a distance of 100 cm at identical selected power during a typical "lumbar-dorsal spine" treatment using different types of RF and MW devices, to identify the different degree of electromagnetic pollution that each of the devices causes.

  2. Selection of Lipases for the Synthesis of Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil and the Potential of Microwave Irradiation to Enhance the Reaction Rate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel by transesterification of Jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas L.) with ethanol in a solvent-free system. Seven commercial lipase preparations immobilized by covalent attachment on epoxy-polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol composite (epoxy-SiO2-PVA) were tested as biocatalysts. Among them, immobilized lipases from Pseudomonas fluorescens (lipase AK) and Burkholderia cepacia (lipase PS) were the most active biocatalysts in biodiesel synthesis, reaching ethyl ester yields (FAEE) of 91.1 and 98.3% at 72 h of reaction, respectively. The latter biocatalyst exhibited similar performance compared to Novozym® 435. Purified biodiesel was characterized by different techniques. Transesterification reaction carried out under microwave irradiation exhibited higher yield and productivity than conventional heating. The operational stability of immobilized lipase PS was determined in repeated batch runs under conventional and microwave heating systems, revealing half-life times of 430.4 h and 23.5 h, respectively. PMID:27868060

  3. ß-Ga2O3 nanorod synthesis with a one-step microwave irradiation hydrothermal method and its efficient photocatalytic degradation for perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baoxiu; Li, Xiang; Yang, Long; Wang, Fen; Li, Jincheng; Xia, Wenxiang; Li, Weijiang; Zhou, Li; Zhao, Colin

    2015-01-01

    ß-Ga2O3 nanorod was first directly prepared by the microwave irradiation hydrothermal way without any subsequent heat treatments, and its characterizations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy techniques, and also its photocatalytic degradation for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was investigated. XRD patterns revealed that ß-Ga2O3 crystallization increased with the enhancement of microwave power and the adding of active carbon (AC). PFOA, as an environmental and persistent pollutant, is hard decomposed by hydroxyl radicals (HO·); however, it is facilely destroyed by ß-Ga2O3 photocatalytic reaction in an anaerobic atmosphere. The important factors such as pH, ß-Ga2O3 dosage and bubbling atmosphere were researched, and the degradation and defluorination was 98.8% and 56.2%, respectively. Reductive atmosphere reveals that photoinduced electron may be the major reactant for PFOA. Furthermore, the degradation kinetics for PFOA was simulated and constant and half-life was calculated, respectively. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. Therapeutic and diagnostic set for irradiation the cell lines in low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryko, Lukasz; Zajac, Andrzej; Gilewski, Marian; Szymanska, Justyna; Goralczyk, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    In the paper is presented optoelectronic diagnostic set for standardization the biostimulation procedures performed on cell lines. The basic functional components of the therapeutic set are two digitally controlled illuminators. They are composed of the sets of semiconductor emitters - medium power laser diodes and high power LEDs emitting radiation in wide spectral range from 600 nm to 1000 nm. Emitters are coupled with applicator by fibre optic and optical systems that provides uniform irradiation of vessel with cell culture samples. Integrated spectrometer and optical power meter allow to control the energy and spectral parameters of electromagnetic radiation during the Low Level Light Therapy procedure. Dedicated power supplies and digital controlling system allow independent power of each emitter . It was developed active temperature stabilization system to thermal adjust spectral line of emitted radiation to more efficient association with absorption spectra of biological acceptors. Using the set to controlled irradiation and allowing to measure absorption spectrum of biological medium it is possible to carry out objective assessment the impact of the exposure parameters on the state cells subjected to Low Level Light Therapy. That procedure allows comparing the biological response of cell lines after irradiation with radiation of variable spectral and energetic parameters. Researches were carried out on vascular endothelial cell lines. Cells proliferations after irradiation of LEDs: 645 nm, 680 nm, 740 nm, 780 nm, 830 nm, 870 nm, 890 nm, 970 nm and lasers 650 nm and 830 nm were examined.

  5. Large lattice relaxation deep levels in neutron-irradiated GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Zhang, J. D.; Beling, C. D.; Wang, K.; Wang, R. X.; Gong, M.; Sarkar, C. K.

    2005-11-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) measurements have been carried out in neutron-irradiated n-type hydride-vapor-phase-epitaxy-grown GaN. A defect center characterized by a DLTS line, labeled as N1, is observed at EC-ET=0.17 eV. Another line, labeled as N2, at EC-ET=0.23 eV, seems to be induced at the same rate as N1 under irradiation and may be identified with E1. Other defects native to wurtzite GaN such as the C and E2 lines appear to enhance under neutron irradiation. The DLOS results show that the defects N1 and N2 have large Frank-Condon shifts of 0.64 and 0.67 eV, respectively, and hence large lattice relaxations. The as-grown and neutron-irradiated samples all exhibit the persistent photoconductivity effect commonly seen in GaN that may be attributed to DX centers. The concentration of the DX centers increases significantly with neutron dosage and is helpful in sustaining sample conductivity at low temperatures, thus making possible DLTS measurements on N1 an N2 in the radiation-induced deep-donor defect compensated material which otherwise are prevented by carrier freeze-out.

  6. P-type nitrogen-doped ZnO nanostructures with controlled shape and doping level by facile microwave synthesis.

    PubMed

    Herring, Natalie P; Panchakarla, Leela S; El-Shall, M Samy

    2014-03-04

    We report herein the development of a facile microwave irradiation (MWI) method for the synthesis of high-quality N-doped ZnO nanostructures with controlled morphology and doping level. We present two different approaches for the MWI-assisted synthesis of N-doped ZnO nanostructures. In the first approach, N-doping of Zn-poor ZnO prepared using zinc peroxide (ZnO2) as a precursor is carried out under MWI in the presence of urea as a nitrogen source and oleylamine (OAm) as a capping agent for the shape control of the resulting N-doped ZnO nanostructures. Our approach utilizes the MWI process for the decomposition of ZnO2, where the rapid transfer of energy directly to ZnO2 can cause an instantaneous internal temperature rise and, thus, the activation energy for the ZnO2 decomposition is essentially decreased as compared to the decomposition under conductive heating. In the second synthesis method, a one-step synthesis of N-doped ZnO nanostructures is achieved by the rapid decomposition of zinc acetate in a mixture of urea and OAm under MWI. We demonstrate, for the first time, that MWI decomposition of zinc acetate in a mixture of OAm and urea results in the formation of N-doped nanostructures with controlled shape and N-doping level. We report a direct correlation between the intensity of the Raman scattering bands in N-doped ZnO and the concentration of urea used in the synthesis. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate the successful synthesis of stable p-type N-doped ZnO nanostructures using the one-step MWI synthesis and, therefore, allow us to investigate, for the first time, the relationship between the doping level and morphology of the ZnO nanostructures. The results provide strong evidence for the control of the electrical behavior and the nanostructured shapes of ZnO nanoparticles using the facile MWI synthesis method developed in this work.

  7. Application of D-optimal design to extract the pectin from lime bagasse using microwave green irradiation.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambandham, K; Sivakumar, V

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to extract the pectin from lime bagasse under various extraction conditions such as microwave power, extraction time, temperature, pH and mass of the sample. RSM coupled with D-optimal experimental design was used to optimize and investigate the extraction conditions on the pectin yield. Second order polynomial equation was developed and its adequacy was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimal extraction was found to be as follows; microwave power of 400 W, extraction time of 500 s, temperature of 30 °C, pH of 1 and mass of the sample of 6g. Under these optimal scheme, 7.8 g/100g of pectin was extracted. Molecular weight of the pectin polymer and the distribution of the pectin compounds were determined by gel filtration chromatography.

  8. A process to preserve valuable compounds and acquire essential oils from pomelo flavedo using a microwave irradiation treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zaizhi; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    A microwave pretreatment method was developed to preserve pectin, naringin, and limonin contents in pomelo flavedo to allow for longer storage times and subsequent extraction of pomelo essential oil. In terms of the essential oil, microwave pretreatment performed better than hydrodistillation with respect to extraction efficiency (1.88±0.06% in 24min versus 1.91±0.08% in 240min), oxygenation fraction (48.59±1.32% versus 29.63±1.02%), energy consumption (0.15kWh versus 1.54kWh), and environmental impact (123.20g CO2 versus 1232g CO2). Microwave-pretreated samples retained higher amounts of pectin, naringin, and limonin compared with non-pretreated samples. No obvious change in the degree of pectin esterification was observed. This study shows that the proposed process is a promising methodology for both preserving valuable compounds in pomelo flavedo during storage and acquiring essential oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of bio-diesel production from soybean and wastes of cooked oil: combining dielectric microwave irradiation and a SrO catalyst.

    PubMed

    Koberg, Miri; Abu-Much, Riam; Gedanken, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    This work offers an optimized method in the transesterification of pristine (soybean) oil and cooked oil to bio-diesel, based on microwave dielectric irradiation as a driving force for the transesterification reaction and SrO as a catalyst. This combination has demonstrated excellent catalytic activity and stability. The transesterification was carried out with and without stirring. According to 1H NMR spectroscopy and TLC results, this combination accelerates the reaction (to less than 60 s), maintaining a very high conversion (99%) and high efficiency. The catalytic activity of SrO under atmospheric pressure in the presence of air and under the argon atmosphere is demonstrated. The optimum conversion of cooked oil (99.8%) is achieved under MW irradiation of 1100 W output with magnetic stirring after only 10 s. The optimum method decreases the cost of bio-diesel production and has the potential for industrial application in the transesterification of cooked oil to bio-diesel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid synthesis of flower-like Cu2O architectures in ionic liquids by the assistance of microwave irradiation with high photochemical activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Kuo; Guo, Xuan; Wang, Yang; Huang, Fang-Zhi; Shen, Yu-Hua; Wang, Xue-Mei; Xie, An-Jian

    2011-07-07

    A novel and facile protocol for the rapid synthesis of flower-like Cu(2)O architectures is reported in the presence of ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]BF(4)) with the assistance of microwave irradiation. The hierarchical structures are assembled from many thin nanosheets with tunable sizes by adjusting the amount of [BMIM]BF(4) in the reaction solution. Noticeably, the flower-like Cu(2)O architectures present a high surface area of 65.77 cm(2) g(-1) with a band gap of about 2.25 eV, and exhibit high and stable photochemical activity for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) under visible light irradiation. A reasonable model of an absorption and diffusion-limited aggregation process is proposed for explaining the possible formation mechanism of the flower-like Cu(2)O. The approach described in this study provides a feasible and rapid method to synthesize flower-like Cu(2)O with a hierarchical structure that is ready for application in the fields of photocatalytic hazard pollutants. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  11. Confirmation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generated in the presence of TiO2 supported on AC under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohong; Yu, Fengyang; Huang, Lirong; Jiatieli, Jianaerguli; Li, Yuanyuan; Song, Lijun; Yu, Ning; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-08-15

    In order to study the degradation mechanism of technology of microwave (MW) combined with TiO2 supported on activated carbon (TiO2/AC), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) was explored through oxidation of 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). Furthermore, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), Mannitol (MT) and Vitamin C (VC) were used as radical scavengers to confirm the generation of the hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH). In addition, the influence of some parameters such as TiO2 mass ratio content, irradiation time, material dose, DPCI concentration and MW power on the determination of (•)OH were examined. The results showed that the (•)OH could be generated under MW combined with loaded TiO2/AC. Also, anatase TiO2/AC can generate more (•)OH radicals than rutile TiO2/AC under MW irradiation. This work would provide new mechanistic insights on the enhanced degradation effect of organic pollutants in water using the supported TiO2/AC coupled with MW technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Is there a stimulation of blood microcirculation at low level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatkin, Dmitry; Dunaev, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    In 1980-2000 besides the laser surgery an intensive evolution of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) had started in medicine, especially in Russia as well as in several other East-European countries. At the same time the biophysical mechanisms of LLLT are still the subject of disputes. One of the most popular clinical effects at Low Level Laser Irradiation (LLLI) being mentioned in medical publications for justification of the LLLT healing outcome is a stimulation of blood microcirculation in irradiated area. It was declared a priori at a dawn of LLLT and is now a basis of medical interpretation of healing mechanisms of LLLT at least in Russia. But in past 20 years a lot of investigation was carried out on optical registration of microhaemodynamic parameters in vivo as well as a number of noninvasive diagnostic tools was created for that. So, today it is possible to experimentally check the blood microcirculation stimulation hypothesis. Our study was aimed on that during the past 10 years. The most precision and accurate experiments we have carried out recently using simultaneously three different noninvasive diagnostic techniques: Laser Doppler Flowmetry, Tissue Reflectance Oximetry and Infrared Thermography. All these methods didn't confirm the effect on the blood microcirculation stimulation in skin or mucosa at irradiation with the power density below 50 mW/cm2 and irradiation time up to 5-6 minutes. Above this threshold the heating on 0,8…1 °C of tissue in the field of irradiation and the corresponding synchronous increase of all parameters of microhemodynamics were observed.

  13. Effect of low-level laser irradiation on odontoblast-like cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. F.; Hebling, J.; Souza, P. P. C.; Sacono, N. T.; Lessa, F. R.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Costa, C. A. S.

    2008-09-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT), also referred to as therapeutic laser, has been recommended for a wide array of clinical procedures, among which the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. However, the mechanism that guides this process remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of LLL irradiation on cell metabolism (MTT assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and total protein synthesis. The expression of genes that encode for collagen type-1 (Col-1) and fibronectin (FN) was analyzed by RT-PCR. For such purposes, odontoblast-like cell line (MDPC-23) was previously cultured in Petri dishes (15000 cells/cm2) and submitted to stress conditions during 12 h. Thereafter, 6 applications with a monochromatic near infrared radiation (GaAlAs) set at predetermined parameters were performed at 12-h intervals. Non-irradiated cells served as a control group. Neither the MTT values nor the total protein levels of the irradiated group differed significantly from those of the control group (Mann-Whitney test; p > 0.05). On the other hand, the irradiated cells showed a decrease in ALP activity (Mann-Whitney test; p < 0.05). RT-PCR results demonstrated a trend to a specific reduction in gene expression after cell irradiation, though not significant statistically (Mann-Whitney test; p > 0.05). It may be concluded that, under the tested conditions, the LLLT parameters used in the present study did not influence cell metabolism, but reduced slightly the expression of some specific proteins.

  14. Impact of proton irradiation on deep level states in n-GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R.; Cinkilic, E.; Ringel, S. A.; Chen, J.; Zhang, E. X.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Schrimpf, R. D.; McSkimming, B.; Speck, J. S.

    2013-07-22

    Deep levels in 1.8 MeV proton irradiated n-type GaN were systematically characterized using deep level transient spectroscopies and deep level optical spectroscopies. The impacts of proton irradiation on the introduction and evolution of those deep states were revealed as a function of proton fluences up to 1.1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}. The proton irradiation introduced two traps with activation energies of E{sub C} - 0.13 eV and 0.16 eV, and a monotonic increase in the concentration for most of the pre-existing traps, though the increase rates were different for each trap, suggesting different physical sources and/or configurations for these states. Through lighted capacitance voltage measurements, the deep levels at E{sub C} - 1.25 eV, 2.50 eV, and 3.25 eV were identified as being the source of systematic carrier removal in proton-damaged n-GaN as a function of proton fluence.

  15. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on radiosensitivity of mammals: modeling and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O. A.; Yonezawa, M.

    Effects of low dose rate chronic irradiation on radiosensitivity of mammals mice are studied by experimental and modeling methods Own and reference experiments show that priming chronic low-level short-term and long-term exposures to radiation induce respectively elevated radiosensitivity and lowered radiosensitivity radioresistance in mice The manifestation of these radiosensitization and radioprotection effects are respectively increased and decreased mortality of preirradiated specimens after challenge acute irradiation in comparison with those for previously unexposed ones Taking into account that the reason of the animal death in the experiments was the hematopoietic syndrome the biophysical models of the critical body system hematopoiesis are used to simulate the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lines in mice exposed to challenge acute irradiation following the chronic one Juxtaposition of the modeling results obtained and the relevant experimental data shows that the radiosensitization effect of chronic low-level short-term less than 1 month preirradiation on mice is due to increased radiosensitivity of lymphopoietic granulocytopoietic and erythropoietic systems accompanied by increased or close to the normal level radiosensitivity of thrombocytopoietic system which are induced by the above-indicated exposure In turn the radioprotection effect of chronic low-level long-term more than 1 month preirradiation on mice is caused by decreased radiosensitivity radioresistance of the granulocytopoietic system which

  16. Dynamics of a three-level V-type atom driven by a cavity photon and microwave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-Li, Xue; Shi-Deng, Zhu; Ju, Liu; Ting-Hui, Xiao; Bao-Hua, Feng; Zhi-Yuan, Li

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the dynamics of a three-level V-type atom driven simultaneously by a cavity photon and microwave field by examining the atomic population evolution. Owing to the coupling effect of the cavity photon, periodical oscillation of the population between the two upper states and the ground state takes place, which is the well-known vacuum Rabi oscillation. Meanwhile, the population exchange between the upmost level and the middle level can occur due to the driving action of the external microwave field. The general dynamic behavior is the superposition of a fast and a slow periodical oscillation under the cooperative and competitive effect of the cavity photon and the microwave field. Numerical results demonstrate that the time evolution of the population is strongly dependent on the atom-cavity coupling coefficient g and Rabi frequency Ω e that reflects the intensity of the external microwave field. By modulating the two parameters g and Ω e, a large number of population transfer behaviors can be achieved. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434017 and 11374357) and the National Basics Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB632704).

  17. In vitro analysis of low-level laser irradiation on human osteoblast-like cells proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloise, Nora; Saino, Enrica; Bragheri, Francesca; Minzioni, Paolo; Cristiani, Ilaria; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro effect of a single or a multiple doses of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on proliferation of the human osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS-2. SAOS-2 cells were divided in five groups and exposed to LLLI (659 nm diode laser; 11 mW power output): group I as a control (dark), group II exposed to a single laser dose of 1 J/cm2, group III irradiated with a single dose of 3 J/cm2, and group IV and V exposed for three consecutive days to 1 or 3 J/cm², respectively. Cellular proliferation was assessed daily up to 7 days of culturing. The obtained results showed an increase in proliferative capacity of SAOS-2 cells during the first 96 h of culturing time in once-irradiated cells, as compared to control cells. Furthermore, a significantly higher proliferation in the group IV and V was detected if compared to a single dose or to control group after 96 h and 7 days. In conclusion, the effect of the single dose on cell proliferation was transitory and repeated irradiations were necessary to observe a strong enhancement of SAOS-2 growth. As a future perspective, we would like to determine the potential of LLLI as a new approach for promoting bone regeneration onto biomaterials.

  18. Alternatives to dose, quality factor and dose equivalent for low level irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sondhaus, C.A.; Bond, V.P.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    Randomly occurring energy deposition events produced by low levels of ionizing radiation interacting with tissue deliver variable amounts of energy to the sensitive target volumes within a small fraction of the cell population. A model is described in which an experimentally derived function relating event size to cell response probability operates mathematically on the microdosimetric event size distribution characterizing a given irradiation and thus determines the total fractional number of responding cells; this fraction measures the effectiveness of the given radiation. Normalizing to equal numbers of events produced by different radiations and applying this cell response or hit size effectiveness function (HSEF) should define radiation quality, or relative effectiveness, on a more nearly absolute basis than do the absorbed dose and dose evaluation, which are confounded when applied to low level irradiations. Examples using both calculation and experimental data are presented. 15 refs., 18 figs.

  19. High-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes proliferation and migration of primary cultured human gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ejiri, Kenichiro; Aoki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    In periodontal therapy, the use of low-level diode lasers has recently been considered to improve wound healing of the gingival tissue. However, its effects on human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to examine whether high-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation stimulates key cell responses in wound healing, proliferation and migration, in primary cultured HGECs in vitro. HGECs were derived from seven independent gingival tissue specimens. Cultured HGECs were exposed to a single session of high-frequency (30 kHz) low-level diode laser irradiation with various irradiation time periods (fluence 5.7-56.7 J/cm(2)). After 20-24 h, cell proliferation was evaluated by WST-8 assay and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assay, and cell migration was monitored by in vitro wound healing assay. Further, phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways after irradiation was investigated by Western blotting. The high-frequency low-level irradiation significantly increased cell proliferation and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation at various irradiation time periods. Migration of the irradiated cells was significantly accelerated compared with the nonirradiated control. Further, the low-level diode laser irradiation induced phosphorylation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) at 5, 15, 60, and 120 min after irradiation. Stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK remained un-phosphorylated. The results show that high-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes HGEC proliferation and migration in association with the activation of MAPK/ERK, suggesting that laser irradiation may accelerate gingival wound healing.

  20. Level crossing analysis of cosmic microwave background radiation: a method for detecting cosmic strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadegh Movahed, M.; Khosravi, Shahram

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we study the footprint of cosmic string as the topological defects in the very early universe on the cosmic microwave background radiation. We develop the method of level crossing analysis in the context of the well-known Kaiser-Stebbins phenomenon for exploring the signature of cosmic strings. We simulate a Gaussian map by using the best fit parameter given by WMAP-7 and then superimpose cosmic strings effects on it as an incoherent and active fluctuations. In order to investigate the capability of our method to detect the cosmic strings for the various values of tension, Gμ, a simulated pure Gaussian map is compared with that of including cosmic strings. Based on the level crossing analysis, the superimposed cosmic string with Gμgtrsim4 × 10-9 in the simulated map without instrumental noise and the resolution R = 1' could be detected. In the presence of anticipated instrumental noise the lower bound increases just up to Gμgtrsim5.8 × 10-9.

  1. Level crossing analysis of cosmic microwave background radiation: a method for detecting cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Movahed, M. Sadegh; Khosravi, Shahram E-mail: khosravi@ipm.ir

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we study the footprint of cosmic string as the topological defects in the very early universe on the cosmic microwave background radiation. We develop the method of level crossing analysis in the context of the well-known Kaiser-Stebbins phenomenon for exploring the signature of cosmic strings. We simulate a Gaussian map by using the best fit parameter given by WMAP-7 and then superimpose cosmic strings effects on it as an incoherent and active fluctuations. In order to investigate the capability of our method to detect the cosmic strings for the various values of tension, Gμ, a simulated pure Gaussian map is compared with that of including cosmic strings. Based on the level crossing analysis, the superimposed cosmic string with Gμ∼>4 × 10{sup −9} in the simulated map without instrumental noise and the resolution R = 1' could be detected. In the presence of anticipated instrumental noise the lower bound increases just up to Gμ∼>5.8 × 10{sup −9}.

  2. Microwave short-pulse bed-level detector. Annual report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Balanis, C.A.; Delauder, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    A short-pulse microwave system for measuring the bed-level within a fluidized-bed combustor, has been designed, built, and laboratory tested on static beds. The system is a short-pulse radar which operates in the frequency region of 6.75 to 10.95 GHz as a time-domain measurement system. Laboratory measurements of static bed-levels, for smooth and corrugated surfaces of metal plates and limestone sand, agree to an average of 2.0% of the actual heights. Additionally, the system was tested with a dielectric thermal protector, which did not compromise the accuracy of the measurements. Analytical models have been formulated to provide insight into the operation of the system on a wide range of simulated targets without the necessity of performing expensive and difficult laboratory experiments. Two formulations have been used to describe electromagnetic scattering by a rough surface as a function of frequency: the space harmonic model and the physical optics model. A reconstruction technique has been devised which uses the scattering models and the spectrum of the transmitted pulse to synthesize the reflected pulse. The data generated by the models compare well to previously published data and to experimental results.

  3. The neuroprotective effects of intravascular low level laser irradiation on cerebral ischemia rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yongming; Lu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhongguang; Jiang, Jiyao

    2005-07-01

    The effects of intravascular low level laser irradiation of He-Ne on rat MCAo-induced cerebral injury were studied. The results showed that control rats (subjected to MCAo injury without laser treatment) at 7d exhibited striatal and cortical brain infarction in the right hemisphere from approximately 3 to 11mm from the front pole. the total infarct volume in this group was 34.5+/-8.1mm3. For experimental rats (with laser management), the total infarct volume was 29.0+/-9.0mm3. P was gained less than 0.05. The neurological score of control group was 4.7+/-0.6 and it was 5.2+/-1.0 in experimental group, comparison by statistical analysis showed P less than 0.05. The cerebral pathological damages in the control group were more severe than in experimental group. We concluded that the intravascular low level laser irradiation has no remarked complication and is helpful to reduce ischemic damage. There is clinically potential for the application of intravascular He-Ne low level laser irradiation in ischemia stroke.

  4. Level-crossing enhancement of the microwave ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Bayfield, J.E.; Luie, S.Y.

    1993-05-01

    For quasi one-dimensional atoms, we have observed oscillatory ionization probability as a function of microwave field strength, well below the threshold for classical chaos. This occurs within the microwave/Kepler frequency ratio rage 0.45-0.56. A Landau-Zener model modified to include ionizations of one quasienergy eigenstate can fit the data, there are Stuckelberg oscillations arising from occurring during the rise and fall of pulse. Varying the principal quantum number of the atom reveals a large degree of classical scaling, indicating that the quasienergy states involved are largely semiclassical. Observable changes in the data can result from a 0.2% change in microwave frequency.

  5. Preventive and therapeutic effects of low level laser irradiation on gentamicin vestibulotoxicity in rat utricle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Oh, Yang Hee; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Jung, Min-Sang; Kim, Yeong-Sik; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of low level laser (LLL) irradiation for the prevention and treatment of aminoglycoside-induced vestibular ototoxicity. Materials and Methods: An organotypic culture of 2 to 4 days old rat utricular maculae hair cells was used. The cultured utricular hair cells were divided into 6 groups. Group C: the hair cells were cultured for 14 days. Group G: cultured hair cells were treated with 1 mM gentamicin (GM) for 48 hours. Group L: LLL irradiation with 670 nm diode laser 3 mW/cm2 for 60 min (10.8 J/cm2)/day for 14 days. Group LG: LLL irradiation 10.8 J/ cm2/day for 2 days followed by GM insult. Group GL: treated with GM and followed by LLL irradiation 10.8 J/ cm2/day for 12 days. LGL group: LLL irradiation 10.8 J/ cm2/day for 2 days, then GM insulted, followed by the LLLT 10.8 J/ cm2/day for 10 days. The hair cells in each group were examined and counted by confocal laser scanning electron microscope on 7th and 14th days after FM1-43 staining and observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: The number of vestibular hair cells of group G was significantly less than those in group C. Group L showed no difference compared to group C. Significantly higher numbers of cells were seen in Group LG and GL comparing to group G. The cells were more in LG than group GL. Group LGL showed the most vestibular hair cells compared to the G, LG, and GL groups. SEM showed damaged hair cells in group G while they were well preserved in groups C, L, LG, GL, and LGL. Conclusion: LLL irradiation before and after GM insult on utricular hair cells were most effective to prevent and treat GM ototoxicity. This study indicates that LLL irradiation may have clinical implications to treat various vestibular and cochlear inner ear diseases.

  6. Molten salt-supported polycondensation of optically active diacid monomers with an aromatic thiazole-bearing diamine using microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Mallakpour, Shadpour; Zadehnazari, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Microwave heating was used to prepare optically active thiazole-bearing poly(amide-imide)s. Polymerization reactions were carried out in the molten tetrabutylammonium bromide as a green molten salt medium and triphenyl phosphite as the homogenizer. Structural elucidation of the compounds was performed by Fourier transform infrared and NMR spectroscopic data and elemental analysis results. The polymeric samples were readily soluble in various organic solvents, forming low-colored and flexible thin films via solution casting. They showed high thermal stability with decomposition temperature being above 360 °C. They were assembled randomly in a nanoscale size. PMID:25685498

  7. Effect of output power, target temperature, and solid concentration on the solubilization of waste activated sludge using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Park, Woon-Ji; Ahn, Johng-Hwa; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Chan-Ki

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we quantify the effect of heating pretreatment on the degree of solubilization of waste activated sludge. The pretreatment process was carried out using a lab-scale industrial microwave unit (2450 MHz frequency). Response surface analysis was applied to determine the combination of output power (400-1600 W), target temperature (60-120 degrees C), and total solid concentration (1-3% total solid (TS)). The power, temperature, and TS concentration significantly affected the solubilization degree of sludge. Within the design boundaries, the conditions predicted to maximize the solubilization degree of 17.9% were determined to be 400 W, 102 degrees C, and 2.3% TS.

  8. Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration with up-regulation of dynamin II expression.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Miao-Sui; Chen, Ying-Hsun; Liang, Fang-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used to treat sports-related tendinopathy or tendon injury. Tendon healing requires tenocyte migration to the repair site, followed by proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. This study was designed to determine the effect of laser on tenocyte migration. Furthermore, the correlation between this effect and expression of dynamin 2, a positive regulator of cell motility, was also investigated. Tenocytes intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with low-level laser (660 nm with energy density at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 J/cm(2)). Tenocyte migration was evaluated by an in vitro wound healing model and by transwell filter migration assay. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were determined by reverse transcription/real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and Western blot analysis respectively. Immunofluorescence staining was used to evaluate the dynamin 2 expression in tenocytes. Tenocytes with or without laser irradiation was treated with dynasore, a dynamin competitor and then underwent transwell filter migration assay. In vitro wound model revealed that more tenocytes with laser irradiation migrated across the wound border to the cell-free zone. Transwell filter migration assay confirmed that tenocyte migration was enhanced dose-dependently by laser. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analysis demonstrated that mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were up-regulated by laser irradiation dose-dependently. Confocal microscopy showed that laser enhanced the expression of dynamin 2 in cytoplasm of tenocytes. The stimulation effect of laser on tenocytes migration was suppressed by dynasore. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration in a process that is mediated by up-regulation of dynamin 2, which can be suppressed by dynasore.

  9. Microwave-assisted methanolysis of green coffee oil.

    PubMed

    Oigman, S S; de Souza, R O M A; Dos Santos Júnior, H M; Hovell, A M C; Hamerski, L; Rezende, C M

    2012-09-15

    Optimisation of a microwave-assisted methanolysis was performed to obtain cafestol and kahweol directly from green coffee oil (Coffea arabica). A two-factor (the methanolysis period and temperature), three-level, factorial experimental design (3(2)) was adopted. The methanolysis procedure was performed under microwave irradiation, using closed vessel and accurate fast responding internal fibre-optic temperature probe. The effects on the responses were measured by HPLC. After 3 min of microwave irradiation (hold time) at 100°C, with 500 mg of green coffee oil, a yield higher than 99% was obtained. The yield of this reaction is 26% after 2h when working under conventional heating. The methods described in the literature lead to long reaction times, poor yields and formation of side products. The microwave-assisted technique proved to be faster, avoided undesired side products and gave better conversion, when compared to conventional heating process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The intravascular low level laser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis clinically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Nie, Fan; Shi, Hong-Min

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The title is research curative effect of intravascular low level laser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis. Method: 478 patients with psoriasis from five groups to observe their efficacy. Group1 were treated by He-Ne laser combined with drug. Group 2 were treated by semi-conductor laser combined with drug. Group 3 were treated only by He-He laser. Group 4 were treated by semi-conductor laser. Group 5 were treated only by drug. The Ridit statistical analysis was applied to all of these data. The treatment of intravascular low level laser irradiation is as follow: laser power:4-5mw, 1 hour per day and 10 days as a period combined with vit C 2.0 g iv and inhalation of O2. Results: The clinical results: the near efficient rate was 100%, in group1-4, if combined with drugs it would be better. Ridit statistical analysis showed no significant difference between group1-4, p>0.05. The efficient rate 72.97% in group5.There were showed very significant difference with group1-4, p<0.01. 2.There were no significant differences between He-Ne laser (632.8nm) and semiconductor laser(650nm); 3.The efficacy of ILLLI in psoriasis was positive correlation to the ILLLI times. Conclusions: It can improve curative effect of intravascular low levellaser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis.

  11. Pyrimethanil degradation by photo-Fenton process: Influence of iron and irradiance level on treatment cost.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Reina, A; Miralles-Cuevas, S; Casas López, J L; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2017-12-15

    This study evaluates the combined effect of photo-catalyst concentration and irradiance level on photo-Fenton efficiency when this treatment is applied to industrial wastewater decontamination. Three levels of irradiance (18, 32 and 46W/m(2)) and three iron concentrations (8, 20 and 32mg/L) were selected and their influence over the process studied using a raceway pond reactor placed inside a solar box. For 8mg/L, it was found that there was a lack of catalyst to make use of all the available photons. For 20mg/L, the treatment always improved with irradiance indicating that the process was photo-limited. For 32mg/L, the excess of iron caused an excess of radicals production which proved to be counter-productive for the overall process efficiency. The economic assessment showed that acquisition and maintenance costs represent the lowest relative values. The highest cost was found to be the cost of the reagents consumed. Both sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide are negligible in terms of costs. Iron cost percentages were also very low and never higher than 10.5% while the highest cost was always that of hydrogen peroxide, representing at least 85% of the reagent costs. Thus, the total costs were between 0.76 and 1.39€/m(3). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Nadia; Omran, Manar; Ghanem, Hala; Elahdal, Mahmoud; Kamel, Nashwa; Attia, Elbatoul

    2015-01-01

    One inescapable feature of life on the earth is exposure to ionizing radiation. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to gamma-radiation and endocrine disrupters. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to stimulate tissue repair, and reduce inflammation. The aim of this study was to gauge the value of using Helium-Neon laser to repair the damaged tissues of thyroid gland after gamma-irradiation. Albino rats were used in this study (144 rats), divided into control, gamma, laser, and gamma plus laser-irradiated groups, each group was divided into six subgroups according to time of treatment (total six sessions). Rats were irradiated once with gamma radiation (6 Gy), and an external dose of laser (Wavelength 632.8 nm, 12 mW, CW, Illuminated area 5.73 cm(2), 2.1 mW cm(-2) 120 s, 1.4 J, 0.252 J cm(-2)) twice weekly localized on thyroid region of the neck, for a total of six sessions. Animals were sacrificed after each session. Analysis included thyroid function, oxidative stress markers, liver function and blood picture. Results revealed improvement in thyroid function, liver function and antioxidant levels, and the blood cells count after LLLT.

  13. Accelerated hydrolysis method to estimate the amino acid content of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) flour using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kabaha, Khaled; Taralp, Alpay; Cakmak, Ismail; Ozturk, Levent

    2011-04-13

    The technique of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was applied to wholegrain wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Balcali 2000) flour in order to speed the preparation of samples for analysis. The resultant hydrolysates were chromatographed and quantified in an automated amino acid analyzer. The effect of different hydrolysis temperatures, times and sample weights was examined using flour dispersed in 6 N HCl. Within the range of values tested, the highest amino acid recoveries were generally obtained by setting the hydrolysis parameters to 150 °C, 3 h and 200 mg sample weight. These conditions struck an optimal balance between liberating amino acid residues from the wheat matrix and limiting their subsequent degradation or transformation. Compared to the traditional 24 h reflux method, the hydrolysates were prepared in dramatically less time, yet afforded comparable ninhydrin color yields. Under optimal hydrolysis conditions, the total amino acid recovery corresponded to at least 85.1% of the total protein content, indicating the efficient extraction of amino acids from the flour matrix. The findings suggest that this microwave-assisted method can be used to rapidly profile the amino acids of numerous wheat grain samples, and can be extended to the grain analysis of other cereal crops.

  14. Spontaneous emission from a microwave-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li; Wan, Ren-Gang; Yao, Zhi-Hai

    2016-10-01

    The spontaneous emission from a microwave-driven four-level atom embedded in an anisotropic photonic crystal is studied. Due to the modified density of state (DOS) in the anisotropic photonic band gap (PBG) and the coherent control induced by the coupling fields, spontaneous emission can be significantly enhanced when the position of the spontaneous emission peak gets close to the band gap edge. As a result of the closed-loop interaction between the fields and the atom, the spontaneous emission depends on the dynamically induced Autler-Townes splitting and its position relative to the PBG. Interesting phenomena, such as spectral-line suppression, enhancement and narrowing, and fluorescence quenching, appear in the spontaneous emission spectra, which are modulated by amplitudes and phases of the coherently driven fields and the effect of PBG. This theoretical study can provide us with more efficient methods to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11447232, 11204367, 11447157, and 11305020).

  15. Controllable microwave three-wave mixing via a single three-level superconducting quantum circuit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-xi; Sun, Hui-Chen; Peng, Z. H.; Miranowicz, Adam; Tsai, J. S.; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Three-wave mixing in second-order nonlinear optical processes cannot occur in atomic systems due to the electric-dipole selection rules. In contrast, we demonstrate that second-order nonlinear processes can occur in a superconducting quantum circuit (i.e., a superconducting artificial atom) when the inversion symmetry of the potential energy is broken by simply changing the applied magnetic flux. In particular, we show that difference- and sum-frequencies (and second harmonics) can be generated in the microwave regime in a controllable manner by using a single three-level superconducting flux quantum circuit (SFQC). For our proposed parameters, the frequency tunability of this circuit can be achieved in the range of about 17 GHz for the sum-frequency generation, and around 42 GHz (or 26 GHz) for the difference-frequency generation. Our proposal provides a simple method to generate second-order nonlinear processes within current experimental parameters of SFQCs. PMID:25487352

  16. Controllable microwave three-wave mixing via a single three-level superconducting quantum circuit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-xi; Sun, Hui-Chen; Peng, Z H; Miranowicz, Adam; Tsai, J S; Nori, Franco

    2014-12-09

    Three-wave mixing in second-order nonlinear optical processes cannot occur in atomic systems due to the electric-dipole selection rules. In contrast, we demonstrate that second-order nonlinear processes can occur in a superconducting quantum circuit (i.e., a superconducting artificial atom) when the inversion symmetry of the potential energy is broken by simply changing the applied magnetic flux. In particular, we show that difference- and sum-frequencies (and second harmonics) can be generated in the microwave regime in a controllable manner by using a single three-level superconducting flux quantum circuit (SFQC). For our proposed parameters, the frequency tunability of this circuit can be achieved in the range of about 17 GHz for the sum-frequency generation, and around 42 GHz (or 26 GHz) for the difference-frequency generation. Our proposal provides a simple method to generate second-order nonlinear processes within current experimental parameters of SFQCs.

  17. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle: assessment of irradiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT wavelengths, using continuous coherent Laser illumination (830 nm and 980 nm) and non-coherent LED illumination (850 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood. We verified that all applied doses of coherent radiation produce an effect on reducing the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines, while no treatment effect was observed after irradiation with non-coherent radiation. The best results were obtained for 40 mW at 830 nm. The results may suggest an important role of coherence properties of laser in LLLT.

  18. Superoxide dismutase levels in various radioresistant and radiosensitive tissues of irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Krízala, J; Kovárová, H; Stoklasová, A; Ledvina, M

    1982-01-01

    The activity of superoxide dismutase (E.C. 1.15.1.1; SOD) was determined in male Wistar rats in order to evaluate the possible relationship between both the enzyme content in tissue and the resistance of this tissue to ionizing radiation (8,0 Gy, 60Co). Our results showed that some non-irradiated radioresistant organs (liver) had a high SOD activity and on the contrary, in some radiosensitive tissue (bone marrow) the SOD content was low. In spite of this observation it is not possible to generalize the statement that the radiosensitivity is directly conditioned by the SOD level without any exception. The SOD content in the spleen was higher than in the brain, but the spleen is remarkably radiosensitive, whereas the brain is not. The radiosensitivity of individual tissues probably reflected the changes of SOD activity after the irradiation.

  19. Methodology for assessment of low level laser therapy (LLLT) irradiation parameters in muscle inflammation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Several studies in human and animals show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing some types of pain, treating inflammation and wound healing. However, more scientific evidence is required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT since many aspects of the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation of injured tissue with laser remain unknown. Here, we present a methodology that can be used to evaluate the effect of different LLLT irradiation parameters on the treatment of muscle inflammation on animals, through the quantification of four cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6) in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. We have used this methodology to assess the effect of LLLT parameters (wavelength, dose, power and type of illumination) in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats. Results obtained for laser dose evaluation with continuous illumination are presented.

  20. 47 CFR Appendix I to Subpart E of... - A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Pt. 24, Subpt. E, App. I Appendix I to Subpart E of Part 24—A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...

  1. 47 CFR Appendix I to Subpart E of... - A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Pt. 24, Subpt. E, App. I Appendix I to Subpart E of Part 24—A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...

  2. 47 CFR Appendix I to Subpart E of... - A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Pt. 24, Subpt. E, App. I Appendix I to Subpart E of Part 24—A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...

  3. Development, Test, and Evaluation of Microwave Radar Water Level (MWWL) Sensors' Wave Measurement Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, S. K.; Heitsenrether, R.

    2015-12-01

    Waves can have a significant impact on many coastal operations including navigational safety, recreation, and even the economy. Despite this, as of 2009, there were only 181 in situ real-time wave observation networks nationwide (IOOS 2009). There has recently been interest in adding real-time wave measurement systems to already existing NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) stations. Several steps have already been taken in order to achieve this, such as integrating information from existing wave measurement buoys and initial testing of multiple different wave measurement systems (Heitsenrether et al. 2012). Since wave observations can be derived from high frequency water level changes, we will investigate water level sensors' capability to measure waves. Recently, CO-OPS has been transitioning to new microwave radar water level (MWWL) sensors which have higher resolution and theoretically a greater potential wave measurement capability than the acoustic sensors in stilling wells. In this study, we analyze the wave measurement capability of MWWL sensors at two high energy wave environments, Duck, NC and La Jolla, CA, and compare results to two "reference" sensors (A Nortek acoustic waves and currents profiler (AWAC) at Duck and a single point pressure sensor at La Jolla). A summary of results from the two field test sites will be presented, including comparisons of wave energy spectra, significant wave height, and peak period measured by the test MWWL sensors and both reference AWAC and pressure sensors. In addition, relationships between MWWL versus reference wave sensor differences and specific wave conditions will be discussed. Initial results from spectral analysis and the calculation of bulk wave parameters indicate that MWWL sensors set to the "NoFilter" processing setting can produce wave measurements capability that compare well to the two reference sensors. These results support continued development to enable the

  4. An Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Vinyl Ester Composites Cured under Microwave Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, H.; Chan, W. L.; Trada, M.; Baddeley, D.

    2007-12-01

    under ambient conditions. Higher power microwaves, 540 and 720 W with shorter duration of exposure are used to cure the composites. Short-bar method of fracture toughness measurement was used to perform the tests. Plastic (PVC) re-usable molds were designed and manufactured for producing the test samples. The results show that the fracture toughness of specimens cured by microwave conditions are generally higher than those cured under ambient conditions, provided the power level and duration of microwave irradiation are properly and optimally selected.

  5. Trade-off between the Mechanical Strength and Microwave Electrical Properties of Functionalized and Irradiated Carbon Nanotube Sheets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tiffany S; Orloff, Nathan D; Baker, James S; Miller, Sandi G; Natarajan, Bharath; Obrzut, Jan; McCorkle, Linda S; Lebron-Colón, Marisabel; Gaier, James; Meador, Michael A; Liddle, J Alexander

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets represent a novel implementation of CNTs that enable the tailoring of electrical and mechanical properties for applications in the automotive and aerospace industries. Small molecule functionalization and postprocessing techniques, such as irradiation with high-energy particles, are methods that can enhance the mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the effect that these modifications have on the electrical conduction mechanisms has not been extensively explored. By characterizing the mechanical and electrical properties of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets with different functional groups and irradiation doses, we can expand our insights into the extent of the trade-off that exists between mechanical strength and electrical conductivity for commercially available CNT sheets. Such insights allow for the optimization of design pathways for engineering applications that require a balance of material property enhancements.

  6. Synthetic Development of New 3-(4-Arylmethylamino)butyl-5-arylidene-rhodanines under Microwave Irradiation and Their Effects on Tumor Cell Lines and against Protein Kinases.

    PubMed

    Dago, Camille Déliko; Ambeu, Christelle N'ta; Coulibaly, Wacothon-Karime; Békro, Yves-Alain; Mamyrbékova, Janat; Defontaine, Audrey; Baratte, Blandine; Bach, Stéphane; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Guével, Rémy Le; Ravache, Myriam; Corlu, Anne; Bazureau, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-08

    A new route to 3-(4-arylmethylamino)butyl-5-arylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidine-4-one 9 was developed in six steps from commercial 1,4-diaminobutane 1 as starting material. The key step of this multi-step synthesis involved a solution phase "one-pot two-steps" approach assisted by microwave dielectric from N-(arylmethyl)butane-1,4-diamine hydrochloride 6a-f (as source of the first point diversity) and commercial bis-(carboxymethyl)-trithiocarbonate reagent 7 for construction of the rhodanine platform. This platform was immediately functionalized by Knoevenagel condensation under microwave irradiation with a series of aromatic aldehydes 3 as second point of diversity. These new compounds were prepared in moderate to good yields and the fourteen synthetic products 9a-n have been obtained with a Z-geometry about their exocyclic double bond. These new 5-arylidene rhodanines derivatives 9a-n were tested for their kinase inhibitory potencies against four protein kinases: Human cyclin-dependent kinase 5-p25, HsCDK5-p25; porcine Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3, GSK-3α/β; porcine Casein Kinase 1, SsCK1 and human HsHaspin. They have also been evaluated for their in vitro inhibition of cell proliferation (HuH7 D12, Caco 2, MDA-MB 231, HCT 116, PC3, NCI-H727, HaCat and fibroblasts). Among of all these compounds, 9j presented selective micromolar inhibition activity on SsCK1 and 9i exhibited antitumor activities in the HuH7 D12, MDA-MBD231 cell lines.

  7. Preparation of styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine magnetic polymer beads by microwave irradiation for analysis of trace 24-epibrassinolide in plant samples using high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Wei; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2010-10-15

    In the study, a kind of novel styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine (St-co-4-VP) porous magnetic polymer beads was prepared by microwave irradiation using suspension polymerization. Microwave heating preparation greatly reduced the polymerization time to 1h. Physical characteristic tests suggested that these beads were cross-linking and possessed spherical shape, good magnetic response and porous morphologies with a narrow diameter distribution of 70-180 μm. Therefore, these beads displayed the long-term stability after undergoing 100-time extractions. Then, an analytical method for the determination of trace 24-epiBR in plant samples was developed by magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer beads demonstrated the higher extraction selectivity for 24-epiBR than other reference compounds. Linear range was 10.00-100.0 μg/L with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.7%, and the detection limit was 6.5 μg/kg. This analytical method was successfully applied to analyze the trace 24-epiBR in cole and breaking-wall rape pollen samples with recoveries of 77.2-90.0% and 72.3-83.4%, respectively, and RSDs were less than 4.1%. The amount of 24-epiBR in real breaking-wall rape pollen samples was found to be 26.2 μg/kg finally. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the determination of trace brassinosteroids in complicated plant samples by the use of St-co-4-VP magnetic polymer bead extraction coupled with chromatographic method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DLTS study of deep level defects in Li-ion irradiated bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, K. V.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ravindra, M.; Damle, R.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial npn transistor (2N 2219A) irradiated with 50 MeV Li 3+-ions with fluences ranging from 3.1 × 10 13 ions cm -2 to 12.5 × 10 13 ions cm -2, is studied for radiation induced gain degradation and minority carrier trap levels or recombination centers. The properties such as activation energy, trap concentration and capture cross section of induced deep levels are studied by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. Minority carrier trap levels with energies ranging from 0.237 eV to 0.591 eV were observed in the base-collector junction of the transistor. In situ I- V measurements were made to study the gain degradation as a function of ion fluence. Ion induced energy levels result in increase in the base current through Shockley Read Hall (SRH) or multi-phonon recombination and subsequent transistor gain degradation.

  9. Microwave heating characteristics of magnetite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajavaram, Ramaraghavulu; Lee, Jaehong; Oh, Joon Seok; Kim, Han Gyeol; Lee, Joonho

    2016-11-01

    The heating characteristics of magnetite ore under microwave irradiation were investigated as a function of incident microwave power, particle size, and magnetite ore mass. The results showed that the heating rate of magnetite ore is highly dependent on microwave power and magnetite ore mass. The maximum heating rate was obtained at a microwave irradiation power of 1.70 kW with a mass of 25 g and particle size between 53-75 µm. The volumetric heating rate of magnetite ore was investigated by measuring the temperature at different depths during microwave irradiation. Microwave irradiation resulted in modification of the microstructure of the magnetite ore, but new phases such as FeO or Fe2O3 were not formed. In addition, the crystal size decreased from 115 nm to 63 nm after microwave irradiation up to 1573 K.

  10. Rapid synthesis of magnetic/luminescent (Fe3O4/CdSe) nanocomposites by microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedan, Abdallah F.; Abdelsayed, Victor; Mohamed, Mona B.; El-Shall, M. Samy

    2013-01-01

    A rapid microwave-assisted synthesis and detailed characterization of a bifunctional nanocomposite composed of a magnetic core, Fe3O4, and a semiconductor shell, CdSe, are reported. Magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized and used as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of the CdSe nanoshells. The optical properties of the nanocomposites are assessed by UV-Vis and photoluminescence measurements. In addition, the crystalline phase and size distribution of the nanocrystals are determined by XRD and TEM, respectively. The results indicate that the as-prepared nanocomposites are nearly monodisperse with an average size of 10 nm and a quantum yield of 13 %. The synthesized nanocomposites clearly provide both magnetic and luminescent properties which could be useful for simultaneous detection and separation possibly in biomedical applications.

  11. Levels of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in ground beef patties irradiated by low-energy X-ray and gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj M; Smith, J Scott

    2010-01-01

    Food irradiation improves food safety and maintains food quality by controlling microorganisms and extending shelf life. However, acceptance and commercial adoption of food irradiation is still low. Consumer groups such as Public Citizen and the Food and Water Watch have opposed irradiation because of the formation of 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) in irradiated, lipid-containing foods. The objectives of this study were to measure and to compare the level of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in ground beef irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays. Beef patties were irradiated by low-energy X-rays and gamma rays (Cs-137) at 3 targeted absorbed doses of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 kGy. The samples were extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus, and the 2-DCB concentration was determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05) with irradiation dose for gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties. There was no significant difference in 2-DCB concentration between gamma-ray and low-energy X-ray irradiated patties (P > 0.05) at all targeted doses.

  12. Facile synthesis of 1,3,4-benzotriazepines and 1-arylamide-1H-indazoles via palladium-catalyzed cyclization of aryl isocyanates and aryl hydrazones under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chune; Xie, Lingli; Mou, Xiaohong; Zhong, Yashan; Su, Wei

    2010-11-07

    A strategy involving palladium-catalyzed cyclization of halo-phenyl hydrazones and aryl isocyanates provides a convenient approach to the synthesis of 1,3,4-benzotriazepines (4) or 1-arylamide-1H-indazoles (5) in good isolated yields. Microwave irradiation was found to afford high reaction efficiency, while the choice of halophenyl hydrazone had an effect on the pathway of the reaction.

  13. Free-radical mechanism of photobiological effect of low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, Gennady I.; Kreinina, Marina V.

    2001-04-01

    The salutary effect of laser therapy in medical practice connects with the improvement of microcirculation and the activation of cell proliferation. In the present paper we presented the experimental evidence for the concept of free radical mechanism of stimulating effect of the low level laser irradiation(LLLI). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were obtained from patients with broncho-pulinonary and oncological diseases. PMNL were incubated at presence and in the absence of autologous plasma containing endogenous (porphyrins) and exogenous (phthalocyanines) photosensitizers. Then, cell suspension were irradiated using LLLI in the red (He-Ne-laser, ATML-l, wavelength -632,8 nm, Russia; the infrared (UZOR, wavelength - 890 nm, "Electronics", Russia) ranges of spectrum. The content of porphyrins in autological plasma samples, the determination of lipid peroxidation products (TBAreactive products) in cells and the detection of intracellular calcium concentration in PMNL using FURA were estimated by spectrofluorimetric methods. It was found that the LLLI in red range of spectrum induced leukocyte priming in vitro. These effect was dose-dependent and accompanied by the increase of intracellular calcium concentration. During laser irradiation of leukocyte suspension at presence of autologous plasma was established that the priming index correlated with concentration of endogenous porphyrins and phthalocyanines in plasma samples. It was shown that the laser4nduced leukocyte priming depends not only on total lipid peroxide products in cell membranes but also its qualitative chemical composition. For the first time we have been found the LLLl4nduced leukocyte priming using infrared irradiation. We propose that the photo-induced free radical reactions underlie in the laser therapy.

  14. Single microwave-photon detector using an artificial Λ-type three-level system

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Kunihiro; Lin, Zhirong; Koshino, Kazuki; Oliver, William D.; Tsai, Jaw-Shen; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2016-01-01

    Single-photon detection is a requisite technique in quantum-optics experiments in both the optical and the microwave domains. However, the energy of microwave quanta are four to five orders of magnitude less than their optical counterpart, making the efficient detection of single microwave photons extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate the detection of a single microwave photon propagating through a waveguide. The detector is implemented with an impedance-matched artificial Λ system comprising the dressed states of a driven superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave resonator. Each signal photon deterministically induces a Raman transition in the Λ system and excites the qubit. The subsequent dispersive readout of the qubit produces a discrete ‘click'. We attain a high single-photon-detection efficiency of 0.66±0.06 with a low dark-count probability of 0.014±0.001 and a reset time of ∼400 ns. This detector can be exploited for various applications in quantum sensing, quantum communication and quantum information processing. PMID:27453153

  15. Influences of doping Cr/Fe/Ta on the performance of Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalyst under microwave irradiation in dry reforming of CH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Odedairo, Taiwo; Ma, Jun; Chen, Jiuling; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-15

    The structure of Ni/CeO{sub 2} catalyst with doping of Cr, Fe and Ta was investigated with XRD, N{sub 2} physisorption, XPS and HRTEM and the catalytic activity of the catalysts under microwave irradiation in dry reforming of methane was tested in a microwave reactor. The results show that the introduction of Cr and Ta to Ni/CeO{sub 2} can enhance the interaction between Ni and the support/promoter and inhibit the enlargement of NiO particles during the synthesis. The CH{sub 4} conversions in dry reforming on the catalysts follow the order: Ni/CeO{sub 2}<2Fe–Ni<2Ta–Ni<2Cr–Ni. The superior performance of 2Ta–Ni and 2Cr–Ni may be attributed to the locally-heated Ni particles caused by the strong microwave absorption of the in-situ grown graphene attached on them under microwave irradiation. - Highlights: • The influences of doping Cr, Fe and Ta on Ni/CeO{sub 2} were investigated. • The catalytic performances before and after doping were investigated. • The in-situ grown graphene can promote the conversion of reactants.

  16. The elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin in mice following whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L.; Draganac, P.S.; Farkas, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in the blood has served as an indicator of lead poisoning and iron deficiency anemia for many years. We have discovered that sublethal doses of whole body irradiation with x-rays also elevates ZPP 2-3-fold over normal levels. The ZPP level does not begin to increase until days 12-14 postirradiation and peaks between days 18 and 20 before returning to normal levels between days 28 and 35. Increasing the radiation dose delays the onset of the rise in ZPP, but does not affect the magnitude of the elevation. At lethal doses, ZPP elevation is not observed. Neither of the two previously described mechanisms that cause elevations of ZPP, namely iron deficiency and inhibition of ferrochelatase, are responsible for the radiation-induced elevation of ZPP. The elevation of ZPP appears to be correlated with the recovery of the hematopoietic system from radiation injury.

  17. Microwave-immobilized polybutadiene stationary phase for reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Nilva P; Collins, Kenneth E; Jardim, Isabel C S F

    2004-03-19

    Polybutadiene (PBD) has been immobilized on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) silica by microwave radiation at various power levels (52-663 W) and actuation times (3-60 min). Columns prepared from these reversed-phase HPLC materials, as well as from similar non-irradiated materials, were tested with standard sample mixtures and characterized by elemental analysis (%C) and infrared spectroscopy. A microwave irradiation of 20 min at 663 W gives a layer of immobilized PBD that presented good performance. Longer irradiation times give thicker immobilized layers having less favorable chromatographic properties.

  18. Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

    1985-06-01

    The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated.

  19. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongli; Wang, Hong; Li, Yingxin; Liu, Weichao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhuying

    2016-04-01

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can enhance stem cell (SC) activity by increasing migration and proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLI on proliferation, enzymatic activity, and growth factor production in human umbilical cord mesenchymal SCs (hUC-MSCs) as well as the underlying mechanisms. hUC-MSCs were assigned to a control group (non-irradiation group) and three LLLI treatment groups (635 nm group, 808 nm group, and 635/808 nm group). Laser power density and energy density of 20 mW/cm2 and 12 J/cm2, respectively, were used for each experiment. The proliferation rate was higher in the 635 nm as compared to the other groups. LLLI at 808 nm did not induce cell proliferation. ROS levels in cells exposed to 635, 808, and 635/808 nm radiation were increased by 52.81%, 26.89%, and 21.15%, respectively, relative to the control group. CAT, tGPx, and SOD activity was increased. LLLI at 808 nm increased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and NFκB but not VEGF. LLLI improved hUC-MSCs function and increased antioxidant activity. Dual-wavelength LLLI had more potent effects on hUC-MSCs than single-wavelength treatment. LLLI has potential applications in the preconditioning of hUC-MSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, which could improve the regenerative capacity of cells.

  20. Biological effects of low-level laser irradiation on umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hongli; Wang, Hong; Li, Yingxin Liu, Weichao; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Chao

    2016-04-15

    Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can enhance stem cell (SC) activity by increasing migration and proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLI on proliferation, enzymatic activity, and growth factor production in human umbilical cord mesenchymal SCs (hUC-MSCs) as well as the underlying mechanisms. hUC-MSCs were assigned to a control group (non-irradiation group) and three LLLI treatment groups (635 nm group, 808 nm group, and 635/808 nm group). Laser power density and energy density of 20 mW/cm{sup 2} and 12 J/cm{sup 2}, respectively, were used for each experiment. The proliferation rate was higher in the 635 nm as compared to the other groups. LLLI at 808 nm did not induce cell proliferation. ROS levels in cells exposed to 635, 808, and 635/808 nm radiation were increased by 52.81%, 26.89%, and 21.15%, respectively, relative to the control group. CAT, tGPx, and SOD activity was increased. LLLI at 808 nm increased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and NFκB but not VEGF. LLLI improved hUC-MSCs function and increased antioxidant activity. Dual-wavelength LLLI had more potent effects on hUC-MSCs than single-wavelength treatment. LLLI has potential applications in the preconditioning of hUC-MSCs in vitro prior to transplantation, which could improve the regenerative capacity of cells.

  1. Polarity-enhanced gas-sensing performance of Au-loaded ZnO nanospindles synthesized via precipitation and microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Lv, Tan; Zhao, Fang-Xian; Lian, Xiao-Xue; Zou, Yun-Ling; Wang, Qiong

    2016-05-01

    Loading noble metal and exploring suitable morphology to achieve excellent gas-sensing performance is very crucial for the fabrication of gas sensors. We have successfully synthesized Au-loaded ZnO (Au/ZnO) nanospindles (NSs) through a really facile procedure involving a precipitation and subsequent microwave irradiation. The as-prepared products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM). The formation and gas-sensing mechanism of Au/ZnO NSs were discussed. The SEM micrographs revealed an interesting morphological evolution of the Au/ZnO NSs with Au-loading content ranging from 0 at. % to 7 at. %. The nanostructures were employed for gas-sensing measurement toward various gases. It indicated that the Au/ZnO NSs based sensor showed a highly enhanced response (226.81) to 400 ppm acetone gas at a relatively low working temperature (270°C), and exhibited a fast response (1 s) and recovery speed (10 s). The highly enhanced acetone gas sensitivity of Au/ZnO NSs based sensor could be attributed to its enhanced polarity owing to the peculiar morphology, Schottcky barriers, as well as catalytic effect of Au NPs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Correlation between product purity and process parameters for the synthesis of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanoparticles using microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.; Nicholson, K. S.; Nawaz, Q.; Peukert, W.; Distaso, M.

    2017-07-01

    Kesterites (CZT(S,Se)4) emerged as a favourable photovoltaic material, leading to solar cell efficiencies as high as 12.7%. The development of sustainable roll-to-roll printing processes that make use of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanoparticle inks requires the proper design of synthetic approaches and the understanding of the relation between process parameters and product purity. In the current paper, we developed this relationship by calculating a specific energy factor. A microwave-assisted synthetic method that operates at atmospheric pressure and makes use of eco-friendly solvents is established. Four solvents, i.e. ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (di-EG), triethylene glycol (tri-EG) and tetraethylene glycol (tet-EG) are compared and the temperature during the reaction is assessed by two different methods. In particular, two by-products have been identified, i.e. Cu2 - x S and a hexagonal phase. We show that the variation of reaction parameters such as power irradiation, type of solvent and precursor concentration influences the nanoparticles' sizes (from 12 to 6 nm) and also the temperature-time profile of reaction which, in turn, can be related to phase purity of CZTS nanoparticles. The results suggest that the product purity scales with the specific energy factor providing a useful tool to a rational design of high-quality CZTS nanoparticles.

  3. Field-emission property of self-purification SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires synthesized via direct microwave irradiation using iron-containing catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qing; Yu, Yongzhi; Huang, Shan; Meng, Jiang; Wang, Jigang

    2017-07-01

    SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires were rapidly synthesized via direct microwave irradiation in low vacuum atmosphere. During the preparation process, only graphite, silicon, silicon dioxide powders were used as raw materials and iron-containing substance was employed as catalyst. Comprehensive characterizations were employed to investigate the microstructure of the products. The results showed that a great quantity of coaxial nanowires with uniform sizes and high aspect ratio had been successfully achieved. The coaxial nanowires consist of a silicon oxide (SiOx) shell and a β-phase silicon carbide (β-SiC) core that exhibited in special tube brush like. In additional, nearly all the products were achieved in the statement of pure SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires without the existence of metallic catalyst, indicating that the self-removal of iron (Fe) catalyst should be occurred during the synthesis process. Photoluminescence (PL) spectral analysis result indicated that such novel SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires exhibited significant blue-shift. Besides, the measurement results of field-emission (FE) demonstrated that the SiC/SiOx coaxial nanowires had ultralow turn-on field and threshold field with values of 0.2 and 2.1 V/μm, respectively. The hetero-junction structure formed between SiOx shell and SiC core, lots of emission sites, as well as clear tips of the nanowires were applied to explain the excellent FE properties.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Hydrothermal Conversion of Giant Reed to Furfural and Levulinic Acid: Optimization of the Process under Microwave Irradiation and Investigation of Distinctive Agronomic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Antonetti, Claudia; Bonari, Enrico; Licursi, Domenico; Nassi O Di Nasso, Nicoletta; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria

    2015-11-30

    The hydrothermal conversion of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) to furfural (FA) and levulinic acid (LA) was investigated in the presence of dilute hydrochloric acid. FA and LA yields were improved by univariate optimization of the main reaction parameters: concentration of the acid catalyst, solid/liquid ratio of the reaction mixture, hydrolysis temperature, and reaction time. The catalytic performances were investigated adopting the efficient microwave (MW) irradiation, allowing significant energy and time savings. The best FA and LA yields were further confirmed using a traditionally heated autoclave reactor, giving very high results, when compared with the literature. Hydrolysis temperature and time were the main reaction variables to be carefully optimized: FA formation needed milder reaction conditions, while LA more severe ones. The effect of the crop management (e.g., harvest time) on FA/LA production was discussed, revealing that harvest time was not a discriminating parameter for the further optimization of both FA and LA production, due to the very high productivity of the giant reed throughout the year. The promising results demonstrate that giant reed represents a very interesting candidate for a very high contemporary production of FA and LA of up to about 70% and 90% of the theoretical yields, respectively.

  5. Silver nanoparticles supported on CeO2-SBA-15 by microwave irradiation possess metal-support interactions and enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xufang; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2014-11-24

    Metal-support interactions (MSIs) and particle size play important roles in catalytic reactions. For the first time, silver nanoparticles supported on CeO2-SBA-15 supports are reported that possess tunable particle size and MSIs, as prepared by microwave (MW) irradiation, owing to strong charge polarization of CeO2 clusters (i.e., MW absorption). Characterizations, including TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure, were carried out to disclose the influence of CeO2 contents on the Ag particle size, MSI effect between Ag nanoparticles and CeO2-SBA-15 supports, and the strong MW absorption of CeO2 clusters that contribute to the MSIs during Ag deposition. The Ag particle sizes were controllably tuned from 1.9 to 3.9 nm by changing the loading amounts of CeO2 from 0.5 to 2.0 wt%. The Ag nanoparticle size was predominantly responsible for the high turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.41 min(-1) in ammonia borane dehydrogenation, whereas both particle size and MSIs contributed to the high TOF of 555 min(-1) in 4-nitrophenol reduction for Ag/0.5CeO2-SBA-15, which were twice as large as those of Ag/SBA-15 without CeO2 and Ag/CeO2-SBA-15 prepared by conventional oil-bath heating.

  6. Increased viability of odontoblast-like cells subjected to low-level laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. F.; Basso, F. G.; Lins, E. C.; Kurachi, C.; Hebling, J.; Bagnato, V. S.; de Souza Costa, C. A.

    2010-07-01

    Studies have shown that the increase of cell metabolism depends on the low level laser therapy (LLLT) parameters used to irradiate the cells. However, the optimal laser dose to up-regulate pulp cell activity remains unknown. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic response of odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) exposed to different LLLT doses. Cells at 20000 cells/cm2 were seeded in 24-well plates using plain culture medium (DMEM) and were incubated in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 at 37°C. After 24 h, the culture medium was replaced by fresh DMEM supplemented with 5% (stress by nutritional deficit) or 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were exposed to different laser doses from a near infrared diode laser prototype designed to provide a uniform irradiation of the wells. The experimental groups were: G1: 1.5 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G2: 1.5 J/cm2 + 10% FBS; G3: 5 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G4: 5 J/cm2 + 10% FBS; G5: 19 J/cm2 + 5% FBS; G6: 19 J/cm2 + 10% FBS. LLLT was performed in 3 consecutive irradiation cycles with a 24-hour interval. Non-irradiated cells cultured in DMEM supplemented with either 5 or 10% FBS served as control groups. The analysis of the metabolic response was performed by the MTT assay 3 h after the last irradiation. G1 presented an increase in SDH enzyme activity and differed significantly (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05) from the other groups. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed normal cell morphology in all groups. Under the tested conditions, LLLT stimulated the metabolic activity of MDPC-23 cultured in DMEM supplemented with 5% FBS and exposed to a laser dose of 1.5 J/cm2. These findings are relevant for further studies on the action of near infrared lasers on cells with odontoblast phenotype.

  7. Calorimetry study of microwave absorption of some solid materials.

    PubMed

    He, Chun Lin; Ma, Shao Jian; Su, Xiu Juan; Chen, Yan Qing; Liang, Yu Shi

    2013-01-01

    In practice, the dielectric constant of a material varies the applied frequency the material composition, particle size, purity, temperature, physical state (solid or liquid), and moisture content. All of these parameters might change during processing, therefore, it is difficult to predict how well a material will absorb microwave energy in a given process. When the temperature is measured by a digital thermometer, it could not accurately reflect the true temperature of the bulk materials, especially for mixed materials. Thus, in this paper we measured the microwave absorption characteristics of different materials by calorimetry. The microwave power levels, irradiation times, and masses of the materials were varied. It was difficult to predict the microwave energy absorption characteristics of reagent-grade inorganic compounds based on their color, metallic cation, or water stoichiometry. CuO, MnO2, Fe3O4, and MnSO4 x H2O (Taishan) strongly absorbed microwave energy. Most of the remaining inorganic compounds were poor absorbers, with silica hardly absorbing any microwave energy. Carbon-based materials had significantly different microwave absorption characteristics. Activated carbon and coke were especially sensitive to microwaves, but different types of coal were poor absorbers. The jamesonite concentrate absorbed microwave energy strongly, while the zinc concentrate was a poor absorber.

  8. Reduction in horizontal transfer of conjugative plasmid by UV irradiation and low-level chlorination.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenfang; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Shuting; Yu, Xin

    2016-03-15

    The widespread presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in the drinking water system facilitates their horizontal gene transfer among microbiota. In this study, the conjugative gene transfer of RP4 plasmid after disinfection including ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and low-level chlorine treatment was investigated. It was found that both UV irradiation and low-level chlorine treatment reduced the conjugative gene transfer frequency. The transfer frequency gradually decreased from 2.75 × 10(-3) to 2.44 × 10(-5) after exposure to UV doses ranging from 5 to 20 mJ/cm(2). With higher UV dose of 50 and 100 mJ/cm(2), the transfer frequency was reduced to 1.77 × 10(-6) and 2.44 × 10(-8). The RP4 plasmid transfer frequency was not significantly affected by chlorine treatment at dosages ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/l, but treatment with 0.3-0.5 mg/l chlorine induced a decrease in conjugative transfer to 4.40 × 10(-5) or below the detection limit. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena were also explored, and the results demonstrated that UV irradiation and chlorine treatment (0.3 and 0.5 mg/l) significantly reduced the viability of bacteria, thereby lowering the conjugative transfer frequency. Although the lower chlorine concentrations tested (0.05-0.2 mg/l) were not sufficient to damage the cells, exposure to these concentrations may still depress the expression of a flagellar gene (FlgC), an outer membrane porin gene (ompF), and a DNA transport-related gene (TraG). Additionally, fewer pili were scattered on the bacteria after chlorine treatment. These findings are important in assessing and controlling the risk of ARG transfer and dissemination in the drinking water system.

  9. Three-Dimensional Expanded Graphene-Metal Oxide Film via Solid-State Microwave Irradiation for Aqueous Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, MinHo; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Sang Bok; Han, Young-Kyu; Choi, Bong Gill

    2015-10-14

    Carbon-based electrochemical double-layer capacitors and pseudocapacitors, consisting of a symmetric configuration of electrodes, can deliver much higher power densities than batteries, but they suffer from low energy densities. Herein, we report the development of high energy and power density supercapacitors using an asymmetric configuration of Fe2O3 and MnO2 nanoparticles incorporated into 3D macroporous graphene film electrodes that can be operated in a safe and low-cost aqueous electrolyte. The gap in working potential windows of Fe2O3 and MnO2 enables the stable expansion of the cell voltage up to 1.8 V, which is responsible for the high energy density (41.7 Wh kg(-1)). We employ a household microwave oven to simultaneously create conductivity, porosity, and the deposition of metal oxides on graphene films toward 3D hybrid architectures, which lead to a high power density (13.5 kW kg(-1)). Such high energy and power densities are maintained for over 5000 cycles, even during cycling at a high current density of 16.9 A g(-1).

  10. High yield production of sugars from deproteinated palm kernel cake under microwave irradiation via dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Suet-Pin; Jiang, Li-Qun; Chia, Chin-Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah-Leong

    2014-02-01

    Recent years, great interest has been devoted to the conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrate into sugars, such as glucose, mannose and fructose. These are important versatile intermediate products that are easily processed into high value-added biofuels. In this work, microwave-assisted dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) was systematically studied using Response Surface Methodology. The highest mannose yield (92.11%) was achieved at the optimized condition of 148°C, 0.75N H2SO4, 10min 31s and substrate to solvent (SS) ratio (w/v) of 1:49.69. Besides that, total fermentable sugars yield (77.11%), was obtained at 170°C, 0.181N H2SO4, 6min 6s and SS ratio (w/v) of 1:40. Ridge analysis was employed to further verify the optimum conditions. Thus, this work provides fundamental data of the practical use of DPKC as low cost, high yield and environmental-friendly material for the production of mannose and other sugars.

  11. Efficient Lewis acid ionic liquid-catalyzed synthesis of the key intermediate of coenzyme Q10 under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie; Zhang, Xuan; Yu, Ping; Sun, Guoyong; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-12-22

    An efficient synthesis of a valuable intermediate of coenzyme Q(10) by microwave-assisted Lewis acidic ionic liquid (IL)-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation is reported. The acidity of six [Etpy]BF(4)-based ionic liquids was characterized by means of the FT-IR technique using acetonitrile as a molecular probe. The catalytic activities of these ionic liquids were correlated with their Lewis acidity. With increasing Lewis acid strength of the ionic liquids, their catalytic activity in the Friedel-Crafts reaction increased, except for [Etpy]BF(4)-AlCl(3). The effects of the reaction system, the molar fraction of Lewis acid in the Lewis acid ILs and heating techniques were also investigated. Among the six Lewis acid ionic liquids tested [Etpy]BF(4)-ZnCl(2) showed the best catalytic activity, with a yield of 89% after a very short reaction time (150 seconds). This procedure has the advantages of higher efficiency, better reusability of ILs, energy conservation and eco-friendliness. The method has practical value for preparation of CoQ(10) on an industrial scale.

  12. Exploring SmBr2-, SmI2-, and YbI2-mediated reactions assisted by microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dahlén, Anders; Prasad, Edamana; Flowers, Robert A; Hilmersson, Göran

    2005-05-20

    The use of microwave heating in lanthanide(II) halide (LnX2 = SmBr2, SmI2, and YbI2) mediated reduction and coupling reactions has been investigated for a variety of functional groups including alpha,beta-unsaturated esters, aldehydes, ketones, imines, and alkyl halides. Good to quantitative transformations were obtained within a few minutes without the addition of any co-solvents, such as hexamethyl phosphoramide (HMPA). The redox potential of YbI2 in tetrahydrofuran (THF) has been determined as -1.02+/-0.05 V (versus Ag/AgNO3) by cyclic voltammetry. A large selectivity difference in various reactions was observed depending on the redox potential of the LnX2 reagent. The more powerful reductant, SmBr2, afforded mainly pinacol-coupling products of ketones whereas the weaker reductant YbI2 afforded mainly reduction products. The results indicate that the reducing power of LnX2 has a large impact on not only the pinacol coupling/reduction product ratio of ketones but also on other substrates in which there are competing coupling and reduction reactions. The use of in situ generated LnX2 has also been explored and proven useful in many of these reactions.

  13. Computation of temperature elevation in rabbit eye irradiated by 2.45-GHz microwaves with different field configurations.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akimasa; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Fujiwara, Osamu; Kojima, Masami; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-02-01

    This study calculated the temperature elevation in the rabbit eye caused by 2.45-GHz near-field exposure systems. First, we calculated specific absorption rate distributions in the eye for different antennas and then compared them with those observed in previous studies. Next, we re-examined the temperature elevation in the rabbit eye due to a horizontally-polarized dipole antenna with a C-shaped director, which was used in a previous study. For our computational results, we found that decisive factors of the SAR distribution in the rabbit eye were the polarization of the electromagnetic wave and antenna aperture. Next, we quantified the eye average specific absorption rate as 67 W kg(-1) for the dipole antenna with an input power density at the eye surface of 150 mW cm(-2), which was specified in the previous work as the minimum cataractogenic power density. The effect of administrating anesthesia on the temperature elevation was 30% or so in the above case. Additionally, the position where maximum temperature in the lens appears is discussed due to different 2.45-GHz microwave systems. That position was found to appear around the posterior of the lens regardless of the exposure condition, which indicates that the original temperature distribution in the eye was the dominant factor.

  14. Feasibility Study on a Microwave-Based Sensor for Measuring Hydration Level Using Human Skin Models.

    PubMed

    Brendtke, Rico; Wiehl, Michael; Groeber, Florian; Schwarz, Thomas; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tissue dehydration results in three major types of exsiccosis--hyper-, hypo-, or isonatraemia. All three types entail alterations of salt concentrations leading to impaired biochemical processes, and can finally cause severe morbidity. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a microwave-based sensor technology for the non-invasive measurement of the hydration status. Electromagnetic waves at high frequencies interact with molecules, especially water. Hence, if a sample contains free water molecules, this can be detected in a reflected microwave signal. To develop the sensor system, human three-dimensional skin equivalents were instituted as a standardized test platform mimicking reproducible exsiccosis scenarios. Therefore, skin equivalents with a specific hydration and density of matrix components were generated and microwave measurements were performed. Hydration-specific spectra allowed deriving the hydration state of the skin models. A further advantage of the skin equivalents was the characterization of the impact of distinct skin components on the measured signals to investigate mechanisms of signal generation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a non-invasive microwave-based hydration sensor technology. The sensor bears potential to be integrated in a wearable medical device for personal health monitoring.

  15. Feasibility Study on a Microwave-Based Sensor for Measuring Hydration Level Using Human Skin Models

    PubMed Central

    Brendtke, Rico; Wiehl, Michael; Groeber, Florian; Schwarz, Thomas; Walles, Heike; Hansmann, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tissue dehydration results in three major types of exsiccosis—hyper-, hypo-, or isonatraemia. All three types entail alterations of salt concentrations leading to impaired biochemical processes, and can finally cause severe morbidity. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a microwave-based sensor technology for the non-invasive measurement of the hydration status. Electromagnetic waves at high frequencies interact with molecules, especially water. Hence, if a sample contains free water molecules, this can be detected in a reflected microwave signal. To develop the sensor system, human three-dimensional skin equivalents were instituted as a standardized test platform mimicking reproducible exsiccosis scenarios. Therefore, skin equivalents with a specific hydration and density of matrix components were generated and microwave measurements were performed. Hydration-specific spectra allowed deriving the hydration state of the skin models. A further advantage of the skin equivalents was the characterization of the impact of distinct skin components on the measured signals to investigate mechanisms of signal generation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a non-invasive microwave-based hydration sensor technology. The sensor bears potential to be integrated in a wearable medical device for personal health monitoring. PMID:27046226

  16. Effect of low-level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of low-dose prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and neurobehavioral development, and whether alterations would manifest at dosages lower than those which produce anatomic malformations from exposure at the most sensitive period of organogenesis. Ninety-eight Wistar strain rats were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 Gy X-radiation of were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. A conventional teratologic evaluation was completed on half of the animals (572 fetuses). The age of appearance of four physiologic markers and of acquisition of six reflexes was observed in 372 offspring. Exposure during early organogenesis at these levels had no effect on any of these parameters. Prenatal exposure to X-radiation on the 17th day of gestation at dosage levels greater than 0.1 Gy resulted in alterations in the appearance of three postnatal neurophysiologic parameters. Growth retardation throughout the postpartum period also was observed in the offspring. The induction of developmental and reflex alterations had a comparable threshold to the known threshold for anatomic malformations on the 9th day. These results indicate that all of the parameters studied had thresholds either at or above 0.2 Gy acute radiation, and that the postpartum developmental and reflex acquisition measures were not more sensitive indicators of exposure to X-radiation than growth parameters.

  17. Low level laser irradiation stimulates osteogenic phenotype of mesenchymal stem cells seeded on a three-dimensional biomatrix.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch-Gottlib, Liat; Gross, Talia; Naveh, Doron; Geresh, Shimona; Rosenwaks, Salman; Bar, Ilana; Vago, Razi

    2005-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on three-dimensional (3D) coralline (Porites lutea) biomatrices were irradiated with low-level laser irradiation (LLLI). The consequent phenotype modulation and development of MSCs towards ossified tissue was studied in this combined 3D biomatrix/LLLI system and in a control group, which was similarly grown, but was not treated by LLLI. The irradiated and non irradiated MSC were tested at 1-7, 10, 14, 21, 28 days of culturing via analysis of cellular distribution on matrices (trypan blue), calcium incorporation to newly formed tissue (alizarin red), bone nodule formation (von Kossa), fat aggregates formation (oil red O), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results obtained from the irradiated samples showed enhanced tissue formation, appearance of phosphorous peaks and calcium and phosphate incorporation to newly formed tissue. Moreover, in irradiated samples ALP activity was significantly enhanced in early stages and notably reduced in late stages of culturing. These findings of cell and tissue parameters up to 28 days of culture revealed higher ossification levels in irradiated samples compared with the control group. We suggest that both the surface properties of the 3D crystalline biomatrices and the LLLI have biostimulatory effects on the conversion of MSCs into bone-forming cells and on the induction of ex-vivo ossification.

  18. I- V and deep level transient spectroscopy studies on 60 MeV oxygen ion irradiated NPN transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnana Prakash, A. P.; Ke, S. C.; Siddappa, K.

    2004-02-01

    NPN transistors have been irradiated by 60 MeV oxygen ions in a fluence ranging from 5 × 10 10 to 1 × 10 13 ions/cm 2. The DC current gain ( hFE), excess base current ( ΔI B=I B post -I B pre ), excess collector current ( ΔI C=I C post -I C pre ) and collector saturation current (I C Sat ) of the ion irradiated transistors were studied systematically. The hFE of the transistors were found to be decreased drastically after ion irradiation. A significant increase has been observed in the collector current ( IC) along with the increase in the base current ( IB) after ion irradiation. The I C Sat of the ion irradiated transistors were also decreased significantly after irradiation. The radiation induced trap levels in the collector base depletion region of NPN transistors were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy technique and different types of trap levels were observed. The results obtained on the activation energy, density of trap levels, apparent capture cross section, introduction rate and space charge layer lifetime of different defects for different total fluence are presented and discussed.

  19. Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Agata; Gulino, Marisa; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Bellia, Paolo; Raciti, Giuseppina; Grasso, Rosaria; Musumeci, Francesco; Vanella, Angelo; Triglia, Antonio

    2010-03-31

    The exposure of primary rat neocortical astroglial cell cultures to acute electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the microwave range was studied. Differentiated astroglial cell cultures at 14 days in vitro were exposed for 5, 10, or 20min to either 900MHz continuous waves or 900MHz waves modulated in amplitude at 50Hz using a sinusoidal waveform and 100% modulation index. The strength of the electric field (rms value) at the sample position was 10V/m. No change in cellular viability evaluated by MTT test and lactate dehydrogenase release was observed. A significant increase in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation was found only after exposure of the astrocytes to modulated EMF for 20min. No evident effects were detected when shorter time intervals or continuous waves were used. The irradiation conditions allowed the exclusion of any possible thermal effect. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that even acute exposure to low intensity EMF induces ROS production and DNA fragmentation in astrocytes in primary cultures, which also represent the principal target of modulated EMF. Our findings also suggest the hypothesis that the effects could be due to hyperstimulation of the glutamate receptors, which play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain damage. Furthermore, the results show the importance of the amplitude modulation in the interaction between EMF and neocortical astrocytes.

  20. Degradation of surfactant wastewater under microwave irradiation in the presence of activated carbon assisted with nano-sized TiO2 or nano-sized ZnO.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Xu, D; Shen, M; Wu, D; Chen, Z; Ji, X; Li, F; Xu, Y

    2011-01-01

    An improved method treating surfactant wastewater by the addition of semiconductor material such as nano-sized TiO2 or ZnO to activated carbon (AC) with microwave (MW) irradiation was proposed so as to assist efficient degradation of organic pollutants. A series of degradation experiments of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) were carried out under MW irradiation in the presence of AC/TiO2 or AC/ZnO. The influences of catalyst dose, irradiation time, initial SDBS concentration and solution acidity on the degradation were assessed in detail. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 or ZnO obviously promoted the degradation and AC/TiO2 system displayed higher catalytic activity under MW irradiation. Thus the method of MW irradiation with AC/TiO2 or AC/ZnO revealed many advantages of rapid degradation rate, short irradiation time, low cost, no residual intermediates and no secondary pollution in applications.