Science.gov

Sample records for level npc inverter

  1. Analysis and carrier-based modulation of Z-source NPC inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, Seyed Mohammad; Mohamadian, Mustafa; Gharekhani, Reza

    2012-08-01

    Multi-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverters are widely used in high and medium voltage applications. However, these inverters are only buck-type converters. Recently z-source NPC inverters have been proposed as the buck-boost three-level inverter. New inverters use a z-source network as the input stage. This article analyses the features and limitations of two main topologies of z-source NPC inverters (dual z-source network NPC inverter and single z-source network NPC inverter). The low-frequency ripple of the inductor current and the capacitor voltage of the z-source networks in the z-source NPC inverters are surveyed. This article also proposes two novel PWM methods for the z-source NPC inverters, which can be easily implemented experimentally. In the proposed methods, generated switching signals for the conventional NPC inverter are modified for the z-source NPC inverter using a simple logic circuit considering the boost factors and the power sharing ratio. The performance of the proposed simple PWM methods is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  2. Compound control method of neutral point voltage of three level NPC inverter based on the vector method of virtual space and hysteresis control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fengping; Xiao, Fangfei

    2017-03-01

    Current control methods include hardware control and software control corresponding to the inherent unbalance problem of neutral point voltage in three level NPC inverter. The hardware control is rarely used due to its high cost. In this paper, a new compound control method has been presented based on the vector method of virtual space and traditional hysteresis control of neutral point voltage, which can make up the shortcoming of the virtual control without the feedback control system of neutral point voltage and the blind area of hysteresis control and control the deviation and wave of neutral point voltage. The accuracy of this method has been demonstrated by simulation.

  3. Snubber-less NPC inverter by a novel reduction technique of parasitic inductance for magnet power supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, K.; Morita, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The effects induced by parasitic inductance were studied in a neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter. The energy stored in the parasitic inductance by the output current causes a surge voltage during the turn-off period of semiconductor switches. The effect is serious in a magnet power supply for which a large excitation current is required. It is predicted by a circuit analysis that the parasitic inductance causes an electrical breakdown of the semiconductor switches. It was found that the most promising way to mitigate the effect is to reduce the parasitic inductance. With newly developed circuitry and layout of an NPC inverter, cancelation of the induced magnetic field, which is based on Amperes circuital law, in power devices has been accomplished. The newly developed NPC inverter has been operated successfully with both a resistive dummy load and the dipole magnets in the main ring synchrotron at the J-PARC facility.

  4. NPC1 late endosomes contain elevated levels of non-esterified (‘free’) fatty acids and an abnormally glycosylated form of the NPC2 protein

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    NPC (Niemann–Pick type C) disease is a rare lipidosis characterized by the accumulation of LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-derived non-esterified cholesterol in the E/L (endosomal/lysosomal) system. The gene products that are responsible for the two NPC complementation groups are distinct and dissimilar, yet their cellular and disease phenotypes are virtually indistinguishable. To investigate the relationship between NPC1 and NPC2 and their potential role in NPC disease pathogenesis, we have developed a method for the rapid and efficient isolation of late endocytic vesicles from mouse liver by magnetic chromatography. Late endosomes from Wt (wild-type) and NPC1 mice were found to differ not only in their cholesterol and sphingomyelin content, as expected, but also in their non-esterified (‘free’) fatty acid content, with NPC1 vesicles showing an approx. 7-fold increase in non-esterified fatty acid levels compared with Wt vesicles. Furthermore, we show that the NPC2 protein is in an incompletely deglycosylated form in NPC1 late endosomes by a mechanism that is specific to the NPC2 protein and not a global aberration of protein glycosylation/deglycosylation or trafficking, since NPC2 secreted from NPC1 cells is indistinguishable from that secreted from Wt cells. Also, a greater proportion of the normally soluble cellular NPC2 protein partitions with detergent-insoluble late endosomal internal membrane domains in NPC1 vesicles. In addition, we show that, although a small amount of the NPC2 protein associates with these membranes in Wt vesicles, this localization becomes much more pronounced in NPC1 vesicles. These results suggest that the function of the NPC2 protein may be compromised as well in NPC1 endosomes, which might explain the paradoxical phenotypic similarities of the two NPC disease complementation groups. PMID:15896196

  5. Fault-tolerant three-level inverter

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-12-05

    A method for driving a neutral point clamped three-level inverter is provided. In one exemplary embodiment, DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped three-level inverter. The inverter has a plurality of nodes including first, second and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. Faults are checked for in the inverter and predetermined switches are automatically activated responsive to a detected fault such that three-phase electrical power is provided at the output nodes.

  6. Control of Grid Connected Photovoltaic System Using Three-Level T-Type Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorig, Abdelmalik; Belkeiri, Mohammed; Barkat, Said; Rabhi, Abdelhamid

    2016-08-01

    Three-level T-Type inverter (3LT2I) topology has numerous advantageous compared to three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter. The main benefits of 3LT2I inverter are the efficiency, inverter cost, switching losses, and the quality of output voltage waveforms. In this paper, a photovoltaic distributed generation system based on dual-stage topology of DC-DC boost converter and 3LT2I is introduced. To that end, a decoupling control strategy of 3LT2I is proposed to control the current injected into the grid, reactive power compensation, and DC-link voltage. The resulting system is able to extract the maximum power from photovoltaic generator, to achieve sinusoidal grid currents, and to ensure reactive power compensation. The voltage-balancing control of two split DC capacitors of the 3LT2I is achieved using three-level space vector modulation with balancing strategy based on the effective use of the redundant switching states of the inverter voltage vectors. The proposed system performance is investigated at different operating conditions.

  7. Multiple rare variants in NPC1L1 associated with reduced sterol absorption and plasma low-density lipoprotein levels

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Fahmi, Saleemah; Esmail, Sophie; Vega, Gloria L.; Grundy, Scott M.; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2006-01-01

    An approach to understand quantitative traits was recently proposed based on the finding that nonsynonymous (NS) sequence variants in certain genes are preferentially enriched at one extreme of the population distribution. The NS variants, although individually rare, are cumulatively frequent and influence quantitative traits, such as plasma lipoprotein levels. Here, we use the NS variant technique to demonstrate that genetic variation in NPC1L1 contributes to variability in cholesterol absorption and plasma levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). The ratio of plasma campesterol (a plant sterol) to lathosterol (a cholesterol precursor) was used to estimate relative cholesterol absorption in a population-based study. Nonsynonymous sequence variations in NPC1L1 were five times more common in low absorbers (n = 26 of 256) than in high absorbers (n = 5 of 256) (P < 0.001). The rare variants identified in low absorbers were found in 6% of 1,832 African-Americans and were associated with lower plasma levels of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (96 ± 36 mg/dl vs. 105 ± 36 mg/dl; P = 0.005). These data, together with prior findings, reveal a genetic architecture for LDL-C levels that does not conform to current models for quantitative traits and indicate that a significant fraction of genetic variance in LDL-C is due to multiple alleles with modest effects that are present at low frequencies in the population. PMID:16449388

  8. "Paradox of slow frequencies" - Are slow frequencies in upper cortical layers a neural predisposition of the level/state of consciousness (NPC)?

    PubMed

    Northoff, Georg

    2017-04-05

    Consciousness research has much focused on faster frequencies like alpha or gamma while neglecting the slower ones in the infraslow (0.001-0.1Hz) and slow (0.1-1Hz) frequency range. These slower frequency ranges have a "bad reputation" though; their increase in power can observed during the loss of consciousness as in sleep, anesthesia, and vegetative state. However, at the same time, slower frequencies have been conceived instrumental for consciousness. The present paper aims to resolve this paradox which I describe as "paradox of slow frequencies". I first show various data that suggest a central role of slower frequencies in integrating faster ones, i.e., "temporo-spatial integration and nestedness". Such "temporo-spatial integration and nestedness" is disrupted during the loss of consciousness as in anesthesia and sleep leading to "temporo-spatial fragmentation and isolation" between slow and fast frequencies. Slow frequencies are supposedly mediated by neural activity in upper cortical layers in higher-order associative regions as distinguished from lower cortical layers that are related to faster frequencies. Taken together, slower and faster frequencies take on different roles for the level/state of consciousness. Faster frequencies by themselves are sufficient and thus a neural correlate of consciousness (NCC) while slower frequencies are a necessary non-sufficient condition of possible consciousness, e.g., a neural predisposition of the level/state of consciousness (NPC). This resolves the "paradox of slow frequencies" in that it assigns different roles to slower and faster frequencies in consciousness, i.e., NCC and NPC. Taken as NCC and NPC, fast and slow frequencies including their relation as in "temporo-spatial integration and nestedness" can be considered a first "building bloc" of a future "temporo-spatial theory of consciousness" (TTC) (Northoff, 2013; Northoff, 2014b; Northoff & Huang, 2017).

  9. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  10. Researching the method of providing harmonicity to multi-level inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taissariyeva, K. N.; Ilipbaeva, L.; Dzhobalaeva, G.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we consider the developed scheme of multi-level invertor, which is collected on IGBT transistors. Transistor switching, which provides harmonicity of output tension, is calculated on each level. For verification the settlement data, the imitating model of multilevel inverter was constructed in MatLab program. The output curve tension received at the exit of multilevel inverter's imitating model was spread out to harmonious components. It allowed investigating most precisely harmonious structure of the received multi-level inverter's tension curve. For ensuring output tension with a sinusoidal curve, researches and calculations of a corner of switching for each source of the multi-level inverter are conducted. Calculation of switching corner for each source for eight, twelve and twenty-six step single-phase inverters is carried out. For each step the necessary level of tension is provided, it carries out the harmonicity the whole inverter's output tension. Calculations were carried out in algorithm presented below, in this case for eight, twelve, and twenty-six step inverters.

  11. Selective harmonic elimination strategy in eleven level inverter for PV system with unbalanced DC sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoudelbourk, Sihem.; Dib, D.; Meghni, B.; Zouli, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the multilevel converters control strategy for photovoltaic system integrated in distribution grids. The objective of the proposed work is to design multilevel inverters for solar energy applications so as to reduce the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and to improve the power quality. The multilevel inverter power structure plays a vital role in every aspect of the power system. It is easier to produce a high-power, high-voltage inverter with the multilevel structure. The topologies of multilevel inverter have several advantages such as high output voltage, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and reduction of voltage ratings of the power semiconductor switching devices. The proposed control strategy ensures an implementation of selective harmonic elimination (SHE) modulation for eleven levels. SHE is a very important and efficient strategy of eliminating selected harmonics by judicious selection of the firing angles of the inverter. Harmonics elimination technique eliminates the need of the expensive low pass filters in the system. Previous research considered that constant and equal DC sources with invariant behavior; however, this research extends earlier work to include variant DC sources, which are typical of lead-acid batteries when used in system PV. This Study also investigates methods to minimize the total harmonic distortion of the synthesized multilevel waveform and to help balance the battery voltage. The harmonic elimination method was used to eliminate selected lower dominant harmonics resulting from the inverter switching action.

  12. Improvement of Direct Torque Control by using a Space Vector Modulation Control of Three-Level Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achalhi, A.; Bezza, M.; Belbounaguia, N.; Boujoudi, B.

    2017-03-01

    The performances of Direct Torque Control (DTC) of Induction machine are highly related to the inverter used therewith. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the efficiency of the space vector modulation (SVM) control of three level inverter associated with the direct torque control. The first part of this work is devoted to present the mathematical models of the DTC associated with 2-levels inverter then 3-levels inverter. Simulations on Matlab/Simulink will allow a comparative study to highlight advantages of the use of three levels inverter. The second part is devoted to the improvement of the DTC associated with a 3-levels inverter by application of the space vector modulation strategy (SVM) in order to manage the switching frequency and reduce harmonics. The efficiency of this solution will be attested by simulation on Matlab/Simulink.

  13. High performance control of a three-level IGBT inverter fed AC drive

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.

    1995-12-31

    Three-level PWM inverters have been increasingly employed in industry and traction applications where high power and efficiency energy conversions are required. This paper presents a high performance control of a cage induction motor drive fed by a 100 Hp three-level IGBT inverter operating at a low switching frequency. A practical math model of the drive control system is established to aid in the control design to improve the system stability, dynamic performance and robustness over a wide speed range. The modeling and the simulation in Matlab/Simulink facilitate the self-tuning of the regulators in the multi-loop systems. The field oriented control and three-level space-vector modulation together with the drive protection and diagnostics are implemented in software based on a DSP TMS320C31. Experimental results based on the IGBT inverter prototype are given to verify the design and performance. Test results in motor common-mode voltage reduction and inverter neutral-point potential control re also briefly presented.

  14. AAV9-NPC1 significantly ameliorates Purkinje cell death and behavioral abnormalities in mouse NPC disease.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chang; Gong, Xue-Min; Luo, Jie; Li, Bo-Liang; Song, Bao-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. There is no effective way to treat NPC disease. In this study, we used adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 9 (AAV9) to deliver a functional NPC1 gene systemically into NPC1(-/-) mice at postnatal day 4. One single AAV9-NPC1 injection resulted in robust NPC1 expression in various tissues, including brain, heart, and lung. Strikingly, AAV9-mediated NPC1 delivery significantly promoted Purkinje cell survival, restored locomotor activity and coordination, and increased the lifespan of NPC1(-/-) mice. Our work suggests that AAV-based gene therapy is a promising means to treat NPC disease.

  15. A new balancing three level three dimensional space vector modulation strategy for three level neutral point clamped four leg inverter based shunt active power filter controlling by nonlinear back stepping controllers.

    PubMed

    Chebabhi, Ali; Fellah, Mohammed Karim; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Benkhoris, Mohamed F

    2016-07-01

    In this paper is proposed a new balancing three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (B3L-3DSVM) strategy which uses a redundant voltage vectors to realize precise control and high-performance for a three phase three-level four-leg neutral point clamped (NPC) inverter based Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) for eliminate the source currents harmonics, reduce the magnitude of neutral wire current (eliminate the zero-sequence current produced by single-phase nonlinear loads), and to compensate the reactive power in the three-phase four-wire electrical networks. This strategy is proposed in order to gate switching pulses generation, dc bus voltage capacitors balancing (conserve equal voltage of the two dc bus capacitors), and to switching frequency reduced and fixed of inverter switches in same times. A Nonlinear Back Stepping Controllers (NBSC) are used for regulated the dc bus voltage capacitors and the SAPF injected currents to robustness, stabilizing the system and to improve the response and to eliminate the overshoot and undershoot of traditional PI (Proportional-Integral). Conventional three-level three dimensional space vector modulation (C3L-3DSVM) and B3L-3DSVM are calculated and compared in terms of error between the two dc bus voltage capacitors, SAPF output voltages and THDv, THDi of source currents, magnitude of source neutral wire current, and the reactive power compensation under unbalanced single phase nonlinear loads. The success, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed control strategies are demonstrated through simulation using Sim Power Systems and S-Function of MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  16. Hybrid Pwm Switching Strategy for a Three-Level Inverter Fed Induction Motor Drive with Open-End Windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, S.; Ramachandrasekhar, K.

    2010-06-01

    A dual two-level inverter fed induction motor with open-end windings is capable of generating a three-level output voltage. Several, sine-triangle and space vector pulse width modulation (PWM) switching strategies are presented for the dual-inverter scheme either using space-vector or carrier-based implementation. In this paper, a hybrid PWM switching strategy for the dual-inverter scheme is proposed employing sine-triangle PWM (SPWM) and space vector PWM (SVPWM) for the individual inverters. SPWM is theoretically analyzed and space vector based implementation of SPWM is presented using a simple offset-time concept. This is exploited to implement the hybrid PWM switching strategy for the dual two-level inverter. The implementation of the hybrid PWM switching strategy proposed in this paper do not require any look-up tables, the switching is totally automatic obviating the time-consuming task of sector identification. The implementation of the hybrid PWM scheme requires only the three instantaneous phase reference voltages corresponding to the reference space vector. The third harmonic component in the voltage appearing across the motor phase windings in the induction motor is significantly reduced (by 50%) with the use of the proposed hybrid PWM scheme as compared to the use of the PWM scheme presented earlier. Also, the percentage weighted total harmonic distortion (%WTHD) of the output voltage is significantly reduced in the entire range of speed of the induction motor driven by the dual-inverter scheme.

  17. Transfer of cholesterol by the NPC team.

    PubMed

    Vance, Jean E

    2010-08-04

    The mechanisms of intracellular cholesterol transport are largely unknown. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Wang et al. (2010) identify amino acid residues on the lumenal lysosomal protein Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) that are required for intralysosomal transfer of endocytosed cholesterol to membrane-bound NPC1 via a process that avoids movement of hydrophobic cholesterol through the aqueous phase.

  18. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  19. NPC1, intracellular cholesterol trafficking and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Na; Yao, Ping-Bo; Zheng, Xi-Long; Cayabyab, Francisco S; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2014-02-15

    Post-lysosomal cholesterol trafficking is an important, but poorly understood process that is essential to maintain lipid homeostasis. Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1), an integral membrane protein on the limiting membrane of late endosome/lysosome (LE/LY), is known to accept cholesterol from NPC2 and then mediate cholesterol transport from LE/LY to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane in a vesicle- or oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 5 (ORP5)-dependent manner. Mutations in the NPC1 gene can be found in the majority of NPC patients, who accumulate massive amounts of cholesterol and other lipids in the LE/LY due to a defect in intracellular lipid trafficking. Liver X receptor (LXR) is the major positive regulator of NPC1 expression. Atherosclerosis is the pathological basis of coronary heart disease, one of the major causes of death worldwide. NPC1 has been shown to play a critical role in the atherosclerotic progression. In this review, we have summarized the role of NPC1 in regulating intracellular cholesterol trafficking and atherosclerosis.

  20. A single-phase multi-level D-STATCOM inverter using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology for renewable energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoodeh, Pedram

    This dissertation presents the design of a novel multi-level inverter with FACTS capability for small to mid-size (10-20kW) permanent-magnet wind installations using modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology. The aim of the work is to design a new type of inverter with D-STATCOM option to provide utilities with more control on active and reactive power transfer of distribution lines. The inverter is placed between the renewable energy source, specifically a wind turbine, and the distribution grid in order to fix the power factor of the grid at a target value, regardless of wind speed, by regulating active and reactive power required by the grid. The inverter is capable of controlling active and reactive power by controlling the phase angle and modulation index, respectively. The unique contribution of the proposed work is to combine the two concepts of inverter and D-STATCOM using a novel voltage source converter (VSC) multi-level topology in a single unit without additional cost. Simulations of the proposed inverter, with 5 and 11 levels, have been conducted in MATLAB/Simulink for two systems including 20 kW/kVAR and 250 W/VAR. To validate the simulation results, a scaled version (250 kW/kVAR) of the proposed inverter with 5 and 11 levels has been built and tested in the laboratory. Experimental results show that the reduced-scale 5- and 11-level inverter is able to fix PF of the grid as well as being compatible with IEEE standards. Furthermore, total cost of the prototype models, which is one of the major objectives of this research, is comparable with market prices.

  1. Diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease type C with 7-ketocholesterol screening followed by NPC1/NPC2 gene mutation confirmation in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been reported that oxidation product of cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, increases in plasma of patients with NP-C. Previously, we established a rapid test to determine the plasma 7-ketocholesterol level and found it elevated significantly in patients with acid sphingomyelinase deficient NPD and NP-C disease. Methods Individuals randomly referred to our outpatient clinics in the past two years for hepatosplenomegaly or isolated splenomegaly, who have been excluded as acid sphingomyelinase deficient NPD or Gaucher disease, and individuals with newborn cholestasis, psychomotor regression/retardation, were screened for plasma 7-ketocholesterol level. Individuals with high 7-ketocholesterol level were then analyzed for NPC1 and NPC2 gene mutation to confirm the accuracy of NP-C diagnosis. Results By screening the plasma 7-ketocholesterol of suspect individuals, 12 out of 302 (4%) had shown remarkable high levels compared with reference. All these twelve individuals were subsequently confirmed to be NP-C by DNA analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes, with the early infantile form (n = 7), the late infantile form (n = 1), the juvenile form (n = 1) and the adult form (n = 1). Furthermore, two NP-C patients without observable neuropsychiatric disability were picked up through this procedure. Only one patient had NP-C due to NPC2 gene mutations, with the rest due to NPC1 gene mutations. We found that in NP-C patients AST was usually mildly elevated and ALT was in a normal range when jaundice was not present. In total, 22 mutant alleles were identified in the NPC1 gene, including six novel small deletions/insertions, e.g., c.416_417insC, c.1030delT, c.1800delC, c.2230_2231delGT, c.2302_2303insG, and c.2795dupA; seven novel exonic point mutations, c.1502A>T (p.D501V), c.1553G>A (p.R518Q), c.1832A>G (p.D611G), c.2054T>C (p.I685T), c.2128C>T(p.Q710X), c.2177G>C (p.R726T), c.2366G>A (p.R789H), and one novel intronic mutation c.2912-3C>G. Small deletions

  2. NPC2 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    NPC2, a secreted protein containing a lipid recognition domain, may function in regulating the transport of cholesterol through the late endosomal/lysosomal system. NPC2 may be involved in the regulation of the lipid composition of sperm membranes during the maturation in the epididymis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Niemann-Pick disease, type C2 and frontal lobe atrophy.

  3. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Ndungo, Esther; Herbert, Andrew S.; Raaben, Matthijs; Obernosterer, Gregor; Biswas, Rohan; Miller, Emily Happy; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Carette, Jan E.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Whelan, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell’s viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell’s viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1’s endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell’s viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV

  4. Glycosylation inhibition reduces cholesterol accumulation in NPC1 protein-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Deffieu, Maika S; Lee, Peter L; Saha, Piyali; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2015-12-01

    Lysosomes are lined with a glycocalyx that protects the limiting membrane from the action of degradative enzymes. We tested the hypothesis that Niemann-Pick type C 1 (NPC1) protein aids the transfer of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol across this glycocalyx. A prediction of this model is that cells will be less dependent upon NPC1 if their glycocalyx is decreased in density. Lysosome cholesterol content was significantly lower after treatment of NPC1-deficient human fibroblasts with benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside, an inhibitor of O-linked glycosylation. Direct biochemical measurement of cholesterol showed that lysosomes purified from NPC1-deficient fibroblasts contained at least 30% less cholesterol when O-linked glycosylation was blocked. As an independent means to modify protein glycosylation, we used Chinese hamster ovary ldl-D cells defective in UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase in which N- and O-linked glycosylation can be controlled. CRISPR generated, NPC1-deficient ldl-D cells supplemented with galactose accumulated more cholesterol than those in which sugar addition was blocked. In the absence of galactose supplementation, NPC1-deficient ldl-D cells also transported more cholesterol from lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum, as monitored by an increase in cholesteryl [(14)C]-oleate levels. These experiments support a model in which NPC1 protein functions to transfer cholesterol past a lysosomal glycocalyx.

  5. A Transformerless Motor Drive with a Five-Level Diode-Clamped PWM Inverter for Fan/Blower Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Kazunori; Hatti, Natchpong; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper describes a 6.6-kV adjustable-speed motor drive for use in fans, blowers, and pumps without a transformer. The power-conversion system consists of a diode rectifier, a five-level diode-clamped PWM inverter, and a voltage-balancing circuit. A 200-V 5.5-kW downscale model is developed, constructed, and tested. The five-level PWM inverter and the voltage-balancing circuit are studied in detail. Experimental results obtained from testing the 200-V downscale model confirm the viability and effectiveness of the 6.6-kV adjustable-speed motor drive, indicating that the dc mean voltages of the four split dc capacitors are well balanced under all the given operating conditions.

  6. Clues to the mechanism of cholesterol transfer from the structure of NPC1 middle lumenal domain bound to NPC2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaochun; Saha, Piyali; Li, Jian; Blobel, Günter; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Export of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes requires the cooperation of the integral membrane protein Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) and a soluble protein, Niemann–Pick C2 (NPC2). Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins lead to Niemann–Pick disease type C (NPC). NPC2 binds to NPC1’s second (middle), lumenally oriented domain (MLD) and transfers cholesterol to NPC1’s N-terminal domain (NTD). Here, we report the 2.4-Å resolution crystal structure of a complex of human NPC1–MLD and NPC2 bearing bound cholesterol-3-O-sulfate. NPC1–MLD uses two protruding loops to bind NPC2, analogous to its interaction with the primed Ebola virus glycoprotein. Docking of the NPC1–NPC2 complex onto the full-length NPC1 structure reveals a direct cholesterol transfer tunnel between NPC2 and NTD cholesterol binding pockets, supporting the “hydrophobic hand-off” cholesterol transfer model. PMID:27551080

  7. Inverting Glacial Isostatic Adjustment with Paleo Sea Level Records using Bayesian Framework and Burgers Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, L.; Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Fleitout, L.; Rouby, H.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models most often assume a mantle with a viscoelastic Maxwell rheology and a given ice history model. Here we use a Bayesian Monte Carlo with Markov Chains formalism to invert the global GIA signal simultaneously for the mechanical properties of the mantle and for the volume of the various ice-sheets using as starting ice models two distinct previously published ice histories. Burgers as well as Maxwell rheologies are considered.The fitted data consist of 5720 paleo sea level records from the last 35kyrs, with a world-wide distribution. Our ambition is to present not only the best fitting model, but also the range of possible solutions (within the explored space of parameters) with their respective probability of explaining the data, and thus reveal the trade-off effects and range of uncertainty affecting the parameters. Our a posteriori probality maps exhibit in all cases two distinct peaks: both are characterized by an upper mantle viscosity around 5.1020Pa.s but one of the peaks features a lower mantle viscosity around 3.1021Pa.s while the other indicates lower mantle viscosity of more than 1.1022Pa.s. The global maximum depends upon the starting ice history and the chosen rheology: the first peak (P1) has the highest probability only in the case with a Maxwell rheology and ice history based on ICE-5G, while the second peak (P2) is favored when using ANU-based ice history or Burgers rheology, and is our preferred solution as it is also consistent with long-term geodynamics and gravity gradients anomalies over Laurentide. P2 is associated with larger volumes for the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice-sheets and as a consequence of total ice volume balance, smaller volumes for the Antactic ice-sheet. This last point interfers with the estimate of present-day ice-melting in Antarctica from GRACE data. Finally, we find that P2 with Burgers rheology favors the existence of a tectosphere, i.e. a viscous sublithospheric layer.

  8. Phase-dependent high refractive index without absorption in a four-level inverted-Y atomic system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Qiang Zeng; Fu-Ti Liu; Yu-Ping Wang; Zeng-Hui Gao

    2015-01-31

    We consider a closed four-level inverted-Y system in the presence and the absence of a microwave field. It is found that due to the quantum coherence between the two lower levels, either induced by the spontaneous decay or by the microwave field, the refraction – absorption properties of the system can be modulated by controlling the relative phase of the applied fields in both driven ways. In particular, by properly setting the values of the relative phase, the desirable high index of refraction without absorption can be achieved. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  9. Modes competition in superradiant emission from an inverted sub-wavelength thick slab of two-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manassah, Jamal T.

    2016-08-01

    Using the expansion in the eigenmodes of 1-D Lienard-Wiechert kernel, the temporal and spectral profiles of the radiation emitted by a fully inverted collection of two-level atoms in a sub-wavelength slab geometry are computed. The initial number of amplifying modes determine the specific regime of radiation. In particular, the temporal profile of the field intensity is oscillatory and the spectral profile is non-Lorentzian with two unequal height peaks in a narrow band centered at the slab thickness value at which the real parts of the lowest order odd and even eigenvalues are equal.

  10. Inverting the Linear Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The inverted classroom is a course design model in which students' initial contact with new information takes place outside of class meetings, and students spend class time on high-level sense-making activities. The inverted classroom model is so called because it inverts or "flips" the usual classroom design where typically class…

  11. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  12. RNA Export through the NPC in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Masumi; Inose, Haruko; Masuda, Seiji

    2015-03-20

    In eukaryotic cells, RNAs are transcribed in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex. The RNA molecules that are exported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), micro RNAs (miRNAs), and viral mRNAs. Each RNA is transported by a specific nuclear export receptor. It is believed that most of the mRNAs are exported by Nxf1 (Mex67 in yeast), whereas rRNAs, snRNAs, and a certain subset of mRNAs are exported in a Crm1/Xpo1-dependent manner. tRNAs and miRNAs are exported by Xpot and Xpo5. However, multiple export receptors are involved in the export of some RNAs, such as 60S ribosomal subunit. In addition to these export receptors, some adapter proteins are required to export RNAs. The RNA export system of eukaryotic cells is also used by several types of RNA virus that depend on the machineries of the host cell in the nucleus for replication of their genome, therefore this review describes the RNA export system of two representative viruses. We also discuss the NPC anchoring-dependent mRNA export factors that directly recruit specific genes to the NPC.

  13. Genetic variation at the NPC1L1 gene locus, plasma lipoproteins, and heart disease risk in the elderly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1) plays a critical role in intestinal cholesterol absorption. Our objective was to examine whether five variants (-133A>G, -18A>C, L272L, V1296V, and U3_28650A>G) at the NPC1L1 gene have effects on lipid levels, prevalence, and incidence of coronary heart diseas...

  14. omicsNPC: Applying the Non-Parametric Combination Methodology to the Integrative Analysis of Heterogeneous Omics Data

    PubMed Central

    Karathanasis, Nestoras; Tsamardinos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Background The advance of omics technologies has made possible to measure several data modalities on a system of interest. In this work, we illustrate how the Non-Parametric Combination methodology, namely NPC, can be used for simultaneously assessing the association of different molecular quantities with an outcome of interest. We argue that NPC methods have several potential applications in integrating heterogeneous omics technologies, as for example identifying genes whose methylation and transcriptional levels are jointly deregulated, or finding proteins whose abundance shows the same trends of the expression of their encoding genes. Results We implemented the NPC methodology within “omicsNPC”, an R function specifically tailored for the characteristics of omics data. We compare omicsNPC against a range of alternative methods on simulated as well as on real data. Comparisons on simulated data point out that omicsNPC produces unbiased / calibrated p-values and performs equally or significantly better than the other methods included in the study; furthermore, the analysis of real data show that omicsNPC (a) exhibits higher statistical power than other methods, (b) it is easily applicable in a number of different scenarios, and (c) its results have improved biological interpretability. Conclusions The omicsNPC function competitively behaves in all comparisons conducted in this study. Taking into account that the method (i) requires minimal assumptions, (ii) it can be used on different studies designs and (iii) it captures the dependences among heterogeneous data modalities, omicsNPC provides a flexible and statistically powerful solution for the integrative analysis of different omics data. PMID:27812137

  15. A low-power inverter-based CMOS level-crossing analog-to-digital converter for low-frequency biosignal sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Suiki; Niitsu, Kiichi; Nakazato, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    Low-power analog-to-digital conversion is a key technique for power-limited biomedical applications such as power-limited continuous glucose monitoring. However, a conventional uniform-sampling analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is not suitable for nonuniform biosignals. A level-crossing ADC (LC-ADC) is a promising candidate for low-power biosignal processing because of its event-driven properties. The LC-ADC acquires data by level-crossing sampling. When an input signal crosses the threshold level, the LC-ADC samples the signal. The conventional LC-ADC employs a power-hungry comparator. In this paper, we present a low-power inverter-based LC-ADC. By adjusting the threshold level of the inverter, it can be used as a threshold-fixed window comparator. By using the inverter as an alternative to a comparator, power consumption can be markedly reduced. As a result, the total power consumption is successfully reduced by 90% of that of previous LC-ADC. The inverter-based LC-ADC was found to be very suitable for use in power-limited biomedical devices.

  16. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  17. Inverted Perceptual Judgment of Nociceptive Stimuli at Threshold Level following Inconsistent Cues

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Carmen; Dimova, Violeta; Bu, Julia; Parnham, Michael J.; Oertel, Bruno G.; Lötsch, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Objective The perception of pain is susceptible to modulation by psychological and contextual factors. It has been shown that subjects judge noxious stimuli as more painful in a respective suggestive context, which disappears when the modifying context is resolved. However, a context in which subjects judge the painfulness of a nociceptive stimulus in exactly the opposite direction to that of the cues has never been shown so far. Methods Nociceptive stimuli (300 ms intranasal gaseous CO2) at the individual pain threshold level were applied after a visual cue announcing the stimulus as either “no pain”, merely a “stimulus”, or “pain”. Among the stimuli at threshold level, other CO2 stimuli that were clearly below or above pain threshold were randomly interspersed. These were announced beforehand in 12 subjects randomly with correct or incorrect cues, i.e., clearly painful or clearly non-painful stimuli were announced equally often as not painful or painful. By contrast, in a subsequent group of another 12 subjects, the stimuli were always announced correctly with respect to the evoked pain. Results The random and often incorrect announcement of stimuli clearly below or above pain threshold caused the subjects to rate the stimuli at pain-threshold level in the opposite direction of the cue, i.e., when the stimuli were announced as “pain” significantly more often than as non-painful and vice versa (p < 10-4). By contrast, in the absence of incongruence between announcement and perception of the far-from-threshold stimuli, stimuli at pain threshold were rated in the cued direction. Conclusions The present study revealed the induction of associations incongruent with a given message in the perception of pain. We created a context of unreliable cues whereby subjects perceived the stimulus opposite to that suggested by a prior cue, i.e., potentially nociceptive stimuli at pain threshold level that were announced as painful were judged as non-painful and

  18. A method for predicting the noise levels of coannular jets with inverted velocity profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A coannular jet was equated with a single stream equivalent jet with the same mass flow, energy, and thrust. The acoustic characteristics of the coannular jet were then related to the acoustic characteristics of the single jet. Forward flight effects were included by incorporating a forward exponent, a Doppler amplification factor, and a Strouhal frequency shift. Model test data, including 48 static cases and 22 wind tunnel cases, were used to evaluate the prediction method. For the static cases and the low forward velocity wind tunnel cases, the spectral mean square pressure correlation coefficients were generally greater than 90 percent, and the spectral sound pressure level standard deviation were generally less than 3 decibels. The correlation coefficient and the standard deviation were not affected by changes in equivalent jet velocity. Limitations of the prediction method are also presented.

  19. Transcriptomic Biomarkers for Tuberculosis: Evaluation of DOCK9. EPHA4, and NPC2 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Leonardo S.; Vaas, Lea A. I.; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Geffers, Robert; Mello, Fernanda C. Q.; de Almeida, Alexandre S.; Moreira, Adriana da S. R.; Kritski, Afrânio L.; Lapa e Silva, José R.; Moraes, Milton O.; Pessler, Frank; Saad, Maria H. F.

    2016-01-01

    Lately, much effort has been made to find mRNA biomarkers for tuberculosis (TB) disease/infection with microarray-based approaches. In a pilot investigation, through RNA sequencing technology, we observed a prominent modulation of DOCK9, EPHA4, and NPC2 mRNA abundance in the blood of TB patients. To corroborate these findings, independent validations were performed in cohorts from different areas. Gene expression levels in blood were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (Brazil, n = 129) or reanalysis of public microarray data (UK: n = 96; South Africa: n = 51; Germany: n = 26; and UK/France: n = 63). In the Brazilian cohort, significant modulation of all target-genes was observed comparing TB vs. healthy recent close TB contacts (rCt). With a 92% specificity, NPC2 mRNA high expression (NPC2high) showed the highest sensitivity (85%, 95% CI 65%–96%; area under the ROC curve [AUROC] = 0.88), followed by EPHA4 (53%, 95% CI 33%–73%, AUROC = 0.73) and DOCK9 (19%, 95% CI 7%–40%; AUROC = 0.66). All the other reanalyzed cohorts corroborated the potential of NPC2high as a biomarker for TB (sensitivity: 82–100%; specificity: 94–97%). An NPC2high profile was also observed in 60% (29/48) of the tuberculin skin test positive rCt, and additional follow-up evaluation revealed changes in the expression levels of NPC2 during the different stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, suggesting that further studies are needed to evaluate modulation of this gene during latent TB and/or progression to active disease. Considering its high specificity, our data indicate, for the first time, that NPC2high might serve as an accurate single-gene biomarker for TB. PMID:27826286

  20. Analysis, control and design of a non-inverting buck-boost converter: A bump-less two-level T-S fuzzy PI control.

    PubMed

    Almasi, Omid Naghash; Fereshtehpoor, Vahid; Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new modified fuzzy Two-Level Control Scheme (TLCS) is proposed to control a non-inverting buck-boost converter. Each level of fuzzy TLCS consists of a tuned fuzzy PI controller. In addition, a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy switch proposed to transfer the fuzzy PI controllers to each other in the control system. The major difficulty in designing fuzzy TLCS which degrades its performance is emerging unwanted drastic oscillations in the converter output voltage during replacing the controllers. Thereby, the fuzzy PI controllers in each level of TLCS structure are modified to eliminate these oscillations and improve the system performance. Some simulations and digital signal processor based experiments are conducted on a non-inverting buck-boost converter to support the effectiveness of the proposed TLCS in controlling the converter output voltage.

  1. Simplified High-Power Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. B.; Rippel, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Solid-state inverter simplified by use of single gate-turnoff device (GTO) to commutate multiple silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). By eliminating conventional commutation circuitry, GTO reduces cost, size and weight. GTO commutation applicable to inverters of greater than 1-kilowatt capacity. Applications include emergency power, load leveling, drives for traction and stationary polyphase motors, and photovoltaic-power conditioning.

  2. Revisiting the four-level inverted-Y system under both Doppler-free and Doppler-broadened conditions: an analytical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Islam, Khairul; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    We report the occurrence of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the simulated probe response signal for a four-level inverted-Y type system that is being acted upon by a weak coherent probe field, a strong coherent pump field and a coherent repump field. There are two ground energy levels, one intermediate energy level and one uppermost energy level. The weak probe field couples the lowest ground level to the intermediate level whereas the repump field connects the other ground level with the intermediate level. The strong control field couples the intermediate level with the uppermost energy level, thereby forming an inverted-Y type system. The density matrix based theoretical model has been developed and solved analytically for this four-level system and the probe response signal has been simulated at different values of the control and repump Rabi frequencies, control and repump frequency detunings and under both Doppler-free and Doppler-broadened conditions using the parameters of 87Rb D2 transition. Extremely low line width (few tens of kHz) for the EIT signal has been noticed under thermal averaging for copropagating probe, control and repump field configuration. The EIT signal is found to be immune to the variation in the control Rabi frequency.

  3. [Inverted nipples].

    PubMed

    Saltvig, Iselin; Sjøstrand, Helle; Oldenburg, Mette Holmqvist; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2016-10-17

    Inverted nipples is an anatomical variation which can be uni- or bilateral, congenital or acquired. The degree of inversion can vary from slight to severe. Treatment can be surgical or non-surgical and should depend on the degree of functional problems. Non-surgical treatment can be beneficial, does not risk affecting sensibility, spares the lactiferous ducts, and therefore does not risk any interference with breast-feeding. Surgical options should only be considered when non-surgical treatment is insufficient.

  4. Applications of cascade multilevel inverters.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fang-zen; Qian, Zhao-ming

    2003-01-01

    Cascade multilevel inverters have been developed for electric utility applications. A cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 H-bridges in which each bridge's dc voltage is supported by its own dc capacitor. The new inverter can: (1) generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage while only switching one time per fundamental cycle; (2) dispense with multi-pulse inverters' transformers used in conventional utility interfaces and static var compensators; (3) enables direct parallel or series transformer-less connection to medium- and high-voltage power systems. In short, the cascade inverter is much more efficient and suitable for utility applications than traditional multi-pulse and pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters. The authors have experimentally demonstrated the superiority of the new inverter for power supply, (hybrid) electric vehicle (EV) motor drive, reactive power (var) and harmonic compensation. This paper summarizes the features, feasibility, and control schemes of the cascade inverter for utility applications including utility interface of renewable energy, voltage regulation, var compensation, and harmonic filtering in power systems. Analytical, simulated, and experimental results demonstrated the superiority of the new inverters.

  5. The role of Niemann-Pick C1 - Like 1 (NPC1L1) in intestinal sterol absorption.

    PubMed

    Turley, Stephen D

    2008-04-01

    does facilitate sterol uptake by the enterocyte and is the target of ezetimibe. Added to this is the unequivocal finding that deletion of the gene for NPC1L1 in mice results in a near complete prevention of cholesterol absorption and an accelerated rate of fecal neutral sterol excretion. In summary, the development of ezetimibe and the identification of NPC1L1 as a key player in sterol absorption have taken research on the molecular control of this pathway to an exciting new level. From this it is hoped that we will now be able to determine more precisely what effect, if any, other classes of lipid lowering agents, particularly the statins, might exert on the amount of intestinal cholesterol reaching the liver.

  6. Nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) for oral pharmaceutics and nutraceutics.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C M; Martins-Lopes, P; Souto, E B

    2010-02-01

    The introduction of nanoparticulate carriers (NPC) in the pharmaceutic and nutraceutic fields has changed the definitions of disease management and treatment, diagnosis, as well as the supply food chain in the agri-food sector. NPC composed of synthetic polymers, proteins or polysaccharides gather interesting properties to be used for oral administration of pharmaceutics and nutraceutics. Oral administration remains the most convenient way of delivering drugs (e.g. peptides, proteins and nucleic acids) since these suffer similar metabolic pathways as food supply. Recent advances in biotechnology have produced highly potent new molecules however with low oral bioavailability. A suitable and promising approach to overcome their sensitivity to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis as well as the poor cellular uptake, would be their entrapment within suitable gastrointestinal (GI) resistant NPC. Increasing attention has been paid to the potential use of NPC for peptides, proteins, antioxidants (carotenoids, omega fatty acids, coenzyme Q10), vitamins, probiotics, for oral administration. This review focuses on the most important materials to produce NPC for oral administration, and the most recent achievements in the production techniques and bioactives successfully delivered by these means.

  7. EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 Proteins Participate in Trafficking of Exogenous Cholesterol in Entamoeba histolytica Trophozoites: Relevance for Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jeni; Betanzos, Abigail; Javier-Reyna, Rosario; García- Rivera, Guillermina; Huerta, Miriam; Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; González-Robles, Arturo; Rodríguez, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the highly phagocytic protozoan causative of human amoebiasis lacks the machinery to synthesize cholesterol. Here, we investigated the presence of NPC1 and NPC2 proteins in this parasite, which are involved in cholesterol trafficking in mammals. Bioinformatics analysis revealed one Ehnpc1 and two Ehnpc2 genes. EhNPC1 appeared as a transmembrane protein and both EhNPC2 as peripheral membrane proteins. Molecular docking predicted that EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 bind cholesterol and interact with each other. Genes and proteins were identified in trophozoites. Serum pulse-chase and confocal microscopy assays unveiled that after trophozoites sensed the cholesterol source, EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 were organized around the plasma membrane in a punctuated pattern. Vesicles emerged and increased in number and size and some appeared full of cholesterol with EhNPC1 or EhNPC2 facing the extracellular space. Both proteins, but mostly EhNPC2, were found out of the cell associated with cholesterol. EhNPC1 and cholesterol formed networks from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. EhNPC2 appeared in erythrocytes that were being ingested by trophozoites, co-localizing with cholesterol of erythrocytes, whereas EhNPC1 surrounded the phagocytic cup. EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 co-localized with EhSERCA in the endoplasmic reticulum and with lysobisphosphatidic acid and EhADH (an Alix protein) in phagolysosomes. Immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 association with cholesterol, EhRab7A and EhADH. Serum starved and blockage of cholesterol trafficking caused a low rate of phagocytosis and incapability of trophozoites to produce damage in the mouse colon. Ehnpc1 and Ehnpc2 knockdown provoked in trophozoites a lower intracellular cholesterol concentration and a diminished rate of phagocytosis; and Ehnpc1 silencing also produced a decrease of trophozoites movement. Trafficking of EhNPC1 and EhNPC2 during cholesterol uptake and phagocytosis as well as their association with

  8. NPC1 is enriched in unexplained early onset ataxia: a targeted high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Synofzik, Matthis; Harmuth, Florian; Stampfer, Miriam; Müller Vom Hagen, Jennifer; Schöls, Ludger; Bauer, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease featuring pleiotropic neurological, psychiatric and visceral manifestations. Since many of the adult manifestations can be non-specific or missed, NP-C often goes undetected in adult-onset patients. Here we hypothesized that targeted high-throughput sequencing allows identifying NP-C patients among subjects with unexplained early-onset ataxia (EOA) and, moreover, that this population is enriched for NPC1 mutations. From 204 consecutive EOA patients, all 108 subjects with an established diagnosis were removed (including 4 NPC1 patients), yielding a target cohort of 96 subjects with unexplained EOA, but without primary suspicion of NP-C. This cohort was investigated for NPC1/NPC2 mutations using a high-coverage HaloPlex gene panel including 122 ataxia genes. Among 96 samples, we identified 4 known NPC1 mutations, 3 novel NPC1 missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and 1 novel NPC2 missense VUS. The total mutant allele frequency (8/192 = 4.17 %) was significantly enriched compared with control population data (1.57 %; p = 0.011). Two NPC1-positive patients were identified (both with non-specific incipient clinical features), giving a NPC1 patient frequency of 2/96 = 2.1 % in unexplained EOA and of 6/204 = 2.9 % in the total EOA series. NPC1 mutations are substantially enriched in unexplained EOA, demonstrating EOA as a risk-group for NP-C disease. Targeted high-throughput sequencing allows to identify also those NP-C patients with non-specific conditions where the diagnosis has initially been missed. This method does not require having considered NP-C during differential diagnosis, but allows identification of NP-C as part of the default analysis.

  9. Inactivating Mutations in NPC1L1 and Protection from Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Ezetimibe lowers plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by inhibiting the activity of the Niemann–Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein. However, whether such inhibition reduces the risk of coronary heart disease is not known. Human mutations that inactivate a gene encoding a drug target can mimic the action of an inhibitory drug and thus can be used to infer potential effects of that drug. Methods We sequenced the exons of NPC1L1 in 7364 patients with coronary heart disease and in 14,728 controls without such disease who were of European, African, or South Asian ancestry. We identified carriers of inactivating mutations (nonsense, splice-site, or frameshift mutations). In addition, we genotyped a specific inactivating mutation (p.Arg406X) in 22,590 patients with coronary heart disease and in 68,412 controls. We tested the association between the presence of an inactivating mutation and both plasma lipid levels and the risk of coronary heart disease. Results With sequencing, we identified 15 distinct NPC1L1 inactivating mutations; approximately 1 in every 650 persons was a heterozygous carrier for 1 of these mutations. Heterozygous carriers of NPC1L1 inactivating mutations had a mean LDL cholesterol level that was 12 mg per deciliter (0.31 mmol per liter) lower than that in noncarriers (P = 0.04). Carrier status was associated with a relative reduction of 53% in the risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio for carriers, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.25 to 0.87; P = 0.008). In total, only 11 of 29,954 patients with coronary heart disease had an inactivating mutation (carrier frequency, 0.04%) in contrast to 71 of 83,140 controls (carrier frequency, 0.09%). Conclusions Naturally occurring mutations that disrupt NPC1L1 function were found to be associated with reduced plasma LDL cholesterol levels and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:25390462

  10. Overload protection system for power inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An overload protection system for a power inverter utilized a first circuit for monitoring current to the load from the power inverter to detect an overload and a control circuit to shut off the power inverter, when an overload condition was detected. At the same time, a monitoring current inverter was turned on to deliver current to the load at a very low power level. A second circuit monitored current to the load, from the monitoring current inverter, to hold the power inverter off through the control circuit, until the overload condition was cleared so that the control circuit may be deactivated in order for the power inverter to be restored after the monitoring current inverter is turned off completely.

  11. Quantitative Proteomics of Human Fibroblasts with I1061T Mutation in Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1) Protein Provides Insights into the Disease Pathogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Rauniyar, Navin; Subramanian, Kanagaraj; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Balch, William E.; Yates, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Mutations in the NPC1 protein are implicated in 95% of patients with NPC disease. The most prevalent mutation is the missense mutation I1061T that occurs in ∼15–20% of the disease alleles. In our study, an isobaric labeling-based quantitative analysis of proteome of NPC1I1061T primary fibroblasts when compared with wild-type cells identified 281 differentially expressed proteins based on stringent data analysis criteria. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that these proteins play important roles in diverse cellular processes such as protein maturation, energy metabolism, metabolism of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant activity, steroid metabolism, lipid localization, and apoptosis. The relative expression level of a subset of differentially expressed proteins (TOR4A, DHCR24, CLGN, SOD2, CHORDC1, HSPB7, and GAA) was independently and successfully substantiated by Western blotting. We observed that treating NPC1I1061T cells with four classes of seven different compounds that are potential NPC drugs increased the expression level of SOD2 and DHCR24. We have also shown an abnormal accumulation of glycogen in NPC1I1061T fibroblasts possibly triggered by defective processing of lysosomal alpha-glucosidase. Our study provides a starting point for future more focused investigations to better understand the mechanisms by which the reported dysregulated proteins triggers the pathological cascade in NPC, and furthermore, their effect upon therapeutic interventions. PMID:25873482

  12. Power inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David H; Korich, Mark D; Smith, Gregory S

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  13. Three-Level Inverter with 60 A, 4.5 kV Si IGBT/SiC JBS Power Modules for Marine Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Three-level Inverter with 60 A, 4.5 kV Si IGBT /SiC JBS Power Modules for Marine Applications Kathleen Lentijo, IEEE Member GE Energy Power...Washington, DC, USA Abstract— Semiconductor modules with medium-voltage (MV) Si IGBTs and anti-parallel silicon-carbide (SiC) junction-barrier...pulsed), 4.5kV Si IGBTs and SiC JBS diodes. This work provides a platform to de-risk and evaluate the integration of SiC JBS diodes at MV using

  14. Systemic administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to symptomatic Npc1-deficient mice slows cholesterol sequestration in the major organs and improves liver function.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Adam M; Terpack, Sandi J; Posey, Kenneth S; Liu, Benny; Ramirez, Charina M; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-10-01

    In Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, loss-of-function mutations in either NPC1 or NPC2 result in progressive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol (UC) and glycosphingolipids in all organs, leading to neurodegeneration, pulmonary dysfunction and sometimes liver failure. There is no cure for this disorder. Studies using primarily NPC mouse models have shown that systemic administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2HPβCD), starting in early neonatal life, diminishes UC accumulation in most organs, slows disease progression and extends lifespan. The key question now is whether delaying the start of 2HPβCD treatment until early adulthood, when the amount of entrapped UC throughout the body is markedly elevated, has any of the benefits found when treatment begins at 7 days of age. In the present study, Npc1(-/-) and Npc1(+/+) mice were given saline or 2HPβCD subcutaneously at 49, 56, 63 and 70 days of age, with measurements of organ weights, liver function tests and tissue cholesterol levels performed at 77 days. In Npc1(-/-) mice, treatment with 2HPβCD from 49 days reduced whole-liver cholesterol content at 77 days from 33.0 ± 1.0 to 9.1 ± 0.5 mg/organ. Comparable improvements were seen in other organs, such as the spleen, and in the animal as a whole. There was a transient increase in biliary cholesterol concentration in Npc1(-/-) mice after 2HPβCD. Plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in 77-day-old 2HPβCD-treated Npc1(-/-) mice were reduced compared with saline-treated controls. The lifespan of Npc1(-/-) mice given 2HPβCD marginally exceeded that of the saline-treated controls (99 ± 1.1 vs 94 ± 1.4 days, respectively; P < 0.05). Thus, 2HPβCD is effective in mobilizing entrapped cholesterol in late-stage NPC disease leading to improved liver function.

  15. Plant phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipases C NPC3 and NPC4 with roles in root development and brassinolide signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wimalasekera, Rinukshi; Pejchar, Premysl; Holk, André; Martinec, Jan; Scherer, Günther F E

    2010-05-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C (PC-PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to generate phosphocholine and diacylglycerol (DAG). PC-PLC has a long tradition in animal signal transduction to generate DAG as a second messenger besides the classical phosphatidylinositol splitting phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Based on amino acid sequence similarity to bacterial PC-PLC, six putative PC-PLC genes (NPC1 to NPC6) were identified in the Arabidopsis genome. RT-PCR analysis revealed overlapping expression pattern of NPC genes in root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. In auxin-treated P(NPC3):GUS and P(NPC4):GUS seedlings, strong increase of GUS activity was visible in roots, leaves, and shoots and, to a weaker extent, in brassinolide-treated (BL) seedlings. P(NPC4):GUS seedlings also responded to cytokinin with increased GUS activity in young leaves. Compared to wild-type, T-DNA insertional knockouts npc3 and npc4 showed shorter primary roots and lower lateral root density at low BL concentrations but increased lateral root densities in response to exogenous 0.05-1.0 μM BL. BL-induced expression of TCH4 and LRX2, which are involved in cell expansion, was impaired but not impaired in repression of CPD, a BL biosynthesis gene, in BL-treated npc3 and npc4. These observations suggest NPC3 and NPC4 are important in BL-mediated signaling in root growth. When treated with 0.1 μM BL, DAG accumulation was observed in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures labeled with fluorescent PC as early as 15 min after application. We hypothesize that at least one PC-PLC is a plant signaling enzyme in BL signal transduction and, as shown earlier, in elicitor signal transduction.

  16. c-Src activation promotes nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway: a new and promising target for NPC

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinping; Xia, Weixiong; Yu, Yahui; Peng, Yongjian; Wang, Li; Wang, Gang; Ye, Yanfang; Yang, Jing; Liang, Hu; Kang, Tiebang; Lv, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of cellular Src (c-Src), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, could promote cancer progression through activating its downstream signaling pathways. However, the roles of c-Src and phosphorylated-Src (p-Src) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression are rarely investigated. Herein, we have identified high c-Src concentrations in the serum of NPC patients with distant metastasis using high-throughput protein microarrays. Levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in human primary NPC samples were unfavorable independent prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival, disease-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival. Depletion or inactivation of c-Src in NPC cells using sgRNA with CRISPR/Cas9 system or PP2 decreased cell viability, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. In contrast, these malignancies could be up-regulated by overexpressed c-Src in a NPC cell line with low-metastasis potential. Furthermore, p-Src was involved in promoting NPC cell metastasis by inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process via activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and cytoskeleton remodeling. The p-Src-induced EMT process could be retarded by PP2, which mediated by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, elevated levels of c-Src in serum and p-Src in primary NPC tissue correlated with poor outcomes of NPC patients. And aberrant activation of c-Src facilitated NPC cells with malignant potential, especially metastasis ability, which mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation and sequentially induced the EMT process. These findings unveiled a promising approach for targeted therapy of advanced NPC. PMID:27078847

  17. NPC1L1 is a key regulator of intestinal vitamin K absorption and a modulator of warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tappei; Yamanashi, Yoshihide; Konishi, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Takehito; Toyoda, Yu; Masuo, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2015-02-18

    Vitamin K (VK) is a micronutrient that facilitates blood coagulation. VK antagonists, such as warfarin, are used in the clinic to prevent thromboembolism. Because VK is not synthesized in the body, its intestinal absorption is crucial for maintaining whole-body VK levels. However, the molecular mechanism of this absorption is unclear. We demonstrate that Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein, a cholesterol transporter, plays a central role in intestinal VK uptake and modulates the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. In vitro studies using NPC1L1-overexpressing intestinal cells and in vivo studies with Npc1l1-knockout mice revealed that intestinal VK absorption is NPC1L1-dependent and inhibited by ezetimibe, an NPC1L1-selective inhibitor clinically used for dyslipidemia. In addition, in vivo pharmacological studies demonstrated that the coadministration of ezetimibe and warfarin caused a reduction in hepatic VK levels and enhanced the pharmacological effect of warfarin. Adverse events caused by the coadministration of ezetimibe and warfarin were rescued by oral VK supplementation, suggesting that the drug-drug interaction effects observed were the consequence of ezetimibe-mediated VK malabsorption. This mechanism was supported by a retrospective evaluation of clinical data showing that, in more than 85% of warfarin-treated patients, the anticoagulant activity was enhanced by cotreatment with ezetimibe. Our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanism of VK absorption. This new drug-drug interaction mechanism between ezetimibe (a cholesterol transport inhibitor) and warfarin (a VK antagonist and anticoagulant) could inform clinical care of patients on these medications, such as by altering the kinetics of essential, fat-soluble vitamins.

  18. Hydrophilic Conjugated Polymers with Large Bandgaps and Deep-Lying HOMO Levels as an Efficient Cathode Interlayer in Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhulin; Zhang, Lianjie; Chen, Junwu; Cao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    Two hydrophilic conjugated polymers, PmP-NOH and PmP36F-NOH, with polar diethanol-amine on the side chains and main chain structures of poly(meta-phenylene) and poly(meta-phenylene-alt-3,6-fluorene), respectively, are successfully synthesized. The films of PmP-NOH and PmP36F-NOH show absorption edges at 340 and 343 nm, respectively. The calculated optical bandgaps of the two polymers are 3.65 and 3.62 eV, respectively, the largest ones so far reported for hydrophilic conjugated polymers. PmP-NOH and PmP36F-NOH also possess deep-lying highest occupied molecular orbital levels of -6.19 and -6.15 eV, respectively. Inserting PmP-NOH and PmP36F-NOH as a cathode interlayer in inverted polymer solar cells with a PTB7/PC71 BM blend as the active layer, high power conversion efficiencies of 8.58% and 8.33%, respectively, are achieved, demonstrating that the two hydrophilic polymers are excellent interlayers for efficient inverted polymer solar cells.

  19. Antioxidants reveal an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between reactive oxygen species levels and the rate of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, David; Cacho-Valadez, Briseida; Liu, Ju-Ling; Wang, Ying; Yee, Callista; Bernard, Kristine; Khaki, Arman; Breton, Lionel; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are potentially toxic, but they are also signaling molecules that modulate aging. Recent observations that ROS can promote longevity have to be reconciled with the numerous claims about the benefits of antioxidants on lifespan. Here, three antioxidants [N-acetylcysteine (NAC), vitamin C, and resveratrol (RSV)] were tested on Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that alter drug uptake, mitochondrial function, and ROS metabolism. We observed that like pro-oxidants, antioxidants can both lengthen and shorten lifespan, dependent on concentration, genotypes, and conditions. The effects of antioxidants thus reveal an inverted U-shaped dose-response relationship between ROS levels and lifespan. In addition, we observed that RSV can act additively to both NAC and paraquat, to dramatically increase lifespan. This suggests that the effect of compounds that modulate ROS levels can be additive when their loci of action or mechanisms of action are sufficiently distinct.

  20. Ezetimibe-sensitive cholesterol uptake by NPC1L1 protein does not require endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tory A.; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Human NPC1L1 protein mediates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and liver and is the target of the drug ezetimibe, which is used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Previous studies concluded that NPC1L1-GFP protein trafficking is regulated by cholesterol binding and that ezetimibe blocks NPC1L1-GFP function by inhibiting its endocytosis. We used cell surface biotinylation to monitor NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis and show that ezetimibe does not alter the rate of NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis in cultured rat hepatocytes grown under normal growth conditions. As expected, NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis depends in part on C-terminal, cytoplasmically oriented sequences, but endocytosis does not require cholesterol binding to NPC1L1’s N-terminal domain. In addition, two small- molecule inhibitors of general (and NPC1L1-GFP) endocytosis failed to inhibit the ezetimibe-sensitive uptake of [3H]cholesterol from taurocholate micelles. These experiments demonstrate that cholesterol uptake by NPC1L1 does not require endocytosis; moreover, ezetimibe interferes with NPC1L1’s cholesterol adsorption activity without blocking NPC1L1 internalization in RH7777 cells. PMID:27075173

  1. FTY720/fingolimod increases NPC1 and NPC2 expression and reduces cholesterol and sphingolipid accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C mutant fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jason; Hait, Nitai C; Maceyka, Michael; Colaco, Alexandria; Maczis, Melissa; Wassif, Christopher A; Cougnoux, Antony; Porter, Forbes D; Milstien, Sheldon; Platt, Nicholas; Platt, Frances M; Spiegel, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 or NPC2 with decreased functions leading to lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids. FTY720/fingolimod, used for treatment of multiple sclerosis, is phosphorylated by nuclear sphingosine kinase 2, and its active phosphorylated form (FTY720-P) is an inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases. In this study, administration of clinically relevant doses of FTY720 to mice increased expression of NPC1 and -2 in brain and liver and decreased cholesterol in an SphK2-dependent manner. FTY720 greatly increased expression of NPC1 and -2 in human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts that correlated with formation of FTY720-P and significantly reduced the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. In agreement with this finding, FTY720 pretreatment of human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts restored transport of the cholera toxin B subunit, which binds ganglioside GM1, to the Golgi apparatus. Together, these findings suggest that FTY720 administration can ameliorate cholesterol and sphingolipid storage and trafficking defects in NPC1 mutant fibroblasts. Because neurodegeneration is the main clinical feature of NPC disease, and FTY720 accumulates in the CNS and has several advantages over available histone deacetylase inhibitors now in clinical trials, our work provides a potential opportunity for treatment of this incurable disease.-Newton, J., Hait, N. C., Maceyka, M., Colaco, A., Maczis, M., Wassif, C. A., Cougnoux, A., Porter, F. D., Milstien, S., Platt, N., Platt, F. M., Spiegel, S. FTY720/fingolimod increases NPC1 and NPC2 expression and reduces cholesterol and sphingolipid accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C mutant fibroblasts.

  2. Preclinical evaluation of PI3K inhibitor BYL719 as a single agent and its synergism in combination with cisplatin or MEK inhibitor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chi Hang; Ma, Brigette Buig Yue; Cheong, Hio Teng; Hui, Connie Wun Chun; Hui, Edwin Pun; Chan, Anthony Tak Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Southeast Asia and over 40% of NPC tissues harbor PIK3CA amplifications. This study aims to study the preclinical activity of a novel PI3K inhibitor, BYL719, in 6 NPC cell lines: C666-1, CNE-2, HK1, HK1-EBV, HONE-1 and HONE-1-LMP1. Over 70% of growth inhibition was attained when NPC cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of BYL719, with IC50 values at the low micro-molar range. Two BYL719-sensitive cell lines that harbor PIK3CA mutations, CNE-2 and HONE-1, were selected for further analysis on the effect of BYL719 on cell cycle progression, apoptosis and PI3K signaling. BYL719 significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, and the Akt-mTOR axis downstream effector S6 in these 2 cell lines, but a feedback activation of MAPK was observed at 72 hours post-treatment. BYL719 induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in both cell lines. In 3D cell culture models, the growth of NPC spheroids was significantly inhibited in a dose-depending manner. When BYL719 was combined with a MEK inhibitor (AZD6244) in a 3D cell culture system, strong synergism on NPC cell growth was observed with attenuation of MAPK activation. A synergistic inhibitory effect on growth was observed when BYL719 was combined with higher dose levels of cisplatin. These data suggest that BYL719 has preclinical activity in NPC cell lines especially in those which harbor PIK3CA mutation. Combination with a MEK inhibitor maybe a useful strategy that warrants further investigation. PMID:26101713

  3. A new robust control scheme using second order sliding mode and fuzzy logic of a DFIM supplied by two five-level SVPWM inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjema, Zinelaabidine; Taleb, Rachid; Bounadja, Elhadj

    2017-02-01

    Traditional filed oriented control strategy including proportional-integral (PI) regulator for the speed drive of the doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) have some drawbacks such as parameter tuning complications, mediocre dynamic performances and reduced robustness. Therefore, based on the analysis of the mathematical model of a DFIM supplied by two five-level SVPWM inverters, this paper proposes a new robust control scheme based on super twisting sliding mode and fuzzy logic. The conventional sliding mode control (SMC) has vast chattering effect on the electromagnetic torque developed by the DFIM. In order to resolve this problem, a second order sliding mode technique based on super twisting algorithm and fuzzy logic functions is employed. The validity of the employed approach was tested by using Matlab/Simulink software. Interesting simulation results were obtained and remarkable advantages of the proposed control scheme were exposed including simple design of the control system, reduced chattering as well as the other advantages.

  4. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  5. Harmonic analysis and FPGA implementation of SHE controlled three phase CHB 11-level inverter in MV drives using deterministic and stochastic optimization techniques.

    PubMed

    Vesapogu, Joshi Manohar; Peddakotla, Sujatha; Kuppa, Seetha Rama Anjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    With the advancements in semiconductor technology, high power medium voltage (MV) Drives are extensively used in numerous industrial applications. Challenging technical requirements of MV Drives is to control multilevel inverter (MLI) with less Total harmonic distortion (%THD) which satisfies IEEE standard 519-1992 harmonic guidelines and less switching losses. Among all modulation control strategies for MLI, Selective harmonic elimination (SHE) technique is one of the traditionally preferred modulation control technique at fundamental switching frequency with better harmonic profile. On the other hand, the equations which are formed by SHE technique are highly non-linear in nature, may exist multiple, single or even no solution at particular modulation index (MI). However, in some MV Drive applications, it is required to operate over a range of MI. Providing analytical solutions for SHE equations during the whole range of MI from 0 to 1, has been a challenging task for researchers. In this paper, an attempt is made to solve SHE equations by using deterministic and stochastic optimization methods and comparative harmonic analysis has been carried out. An effective algorithm which minimizes %THD with less computational effort among all optimization algorithms has been presented. To validate the effectiveness of proposed MPSO technique, an experiment is carried out on a low power proto type of three phase CHB 11- level Inverter using FPGA based Xilinx's Spartan -3A DSP Controller. The experimental results proved that MPSO technique has successfully solved SHE equations over all range of MI from 0 to 1, the %THD obtained over major range of MI also satisfies IEEE 519-1992 harmonic guidelines too.

  6. Rare Loss-of-Function Variants in NPC1 Predispose to Human Obesity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixin; Zou, Yaoyu; Hong, Jie; Cao, Min; Cui, Bin; Zhang, Huiwen; Chen, Maopei; Shi, Juan; Ning, Tinglu; Zhao, Shaoqian; Liu, Wen; Xiong, Hui; Wei, Cuijie; Qiu, Zhengqing; Gu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Wanyu; Miao, Lin; Sun, Yingkai; Yang, Minglan; Wang, Rui; Ma, Qinyun; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Wang, Tiange; Chan, Kei-Hang Katie; Zuo, Xianbo; Chen, Haoyan; Qi, Lu; Lai, Shenghan; Duan, Shumin; Song, Baoliang; Bi, Yufang; Liu, Simin; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Wang, Jiqiu

    2017-04-01

    Some Shanghai Clinical Center f a role of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) for obesity traits. However, whether the loss-of-function mutations in NPC1 cause adiposity in humans remains unknown. We recruited 25 probands with rare autosomal-recessive Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease and their parents in assessment of the effect of heterozygous NPC1 mutations on adiposity. We found that male NPC1(+/-) carriers had a significantly higher BMI than matched control subjects or the whole population-based control subjects. Consistently, male NPC1(+/-) mice had increased fat storage while eating a high-fat diet. We further conducted an in-depth assessment of rare variants in the NPC1 gene in young, severely obese subjects and lean control subjects and identified 17 rare nonsynonymous/frameshift variants in NPC1 (minor allele frequency <1%) that were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity (3.40% vs. 0.73%, respectively, in obese patients and control subjects, P = 0.0008, odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI 1.7-13.2), indicating that rare NPC1 variants were enriched in young, morbidly obese Chinese subjects. Importantly, participants carrying rare variants with severely damaged cholesterol-transporting ability had more fat accumulation than those with mild/no damage rare variants. In summary, rare loss-of-function NPC1 mutations were identified as being associated with human adiposity with a high penetrance, providing potential therapeutic interventions for obesity in addition to the role of NPC1 in the familial NP-C disease.

  7. Npc1 haploinsufficiency promotes weight gain and metabolic features associated with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, David; Millward, Veronica; Birdi, Amandip; Trouard, Theodore P; Heidenreich, Randall A; Garver, William S

    2011-01-15

    A recent population-based genome-wide association study has revealed that the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) gene is associated with early-onset and morbid adult obesity. Concurrently, our candidate gene-based mouse growth study performed using the BALB/cJ NPC1 mouse model (Npc1) with decreased Npc1 gene dosage independently supported these results by suggesting an Npc1 gene-diet interaction in relation to early-onset weight gain. To further investigate the Npc1 gene in relation to weight gain and metabolic features associated with insulin resistance, we interbred BALB/cJ Npc1(+/-) mice with wild-type C57BL/6J mice, the latter mouse strain commonly used to study aspects of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. This breeding produced a hybrid (BALB/cJ-C57BL/6J) Npc1(+/-) mouse model with increased susceptibility to weight gain and insulin resistance. The results from our study indicated that these Npc1(+/-) mice were susceptible to increased weight gain characterized by increased whole body and abdominal adiposity, adipocyte hypertrophy and hepatic steatosis in the absence of hyperphagia. Moreover, these Npc1(+/-) mice developed abnormal metabolic features characterized by impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and dyslipidemia marked by an increased concentration of cholesterol and triacylglycerol associated with low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. The overall results are consistent with a unique Npc1 gene-diet interaction that promotes both weight gain and metabolic features associated with insulin resistance. Therefore, the NPC1 gene now represents a previously unrecognized gene involved in maintaining energy and metabolic homeostasis that will contribute to our understanding concerning the current global epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons: September 26-October 7, 2016 (NPC-2016)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, Ibrahim; Dooraghi, Mike; Andreas, Afshin; Habte, Aron

    2016-10-01

    Accurate measurements of direct normal (beam) solar irradiance from pyrheliometers are important for developing and deploying solar energy conversion systems, improving our understanding of the Earth's energy budget for climate change studies, and for other science and technology applications involving solar flux. Providing these measurements places many demands on the quality system used by the operator of commercially available radiometers. Maintaining accurate radiometer calibrations that are traceable to an international standard is the first step in producing research-quality solar irradiance measurements. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) pyrheliometer comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owners and operators, each NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique World Radiometric Reference transfer factor (WRR-TF) for each participating pyrheliometer. By adjusting all subsequent pyrheliometer measurements by the appropriate WRR-TF, the solar irradiance data are traceable to the WRR. NPC-2016 was September 26 through October 7, 2016. Participants operated 45 absolute cavity radiometers and 27 conventional thermopile-based pyrheliometers to simultaneously measure clear-sky, direct normal solar irradiance during this period.

  9. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons: September 22-26, 2014 (NPC-2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.

    2014-10-01

    Accurate measurements of direct normal (beam) solar irradiance from pyrheliometers are important for developing and deploying solar energy conversion systems, improving our understanding of the Earth's energy budget for climate change studies, and for other science and technology applications involving solar flux. Providing these measurements places many demands on the quality system used by the operator of commercially available radiometers. Maintaining accurate radiometer calibrations that are traceable to an international standard is the first step in producing research-quality solar irradiance measurements. As with all measurement systems, absolute cavity radiometers and other types of pyrheliometers are subject to performance changes over time. NREL has developed and maintained a select group of absolute cavity radiometers with direct calibration traceability to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR), and uses these reference instruments to calibrate pyrheliometers and pyranometers using the ISO 17025 accredited Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) process. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) pyrheliometer comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owners and operators, each NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor (WRR-TF) for each participating pyrheliometer. By adjusting all subsequent pyrheliometer measurements by the appropriate WRR-TF, the solar irradiance data are traceable to the WRR. NPC-2014 was held September 22-26, 2014. Participants operated 36 absolute cavity radiometers and 22 conventional thermopile-based pyrheliometers to simultaneously measure clear-sky direct normal solar irradiance during this period, and this report documents the findings.

  10. Structure of N-Terminal Domain of NPC1 Reveals Distinct Subdomains for Binding and Transfer of Cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Hyock Joo; Abi-Mosleh, Lina; Wang, Michael L.; Deisenhofer, Johann; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Infante, Rodney E.

    2010-09-21

    LDL delivers cholesterol to lysosomes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Exit of cholesterol from lysosomes requires two proteins, membrane-bound Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and soluble NPC2. NPC2 binds cholesterol with its isooctyl side chain buried and its 3{beta}-hydroxyl exposed. Here, we describe high-resolution structures of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1 and complexes with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol. NPC1(NTD) binds cholesterol in an orientation opposite to NPC2: 3{beta}-hydroxyl buried and isooctyl side chain exposed. Cholesterol transfer from NPC2 to NPC1(NTD) requires reorientation of a helical subdomain in NPC1(NTD), enlarging the opening for cholesterol entry. NPC1 with point mutations in this subdomain (distinct from the binding subdomain) cannot accept cholesterol from NPC2 and cannot restore cholesterol exit from lysosomes in NPC1-deficient cells. We propose a working model wherein after lysosomal hydrolysis of LDL-cholesteryl esters, cholesterol binds NPC2, which transfers it to NPC1(NTD), reversing its orientation and allowing insertion of its isooctyl side chain into the outer lysosomal membranes.

  11. Drosophila melanogaster NPC2 Proteins Bind Bacterial Cell Wall Components and May Function in Immune Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Zhong, Xue; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    ML (MD-2 (myeloid differentiation factor 2)-related Lipid-recognition) is a conserved domain identified in MD-2, MD-1, NPC2 (Niemann-Pick disease type C2), and mite major allergen protein from animals, plants, and fungi. Vertebrate members of the ML family proteins, such as NPC2 and MD-2, play important roles in lipid metabolism and immune signaling pathway. MD-2 is an essential co-receptor in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Insects contain multiple ML genes, arbitrarily named md-2- or npc2-like genes. However, whether insect ML genes have functions similar to vertebrate md-2 is unknown. In Drosophila melanogaster, there are eight npc2 genes (npc2a-h), and they can be further divided into three subgroups based on the numbers of cysteine residues (6, 7 and 8 Cys) in the mature proteins. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether any Drosophila npc2 genes may have functions in immune signaling pathways. We chose npc2a, npc2e and npc2h genes representing the three subgroups for this study. We showed that recombinant NPC2a, NPC2e and NPC2h not only bound to LPS and lipid A, but also bound to peptidoglycan (PG) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a property that has not been reported previously for vertebrate NPC2 or MD-2. More importantly, we showed that over-expression of NPC2a and NPC2e activated diptericin promoter reporter in S2 cells stimulated by PG, suggesting that NPC2e and NPC2a may play a role in the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway. This is the first in vitro study about NPC2 proteins in innate immunity of D. melanogaster. PMID:22580186

  12. Tetrandrine Induces Apoptosis of Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma NPC-TW 076 Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species Accompanied by an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Jing; Peng, Shu-Fen; Lin, Meng-Liang; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lu, Kung-Wen; Liao, Ching-Lung; Ma, Yi-Shih; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Liu, Kuo-Ching; Yu, Fu-Shun; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-10-12

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy of the head and neck and the incidence is higher in Southeast Asia. Tetrandrine (TET) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, a natural product, and exhibits biological activities including action against many human cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism of TET-induced cell apoptosis in human NPC cells is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated TET-induced apoptotic cell death and associated possible signal pathways on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC-TW 076 cells in vitro. Phase contrast microscopy was used to examine cell morphology and DAPI staining was used to examine chromatin condensation. Flow cytometry assay was used to measure total viable cells, cell cycle and sub-G₁ phase distribution, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca(2+), and mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) in NPC-TW 076 cells. Results indicate that TET induced cell death through the cell morphological changes, caused G₀/G₁ phase arrest, increased ROS and Ca(2+) production, and finally caused apoptotic cell death in NPC-TW 076 cells. There was no influence on the level of ΔΨm after TET treatment. Western blotting indicated that TET increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated protein expression such as GADD153, GRP78, ATF-6α and ATF-6 βwhich indicated that TET induced cell death through ER stress. ER stress is a potential target in cancer treatment, so the ability of TET to induce ER stress response and to activate programming cell death in NPC-TW 076 cells make this molecule become a promising anticancer agent.

  13. Abnormal gene expression in cerebellum of Npc1-/- mice during postnatal development

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guanghong; Wen, Zhining; Irizarry, Kristopher; Huang, Ying; Mitsouras, Katherine; Darmani, Mariam; Leon, Terry; Shi, Leming; Bi, Xiaoning

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Type C disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with abnormal lipid storage as the major cellular pathologic hallmark. Genetic analyses have identified mutations in NPC1 gene in the great majority of cases, while mutations in NPC2 account for the remainders. Yet, little is known regarding the cellular mechanisms responsible for NPC pathogenesis, especially for neurodegeneration, which is the usual cause of death. To identify critical steps that could account for the pathological manifestations of the disease in one of the most affected brain structures, we performed global gene expression analysis in the cerebellum from three-week old Npc1+/+ and Npc1-/- mice with two different microarray platforms (Agilent and Illumina). Differentially-expressed genes identified by both microarray platforms were then subjected to KEGG pathway analysis. Expression of genes in six pathways was significantly altered in Npc1-/- mice; functionally, these signaling pathways belong to the following three categories: 1) steroid and terpenoid biosynthesis, 2) immune response, and 3) cell adhesion/motility. In addition, the expression of several proteins involved in lipid transport was significantly altered in Npc1-/- mice. Our results provide novel molecular insight regarding the mechanisms of pathogenesis in NPC disease and reveal potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:20153740

  14. Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

  15. PHIL Inverter Test Report: Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of PV into the Distribution Grid in California, March 12 - March 16, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, M.

    2013-06-01

    This report describes power hardware-in-the-loop simulation testing of a 500 kW Satcon photovoltaic inverter, conducted at the Center for Advanced Power Systems at Florida State University from March 12th through March 16th, 2012. Testing was led by a team from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The report reviews the results of data captured during the course of testing. The tests were used to demonstrate operation of and gather data from the inverter in a simulated operational environment. Testing demonstrated the ability of the inverter to operate in either a Power Factor Control Mode or a Reactive Power Command Mode, and to respond to real power limits.

  16. Inverted organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Bailey-Salzman, Rhonda F.

    2016-12-06

    The present disclosure relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices grown in an inverted manner. An inverted organic photosensitive optoelectronic device of the present disclosure comprises a reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode on top of the donor-acceptor heterojunction.

  17. Next Generation Inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zilai; Gough, Charles

    2016-04-22

    The goal of this Cooperative Agreement was the development of a Next Generation Inverter for General Motors’ electrified vehicles, including battery electric vehicles, range extended electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The inverter is a critical electronics component that converts battery power (DC) to and from the electric power for the motor (AC).

  18. Demonstration of the serum antibody to Epstein-Barr virus specific DNA polymerased (EBV-DP) from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, R.S.; Li, J.S.; Grill, S.; Nutter, L.M.; Cheng, Y.C.

    1986-03-05

    Raji cells, an EBV genome carrying and nonproducer cell line, treated with tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and n-butyrate could induce a special DNA polymerase which has properties that are similar to the EBV-DP induced by TPA in P/sub 3/HR-I cells, an EBV producer cell line. Since EBV was found to have a strong association with NPC, and antibodies against EBV proteins or enzymes were found in high levels in sera from these patients, the possible presence of serum antibody against EBV-DP was examined. The serum titer of antibody to EBV-DP was found to have 190 +/- 84 units/ml serum (mean +/- S.D.) in 48 sera from patients with NPC. The titer in 52 healthy donors was 31.4 +/- 28 unit/ml serum (p < 0.01). The antibody was found to be associated with the IgG but not the IgA fraction. The antibody titers against EBV-DP were not correlated with the titer against EBV-DNase or VCA-IgA. Whether the antibody observed is against an EBV-DP core protein or its stimulating protein, as demonstrated by this laboratory previously, is still being investigated. This study demonstrated the high frequency and high titer of antibody against EBV-DP in serum from patients with NPC, and suggested the potential of utilizing this antibody titer to compliment other methods for the early diagnosis or prognosis of NPC.

  19. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparison: September 16 to 27, 2013 (NPC-2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.

    2013-11-01

    Accurate measurements of direct normal (beam) solar irradiance from pyrheliometers are important for the development and deployment of solar energy conversion systems, improving our understanding of the Earth's energy budget for climate change studies, and for other science and technology applications involving solar flux. Providing these measurements places many demands on the quality system used by the operator of commercially available radiometers. Maintaining accurate radiometer calibrations traceable to an international standard is the first step in producing research-quality solar irradiance measurements. As with all measurement systems, absolute cavity radiometers and other types of pyrheliometers are subject to performance changes over time. NREL has developed and maintained a group of absolute cavity radiometers with direct calibration traceability to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). These reference instruments are used by NREL to calibrate pyrheliometers and pyranometers using the ISO 17025 accredited Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration (BORCAL) process (Reda et al. 2008). NPCs are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owners/operators, e.g. NREL, NASA, NIST, NOAA, USA industry and academia, USA-DOE and other national laboratories, and national and international organizations. Each NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique World Radiometric Reference (WRR) transfer factor (WRR-TF) for each participating pyrheliometer. By adjusting all subsequent pyrheliometer measurements by the appropriate WRR-TF, the solar irradiance data are traceable to the International System of Units through WRR.

  20. A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-07

    particles bearing cleaved EBOV GP (rVSV-GPCL) as 116   measured by ELISA(22); however, no ELISA signal was apparent even at the highest concentra-117... bearing amino acid residues with divergent physicochemical properties at position 503. Exami-224   nation of these mutants by GPCL binding ELISA...bidirectionally alters domain C’s capacity to bind EBOV GPCL. (A) HsNPC1 and DrNPC1 domain C proteins bearing point mutations at residue 503 (HsNPC1, F503Y

  1. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  2. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  3. Single-electron differential-amplifier/inverter/non-inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, K.-M.; Chen, C.-S.; Lin, T.-W.

    2006-07-01

    This work presents a single-electron differential amplifier (SEDA), inverter, and non-inverter based on the triple single-dopant quantum-dot (TSDQD) configuration, with new structures. The competition between the field-induced and confinement-related shifts in the wavefunction of the quantum dots yields a field-controllable spatial-displacement single-electron transistor. Deeper impurity levels in quantum dots promise a higher operating temperature and higher on/off current ratios. The I- V characteristics of the device, studied using the transfer Hamiltonian approach (THA), show that the ratio of on/off currents is >80 000 and the voltage gain is >4 eV/Ry, where V is the applied voltage.

  4. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2001), September 24 - October 5, 2001, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2003-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  5. Results of NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC1999), October 4-10, 1999, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2000-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  6. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2002), September 23 - October 4, 2002, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Wilcox, S.

    2003-09-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  7. NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPC-2003), September 22 - October 3, 2003, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.

    2004-07-01

    NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons (NPCs) are held annually at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) in Golden, Colorado. Open to all pyrheliometer owner/operators, the NPC provides an opportunity to determine the unique WRR transfer factor for each participating pyrheliometer.

  8. Improved inverted Stepanov apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkman, S.; Temple, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Modifications in inverted Stepanov process improve heat transfer and energy efficiency in growing silicon ribbon crystals. Using system, silicon is directly heated by induction, minimizing heat transfer and contamination problems.

  9. Reliable inverter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S.

    1979-01-01

    Base driver with common-load-current feedback protects paralleled inverter systems from open or short circuits. Circuit eliminates total system oscillation that can occur in conventional inverters because of open circuit in primary transformer winding. Common feedback signal produced by functioning modules forces operating frequency of failed module to coincide with clock drive so module resumes normal operating frequency in spite of open circuit.

  10. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Chen, D.; Scudiere, M.B.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; White, C.P.; McKeever, J.W.

    1997-06-24

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 14 figs.

  11. Resonant snubber inverter

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Young, Sr., Robert W.; Chen, Daoshen; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Ott, Jr., George W.; White, Clifford P.; McKeever, John W.

    1997-01-01

    A resonant, snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the main inverter switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  12. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with separate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, F.Z.; Lai, J.S.

    1997-06-24

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations. 15 figs.

  13. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1997-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  14. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2002-01-01

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  15. Multilevel cascade voltage source inverter with seperate DC sources

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    2001-04-03

    A multilevel cascade voltage source inverter having separate DC sources is described herein. This inverter is applicable to high voltage, high power applications such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) including static VAR generation (SVG), power line conditioning, series compensation, phase shifting and voltage balancing and fuel cell and photovoltaic utility interface systems. The M-level inverter consists of at least one phase wherein each phase has a plurality of full bridge inverters equipped with an independent DC source. This inverter develops a near sinusoidal approximation voltage waveform with only one switching per cycle as the number of levels, M, is increased. The inverter may have either single-phase or multi-phase embodiments connected in either wye or delta configurations.

  16. [Statistical tests in medical research: traditional methods vs. multivariate NPC permutation tests].

    PubMed

    Arboretti, Rosa; Bordignon, Paolo; Corain, Livio; Palermo, Giuseppe; Pesarin, Fortunato; Salmaso, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Statistical tests in medical research: traditional methods vs. multivariate npc permutation tests.Within medical research, a useful statistical tool is based on hypotheses testing in terms of the so-called null, that is the treatment has no effect, and alternative hypotheses, that is the treatment has some effects. By controlling the risks of wrong decisions, empirical data are used in order to possibly reject the null hypotheses in favour of the alternative, so that demonstrating the efficacy of a treatment of interest. The multivariate permutation tests, based on the nonparametric combination - NPC method, provide an innovative, robust and effective hypotheses testing solution to many real problems that are commonly encountered in medical research when multiple end-points are observed. This paper discusses the various approaches to hypothesis testing and the main advantages of NPC tests, which consist in the fact that they require much less stringent assumptions than traditional statistical tests. Moreover, the related results may be extended to the reference population even in case of selection-bias, that is non-random sampling. In this work, we review and discuss some basic testing procedures along with the theoretical and practical relevance of NPC tests showing their effectiveness in medical research. Within the non-parametric methods, NPC tests represent the current "frontier" of statistical research, but already widely available in the practice of analysis of clinical data.

  17. Filovirus receptor NPC1 contributes to species-specific patterns of ebolavirus susceptibility in bats

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Melinda; Ndungo, Esther; Kaczmarek, Maria E; Herbert, Andrew S; Binger, Tabea; Kuehne, Ana I; Jangra, Rohit K; Hawkins, John A; Gifford, Robert J; Biswas, Rohan; Demogines, Ann; James, Rebekah M; Yu, Meng; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Drosten, Christian; Wang, Lin-Fa; Kuhn, Jens H; Müller, Marcel A; Dye, John M; Sawyer, Sara L; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Biological factors that influence the host range and spillover of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other filoviruses remain enigmatic. While filoviruses infect diverse mammalian cell lines, we report that cells from African straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are refractory to EBOV infection. This could be explained by a single amino acid change in the filovirus receptor, NPC1, which greatly reduces the affinity of EBOV-NPC1 interaction. We found signatures of positive selection in bat NPC1 concentrated at the virus-receptor interface, with the strongest signal at the same residue that controls EBOV infection in Eidolon helvum cells. Our work identifies NPC1 as a genetic determinant of filovirus susceptibility in bats, and suggests that some NPC1 variations reflect host adaptations to reduce filovirus replication and virulence. A single viral mutation afforded escape from receptor control, revealing a pathway for compensatory viral evolution and a potential avenue for expansion of filovirus host range in nature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11785.001 PMID:26698106

  18. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Test Plan - Result Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Anderson; Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh

    2016-10-14

    This presentation is intended to share the results of lab testing of five PV inverters with the Hawaiian Electric Companies and other stakeholders and interested parties. The tests included baseline testing of advanced inverter grid support functions, as well as distribution circuit-level tests to examine the impact of the PV inverters on simulated distribution feeders using power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques. hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques.

  19. The mitochondrion interfering compound NPC-26 exerts potent anti-pancreatic cancer cell activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yang-Yang; Zhuang, Yi-Huang; Cai, Wen-Jie; Liu, Yan; Zou, Wen-Bing

    2016-11-01

    The development of novel anti-pancreatic cancer agents is extremely important. Here, we investigated the anti-pancreatic cancer activity by NPC-26, a novel mitochondrion interfering compound. We showed that NPC-26 was anti-proliferative and cytotoxic to human pancreatic cancer cells, possibly via inducing caspase-9-dependent cell apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated silence of caspase-9 attenuated NPC-26-induced pancreatic cancer cell death and apoptosis. Further, NPC-26 treatment led to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in the cancer cells, which was evidenced by mitochondrial depolarization, ANT-1(adenine nucleotide translocator-1)-Cyp-D (cyclophilin-D) association and oxidative phosphorylation disturbance. mPTP blockers (cyclosporin and sanglifehrin A) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of key mPTP components (Cyp-D and ANT-1) dramatically attenuated NPC-26-induced pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. Importantly, we showed that NPC-26, at a low concentration, potentiated gemcitabine-induced mPTP opening and subsequent pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo, NPC-26 intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the growth of PANC-1 xenograft tumors in nude mice. Meanwhile, NPC-26 sensitized gemcitabine-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer activity in vivo. In summary, the results of this study suggest that NPC-26, alone or together with gemcitabine, potently inhibits pancreatic cancer cells possibly via disrupting mitochondrion.

  20. Structural Insights into the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1)-Mediated Cholesterol Transfer and Ebola Infection.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xin; Qian, Hongwu; Zhou, Xinhui; Wu, Jianping; Wan, Tao; Cao, Pingping; Huang, Weiyun; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xudong; Wang, Peiyi; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F; Zhou, Qiang; Yan, Nieng

    2016-06-02

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is associated with mutations in NPC1 and NPC2, whose gene products are key players in the endosomal/lysosomal egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol. NPC1 is also the intracellular receptor for Ebola virus (EBOV). Here, we present a 4.4 Å structure of full-length human NPC1 and a low-resolution reconstruction of NPC1 in complex with the cleaved glycoprotein (GPcl) of EBOV, both determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs) and three distinct lumenal domains A (also designated NTD), C, and I. TMs 2-13 exhibit a typical resistance-nodulation-cell division fold, among which TMs 3-7 constitute the sterol-sensing domain conserved in several proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism and signaling. A trimeric EBOV-GPcl binds to one NPC1 monomer through the domain C. Our structural and biochemical characterizations provide an important framework for mechanistic understanding of NPC1-mediated intracellular cholesterol trafficking and Ebola virus infection.

  1. Novel gene-by-environment interactions: APOB and NPC1L1 variants affect the relationship between dietary and total plasma cholesterol[S

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel S.; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Hatsukami, Thomas S.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Plasma cholesterol level is a key risk factor in CVD pathogenesis. Genetic and dietary variation both influence plasma cholesterol; however, little is known about dietary interactions with genetic variants influencing the absorption and transport of dietary cholesterol. We sought to determine whether gut expressed variants predicting plasma cholesterol differentially affected the relationship between dietary and plasma cholesterol levels in 1,128 subjects (772/356 in the discovery/replication cohorts, respectively). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within three genes (APOB, CETP, and NPC1L1) were significantly associated with plasma cholesterol in the discovery cohort. These were subsequently evaluated for gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions with dietary cholesterol for the prediction of plasma cholesterol, with significant findings tested for replication. Novel GxE interactions were identified and replicated for two variants: rs1042034, an APOB Ser4338Asn missense SNP and rs2072183 (in males only), a synonymous NPC1L1 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs 5′ of NPC1L1. This study identifies the presence of novel GxE and gender interactions implying that differential gut absorption is the basis for the variant associations with plasma cholesterol. These GxE interactions may account for part of the “missing heritability” not accounted for by genetic associations. PMID:23482652

  2. Energy-Saving Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, W. E.; Edwards, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    Commutation by field-effect transistor allows more efficient operation. High voltage field-effect transistor (FET) controls silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's). Circuit requires only one capacitor and one inductor in commutation circuit: simpler, more efficient, and more economical than conventional inverters. Adaptable to dc-to-dc converters.

  3. Program Predicts Nonlinear Inverter Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Ayoubi, R. R.; Oepomo, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    Program developed for ac power distribution system on Shuttle orbiter predicts total load on inverters and node voltages at each of line replaceable units (LRU's). Mathematical model simulates inverter performance at each change of state in power distribution system.

  4. Inverter communications using output signal

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  5. Triazoles inhibit cholesterol export from lysosomes by binding to NPC1.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Michael N; Lu, Feiran; Li, Xiaochun; Das, Akash; Liang, Qiren; De Brabander, Jef K; Brown, Michael S; Goldstein, Joseph L

    2017-01-03

    Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a membrane protein of lysosomes, is required for the export of cholesterol derived from receptor-mediated endocytosis of LDL. Lysosomal cholesterol export is reportedly inhibited by itraconazole, a triazole that is used as an antifungal drug [Xu et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:4764-4769]. Here we show that posaconazole, another triazole, also blocks cholesterol export from lysosomes. We prepared P-X, a photoactivatable cross-linking derivative of posaconazole. P-X cross-linked to NPC1 when added to intact cells. Cross-linking was inhibited by itraconazole but not by ketoconazole, an imidazole that does not block cholesterol export. Cross-linking of P-X was also blocked by U18666A, a compound that has been shown to bind to NPC1 and inhibit cholesterol export. P-X also cross-linked to purified NPC1 that was incorporated into lipid bilayer nanodiscs. In this in vitro system, cross-linking of P-X was inhibited by itraconazole, but not by U18666A. P-X cross-linking was not prevented by deletion of the N-terminal domain of NPC1, which contains the initial binding site for cholesterol. In contrast, P-X cross-linking was reduced when NPC1 contained a point mutation (P691S) in its putative sterol-sensing domain. We hypothesize that the sterol-sensing domain has a binding site that can accommodate structurally different ligands.

  6. An inverter/controller subsystem optimized for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickrell, R. L.; Osullivan, G.; Merrill, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    Conversion of solar array dc power to ac power stimulated the specification, design, and simulation testing of an inverter/controller subsystem tailored to the photovoltaic power source characteristics. Optimization of the inverter/controller design is discussed as part of an overall photovoltaic power system designed for maximum energy extraction from the solar array. The special design requirements for the inverter/ controller include: a power system controller (PSC) to control continuously the solar array operating point at the maximum power level based on variable solar insolation and cell temperatures; and an inverter designed for high efficiency at rated load and low losses at light loadings to conserve energy.

  7. Power inverter implementing phase skipping control

    DOEpatents

    Somani, Utsav; Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Jourdan, Charles; Batarseh, Issa

    2016-10-18

    A power inverter includes a DC/AC inverter having first, second and third phase circuitry coupled to receive power from a power source. A controller is coupled to a driver for each of the first, second and third phase circuitry (control input drivers). The controller includes an associated memory storing a phase skipping control algorithm, wherein the controller is coupled to receive updating information including a power level generated by the power source. The drivers are coupled to control inputs of the first, second and third phase circuitry, where the drivers are configured for receiving phase skipping control signals from the controller and outputting mode selection signals configured to dynamically select an operating mode for the DC/AC inverter from a Normal Control operation and a Phase Skipping Control operation which have different power injection patterns through the first, second and third phase circuitry depending upon the power level.

  8. Increased Serum Level of MicroRNA-663 Is Correlated with Poor Prognosis of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shaoqiang; Deng, Yanming; Chen, Lusi; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Zhenhe; Luo, Weijun; Lv, Zhiqian; Li, Shaoen; Xun, Tao

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) play crucial roles in the carcinogenesis and malignant progression of human cancers including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum miR-663 levels with the clinical factors and prognosis of NPC patients. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the amount of miR-663 in serum in NPC patients and healthy controls. Our data showed that the amount of miR-663 in serum was significantly higher in NPC patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, the serum levels of miR-663 were significantly correlated with the grade, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage of NPC. Furthermore, higher serum miR-663 levels were closely associated with worse 5-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) of patients with NPC, and the serum level of miR-663 was found to be an independent predicator for the prognosis of NPC. In addition, after receiving chemoradiotherapy, the serum levels of miR-663 were significantly reduced in NPC patients. In summary, miR-663 was upregulated in the serum of NPC patients, which was downregulated after chemoradiotherapy, and its increased levels were closely associated with malignant progression and poor prognosis in NPC patients. Therefore, the amount of miR-663 in serum may become a potential predicator for the clinical outcome of NPC patients. PMID:27667893

  9. Structural Basis of Sterol Binding by NPC2, a Lysosomal Protein Deficient in Niemann-Pick Type C2 Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,S.; Benoff, B.; Liou, H.; Lobel, P.; Stock, A.

    2007-01-01

    NPC2 is a small lysosomal glycoprotein that binds cholesterol with submicromolar affinity. Deficiency in NPC2 is the cause of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease, a fatal neurovisceral disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. Here we report the crystal structure of bovine NPC2 bound to cholesterol-3-O-sulfate, an analog that binds with greater apparent affinity than cholesterol. Structures of both apo-bound and sterol-bound NPC2 were observed within the same crystal lattice, with an asymmetric unit containing one molecule of apoNPC2 and two molecules of sterol-bound NPC2. As predicted from a previously determined structure of apoNPC2, the sterol binds in a deep hydrophobic pocket sandwiched between the two {beta}-sheets of NPC2, with only the sulfate substituent of the ligand exposed to solvent. In the two available structures of apoNPC2, the incipient ligand-binding pocket, which ranges from a loosely packed hydrophobic core to a small tunnel, is too small to accommodate cholesterol. In the presence of sterol, the pocket expands, facilitated by a slight separation of the {beta}-strands and substantial reorientation of some side chains, resulting in a perfect molding of the pocket around the hydrocarbon portion of cholesterol. A notable feature is the repositioning of two aromatic residues at the tunnel entrance that are essential for NPC2 function. The NPC2 structures provide evidence of a malleable binding site, consistent with the previously documented broad range of sterol ligand specificity.

  10. STRUCTURAL BASIS OF STEROL BINDING BY NPC2, A LYSOSOMAL PROTEIN DEFICIENT IN NIEMANN-PICK TYPE C2 DISEASE*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sujuan; Benoff, Brian; Liou, Heng-Ling; Lobel, Peter; Stock, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    NPC2 is a small lysosomal glycoprotein that binds cholesterol with submicromolar affinity. Deficiency in NPC2 is the cause of Niemann Pick type C2 disease, a fatal neurovisceral disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. Here we report the crystal structure of bovine NPC2 bound to cholesterol-3-O-sulfate, an analog that binds with greater apparent affinity than cholesterol. Structures of both apo- and sterol-bound NPC2 were observed within the same crystal lattice, with an asymmetric unit containing one molecule of apoNPC2 and two molecules of sterol-bound NPC2. As predicted from a previously determined structure of apoNPC2, the sterol binds in a deep hydrophobic pocket sandwiched between the two β sheets of NPC2, with only the sulfate substituent of the ligand exposed to solvent. In the two available structures of apoNPC2, the incipient ligand-binding pocket, which ranges from a loosely packed hydrophobic core to a small tunnel, is too small to accommodate cholesterol. In the presence of sterol, the pocket expands, facilitated by a slight separation of the β strands and substantial reorientation of some side chains, resulting in a perfect molding of the pocket around the hydrocarbon portion of cholesterol. A notable feature is the repositioning of two aromatic residues at the tunnel entrance that are essential for NPC2 function. The NPC2 structures provide evidence of a malleable binding site, consistent with the previously documented broad range of sterol ligand specificity. PMID:17573352

  11. Inverter Anti-Islanding with Advanced Grid Support in Single- and Multi-Inverter Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Andy

    2016-08-16

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1. In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2. The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness.

  12. Loss of Cathepsin B and L Leads to Lysosomal Dysfunction, NPC-Like Cholesterol Sequestration and Accumulation of the Key Alzheimer's Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cermak, Stjepko; Kosicek, Marko; Mladenovic-Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Smiljanic, Kosara; Kanazir, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Proper function of lysosomes is particularly important in neurons, as they cannot dilute accumulated toxic molecules and aggregates by cell division. Thus, impairment of lysosomal function plays an important role in neuronal degeneration and in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In this work we analyzed how inhibition and/or loss of the major lysosomal proteases, the cysteine cathepsins B and L (CtsB/L), affects lysosomal function, cholesterol metabolism and degradation of the key Alzheimer's disease (AD) proteins. Here, we show that cysteine CtsB/L, and not the aspartyl cathepsin D (CtsD), represent a major lysosomal protease(s) that control lysosomal function, intracellular cholesterol trafficking and AD-like amyloidogenic features. Intriguingly, accumulation of free cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes upon CtsB/L inhibition resembled a phenotype characteristic for the rare neurodegenerative disorder Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). CtsB/L inhibition and not the inhibition of CtsD led to lysosomal impairment assessed by decreased degradation of EGF receptor, enhanced LysoTracker staining and accumulation of several lysosomal proteins LC3II, NPC1 and NPC2. By measuring the levels of NPC1 and ABCA1, the two major cholesterol efflux proteins, we showed that CtsB/L inhibition or genetic depletion caused accumulation of the NPC1 in lysosomes and downregulation of ABCA1 protein levels and its expression. Furthermore, we revealed that CtsB/L are involved in degradation of the key Alzheimer’s proteins: amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and C-terminal fragments of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and in degradation of β-secretase (BACE1). Our results imply CtsB/L as major regulators of lysosomal function and demonstrate that CtsB/L may play an important role in intracellular cholesterol trafficking and in degradation of the key AD proteins. Our findings implicate that enhancing the activity or levels of CtsB/L could provide a promising and a common

  13. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated.

  14. Inverter ratio failure detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  15. Inverted organic photosensitive device

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Tong, Xiaoran; Lee, Jun Yeob; Cho, Yong Joo

    2015-09-08

    There is disclosed a method for preparing the surface of a metal substrate. The present disclosure also relates to an organic photovoltaic device including a metal substrate made by such method. Also disclosed herein is an inverted photosensitive device including a stainless steel foil reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode over the donor-acceptor heterojunction.

  16. Cholesterol accumulation in Niemann Pick type C (NPC) model cells causes a shift in APP localization to lipid rafts

    SciTech Connect

    Kosicek, Marko; Malnar, Martina; Goate, Alison; Hecimovic, Silva

    2010-03-12

    It has been suggested that cholesterol may modulate amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) formation, a causative factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), by regulating distribution of the three key proteins in the pathogenesis of AD ({beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP), {beta}-secretase (BACE1) and/or presenilin 1 (PS1)) within lipid rafts. In this work we tested whether cholesterol accumulation upon NPC1 dysfunction, which causes Niemann Pick type C disease (NPC), causes increased partitioning of APP into lipid rafts leading to increased CTF/A{beta} formation in these cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. To test this we used CHO NPC1{sup -/-} cells (NPC cells) and parental CHOwt cells. By sucrose density gradient centrifugation we observed a shift in fl-APP/CTF compartmentalization into lipid raft fractions upon cholesterol accumulation in NPC vs. wt cells. Furthermore, {gamma}-secretase inhibitor treatment significantly increased fl-APP/CTF distribution in raft fractions in NPC vs. wt cells, suggesting that upon cholesterol accumulation in NPC1-null cells increased formation of APP-CTF and its increased processing towards A{beta} occurs in lipid rafts. Our results support that cholesterol overload, such as in NPC disease, leads to increased partitioning of APP/CTF into lipid rafts resulting in increased amyloidogenic processing of APP in these cholesterol-rich membranes. This work adds to the mechanism of the cholesterol-effect on APP processing and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and supports the role of lipid rafts in these processes.

  17. Integral inverter/battery charger for use in electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thimmesch, D.

    1983-01-01

    The design and test results of a thyristor based inverter/charger are discussed. A battery charger is included integral to the inverter by using a subset of the inverter power circuit components. The resulting charger provides electrical isolation between the vehicle propulsion battery and ac line and is capable of charging a 25 kWh propulsion battery in 8 hours from a 220 volt ac line. The integral charger employs the inverter commutation components at a resonant ac/dc isolated converter rated at 3.6 kW. Charger efficiency and power factor at an output power of 3.6 kW are 86% and 95% respectively. The inverter, when operated with a matching polyphase ac induction motor and nominal 132 volt propulsion battery, can provide a peak shaft power of 34 kW (45 ph) during motoring operation and 45 kW (60 hp) during regeneration. Thyristors are employed for the inverter power switching devices and are arranged in an input-commutated topology. This configuration requires only two thyristors to commutate the six main inverter thyristors. Inverter efficiency during motoring operation at motor shaft speeds above 450 rad/sec (4300 rpm) is 92-94% for output power levels above 11 KW (15 hp). The combined ac inverter/charger package weighs 47 kg (103 lbs).

  18. Acid sphingomyelinase activity is regulated by membrane lipids and facilitates cholesterol transfer by NPC2[S

    PubMed Central

    Oninla, Vincent O.; Breiden, Bernadette; Babalola, Jonathan O.; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    During endocytosis, membrane components move to intraluminal vesicles of the endolysosomal compartment for digestion. At the late endosomes, cholesterol is sorted out mainly by two sterol-binding proteins, Niemann-Pick protein type C (NPC)1 and NPC2. To study the NPC2-mediated intervesicular cholesterol transfer, we developed a liposomal assay system. (Abdul-Hammed, M., B. Breiden, M. A. Adebayo, J. O. Babalola, G. Schwarzmann, and K. Sandhoff. 2010. Role of endosomal membrane lipids and NPC2 in cholesterol transfer and membrane fusion. J. Lipid Res. 51: 1747–1760.) Anionic lipids stimulate cholesterol transfer between liposomes while SM inhibits it, even in the presence of anionic bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). Preincubation of vesicles containing SM with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) (SM phosphodiesterase, EC 3.1.4.12) results in hydrolysis of SM to ceramide (Cer), which enhances cholesterol transfer. Besides SM, ASM also cleaves liposomal phosphatidylcholine. Anionic phospholipids derived from the plasma membrane (phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid) stimulate SM and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by ASM more effectively than BMP, which is generated during endocytosis. ASM-mediated hydrolysis of liposomal SM was also stimulated by incorporation of diacylglycerol (DAG), Cer, and free fatty acids into the liposomal membranes. Conversely, phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis was inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol, Cer, DAG, monoacylglycerol, and fatty acids. Our data suggest that SM degradation by ASM is required for physiological secretion of cholesterol from the late endosomal compartment, and is a key regulator of endolysosomal lipid digestion. PMID:25339683

  19. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Pyrheliometer Comparisons: 24 September - 5 October 2012 (NPC-2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.

    2013-05-01

    The NREL Pyrheliometer Comparisons for 2012 (NPC-2012) were held at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, from September 24 through October 5 for the purpose of transferring the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) to participating instrument. Twenty scientists and engineers operated 32 absolute cavity radiometers and 18 conventional thermopile-based pyrheliometers to simultaneously measure clear-sky direct normal irradiance during the comparisons. The transfer standard group of reference radiometers for NPC-2012 consisted of four NREL radiometers with direct traceability to the WRR, having participated in the Eleventh International Pyrheliometer Comparisons (IPC-XI) hosted by the World Radiation Center in the fall of 2010. As the result of NPC-2012, each participating absolute cavity radiometer was assigned a new WRR transfer factor, computed as the reference irradiance computed by the transfer standard group divided by the observed irradiance from the participating radiometer. The performance of the transfer standard group during NPC-2012 was consistent with previous comparisons, including IPC-XI. The measurement performance of the transfer standard group allowed the transfer of the WRR to each participating radiometer with an estimated uncertainty of +/- 0.33% with respect to the International System of Units.

  20. Inverted glass harp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Daniel B.; Rosenberg, Brian J.

    2015-08-01

    We present an analytical treatment of the acoustics of liquid-filled wine glasses, or "glass harps." The solution is generalized such that under certain assumptions it reduces to previous glass harp models, but also leads to a proposed musical instrument, the "inverted glass harp," in which an empty glass is submerged in a liquid-filled basin. The versatility of the solution demonstrates that all glass harps are governed by a family of solutions to Laplace's equation around a vibrating disk. Tonal analyses of recordings for a sample glass are offered as confirmation of the scaling predictions.

  1. Gas cooled traction drive inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

  2. Gas cooled traction drive inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2016-04-19

    The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

  3. Application of Co-naphthalocyanine (CoNPc) as alternative cathode catalyst and support structure for microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Rae; Kim, Jy-Yeon; Han, Sang-Beom; Park, Kyung-Won; Saratale, G D; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2011-01-01

    Co-naphthalocyanine (CoNPc) was prepared by heat treatment for cathode catalysts to be used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Four different catalysts (Carbon black, NPc/C, CoNPc/C, Pt/C) were compared and characterized using XPS, EDAX and TEM. The electrochemical characteristics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were compared by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The Co-macrocyclic complex improves the catalyst dispersion and oxygen reduction reaction of CoNPc/C. The maximum power of CoNPc/C was 64.7 mW/m(2) at 0.25 mA as compared with 81.3 mW/m(2) of Pt/C, 29.7 mW/m(2) of NPc/C and 9.3 mW/m(2) of carbon black when the cathodes were implemented in H-type MFCs. The steady state cell, cathode and anode potential of MFC with using CoNPc/C were comparable to those of Pt/C.

  4. Inverter Modeling For Accurate Energy Predictions Of Tracking HCPV Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, J.; Jensen, S.; McDonald, Mark

    2010-10-01

    High efficiency high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) solar plants of megawatt scale are now operational, and opportunities for expanded adoption are plentiful. However, effective bidding for sites requires reliable prediction of energy production. HCPV module nameplate power is rated for specific test conditions; however, instantaneous HCPV power varies due to site specific irradiance and operating temperature, and is degraded by soiling, protective stowing, shading, and electrical connectivity. These factors interact with the selection of equipment typically supplied by third parties, e.g., wire gauge and inverters. We describe a time sequence model accurately accounting for these effects that predicts annual energy production, with specific reference to the impact of the inverter on energy output and interactions between system-level design decisions and the inverter. We will also show two examples, based on an actual field design, of inverter efficiency calculations and the interaction between string arrangements and inverter selection.

  5. Dynamic performance and control of a static var generator using cascade multilevel inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    A cascade multilevel inverter is proposed for static VAR shifting, compensation/generation applications. The new cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle. It can eliminate the need for transformers in multipulse inverters. A prototype static VAR generator (SVG) system using 11- level cascade inverter (21-level line-to-line voltage waveform) has been built. The output voltage waveform is equivalent to that of a 60- pulse inverter. This paper focuses on dynamic performance of the cascade inverter based SVG system. Control schemes are proposed to achieve a fast response which is impossible for a conventional static VAR compensator (SVC). Analytical, simulated and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed SVG system.

  6. Miglustat Reverts the Impairment of Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of NPC Disease

    PubMed Central

    D'Arcangelo, G.; Grossi, D.; Racaniello, M.; Cardinale, A.; Zaratti, A.; Rufini, S.; Cutarelli, A.; Tancredi, V.; Merlo, D.; Frank, C.

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, characterized by abnormal sequestration of unesterified cholesterol within the late endolysosomal compartment of cells and accumulation of gangliosides and other sphingolipids. Progressive neurological deterioration and insurgence of symptoms like ataxia, seizure, and cognitive decline until severe dementia are pathognomonic features of the disease. Here, we studied synaptic plasticity phenomena and evaluated ERKs activation in the hippocampus of BALB/c NPC1−/− mice, a well described animal model of the disease. Our results demonstrated an impairment of both induction and maintenance of long term synaptic potentiation in NPC1−/− mouse slices, associated with the lack of ERKs phosphorylation. We then investigated the effects of Miglustat, a recent approved drug for the treatment of NPCD. We found that in vivo Miglustat administration in NPC1−/− mice was able to rescue synaptic plasticity deficits, to restore ERKs activation and to counteract hyperexcitability. Overall, these data indicate that Miglustat may be effective for treating the neurological deficits associated with NPCD, such as seizures and dementia. PMID:26885401

  7. An evolutionarily conserved NPC subcomplex, which redistributes in part to kinetochores in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Belgareh, Naïma; Rabut, Gwénaël; Baï, Siau Wei; van Overbeek, Megan; Beaudouin, Joël; Daigle, Nathalie; Zatsepina, Olga V.; Pasteau, Fabien; Labas, Valérie; Fromont-Racine, Micheline; Ellenberg, Jan; Doye, Valérie

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are evolutionarily conserved assemblies that allow traffic between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In this study, we have identified and characterized a novel human nuclear pore protein, hNup133, through its homology with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleoporin scNup133. Two-hybrid screens and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a direct and evolutionarily conserved interaction between Nup133 and Nup84/Nup107 and indicated that hNup133 and hNup107 are part of a NPC subcomplex that contains two other nucleoporins (the previously characterized hNup96 and a novel nucleoporin designated as hNup120) homologous to constituents of the scNup84 subcomplex. We further demonstrate that hNup133 and hNup107 are localized on both sides of the NPC to which they are stably associated at interphase, remain associated as part of a NPC subcomplex during mitosis, and are targeted at early stages to the reforming nuclear envelope. Throughout mitosis, a fraction of hNup133 and hNup107 localizes to the kinetochores, thus revealing an unexpected connection between structural NPCs constituents and kinetochores. Photobleaching experiments further showed that the mitotic cytoplasm contains kinetochore-binding competent hNup133 molecules and that in contrast to its stable association with the NPCs the interaction of this nucleoporin with kinetochores is dynamic. PMID:11564755

  8. N-terminal domain of the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is essential for α-tocopherol transport.

    PubMed

    Kamishikiryo, Jun; Haraguchi, Misaki; Nakashima, Shunsuke; Tasaka, Yuka; Narahara, Hiroe; Sugihara, Narumi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Morita, Tetsuo

    2017-04-29

    Both cholesterol and α-tocopherol are essential lipophilic nutrients for humans and animals. Although cholesterol in excess causes severe problems such as coronary heart disease, it is a necessary component of cell membranes and is the precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones and bile acids. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a cholesterol transporter that is highly expressed in the small intestine and liver in humans and plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol promotes NPC1L1 endocytosis, which is an early step in cholesterol uptake. Furthermore, α-tocopherol is the most active form of vitamin E, and sufficient amounts of vitamin E are critical for health. It has been reported that NPC1L1 mediates α-tocopherol absorption; however, the mechanisms underlying this process are unknown. In this study, we found that treatment of cells that stably express NPC1L1-GFP with α-tocopherol promotes NPC1L1 endocytosis, and the NPC1L1 inhibitor, ezetimibe, efficiently prevents the α-tocopherol-induced endocytosis of NPC1L1. Cholesterol binding to the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1L1 (NPC1L1-NTD) is essential for NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption. We found that α-tocopherol competitively binds NPC1L1-NTD with cholesterol. Furthermore, when cells stably expressed NPC1L1ΔNTD-GFP, α-tocopherol could not induce the endocytosis of NPC1L1ΔNTD. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NPC1L1 recognizes α-tocopherol via its NTD and mediates α-tocopherol uptake through the same mechanism as cholesterol absorption.

  9. Ground Fault Overvoltage with Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, Michael; Hoke, Anderson; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Schutz, Dustin; Mouw, Chris; Nelson, Austin; McCarty, Michael; Wang, Trudie; Sorenson, Adam

    2016-06-07

    Ground Fault Overvoltage can occur in situations in which a four-wire distribution circuit is energized by an ungrounded voltage source during a single phase to ground fault. The phenomenon is well-documented with ungrounded synchronous machines, but there is considerable discussion about whether inverters cause this phenomenon, and consequently whether inverters require effective grounding. This paper examines the overvoltages that can be supported by inverters during single phase to ground faults via theory, simulation and experiment, identifies the relevant physical mechanisms, quantifies expected levels of overvoltage, and makes recommendations for optimal mitigation.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of PV Inverter Anti-Islanding with Grid Support Functions in Multi-Inverter Island Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Anderson; Nelson, Austin; Miller, Brian; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Bell, Frances; McCarty, Michael

    2016-07-01

    As PV and other DER systems are connected to the grid at increased penetration levels, island detection may become more challenging for two reasons: 1.) In islands containing many DERs, active inverter-based anti-islanding methods may have more difficulty detecting islands because each individual inverter's efforts to detect the island may be interfered with by the other inverters in the island. 2.) The increasing numbers of DERs are leading to new requirements that DERs ride through grid disturbances and even actively try to regulate grid voltage and frequency back towards nominal operating conditions. These new grid support requirements may directly or indirectly interfere with anti-islanding controls. This report describes a series of tests designed to examine the impacts of both grid support functions and multi-inverter islands on anti-islanding effectiveness. Crucially, the multi-inverter anti-islanding tests described in this report examine scenarios with multiple inverters connected to multiple different points on the grid. While this so-called 'solar subdivision' scenario has been examined to some extent through simulation, this is the first known work to test it using hardware inverters. This was accomplished through the use of power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) simulation, which allows the hardware inverters to be connected to a real-time transient simulation of an electric power system that can be easily reconfigured to test various distribution circuit scenarios. The anti-islanding test design was a modified version of the unintentional islanding test in IEEE Standard 1547.1, which creates a balanced, resonant island with the intent of creating a highly challenging condition for island detection. Three common, commercially available single-phase PV inverters from three different manufacturers were tested. The first part of this work examined each inverter individually using a series of pure hardware resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) resonant load

  11. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  12. A study on the impact of high penetration distributed generation inverters on grid operation and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Fei; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in inverter technology have enabled ancillary services such as volt/VAR regulation, SCADA communications, and active power filtering. Smart inverters can not only provide real power, but can be controlled to use excess capacity to provide reactive power compensation, power flow control, and active power filtering without supplementary inverter hardware. A transient level inverter model based on the Solectria 7700 inverter is developed and used to assess these control strategies using field data from an existing branch circuit containing two Amonix 68kW CPV-7700 systems installed at the University of California, Irvine.

  13. An inverter/controller subsystem optimized for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickrell, R. L.; Merrill, W. C.; Osullivan, G.

    1978-01-01

    Conversion of solar array dc power to ac power stimulated the specification, design, and simulation testing of an inverter/controller subsystem tailored to the photovoltaic power source characteristics. This paper discusses the optimization of the inverter/controller design as part of an overall Photovoltaic Power System (PPS) designed for maximum energy extraction from the solar array. The special design requirements for the inverter/controller include: (1) a power system controller (PSC) to control continuously the solar array operating point at the maximum power level based on variable solar insolation and cell temperatures; and (2) an inverter designed for high efficiency at rated load and low losses at light loadings to conserve energy. It must be capable of operating connected to the utility line at a level set by an external controller (PSC).

  14. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.

  15. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Andy; Nelson, Austin; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chebahtah, Justin; Wang, Trudie; McCarty, Michael

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an aqueous solution of inverted...

  17. Analysis of the contribution of FTO, NPC1, ENPP1, NEGR1, GNPDA2 and MC4R genes to obesity in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) and previous positional linkage studies have identified more than 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity, mostly in Europeans. We aimed to assess the contribution of some of these SNPs to obesity risk and to the variation of related metabolic traits, in Mexican children. Methods The association of six European obesity-related SNPs in or near FTO, NPC1, ENPP1, NEGR1, GNPDA2 and MC4R genes with risk of obesity was tested in 1,463 school-aged Mexican children (Ncases = 514; Ncontrols = 949). We also assessed effects of these SNPs on the variation of body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin levels, fasting plasma glucose levels, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, in a subset of 1,171 nonobese Mexican children. Results We found a significant effect of GNPDA2 rs10938397 on risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30; P = 1.34 × 10-3). Furthermore, we found nominal associations between obesity risk or BMI variation and the following SNPs: ENPP1 rs7754561, MC4R rs17782313 and NEGR1 rs2815752. Importantly, the at-risk alleles of both MC4R rs17782313 and NPC1 rs1805081 showed significant effect on increased fasting glucose levels (β = 0.36 mmol/L; P = 1.47 × 10-3) and decreased fasting serum insulin levels (β = −0.10 μU/mL; P = 1.21 × 10-3), respectively. Conclusion Our present results suggest that some obesity-associated SNPs previously reported in Europeans also associate with risk of obesity, or metabolic quantitative traits, in Mexican children. Importantly, we found new associations between MC4R and fasting glucose levels, and between NPC1 and fasting insulin levels. PMID:23375129

  18. Orlistat limits cholesterol intestinal absorption by Niemann-pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Qosa, Hisham; Primeaux, Brian; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2015-09-05

    The known mechanism by which orlistat decreases the absorption of dietary cholesterol is by inhibition of intestinal lipases. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of orlistat to limit cholesterol absorption by inhibition of the cholesterol transport protein Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) as another mechanism of action. In situ rat intestinal perfusion studies were conducted to study the effect of orlistat on jejunal cholesterol absorption. Inhibition kinetic parameters were calculated from in vitro inhibition studies using Caco2 and NPC1L1 transfected cell lines. The in situ studies demonstrated that intestinal perfusion of orlistat (100µM) was able to reduce cholesterol absorption by three-fold when compared to control (i.e. in the absence of orlistat, P<0.01). In vitro studies using Caco2 cells demonstrated orlistat to reduce the cellular uptake of cholesterol by 30%. Additionally, orlistat reduced the cellular uptake of cholesterol in dose dependent manner in NPC1L1 transfected cell line with an IC50=1.2µM. Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated a noncompetitive inhibition of NPC1L1 by orlistat. Beside the already established mechanism by which orlistat reduces the absorption of cholesterol, we demonstrated for the first time that orlistat limits cholesterol absorption by the inhibition of NPC1L1 transport protein.

  19. Npc1 deficiency in the C57BL/6J genetic background enhances Niemann-Pick disease type C spleen pathology.

    PubMed

    Parra, Julio; Klein, Andrés D; Castro, Juan; Morales, María Gabriela; Mosqueira, Matías; Valencia, Ilse; Cortés, Victor; Rigotti, Attilio; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2011-09-30

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lipid storage disorder. The affected genes are NPC1 and NPC2. Mutations in either gene lead to intracellular cholesterol accumulation. There are three forms of the disease, which are categorized based on the onset and severity of the disease: the infantile form, in which the liver and spleen are severely affected, the juvenile form, in which the liver and brain are affected, and the adult form, which affects the brain. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in the Npc1 gene originated in the BALB/c inbred strain mimics the juvenile form of the disease. To study the influence of genetic background on the expression of NPC disease in mice, we transferred the Npc1 mutation from the BALB/c to C57BL/6J inbred background. We found that C57BL/6J-Npc1(-/-) mice present with a much more aggressive form of the disease, including a shorter lifespan than BALB/c-Npc1(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the amount of cholesterol in the brains of Npc1(-/-) mice of either mouse strain. However, Npc1(-/-) mice with the C57BL/6J genetic background showed striking spleen damage with a marked buildup of cholesterol and phospholipids at an early age, which correlated with large foamy cell clusters. In addition, C57BL/6J Npc1(-/-) mice presented red cell abnormalities and abundant ghost erythrocytes that correlated with a lower hemoglobin concentration. We also found abnormalities in white cells, such as cytoplasmic granulation and neutrophil hypersegmentation that included lymphopenia and atypias. In conclusion, Npc1 deficiency in the C57BL6/J background is associated with spleen, erythrocyte, and immune system abnormalities that lead to a reduced lifespan.

  20. Accelerating development of advanced inverters :

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ropp, Michael; Schutz, Dustin

    2013-11-01

    The high penetration of utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) systems is causing heightened concern over the effect that variable renewable generation will have on the electrical power system (EPS). These concerns have initiated the need to amend the utility interconnection standard to allow advanced inverter control functionalities that provide: (1) reactive power control for voltage support, (2) real power control for frequency support and (3) better tolerance of grid disturbances. These capabilities are aimed at minimizing the negative impact distributed PV systems may have on EPS voltage and frequency. Unfortunately, these advanced control functions may interfere with island detection schemes, and further development of advanced inverter functions requires a study of the effect of advanced functions on the efficacy of antiislanding schemes employed in industry. This report summarizes the analytical, simulation and experimental work to study interactions between advanced inverter functions and anti-islanding schemes being employed in distributed PV systems.

  1. Microgrid and Inverter Control and Simulator Software

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    A collection of software that can simulate the operation of an inverter on a microgrid or control a real inverter. In addition, it can simulate the control of multiple nodes on a microgrid." Application: Simulation of inverters and microgrids; control of inverters on microgrids." The MMI submodule is designed to control custom inverter hardware, and to simulate that hardware. The INVERTER submodule is only the simulator code, and is of an earlier generation than the simulator in MMI. The MICROGRID submodule is an agent-based simulator of multiple nodes on a microgrid which presents a web interface. The WIND submodule produces movies of wind data with a web interface.

  2. Inverter design for high frequency power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A class of simple resonantly commutated inverters are investigated for use in a high power (100 KW - 1000 KW) high frequency (10 KHz - 20 KHz) AC power distribution system. The Mapham inverter is found to provide a unique combination of large thyristor turn-off angle and good utilization factor, much better than an alternate 'current-fed' inverter. The effects of loading the Mapham inverter entirely with rectifier loads are investigated by simulation and with an experimental 3 KW 20 KHz inverter. This inverter is found to be well suited to a power system with heavy rectifier loading.

  3. Advanced Modular Inverter Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Szczepanek

    2006-02-04

    Electric and hybrid-electric vehicle systems require an inverter to convert the direct current (DC) output of the energy generation/storage system (engine, fuel cells, or batteries) to the alternating current (AC) that vehicle propulsion motors use. Vehicle support systems, such as lights and air conditioning, also use the inverter AC output. Distributed energy systems require an inverter to provide the high quality AC output that energy system customers demand. Today's inverters are expensive due to the cost of the power electronics components, and system designers must also tailor the inverter for individual applications. Thus, the benefits of mass production are not available, resulting in high initial procurement costs as well as high inverter maintenance and repair costs. Electricore, Inc. (www.electricore.org) a public good 501 (c) (3) not-for-profit advanced technology development consortium assembled a highly qualified team consisting of AeroVironment Inc. (www.aerovironment.com) and Delphi Automotive Systems LLC (Delphi), (www.delphi.com), as equal tiered technical leads, to develop an advanced, modular construction, inverter packaging technology that will offer a 30% cost reduction over conventional designs adding to the development of energy conversion technologies for crosscutting applications in the building, industry, transportation, and utility sectors. The proposed inverter allows for a reduction of weight and size of power electronics in the above-mentioned sectors and is scalable over the range of 15 to 500kW. The main objective of this program was to optimize existing AeroVironment inverter technology to improve power density, reliability and producibility as well as develop new topology to reduce line filter size. The newly developed inverter design will be used in automotive and distribution generation applications. In the first part of this program the high-density power stages were redesigned, optimized and fabricated. One of the main tasks

  4. A marked paucity of granule cells in the developing cerebellum of the Npc1−/− mouse is corrected by a single injection of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Nusca, S.; Canterini, S.; Palladino, G.; Bruno, F.; Mangia, F.; Erickson, R.P.; Fiorenza, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we show that postnatal development of cerebellar granule neurons (GNs) is defective in Npc1−/− mice. Compared to age-matched wild-type littermates, there is an accelerated disappearance of the external granule layer (EGL) in these mice. This is due to a premature exit from the cell cycle of GN precursors residing at the level of the EGL. As a consequence, the size of cerebellar lobules of these mice displays a 20%–25% reduction compared to that of age-matched wild-type mice. This size reduction is detectable at post-natal day 28 (PN28), when cerebellar GN development is completed while signs of neuronal atrophy are not yet apparent. Based on the analysis of EGL thickness and the determination of proliferating GN fractions at increasing developmental times (PN8–PN14), we trace the onset of this GN developmental defect during the second postnatal week. We also show that during this developmental time Shh transcripts undergo a significant reduction in Npc1−/− mice compared to age-matched wild-type mice. In light of the mitogenic activity of Shh on GNs, this observation further supports the presence of defective GN proliferation in Npc1−/− mice. A single injection of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin at PN7 rescues this defect, restoring the normal patterns of granule neuron proliferation and cerebellar lobule size. To our knowledge, these findings identify a novel developmental defect that was underappreciated in previous studies. This defect was probably overlooked because Npc1 loss-of-function does not affect cerebellar foliation and causes the internal granule layer and molecular layer to decrease proportionally, giving rise to a normally appearing, yet harmoniously smaller, cerebellum. PMID:24969023

  5. Characterization of a Spontaneous Novel Mutation in the NPC2 Gene in a Cat Affected by Niemann Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Stefania; Bianchi, Ezio; Cantile, Carlo; Saleri, Roberta; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids within the lysosomes due to mutation in NPC1 or NPC2 genes. A feline model of NPC carrying a mutation in NPC1 gene has been previously described. We have identified two kittens affected by NPC disease due to a mutation in NPC2 gene. They manifested with tremors at the age of 3 months, which progressed to dystonia and severe ataxia. At 6 months of age cat 2 was unable to stand without assistance and had bilaterally reduced menace response. It died at the age of 10 months. Post-mortem histological analysis of the brain showed the presence of neurons with cytoplasmic swelling and vacuoles, gliosis of the substantia nigra and degeneration of the white matter. Spheroids with accumulation of ubiquitinated aggregates were prominent in the cerebellar cortex. Purkinje cells were markedly reduced in number and they showed prominent intracytoplasmic storage. Scattered perivascular aggregates of lymphocytes and microglial cells proliferation were present in the thalamus and midbrain. Proliferation of Bergmann glia was also observed. In the liver, hepatocytes were swollen because of accumulation of small vacuoles and foamy Kupffer cells were also detected. Foamy macrophages were observed within the pulmonary interstitium and alveoli as well. At 9 months cat 1 was unable to walk, developed seizures and it was euthanized at 21 months. Filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts showed massive storage of unesterified cholesterol. Molecular analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes showed the presence of a homozygous intronic mutation (c.82+5G>A) in the NPC2 gene. The subsequent analysis of the mRNA showed that the mutation causes the retention of 105 bp in the mature mRNA, which leads to the in frame insertion of 35 amino acids between residues 28 and 29 of NPC2 protein (p.G28_S29ins35). PMID:25396745

  6. Sliding mode control for a three phase multicellular inverter dedicated to renewable energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemici, K.; Zegaoui, A.; Djahbar, A.; Bokhtache, A. Aissa; Kessaissia, F. Z.; Allouache, H.; Mahmoudi, M. O.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, Sliding Mode controller has been sized to control multi-cell converters configured as a three-phase multicellular inverter. Unlike traditional inverters, multicellular inverters have the following advantages: lower switching frequency, high number of output levels, and less voltage constraints on the power switch. Significant performances are provided with this structure, which is constituted with flying capacitors. The main purpose of this paper is to present the model and generate commutation sliding-surfaces based on a Lyapunov function. The performed simulations point the efficiency of the proposed strategy with a three-phase multicellular inverters and allow to assess the performances and the robustness of the synthesized controller.

  7. Methods to Determine Recommended Feeder-Wide Advanced Inverter Settings for Improving Distribution System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Rylander, Matthew; Reno, Matthew J.; Quiroz, Jimmy E.; Ding, Fei; Li, Huijuan; Broderick, Robert J.; Mather, Barry; Smith, Jeff

    2016-11-21

    This paper describes methods that a distribution engineer could use to determine advanced inverter settings to improve distribution system performance. These settings are for fixed power factor, volt-var, and volt-watt functionality. Depending on the level of detail that is desired, different methods are proposed to determine single settings applicable for all advanced inverters on a feeder or unique settings for each individual inverter. Seven distinctly different utility distribution feeders are analyzed to simulate the potential benefit in terms of hosting capacity, system losses, and reactive power attained with each method to determine the advanced inverter settings.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1859 - Invert sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Invert sugar. 184.1859 Section 184.1859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1859 Invert sugar. (a) Invert sugar (CAS Reg. No. 8013-17-0) is an...

  12. A novel approach to analyze lysosomal dysfunctions through subcellular proteomics and lipidomics: the case of NPC1 deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharkeshwar, Arun Kumar; Trekker, Jesse; Vermeire, Wendy; Pauwels, Jarne; Sannerud, Ragna; Priestman, David A.; Te Vruchte, Danielle; Vints, Katlijn; Baatsen, Pieter; Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Lu, Huiqi; Martin, Shaun; Vangheluwe, Peter; Swinnen, Johannes V.; Lagae, Liesbet; Impens, Francis; Platt, Frances M.; Gevaert, Kris; Annaert, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have mainly been used as cellular carriers for genes and therapeutic products, while their use in subcellular organelle isolation remains underexploited. We engineered SPIONs targeting distinct subcellular compartments. Dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated SPIONs are internalized and accumulate in late endosomes/lysosomes, while aminolipid-SPIONs reside at the plasma membrane. These features allowed us to establish standardized magnetic isolation procedures for these membrane compartments with a yield and purity permitting proteomic and lipidomic profiling. We validated our approach by comparing the biomolecular compositions of lysosomes and plasma membranes isolated from wild-type and Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) deficient cells. While the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids is seen as a primary hallmark of NPC1 deficiency, our lipidomics analysis revealed the buildup of several species of glycerophospholipids and other storage lipids in selectively late endosomes/lysosomes of NPC1-KO cells. While the plasma membrane proteome remained largely invariable, we observed pronounced alterations in several proteins linked to autophagy and lysosomal catabolism reflecting vesicular transport obstruction and defective lysosomal turnover resulting from NPC1 deficiency. Thus the use of SPIONs provides a major advancement in fingerprinting subcellular compartments, with an increased potential to identify disease-related alterations in their biomolecular compositions.

  13. A novel approach to analyze lysosomal dysfunctions through subcellular proteomics and lipidomics: the case of NPC1 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tharkeshwar, Arun Kumar; Trekker, Jesse; Vermeire, Wendy; Pauwels, Jarne; Sannerud, Ragna; Priestman, David A.; te Vruchte, Danielle; Vints, Katlijn; Baatsen, Pieter; Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Lu, Huiqi; Martin, Shaun; Vangheluwe, Peter; Swinnen, Johannes V.; Lagae, Liesbet; Impens, Francis; Platt, Frances M.; Gevaert, Kris; Annaert, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have mainly been used as cellular carriers for genes and therapeutic products, while their use in subcellular organelle isolation remains underexploited. We engineered SPIONs targeting distinct subcellular compartments. Dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated SPIONs are internalized and accumulate in late endosomes/lysosomes, while aminolipid-SPIONs reside at the plasma membrane. These features allowed us to establish standardized magnetic isolation procedures for these membrane compartments with a yield and purity permitting proteomic and lipidomic profiling. We validated our approach by comparing the biomolecular compositions of lysosomes and plasma membranes isolated from wild-type and Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) deficient cells. While the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids is seen as a primary hallmark of NPC1 deficiency, our lipidomics analysis revealed the buildup of several species of glycerophospholipids and other storage lipids in selectively late endosomes/lysosomes of NPC1-KO cells. While the plasma membrane proteome remained largely invariable, we observed pronounced alterations in several proteins linked to autophagy and lysosomal catabolism reflecting vesicular transport obstruction and defective lysosomal turnover resulting from NPC1 deficiency. Thus the use of SPIONs provides a major advancement in fingerprinting subcellular compartments, with an increased potential to identify disease-related alterations in their biomolecular compositions. PMID:28134274

  14. A novel approach to analyze lysosomal dysfunctions through subcellular proteomics and lipidomics: the case of NPC1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tharkeshwar, Arun Kumar; Trekker, Jesse; Vermeire, Wendy; Pauwels, Jarne; Sannerud, Ragna; Priestman, David A; Te Vruchte, Danielle; Vints, Katlijn; Baatsen, Pieter; Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Lu, Huiqi; Martin, Shaun; Vangheluwe, Peter; Swinnen, Johannes V; Lagae, Liesbet; Impens, Francis; Platt, Frances M; Gevaert, Kris; Annaert, Wim

    2017-01-30

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have mainly been used as cellular carriers for genes and therapeutic products, while their use in subcellular organelle isolation remains underexploited. We engineered SPIONs targeting distinct subcellular compartments. Dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated SPIONs are internalized and accumulate in late endosomes/lysosomes, while aminolipid-SPIONs reside at the plasma membrane. These features allowed us to establish standardized magnetic isolation procedures for these membrane compartments with a yield and purity permitting proteomic and lipidomic profiling. We validated our approach by comparing the biomolecular compositions of lysosomes and plasma membranes isolated from wild-type and Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) deficient cells. While the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids is seen as a primary hallmark of NPC1 deficiency, our lipidomics analysis revealed the buildup of several species of glycerophospholipids and other storage lipids in selectively late endosomes/lysosomes of NPC1-KO cells. While the plasma membrane proteome remained largely invariable, we observed pronounced alterations in several proteins linked to autophagy and lysosomal catabolism reflecting vesicular transport obstruction and defective lysosomal turnover resulting from NPC1 deficiency. Thus the use of SPIONs provides a major advancement in fingerprinting subcellular compartments, with an increased potential to identify disease-related alterations in their biomolecular compositions.

  15. Thermal Study of Inverter Components: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, N. R.; Thomas, E. V.; Quintana, M. A.; Barkaszi, S.; Rosenthal, A.; Zhang, Z.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal histories of inverter components were collected from operating inverters from several manufacturers and three locations. The data were analyzed to determine thermal profiles, the dependence on local conditions, and to assess the effect on inverter reliability. Inverter temperatures were shown to increase with the power dissipation of the inverters, follow diurnal and annual cycles, and have a dependence on wind speed. An accumulated damage model was applied to the temperature profiles and an example of using these data to predict reliability was explored.

  16. Invertible linear ordinary differential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetverikov, Vladimir N.

    2017-03-01

    We consider invertible linear ordinary differential operators whose inversions are also differential operators. To each such operator we assign a numerical table. These tables are described in the elementary geometrical language. The table does not uniquely determine the operator. To define this operator uniquely some additional information should be added, as it is described in detail in this paper. The possibility of generalization of these results to partial differential operators is also discussed.

  17. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia; Peng, Fang Z.

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  18. Gripper deploying and inverting linkage

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, R.L.; Killian, M.A.

    1993-03-02

    An end effector deploying and inverting linkage. The linkage comprises an air cylinder mounted in a frame or tube, a sliding bracket next to the air cylinder, a stopping bracket depending from the frame and three, pivotally-attached links that are attached to the end effector and to each other in such a way as to be capable of inverting the end effector and translating it laterally. The first of the three links is a straight element that is moved up and down by the shaft of the air cylinder. The second link is attached at one end to the stopping bracket and to the side of the end effector at the other end. The first link is attached near the middle of the second, sharply angled link so that, as the shaft of the air cylinder moves up and down, the second link rotates about an axis perpendicular to the frame and inverts and translates the end effector. The rotation of the second link is stopped at both ends when the link engages stops on the stopping bracket. The third link, slightly angled, is attached to the sliding bracket at one end and to the end of the end effector at the other. The third helps to control the end effector in its motion.

  19. Gripper deploying and inverting linkage

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, Richard L.; Killian, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    An end effector deploying and inverting linkage. The linkage comprises an air cylinder mounted in a frame or tube, a sliding bracket next to the air cylinder, a stopping bracket depending from the frame and three, pivotally-attached links that are attached to the end effector and to each other in such a way as to be capable of inverting the end effector and translating it laterally. The first of the three links is a straight element that is moved up and down by the shaft of the air cylinder. The second link is attached at one end to the stopping bracket and to the side of the end effector at the other end. The first link is attached near the middle of the second, sharply angled link so that, as the shaft of the air cylinder moves up and down, the second link rotates about an axis perpendicular to the frame and inverts and translates the end effector. The rotation of the second link is stopped at both ends when the link engages stops on the stopping bracket. The third link, slightly angled, is attached to the sliding bracket at one end and to the end of the end effector at the other. The third helps to control the end effector in its motion.

  20. Three-phase multilevel solar inverter for motor drive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhasagare, Mayuresh P.

    This thesis deals with three phase inverters and the different control strategies that can be associated with an inverter being used together. The first part of this thesis discusses the present research in the fields of PV panels, motor drive systems and three phase inverters along with their control. This control includes various strategies like MPPT, Volts-Hertz and modulation index compensation. Incorporating these techniques together is the goal of this thesis. A new topology for operating an open end motor drive system has also been discusses, where a boost converter and a flyback converter have been used in cascade to run a three phase motor. The main advantage of this is increasing the number of levels and improving the quality of the output voltage, not to mention a few other benefits of having the proposed circuit. A new algorithm has also been designed for starting and stopping the motor, which controls the current drawn from the power source during starting.

  1. Suspended Patch Antenna Array With Electromagnetically Coupled Inverted Microstrip Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2000-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a four-element suspended patch antenna array, with a parasitic patch layer and an electromagnetically coupled inverted microstrip feed, for linear polarization at K-Band frequencies. This antenna has the following advantages over conventional microstrip antennas: First, the inverted microstrip has lower attenuation than conventional microstrip; hence, conductor loss associated with the antenna corporate feed is lower resulting in higher gain and efficiency. Second, conventional proximity coupled patch antennas require a substrate for the feed and a superstrate for the patch. However, the inverted microstrip fed patch antenna makes use of a single substrate, and hence, is lightweight and low cost. Third, electromagnetic coupling results in wider bandwidth. Details regarding the design and fabrication will be presented as well as measured results including return loss, radiation patterns and cross-polarization levels.

  2. New type of transformerless high efficiency inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naaijer, G. J.

    Inverter architectures are presented which allow economical ac/dc switching for solar cell array and battery power use in domestic and industrial applications. The efficiencies of currently available inverters are examined and compared with a new 2.2 kW transformerless stepped wave inverter. The inverter has low no-load losses, amounting to 200 Wh/24 hr, and features voltage steps occurring 15-30 times/sine wave period. An example is provided for an array/battery/inverter assembly with the inverter control electronics activating or disconnecting the battery subassemblies based on the total number of activated subassemblies in relation to a reference sinewave, and the need to average the battery subassembly discharge rates. A total harmonic distortion of 6 percent was observed, and the system is noted to be usable as a battery charger.

  3. System and method for regulating resonant inverters

    DOEpatents

    Stevanovic, Ljubisa Dragoljub; Zane, Regan Andrew

    2007-08-28

    A technique is provided for direct digital phase control of resonant inverters based on sensing of one or more parameters of the resonant inverter. The resonant inverter control system includes a switching circuit for applying power signals to the resonant inverter and a sensor for sensing one or more parameters of the resonant inverter. The one or more parameters are representative of a phase angle. The resonant inverter control system also includes a comparator for comparing the one or more parameters to a reference value and a digital controller for determining timing of the one or more parameters and for regulating operation of the switching circuit based upon the timing of the one or more parameters.

  4. Triptolide inhibits cell growth and GRP78 protein expression but induces cell apoptosis in original and radioresistant NPC cells

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wuwu; Lai, Chen; Chen, Zhikang; Wang, Ran; Long, Xueying; Feng, Xueping

    2016-01-01

    The radioresistance is the key factor to hamper curative effect and survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Nature triptolide (TPL) has been found to circumvent drug-resistant effect of cancer, but its effect on NPC radioresistance has been rarely studied. In the present study, the 10 Gy-resistant CNE2 subclones (CNE2-SR) were used as a NPC radioresistant model. The IC50 of TPL in CNE2 and CNE2-SR cells was measured by MTT assay, cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry, and protein expression was examined by western blot. Our data showed that TPL treatment decreased the percentage of viable cells, and IC50 value in CNE2 and CNE2-SR cells was 23.6 ± 1.41 nmol/L and 31.2 ± 1.16 nmol/L, respectively. Six Gy was a moderate dosage of X-ray for CNE2, and 25 nM TPL was close to IC50 value of CNE2 and CNE2-SR. Six Gy X-ray and/or 25 nM TPL significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, 6 Gy X-ray and/or 25 nM TPL significantly inhibited cell growth and induced cell apoptosis and M/G2 phase arrest in CNE2 and CNE2-SR cells. Moreover, TPL treatment significantly inhibited the expression of GRP78 protein in CNE2 and CNE2-SR cells. These results suggest that TPL may serve as a potential radiosensitizer agent for NPC treatment. PMID:27391061

  5. Cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for renewable energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ravikant; Nath Tripathi, Ravi; Hanamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHBMLI) has been investigated for the application of renewable energy generation. Energy sources like solar, wind, hydro, biomass or combination of these can be manipulated to obtain alternative sources for renewable energy generation. These renewable energy sources have different electrical characteristics like DC or AC level so it is challenging to use generated power by connecting to grid or load directly. The renewable energy source require specific power electronics converter as an interface for conditioning generated power .The multilevel inverter can be utilized for renewable energy sources in two different modes, the power generation mode (stand-alone mode), and compensator mode (statcom). The performance of the multilevel inverter has been compared with two level inverter. In power generation mode CHBMLI supplies the active and reactive power required by the different loads. For operation in compensator mode the indirect current control based on synchronous reference frame theory (SRFT) ensures the grid operating in unity power factor and compensate harmonics and reactive power.

  6. Identification of NPC1 as the target of U18666A, an inhibitor of lysosomal cholesterol export and Ebola infection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feiran; Liang, Qiren; Abi-Mosleh, Lina; Das, Akash; De Brabander, Jef K; Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2015-12-08

    Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) is a lysosomal membrane protein that exports cholesterol derived from receptor-mediated uptake of LDL, and it also mediates cellular entry of Ebola virus. Cholesterol export is inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of U18666A, a cationic sterol. To identify the target of U18666A, we synthesized U-X, a U18666A derivative with a benzophenone that permits ultraviolet-induced crosslinking. When added to CHO cells, U-X crosslinked to NPC1. Crosslinking was blocked by U18666A derivatives that block cholesterol export, but not derivatives lacking blocking activity. Crosslinking was prevented by point mutation in the sterol-sensing domain (SSD) of NPC1, but not by point mutation in the N-terminal domain (NTD). These data suggest that the SSD contains a U18666A-inhibitable site required for cholesterol export distinct from the cholesterol-binding site in the NTD. Inasmuch as inhibition of Ebola requires 100-fold higher concentrations of U18666A, the high affinity U16888A-binding site is likely not required for virus entry.

  7. Efficacy of Concurrent Chemotherapy for Intermediate Risk NPC in the Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Era: a Propensity-Matched Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Wen-Fei; Liu, Xu; Guo, Rui; Sun, Ying; Lin, Ai-Hua; Chen, Lei; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the efficacy of additional concurrent chemotherapy for intermediate risk (stage II and T3N0M0) NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).440 patients with intermediate risk NPC were studied retrospectively, including 128 patients treated with IMRT alone [radiotherapy group (RT group)] and 312 paitents treated with IMRT plus concurrent chemotherapy [chemoradiotherapy group (CRT group)]. Propensity score matching was carried out to create RT and CRT cohorts equally matched for host and tumor factor. Significantly more severe acute toxicities were observed in the CRT group than in the RT group. Multivariate analyses of 440 patients failed to demonstrate concurrent chemotherapy as an independent prognostic factor for FFS, LR-FFS, and D-FFS. Between the well-matched RT cohort and the CRT cohort, no significant difference was demonstrated in all survival endpoints (FFS: 92.8% versus 91.2%, P = 0.801; LR-FFS: 95.2% versus 94.4%, P = 0.755; D-FFS: 96.4% versus 96.3%, P = 0.803; OS: 98.2% versus 98.9%, P = 0.276). Our results demonstrated that for patients with intermediate risk NPC treated with IMRT, additional concurrent chemotherapy did not provide any significant survival benefit but significantly more severe acute toxicities. However, prospective randomized trials are warranted for the ultimate confirm of our findings. PMID:26611462

  8. Effect of garlic extract on some serum biochemical parameters and expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Bazrafshani, Mohamad Reza; Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi

    2013-12-01

    Some compounds in the garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis, resulting in lowering of serum cholesterol and triglycerides and increase in HDL level. However, the mechanism of this specific effect is not fully understood. In the small intestine, ATP-binding cassette transporters G5, G8 and A1 (ABCG5, ABCG8 and ABCA1), as well as Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) protein have important roles in cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the beneficial effect of aqueous extract of garlic on lipid profile and also expression of npc1l1, abca1, abcg5 and abcg8 genes in the intestine of N-Marry mice fed a high cholesterol diet as a possible mechanism of garlic effect. Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1: hypercholesterolmic (received chow + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); Group 2: garlic (received chow + 4% (w/w) garlic extract + 2% cholesterol + 0.5% cholic acid); and Group 3: received chow only. After one month, mice were anesthetized and blood was collected from their heart. The jejunum was removed, washed with PBS and entrocytes were scraped and used for the experiments. Serum lipids were measured enzymatically and expression of mRNA levels for the above-mentioned proteins was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Garlic extract significantly reduced serum lipids (p < 0.05), compared with the hypercholesterolemic group. Expression of the intestinal npc1l1 was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the garlic group, compared with the chow group, while abcg5 (p < 0.01), abcg8 (p < 0.01) and abca1 (p < 0.05) expressions were significantly increased. In conclusion, this study reveals a possible mechanism for the beneficial effects of the garlic in lowering serum lipids by decreasing the intestinal lipid absorption and increasing excretion of cholesterol back into the intestinal lumen.

  9. A single-phase embedded Z-source DC-AC inverter.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Jin; Lim, Young-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    In the conventional DC-AC inverter consisting of two DC-DC converters with unipolar output capacitors, the output capacitor voltages of the DC-DC converters must be higher than the DC input voltage. To overcome this weakness, this paper proposes a single-phase DC-AC inverter consisting of two embedded Z-source converters with bipolar output capacitors. The proposed inverter is composed of two embedded Z-source converters with a common DC source and output AC load. Though the output capacitor voltages of the converters are relatively low compared to those of a conventional inverter, an equivalent level of AC output voltages can be obtained. Moreover, by controlling the output capacitor voltages asymmetrically, the AC output voltage of the proposed inverter can be higher than the DC input voltage. To verify the validity of the proposed inverter, experiments were performed with a DC source voltage of 38 V. By controlling the output capacitor voltages of the converters symmetrically or asymmetrically, the proposed inverter can produce sinusoidal AC output voltages. The experiments show that efficiencies of up to 95% and 97% can be achieved with the proposed inverter using symmetric and asymmetric control, respectively.

  10. Genetic predisposition factors and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk: a review of epidemiological association studies, 2000-2011: Rosetta Stone for NPC: genetics, viral infection, and other environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Hildesheim, Allan; Wang, Cheng-Ping

    2012-04-01

    While infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be an essential risk factor for the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), other co-factors including genetic factors are thought to play an important role. In this review, we summarize association studies conducted over the past decade to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in NPC development. A review of the literature identified close to 100 studies, including 3 genome-wide association studies (GWAS), since 2000 that evaluated genetic polymorphisms and NPC risk in at least 100 NPC cases and 100 controls. Consistent evidence for associations were reported for a handful of genes, including immune-related HLA Class I genes, DNA repair gene RAD51L1, cell cycle control genes MDM2 and TP53, and cell adhesion/migration gene MMP2. However, for most of the genes evaluated, there was no effort to replicate findings and studies were largely modest in size, typically consisting of no more than a few hundred cases and controls. The small size of most studies, and the lack of attempts at replication have limited progress in understanding the genetics of NPC. Moving forward, if we are to advance our understanding of genetic factors involved in the development of NPC, and of the impact of gene-gene and gene-environment interations in the development of this disease, consortial efforts that pool across multiple, well-designed and coordinated efforts will most likely be required.

  11. Fomiroid A, a Novel Compound from the Mushroom Fomitopsis nigra, Inhibits NPC1L1-Mediated Cholesterol Uptake via a Mode of Action Distinct from That of Ezetimibe

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tomohiro; Sakurada, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Rie; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Kioka, Noriyuki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Matsuo, Michinori; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the key risk factors for coronary heart disease, a major cause of death in developed countries. Suppression of NPC1L1-mediated dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption is predicted to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of hypercholesterolemia. In a screen for natural products that inhibit ezetimibe glucuronide binding to NPC1L1, we found a novel compound, fomiroid A, in extracts of the mushroom Fomitopsis nigra. Fomiroid A is a lanosterone derivative with molecular formula C30H48O3. Fomiroid A inhibited ezetimibe glucuronide binding to NPC1L1, and dose-dependently prevented NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake and formation of esterified cholesterol in NPC1L1-expressing Caco2 cells. Fomiroid A exhibited a pharmacological chaperone activity that corrected trafficking defects of the L1072T/L1168I mutant of NPC1L1. Because ezetimibe does not have such an activity, the binding site and mode of action of fomiroid A are likely to be distinct from those of ezetimibe. PMID:25551765

  12. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  13. Circuit controls transients in SCR inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. T.; Wilson, T. G.

    1964-01-01

    Elimination of starting difficulties in SCR inverters is accomplished by the addition of two taps of the output winding of the inverter. On starting or under transient loads, the two additional taps deliver power through diodes without requiring quenching of SCR currents in excess of normal starting load.

  14. Self-oscillating inverter with bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baciu, I.; Cunţan, C. D.; Floruţa, M.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents a self-oscillating inverter manufactured with bipolar transistors that supplies a high-amplitude alternating voltage to a fluorescent tube with a burned filament. The inverter is supplied from a low voltage accumulator that can be charged from a photovoltaic panel through a voltage regulator.

  15. Radiotherapy for inverted papilloma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Levendag, P C; Annyas, A A; Escajadillo, J R; Elema, J D

    1984-06-01

    Inverted papilloma is an infrequent tumour of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses associated with controversy. The incidence of carcinoma in situ associated with inverted papilloma, has not been very well documented until now. Therefore, we present a case report characterized by an aggressive clinical behaviour, treated by extensive surgery and ultimately controlled by radiotherapy.

  16. SHP-1 overexpression increases the radioresistance of NPC cells by enhancing DSB repair, increasing S phase arrest and decreasing cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaofen; Mou, Jingjing; Liu, Sha; Sun, Ziyi; Meng, Rui; Zhou, Zhenwei; Wu, Gang; Peng, Gang

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of SHP-1 on the radioresistance of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line CNE-2 and the relevant underlying mechanisms. The human NPC cell line CNE-2 was transfected with a lentivirus that contained the SHP-1 gene or a nonsense sequence (referred to as LP-H1802Lv201 and LP-NegLv201 cells, respectively). Cells were irradiated with different ionizing radiation (IR) doses. Cell survival, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and the expression of related proteins were assessed using colony formation assay, immunofluorescent assays (IFAs), flow cytometry (FCM) and western blot analyses, respectively. Compared with the control (CNE-2 cells) and LP-NegLv201 cells, LP-H1802Lv201 cells were more resistant to IR. IFAs showed that IR caused less histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and RAD51 foci in the LP-H1802Lv201 cells. Compared with the control and LP-NegLv201 cells, LP-H1802Lv201 cells showed increased S phase arrest. After IR, the apoptotic rate of the LP-H1802Lv201 cells was lower in contrast to the control and LP-NegLv201 cells. Western blot analyses showed that IR increased the phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) protein, checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) and p53. In LP-H1802Lv201 cells, the phosphorylation levels of ATM and CHK2 were significantly increased while the p53 phosphorylation level was decreased compared to these levels in the control and LP-NegLv201 cells. Phosphorylation of ATR and CHK1 did not show significant differences in the three cell groups. Overexpression of SHP-1 in the CNE-2 cells led to radioresistance and the radioresistance was related to enhanced DNA DSB repair, increased S phase arrest and decreased cell apoptosis.

  17. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Negation-Limited Inverters of Linear Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizumi, Hiroki; Suzuki, Genki

    An inverter is a circuit which outputs ¬x1, ¬x2, …, ¬xn for any Boolean inputs x1, x2, …, xn. We consider constructing an inverter with AND gates and OR gates and a few NOT gates. Beals, Nishino and Tanaka have given a construction of an inverter which has size O(nlog n) and depth O(log n) and uses ⌈ log(n+1) ⌉ NOT gates. In this paper we give a construction of an inverter which has size O(n) and depth log1+o(1)n and uses log1+o(1)n NOT gates. This is the first negation-limited inverter of linear size using only o(n) NOT gates. We also discuss implications of our construction for negation-limited circuit complexity.

  19. Improved current control makes inverters the power sources of choice

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, H.; Harada, S.; Ueyama, T.

    1997-02-01

    It is now generally understood that by increasing the operating or switching frequency of a power source the size of the main transformer and main reactor can be shrunk. Thus, a 300-A DC welding power source weighing well under 100 lb can be produced. This makes the inverter power source an ideal choice for applications requiring equipment maneuverability. It is also generally understood that due to higher switching frequencies, a smoother output is obtained from inverter power sources. In the late 1980s, the company developed a new double-inverter power source by which inverted DC weld output is inverted back to AC weld output. This product was the first of its kind in the world. Again, the small compact size of this product was of great interest. Utilizing current waveform control, it was realized that fast response switching from electrode negative to electrode positive could be accurately controlled, offering benefits such as AC GTA welding with high-frequency start only, even at a low welding current. The primary benefit is the ability to limit the electrode positive half cycle to less than 5%. The electrode positive half cycle is responsible for tungsten erosion, which also creates the balling effect of a tungsten electrode. By limiting the electrode positive portion of the AC cycle to a very low level, a rather sharp point can be maintained on the tungsten, which creates a very concentrated, focused arc column. This ability provides excellent joint penetration in fillet welding of aluminum alloys, especially on thick plate. It also reduces the heat-affected zone in AC GTA welding of aluminum.

  20. Advances in series resonant inverter technology and its effect on spacecraft employing electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of transistorized Series Resonant Inverters (SRIs), which is higher than that of silicon-controlled rectifier alternatives, reduces spacecraft radiator requirements by 40% and may eliminate the need for heat pipes on 30-cm ion thruster systems. Recently developed 10- and 25-kW inverters have potential applications in gas thrusters, and represent the first spaceborne SRI designs for such power levels. Attention is given to the design and control system approaches employed in these inverter designs to improve efficiency and reduce weight, along with the impact of such improved parameters on electric propulsion systems.

  1. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  2. A SiC MOSFET Based Inverter for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Ning, Puqi; White, Cliff P; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    In a wireless power transfer (WPT) system, efficiency of the power conversion stages is crucial so that the WPT technology can compete with the conventional conductive charging systems. Since there are 5 or 6 power conversion stages, each stage needs to be as efficient as possible. SiC inverters are crucial in this case; they can handle high frequency operation and they can operate at relatively higher temperatures resulting in reduces cost and size for the cooling components. This study presents the detailed power module design, development, and fabrication of a SiC inverter. The proposed inverter has been tested at three center frequencies that are considered for the WPT standardization. Performance of the inverter at the same target power transfer level is analyzed along with the other system components. In addition, another SiC inverter has been built in authors laboratory by using the ORNL designed and developed SiC modules. It is shown that the inverter with ORNL packaged SiC modules performs simular to that of the inverter having commercially available SiC modules.

  3. Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced Nipples

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced ...

  4. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  5. Inverted organic electronic and optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Cephas E.

    The research and development of organic electronics for commercial application has received much attention due to the unique properties of organic semiconductors and the potential for low-cost high-throughput manufacturing. For improved large-scale processing compatibility and enhanced device stability, an inverted geometry has been employed for devices such as organic light emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. These improvements are attributed to the added flexibility to incorporate more air-stable materials into the inverted device geometry. However, early work on organic electronic devices with an inverted geometry typically showed reduced device performance compared to devices with a conventional structure. In the case of organic light emitting diodes, inverted devices typically show high operating voltages due to insufficient carrier injection. Here, a method for enhancing hole injection in inverted organic electronic devices is presented. By incorporating an electron accepting interlayer into the inverted device, a substantial enhancement in hole injection efficiency was observed as compared to conventional devices. Through a detailed carrier injection study, it is determined that the injection efficiency enhancements in the inverted devices are due to enhanced charge transfer at the electron acceptor/organic semiconductor interface. A similar situation is observed for organic photovoltaic cells, in which devices with an inverted geometry show limited carrier extraction in early studies. In this work, enhanced carrier extraction is demonstrated for inverted polymer solar cells using a surface-modified ZnO-polymer composite electron-transporting layer. The insulating polymer in the composite layer inhibited aggregation of the ZnO nanoparticles, while the surface-modification of the composite interlayer improved the electronic coupling with the photoactive layer. As a result, inverted polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiencies of over 8

  6. Automatic load sharing in inverter modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S.

    1979-01-01

    Active feedback loads transistor equally with little power loss. Circuit is suitable for balancing modular inverters in spacecraft, computer power supplies, solar-electric power generators, and electric vehicles. Current-balancing circuit senses differences between collector current for power transistor and average value of load currents for all power transistors. Principle is effective not only in fixed duty-cycle inverters but also in converters operating at variable duty cycles.

  7. Base drive for paralleled inverter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    In a paralleled inverter system, a positive feedback current derived from the total current from all of the modules of the inverter system is applied to the base drive of each of the power transistors of all modules, thereby to provide all modules protection against open or short circuit faults occurring in any of the modules, and force equal current sharing among the modules during turn on of the power transistors.

  8. Work Station For Inverting Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Final work station along walking-beam conveyor of solar-array assembly line turns each pretabbed solar cell over, depositing it back-side-up onto landing pad, which centers cell without engaging collector surface. Solar cell arrives at inverting work station collector-side-up with two interconnect tabs attached to collector side. Cells are inverted so that second soldering operation takes place in plain view of operator. Inversion protects collector from damage when handled at later stages of assembly.

  9. Theoretical investigation of the oceanic inverted barometer response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Dynamic tidal theory is generalized in order to predict the oceanic response to atmospheric pressure variations. The oceans are found to exhibit distinct dynamic behavior when forced at periods less than one week; depending on the harmonic type of forcing, the amplitude of the response can differ by about 20 percent or more from the static response. Even at roughly two months the traditional 'inverted barometer' may not be sufficiently accurate for applications in which detection of long-term sea level trends or vertical crustal motion is the goal. For forcing at periods of order one year the oceanic response differs by at most a few percent from the static (not the inverted barometer) response; thus calculations of meteorological excitation of the annual and Chandler wobbles can employ the static approximation without reservation.

  10. Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 3; Inverted Velocity Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    The instability wave noise generation model is used to study the instability waves in the two shear layers of an inverted velocity profile, supersonic, coaxial jet and the noise radiated from the dominant wave. The inverted velocity profile jet has a high speed outer stream surrounding a low speed inner stream and the outer shear layer is always larger than the inner shear layer. The jet mean flows are calculated numerically. The operating conditions are chosen to exemplify the effect of the coaxial jet outer shear layer initial spreading rates. Calculations are made for the stability characteristics in the coaxial jet shear layers and the noise radiated from the instability waves for different operating conditions with the same total thrust, mass flow and exit area as a single reference jet. Results for inverted velocity profile jets indicate that relative maximum instability wave amplitudes and far field peak noise levels can be reduced from that of the reference jet by having higher spreading rates for the outer shear layer, low velocity ratios, and outer streams hotter than the inner stream.

  11. A vented inverted fuel assembly design for an SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Vitillo, F.; Todreas, N. E.; Driscoll, M. J.

    2012-07-01

    The inverted geometry (fuel outside coolant tubes) has been previously investigated at MIT for application in gas-cooled fast reactors and pressurized water-cooled thermal reactors. Venting has also been studied for conventional fuel pins and was employed for those in the Dounreay Fast Reactor. In the present work the inverted fuel approach was adopted because it allows high fuel volume fraction, reduction of the coolant void reactivity, neutron leakage and enrichment, as well as lower pressure drop for the same channel length because grids and wire wraps are no longer necessary. Furthermore most results also apply to venting of conventional fuel pins. Physical and chemical behavior of volatile fission products in sodium was investigated to determine the maximum activity inventory which would eventually be released into the primary sodium. Results of this analysis show that the most troublesome radionuclides in terms of propensity to escape from the venting system are noble gases ({sup 85}Kr and {sup 133}Xe), and cesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs). A final vented inverted fuel assembly design is proposed which meets all the design goals which have been set. Additionally purification systems were devised to reduce radionuclide activity of the coolant and the cover gas to tolerable levels. It is concluded that vented inverted (or vented conventional pin) fuel is a feasible concept and has sufficiently promising advantages - increasing fuel volume fraction to 50% and core outlet temperature by 20 deg. C, hence incrementing plant thermal efficiency by about 1% - to warrant serious consideration for future SFR designs. (authors)

  12. Pharmacological specificity of the discriminative stimulus properties of 2-amino-4,5-(1,2-cyclohexyl)-7-phosphono-heptanoic acid (NPC 12626), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Bobelis, D J; Balster, R L

    1993-02-01

    A drug discrimination based upon the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist 2-amino-4,5-(1,2-cyclohexyl)-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (NPC 12626) was assessed for pharmacological specificity. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 20 mg/kg i.p. of NPC 12626 from saline under a standard two-lever fixed ratio 32 schedule of food reinforcement. Stimulus generalization tests were conducted to examine the similarities and differences between NPC 12626, its active (2R,4R,5S) enantiomer NPC 17742, other competitive and noncompetitive NMDA antagonists and a number of drugs representative of other classes. During test sessions, the competitive NMDA antagonists NPC 12626, CGS 19755, [1-(cis-2-carboxypiperidine-4-yl)- methyl-1-phosphonic acid], NPC 17742, CSP 37849 [DL-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-5-phosphono-3-pen-tenoic acid] and CPPene [D-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-propenyl-1-phosphonic acid] all completely substituted for the training dose of NPC 12626 with ED50 values of 18.1, 2.3, 2.1, 0.8 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, drugs that failed to substitute for NPC 12626 included (+)-amphetamine, baclofen, chlorpromazine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, dizocilpine (MK-801), imipramine, (-)-ketocyclazocine, L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, methocarbamol, morphine, muscimol, phenytoin, physostigmine and valproate. These results provide evidence that the NPC 12626 discriminative stimulus is unique and specific, shared fully only by its active enantiomer NPC 17742 and other competitive NMDA antagonists. This specificity provides further support for the hypothesis of NMDA receptor mediation of NPC 12626 discrimination, and suggests that this is a useful model to evaluate behavioral effects of competitive NMDA antagonists.

  13. Inverted genomic segments and complex triplication rearrangements are mediated by inverted repeats in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Ramocki, Melissa B.; Pehlivan, Davut; Franco, Luis M.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Fang, Ping; McCall, Alanna; Pivnick, Eniko Karman; Hines-Dowell, Stacy; Seaver, Laurie; Friehling, Linda; Lee, Sansan; Smith, Rosemarie; del Gaudio, Daniela; Withers, Marjorie; Liu, Pengfei; Cheung, Sau Wai; Belmont, John W.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Hastings, P. J.; Lupski, James R.

    2011-01-01

    We identified complex genomic rearrangements consisting of intermixed duplications and triplications of genomic segments at both the MECP2 and PLP1 loci. These complex rearrangements were characterized by a triplicated segment embedded within a duplication in 12 unrelated subjects. Interestingly, only two novel breakpoint junctions were generated during each rearrangement formation. Remarkably, all the complex rearrangement products share the common genomic organization duplication-inverted triplication-duplication (DUP-TRP/INV-DUP) wherein the triplicated segment is inverted and located between directly oriented duplicated genomic segments. We provide evidence that the DUP-TRP/INV-DUP structures are mediated by inverted repeats that can be separated by over 300 kb; a genomic architecture that apparently leads to susceptibility to such complex rearrangements. A similar inverted repeat mediated mechanism may underlie structural variation in many other regions of the human genome. We propose a mechanism that involves both homology driven, via inverted repeats, and microhomologous/nonhomologous events. PMID:21964572

  14. EMPLACEMENT DRIFT INVERT-LOW STEEL EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. Taylor and D. H. Tang

    2000-09-29

    This technical report evaluates and develops options for reducing the amount of steel in the emplacement drift invert. Concepts developed in the ''Invert Configuration and Drip Shield Interface'' were evaluated to determine material properties required for the proposed invert concepts. Project requirements documents prescribe the use of a carbon steel frame for the invert with a granular material of crushed tuff as ballast. The ''Invert Configuration and Drip Shield Interface'' developed three concepts: (1) All-Ballast Invert; (2) Modified Steel Invert with Ballast; and (3) Steel Tie with Ballast Invert. Analysis of the steel frame members, runway beams, and guide beams, for the modified steel invert with ballast, decreased the quantity of steel in the emplacement drift invert, however a substantial steel support frame for the gantry and waste package/pallet assembly is still required. Use of one of the other two concepts appears to be an alternative to the steel frame and each of the concepts uses considerably less steel materials. Analysis of the steel tie with ballast invert shows that the bearing pressure on the ballast under the single steel tie, C 9 x 20, loaded with the waste package/pallet assembly, drip shield, and backfill exceeds the upper bound of the allowable bearing capacity for tuff used in this study. The single tie, C 10 x 20, will also fail for the same loading condition except for the tie length of 4.2 meters and longer. Analysis also shows that with two ties, C 9 or 10 x 20's, the average ballast pressure is less than the allowable bearing capacity. Distributing the waste package/pallet, drip shield, and backfill loads to two steel ties reduces the contact bearing pressure. Modifying the emplacement pallet end beams to a greater width, reducing the tie spacing, and increasing the width of the ties would ensure that the pallet beams are always supported by two steel ties. Further analysis is required to determine compatible tie size and spacing

  15. Nipple Retractor to Correct Inverted Nipples.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiao; Zhao, Ru

    2011-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Inverted nipples are a common problem and a challenging clinical condition to repair. Multiple methods have been reported to correct inverted nipples, most of which will destroy breastfeeding function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have designed a simple nipple retractor to correct inverted nipples. A total of 53 patients with 95 inverted nipples underwent an operation in which the nipples were retracted into a normal position and fixated with the nipple retractor and wires under local anesthesia. Nipple retractors were to be worn for 6 months. Postoperatively, the patients were invited to follow-up on the 1st day, the 7th day, after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months, and yearly thereafter. Wire adjustments were performed as needed. Mean follow-up was 11.9 months (range 8-18 months). RESULTS: Improvement occurred in all patients and was sustained in all cases throughout the follow-up period. The total complication rate was 5.26% (5/95). The main complications included depigmentation (2.11%, 2/95), areolar ulcer (2.11%, 2/95), and wire dislocation (1.05%, 1/95). CONCLUSION: The nipple retractor is a simple tool with which severely inverted nipples can be successfully corrected with a low complication rate. Close follow-up and careful postoperative care are important to avoid complications.

  16. Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification: Tests of a Model for Inverted DNA Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Bonita J.; Payen, Celia; Di Rienzi, Sara C.; Higgins, Megan M.; Ong, Giang; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Raghuraman, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication errors are a major driver of evolution—from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale copy number variations (CNVs). Here we test a specific replication-based model to explain the generation of interstitial, inverted triplications. While no genetic information is lost, the novel inversion junctions and increased copy number of the included sequences create the potential for adaptive phenotypes. The model—Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification (ODIRA)—proposes that a replication error at pre-existing short, interrupted, inverted repeats in genomic sequences generates an extrachromosomal, inverted dimeric, autonomously replicating intermediate; subsequent genomic integration of the dimer yields this class of CNV without loss of distal chromosomal sequences. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to test the feasibility of the proposed replication error and its downstream consequences on chromosome structure in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that the proposed replication error—the ligation of leading and lagging nascent strands to create “closed” forks—can occur in vitro at short, interrupted inverted repeats. The removal of molecules with two closed forks results in a hairpin-capped linear duplex that we show replicates in vivo to create an inverted, dimeric plasmid that subsequently integrates into the genome by homologous recombination, creating an inverted triplication. While other models have been proposed to explain inverted triplications and their derivatives, our model can also explain the generation of human, de novo, inverted amplicons that have a 2:1 mixture of sequences from both homologues of a single parent—a feature readily explained by a plasmid intermediate that arises from one homologue and integrates into the other homologue prior to meiosis. Our tests of key features of ODIRA lend support to this mechanism and suggest further avenues of enquiry to unravel the origins of

  17. Addressable inverter matrix for process and device characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Sayah, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The addressable inverter matrix consists of 222 inverters each accessible with the aid of a shift register. The structure has proven useful in characterizing the variability of inverter transfer curves and in diagnosing processing faults. For good 3-micron CMOS bulk inverters investigated in this study, the percent standard deviation of the inverter threshold voltage was less than one percent and the inverter gain (the slope of the inverter transfer curve at the inverter threshold voltage) was less than 3 percent. The average noise margin for the inverters was near 2 volts for a power supply voltage of 5 volts. The specific faults studied included undersize pull-down transistor widths and various open contacts in the matrix.

  18. Addressable inverter matrix for process and device characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Sayah, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    The addressable inverter matrix consists of 222 inverters each accessible with the aid of a shift register. The structure has proven useful in characterizing the variability of inverter transfer curves and in diagnosing processing faults. For good 3-micron CMOS bulk inverters investigated, the percent standard deviation of the inverter threshold voltage was less than one percent and the inverter gain (the slope of the inverter transfer curve at the inverter threshold vltage) was less than 3 percent. The average noise margin for the inverters was near 2 volts for a power supply voltage of 5 volts. The specific faults studied included undersize pull-down transistor widths and various open contacts in the matrix.

  19. Final Report Report: Smart Grid Ready PV Inverters with Utility Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, Brian; Huque, Aminul; Rogers, Lindsey; Key, Tom; Riley, Cameron; Li, Huijuan; York, Ben; Purcell, Chris; Pacific, Oliver; Ropp, Michael; Tran, Teresa; Asgeirsson, Hawk; Woodard, Justin; Steffel, Steve

    2016-03-30

    In 2011, EPRI began a four-year effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) to demonstrate smart grid ready inverters with utility communication. The objective of the project was to successfully implement and demonstrate effective utilization of inverters with grid support functionality to capture the full value of distributed photovoltaic (PV). The project leveraged ongoing investments and expanded PV inverter capabilities, to enable grid operators to better utilize these grid assets. Developing and implementing key elements of PV inverter grid support capabilities will increase the distribution system’s capacity for higher penetration levels of PV, while reducing the cost. The project team included EPRI, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, Spirae, BPL Global, DTE Energy, National Grid, Pepco, EDD, NPPT and NREL. The project was divided into three phases: development, deployment, and demonstration. Within each phase, the key areas included: head-end communications for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the utility operations center; methods for coordinating DER with existing distribution equipment; back-end PV plant master controller; and inverters with smart-grid functionality. Four demonstration sites were chosen in three regions of the United States with different types of utility operating systems and implementations of utility-scale PV inverters. This report summarizes the project and findings from field demonstration at three utility sites.

  20. An SCR inverter for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T.; Bosack, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Jahns, T.; Mezera, J.; Thimmesch, D.

    1980-01-01

    An inverter for an electric vehicle propulsion application has been designed and constructed to excite a polyphase induction motor from a fixed propulsion battery source. The inverter, rated at 35kW peak power, is fully regenerative and permits vehicle operation in both the forward and reverse directions. Thyristors are employed as the power switching devices arranged in a dc bus commutated topology. This paper describes the major role the controller plays in generating the motor excitation voltage and frequency to deliver performance similar to dc systems. Motoring efficiency test data for the controller are presented. It is concluded that an SCR inverter in conjunction with an ac induction motor is a viable alternative to present dc vehicle propulsion systems on the basis of performance and size criteria.

  1. DC-AC Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter With No Inductors for Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Du, Zhong; Chiasson, John N

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) applications implemented without the use of inductors. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a dc-dc boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional three-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have low efficiency because they need a bulky inductor. A cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter design for EV and HEV applications implemented without the use of inductors is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, each H-bridge needs a dc power supply. The proposed design uses a standard three-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg which uses a capacitor as the dc power source. A fundamental switching scheme is used to do modulation control and to produce a five-level phase voltage. Experiments show that the proposed dc-ac cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter can output a boosted ac voltage without the use of inductors.

  2. A diagonally inverted LU implicit multigrid scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Jeffrey W.; Caughey, David A.; Chima, Rodrick V.

    1988-01-01

    A new Diagonally Inverted LU Implicit scheme is developed within the framework of the multigrid method for the 3-D unsteady Euler equations. The matrix systems that are to be inverted in the LU scheme are treated by local diagonalizing transformations that decouple them into systems of scalar equations. Unlike the Diagonalized ADI method, the time accuracy of the LU scheme is not reduced since the diagonalization procedure does not destroy time conservation. Even more importantly, this diagonalization significantly reduces the computational effort required to solve the LU approximation and therefore transforms it into a more efficient method of numerically solving the 3-D Euler equations.

  3. Maskless inverted pyramid texturization of silicon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Yang, Lixia; Liu, Yaoping; Mei, Zengxia; Chen, Wei; Li, Junqiang; Liang, Huili; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Xiaolong, Du

    2015-06-02

    We discovered a technical solution of such outstanding importance that it can trigger new approaches in silicon wet etching processing and, in particular, photovoltaic cell manufacturing. The so called inverted pyramid arrays, outperforming conventional pyramid textures and black silicon because of their superior light-trapping and structure characteristics, can currently only be achieved using more complex techniques involving lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate a feasibility of inverted pyramidal texturization of silicon by maskless Cu-nanoparticles assisted etching in Cu(NO3)2 / HF / H2O2 / H2O solutions and as such may have significant impacts on communities of fellow researchers and industrialists.

  4. Patterned semiconductor inverted quantum dot photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    A novel inverted quantum dot structure is presented, which consists of an InGaAs quantum well that has been periodically perforated and then filled with the higher bandgap GaAs barrier material. This structure exhibits a unique quantized energy structure something like a planar atomic bond structure and formation of allowed and forbidden energy bands instead of highly localized, fully discrete states. We describe the growth, processing and characteristics of inverted quantum dot structures and outline interesting and potentially important effects arising from the introduction of nanoscale features (<50 nm) in the active medium.

  5. High voltage series resonant inverter ion engine screen supply. [SCR series resonant inverter for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L. Y.; Shank, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    A high-voltage, high-power LC series resonant inverter using SCRs has been developed for an Ion Engine Power Processor. The inverter operates within 200-400Vdc with a maximum output power of 2.5kW. The inverter control logic, the screen supply electrical and mechanical characteristics, the efficiency and losses in power components, regulation on the dual feedback principle, the SCR waveforms and the component weight are analyzed. Efficiency of 90.5% and weight density of 4.1kg/kW are obtained.

  6. Electrical characterization of a Mapham inverter using pulse testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, E. D.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of a multiple pulse testing technique to determine the electrical characteristics of large megawatt-level power systems for aerospace missions is proposed. An innovative test method based on the multiple pulse technique is demonstrated on a 2-kW Mapham inverter. The concept of this technique shows that characterization of large power systems under electrical equilibrium at rated power can be accomplished without large costly power supplies. The heat generation that occurs in systems when tested in a continuous mode is eliminated. The results indicate that there is a good agreement between this testing technique and that of steady state testing.

  7. A delta configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; Ott, G.W. Jr.; McKeever, J.W.; Peng, F.Z. |

    1995-09-01

    A delta ({Delta}) configured auxiliary resonant snubber inverter is developed to overcome the voltage floating problem in a wye (Y) configured resonant snubber inverter. The proposed inverter is to connect auxiliary resonant branches between phase outputs to avoid a floating point voltage which may cause over-voltage failure of the auxiliary switches. Each auxiliary branch consists of a resonant inductor and a reverse blocking auxiliary switch. Instead of using an anti-paralleled diode to allow resonant current to flow in the reverse direction, as in the Y-configured version, the resonant branch in the {Delta}-configured version must block the negative voltage, typically done by a series diode. This paper shows single-phase and three-phase versions of {Delta}-configured resonant snubber inverters and describes in detail the operating principle of a single-phase version. The extended three-phase version is proposed with non-adjacent state space vector modulation. For hardware implementation, a single-phase 1-kW unit and a three-phase 100-kW unit were built to prove the concept. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed topology.

  8. Inverter Matrix for the Clementine Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.; Tardio, G.; Soli, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    An inverter matrix test circuit was designed for the Clementine space mission and is built into the RRELAX (Radiation and Reliability Assurance Experiment). The objective is to develop a circuit that will allow the evaluation of the CMOS FETs using a lean data set in the noisy spacecraft environment.

  9. Two-Stage Series-Resonant Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Two-stage inverter includes variable-frequency, voltage-regulating first stage and fixed-frequency second stage. Lightweight circuit provides regulated power and is invulnerable to output short circuits. Does not require large capacitor across ac bus, like parallel resonant designs. Particularly suitable for use in ac-power-distribution system of aircraft.

  10. "In Situ" Generation of Compressed Inverted Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Alistair; Bell, Timothy A. H.

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of index construction for large text collections highlights a new indexing algorithm designed to create large compressed inverted indexes "in situ." Topics include a computational model, inversion, index compression, merging, experimental test results, effect on retrieval performance, memory restrictions, and dynamic…

  11. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  12. [Inverted papiloma and its rare forms].

    PubMed

    Bugová, G; Jeseňák, M; Wallenfels, P; Ondrušová, B; Hajtman, A

    2014-01-01

    Authors address the issue of a frequent benign tumour of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses -  inverted papilloma. They analyse the available diagnostic methods and treatment options. On the background of selected case reports of a rare malignant transformation they emphasize the need for longterm dispensarization as a part of management plan for patients with this oncological disease.

  13. Inverted drop testing and neck injury potential.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2003-01-01

    Inverted drop testing of vehicles is a methodology that has long been used by the automotive industry and researchers to test roof integrity and is currently being considered by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration as a roof strength test. In 1990 a study was reported which involved 8 dolly rollover tests and 5 inverted drop tests. These studies were conducted with restrained Hybrid III instrumented Anthropometric Test Devices (ATD) in production and rollcaged vehicles to investigate the relationship between roof strength and occupant injury potential. The 5 inverted drop tests included in the study provided a methodology producing "repeatable roof impacts" exposing the ATDs to the similar impact environment as those seen in the dolly rollover tests. Authors have conducted two inverted drop test sets as part of an investigation of two real world rollover accidents. Hybrid-III ATD's were used in each test with instrumented head and necks. Both test sets confirm that reduction of roof intrusion and increased headroom can significantly enhance occupant protection. In both test pairs, the neck force of the dummy in the vehicle with less crush and more survival space was significantly lower. Reduced roof crush and dynamic preservation of the occupant survival space resulted in only minor occupant contact and minimal occupant loading, establishing a clear causal relationship between roof crush and neck injuries.

  14. Inverted flat plate solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.

    1981-08-26

    Construction and testing of an inverted flat plate solar collector are described. Heat transfer and economic analysis were performed to optimize the collector design. The newly designed collector was tested against two other flat plate collectors and the results and comparison of efficiencies are presented. (BCS)

  15. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  16. Inverting the Transition-to-Proof Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the benefits of employing an inverted or "flipped" class design in a Transition-to-Proof course for second-year mathematics majors. The issues concomitant with such courses, particularly student acquisition of "sociomathematical norms" and self-regulated learning strategies, are discussed along with…

  17. View of Inverted Siphon crossing Hot Water (or White) Canyon. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Inverted Siphon crossing Hot Water (or White) Canyon. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Inverted Siphon, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  18. Operating temperatures of open-rack installed photovoltaic inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Wang, L.; Kurtz, S.; Wu, J.; Quan, P.; Sorensen, R.; Liu, S.; Bai, J. B.; Zhu, Z. W.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a model for evaluating the heat-sink and component temperatures of open-rack installed photovoltaic inverters. These temperatures can be used for predicting inverter reliability. Inverter heat-sink temperatures were measured for inverters connected to three grid-connected PV (photovoltaic) test systems in Golden, Colorado, US. A model is proposed for calculating the inverter heat-sink temperature based on the ambient temperature, the ratio of the consumed power to the rated power of the inverter, and the measured wind speed. To verify and study this model, more than one year of inverter DC/AC power, irradiance, wind speed, and heat sink temperature rise data were collected and analyzed. The model is shown to be accurate in predicting average inverter temperatures, but will require further refinement for prediction of transient temperatures.

  19. Electrical characterization of a Mapham inverter using pulse testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, E. D.; Myers, I. T.; Hammond, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    Electric power requirements for aerospace missions have reached megawatt power levels. Within the next few decades, it is anticipated that a manned lunar base, interplanetary travel, and surface exploration of the Martian surface will become reality. Several research and development projects aimed at demonstrating megawatt power level converters for space applications are currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Innovative testing techniques will be required to evaluate the components and converters, when developed, at their rated power in the absence of costly power sources, loads, and cooling systems. Facilities capable of testing these components and systems at full power are available, but their use may be cost prohibitive. The use of a multiple pulse testing technique is proposed to determine the electrical characteristics of large megawatt level power systems. Characterization of a Mapham inverter is made using the proposed technique and conclusions are drawn concerning its suitability as an experimental tool to evaluate megawatt level power systems.

  20. Experimental study on the performance of an inverter heat pump system with bypass orifices

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.; Kim, Y.

    1999-07-01

    An experimental study was performed to investigate the optimum cycle of an inverter heat pump as a function of frequency. The performance of an inverter heat pump was measured with a variation of frequency and length of capillary tube, and applying a newly designed bypass orifice. The inverter heat pump with the standard capillary tube that was optimum size at the rated frequency and ASHRAE test condition ``A'' was tested by varying frequency. The optimum cycles were also investigated by changing the length of capillary tube at individual level of low, rated, and high frequency. Since the inverter heat pump with a capillary tube does not provide optimal cycles at all operating frequencies, a bypass orifice was invented to improve the performance of the system at the wide frequency range. The flow rate change of the bypass orifice with respect to frequency was higher than that of the capillary tube. As a results of applying the bypass orifice to the inverter heat pump system, the performance was enhanced in the low frequency level compared with the conventional expansion device of a capillary tube.

  1. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jason; Yu, Wensong; Sun, Pengwei; Leslie, Scott; Prusia, Duane; Arnet, Beat; Smith, Chris; Cogan, Art

    2012-03-31

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  2. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushimaru, Kenji

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter-driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries, microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices, were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading U.S. variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales.

  4. DC-to-AC inverter ratio failure detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Failure detection technique is based upon input-output ratios, which is independent of inverter loading. Since inverter has fixed relationship between V-in/V-out and I-in/I-out, failure detection criteria are based on this ratio, which is simply inverter transformer turns ratio, K, equal to primary turns divided by secondary turns.

  5. Efficient/reliable dc-to-dc inverter circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasciutti, E. R.

    1970-01-01

    Feedback loop, which contains an inductor in series with a saturable reactor, is added to a standard inverter circuit to permit the inverter power transistors to be switched in a controlled and efficient manner. This inverter is applicable where the power source has either high or low impedance properties.

  6. Mobile Inverted Constructivism: Education of Interaction Technology in Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Jia-Xiang; Fan, Kuo-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    The combination of social media and invert teaching is a new path to inverting interation technology education and reconstructing the curriculum of context. In this paper, based on the theory of constructivism learning, a model named Mobile Inverted Constructivism (MIC) is provided. Moreover, in view of the functional quality of social media in…

  7. APP overexpression in the absence of NPC1 exacerbates metabolism of amyloidogenic proteins of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, Mahua; Peake, Kyle; Chung, JiYun; Wang, Yanlin; Vance, Jean E.; Kar, Satyabrata

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides originating from β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) are critical in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cellular cholesterol levels/distribution can regulate production and clearance of Aβ peptides, albeit with contradictory outcomes. To better understand the relationship between cholesterol homeostasis and APP/Aβ metabolism, we have recently generated a bigenic ANPC mouse line overexpressing mutant human APP in the absence of Niemann-Pick type C-1 protein required for intracellular cholesterol transport. Using this unique bigenic ANPC mice and complementary stable N2a cells, we have examined the functional consequences of cellular cholesterol sequestration in the endosomal–lysosomal system, a major site of Aβ production, on APP/Aβ metabolism and its relation to neuronal viability. Levels of APP C-terminal fragments (α-CTF/β-CTF) and Aβ peptides, but not APP mRNA/protein or soluble APPα/APPβ, were increased in ANPC mouse brains and N2a-ANPC cells. These changes were accompanied by reduced clearance of peptides and an increased level/activity of γ-secretase, suggesting that accumulation of APP-CTFs is due to decreased turnover, whereas increased Aβ levels may result from a combination of increased production and decreased turnover. APP-CTFs and Aβ peptides were localized primarily in early-/late-endosomes and to some extent in lysosomes/autophagosomes. Cholesterol sequestration impaired endocytic-autophagic-lysosomal, but not proteasomal, clearance of APP-CTFs/Aβ peptides. Moreover, markers of oxidative stress were increased in vulnerable brain regions of ANPC mice and enhanced β-CTF/Aβ levels increased susceptibility of N2a-ANPC cells to H2O2-induced toxicity. Collectively, our results show that cellular cholesterol sequestration plays a key role in APP/Aβ metabolism and increasing neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress in AD-related pathology. PMID:26433932

  8. Learning under stress: the inverted-U-shape function revisited.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Basira; Cordero, M Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2010-10-01

    Although the relationship between stress intensity and memory function is generally believed to follow an inverted-U-shaped curve, strikingly this phenomenon has not been demonstrated under the same experimental conditions. We investigated this phenomenon for rats' performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task, the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Variations in stress intensity were induced using different water temperatures (25°C, 19°C, and 16°C), which elicited increased plasma corticosterone levels. During spatial training over three consecutive days, an inverted-U shape was found, with animals trained at 19°C making fewer errors than animals trained at either higher (16°C) or lower (25°C) stress conditions. Interestingly, this function was already observed by the last trial of day 1 and maintained on the first day trial of day 2. A long-term recall probe test administered under equal temperature conditions (20°C) revealed differences in performance according to the animals' former training conditions; i.e., platform searching for rats trained at 25°C was less accurate than for rats trained at either 16°C or 19°C. In reversal learning, groups trained at both 19°C and 25°C showed better performance than the 16°C group. We also found an interaction between anxiety and exploration traits on how individuals were affected by stressors during spatial learning. In summary, our findings confirm, for the first time, the existence of an inverted-U-shape memory function according to stressor intensity during the early learning and memory phases in a hippocampus-dependent task, and indicate the existence of individual differences related to personality-like profiles for performance at either high or low stress conditions.

  9. Electronic Document Management Using Inverted Files System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartono, Derwin; Setiawan, Erwin; Irwanto, Djon

    2014-03-01

    The amount of documents increases so fast. Those documents exist not only in a paper based but also in an electronic based. It can be seen from the data sample taken by the SpringerLink publisher in 2010, which showed an increase in the number of digital document collections from 2003 to mid of 2010. Then, how to manage them well becomes an important need. This paper describes a new method in managing documents called as inverted files system. Related with the electronic based document, the inverted files system will closely used in term of its usage to document so that it can be searched over the Internet using the Search Engine. It can improve document search mechanism and document save mechanism.

  10. Maskless inverted pyramid texturization of silicon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Yang, Lixia; Liu, Yaoping; Mei, Zengxia; Chen, Wei; Li, Junqiang; Liang, Huili; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Xiaolong, Du

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a technical solution of such outstanding importance that it can trigger new approaches in silicon wet etching processing and, in particular, photovoltaic cell manufacturing. The so called inverted pyramid arrays, outperforming conventional pyramid textures and black silicon because of their superior light-trapping and structure characteristics, can currently only be achieved using more complex techniques involving lithography, laser processing, etc. Importantly, our data demonstrate a feasibility of inverted pyramidal texturization of silicon by maskless Cu-nanoparticles assisted etching in Cu(NO3)2 / HF / H2O2 / H2O solutions and as such may have significant impacts on communities of fellow researchers and industrialists. PMID:26035520

  11. Mutagenic inverted repeat assisted genome engineering (MIRAGE).

    PubMed

    Nair, Nikhil U; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-01-01

    Here we describe a one-step method to create precise modifications in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a tool for synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, systems biology and genetic studies. Through homologous recombination, a mutagenesis cassette containing an inverted repeat of selection marker(s) is integrated into the genome. Due to its inherent instability in genomic DNA, the inverted repeat catalyzes spontaneous self-excision, resulting in precise genome modification. Since this excision occurs at very high frequencies, selection for the integration event can be followed immediately by counterselection, without the need for growth in permissive conditions. This is the first time a truly one-step method has been described for genome modification in any organism.

  12. Micro-inverter solar panel mounting

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, John; Gilchrist, Phillip Charles

    2016-02-02

    Processes, systems, devices, and articles of manufacture are provided. Each may include adapting micro-inverters initially configured for frame-mounting to mounting on a frameless solar panel. This securement may include using an adaptive clamp or several adaptive clamps secured to a micro-inverter or its components, and using compressive forces applied directly to the solar panel to secure the adaptive clamp and the components to the solar panel. The clamps can also include compressive spacers and safeties for managing the compressive forces exerted on the solar panels. Friction zones may also be used for managing slipping between the clamp and the solar panel during or after installation. Adjustments to the clamps may be carried out through various means and by changing the physical size of the clamps themselves.

  13. Inverter testing at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, J.W.; Bonn, R.H.; Sittler, G.

    1997-04-01

    Inverters are key building blocks of photovoltaic (PV) systems that produce ac power. The balance of systems (BOS) portion of a PV system can account for up to 50% of the system cost, and its reliable operation is essential for a successful PV system. As part of its BOS program, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) maintains a laboratory wherein accurate electrical measurements of power systems can be made under a variety of conditions. This paper outlines the work that is done in that laboratory.

  14. Sizing SiC Storage Inverters for Fast Grid Frequency Support

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Anderson; Bennion, Kevin; Gevorgian, Vahan; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-11-02

    As wind and solar displace synchronous generators whose inertia stabilizes the AC grid frequency on fast time scales, it has been proposed to use energy storage systems (ESSs) to mitigate frequency transient events. Such events require a rapid surge of power from the ESS, but they occur only rarely. The high temperature tolerance of SiC MOSFETs and diodes presents an opportunity for innovative ESS inverter designs. Herein we investigate a SiC ESS inverter design such that the SiC device ratings are obeyed during mild frequency events but are exceeded during rare, major events, for a potentially more economical inverter design. In support of this proposal we present: 1. An analysis of four years of grid frequency events in the U.S. Western Interconnection. 2. A switch-level ESS inverter simulation using SiC devices with detailed loss estimates. 3. Thermal analysis of the SiC power modules during a worst-case frequency event, showing that the modules can likely withstand the brief overcurrent. This analysis supports the conclusion that it may be advantageous for economical designs (acknowledging the increased risks) to undersize the SiC switches when designing inverters to perform active power control for grid frequency support. Such a strategy may result in SiC-based designs being more competitive with less costly silicon IGBT-based designs.

  15. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  16. Synthesizing Virtual Oscillators to Control Islanded Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Brian B.; Sinha, Mohit; Ainsworth, Nathan G.; Dorfler, Florian; Dhople, Sairaj V.

    2016-08-01

    Virtual oscillator control (VOC) is a decentralized control strategy for islanded microgrids where inverters are regulated to emulate the dynamics of weakly nonlinear oscillators. Compared to droop control, which is only well defined in sinusoidal steady state, VOC is a time-domain controller that enables interconnected inverters to stabilize arbitrary initial conditions to a synchronized sinusoidal limit cycle. However, the nonlinear oscillators that are elemental to VOC cannot be designed with conventional linear-control design methods. We address this challenge by applying averaging- and perturbation-based nonlinear analysis methods to extract the sinusoidal steady-state and harmonic behavior of such oscillators. The averaged models reveal conclusive links between real- and reactive-power outputs and the terminal-voltage dynamics. Similarly, the perturbation methods aid in quantifying higher order harmonics. The resultant models are then leveraged to formulate a design procedure for VOC such that the inverter satisfies standard ac performance specifications related to voltage regulation, frequency regulation, dynamic response, and harmonic content. Experimental results for a single-phase 750 VA, 120 V laboratory prototype demonstrate the validity of the design approach. They also demonstrate that droop laws are, in fact, embedded within the equilibria of the nonlinear-oscillator dynamics. This establishes the backward compatibility of VOC in that, while acting on time-domain waveforms, it subsumes droop control in sinusoidal steady state.

  17. A Novel Inductor-less DC-AC Cascaded H-bridge Multilevel Boost Inverter for Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhong; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an inductorless cascaded H- bridge multilevel boost inverter for EV and HEV applications. Currently available power inverter systems for HEVs use a DC- DC boost converter to boost the battery voltage for a traditional 3-phase inverter. The present HEV traction drive inverters have low power density, are expensive, and have low efficiency because they need a bulky inductor. An inductorless cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter for EV and HEV applications is proposed in this paper. Traditionally, each H-bridge needs a DC power supply. The proposed inductorless cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter uses a standard 3-leg inverter (one leg for each phase) and an H-bridge in series with each inverter leg which uses a capacitor as the DC power source. Fundamental switching scheme is used to do modulation control and to produce a 5-level phase voltage. Experiments show that the proposed inductorless DC-AC cascaded H-bridge multilevel boost inverter can output a boosted AC voltage.

  18. Metal-oxide complementary inverters with a vertical geometry fabricated on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindar, A.; Kim, J. B.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kippelen, B.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the fabrication of p-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) and vertically stacked complementary inverters comprised of a p-channel copper oxide TFT on top of an n-channel indium gallium zinc oxide TFT fabricated on a flexible polyethersulfone substrate. The p- and n-channel TFTs showed saturation mobility values of 0.0022 and 1.58 cm2/Vs, respectively, yielding inverters with a gain of 120 V/V. This level of performance was achieved by reducing the copper oxide channel thickness, allowing oxygen diffusion into the copper oxide layer at medium processing temperature (150 °C).

  19. Electrodynamics of AN Ion Inverted V.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Georgette Olive

    Particle precipitation around the earth's polar regions may be the footprint of various energizing phenomena in the magnetosphere. Satellite-observed electron fluxes whose peak energy increases then decreases are called inverted V's. The Atmosphere Explorer-D Low Energy Electron (LEE) data for January 11, 1976 indicates that the precipitating ions have been accelerated. In this event the spectrograms of the ion flux shows the change of the peak energy with time characteristic of an inverted V. The electron population is decelerated as the ion population is accelerated, consistent with a downward electric field. The Birkeland current at an inverted V may be calculated in two ways: from the divergence of the electric field or from the observed particle fluxes. We found that the two methods agree on the location of Birkeland current throughout the event, but the magnitudes are not the same. This is not surprising, since the component of (DEL)((')(SIGMA)(.)(')E) perpendicular to the trajectory can not be determined. The electric potential along the spacecraft's trajectory (790-650 km altitude) was calculated from the measured electric fields. The sum of the parallel potential drop (inferred from the ion distribution function) and the ionospheric potential gives the potential profile at the magnetosphere. The parallel electric field thus partially decoupled the ionospheric flow from the magnetospheric flow. The electric field pattern in the magnetosphere -ionosphere system demands field-aligned currents. When the thermal current is insufficient, a field-aligned potential drop can accelerate particles to satisfy the requirements. The thermal electron current from the ionosphere is much greater than that from the magnetosphere. Thus, it is more common to observe the signatures of an upward electric field: the electron "inverted V". In the ion inverted V observed during AE-D orbit 1141, the postulated parallel potential has reduced the required parallel current. This high

  20. Fault Current Contribution from Single-Phase PV Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Kroposki, B.; Bravo, R.; Robles, S.

    2011-01-01

    A significant increase in photovoltaic (PV) system installations is expected to come on line in the near future and as the penetration level of PV increases, the effect of PV may no longer be considered minimal. One of the most important attributions of additional PV is what effect this may have on protection systems. Protection engineers design protection systems to safely eliminate faults from the electric power system. One of the new technologies recently introduced into the electric power system are distributed energy resources (DER). Currently, inverter-based DER contributes very little to the power balance on all but a few utility distribution systems. As DER become prevalent in the distribution system, equipment rating capability and coordination of protection systems merit a closer investigation. A collaborative research effort between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Southern California Edison (SCE) involved laboratory short-circuit testing single-phase (240 VAC) residential type (between 1.5 and 7kW) inverters. This paper will reveal test results obtained from these short-circuit tests.

  1. Status and Needs of Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    QIN, YU CHIN; MOHAN, NED; WEST, RICK; BONN, RUSSELL H.

    2002-06-01

    Photovoltaics is the utility connected distributed energy resource (DER) that is in widespread use today. It has one element, the inverter, which is common with all DER sources except rotating generators. The inverter is required to transfer dc energy to ac energy. With all the DER technologies, (solar, wind, fuel cells, and microturbines) the inverter is still an immature product that will result in reliability problems in fielded systems. Today, the PV inverter is a costly and complex component of PV systems that produce ac power. Inverter MTFF (mean time to first failure) is currently unacceptable. Low inverter reliability contributes to unreliable fielded systems and a loss of confidence in renewable technology. The low volume of PV inverters produced restricts the manufacturing to small suppliers without sophisticated research and reliability programs or manufacturing methods. Thus, the present approach to PV inverter supply has low probability of meeting DOE reliability goals. DOE investments in power electronics are intended to address the reliability and cost of power electronics. This report details the progress of power electronics, identifies technologies that are in current use, and explores new approaches that can provide significant improvements in inverter reliability while leading to lower cost. A key element to improved inverter design is the systems approach to design. This approach includes a list of requirements for the product being designed and a preliminary requirements document is a part of this report. Finally, the design will be for a universal inverter that can be applied to several technologies. The objective of a universal inverter is to increase the quantity being manufactured so that mass-manufacturing techniques can be applied. The report includes the requirements and recommended design approaches for a new inverter with a ten-year mean time to first failure (MTFF) and with lower cost. This development will constitute a ''leap

  2. Experimental studies of a prototype model of the multilevel 6KW-power inverter at supply by 12 accumulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taissariyeva, K.; Issembergenov, N.; Dzhobalaeva, G.; Usembaeva, S.

    2016-09-01

    The given paper considers the multilevel 6 kW-power transistor inverter at supply by 12 accumulators for transformation of solar battery energy to the electric power. At the output of the multilevel transistor inverter, it is possible to receive voltage close to a sinusoidal form. The main objective of this inverter is transformation of solar energy to the electric power of industrial frequency. The analysis of the received output curves of voltage on harmonicity has been carried out. In this paper it is set forth the developed scheme of the multilevel transistor inverter (DC-to-ac converter) which allows receiving at the output the voltage close to sinusoidal form, as well as to regulation of the output voltage level. In the paper, the results of computer modeling and experimental studies are presented.

  3. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  4. Dynamics of quiet human stance: computer simulations of a triple inverted pendulum model.

    PubMed

    Günther, Michael; Wagner, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the biomechanical description of quiet human stance has been dominated by the single inverted pendulum (SIP) paradigm. However, in the past few years, the SIP model family has been falsified as an explanatory approach. Double inverted pendulum models have recently proven to be inappropriate. Human topology with three major leg joints suggests in a natural way to examine triple inverted pendulum (TIP) models as an appropriate approach. In this study, we focused on formulating a TIP model that can synthesise stable balancing attractors based on minimalistic sensor information and actuation complexity. The simulated TIP oscillation amplitudes are realistic in vertical direction. Along with the horizontal ankle, knee and hip positions, though, all simulated joint angle amplitudes still exceed the measured ones about threefold. It is likely that they could be eventually brought down to the physiological range by using more sensor information. The TIP systems' eigenfrequency spectra come out as another major result. The eigenfrequencies spread across about 0.1 Hz...20 Hz. Our main result is that joint stiffnesses can be reduced even below statically required values by using an active hip torque balancing strategy. When reducing mono- and bi-articular stiffnesses further down to levels threatening dynamic stability, the spectra indicate a change from torus-like (stable) to strange (chaotic) attractors. Spectra of measured ground reaction forces appear to be strange-attractor-like. We would conclude that TIP models are a suitable starting point to examine more deeply the dynamic character of and the essential structural properties behind quiet human stance. Abbreviations and technical terms Inverted pendulum body exposed to gravity and pivoting in a joint around position of unstable equilibrium (operating point) SIP single inverted pendulum: one rigid body pivoting around fixation to the ground (external joint) DIP double inverted pendulum: two bodies

  5. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  6. Semi-transparent inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.; Winkler, T.; Tilgner, M.; Flügge, H.; Schmale, S.; Bülow, T.; Meyer, J.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2009-08-01

    We will present efficient semi-transparent bulk-heterojunction [regioregular of poly(3-hexylthiophene): (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester] solar cells with an inverted device architecture. Highly transparent ZnO and TiO2 films prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition are used as cathode interlayers on top of ITO. The topanode consists of a RF-sputtered ITO layer. To avoid damage due to the plasma deposition of this layer, a sputtering buffer layer of MoO3 is used as protection. This concept allows for devices with a transmissivity higher than 60 % for wavelengths 650 nm. The thickness of the MoO3 buffer has been varied in order to study its effect on the electrical properties of the solar cell and its ability to prevent possible damage to the organic active layers upon ITO deposition. Without this buffer or for thin buffers it has been found that device performance is very poor concerning the leakage current, the fill factor, the short circuit current and the power conversion efficiencies. As a reference inverted solar cells with a metal electrode (Al) instead of the ITO-top contact are used. The variation between the PCE of top versus conventional illumination of the semi-transparent cells was also examined and will be interpreted in view of the results of the optical simulation of the dielectric device stack with and without reflection top electrode. Power conversion efficiencies of 2-3 % for the opaque inverted solar cells and 1.5-2.5 % for the semi-transparent devices were obtained under an AM1.5G illumination.

  7. Linear control of the flywheel inverted pendulum.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Manuel; Albertos, Pedro

    2014-09-01

    The flywheel inverted pendulum is an underactuated mechanical system with a nonlinear model but admitting a linear approximation around the unstable equilibrium point in the upper position. Although underactuated systems usually require nonlinear controllers, the easy tuning and understanding of linear controllers make them more attractive for designers and final users. In a recent paper, a simple PID controller was proposed by the authors, leading to an internally unstable controlled plant. To achieve global stability, two options are developed here: first by introducing an internal stabilizing controller and second by replacing the PID controller by an observer-based state feedback control. Simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the design.

  8. FPGA Based Compensation Method for Correcting Distortion in Voltage Inverters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    inserted to prevent the short circuit that would occur if the two transistors in the same inverter leg are both on at the same time. This delay...occur if the two transistors in the same inverter leg are both on at the same time. This delay produces harmonic distortion and non-linearity when...delay inserted to prevent the short circuit that would occur if the two transistors in a single inverter leg were both on at the same time. This

  9. Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-30

    Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPC’s initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%—reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPC’s next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPC’s $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

  10. The research of the solar panels-commutator-inverter-load system with the pulse-amplitude control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taissariyeva, K. N.; Issembergenov, N. T.

    2014-11-01

    The system "solar panels-commutator-inverter-load" with amplitude-impulse control was researched. It was shown that if the solar panels are located in a certain way at the input of the inverter, it will be possible to get multilevel voltage close to sine wave with the help of amplitude-impulse control of commutator at the output of inverter. Herewith the effect is saving of solar panels depending on the quantity of voltage level, and also the enhanced voltage distortion coefficient (THD). For instance, with 8-level of voltage 28,2% and THD=4,64%, with 13-level of voltage, 30,5% and THD=2,65%, and with 26-level of voltage 31,7% and THD=1,22%. The given results were obtained through computer modeling and experimental research.

  11. Dual Mode Inverter Control Test Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.M.

    2001-04-25

    Permanent Magnet Motors with either sinusoidal back emf (permanent magnet synchronous motor [PMSM]) or trapezoidal back emf (brushless dc motor [BDCM]) do not have the ability to alter the air gap flux density (field weakening). Since the back emf increases with speed, the system must be designed to operate with the voltage obtained at its highest speed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) has developed a dual mode inverter controller (DMIC) that overcomes this disadvantage. This report summarizes the results of tests to verify its operation. The standard PEEMRC 75 kW hard-switched inverter was modified to implement the field weakening procedure (silicon controlled rectifier enabled phase advance). A 49.5 hp motor rated at 2800 rpm was derated to a base of 400 rpm and 7.5 hp. The load developed by a Kahn Industries hydraulic dynamometer, was measured with a MCRT9-02TS Himmelstein and Company torque meter. At the base conditions a current of 212 amperes produced the 7.5 hp. Tests were run at 400, 1215, and 2424 rpm. In each run, the current was no greater than 214 amperes. The horsepower obtained in the three runs were 7.5, 9.3, and 8.12. These results verified the basic operation of the DMIC in producing a Constant Power Speed Ratios (CPSR) of six.

  12. Towards high performance inverted polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiong

    2013-03-01

    Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells that can be fabricated by solution processing techniques are under intense investigation in both academic institutions and industrial companies because of their potential to enable mass production of flexible and cost-effective alternative to silicon-based electronics. Despite the envisioned advantages and recent technology advances, so far the performance of polymer solar cells is still inferior to inorganic counterparts in terms of the efficiency and stability. There are many factors limiting the performance of polymer solar cells. Among them, the optical and electronic properties of materials in the active layer, device architecture and elimination of PEDOT:PSS are the most determining factors in the overall performance of polymer solar cells. In this presentation, I will present how we approach high performance of polymer solar cells. For example, by developing novel materials, fabrication polymer photovoltaic cells with an inverted device structure and elimination of PEDOT:PSS, we were able to observe over 8.4% power conversion efficiency from inverted polymer solar cells.

  13. Inverted cones and their elastic creases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seffen, Keith A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the elastic inversion of a right circular cone, in particular, the uniform shape of the narrow crease that divides its upright and inverted parts. Our methodology considers a cylindrical shell analogy for simplicity where the crease is the boundary layer deformation. Solution of its governing equation of deformation requires careful crafting of the underlying assumptions and boundary conditions in order to reveal an expression for the crease shape in closed form. We can then define the characteristic width of crease exactly, which is compared to a geometrically nonlinear, large displacement finite element analysis. This width is shown to be accurately predicted for shallow and steep cones, which imparts confidence to our original assumptions. Using the shape of crease, we compute the strain energy stored in the inverted cone, in order to derive an expression for the applied force of inversion by a simple energy method. Again, our predictions match finite element data very well. This study may complement other studies of creases traditionally formed in a less controlled manner, for example, during crumpling of lightweight sheets.

  14. [Mechanical complications of total shoulder inverted prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Delloye, C; Joris, D; Colette, A; Eudier, A; Dubuc, J E

    2002-06-01

    Our series of inverted prosthesis included 5 patients with a mean age of 73 +/- 6 years. In 4 cases, the implant was performed as a surgical revision. The follow up was 81 +/- 15 months. Three shoulders were pain free whereas two caused a dull pain after a free interval due to mechanical complications. The mean active elevation was 72 degrees while external rotation was - 2 degrees. The adjusted Constant score passed from 32 to 60. In case of complications, the score dropped to 32. Mechanical complications were important with in one case, an unscrening of the glenosphere and in two cases, a loosening of the glenoid prosthesis. This last and major complication occurred 6 years after surgery and was promoted by the occurrence of a progressive bone erosion in the scapula. This gap represented an attempt to accomodate the medial part of the humeral prosthesis under the scapula when the arm is at rest or in adduction. The concept of an inverted prosthesis is attractive and this implant remains one of the options in cuff-tear arthropathy. Our results were not as good as those reported by others but most of ours patients had been already operated before. The occurrence of an osseous gap on pilar of scapula may lead to failure of this prosthesis. This gap remains a threath as it can progress and as such warrants a design alteration of the prosthesis.

  15. Expression levels of JNK associated with polymorphic lactotransferrin haplotypes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gengqiu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Yi, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family, serves a role in the innate immune response and is involved in anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activity. Alterations in the LTF gene are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. The LTF gene is polymorphic, and several common alleles may be observed in the general population. Our previous study identified a lower rate of occurrence of the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype (constructed with rs1126477, rs1126478, rs2073495 and rs9110) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with controls. In the present study, in order to elucidate a possible mechanism of LTF-mediated anti-tumor activity in NPC, the protein profiles of NPC and non-tumorous nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype were constructed using LTQ Orbitrap technology. The results revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) was highly expressed in NPC tissues and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the differential miRNA profiles of NPC and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. It was observed that hsa-miR-1256 and hsa-miR-659, which are potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, were downregulated in NPC tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. Hsa-miR-298, another miRNA potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, was downregulated in non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the 'A-G-G-T' haplotype. In summary, these results suggested that the expression levels of JNK2 may be associated with polymorphic LTF haplotypes in human NPC.

  16. Expression levels of JNK associated with polymorphic lactotransferrin haplotypes in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Gengqiu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Yi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Lactotransferrin (LTF), a member of the transferrin family, serves a role in the innate immune response and is involved in anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activity. Alterations in the LTF gene are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. The LTF gene is polymorphic, and several common alleles may be observed in the general population. Our previous study identified a lower rate of occurrence of the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype (constructed with rs1126477, rs1126478, rs2073495 and rs9110) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients compared with controls. In the present study, in order to elucidate a possible mechanism of LTF-mediated anti-tumor activity in NPC, the protein profiles of NPC and non-tumorous nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype were constructed using LTQ Orbitrap technology. The results revealed that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) was highly expressed in NPC tissues and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. These results were confirmed by western blot analysis. Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the differential miRNA profiles of NPC and non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues with/without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. It was observed that hsa-miR-1256 and hsa-miR-659, which are potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, were downregulated in NPC tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. Hsa-miR-298, another miRNA potentially targeted to the JNK2 gene, was downregulated in non-tumor nasopharyngeal epithelium tissues without the ‘A-G-G-T’ haplotype. In summary, these results suggested that the expression levels of JNK2 may be associated with polymorphic LTF haplotypes in human NPC. PMID:27446399

  17. The six determinants of gait and the inverted pendulum analogy: A dynamic walking perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Arthur D

    2007-08-01

    We examine two prevailing, yet surprisingly contradictory, theories of human walking. The six determinants of gait are kinematic features of gait proposed to minimize the energetic cost of locomotion by reducing the vertical displacement of the body center of mass (COM). The inverted pendulum analogy proposes that it is beneficial for the stance leg to behave like a pendulum, prescribing a more circular arc, rather than a horizontal path, for the COM. Recent literature presents evidence against the six determinants theory, and a simple mathematical analysis shows that a flattened COM trajectory in fact increases muscle work and force requirements. A similar analysis shows that the inverted pendulum fares better, but paradoxically predicts no work or force requirements. The paradox may be resolved through the dynamic walking approach, which refers to periodic gaits produced almost entirely by the dynamics of the limbs alone. Demonstrations include passive dynamic walking machines that descend a gentle slope, and active dynamic walking robots that walk on level ground. Dynamic walking takes advantage of the inverted pendulum mechanism, but requires mechanical work to transition from one pendular stance leg to the next. We show how the step-to-step transition is an unavoidable energetic consequence of the inverted pendulum gait, and gives rise to predictions that are experimentally testable on humans and machines. The dynamic walking approach provides a new perspective, focusing on mechanical work rather than the kinematics or forces of gait. It is helpful for explaining human gait features in a constructive rather than interpretive manner.

  18. Inverter Load Rejection Over-Voltage Testing: SolarCity CRADA Task 1a Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A.; Hoke, A.; Chakraborty, S.; Chebahtah, J.; Wang, T.; Zimmerly, B.

    2015-02-01

    Various interconnection challenges exist when connecting distributed PV into the electrical distribution grid in terms of safety, reliability, and stability of electric power systems. One of the urgent areas for additional research - as identified by inverter manufacturers, installers, and utilities - is the potential for transient over-voltage from PV inverters. In one stage of a cooperative tests were repeated a total of seven times. The maximum over-voltage measured in any test did not exceed 200% of nominal, and typical over-voltage levels were significantly lower. The total voltage duration and the maximum continuous time above each threshold are presented here, as well as the time to disconnect for each test. Finally, we present a brief investigation into the effect of DC input voltage as well as a series of no-load tests. This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient over-voltages created by several commercial PV inverters during load-rejection conditions. For this work, a test plan that is currently under development by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Through a cooperative research and development agreement, NREL is working with SolarCity to address two specific types of transient overvoltage: load rejection overvoltage (LRO) and ground fault overvoltage (GFO). Additional partners in this effort include the Hawaiian Electric Companies, Northern Plains Power Technologies, and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  19. Three-phase inverter for small high speed motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, John A.; Valenzuela, Javier A.

    1991-01-01

    A high-frequency three-phase inverter is being developed to drive a miniature centrifugal compressor which is a key component in a long-life space-borne cryocooler. The inverter is a unique transformer-coupled design, tailored to the low-voltage high-current characteristic of the compressor's induction motor. The design and performance demonstration of a breadboard model of the inverter are described. The cryocooler uses a reverse-Brayton cycle with turbomachines to provide 5 watt of cooling at 70 K. The design target for input power to the compressor motor is 175 watts. Line-to-neutral phase voltage waveforms to be supplied by the inverter have an amplitude of 15 volt-rms at a frequency of 8 kHz. DC power at 28 volt is supplied to the inverter. The breadboard inverter was tested with a preliminary development model of the compressor. It drove the compressor over a range of operating conditions encompassing frequencies of 5 to 9 kHz at powers of 56 to 437 watt. Inverter efficiencies, calculated from experimentally verified loss models, ranged from 89 to 95 percent over the tests. The design target on efficiency is 90 percent. The inverter was demonstrated to supply starting current adequate to overcome the starting friction of the compressor's self-acting gas bearings by a safe margin.

  20. Inverted Signature Trees and Text Searching on CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Lorraine K. D.; Tharp, Alan L.

    1989-01-01

    Explores the new storage technology of optical data disks and introduces a data structure, the inverted signature tree, for storing data on optical data disks for efficient text searching. The inverted signature tree approach is compared to the use of text signatures and the B+ tree. (22 references) (Author/CLB)

  1. View of the upper part of the Inverted Siphon showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the upper part of the Inverted Siphon showing sandbox at the top of the slope before dropping into the Hot Water (or White) Canyon. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Inverted Siphon, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  2. Using inverted indices for accelerating LINGO calculations.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Thomas G; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian N S

    2011-03-28

    The ever growing size of chemical databases calls for the development of novel methods for representing and comparing molecules. One such method called LINGO is based on fragmenting the SMILES string representation of molecules. Comparison of molecules can then be performed by calculating the Tanimoto coefficient, which is called LINGOsim when used on LINGO multisets. This paper introduces a verbose representation for storing LINGO multisets, which makes it possible to transform them into sparse fingerprints such that fingerprint data structures and algorithms can be used to accelerate queries. The previous best method for rapidly calculating the LINGOsim similarity matrix required specialized hardware to yield a significant speedup over existing methods. By representing LINGO multisets in the verbose representation and using inverted indices, it is possible to calculate LINGOsim similarity matrices roughly 2.6 times faster than existing methods without relying on specialized hardware.

  3. HOLLOTRON switch for megawatt lightweight space inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Goebel, D. M.; Schumacher, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of satisfying the switching requirements for a megawatt ultralight inverter system using HOLLOTRON switch technology was determined. The existing experimental switch hardware was modified to investigate a coaxial HOLLOTRON switch configuration and the results were compared with those obtained for a modified linear HOLLOTRON configuration. It was concluded that scaling the HOLLOTRON switch to the current and voltage specifications required for a megawatt converter system is indeed feasible using a modified linear configuration. The experimental HOLLOTRON switch operated at parameters comparable to the scaled coaxial HOLLOTRON. However, the linear HOLLOTRON data verified the capability for meeting all the design objectives simultaneously including current density (greater than 2 A/sq cm), voltage (5 kV), switching frequency (20 kHz), switching time (300 ns), and forward voltage drop (less than or equal to 20 V). Scaling relations were determined and a preliminary design was completed for an engineering model linear HOLLOTRON switch to meet the megawatt converter system specifications.

  4. Scalar field cosmologies with inverted potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Boisseau, B.; Giacomini, H.

    2015-10-01

    Regular bouncing solutions in the framework of a scalar-tensor gravity model were found in a recent work. We reconsider the problem in the Einstein frame (EF) in the present work. Singularities arising at the limit of physical viability of the model in the Jordan frame (JF) are either of the Big Bang or of the Big Crunch type in the EF. As a result we obtain integrable scalar field cosmological models in general relativity (GR) with inverted double-well potentials unbounded from below which possess solutions regular in the future, tending to a de Sitter space, and starting with a Big Bang. The existence of the two fixed points for the field dynamics at late times found earlier in the JF becomes transparent in the EF.

  5. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose.

  6. EMI from solar panels and inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    Results are given of an exploratory investigation to ascertain the potential of electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by radiation from photovoltaic (PV) systems. This includes a determination of the appropriate parameters to be measured and a review of present standards with emphasis on the FCC docket on incidental radiators. It also includes small residential installations having roof-mounted PV arrays. The results will be used to make recommendations as to what further work, if any, is needed to ensure that EMI from a PV system is negligible. Measured data so far show that the inverters in the solar-panel system tested caused severe EMI problems in the AM broadcast band (0.5 to 1.6 MH2), while FM and television reception was not significantly affected.

  7. Quasicompactons in inverted nonlinear photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yongyao; Malomed, Boris A.; Wu Jianxiong; Pang Wei; Wang Sicong; Zhou Jianying

    2011-10-15

    We study large-amplitude one-dimensional solitary waves in photonic crystals featuring competition between linear and nonlinear lattices, with minima of the linear potential coinciding with maxima of the nonlinear pseudopotential, and vice versa (inverted nonlinear photonic crystals, INPCs), in the case of the saturable self-focusing nonlinearity. Such crystals were recently fabricated using a mixture of SU-8 and Rhodamine-B optical materials. By means of numerical methods and analytical approximations, we find that large-amplitude solitons are broad sharply localized stable pulses (quasicompactons, QCs). With the increase of the total power, P, the QC's centroid performs multiple switchings between minima and maxima of the linear potential. Unlike cubic INPCs, the large-amplitude solitons are mobile in the medium with the saturable nonlinearity. The threshold value of the kick necessary to set the soliton in motion is found as a function of P. Collisions between moving QCs are considered too.

  8. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  9. Evaluation of a high power inverter for potential space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The ADM-006 inverter discussed utilizes a unique method of using power switching circuits to produce three-phase low harmonic content voltages without any significant filtering. This method is referred to as the power center approach to inverter design and is explained briefly. The results are presented of tests performed by MSFC to evaluate inverter performance, especially when required to provide power to nonlinear loads such as half or full wave rectified loads with capacitive filtering. Test preocedures and results are described. These tests show that the power center inverter essentially met or exceeded all of claims excluding voltage regulation (3.9 percent versus specified 3.3 percent) and would be a good candidate for high power inverter applications such as may be found on Space Station, Spacelab, etc.

  10. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  11. Correction of recurrent inverted nipples with the Sakai method.

    PubMed

    Taneda, Hiroko; Sakai, Shigemi; Kamei, Chihiro

    2013-08-01

    An inverted nipple is a congenital condition that can be corrected with established surgical methods, although recurrence sometimes occurs. The correction of recurrent inverted nipples is challenging because of scars and fibrosis caused by previous surgical treatments. The authors treated 14 patients with 25 recurrent inverted nipples with the Sakai method. All patients were observed for more than 6 months. All of the resulting nipples were acceptable and fit into the normal nipple shapes described by Kim et al (Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118:1526-1531) (ie, rectangular, omega, round, cap, or slanting). Although the Sakai method is not new, it may be a useful option not only for ordinary inverted nipples but also for the correction of recurrent inverted nipples.

  12. Photovoltaic Inverter Controllers Seeking AC Optimal Power Flow Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers future distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced photovoltaic (PV) systems, and addresses the synthesis of feedback controllers that seek real- and reactive-power inverter setpoints corresponding to AC optimal power flow (OPF) solutions. The objective is to bridge the temporal gap between long-term system optimization and real-time inverter control, and enable seamless PV-owner participation without compromising system efficiency and stability. The design of the controllers is grounded on a dual ..epsilon..-subgradient method, while semidefinite programming relaxations are advocated to bypass the non-convexity of AC OPF formulations. Global convergence of inverter output powers is analytically established for diminishing stepsize rules for cases where: i) computational limits dictate asynchronous updates of the controller signals, and ii) inverter reference inputs may be updated at a faster rate than the power-output settling time.

  13. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol: high levels in Niemann-Pick type C, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and lysosomal acid lipase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Sonia; Arias, Angela; García-Villoria, Judit; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Ros, Emilio; de las Heras, Javier; Girós, Marisa; Coll, Maria J; Ribes, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by lysosomal/endosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids. Recent studies have shown that plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) could be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC patients. We aimed to know the sensitivity and specificity of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC compared with other diseases that can potentially lead to oxysterol alterations. We studied 107 controls and 122 patients including 16 with NPC, 3 with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, 8 with other lysosomal diseases, 5 with galactosemia, 11 with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), 3 with Smith-Lemli-Opitz, 14 with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, 19 with unspecific hepatic diseases, 13 with familial hypercholesterolemia, and 30 with neurological involvement and no evidence of an inherited metabolic disease. CT and 7-KC were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS as mono-dimethylglycine derivatives. Levels of 7-KC were high in most of the studied diseases, whereas those of CT were only high in NPC, LAL, and CTX patients. Consequently, although CT is a sensitive biomarker of NPC disease, including those cases with doubtful filipin staining, it is not specific. 7-KC is a very unspecific biomarker.

  14. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol: high levels in Niemann-Pick type C, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and lysosomal acid lipase deficiency[S

    PubMed Central

    Pajares, Sonia; Arias, Angela; García-Villoria, Judit; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Ros, Emilio; de las Heras, Javier; Girós, Marisa; Coll, Maria J.; Ribes, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by lysosomal/endosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids. Recent studies have shown that plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) could be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC patients. We aimed to know the sensitivity and specificity of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC compared with other diseases that can potentially lead to oxysterol alterations. We studied 107 controls and 122 patients including 16 with NPC, 3 with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, 8 with other lysosomal diseases, 5 with galactosemia, 11 with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), 3 with Smith-Lemli-Opitz, 14 with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, 19 with unspecific hepatic diseases, 13 with familial hypercholesterolemia, and 30 with neurological involvement and no evidence of an inherited metabolic disease. CT and 7-KC were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS as mono-dimethylglycine derivatives. Levels of 7-KC were high in most of the studied diseases, whereas those of CT were only high in NPC, LAL, and CTX patients. Consequently, although CT is a sensitive biomarker of NPC disease, including those cases with doubtful filipin staining, it is not specific. 7-KC is a very unspecific biomarker. PMID:26239048

  15. A general modelling and control algorithm of a three-phase multilevel diode clamped inverter by means of a direct space vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhali, O.; Francois, B.; Berkouk, E. M.; Saudemont, C.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a simple and general direct modulation strategy that enables to copy directly modulated waveforms onto output voltages of a multilevel three-phase Diode Clamped Inverter (DCI). A general modelling of this converter is presented. A space vector scheme is developed without using Park transforms. Based on this algorithm, the location of the reference voltage vector is determined and the voltage vectors for the modulation are deduced. Simultaneously, their durations are calculated. The proposed algorithm is general and can be directly applied to a (n+1) levels inverter independently on its topology (Diode Clamped Inverter, Neutral Point Clamped, Flying Capacitor Inverter...). To verify this algorithm, both control algorithms of a 5-level DCI and a 11-level DCI are considered and simulation results are given.

  16. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced P-450 mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in chick embryo liver (CEL) occurs in parenchymal cells (PC) rather than in non-parenchymal cells (NPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Paroli, L.; Rifkind, A.B. )

    1992-02-26

    TCDD induces cytochrome P-450 mediated AA metabolism in CEL and changes the dominant metabolite(s) from {omega}-OH AA to AA epoxygenase products (EETs and EET-diols). PC and NPC from CEL were separated by differential centrifugation and characterized by morphology, immunohistochemistry and P-450 mediated xenobiotic metabolism; purities were >95%. PC and NPC, from 16 day old chick embryos treated for 5 days with TCDD or vehicle alone, were cultured for 48 hr, homogenized and incubated with ({sup 14}C)-AA {plus minus} NADPH. AA products were resolved by reverse phase HPLC. The major product in control PC, {omega}-OH AA was not significantly affected by TCDD. All of the AA metabolism was NADPH dependent. Control and TCDD treated PC had the same metabolite patterns as whole liver microsomes. Neither control nor TCDD treated NPC generated P-450 AA metabolites. Also co-culturing NPC with PC did not affect AA metabolism of either cell type. The findings indicate that TCDD-induced changes in AA metabolism are retained in culture and that hepatocytes rather than NPC effect P-450 mediated AA metabolism in both control and TCDD-induced CEL.

  17. Electric machine and current source inverter drive system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S

    2014-06-24

    A drive system includes an electric machine and a current source inverter (CSI). This integration of an electric machine and an inverter uses the machine's field excitation coil for not only flux generation in the machine but also for the CSI inductor. This integration of the two technologies, namely the U machine motor and the CSI, opens a new chapter for the component function integration instead of the traditional integration by simply placing separate machine and inverter components in the same housing. Elimination of the CSI inductor adds to the CSI volumetric reduction of the capacitors and the elimination of PMs for the motor further improve the drive system cost, weight, and volume.

  18. Ru(II)-based metallosurfactant forming inverted aggregates.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Gutiérrez, David; Surtchev, Marko; Eiser, Erika; Elsevier, Cornelis J

    2006-02-01

    Knowing the advantages of incorporating a transition metal into interfaces, we report on the first inverted aggregates formed using metallosurfactants. The metallosurfactant possesses four long linear tails that account for the shielding of the polar headgroup in apolar solvents. The nature of the so-formed aggregates changes dramatically from inverted vesicles (toluene) to inverted micelles (hexane). The size of the aggregates was determined using dynamic light scattering. Atomic force microscopy allowed us to study the dry structure of the vesicles on a glass surface.

  19. An iterative method to invert the LTSn matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Cardona, A.V.; Vilhena, M.T. de

    1996-12-31

    Recently Vilhena and Barichello proposed the LTSn method to solve, analytically, the Discrete Ordinates Problem (Sn problem) in transport theory. The main feature of this method consist in the application of the Laplace transform to the set of Sn equations and solve the resulting algebraic system for the transport flux. Barichello solve the linear system containing the parameter s applying the definition of matrix invertion exploiting the structure of the LTSn matrix. In this work, it is proposed a new scheme to invert the LTSn matrix, decomposing it in blocks and recursively inverting this blocks.

  20. A PWM transistor inverter for an ac electric vehicle drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype system consisting of closely integrated motor, inverter, and transaxle has been built in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a three-phase ac transistorized inverter for electric vehicle applications. The microprocessor-controlled inverter employs monolithic power transistors to drive an oil-cooled, three-phase induction traction motor at a peak output power of 30 kW from a 144 V battery pack. Transistor safe switching requirements are discussed, and a circuit is presented for recovering trapped snubber inductor energy at transistor turn-off.

  1. Solution processed organic microarray with inverted structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toglia, Patrick; Lewis, Jason; Lafalce, Evan; Jiang, Xiaomei

    2011-03-01

    We have fabricated inverted organic microarray using a novel solution-based technique. The array consists of 60 small (1 square mm) solar cells on a one inch by one inch glass substrate. The device utilizes photoactive materials such as a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Manipulation of active layer nanomorphology has been done by choice of solvents and annealing conditions. Detailed analysis of device physics including current voltage characteristics, external quantum efficiency and carrier recombinations will be presented and complimented by AFM images and glazing angle XRD of the active layer under different processing conditions. The procedure described here has the full potential for use in future fabrication of microarrays with single cell as small as 0.01 square mm for application in DC power supplies for electrostatic Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. This work was supported by New Energy Technology Inc. and Florida High Tech Corridor Matching Fund (FHT 09-18).

  2. Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Cell Processing Instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, A.; Ward, S.; Young, M.

    2012-02-01

    This technical report details the processing schedule used to fabricate Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) concentrator solar cells at The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). These devices are used as experimental test structures to support the research at NREL that is focused on increasing the efficiency of photovoltaic power conversion. They are not intended to be devices suitable for deployment in working concentrator systems primarily because of heat sinking issues. The process schedule was developed to be compatible with small sample sizes and to afford relatively rapid turn-around times, in support of research efforts. The report describes the use of electro deposition of gold for both the back and front contacts. Electro-deposition is used because of its rapid turn around time and because it is a benign metallization technique that is seldom responsible for damage to the semiconductors. The layer transfer technique is detailed including the use of a commercially available adhesive and the etching away of the parent gallium arsenide substrate. Photolithography is used to define front contact grids as well as the mesa area of the cell. Finally, the selective wet chemical etchant system is introduced and its use to reveal the back contact is described.

  3. Skull Base Inverted Papilloma: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Wassef, Shafik N.; Batra, Pete S.; Barnett, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Skull base inverted papilloma (IP) is an unusual entity for many neurosurgeons. IP is renowned for its high rate of recurrence, its ability to cause local destruction, and its association with malignancy. This paper is a comprehensive review of the reports, studies, and reviews published in the current biomedical literature from 1947 to September 2010 and synthesize this information to focus on its potential invasion to the base of the skull and possible intradural extension. The objective is to familiarize the clinician with the different aspects of this unusual disease. The role of modern diagnostic tools in medical imaging in order to assess clearly the limits of the tumors and to enhance the efficiency and the safety in the choice of a surgical approach is pointed out. The treatment guidelines for IP have undergone a complex evolution that continues today. Radical excision of the tumour is technically difficult and often incomplete. Successful management of IP requires resection of the affected mucosa which could be achieved with open surgery, endoscopic, or combined approach. Radio and chemotherapy were used for certain indications. More optimally research would be a multicenter randomized trials with large size cohorts. PMID:23346418

  4. Faster Processing for Inverting GPS Occultation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ao, Chi

    2004-01-01

    A document outlines a computational method that can be incorporated into two prior methods used to invert Global Positioning System (GPS) occultation data [signal data acquired by a low-Earth-orbiting satellite as either this or the GPS satellite rises above or falls below the horizon] to obtain information on altitude-dependent properties of the atmosphere. The two prior inversion methods, known as back propagation and canonical transform, are computationally expensive because for each occultation, they involve numerical evaluation of a large number of diffraction-like spatial integrals. The present method involves an angular-spectrum-based phase-extrapolation approximation in which each data point is associated with a plane-wave component that propagates in a unique direction from the orbit of the receiving satellite to intersect a straight line tangent to the orbit at a nearby point. This approximation enables the use of fast Fourier transforms (FFTs), which apply only to data collected along a straight-line trajectory. The computation of the diffraction-like integrals in the angular-spectrum domain by use of FFTs takes only seconds, whereas previously, it took minutes.

  5. Inverted Coaxial HPGe Segmented Point Contact Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salathe, Marco; Crawford, Heather; Cooper, Ren; Radford, David

    2016-09-01

    The inverted coaxial segmented HPGe point contact detector is a new device being characterized for use in gamma-ray tracking arrays. It is expected to have an excellent position resolution, particularly for simultaneously occurring multiple interactions. However, the characteristic long charge carrier drift path of this technology, combined with trapping and loss of charge carriers, leads to a degradation of the energy resolution. A prototype produced from n-type material, consisting of 20 segments, has been characterized in a lab environment with a variety of collimated and uncollimated sources. Results from this study show that the signal decomposition from this detector not only allows the reconstruction of the interaction positions, but also can be used to correct the degraded energy resolution and restore the characteristic HPGe resolution. This work is supported by LBNL-LDRD funding under LDRD #NS16-128, and by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  6. Efficient Color-Stable Inverted White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Outcoupling-Enhanced ZnO Layer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Heng-Yang; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Jing-De; Xu, Lu-Hai; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2017-01-25

    Inverted organic light-emitting diode (OLED) has attracted extensive attention due to the demand in active-matrix OLED display panels as its geometry enables the direct connection with n-channel transistor backplane on the substrate. One key challenge of high-performance inverted OLED is an efficient electron-injection layer with superior electrical and optical properties to match the indium tin oxide cathode on substrate. We here propose a synergistic electron-injection architecture using surface modification of ZnO layer to simultaneously promote electron injection into organic emitter and enhance out-coupling of waveguided light. An efficient inverted white OLED is realized by introducing the nanoimprinted aperiodic nanostructure of ZnO for broadband and angle-independent light out-coupling and inserting an n-type doped interlayer for energy level tuning and injection barrier lowering. As a result, the optimized inverted white OLEDs have an external quantum efficiency of 42.4% and a power efficiency of 85.4 lm W(1-), which are accompanied by the superiority of angular color stability over the visible wavelength range. Our results may inspire a promising approach to fabricate high-efficiency inverted OLEDs for large-scale display panels.

  7. The protein level and transcription activity of activating transcription factor 1 is regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Liang; Liao, Dan; Chen, Hua; Lu, Yan; Chen, Liyong; Li, Huahui; Li, Binbin; Liu, Weilong; Ye, Caiguo; Li, Tong; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Jian; Uchida, Takafumi; Zou, Ying; Dong, Zigang; He, Zhiwei

    2016-12-29

    The function of activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and the mechanism about why ATF1 was over-phosphorylated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression is completely undiscovered. In this study, a series of experiments both in vitro and in vivo were used to characterize a promotive function of ATF1 in NPC tumorigenesis and identify prolyl isomerase Pin1 as a novel regulator of ATF1 at post-transcription. First, we found that overexpression of ATF1 promoted colony formation in NPC. However, the high protein level of ATF1 in NPC was not resulted from high mRNA level. Then, a direct interaction between Pin1 and ATF1 at Thr184 was demonstrated using mammalian two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitation. Cycloheximide (CHX) treatment indicated Pin1 stabilized the expression of ATF1 at post-transcription level. We confirmed that Pin1 upregulated ATF1 transcriptional activity of Bcl-2 using luciferase reporter assay, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. Furthermore, the newly identified phosphorylation of ATF1 at Thr184 was suggested to have an important role in ATF1 function of transcription and tumor promotion. Finally, high expression of Pin1 in NPC tissue was found to be positively correlated with ATF1. The ATF1 promoted NPC tumorigenesis was regulated by Pin1 both in vitro and in vivo. All these findings clearly state that Pin1 is a novel regulator of ATF1 at Thr184 and thereby enhances ATF1 transcription activity and tumorigenesis promotive function in NPC.

  8. The protein level and transcription activity of activating transcription factor 1 is regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guo-Liang; Liao, Dan; Chen, Hua; Lu, Yan; Chen, Liyong; Li, Huahui; Li, Binbin; Liu, Weilong; Ye, Caiguo; Li, Tong; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Jian; Uchida, Takafumi; Zou, Ying; Dong, Zigang; He, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    The function of activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and the mechanism about why ATF1 was over-phosphorylated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression is completely undiscovered. In this study, a series of experiments both in vitro and in vivo were used to characterize a promotive function of ATF1 in NPC tumorigenesis and identify prolyl isomerase Pin1 as a novel regulator of ATF1 at post-transcription. First, we found that overexpression of ATF1 promoted colony formation in NPC. However, the high protein level of ATF1 in NPC was not resulted from high mRNA level. Then, a direct interaction between Pin1 and ATF1 at Thr184 was demonstrated using mammalian two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitation. Cycloheximide (CHX) treatment indicated Pin1 stabilized the expression of ATF1 at post-transcription level. We confirmed that Pin1 upregulated ATF1 transcriptional activity of Bcl-2 using luciferase reporter assay, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot. Furthermore, the newly identified phosphorylation of ATF1 at Thr184 was suggested to have an important role in ATF1 function of transcription and tumor promotion. Finally, high expression of Pin1 in NPC tissue was found to be positively correlated with ATF1. The ATF1 promoted NPC tumorigenesis was regulated by Pin1 both in vitro and in vivo. All these findings clearly state that Pin1 is a novel regulator of ATF1 at Thr184 and thereby enhances ATF1 transcription activity and tumorigenesis promotive function in NPC. PMID:28032861

  9. Virtual Oscillator Control Maintains Grid Operations with High Inverter Penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    VOC makes each inverter behave electrically like a spring, 'bouncing back' to its normal operating range when disturbed. Coupling these inverters electronically could result in a new way to stabilize power grids. VOC has been demonstrated in a microgrid using several small inverters. In addition, five custom-designed inverters have been built and will be tested with grid simulations at NREL using power hardware-in-the-loop technology. VOC may provide a simple method to keep microgrids stable -- a topic of growing interest as resilience to energy disruptions gains prominence. VOC may also provide a means to transition power grids from today's inertia-dominated systems to systems that do not rely on rotating machinery.

  10. Bifurcations and transitions to chaos in an inverted pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Hu, Bambi

    1998-09-01

    We consider a parametrically forced pendulum with a vertically oscillating suspension point. It is well known that, as the amplitude of the vertical oscillation is increased, its inverted state (corresponding to the vertically-up configuration) undergoes a cascade of ``resurrections,'' i.e., it becomes stabilized after its instability, destabilize again, and so forth ad infinitum. We make a detailed numerical investigation of the bifurcations associated with such resurrections of the inverted pendulum by varying the amplitude and frequency of the vertical oscillation. It is found that the inverted state stabilizes via alternating ``reverse'' subcritical pitchfork and period-doubling bifurcations, while it destabilizes via alternating ``normal'' supercritical period-doubling and pitchfork bifrucations. An infinite sequence of period-doubling bifurcations, leading to chaos, follows each destabilization of the inverted state. The critical behaviors in the period-doubling cascades are also discussed.

  11. 8. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, looking southwest - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 145. Credit JE. Steel section of Coleman Canal inverted siphon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    145. Credit JE. Steel section of Coleman Canal inverted siphon #2, crossing Baldwin Creek. (JE, v. 27 1911 p. 413). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  13. 7. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, looking east - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 2. DETAIL OF INVERTED MINE CARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; NOTE SHORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF INVERTED MINE CARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; NOTE SHORT WHEEL BASE NEEDED FOR DUMPING CONTENTS - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Main Mine, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  15. Performance model for grid-connected photovoltaic inverters.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyson, William Earl; Galbraith, Gary M.; King, David L.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2007-09-01

    This document provides an empirically based performance model for grid-connected photovoltaic inverters used for system performance (energy) modeling and for continuous monitoring of inverter performance during system operation. The versatility and accuracy of the model were validated for a variety of both residential and commercial size inverters. Default parameters for the model can be obtained from manufacturers specification sheets, and the accuracy of the model can be further refined using measurements from either well-instrumented field measurements in operational systems or using detailed measurements from a recognized testing laboratory. An initial database of inverter performance parameters was developed based on measurements conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at laboratories supporting the solar programs of the California Energy Commission.

  16. Stability of Brillouin flow in planar, conventional, and inverted magnetrons

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.; Wong, P.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B. W.

    2015-08-15

    The Brillouin flow is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. We systematically study its stability in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron geometry. To investigate the intrinsic negative mass effect in Brillouin flow, we consider electrostatic modes in a nonrelativistic, smooth bore magnetron. We found that the Brillouin flow in the inverted magnetron is more unstable than that in a planar magnetron, which in turn is more unstable than that in the conventional magnetron. Thus, oscillations in the inverted magnetron may startup faster than the conventional magnetron. This result is consistent with simulations, and with the negative mass property in the inverted magnetron configuration. Inclusion of relativistic effects and electromagnetic effects does not qualitatively change these conclusions.

  17. Triple inverter pierce oscillator circuit suitable for CMOS

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf; Kurt O.

    2007-02-27

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be formed using discrete field-effect transistors (FETs), or as a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The oscillator circuit utilizes a Pierce oscillator design with three inverter stages connected in series. A feedback resistor provided in a feedback loop about a second inverter stage provides an almost ideal inverting transconductance thereby allowing high-Q operation at the resonator-controlled frequency while suppressing a parasitic oscillation frequency that is inherent in a Pierce configuration using a "standard" triple inverter for the sustaining amplifier. The oscillator circuit, which operates in a range of 10 50 MHz, has applications for use as a clock in a microprocessor and can also be used for sensor applications.

  18. Improving Advanced Inverter Control Convergence in Distribution Power Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Baggu, Murali

    2016-11-21

    Simulation of modern distribution system powerflow increasingly requires capturing the impact of advanced PV inverter voltage regulation on powerflow. With Volt/var control, the inverter adjusts its reactive power flow as a function of the point of common coupling (PCC) voltage. Similarly, Volt/watt control curtails active power production as a function of PCC voltage. However, with larger systems and higher penetrations of PV, this active/reactive power flow itself can cause significant changes to the PCC voltage potentially introducing oscillations that slow the convergence of system simulations. Improper treatment of these advanced inverter functions could potentially lead to incorrect results. This paper explores a simple approach to speed such convergence by blending in the previous iteration's reactive power estimate to dampen these oscillations. Results with a single large (5MW) PV system and with multiple 500kW advanced inverters show dramatic improvements using this approach.

  19. Studies of the Inverted Meniscus Deposition of Silicon on Ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zook, J. D.; Grung, B.; Schuldt, S. B.; Schmit, F. M.; Heaps, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    Controlled temperature profiles essential to production of solar cells. Studies of inverted meniscus process for depositing silicon coatings on ceramic substrates described in new report. When fully developed, processed used to manufacture low-cost solar photovoltaic cells.

  20. 14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 1 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE OPERATING FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. WESTERN VIEW OF INVERTED BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE IN THE BOP SHOP. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Applying the min-projection strategy to improve the transient performance of the three-phase grid-connected inverter.

    PubMed

    Baygi, Mahdi Oloumi; Ghazi, Reza; Monfared, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Applying the min-projection strategy (MPS) to a three-phase grid-connected inverter to improve its transient performance is the main objective of this paper. For this purpose, the inverter is first modeled as a switched linear system. Then, the feasibility of the MPS technique is investigated and the stability criterion is derived. Hereafter, the fundamental equations of the MPS for the control of the inverter are obtained. The proposed scheme is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC environment. The validity of the MPS approach is confirmed by comparing the obtained results with those of VOC method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method despite its simplicity provides an excellent transient performance, fully decoupled control of active and reactive powers, acceptable THD level and a reasonable switching frequency.

  4. Development of a rotary power transformer and inverter drive for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.; Bridgeforth, A. O.

    1983-01-01

    Many future satellites and spacecraft with spun and despun configurations will require the transfer of power across rotating interfaces in lieu of slip-rings and/or flexures. This is particularly true of spacecraft that have to demonstrate a long life expectancy. The rotary transformer has the desirable characteristics of high reliability and low noise, which qualify it as a potential replacement for slip rings. Development of a rotary power transformer follows the successful completion of a task to develop rotary signal-level transformers for the Galileo Spacecraft Project. The physical configuration of a rotary power transformer has a significant effect on its magnetic and electrical characteristics and therefore impacts the design of the dc/ac inverter driver. Important characteristics addressed during this development effort include: operating frequency, efficiency, transformer gap size, leakage inductance, and leakage flux. A breadboard inverter and rotary transformer were designed, fabricated and tested.

  5. Inverted Organic Solar Cells with Improved Performance using Varied Cathode Buffer Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhi-qiang; Yu, Jun-sheng; Zang, Yue; Zeng, Xing-xin

    2012-10-01

    Organic solar cells with inverted planar heterojunction structure based on subphthalocyanine and C60 were fabricated using several kinds of materials as cathode buffer layer (CBL), including tris-8-hydroxy-quinolinato aluminum (Alq3), bathophenanthroline (Bphen), bathocuproine, 2,3,8,9,14,15-hexakis-dodecyl-sulfanyl-5,6,11,12,17,18-hexaazatrinaphthylene (HATNA), and an inorganic compound of Cs2CO3. The influence of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level and the electron mobility of organic CBL on the solar cells performance was compared. The results showed that Alq3, Bphen, and HATNA could significantly improve the device performance. The highest efficiency was obtained from device with annealed HATNA as CBL and increased for more than 7 times compared with device without CBL. Furthermore, the simulation results with space charge-limited current theory indicated that the Schottky barrier at the organic/electrode interface in inverted OSC structure was reduced for 27% by inserting HATNA CBL.

  6. Experimental signatures of the inverted phase in InAs/GaSb coupled quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalic, Matija; Mueller, Susanne; Mittag, Christopher; Pakrouski, Kiryl; Wu, QuanSheng; Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Troyer, Matthias; Tschirky, Thomas; Wegscheider, Werner; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Transport measurements are performed on InAs/GaSb double quantum wells at zero and finite magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the quantum wells. We investigate a sample in the inverted regime where electrons and holes coexist, and compare it with another sample in the noninverted semiconducting regime. The activated behavior in conjunction with a strong suppression of the resistance peak at the charge neutrality point in a parallel magnetic field attest to the topological hybridization gap between electron and hole bands in the inverted sample. We observe an unconventional Landau level spectrum with energy gaps modulated by the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the quantum wells. This is caused by a strong spin-orbit interaction provided jointly by the InAs and the GaSb quantum wells.

  7. Module failure isolation circuit for paralleled inverters. [preventing system failure during power conditioning for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A module failure isolation circuit is described which senses and averages the collector current of each paralled inverter power transistor and compares the collector current of each power transistor the average collector current of all power transistors to determine when the sensed collector current of a power transistor in any one inverter falls below a predetermined ratio of the average collector current. The module associated with any transistor that fails to maintain a current level above the predetermined radio of the average collector current is then shut off. A separate circuit detects when there is no load, or a light load, to inhibit operation of the isolation circuit during no load or light load conditions.

  8. Adaptive Selective Harmonic Minimization Based on ANNs for Cascade Multilevel Inverters With Varying DC Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, Faete; Maia, Helder Z; Mateus, Tiago Henrique D; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M; Pinto, Joao Onofre P

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for modulation of an 11-level cascade multilevel inverter using selective harmonic elimination is presented in this paper. The dc sources feeding the multilevel inverter are considered to be varying in time, and the switching angles are adapted to the dc source variation. This method uses genetic algorithms to obtain switching angles offline for different dc source values. Then, artificial neural networks are used to determine the switching angles that correspond to the real-time values of the dc sources for each phase. This implies that each one of the dc sources of this topology can have different values at any time, but the output fundamental voltage will stay constant and the harmonic content will still meet the specifications. The modulating switching angles are updated at each cycle of the output fundamental voltage. This paper gives details on the method in addition to simulation and experimental results.

  9. Dynamic Model Validation of PV Inverters Under Short-Circuit Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Bravo, R.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules have dramatically decreased in price in the past few years, spurring the expansion of photovoltaic deployment. Residential and commercial rooftop installations are connected to the distribution network; large-scale installation PV power plants (PVPs) have benefited from tax incentives and the low cost of PV modules. As the level penetration of PV generation increases, the impact on power system reliability will also be greater. Utility power system planners must consider the role of PV generation in power systems more realistically by representing PV generation in dynamic stability analyses. Dynamic models of PV inverters have been developed in the positive sequence representation. NREL has developed a PV inverter dynamic model in PSCAD/EMTDC. This paper validates the dynamic model with an actual hardware bench test conducted by Southern California Edison's Distributed Energy Resources laboratory. All the fault combinations -- symmetrical and unsymmetrical -- were performed in the laboratory. We compare the simulation results with the bench test results.

  10. A novel double gate metal source/drain Schottky MOSFET as an inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Kumar, Sunil; Alamoud, Abdulrahman M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we propose and simulate a novel structure of a double gate metal source/drain (MSD) Schottky MOSFET. The novelty of the proposed device is that it realizes a complete CMOS inverter action, which is actually being realized by the combination of two n and p type MOS transistors in the conventional CMOS technology. Therefore, the use of this device will significantly reduce the transistor count in implementing combinational and sequential circuits. Further, there is a significant reduction in the number of junctions and regions in the proposed device in comparison to the conventional CMOS inverter. Therefore, the proposed device is compact and can consume less power. The proposed device has been named as Sajad-Sunil-Schottky (SSS) device. The mixed mode circuit analysis of the proposed SSS device has shown that a CMOS inverter action with high logic level (VOH) and low logic level (VOL) as ∼VDD and ∼ground respectively. A two dimensional calibrated simulation study using the experimental data has revealed that the proposed SSS device in n and p type modes have subthreshold slopes (S) of 130 mV/decade and 85 mV/decade respectively and have reasonable high ION and ION/IOFF ratio's. Furthermore, it has been proved that such a device action cannot be realised by folding the conventional doped n and p MOS transistors.

  11. ConfChem Conference on Flipped Classroom: Improving Student Engagement in Organic Chemistry Using the Inverted Classroom Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student engagement in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses generally, and organic chemistry specifically, has long been a goal for educators. Recently educators at all academic levels have been exploring the "inverted classroom" or "flipped classroom" pedagogical model for improving student…

  12. Nanocrystal-based complementary inverters constructed on flexible plastic substrates.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaewon; Cho, Kyoungah; Yun, Junggwon; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate a nanocrystal (NC)-based complementary inverter constructed on a flexible plastic substrate. The NC-based complementary inverter consists of n-type HgSe NC- and p-type HgTe NC-based thin-film transistors (TFTs). Solid films on a plastic substrate obtained from HgSe and HgTe nanocrystals by thermal transformation are utilized as the n- and p-channel layers in these TFTs, respectively. The electrical properties of these component TFTs on unstrained and strained substrates are characterized and the performance of the inverter on the flexible substrate is investigated. The inverter on the unstrained substrate exhibits a logic gain of about 8, a logic swing of 90%, and a noise margin of 2.0 V. The characteristics of the inverter are changed under tensile and compressive strains, but not very significantly. Moreover, a comparison of the electrical characteristics of the n- and p-channel TFTs and the inverter is made in this paper.

  13. Rhinosinusal Polyposis and Inverted Papilloma: A Morphometric Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Gabriel Costa; Fujise, Luciana Harumi; Fernandes, Atílio Maximino; Azoubel, Reinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Nasal obstruction is one of the main rhinologic complaints, and two diseases must be investigated as differential diagnosis: rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma. Using traditional methods, the differential diagnosis between these diseases may be difficult. The morphometric study may be a useful tool for differential diagnosis and to define prognosis. Objective Calculate the morphometric values of rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma and compare the average of variables obtained between the groups. Methods The nasal mucus of 10 patients who had surgery in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Surgery of Head and Neck was studied; 5 had rhinosinusal polyposis and 5 had inverted papilloma. After the capture and print of corresponding data of each slide, the largest and smallest diameters of the nuclei were measured and the morphometric variables were calculated: average diameter, perimeter, ratio between largest and smallest diameter, volume, area, ratio of volume to area, form coefficient, contour index, and eccentricity. Results We found a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the two groups in the following morphometric variables: largest diameter, smallest diameter, average diameter, volume, area, perimeter, and ratio of volume to area, indicating that these parameters can be useful in diagnostic differentiation between these diseases. Conclusion We founded morphometric variables higher in patients with inverted papilloma, which can be related to the neoplastic origin of the inverted papilloma. The analysis of nuclear parameters is an instrument of great value in the differential diagnosis between rhinosinusal polyposis and inverted papilloma. PMID:26157491

  14. Flapping dynamics of an inverted flag in a uniform flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jaeha; Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-11-01

    Much research in recent years has focused on the flow dynamics of flexible structures in a uniform flow and particularly on the flow dynamics related to energy harvesting systems. An energy harvesting system comprising piezoelectric patches attached to the surface of a flexible structure can convert the energy stored in solid deformations into an electric current that powers a purely resistive output circuit. Recently, an inverted flag which has the freely moving leading edge and the clamped trailing edge was suggested. The inverted flag improved the amount of strain energy that was converted into the flag deformations from the surrounding fluid. In this study, the flapping dynamics of an inverted flag in a uniform flow were simulated using the immersed boundary method. The flapping dynamics of and vortical structures around the inverted flag were examined in terms of the bending rigidity and the Reynolds number. The strain energy of the inverted flag and the proportion of the strain energy of the inverted flag to the kinetic energy of the flow were considered as an indicator of the energy harvesting system efficiency.

  15. Distortion and regulation characterization of a Mapham inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Richard C.; Brush, Andrew S.; Button, Robert M.; Patterson, Alexander G.

    1989-01-01

    Output voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of a 20kHz, 6kVA Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a function of its switching-to-resonant frequency ratio, f sub s/f sub r, using the EASY5 engineering analysis system. EASY5 circuit simulation results are compared with hardware test results to verify the accuracy of the simulations. The effects of load on the THD versus f sub s/f sub r ratio is investigated for resistive, leading, and lagging power factor load impedances. The effect of the series output capacitor on the Mapham inverter output voltage distortion and inherent load regulation is characterized under loads of various power factors and magnitudes. An optimum series capacitor value which improves the inherent load regulation to better than 3 percent is identified. The optimum series capacitor value is different than the value predicted from a modeled frequency domain analysis. An explanation is proposed which takes into account the conduction overlap in the inductor pairs during steady-state inverter operation, which decreases the effective inductance of a Mapham inverter. A fault protection and current limit method is discussed which allows the Mapham inverter to operate into a short circuit, even when the inverter resonant circuit becomes overdamped.

  16. Distortion and regulation characterization of a Mapham inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Richard C.; Brush, Andrew S.; Button, Robert M.; Patterson, Alexander G.

    1989-01-01

    Output-voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) of a 20-kHz, 6-kVA Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a function of its switching-to-resonant frequency ratio, f(s)/f(r), using the EASY5 Engineering Analysis System. EASY5 circuit simulation results are compared with hardware test results to verify the accuracy of the simulations. The effects of load on the THD versus f(s)/f(r) is investigated for resistive, leading, and lagging power factor load impedances. The effect of the series output capacitor on the Mapham inverter output-voltage distortion and inherent load regulation is characterized under loads of various power factors and magnitudes. An optimum series capacitor value which improves the inherent load regulation to better than 3 percent is identified. The optimum series capacitor value is different from the value predicted from a modeled frequency domain analysis. An explanation is proposed which takes into account the conduction overlap in the inductor pairs during steady-state inverter operation, which decreases the effective inductance of a Mapham inverter. A fault protection and current limit method is discussed which allows the Mapham inverter to operate into a short circuit, even when the inverter resonant circuit becomes overdamped.

  17. Shear dynamics of an inverted nematic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Tiribocchi, A; Da Re, M; Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E

    2016-10-04

    Here we study theoretically the dynamics of a 2D and a 3D isotropic droplet in a nematic liquid crystal under a shear flow. We find a large repertoire of possible nonequilibrium steady states as a function of the shear rate and of the anchoring of the nematic director field at the droplet surface. We first discuss homeotropic anchoring. For weak anchoring, we recover the typical behaviour of a sheared isotropic droplet in a binary fluid, which rotates, stretches and can be broken by the applied flow. For intermediate anchoring, new possibilities arise due to elastic effects in the nematic fluid. We find that in this regime the 2D droplet can tilt and move in the flow, or tumble incessantly at the centre of the channel. For sufficiently strong anchoring, finally, one or both of the topological defects which form close to the surface of the isotropic droplet in equilibrium detach from it and get dragged deep into the nematic state by the flow. In 3D, instead, the Saturn ring associated with the normal anchoring disclination line can be deformed and shifted downstream by the flow, but remains always localized in the proximity of the droplet, at least for the parameter range we explored. Tangential anchoring in 2D leads to a different dynamic response, as the boojum defects characteristic of this situation can unbind from the droplet under a weaker shear with respect to the normal anchoring case. Our results should stimulate further experiments with inverted liquid crystal emulsions under shear, as most of the predictions can be testable in principle by monitoring the evolution of liquid crystalline orientation patterns or by tracking the position and shape of the droplet over time.

  18. Non-Invertible Transforms for Image-Based Verification

    SciTech Connect

    White, Timothy A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Miller, Erin A.; Seifert, Allen; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Pitts, W. Karl; Misner, Alex C.

    2011-07-20

    Imaging may play a unique role in verifying the presence and distribution of warhead components in warhead counting and dismantlement settings where image information content can distinguish among shapes, forms, and material composition of items. However, a major issue with imaging is the high level of intrusiveness, and in particular, the possible need to store sensitive comparison images in the inspection system that would violate information barrier (IB) principles. Reducing images via transformations or feature extraction can produce image features (e.g. attributes) for verification, but with enough prior information about structure the reduced information itself may be sufficient to deduce sensitive details of the original image. Further reducing resolution of the transformed image information is an option, but too much reduction destroys the quality of the attribute. We study the possibility of a one-way transform that allows storage of non-sensitive reference information and analysis to enable comparison of transformed images within IB constraints. In particular, we consider the degree to which images can be reconstructed from image intensity histograms depending on the number of pixel intensity bins and the degree of frequency data quantization, as well as assumed knowledge of configuration of objects in the images. We also explore the concept of a 'perceptual hash' as a class of transforms that may enable verification with provable non-invertibility, leading to an effective one-way transform that preserves the nature of the image feature data without revealing sufficient information to reconstruct the original image.

  19. Engineering liver tissue spheroids with inverted colloidal crystal scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungwoo; Cuddihy, Meghan J; Cater, George M; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2009-09-01

    Multicellular spheroids provide a new three-dimensional (3D) level of control over morphology and function of ex vivo cultured tissues. They also represent a valuable experimental technique for drug discovery and cell biology. Nevertheless, the dependence of many cellular processes on the cluster diameter remains unclear. To provide a tool for the systematic evaluation of such dependences, we introduce here inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) scaffolds. Uniformly sized pores in ICC cell matrixes afford a high yield production of controlled size spheroids in standard 96 well-plates. Transparent hydrogel matrix and ship-in-bottle effect also allows for convenient monitoring of cell processes by traditional optical techniques. Different developmental stages of 46.5-151.6 microm spheroids from HepG2 hepatocytes with vivid morphological similarities to liver tissue (bile canaliculi) were observed. The liver-specific functions of HepG2 cells were systematically investigated and compared for spheroids of different diameters as well as 2D cultures. Clear trends of albumin production and CYP450 activity were observed; diffusion processes and effect of cellular aggregation on metabolic activity were identified to be the primary contributors to the size dependence of the liver functions in HepG2 spheroids in ICC scaffolds. Since the aggregation of cells into clusters is a universal biological process, these findings and scaffolds can be applied to many other relevant cell types.

  20. C1 Metabolism Inhibition and Nitrogen Deprivation Trigger Triacylglycerol Accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cultures and Highlight a Role of NPC in Phosphatidylcholine-to-Triacylglycerol Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Meï, Coline E.; Cussac, Mathilde; Haslam, Richard P.; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Wong, Yung-Sing; Maréchal, Eric; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation often occurs in growth limiting conditions such as nutrient deprivations. We analyzed and compared the lipid contents of Arabidopsis cells grown under two conditions that inhibited growth as a way to study interactions between membrane and storage lipids. In order to inhibit C1 metabolism, the first condition utilized methotrexate (MTX), a drug that inhibits methyl transfer reactions and potentially reduces Pi-choline synthesis, the polar head of phosphatidylcholine (PC). MTX-treated cells displayed a 10- to 15-fold increase in TAG compared to that found in control cells. This corresponded to a net increase of lipids as the total amount of membrane glycerolipids was minimally affected. Under this condition, PC homeostasis appeared tightly regulated and not strictly dependent on the rate of Pi-choline synthesis. The second condition we investigated involved nitrogen deprivation. Here, we observed a 40-fold increase of TAG. In these cells, the overall lipid content remained unchanged, but membrane lipids decreased by a factor of two suggesting a reduction of the membrane network and a rerouting of membrane lipids to storage lipids. Under all conditions, fatty acid (FA) analyses showed that the FA composition of TAG was comparable to that in PC, but different from that in acyl-CoA, suggesting that TAG accumulation involved PC-derived DAG moieties. In agreement, analyses by qPCR of genes coding for TAG synthesis showed a strong increase of non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) expressions, and experiments using labeled (fluorescent) PC indicated higher rates of PC-to-TAG conversion under both situations. These results highlight a role for NPC in plant cell oil production. PMID:28101097

  1. Simvastatin promotes NPC1-mediated free cholesterol efflux from lysosomes through CYP7A1/LXRα signalling pathway in oxLDL-loaded macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Aolin; Halquist, Matthew S; Yuan, Xinxu; Henderson, Scott C; Dewey, William L; Li, Pin-Lan; Li, Ningjun; Zhang, Fan

    2017-02-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are the first-line medications prescribed for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery diseases. The efficacy of statins has been attributed not only to their systemic cholesterol-lowering actions but also to their pleiotropic effects that are unrelated to cholesterol reduction. These pleiotropic effects have been increasingly recognized as essential in statins therapy. This study was designed to investigate the pleiotropic actions of simvastatin, one of the most commonly prescribed statins, on macrophage cholesterol homeostasis with a focus on lysosomal free cholesterol egression. With simultaneous nile red and filipin staining, analysis of confocal/multi-photon imaging demonstrated that simvastatin markedly attenuated unesterified (free) cholesterol buildup in macrophages loaded with oxidized low-density lipoprotein but had little effect in reducing the sizes of cholesteryl ester-containing lipid droplets; the reduction in free cholesterol was mainly attributed to decreases in lysosome-compartmentalized cholesterol. Functionally, the egression of free cholesterol from lysosomes attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. It was determined that the reduction of lysosomal free cholesterol buildup by simvastatin was due to the up-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a lysosomal residing cholesterol transporter. Moreover, the enhanced enzymatic production of 7-hydroxycholesterol by cytochrome P450 7A1 and the subsequent activation of liver X receptor α underscored the up-regulation of NPC1. These findings reveal a novel pleiotropic effect of simvastatin in affecting lysosomal cholesterol efflux in macrophages and the associated significance in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  2. Frequency domain model for analysis of paralleled, series-output-connected Mapham inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.; Button, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a two-port network driven by a selected periodic voltage. The two-port model is then used to model a pair of Mapham inverters connected in series and employing phasor voltage regulation. It is shown that the model is useful for predicting power output in paralleled inverter units, and for predicting harmonic current output of inverter pairs, using standard power flow techniques. Some sample results are compared to data obtained from testing hardware inverters.

  3. Frequency domain model for analysis of paralleled, series-output-connected Mapham inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.; Button, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a two-port network driven by a selected periodic voltage. The two-port model is then used to model a pair of Mapham inverters connected in series and employing phasor voltage regulation. It is shown that the model is useful for predicting power output in paralleled inverter units, and for predicting harmonic current output of inverter pairs, using standard power flow techniques. Some examples are compared to data obtained from testing hardware inverters.

  4. Breaking Barriers to Low-Cost Modular Inverter Production & Use

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan Borowy; Leo Casey; Jerry Foshage; Steve Nichols; Jim Perkinson

    2005-05-31

    The goal of this cost share contract is to advance key technologies to reduce size, weight and cost while enhancing performance and reliability of Modular Inverter Product for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Efforts address technology development to meet technical needs of DER market protection, isolation, reliability, and quality. Program activities build on SatCon Technology Corporation inverter experience (e.g., AIPM, Starsine, PowerGate) for Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, Energy Storage applications. Efforts focused four technical areas, Capacitors, Cooling, Voltage Sensing and Control of Parallel Inverters. Capacitor efforts developed a hybrid capacitor approach for conditioning SatCon's AIPM unit supply voltages by incorporating several types and sizes to store energy and filter at high, medium and low frequencies while minimizing parasitics (ESR and ESL). Cooling efforts converted the liquid cooled AIPM module to an air-cooled unit using augmented fin, impingement flow cooling. Voltage sensing efforts successfully modified the existing AIPM sensor board to allow several, application dependent configurations and enabling voltage sensor galvanic isolation. Parallel inverter control efforts realized a reliable technique to control individual inverters, connected in a parallel configuration, without a communication link. Individual inverter currents, AC and DC, were balanced in the paralleled modules by introducing a delay to the individual PWM gate pulses. The load current sharing is robust and independent of load types (i.e., linear and nonlinear, resistive and/or inductive). It is a simple yet powerful method for paralleling both individual devices dramatically improves reliability and fault tolerance of parallel inverter power systems. A patent application has been made based on this control technology.

  5. THE DETERMINATION OF DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF INVERT MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    P. Heller and J. Wright

    2000-01-11

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Testing Department is performing tests in the Department of Energy's Atlas Facility to evaluate the performance of various means for increasing the time for breakthrough of radionuclides from the waste package to the base of the invert. This includes testing various barriers in the invert as a means of increasing breakthrough time through the process of diffusion. A diffusion barrier may serve as an invert material for the emplacement drifts. The invert material may consist of crushed tuff from the repository excavation at Yucca Mountain or silica sand. The objective of this report is to determine the diffusion coefficient of the crushed tuff and silica sand invert materials specified by the EBS Testing Department. The laboratory derived information from the testing was used in the Nernst-Einstein equation (Jurinak et al. 1987, p. 626) to determine the diffusion coefficient of the invert material. This report transmits the results and describes the methodology and interpretation. The scope of this report is to determine the diffusion coefficients of the invert materials mentioned above using the centrifuge at UFA Ventures. Standard laboratory procedures, described in Section 2 of this report, were used. The diffusion coefficients are to be determined over a range of moisture contents. The report contains the diffusion coefficients calculated by the Nernst-Einstein equation (Jurinak et al. 1987, p. 626) that become a part of the Technical Database. Raw data is also included in the report, however this data does not become part of the Technical Database as per Section 3.23 of AP-SIII.3Q ''Submittal and Incorporation of Data to the Technical Data Management System''. A sieve analysis of the samples was not conducted as part of this report, but sieve analysis may be accomplished as part of other reports. Two samples of crushed tuff and two samples of silica sand were tested.

  6. Cryogenic temperature dependence of the voltage transfer characteristics of CMOS inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, M. J.

    1988-08-01

    The voltage transfer characteristics of CMOS inverters have been studied in detail as a function of temperature between 77 and 300 K and supply voltages between 2 and 20 V. The logic levels, maximum gain, unity gain points, noise margins and other parameters, such as ( VH - VL), all showed a marked improvement as the temperature was lowered. In particular, for one inverter with a supply of 5 V, the maximum gain increased from 57 to 105, ( VIH - VIL) decreased from 0.50 to 0.28 V and ( VH - VL) increased from 4.46 to 4.75 V on decreasing the temperature from 300 to 77 K. For all the inverters, these and other parameters showed a smooth monotonic improvement as the temperature was lowered. These and the other results obtained can be qualitatively explained as due to an increase in the absolute values in the threshold voltages of the PMOS and NMOS transistors and to an increase in the carrier mobility as the temperature was lowered.

  7. Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel PV Inverter with Distributed MPPT for Grid-Connected Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Bailu; Hang, Lijun; Mei, Jun; ...

    2014-09-04

    This paper presents a modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel photovoltaic (PV) inverter for single- or three-phase grid-connected applications. The modular cascaded multilevel topology helps to improve the efficiency and flexibility of PV systems. To realize better utilization of PV modules and maximize the solar energy extraction, a distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied to both single-phase and three-phase multilevel inverters, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. For three-phase grid-connected applications, PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced supplied power, leading to unbalanced grid current. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is alsomore » proposed. An experimental three-phase 7-level cascaded H-bridge inverter has been built utilizing 9 H-bridge modules (3 modules per phase). Each H-bridge module is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach.« less

  8. Gene organization in the UL region and inverted repeats of the canine herpesvirus genome.

    PubMed

    Rémond, M; Sheldrick, P; Lebreton, F; Nardeux, P; Foulon, T

    1996-01-01

    Restriction mapping and the determination of scattered nucleotide sequences have permitted a description of the global structure and evolutionary affinities of the canine herpesvirus (CHV) genome. The global structure closely resembles that of the totally sequenced genomes of varicella-zoster virus and equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) in having a 37 bp inverted repeat flanking a long unique region (UL) of approximately 100,000 bp, and a 10,100-10,700 bp inverted repeat flanking a short unique region (U8) of roughly 7,400-8,600 bp. On the basis of the sequences obtained, 35 homologues to previously identified herpesvirus gene products were found in UL and the major inverted repeat, and the level of the similarities indicated that CHV belongs to the genus Varicellovirus. Within the genus, CHV appears to be most closely related to EHV-1, pseudorabies virus and feline herpesvirus. Surprisingly, genes for both subunits of the viral ribonucleotide reductase were found to be missing from their equivalent place in other herpesvirus genomes. Either they have been translocated to another position in the CHV genome or, we think more likely, they have been lost.

  9. Brightness contrast-contrast induction model predicts assimilation and inverted assimilation effects.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Yuval; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2008-10-17

    In classical assimilation effects, intermediate luminance patches appear lighter when their immediate surround is comprised of white patches and appear darker when their immediate surround is comprised of dark patches. With patches either darker or lighter than both inducing patches, the direction of the brightness effect is reversed and termed as "inverted assimilation effect." Several explanations and models have been suggested, some are relevant to specific stimulus geometry, anchoring theory, and models that involve high level cortical processing (such as scission, etc.). None of these studies predicted the various types of assimilation effects and their inverted effects. We suggest here a compound brightness model, which is based on contrast-contrast induction (second-order adaptation mechanism). The suggested model predicts the various types of brightness assimilation effects and their inverted effects. The model is composed of three main stages: (1) composing post-retinal second-order opponent receptive fields, (2) calculations of local and remote contrast, and (3) adaptation of the second-order (contrast-contrast induction). We also utilize a variation of the Jacobi iteration process to enable elegant edge integration in order to evaluate the model is performance.

  10. Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel PV Inverter with Distributed MPPT for Grid-Connected Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Bailu; Hang, Lijun; Mei, Jun; Riley, Cameron; Tolbert, Leon M.; Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-09-04

    This paper presents a modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel photovoltaic (PV) inverter for single- or three-phase grid-connected applications. The modular cascaded multilevel topology helps to improve the efficiency and flexibility of PV systems. To realize better utilization of PV modules and maximize the solar energy extraction, a distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied to both single-phase and three-phase multilevel inverters, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. For three-phase grid-connected applications, PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced supplied power, leading to unbalanced grid current. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is also proposed. An experimental three-phase 7-level cascaded H-bridge inverter has been built utilizing 9 H-bridge modules (3 modules per phase). Each H-bridge module is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  11. Determination of the number of cells in a stepped sine wave inverter for equal charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Gabbay, D.

    1985-07-01

    The synthesis of an inverter sine wave output voltage by a staircase wave shape of low level voltage sources (cells) is accomplished by combining the cells in series at specific time intervals. Different cells of the inverter are then connected to the load for different time durations which results in unequal discharging of the cells. In order for the cells to transfer equal charge during the system operation, each voltage step should consist of a different number of cells in a parallel combination (module), the number of which depends on the time along the wave shape. The number of cells in each module is determined from the circuit current analysis and the appropriate switching time intervals, and is performed for a resistive and an inductive load. This number depends on the number of inverter voltage steps, the cell internal resistance, and the type of the load. The proper number of cells in the modules ensures identical state of charge of the cells, and equal cell recharging, and simplifies cell inspection, maintenance, and replacement.

  12. Simulation of push-pull inverter using wide bandgap devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-badri, Mustafa; Matin, Mohammed A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of wide bandgap devices (SiC-MOSFET) in the design of a push-pull inverter which provides inexpensive low power dc-ac inverters. The parameters used were 1200V SiC MOSFET(C2M0040120D) made by power company ROHM. This modeling was created using parameters that were provided from a device datasheet. The spice model is provided by this company to study the effect of adding this component on push-pull inverter ordinary circuit and compared results between SiC MOSFET and silicon MOSFET (IRFP260M). The results focused on Vout and Vmos stability as well as on output power and MOSFET power loss because it is a very crucial aspect on DC-AC inverter design. These results are done using the National Instrument simulation program (Multisim 14). It was found that power loss is better in the 12 and 15 vdc inverter. The Vout in the SIC MOSFET circuit shows more stability in the high current low resistance load in comparison to the Silicon MOSFET circuit and this will improve the overall performance of the circuit.

  13. Efficiency consideration of DC link soft-switching inverters for motor drive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; McKeever, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper critically evaluates efficiency of soft switching inverters including an actively clamped resonant dc link inverter and a clamped-mode resonant pole inverter. An analytical approach to evaluating efficiency of the clamped-mode soft switching inverter has been developed. The evaluation results are compared with that of the standard pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter. A 50-kW induction motor is used as the variable load, and the inverter efficiency is evaluated under different speed and torque conditions. The clamped-mode soft-switching inverter, although eliminating the switching loss, shows poor efficiency over the entire load range. Under low load conditions, the efficiency profile is even worse. The actively clamped resonant dc link inverter shows highest efficiency over the entire speed and torque range. However, its energy saving over the standard PWM inverter is marginal under full load or high speed conditions.

  14. Inverter Circuits using Pentacene and ZnO Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iechi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yasuyuki; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2007-04-01

    We report two types of integrated circuits based on a pentacene static-induction transistor (SIT), a pentacene thin-film transistor (TFT) and a zinc oxide (ZnO) TFT. The operating characteristics of a p-p inverter using pentacene SITs and a complementary inverter using a p-channel pentacene TFT and an n-channel ZnO TFT are described. The basic operation of logic circuits at a low voltage was achieved for the first time using the pentacene SIT inverter and complementary circuits with hybrid inorganic and organic materials. Furthermore, we describe the electrical properties of the ZnO films depending on sputtering conditions, and the complementary circuits using ZnO and pentacene TFTs.

  15. Rayleigh instability of the inverted one-cell amphibian embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Comron; Luppes, Roel; Veldman, Arthur E. P.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Gordon, Richard

    2008-03-01

    The one-cell amphibian embryo is modeled as a rigid spherical shell containing equal volumes of two immiscible fluids with different densities and viscosities and a surface tension between them. The fluids represent denser yolk in the bottom hemisphere and clearer cytoplasm and the germinal vesicle in the top hemisphere. The unstable equilibrium configuration of the inverted system (the heavier fluid on top) depends on the value of the contact angle. The theoretically calculated normal modes of perturbation and the instability of each mode are in agreement with the results from ComFlo computational fluid dynamic simulations of the same system. The two dominant types of modes of perturbation give rise to axisymmetric and asymmetric sloshing of the cytoplasm of the inverted embryos, respectively. This work quantifies our hypothesis that the axisymmetric mode corresponds to failure of development, and the asymmetric sloshing mode corresponds to development proceeding normally, but with reversed pigmentation, for inverted embryos.

  16. Transparent film with inverted conical microholes array for reflection enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Biao; Liu, Hongzhong; Jiang, Weitao; Chen, Bangdao; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Liu, Xiaokang

    2016-04-01

    PDMS has been widely utilized for microfluidic chips and microchannel detections, as its good optical properties are the prerequisite to achieve accurate and efficient detection. However, it is difficult to obtain effective information for opaque liquids. With the development of microchannel detection for wider fields, it is imperative to obtain more comprehensive information of the observed objects by integrating high transmission with enhanced reflection. This article investigates reflection enhancement by Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film with inverted conical microholes array. PDMS film with inverted conical microholes array is fabricated by replication from the silicon mold with inverted microcones array which is prepared by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch tool. The monolayer PDMS film with inverted conical microholes array shows a two-fold effectively increase in reflection, approximately up to 15%, at a broad wavelength range of 637-1131 nm and 1214-1350 nm, compared with bare PDMS film. In addition, the reflection can be further enhanced by multilayered lamination of PDMS film with inverted conical microholes array, and the enhancement is also dependent on the lamination way, i.e., for bilayer laminations, the maximum reflection enhancement occurs when with face-to-back lamination, and 32.79% larger than that with back-to-face lamination. From the experiments, the maximum reflectivity of 8-layered PDMS films can obtain 64.4% while the maximum reflectivity of monolayer PDMS film barely has 17.5%. The transparent film with inverted conical microholes array for reflection enhancement may find a variety of applications in optical devices, microchips, and energy conservation technologies etc.

  17. Interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas-Cerdeira, Cecilia; Fan, Boyu; Barizien, Antoine; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    The inverted flag instability occurs when an elastic plate that is free at its leading edge and clamped at its trailing edge is subjected to an axial wind. The oscillating motion that follows has received recent attention. However, previous studies have focused on the dynamics of a single flag even though these are rarely found isolated in natural phenomena, such as the fluttering of leaves in the wind. The interaction between two side-by-side inverted flags has been investigated, analyzing the effects of the distance between flags and the wind speed. Both in-phase and anti-phase coupling have been observed for different ranges of these parameters.

  18. ZnO nanowire and mesowire for logic inverter fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Tack; Im, Seongil; Ha, Ryong; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2010-09-01

    We report on a ZnO-based logic inverter utilizing two field effect transistors (FETs), whose respective channel has different wire-diameters under a top-gate dielectric of poly-4-vinylphenol. One FET with nanowire (160 nm) channel displayed an abrupt drain current (ID) increase and fast ID saturation near its positive threshold voltage (Vth) while the other FET with mesowire (770 nm) showed a thin-film transistor-like behavior and a negative Vth. When the nanowire and mesowire FETs were, respectively, used as a driver and a load, our inverter demonstrated an excellent voltage gain as high as 25 under a supply voltage of 20 V.

  19. Toroidal transformer design program with application to inverter circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayton, J. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Estimates of temperature, weight, efficiency, regulation, and final dimensions are included in the output of the computer program for the design of transformers for use in the basic parallel inverter. The program, written in FORTRAN 4, selects a tape wound toroidal magnetic core and, taking temperature, materials, core geometry, skin depth, and ohmic losses into account, chooses the appropriate wire sizes and number of turns for the center tapped primary and single secondary coils. Using the program, 2- and 4-kilovolt-ampere transformers are designed for frequencies from 200 to 3200 Hz and the efficiency of a basic transistor inverter is estimated.

  20. Addressable Inverter Matrix Tests Integrated-Circuit Wafer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.

    1988-01-01

    Addressing elements indirectly through shift register reduces number of test probes. With aid of new technique, complex test structure on silicon wafer tested with relatively small number of test probes. Conserves silicon area by reduction of area devoted to pads. Allows thorough evaluation of test structure characteristics and of manufacturing process parameters. Test structure consists of shift register and matrix of inverter/transmission-gate cells connected to two-by-ten array of probe pads. Entire pattern contained in square area having only 1.6-millimeter sides. Shift register is conventional static CMOS device using inverters and transmission gates in master/slave D flip-flop configuration.

  1. Inverter power module with distributed support for direct substrate cooling

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David Harold [San Pedro, CA; Korich, Mark D [Chino Hills, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA

    2012-08-21

    Systems and/or methods are provided for an inverter power module with distributed support for direct substrate cooling. An inverter module comprises a power electronic substrate. A first support frame is adapted to house the power electronic substrate and has a first region adapted to allow direct cooling of the power electronic substrate. A gasket is interposed between the power electronic substrate and the first support frame. The gasket is configured to provide a seal between the first region and the power electronic substrate. A second support frame is adapted to house the power electronic substrate and joined to the first support frame to form the seal.

  2. Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy using inverted visible pulses.

    PubMed

    Weeraman, Champika; Mitchell, Steven A; Lausten, Rune; Johnston, Linda J; Stolow, Albert

    2010-05-24

    We present a broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (BB-VSFG) scheme using a novel ps visible pulse shape. We generate the fs IR pulse via standard procedures and simultaneously generate an 'inverted' time-asymmetric narrowband ps visible pulse via second harmonic generation in the pump depletion regime using a very long nonlinear crystal which has high group velocity mismatch (LiNbO3). The 'inverted' ps pulse shape minimally samples the instantaneous nonresonant response but maximally samples the resonant response, maintaining high spectral resolution. We experimentally demonstrate this scheme, presenting SFG spectra of canonical organic monolayer systems in the C-H stretch region (2800-3000 cm(-1)).

  3. Bistability in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor inverter circuit.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Thomas L

    2005-09-01

    Radiofrequency signals can disrupt the operation of low frequency circuits. A digital inverter circuit would seem to be immune to such disruption, because its output state usually jumps abruptly between 0 and 5 V. Nevertheless, when driven with a high frequency signal, the inverter can have two coexisting stable states (which are not at 0 and 5 V). Slow switching between these states (by changing the rf signal) will produce a low frequency signal. I demonstrate the bistability in a circuit experiment and in a simple model of the circuit.

  4. Optical-Mechanical System for Stabilizing an Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, O. N.; Andreeva, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Controlling open-loop unstable systems is a common benchmark for designing the algorithms to maintain the equilibrium state of anthropomorphous technical devices used within control theory. In this connection, considerable attention is currently being focused on the problem of stabilizing the inverted pendulum system. In this work, the execution of swinging-up the pendulum and, subsequently, maintaining its upward equilibrium state is presented with the help of the laboratory bench TP-802 by Festo Didactics and the movement control device. The configuration of dynamic system for stabilizing the inverted pendulum is offered. The algorithms to swing-up the pendulum and balance it around its upright position are offered as well.

  5. ZCS High Frequency Inverter for Aluminum Vessel Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    Recent induction cooking apparatus are utilized for induction heating of ferromagnetic materials at 20-50kHz with a high efficiency. They can not, however, be applied for non-magnetic materials such as aluminum vessels. Here, we present a voltage-clamp reverse conducting ZCS high frequency inverter of half bridge type for induction heating of an aluminum vessel. The switching devices utilized for this inverter are SITs and its operating frequency is determined as 200kHz. This paper describes its circuit constitution and the obtained experimental results from a practical point of view.

  6. Design and field performance of the KENETECH photovoltaic inverter system

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, M.R.

    1995-11-01

    KENETECH Windpower has recently adapted the power conversion technology developed for the company`s variable speed wind turbine to grid-connected photovoltaic applications. KENETECH PV inverter systems are now in successful operation at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s (SMUD) Hedge Substation and the PVUSA-Davis site, with additional systems scheduled to be placed into service by the end of 1995 at SMUD, the New York Power Authority, Xerox Corporation`s Clean Air Now project, and the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The features of the inverter are described.

  7. Inverted Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy associated with bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Ok, Kyeong Sam; Song, Bong Gun; Park, Kyoung Sik; Jung, Hyun Gul; Jung, Hye-Jin; Park, I Nae; Yum, Ho-Kee; Cho, Wook-Hyun; Choi, Suk-Koo

    2011-07-01

    Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), also known as transient left ventricular (LV) ballooning syndrome or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is characterised by transient LV dysfunction in the absence of significant angiographic coronary stenoses, frequently provoked by an episode of emotional or physical stress. In TTC, typically transient akinesis or dyskinesis of the LV apical segments with normal or hypercontractile basal wall motions is observed. Recently, several cases of atypical or inverted transient TTC sparing the LV apex have been reported. We report a case of inverted TTC showing akinesis of the basal and mid-ventricular segments of the LV with apical hyperkinesia triggered by bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage.

  8. Inverting hydrolases and their use in enantioconvergent biotransformations

    PubMed Central

    Schober, Markus; Faber, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the more abundant occurrence of racemic compounds compared to prochiral or meso forms, most enantiomerically pure products are obtained via racemate resolution. This review summarizes (chemo)enzymatic enantioconvergent processes based on the use of hydrolytic enzymes, which are able to invert a stereocenter during catalysis that can overcome the 50%-yield limitation of kinetic resolution. Recent developments are presented in the fields of inverting or retaining sulfatases, epoxide hydrolases and dehalogenases, which allow the production of secondary alcohols or vicinal diols at a 100% theoretical yield from a racemate via enantioconvergent processes. PMID:23809848

  9. Development and Demonstration of Smart grid inverters for High-Penetration PV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roose, Leon; Liang, Nathan; Noma, Edwin; Tran, Thai; Matsuura, Marc

    2014-10-31

    The objective of this Smart Grid Inverter (SGI) project is to implement, on operating utility distribution feeders with “very high” penetration of rooftop PV, enhanced capability smart inverters to achieve improved operational performance, control and visibility. This is accomplished by creating, deploying, and evaluating new smart inverters using integrated inverter management control software (IMCS) and standards-based communications systems. Detailed distribution modeling is also employed to aid in development of inverter control algorithms/settings. The project will test various inverter control strategies in two project deployment locations – Maui, Hawai’i and Maryland/Washington D.C.

  10. Changes of plasma cytokines and chemokines expression level in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after treatment with definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kai-Rong; Chen, Xiang-ping; Cui, Jin-Huan; Wang, Yue-jian; Luo, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Potential clinical application values of certain cytokines and chemokines that participate in the process of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis have been reported. However, there still lack of biomarkers for a great many of malignancy. This study identified cytokines or chemokines involved in the occurrence and development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which might be a biomarker for noninvasive early diagnosis. Methods The plasma levels of 19 cytokines and chemokines were detected by the luminex liquid array-based multiplexed immunoassays in 39 NPC patients before and after treatment by definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Results Plasma levels of almost all of the 19 cytokines and chemokines in NPC patients were higher than healthy controls, while only IFN-γ, IL-1b IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, FKN, IL-12P70, IL-2, IL-5 and IP-10 showed significant differences. However, expression levels of most of the 19 cytokines and chemokines decreased after therapy, especially IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α, VEGF, IL-17A, IL-2, IL-5 and MIP-1b, have a dramatic decline. Taking together, plasma levels of IFN-γ, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-5 are significantly increased in NPC patients and dramatically decreased after treatment, suggesting these cytokines and chemokines might play important roles in the progress of NPC. More interestingly, the expression level of MPC-1 is significantly associated with clinical stage. Conclusion MCP-1 might involve in the genesis and development process of NPC, which might serve as a noninvasive biomarker for early diagnosis. PMID:28207826

  11. Grip and detachment of locusts on inverted sandpaper substrates.

    PubMed

    Han, Longbao; Wang, Zhouyi; Ji, Aihong; Dai, Zhendong

    2011-12-01

    Locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis) are characterized by their strong flying and grasping ability. Research on the grasping mechanism and behaviour of locusts on sloping substrates plays an important role in elucidating the mechanics of hexapod locomotion. Data on the maximum angles of slope at which locusts can grasp stably (critical angles of detachment) were obtained from high-speed video recordings at 215 fps. The grasping forces were collected by using two sensors, in situations where all left legs were standing on one and the right legs on the other sensor plate. These data were used to illustrate the grasping ability of locusts on slopes with varying levels of roughness. The grasping morphologies of locusts' bodies and tarsi were observed, and the surface roughness as well as diameters of their claw tips was measured under a microscope to account for the grasping mechanism of these insects on the sloping substrate. The results showed that the claw tips and part of the pads were in contact with the inverted substrate when the mean particle diameter was in the range of 15.3-40.5 µm. The interaction between pads and substrates may improve the stability of contact, and claw tips may play a key role in keeping the attachment reliable. A model was developed to explain the significant effects of the relative size of claw tips and mean particle diameter on grasping ability as well as the observed increase in lateral force (2.09-4.05 times greater than the normal force during detachment) with increasing slope angle, which indicates that the lateral force may be extremely important in keeping the contact reliable. This research lays the groundwork for the probable design and development of biomimetic robotics.

  12. Static inverter with synchronous output waveform synthesized by time-optimal-response feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kernick, A.; Stechschulte, D. L.; Shireman, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Time-optimal-response 'bang-bang' or 'bang-hang' technique, using four feedback control loops, synthesizes static-inverter sinusoidal output waveform by self-oscillatory but yet synchronous pulse-frequency-modulation (SPFM). A single modular power stage per phase of ac output entails the minimum of circuit complexity while providing by feedback synthesis individual phase voltage regulation, phase position control and inherent compensation simultaneously for line and load disturbances. Clipped sinewave performance is described under off-limit load or input voltage conditions. Also, approaches to high power levels, 3-phase arraying and parallel modular connection are given.

  13. Dynamic performance of a STATCON at an HVDC inverter feeding a very weak AC system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Y.; Menzies, R.W.; Nayak, O.B.; Turanli, H.M.

    1996-04-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic performance of the advanced static var compensator or STATCON at a high voltage direct current (HVDC) converter terminal where the ac system has a very low short circuit ratio (SCR). The STATCON is based on a nine-level GTO thyristor inverter. The studies include operating characteristics of the STATCON under various ac and dc disturbances. The simulation results are compared with other types of reactive power compensation options available for such applications. It is shown that the STATCON has clear advantages over the other compensators, in areas such as; fault response time, voltage support ability, and dc recovery, while operating with very weak ac systems.

  14. EMCORE four-junction inverted metamorphic solar cell development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nate; Patel, Pravin; Struempel, Claudia; Kerestes, Chris; Aiken, Dan; Sharps, Paul

    2014-09-01

    EMCORE grown and tested four-junction terrestrial concentrator inverted metamorphic multijunction (CIMM) devices have been demonstrated with internally measured typical efficiencies of ˜44% and peak efficiencies as high as ˜47%, which are in the realm of world record performance. Improved internal testing as well as external validation by NREL are in progress.

  15. Design and material selection for inverter transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    Report is announced which studied magnetic properties of candidate materials for use in spacecraft transformers, static inverters, converters, and transformer-rectifier power supplies. Included are material characteristics for available alloy compositions in tabular form, including: trade names, saturated flux density, dc coercive force, loop squareness, material density, and watts per pound at 3 KHz.

  16. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOEpatents

    Dreifuerst, G.R.; Merritt, B.T.

    1995-07-18

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360{degree}/n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit. 11 figs.

  17. High voltage power supply with modular series resonant inverters

    DOEpatents

    Dreifuerst, Gary R.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    1995-01-01

    A relatively small and compact high voltage, high current power supply for a laser utilizes a plurality of modules containing series resonant half bridge inverters. A pair of reverse conducting thyristors are incorporated in each series resonant inverter module such that the series resonant inverter modules are sequentially activated in phases 360.degree./n apart, where n=number of modules for n>2. Selective activation of the modules allows precise output control reducing ripple and improving efficiency. Each series resonant half bridge inverter module includes a transformer which has a cooling manifold for actively circulating a coolant such as water, to cool the transformer core as well as selected circuit elements. Conductors connecting and forming various circuit components comprise hollow, electrically conductive tubes such as copper. Coolant circulates through the tubes to remove heat. The conductive tubes act as electrically conductive lines for connecting various components of the power supply. Where it is desired to make electrical isolation breaks, tubes comprised of insulating material such as nylon are used to provide insulation and continue the fluid circuit.

  18. 8. TEST STAND 15, INVERTED ENGINE FIRING TEST, CIRCA 1963. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TEST STAND 1-5, INVERTED ENGINE FIRING TEST, CIRCA 1963. Original is a color print. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. Effects of morphology on the flapping dynamics of inverted flags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Boyu; Cosse, Julia; Sader, John; Gharib, Morteza

    2014-11-01

    The behavior of inverted flags has received recent attention in the study of the interaction of flexible bodies with fluid flows. It has implications in a variety of natural phenomena, such as the fluttering of leaves in the wind. As opposed to a conventional flag, defined by a fixed leading edge and a free trailing edge, an inverted flag has a free leading edge and a fixed trailing edge. The reversed flow orientation of inverted flags has led to a surprising observation. Over a narrow range of wind speeds, they exhibit a large-amplitude flapping motion that is not present in their conventional counterparts. Our study experimentally investigates the effects of flag morphology on the flapping behavior of inverted flags. Different flags ranging from rectangles to triangles are studied in a wind tunnel to assess the underlying parameters that govern their dynamics. We observe a significant shift in the limit-cycle flapping mode that is a function of flag shape parameters. This research is supported by the Lester Lees Aeronautics Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  20. Learning Under Stress: The Inverted-U-Shape Function Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Basira; Cordero, M. Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Although the relationship between stress intensity and memory function is generally believed to follow an inverted-U-shaped curve, strikingly this phenomenon has not been demonstrated under the same experimental conditions. We investigated this phenomenon for rats' performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task, the radial arm water maze…

  1. Optimization of Nanowire-Resistance Load Logic Inverter.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Yasir; Sidek, Othman

    2015-09-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire resistance load inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. Results indicate that optimization depends on resistance value. Increasing of load resistor tends to increasing in noise margins until saturation point, increasing load resistor after this point will not improve noise margins significantly.

  2. Regenerative Snubber For GTO-Commutated SCR Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed regenerative snubbing circuit substituted for dissipative snubbing circuit in inverter based on silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) commutated by gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO). Intended to reduce loss of power that occurs in dissipative snubber. Principal criteria in design: low cost, simplicity, and reliability.

  3. 3. DETAIL OF INVERTED MINE LOCOMOTIVE OR "MOTOR," USED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF INVERTED MINE LOCOMOTIVE OR "MOTOR," USED FOR SURFACE HAULAGE OF MINE CARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST; NOTE GEARING - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Main Mine, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  4. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Samuel, Ifor D W; Reiss, Peter; Aldakov, Dmitry

    2016-01-21

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones. QDs without toxic Cd and Pb elements and with improved absorption and stability were successfully deposited onto mesoporous NiO electrode showing good coverage and penetration according to morphological analysis. Detailed photophysical charge transfer studies showed that high hole injection rates (10(8) s(-1)) observed in such systems are comparable with electron injection in conventional n-type QD assemblies. Inverted solar cells fabricated with various QDs demonstrate excellent power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.25%, which is 4 times higher than the best values for previous inverted QD sensitized cells. Attempts to passivate the surface of the QDs show that traditional methods of reduction of recombination in the QD sensitized cells are not applicable to the inverted architectures.

  5. Controlling An Inverter-Driven Three-Phase Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C.

    1984-01-01

    Control system for three-phase permanent-magnet motor driven by linecommutated inverter uses signals generated by integrating back emf of each phase of motor. High-pass filter network eliminates low-frequency components from control loop while maintaining desired power factor.

  6. Site-specific nicking within the adenovirus inverted terminal repetition.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, K C; Pearson, G D

    1984-01-01

    Site-specific nicking occurs on the l-strand, but not on the r-strand, of the adenovirus left inverted terminal repeat. Nicks are presumably introduced into double- or single-stranded DNA by a cellular endonuclease in an ATP-independent reaction. The consensus nick site has the sequence: (sequence in text). Images PMID:6322107

  7. Inverted-U shape relationship between cortisol and learning in ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jill M

    2008-05-01

    Adrenal hormones regulate glucose levels, responses to unpredictable stressors and modulate cognition. Glucocorticoids can have an inverted-U shape relationship with cognition, as very low or high levels impair, whereas moderate elevations facilitate, acquisition and retention of memories. To date these relationships have been tested with humans and rodents in laboratory settings rather than with wild animals in biologically relevant contexts. This study examined whether the elevated cortisol observed in juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) at natal emergence might promote both acquisition of adaptive responses to this species' two alarm calls warning of predators and memory of the spatial configuration of mothers' territories. Both experimentally increased and decreased basal cortisol levels interfere with acquisition and retention of an association between a warning call and the appropriate response compared with naturally occurring moderately elevated cortisol. Further, decreased cortisol impairs learning of a novel, complex spatial maze. Thus in the field the brief elevation of cortisol at emergence might facilitate acquisition of spatial memory of a three-dimensional environment and responses to alarm calls during a sensitive period of learning. This novel demonstration of the inverted-U shape function in a wild animal suggests that natural selection has favored a hormonal profile facilitating rapid acquisition of important survival behaviors.

  8. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Pitel, Ira J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage.

  9. Electrical power inverter having a phase modulated, twin-inverter, high frequency link and an energy storage module

    DOEpatents

    Pitel, I.J.

    1987-02-03

    The present invention provides an electrical power inverter method and apparatus, which includes a high frequency link, for converting DC power into AC power. Generally stated, the apparatus includes a first high frequency module which produces an AC voltage at a first output frequency, and a second high frequency inverter module which produces an AC voltage at a second output frequency that is substantially the same as the first output frequency. The second AC voltage is out of phase with the first AC voltage by a selected angular phase displacement. A mixer mixes the first and second output voltages to produce a high frequency carrier which has a selected base frequency impressed on the sidebands thereof. A rectifier rectifies the carrier, and a filter filters the rectified carrier. An output inverter inverts the filtered carrier to produce an AC line voltage at the selected base frequency. A phase modulator adjusts the relative angular phase displacement between the outputs of the first and second high frequency modules to control the base frequency and magnitude of the AC line voltage. 19 figs.

  10. Photovoltaic Impact Assessment of Smart Inverter Volt-VAR Control on Distribution System Conservation Voltage Reduction and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Baggu, Murali; Nguyen, Andu; Walinga, Sarah; McCarty, Michael; Bell, Frances

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an impact assessment study of distributed photovoltaic (PV) with smart inverter Volt-VAR control on conservation voltage reduction (CVR) energy savings and distribution system power quality. CVR is a methodology of flattening and lowering a distribution system voltage profile in order to conserve energy. Traditional CVR relies on operating utility voltage regulators and switched capacitors. However, with the increased penetration of distributed PV systems, smart inverters provide the new opportunity to control local voltage and power factor by regulating the reactive power output, leading to a potential increase in CVR energy savings. This report proposes a methodology to implement CVR scheme by operating voltage regulators, capacitors, and autonomous smart inverter Volt-VAR control in order to achieve increased CVR benefit. Power quality is an important consideration when operating a distribution system, especially when implementing CVR. It is easy to measure the individual components that make up power quality, but a comprehensive method to incorporate all of these values into a single score has yet to be undertaken. As a result, this report proposes a power quality scoring mechanism to measure the relative power quality of distribution systems using a single number, which is aptly named the 'power quality score' (PQS). Both the CVR and PQS methodologies were applied to two distribution system models, one obtained from the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and another obtained from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). These two models were converted to the OpenDSS platform using previous model conversion tools that were developed by NREL. Multiple scenarios including various PV penetration levels and smart inverter densities were simulated to analyze the impact of smart inverter Volt-VAR support on CVR energy savings and feeder power quality. In order to analyze the CVR benefit and PQS, an annual simulation was conducted for each scenario.

  11. The research of multilevel transistor inverter for converting energy of solar panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taissariyeva, K. N.; Issembergenov, N. T.

    2015-09-01

    This article considers multilevel transistor inverter for converting energy of solar panels into electroenergy. The output of multilevel transistor inverter produces the voltage of almost sinusoidal form. The primary objective of this inverter is to transform solar energy into electroenergy of industrial frequency. The analysis of received output curves of voltage for sinusoidality has been conducted.

  12. Variable-frequency inverter controls torque, speed, and braking in ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Dc to ac inverter provides optimum frequency and voltage to ac induction motor, in response to different motor-load and speed requirements. Inverter varies slip frequency of motor in proportion to required torque. Inverter protects motor from high current surges, controls negative slip to apply braking, and returns energy stored in momentum of load to dc power source.

  13. 78 FR 6185 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Prohibition on Contracting With Inverted Domestic Corporations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... 9000-AM22 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Prohibition on Contracting With Inverted Domestic... restrictions: a provision at FAR 52.209-2, Prohibition on Contracting with Inverted Domestic Corporations-- Representation; and a clause at 52.209-10, Prohibition on Contracting with Inverted Domestic...

  14. Large-Signal Lyapunov-Based Stability Analysis of DC/AC Inverters and Inverter-Based Microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabalan, Mahmoud

    Microgrid stability studies have been largely based on small-signal linearization techniques. However, the validity and magnitude of the linearization domain is limited to small perturbations. Thus, there is a need to examine microgrids with large-signal nonlinear techniques to fully understand and examine their stability. Large-signal stability analysis can be accomplished by Lyapunov-based mathematical methods. These Lyapunov methods estimate the domain of asymptotic stability of the studied system. A survey of Lyapunov-based large-signal stability studies showed that few large-signal studies have been completed on either individual systems (dc/ac inverters, dc/dc rectifiers, etc.) or microgrids. The research presented in this thesis addresses the large-signal stability of droop-controlled dc/ac inverters and inverter-based microgrids. Dc/ac power electronic inverters allow microgrids to be technically feasible. Thus, as a prelude to examining the stability of microgrids, the research presented in Chapter 3 analyzes the stability of inverters. First, the 13 th order large-signal nonlinear model of a droop-controlled dc/ac inverter connected to an infinite bus is presented. The singular perturbation method is used to decompose the nonlinear model into 11th, 9th, 7th, 5th, 3rd and 1st order models. Each model ignores certain control or structural components of the full order model. The aim of the study is to understand the accuracy and validity of the reduced order models in replicating the performance of the full order nonlinear model. The performance of each model is studied in three different areas: time domain simulations, Lyapunov's indirect method and domain of attraction estimation. The work aims to present the best model to use in each of the three domains of study. Results show that certain reduced order models are capable of accurately reproducing the performance of the full order model while others can be used to gain insights into those three areas of

  15. Transparency in a Pediatric Quality Improvement Collaborative: A Passionate Journey by NPC-QIC Clinicians and Parents.

    PubMed

    Lihn, Stacey L; Kugler, John D; Peterson, Laura E; Lannon, Carole M; Pickles, Diane; Beekman, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Transparency-sharing data or information about outcomes, processes, protocols, and practices-may be the most powerful driver of health care improvement. In this special article, the development and growth of transparency within the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative is described. The National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative transparency journey is guided by equal numbers of clinicians and parents of children with congenital heart disease working together in a Transparency Work Group. Activities are organized around four interrelated levels of transparency (individual, organizational, collaborative, and system), each with a specified purpose and aim. A number of Transparency Work Group recommendations have been operationalized. Aggregate collaborative performance is now reported on the public-facing web site. Specific information that the Transparency Work Group recommends centers provide to parents has been developed and published. Almost half of National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative centers participated in a pilot of transparently sharing their outcomes achieved with one another. Individual centers have also begun successfully implementing recommended transparency activities. Despite progress, barriers to full transparency persist, including health care organization concerns about potential negative effects of disclosure on reputation and finances, and lack of reliable definitions, data, and reporting standards for fair comparisons of centers. The National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative's transparency efforts have been a journey that continues, not a single goal or destination. Balanced participation of clinicians and parents has been a critical element of the collaborative's success on this issue. Plans are in place to guide implementation of additional transparency recommendations across all four levels, including extension of the activities beyond the

  16. Geosat observations of sea level response to barometric pressure forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoar, Timothy J.; Wilson, Clark R.

    1994-01-01

    Altimeter and sea level pressure data from the Geosat mission are analyzed for evidence of inverted barometer responses of sea level to atmospheric pressure forcing. Estimates of the inverted barometer coefficient are given for a variety of geographic regions and time scales using various orbit error removal strategies. There is some sensitivity to the orbit error removal method, but the estimated coefficients show a clear latitudinal dependence and are generally between -0.5 cm/mbar and -0.9 cm/mbar. The southern oceans respond slightly more like an inverted barometer than the northern oceans for similar latitudes. The regression exhibits significant geographic variability, particularly near major circulation features and in the northern hemisphere. The results suggest that the inverted barometer approximation is resonable over much of the oceans, but that some sea level variability may be correlated with barometric pressure by means other than the inverted barometer effect.

  17. Dosimetric difference amongst 3 techniques: TomoTherapy, sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc radiotherapy in the treatment of late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Francis Kar-ho Yip, Celia Wai-yi; Cheung, Frankie Chun-hung; Leung, Alex Kwok-cheung; Chau, Ricky Ming-chun; Ngan, Roger Kai-cheong

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the dosimetric difference amongst TomoTherapy, sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc radiotherapy in the treatment of late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten patients with late-stage (Stage III or IV) NPC treated with TomoTherapy or IMRT were selected for the study. Treatment plans with these 3 techniques were devised according to departmental protocol. Dosimetric parameters for organ at risk and treatment targets were compared between TomoTherapy and IMRT, TomoTherapy and RapidArc, and IMRT and RapidArc. Comparison amongst the techniques was done by statistical tests on the dosimetric parameters, total monitor unit (MU), and expected delivery time. All 3 techniques achieved similar target dose coverage. TomoTherapy achieved significantly lower doses in lens and mandible amongst the techniques. It also achieved significantly better dose conformity to the treatment targets. RapidArc achieved significantly lower dose to the eye and normal tissue, lower total MU, and less delivery time. The dosimetric advantages of the 3 techniques were identified in the treatment of late-stage NPC. This may serve as a guideline for selection of the proper technique for different clinical cases.

  18. Formation of Linear Amplicons with Inverted Duplications in Leishmania Requires the MRE11 Nuclease

    PubMed Central

    Laffitte, Marie-Claude N.; Genois, Marie-Michelle; Mukherjee, Angana; Légaré, Danielle; Masson, Jean-Yves; Ouellette, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA amplification is frequent in the protozoan parasite Leishmania selected for drug resistance. The extrachromosomal amplified DNA is either circular or linear, and is formed at the level of direct or inverted homologous repeated sequences that abound in the Leishmania genome. The RAD51 recombinase plays an important role in circular amplicons formation, but the mechanism by which linear amplicons are formed is unknown. We hypothesized that the Leishmania infantum DNA repair protein MRE11 is required for linear amplicons following rearrangements at the level of inverted repeats. The purified LiMRE11 protein showed both DNA binding and exonuclease activities. Inactivation of the LiMRE11 gene led to parasites with enhanced sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The MRE11−/− parasites had a reduced capacity to form linear amplicons after drug selection, and the reintroduction of an MRE11 allele led to parasites regaining their capacity to generate linear amplicons, but only when MRE11 had an active nuclease activity. These results highlight a novel MRE11-dependent pathway used by Leishmania to amplify portions of its genome to respond to a changing environment. PMID:25474106

  19. Epigenetics of eu- and heterochromatin in inverted and conventional nuclei from mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Eberhart, Anja; Feodorova, Yana; Song, Congdi; Wanner, Gerhard; Kiseleva, Elena; Furukawa, Takahisa; Kimura, Hiroshi; Schotta, Gunnar; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Joffe, Boris; Solovei, Irina

    2013-08-01

    To improve light propagation through the retina, the rod nuclei of nocturnal mammals are uniquely changed compared to the nuclei of other cells. In particular, the main classes of chromatin are segregated in them and form regular concentric shells in order; inverted in comparison to conventional nuclei. A broad study of the epigenetic landscape of the inverted and conventional mouse retinal nuclei indicated several differences between them and several features of general interest for the organization of the mammalian nuclei. In difference to nuclei with conventional architecture, the packing density of pericentromeric satellites and LINE-rich chromatin is similar in inverted rod nuclei; euchromatin has a lower packing density in both cases. A high global chromatin condensation in rod nuclei minimizes the structural difference between active and inactive X chromosome homologues. DNA methylation is observed primarily in the chromocenter, Dnmt1 is primarily associated with the euchromatic shell. Heterochromatin proteins HP1-alpha and HP1-beta localize in heterochromatic shells, whereas HP1-gamma is associated with euchromatin. For most of the 25 studied histone modifications, we observed predominant colocalization with a certain main chromatin class. Both inversions in rod nuclei and maintenance of peripheral heterochromatin in conventional nuclei are not affected by a loss or depletion of the major silencing core histone modifications in respective knock-out mice, but for different reasons. Maintenance of peripheral heterochromatin appears to be ensured by redundancy both at the level of enzymes setting the epigenetic code (writers) and the code itself, whereas inversion in rods rely on the absence of the peripheral heterochromatin tethers (absence of code readers).

  20. Solvent-responsive self-assembly of amphiphilic invertible polymers determined with SANS.

    PubMed

    Kudina, Olena; Kohut, Ananiy; Tarnavchyk, Ihor; Hevus, Ivan; Voronov, Andriy

    2014-04-01

    Amphiphilic invertible polymers (AIPs) are a new class of macromolecules that self-assemble into micellar structures and rapidly change structure in response to changes in solvent polarity. Using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data, we obtained a quantitative description of the invertible micellar assemblies (IMAs). The detailed composition and size of the assemblies (including the effect of temperature) were measured in aqueous and toluene polymer solutions. The results show that the invertible macromolecules self-assemble into cylindrical core-shell micellar structures. The composition of the IMAs in aqueous and toluene solutions was used to reveal the inversion mechanism by changing the polarity of the medium. Our experiments demonstrate that AIP unimers self-assemble into IMAs in aqueous solution, predominantly through interactions between the hydrophobic moieties of macromolecules. The hydrophobic effect (or solvophobic interaction) is the major driving force for self-assembly. When the polarity of the environment is changed from polar to nonpolar, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and aliphatic dicarboxylic acid fragments of AIP macromolecules tend to replace each other in the core and the shell of the IMAs. However, neither the interior nor the exterior of the IMAs consists of fragments of a single component of the macromolecule. In aqueous solution, with the temperature increasing from 15 to 35 °C, the IMAs' mixed core from aliphatic dicarboxylic acid and PEG moieties and PEG-based shell change the structure. As a result of the progressive dehydration of the macromolecules, the hydration level (water content) in the micellar core decreases at 25 °C, followed by dehydrated PEG fragments entering the interior of the IMAs when the temperature increases to 35 °C.

  1. Treatment of the benign inverted nipple: A systematic review and recommendations for future therapy.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Yenty, Q M; Jurgens, W J F M; van Zuijlen, P P M; de Vet, H C W; Verhaegen, P D H M

    2016-10-01

    The inverted nipple is a frequently encountered problem which can cause difficulties with breastfeeding, sexuality, and aesthetic dissatisfaction. Up to now, no consensus exists on a preferred treatment method. We performed a systematic review to identify the best treatment method for correction of benign inverted nipples. Treatment techniques were subdivided in the categories lactiferous duct preserving and lactiferous duct damaging. A systematic review was performed using the PRISMA statement. Inclusion criteria were: female patients with congenital or acquired inverted nipples, a minimum sample size of 10 nipples, and studies reporting recurrence of inversion with a minimum follow-up of six months. Exclusion criteria were nipple inversion caused by malignancy. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria which all had a level of evidence IV. No non-invasive treatment techniques were identified. In the duct preserving category eight studies were included with a recurrence rate of 0.6% (2/350) versus 9.9% (16/161) in the duct damaging category (n = 5). Other outcome parameters were not systematically reported in all studies. Because of a small number of low quality studies with heterogeneous interventions and outcomes a meta-analysis could not be performed and no preferred treatment method was identified. Based on the available data there is no statistical evidence that duct damaging treatment is superior to duct preserving treatment. We recommend that the first method of choice should be a duct preserving treatment method. In the future, more studies of better methodological quality are required and recommendations were made on how these could be conducted.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Boesen, P V; Laszewski, M J; Robinson, R A; Dawson, D E

    1991-09-01

    Inverted papillomas of the oral cavity are rare lesions. Although in the seven oral cases previously reported the lesions were benign, approximately 10% to 15% of inverted papillomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses develop or are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. This report presents a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa. Histologically, this lesion demonstrated the morphologic features of inverted papilloma in the superficial portion, and squamous carcinoma in deeper sections. This case suggests that although rare, inverted papillomas of the oral cavity should be considered potentially malignant or capable of harboring a malignancy.

  3. Stabilization and tracking control of X-Z inverted pendulum with sliding-mode control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jun

    2012-11-01

    X-Z inverted pendulum is a new kind of inverted pendulum which can move with the combination of the vertical and horizontal forces. Through a new transformation, the X-Z inverted pendulum is decomposed into three simple models. Based on the simple models, sliding-mode control is applied to stabilization and tracking control of the inverted pendulum. The performance of the sliding mode control is compared with that of the PID control. Simulation results show that the design scheme of sliding-mode control is effective for the stabilization and tracking control of the X-Z inverted pendulum.

  4. Hybrid zero-voltage switching (ZVS) control for power inverters

    DOEpatents

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Hu, Haibing; Batarseh, Issa

    2016-11-01

    A power inverter combination includes a half-bridge power inverter including first and second semiconductor power switches receiving input power having an intermediate node therebetween providing an inductor current through an inductor. A controller includes input comparison circuitry receiving the inductor current having outputs coupled to first inputs of pulse width modulation (PWM) generation circuitry, and a predictive control block having an output coupled to second inputs of the PWM generation circuitry. The predictive control block is coupled to receive a measure of Vin and an output voltage at a grid connection point. A memory stores a current control algorithm configured for resetting a PWM period for a switching signal applied to control nodes of the first and second power switch whenever the inductor current reaches a predetermined upper limit or a predetermined lower limit.

  5. Modular synthetic inverters from zinc finger proteins and small RNAs

    DOE PAGES

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; ...

    2016-02-17

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. In conclusion, our chosenmore » parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.« less

  6. Modular synthetic inverters from zinc finger proteins and small RNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, Justin; Holtz, William J.; Maharbiz, Michel M.; Arcak, Murat; Keasling, Jay D.; Rao, Christopher V.

    2016-02-17

    Synthetic zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) can be created to target promoter DNA sequences, repressing transcription. The binding of small RNA (sRNA) to ZFP mRNA creates an ultrasensitive response to generate higher effective Hill coefficients. Here we combined three “off the shelf” ZFPs and three sRNAs to create new modular inverters in E. coli and quantify their behavior using induction fold. We found a general ordering of the effects of the ZFPs and sRNAs on induction fold that mostly held true when combining these parts. We then attempted to construct a ring oscillator using our new inverters. In conclusion, our chosen parts performed insufficiently to create oscillations, but we include future directions for improvement upon our work presented here.

  7. Completely inverted hysteresis loops: Inhomogeneity effects or experimental artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Song, C. Cui, B.; Pan, F.; Yu, H. Y.

    2013-11-14

    Completely inverted hysteresis loops (IHL) are obtained by the superconducting quantum interference device with large cooling fields (>10 kOe) in (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} films with self-assembled LaSrMnO{sub 4}, an antiferromagnetic interface. Although the behaviours of measured loops show many features characteristic to the IHL, its origin, however, is not due to the exchange coupling between (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}/LaSrMnO{sub 4}, an often accepted view on IHL. Instead, we demonstrate that the negative remanence arises from the hysteresis of superconducting coils, which drops abruptly when lower cooling fields are utilized. Hence the completely inverted hysteresis loops are experimental artifacts rather than previously proposed inhomogeneity effects in complicated materials.

  8. Statistics of a noise-driven elastic inverted pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halvorsen, Einar; Litak, Grzegorz

    2015-04-01

    Recently an elastic inverted pendulum structure was proposed as a means to make nonlinear energy harvesters. An effective dynamical model of this bi-stable system has an effective lumped mass that is dependent on the displacement, hence preventing direct application of previous analyses for nonlinear harvesters driven by random vibrations. We have set up a stationary Fokker-Planck equation for the inverted pendulum and solved it to obtain explicit expressions for the stationary probability densities of the system. We found that the marginal distribution of velocity is non-Gaussian, but numerically it differs little from a Gaussian when parameters for a recently published device are used. The conditional probability of position given velocity, has two peaks for low velocities. These merge into one upon increase of velocity.

  9. A molybdenum disulfide/carbon nanotube heterogeneous complementary inverter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2012-08-24

    We report a simple, bottom-up/top-down approach for integrating drastically different nanoscale building blocks to form a heterogeneous complementary inverter circuit based on layered molybdenum disulfide and carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles. The fabricated CNT/MoS(2) inverter is composed of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MOS(2)) and p-type CNT transistors, with a high voltage gain of 1.3. The CNT channels are fabricated using directed assembly while the layered molybdenum disulfide channels are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation. This bottom-up fabrication approach for integrating various nanoscale elements with unique characteristics provides an alternative cost-effective methodology to complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, laying the foundation for the realization of high performance logic circuits.

  10. Adaptive control system for line-commutated inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C. R.; Bailey, D. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control system for a permanent magnet motor driven by a multiphase line commutated inverter is provided with integration for integrating the back EMF of each phase of the motor. This is used in generating system control signals for an inverter gate logic using a sync and firing angle (alpha) control generator connected to the outputs of the integrators. A precision full wave rectifier provides a speed control feedback signal to a phase delay rectifier via a gain and loop compensation circuit and to the integrators for adaptive control of the attenuation of low frequencies by the integrators as a function of motor speed. As the motor speed increases, the attenuation of low frequency components by the integrators is increased to offset the gain of the integrators to spurious low frequencies.

  11. Nonlinear analysis of a family of LC tuned inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C. Y.; Wilson, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    Four widely used self-oscillating dc-to-square-wave parallel inverters which employ an inductor-capacitor tuned network to determine the oscillation frequency are reduced to a common equivalent RLC network, The techniques of singular-point analysis and state-plane interpretations are employed to describe the steady-state and transient behavior of these circuits and to elucidate the three possible modes of operation: quasi-harmonic, relaxation, and discontinuous. Design guidelines are provided through a study of the influence of circuit parameter variations on the characteristics of oscillation and on frequency stability. Several examples are provided to illustrate the usefulness of this analysis when studying such problems as transistor emitter-to-base junction breakdown during oscillations and the design of starting circuits to insure self-excited oscillations in these inverters.

  12. Inverted meiosis: the true bugs as a model to study.

    PubMed

    Viera, A; Page, J; Rufas, J S

    2009-01-01

    Most of the meiotic literature is based on species with monocentric chromosomes, however meiosis in protoctist, plant and animal species with holocentric chromosomes is less characterized. In some cases, an inverted meiotic sequence is claimed to occur, in which segregation of homologs is postponed until the second meiotic division. Additionally, other features also deserve interest, namely: (i) the different behavior of sex chromosomes if compared to that of the autosomes; (ii) the absence of a canonical kinetochore structure; (iii) the restriction of the kinetic activity to the chromosomal ends; (iv) the variations in the orientation of bivalents at the division plate, and (v) the possible occurrence of chiasma terminalization. Here we summarize the current knowledge on these topics in the meiosis of Hemiptera (Heteroptera) and present novel results that illustrate some of the special features mentioned above. We also point out the necessity of reviewing the term 'inverted meiosis' and propose some future prospects to study this peculiar meiosis.

  13. PWM Inverter control and the application thereof within electric vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Geppert, Steven

    1982-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer and memory element which receive various parametric inputs and calculate optimized machine control data signals therefrom. The control data is asynchronously loaded into the inverter through an intermediate buffer (38). In its preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack (32) and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  14. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  15. Inverted Linear Halbach Array for Separation of Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ijiri, Y; Poudel, C; Williams, P S; Moore, L R; Orita, T; Zborowski, M

    2013-07-01

    A linear array of Nd-Fe-B magnets has been designed and constructed in an inverted Halbach configuration for use in separating magnetic nanoparticles. The array provides a large region of relatively low magnetic field, yet high magnetic field gradient in agreement with finite element modeling calculations. The magnet assembly has been combined with a flow channel for magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, such that for an appropriate distance away from the assembly, nanoparticles of higher moment aggregate and accumulate against the channel wall, with lower moment nanoparticles flowing unaffected. The device is demonstrated for iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of ~ 5 and 20 nm. In comparison to other approaches, the inverted Halbach array is more amenable to modeling and to scaling up to preparative quantities of particles.

  16. Inverted Linear Halbach Array for Separation of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Y.; Poudel, C.; Williams, P.S.; Moore, L.R.; Orita, T.; Zborowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    A linear array of Nd-Fe-B magnets has been designed and constructed in an inverted Halbach configuration for use in separating magnetic nanoparticles. The array provides a large region of relatively low magnetic field, yet high magnetic field gradient in agreement with finite element modeling calculations. The magnet assembly has been combined with a flow channel for magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, such that for an appropriate distance away from the assembly, nanoparticles of higher moment aggregate and accumulate against the channel wall, with lower moment nanoparticles flowing unaffected. The device is demonstrated for iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of ~ 5 and 20 nm. In comparison to other approaches, the inverted Halbach array is more amenable to modeling and to scaling up to preparative quantities of particles. PMID:25382864

  17. Inverter-based GTA welding machines improve fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Sammons, M.

    2000-05-01

    While known as precision process, many fabricators using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process fight several common problems that hinder quality, slow production, frustrate the operator and otherwise prevent the process from achieving its full potential. These include a limited ability to tailor the weld bead profile, poor control of the arc direction and arc wandering, poor arc starting, unstable or inconsistent arcs in the AC mode, high-frequency interference with electronics and tungsten contamination. Fortunately, new GTA welding technology--made possible by advances with inverter-based power sources and micro-processor controls--can eliminate common productivity gremlins. Further, new AC/DC inverter-based GTA power sources provide advanced arc shaping capabilities. As a result, many fabricators adopting this new technology have experienced phenomenal production increases, taken on new types of projects and reduced costs. Most importantly, the operators enjoy welding more.

  18. Amelioration of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with NPC1L1-targeted IgY or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Sik; Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Junghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yun Bin; Han, Young-Min; Ock, Chan-Young; Cha, Ji-Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2017-01-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to comorbidities such as cardiovascular and serious metabolic diseases; however, the current therapeutic options are limited. Based on our previous report that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can significantly ameliorate high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD, we explored the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, which is a chicken egg yolk-derived IgY specific for the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, on NAFLD in mice. We generated N-IgY and confirmed its efficient cholesterol transport-blocking activity in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, which was comparable to the effect of ezetimibe (EZM). C57BL/6 wild type and fat-1 transgenic mice, capable of producing n-3 PUFAs, were fed a high fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with N-IgY. Endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs combined with N-IgY led to significant decreases in hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation (p<0.01). The combination of N-IgY and n-3 PUFAs resulted in significant upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol uptake (LDLR), reverse cholesterol transport (ABCG5/ABCG8), and bile acid metabolism (CYP7A1). Moreover, fat-1 transgenic mice treated with N-IgY showed significant downregulation of genes involved in cholesterol-induced hepatic stellate cell activation (Tgfb1, Tlr4, Col1a1, Col1a2, and Timp2). Collectively, these data suggest that n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, alone or in combination, represent a promising treatment strategy to prevent HFD-induced fatty liver through the activation cholesterol catabolism to bile acids and by decreasing cholesterol-induced fibrosis.

  19. Preliminary results of a randomized study (NPC-9902 Trial) on therapeutic gain by concurrent chemotherapy and/or accelerated fractionation for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Anne W.M. . E-mail: awmlee@ha.org.hk; Tung, Stewart Y.; Chan, Anthony T.C.; Chappell, Rick; Fu, Y.-T.; Lu, Tai-Xiang; Tan, Terence; Chua, Daniel T.T.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Xu, Shirley L.; Pang, Ellie S.Y.; Sze, W.-M.; Leung, T.-W.; Kwan, W.-H.; Chan, Paddy; Liu, X.-F.; Tan, E.-H.; Sham, Jonathan; Siu, Lillian; Lau, W.-H.

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the benefit achieved by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and/or accelerated fractionation (AF) vs. radiotherapy (RT) alone with conventional fractionation (CF) for patients with T3-4N0-1M0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: All patients were irradiated with the same RT technique to {>=}66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction, conventional five fractions/week in the CF and CF+C (chemotherapy) arms, and accelerated six fractions/week in the AF and AF+C arms. The CF+C and AF+C patients were given the Intergroup 0099 regimen (concurrent cisplatin plus adjuvant cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil). Results: Between 1999 and April 2004, 189 patients were randomly assigned; the trial was terminated early because of slow accrual. The median follow-up was 2.9 years. When compared with the CF arm, significant improvement in failure-free survival (FFS) was achieved by the AF+C arm (94% vs. 70% at 3 years, p = 0.008), but both the AF arm and the CF+C arm were insignificant (p {>=} 0.38). Multivariate analyses showed that CRT was a significant factor: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.52 (0.28-0.97), AF per se was insignificant: HR = 0.68 (0.37-1.25); the interaction of CRT by AF was strongly significant (p = 0.006). Both CRT arms had significant increase in acute toxicities (p < 0.005), and the AF+C arm also incurred borderline increase in late toxicities (34% vs. 14% at 3 years, p = 0.05). Conclusions: Preliminary results suggest that concurrent chemoradiotherapy with accelerated fractionation could significantly improve tumor control when compared with conventional RT alone; further confirmation of therapeutic ratio is warranted.

  20. Coherent Noise Rejection in a Three-Phase Power Inverter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    DC value that has the same amplitude as the sine wave. The power inverter uses an optimal form of pulse-width modulation ( PWM ), called space vector...subtracted from the control input to compensate for the disturbance. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Width Modulation ( PWM ), Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR...uses an optimal form of pulse-width modulation ( PWM ), called space vector modulation, which causes the harmonic noise. In order to reject the

  1. Denture hyperplasia with areas simulating oral inverted ductal papilloma.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz; Jorge, Jacks; Rangel, Ana Lúcia Carrinho Ayrosa; León, Jorge Esquiche; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2005-07-01

    Denture hyperplasia is a reactive lesion of the oral mucosa, usually associated to an ill-fitting denture. This lesion is easily diagnosed and in some cases distinct microscopic variations such as osseous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia may be found. These metaplastic alterations probably are associated with the lymphocytic infiltrate usually present in denture hyperplasia. We present a case of denture hyperplasia containing salivary gland tissue with ductal alterations mimicking an oral inverted ductal papilloma.

  2. Turning water into rock: The inverted waves effect.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Jukka; Gröhn, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Humans perceive shape in two-dimensional shaded images, and turning such an image upside down can result in inversion of the relief of this image. Previous research indicates that this inversion is caused by assumptions related to overhead illumination, global convexity and viewpoint above the surface. In our article, we describe the inverted waves effect, in which turning an image of waves upside down changes its relief and also its perceived material properties.

  3. A reversible bifurcation analysis of the inverted pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broer, H. W.; Hoveijn, I.; van Noort, M.

    1998-01-01

    The inverted pendulum with a periodic parametric forcing is considered as a bifurcation problem in the reversible setting. Parameters are given by the size of the forcing and the frequency ratio. Normal form theory provides an integrable approximation of the Poincaré map generated by a planar vector field. Genericity of the model is studied by a perturbation analysis, where the spatial symmetry is optional. Here equivariant singularity theory is used.

  4. Turning water into rock: The inverted waves effect

    PubMed Central

    Gröhn, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Humans perceive shape in two-dimensional shaded images, and turning such an image upside down can result in inversion of the relief of this image. Previous research indicates that this inversion is caused by assumptions related to overhead illumination, global convexity and viewpoint above the surface. In our article, we describe the inverted waves effect, in which turning an image of waves upside down changes its relief and also its perceived material properties. PMID:27482371

  5. Control of the constrained planar simple inverted pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavarian, B.; Wyman, B. F.; Hemami, H.

    1983-01-01

    Control of a constrained planar inverted pendulum by eigenstructure assignment is considered. Linear feedback is used to stabilize and decouple the system in such a way that specified subspaces of the state space are invariant for the closed-loop system. The effectiveness of the feedback law is tested by digital computer simulation. Pre-compensation by an inverse plant is used to improve performance.

  6. Lyapunov optimal feedback control of a nonlinear inverted pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. J.; Anderson, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Liapunov optimal feedback control is applied to a nonlinear inverted pendulum in which the control torque was constrained to be less than the nonlinear gravity torque in the model. This necessitates a control algorithm which 'rocks' the pendulum out of its potential wells, in order to stabilize it at a unique vertical position. Simulation results indicate that a preliminary Liapunov feedback controller can successfully overcome the nonlinearity and bring almost all trajectories to the target.

  7. Fault diagnosis viewed as a left invertibility problem.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guerra, R; Mata-Machuca, J L; Rincón-Pasaye, J J

    2013-09-01

    This work deals with the fault diagnosis problem, some new properties are found using the left invertibility condition through the concept of differential output rank. Two schemes of nonlinear observers are used to estimate the fault signals for comparison purposes, one of these is a proportional reduced order observer and the other is a sliding mode observer. The methodology is tested in a real time implementation of a three-tank system.

  8. An SCR inverter with an integral battery charger for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thimmeach, D.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating an onboard battery charger into the inverter previously developed under a NASA contract is successfully demonstrated. The rated output power of the resulting isolated battery charger is 3.6 kW at 220 Vac with an 86 percent efficiency and a 95 percent power factor. Also achieved are improved inverter efficiency (from 90 to 93 percent at 15 kW motor shaft power), inverter peak power capability (from 26 to 34 kW), and reduced weight and volume of the combined inverter/charger package (47 kg, 49 x 44 x 24 cm). Some major conclusions are that using the inverter commutation circuitry to perform the battery charging function is advantageous, and that the input-commutated thyristor inverter has the potential to be an excellent inverter and battery charger for use in electric vehicle applications.

  9. Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.

  10. Adeno-associated virus inverted terminal repeats stimulate gene editing.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, M L

    2015-02-01

    Advancements in genome editing have relied on technologies to specifically damage DNA which, in turn, stimulates DNA repair including homologous recombination (HR). As off-target concerns complicate the therapeutic translation of site-specific DNA endonucleases, an alternative strategy to stimulate gene editing based on fragile DNA was investigated. To do this, an episomal gene-editing reporter was generated by a disruptive insertion of the adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeat (ITR) into the egfp gene. Compared with a non-structured DNA control sequence, the ITR induced DNA damage as evidenced by increased gamma-H2AX and Mre11 foci formation. As local DNA damage stimulates HR, ITR-mediated gene editing was investigated using DNA oligonucleotides as repair substrates. The AAV ITR stimulated gene editing >1000-fold in a replication-independent manner and was not biased by the polarity of the repair oligonucleotide. Analysis of additional human DNA sequences demonstrated stimulation of gene editing to varying degrees. In particular, inverted yet not direct, Alu repeats induced gene editing, suggesting a role for DNA structure in the repair event. Collectively, the results demonstrate that inverted DNA repeats stimulate gene editing via double-strand break repair in an episomal context and allude to efficient gene editing of the human chromosome using fragile DNA sequences.

  11. Inverted channel deposits on the floor of Miyamoto crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsom, Horton E.; Lanza, N.L.; Ollila, A.M.; Wiseman, S.M.; Roush, T.L.; Marzo, G.A.; Tornabene, L.L.; Okubo, C.H.; Osterloo, M.M.; Hamilton, V.E.; Crumpler, L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological features on the western floor of Miyamoto crater in southwestern Meridiani Planum, Mars, are suggestive of past fluvial activity. Imagery from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) gives a detailed view of raised curvilinear features that appear to represent inverted paleochannel deposits. The inverted terrain appears to be capped with a resistant, dark-toned deposit that is partially covered by unconsolidated surficial materials. Subsequent to deposition of the capping layer, erosion of the surrounding material has left the capping materials perched on pedestals of uneroded basal unit material. Neither the capping material nor the surrounding terrains show any unambiguous morphological evidence of volcanism or glaciation. The capping deposit may include unconsolidated or cemented stream deposits analogous to terrestrial inverted channels in the Cedar Mountain Formation near Green River, Utah. In addition to this morphological evidence for fluvial activity, phyllosilicates have been identified in the basal material on the floor of Miyamoto crater by orbital spectroscopy, providing mineralogical evidence of past aqueous activity. Based on both the morphological and mineralogical evidence, Miyamoto crater represents an excellent site for in situ examination and sampling of a potentially habitable environment. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Decentralized Optimal Dispatch of Photovoltaic Inverters in Residential Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Johnson, Brian B.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2015-10-05

    Summary form only given. Decentralized methods for computing optimal real and reactive power setpoints for residential photovoltaic (PV) inverters are developed in this paper. It is known that conventional PV inverter controllers, which are designed to extract maximum power at unity power factor, cannot address secondary performance objectives such as voltage regulation and network loss minimization. Optimal power flow techniques can be utilized to select which inverters will provide ancillary services, and to compute their optimal real and reactive power setpoints according to well-defined performance criteria and economic objectives. Leveraging advances in sparsity-promoting regularization techniques and semidefinite relaxation, this paper shows how such problems can be solved with reduced computational burden and optimality guarantees. To enable large-scale implementation, a novel algorithmic framework is introduced - based on the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers - by which optimal power flow-type problems in this setting can be systematically decomposed into sub-problems that can be solved in a decentralized fashion by the utility and customer-owned PV systems with limited exchanges of information. Since the computational burden is shared among multiple devices and the requirement of all-to-all communication can be circumvented, the proposed optimization approach scales favorably to large distribution networks.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of inverted organic solar cells using shuttle cock-type metal phthalocyanine and PCBM:P3HT

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Atsushi Furukawa, Ryo Akiyama, Tsuyoshi Oku, Takeo

    2015-02-27

    Inverted organic solar cells using shuttle cock-type phthalocyanine, semiconducting polymer and fullerenes were fabricated and characterized. Photovoltaic and optical properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by optical absorption, current density-voltage characteristics. The photovoltaic properties of the tandem organic solar cell using titanyl phthalocyanine, vanadyl phthalocyanine, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were improved. Effect of annealing and solvent treatment on surface morphologies of the active layer was investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed for improvement of the photovoltaic performance.

  14. Real Time Selective Harmonic Minimization for Multilevel Inverters Connected to Solar Panels Using Artificial Neural Network Angle Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Filho, Faete; Cao, Yue

    2011-01-01

    This work approximates the selective harmonic elimination problem using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to generate the switching angles in an 11-level full-bridge cascade inverter powered by five varying dc input sources. Each of the five full bridges of the cascade inverter was connected to a separate 195-W solar panel. The angles were chosen such that the fundamental was kept constant and the low-order harmonics were minimized or eliminated. A nondeterministic method is used to solve the system for the angles and to obtain the data set for the ANN training. The method also provides a set of acceptable solutions in the space where solutions do not exist by analytical methods. The trained ANN is a suitable tool that brings a small generalization effect on the angles' precision and is able to perform in real time (50-/60-Hz time window).

  15. Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions - Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ralph, Mark E.; Ellis, Abraham; Broderick, Robert Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not now required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already apparent as

  16. Test Protocols for Advanced Inverter Interoperability Functions – Main Document

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ralph, Mark E.; Ellis, Abraham; Broderick, Robert Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Distributed energy resources (DER) such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, when deployed in a large scale, are capable of influencing significantly the operation of power systems. Looking to the future, stakeholders are working on standards to make it possible to manage the potentially complex interactions between DER and the power system. In 2009, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) initiated a large industry collaborative to identify and standardize definitions for a set of DER grid support functions. While the initial effort concentrated on grid-tied PV inverters and energy storage systems, the concepts have applicability to all DER. A partial product of this on-going effort is a reference definitions document (IEC TR 61850-90-7, Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems) that has become a basis for expansion of related International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, and is supported by US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP). Some industry-led organizations advancing communications protocols have also embraced this work. As standards continue to evolve, it is necessary to develop test protocols to independently verify that the inverters are properly executing the advanced functions. Interoperability is assured by establishing common definitions for the functions and a method to test compliance with operational requirements. This document describes test protocols developed by SNL to evaluate the electrical performance and operational capabilities of PV inverters and energy storage, as described in IEC TR 61850-90-7. While many of these functions are not currently required by existing grid codes or may not be widely available commercially, the industry is rapidly moving in that direction. Interoperability issues are already

  17. Small inverted repeats drive mitochondrial genome evolution in Lake Baikal sponges.

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Dennis V; Maikova, Olga O; Pett, Walker; Belikov, Sergey I

    2012-08-15

    Demosponges, the largest and most diverse class in the phylum Porifera, possess mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markedly different from that in other animals. Although several studies investigated evolution of demosponge mtDNA among major lineages of the group, the changes within these groups remain largely unexplored. Recently we determined mitochondrial genomic sequence of the Lake Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis and described proliferation of small inverted repeats (hairpins) that occurred in it since the divergence between L. baicalensis and the most closely related cosmopolitan freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri. Here we report mitochondrial genomes of three additional species of Lake Baikal sponges: Swartschewskia papyracea, Rezinkovia echinata and Baikalospongia intermedia morpha profundalis (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Lubomirskiidae) and from a more distantly related freshwater sponge Corvomeyenia sp. (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Metaniidae). We use these additional sequences to explore mtDNA evolution in Baikalian sponges, paying particular attention to the variation in the rates of nucleotide substitutions and the distribution of hairpins, abundant in these genomes. We show that most of the changes in Lubomirskiidae mitochondrial genomes are due to insertion/deletion/duplication of these elements rather than single nucleotide substitutions. Thus inverted repeats can act as an important force in evolution of mitochondrial genome architecture and be a valuable marker for population- and species-level studies in this group. In addition, we infer (((Rezinkovia+Lubomirskia)+Swartschewskia)+Baikalospongia) phylogeny for the family Lubomirskiidae based on the analysis of mitochondrial coding sequences from freshwater sponges.

  18. Micro-structured inverted pyramid texturization of Si inspired by self-assembled Cu nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Yaoping; Yang, Lixia; Chen, Wei; Du, Xiaolong; Kuznetsov, Andrej

    2017-01-05

    A superior micron-sized inverted pyramid structure has been successfully achieved by one-step copper nanoparticles assisted chemical etching in Si/Cu(NO3)2/HF/H2O2 solution for light trapping in silicon solar cells. The detailed mechanisms of such a novel method have been systematically demonstrated. The charge transfer during the reaction has been revealed by the simplified energy band diagram of the system as well. In order to form micro-structured inverted pyramids, the generation and dissolution of Cu nanoparticles should keep in balance during the reaction, which depends on the concentration of the etchant, the doping type and the doping level of the silicon substrate. With the investigation of the intrinsic properties of the silicon substrate, the etching rate is found out as a combined result of the electron concentration and the defect density of the substrate, as well as the potential barrier on the interface of Si/Cu nanoparticles. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of Cu assisted chemical etching has also been investigated.

  19. Lithosphere thickness and mantle viscosity inverted from GPS-derived deformation rates in Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Lambeck, K.; Lidberg, M.

    2012-07-01

    Crustal deformation in Fennoscandia is associated with the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process that is caused by ongoing stress release of the mantle after removal of the Late Pleistocene ice sheet by ˜10 cal ka BP. With an earth model of defined structure and rheology and an ice-sheet model of known melting history, the GIA process can be simulated by geophysical models, and the surface deformation rates can be calculated and used to compare with global positioning system (GPS) observations. Therefore, the crustal deformation rates observed by GPS in Fennoscandia provide constraints on the geophysical models. On the basis of two ice sheet models (ANU-ICE and ICE-5G) reconstructed independently by the Australian National University (ANU) and University of Toronto, we use the GPS-derived deformation rates to invert for lithosphere thickness and mantle viscosity in Fennoscandia. The results show that only a three-layer earth model can be resolved from current GPS data, providing robust estimates of effective lithosphere thickness, upper and lower mantle viscosity. The earth models estimated from inversion of GPS data with two different ice sheet models define a narrow range of parameter space: the lithosphere thickness between 93 and 110 km, upper mantle viscosity between 3.4 and 5.0 × 1020 Pa s, and lower mantle viscosity between 7 × 1021 and 13 × 1021 Pa s. The estimates are consistent with those inverted from relative sea-level indicators.

  20. Al-doping effects on the photovoltaic performance of inverted polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuan; Shi, Ya-feng; Yu, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Jian-jun; Ge, Ya-ming; Chen, Li-qiao; Pan, Hong-jun

    2016-03-01

    The properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) play an important role in the photovoltaic performance of inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs), which is used as electron transport and hole blocking buffer layers. In this work, we study the effects of Al-doping level in AZO on device performance in detail. Results indicate that the device performance intensely depends on the Al-doping level. The AZO thin films with Al-doping atomic percentage of 1.0% possess the best conductivity. The resulting solar cells show the enhanced short current density and the fill factor ( FF) simultaneously, and the power conversion efficiency ( PCE) is improved by 74%, which are attributed to the reduced carrier recombination and the optimized charge transport and extraction between AZO and the active layer.

  1. Effective g-factors of carriers in inverted InAs/GaSb bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, Xiaoyang; Sullivan, Gerard; Du, Rui-Rui

    2016-01-04

    We perform tilt-field transport experiment on inverted InAs/GaSb, which hosts quantum spin Hall insulator. By means of coincidence method, Landau level (LL) spectra of electron and hole carriers are systematically studied at different carrier densities tuned by gate voltages. When Fermi level stays in the conduction band, we observe LL crossing and anti-crossing behaviors at odd and even filling factors, respectively, with a corresponding g-factor of 11.5. It remains nearly constant for varying filling factors and electron densities. On the contrary, for GaSb holes, only a small Zeeman splitting is observed even at large tilt angles, indicating a g-factor of less than 3.

  2. Correlation between pretreatment serum LDL-cholesterol levels and prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qiu; Hu, Qiao-Ying; Piao, Yong-feng; Hua, Yong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the correlations between long-term survival outcomes in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and pretreatment serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Patients and methods Between January 2008 and December 2011, 935 patients with newly diagnosed NPC who were treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy were included in this retrospective clinical analysis. Patients were divided into two groups based on pretreatment LDL-C levels: normal LDL-C (≤3.64 mmol/L; n=816) and elevated LDL-C (>3.64 mmol/L; n=119). Associations between pretreatment LDL-C levels and treatment outcome were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The overall patient follow-up rate was 95.1%, and 726 patients received more than 5 years of follow-up. Five-year overall survival (OS), local control (LC), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates of the entire patient population were 87.1%, 91.1%, and 87.2%, respectively. Rates of 5-year OS, LC, and DMFS for the elevated versus normal LDL-C groups were 77.0% vs 89.1% (P<0.001), 85.8% vs 91.9% (P=0.041), and 81.1% vs 88.1% (P=0.038), respectively. Compared with normal LDL-C levels, elevated LDL-C levels were identified as an independent prognostic factor of a poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR] =2.171; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.424–3.309), LC rate (HR =1.762; 95% CI =1.021–3.942), and DMFS (HR =1.594; 95% CI =1.003–2.532). Conclusion This study found that elevated pretreatment LDL-C levels are negative prognostic indicators of NPC. Elevated LDL-C levels may be useful indicators of locoregional control and distant metastasis in NPC patients. PMID:27217776

  3. New Switches for Utility-Scale Inverters: First In-Class Demonstration of a Completely New Type of SiC Bipolar Switch (15kV-20kV) for Utility-Scale Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-31

    Solar ADEPT Project: The SiCLAB is developing a new power switch for utility-scale PV inverters that would improve the performance and significantly reduce the size, weight, and energy loss of PV systems. A power switch controls the electrical energy flowing through an inverter, which takes the electrical current from a PV solar panel and converts it into the type and amount of electricity that is compatible with the electric grid. SiCLAB is using silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors in its new power switches, which are more efficient than the silicon semiconductors used to conduct electricity in most conventional power switches today. Switches with SiC semiconductors can operate at much higher temperatures, as well as higher voltage and power levels than silicon switches. SiC-based power switches are also smaller than those made with silicon alone, so they result in much smaller and lighter electrical devices. In addition to their use in utility-scale PV inverters, SiCLAB’s new power switches can also be used in wind turbines, railways, and other smart grid applications.

  4. Practical implementation of a digital signal processor controlled multilevel inverter with low total harmonic distortion for motor drive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colak, Ilhami; Kabalci, Ersan; Gazi Electrical Machines; Energy Control (Gemec) Group

    This paper presents a digital signal processor (DSP) based algorithm to generate three-level output voltage using H-Bridge multilevel inverter (MLI). The developed sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) scheme is employed to achieve lower harmonic contents in the output waveforms of inverter. Since SPWM scheme does not utilize vector positions, any pre-calculated switching states are not required. In addition to this advantage of conventional SPWM, modulators eliminate only base band harmonics due to regular control scheme. Therefore, neglecting the side band harmonics limits the efficiency of SPWM scheme. The harmonics located in the side bands of carrier frequency are also eliminated by the enhanced SPWM scheme proposed in this study. The validation of the modelled system is verified with the total harmonic distortion (THD) analyzes. The control algorithm is developed using TMS320F2812 DSP that is a 32-bit fixed-point processor operating at 150 MHz. The simulation and experimental results are compared to previous studies. The THD ratios of phase voltages and currents are measured loading the inverter with a three- phase 3 kW asynchronous motor. The lowest THD ratios of voltage and current are obtained at 1.9% and 0.4%, respectively.

  5. Motor/Generator and Inverter Characterization for Flywheel System Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamarcus, Jeffries L.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Electrical Systems Development Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheels systems for satellite energy storage and attitude applications. These flywheels will serve as replacement for chemical nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium batteries and gyroscopic wheels. The advantages of using flywheel systems for energy storage on satellites are high energy density, high power density, long life, deep depth of discharge, and broad operating temperature ranges. A flywheel system for space applications consist of a number of flywheel modules, the motor/generator and magnetic bearing, and an electronics package. The motor/generator electronics package includes a pulse-width modulated inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator located at one end of the shaft. This summer, I worked under the direct supervision of my mentor, Walter Santiago, and the goal for this summer was to characterize motor generator and inverter attributes in order to increase their viability as a more efficient energy storage source for space applications. To achieve this goal, magnetic field measurements around the motor/generator permanent magnet and the impedance of the motor/generator three phase windings were characterized, and a recreation of the inverter pulse width modulated control system was constructed. The Flywheel modules for space use are designed to maximize energy density and minimize loss, and attaining these values will aid in locating and reducing losses within the flywheel system as a whole, making flywheel technology more attractive for use as energy storage in future space applications.

  6. Were carbon isotopic gradients in post-snowball oceans inverted?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, G. P.; Hoffman, P. F.; MacDonald, F. A.; Higgins, J. A.; Schrag, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    In the Otavi Group of Namibia, 900 m of platform carbonate strata above the 635-Ma post-glacial cap dolostone are consistently lighter in δ13C by up to 2.5 per mil than the adjacent 180-320 m of correlative, >0.6-km-deep, foreslope strat. Assuming the foreslope carbonate was equilibrated with deeper water, the normal isotopic gradient dynamically sustained by the biological 'pump' was inverted. Geochronology of isotopically correlative Doushantuo strata in South China suggests that the inverted gradient lasted for ~2 Myr after the glacial termination. Thereafter, the inverted gradient disappears. A similar transient inverse gradient follows the older Cryogenian glaciation in Arctic Alaska. We hypothesize that the inverse gradients reflect high pCO2 in the glacial aftermaths. This had two consequences. First, the size of the DIC pool was enlarged, reducing the isotopic effect of the biological pump. Second, isotopic fractionation was strongly temperature-dependent due to the large fractionation between CO2 and CO32- coupled with the dominance of CO2(gas) among carbon species at pH<7.2. A difference in SST of ~25° between the areas of air-sea equilibration is required to account for a 2.5 per mil gradient in δ13C. This is realized in non-upwelling zones of the southern hemisphere today, where warm subtropical surface waters are underlain by Antarctic Intermediate Water. For our hypothesis to be valid, a large meridional temperature gradient must have coexisted with strong CO2 radiative forcing.

  7. Utility-scale grid-tied PV inverter reliability workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, Jennifer E.; Quintana, Michael A.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle; Atcitty, Stanley

    2011-07-01

    A key to the long-term success of the photovoltaic (PV) industry is confidence in the reliability of PV systems. Inverters are the most commonly noted cause of PV system incidents triggered in the field. While not all of these incidents are reliability-related or even necessarily failures, they still result in a loss of generated power. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a Utility-Scale Grid-Tied Inverter Reliability Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 27-28, 2011. The workshop addressed the reliability of large (100-kilowatt+) grid-tied inverters and the implications when such inverters fail, evaluated inverter codes and standards, and provided discussion about opportunities to enhance inverter reliability. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop and identifies opportunities for future efforts.

  8. High-speed all-optical logic inverter based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Sen, Mrinal; Das, Mukul K

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new device architecture for an all-optical logic inverter (NOT gate), which is cascadable with a similar device. The inverter is based on stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystal waveguides, which are embedded in a silicon photonic crystal structure. The Raman response function of silicon nanocrystal is evaluated to explore the transfer characteristic of the inverter. A maximum product criterion for the noise margin is taken to analyze the cascadability of the inverter. The time domain response of the inverter, which explores successful inversion operation at 100 Gb/s, is analyzed. Propagation delay of the inverter is on the order of 5 ps, which is less than the delay in most of the electronic logic families as of today. Overall dimension of the device is around 755  μm ×15  μm, which ensures integration compatibility with the matured silicon industry.

  9. Displacement measurement system for inverters using computer micro-vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Heng; Zhang, Xianmin; Gan, Jinqiang; Li, Hai; Ge, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We propose a practical system for noncontact displacement measurement of inverters using computer micro-vision at the sub-micron scale. The measuring method of the proposed system is based on a fast template matching algorithm with an optical microscopy. A laser interferometer measurement (LIM) system is built up for comparison. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve the same performance as the LIM system but shows a higher operability and stability. The measuring accuracy is 0.283 μm.

  10. Oral inverted ductal papilloma: not related to HPV.

    PubMed

    Do Canto, Alan Motta; Mistro, Florence Zumbaio; Kignel, Sergio; Martins, Fabiana; Palmieri, Michelle; Braz-Silva, Paulo Henrique

    2017-03-15

    Oral inverted ductal papilloma (OIDP) is a rare, nonrecurrent,benign lesion of salivary glands. The etiologyis still poorly understood; the correlation with humanpapilloma virus (HPV) is controversial. Herein wepresent a 74-year-old man with a tumor in lower lip.Incisional biopsy was performed and the histologicaldiagnosis was OIDP. Inno-LiPA assay, based onpolymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridizationwas used to assess for HPV with no detection of viralDNA. Surgical excision was performed without anyrecurrences after two years of follow-up.

  11. Direct and inverted nematic dispersions for soft matter photonics.

    PubMed

    Muševič, I; Skarabot, M; Humar, M

    2011-07-20

    General properties and recent developments in the field of nematic colloids and emulsions are discussed. The origin and nature of pair colloidal interactions in the nematic colloids are explained and an overview of the stable colloidal 2D crystalline structures and superstructures discovered so far is given. The nature and role of topological defects in the nematic colloids is discussed, with an emphasis on recently discovered entangled colloidal structures. Applications of inverted nematic emulsions and binding force mechanisms in nematic colloids for soft matter photonic devices are discussed.

  12. Naturally Inspired Firefly Controller For Stabilization Of Double Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, Kavirayani; Nagesh, Gundavarapu

    2015-12-01

    A double inverted pendulum plant as an established model that is analyzed as part of this work was tested under the influence of time delay, where the controller was fine tuned using a firefly algorithm taking into considering the fitness function of variation of the cart position and to minimize the cart position displacement and still stabilize it effectively. The naturally inspired algorithm which imitates the fireflies definitely is an energy efficient method owing to the inherent logic of the way the fireflies respond collectively and has shown that critical time delays makes the system healthy.

  13. Molecular solid-state inverter-converter system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    A modular approach for aerospace electrical systems has been developed, using lightweight high efficiency pulse width modulation techniques. With the modular approach, a required system is obtained by paralleling modules. The modular system includes the inverters and converters, a paralleling system, and an automatic control and fault-sensing protection system with a visual annunciator. The output is 150 V dc, or a low distortion three phase sine wave at 120 V, 400 Hz. Input power is unregulated 56 V dc. Each module is rated 2.5 kW or 3.6 kVA at 0.7 power factor.

  14. Robust sliding mode control applied to double Inverted pendulum system

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjoub, Sonia; Derbel, Nabil; Mnif, Faical

    2009-03-05

    A three hierarchical sliding mode control is presented for a class of an underactuated system which can overcome the mismatched perturbations. The considered underactuated system is a double inverted pendulum (DIP), can be modeled by three subsystems. Such structure allows the construction of several designs of hierarchies for the controller. For all hierarchical designs, the asymptotic stability of every layer sliding mode surface and the sliding mode surface of subsystems are proved theoretically by Barbalat's lemma. Simulation results show the validity of these methods.

  15. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  16. Advanced Inverter Functions and Communication Protocols for Distribution Management

    SciTech Connect

    Nagarajan, Adarsh; Palmintier, Bryan; Baggu, Murali

    2016-05-05

    This paper aims at identifying the advanced features required by distribution management systems (DMS) service providers to bring inverter-connected distributed energy resources into use as an intelligent grid resource. This work explores the standard functions needed in the future DMS for enterprise integration of distributed energy resources (DER). The important DMS functionalities such as DER management in aggregate groups, including the discovery of capabilities, status monitoring, and dispatch of real and reactive power are addressed in this paper. It is intended to provide the industry with a point of reference for DER integration with other utility applications and to provide guidance to research and standards development organizations.

  17. Coupled Inverted Pendula Model of Competition and Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Katsutoshi; Ohta, Hiroki

    A coupled inverted pendula model of competition and cooperation is proposed to develop a purely mechanical implementation comparable to the Lotka-Volterra competition model. It is shown numerically that the proposed model can produce the four stable equilibriums analogous to ecological coexistence, two states of dominance, and scramble. The authors also propose two types of open-loop strategies to switch the equilibriums. The proposed strategies can be associated with an attack and a counter attack of agents through a metaphor of martial arts.

  18. Extreme Cost Reductions with Multi-Megawatt Centralized Inverter Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, Ulrich; Fishman, Oleg

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this project was to fully develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a new type of utility scale PV system. Based on patented technology, this includes the development of a truly centralized inverter system with capacities up to 100MW, and a high voltage, distributed harvesting approach. This system promises to greatly impact both the energy yield from large scale PV systems by reducing losses and increasing yield from mismatched arrays, as well as reduce overall system costs through very cost effective conversion and BOS cost reductions enabled by higher voltage operation.

  19. Evaluation of quasi-square wave inverter as a power source for induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.; Haggard, R. L.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The relative merits of quasi-square wave inverter-motor technology versus a sine wave inverter-motor system were investigated. The empirical results of several tests on various sizes of wye-wound induction motors are presented with mathematical analysis to support the conclusions of the study. It was concluded that, within the limitations presented, the quasi-square wave inverter-motor system is superior to the more complex sine wave system for most induction motor applications in space.

  20. Full-Swing InGaZnO Thin Film Transistor Inverter with Depletion Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2009-10-01

    A high performance amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) inverter is implemented using the enhancement mode driver and the depletion mode load. The threshold voltage of the TFT is easily controlled by adjusting the active layer thickness in a-IGZO TFTs. The proposed inverter shows much improved switching characteristics including higher voltage gain, wider swing range, and higher noise margins compared to the conventional inverter with an enhancement load.

  1. Raman mediated all-optical cascadable inverter using silicon-on-insulator waveguides.

    PubMed

    Sen, Mrinal; Das, Mukul K

    2013-12-01

    In this Letter, we propose an all-optical circuit for a cascadable and integrable logic inverter based on stimulated Raman scattering. A maximum product criteria for noise margin is taken to analyze the cascadability of the inverter. Variation of noise margin for different model parameters is also studied. Finally, the time domain response of the inverter is analyzed for different widths of input pulses.

  2. Comparative study of SiC- and Si-based photovoltaic inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yuji; Oku, Takeo; Yasuda, Masashi; Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Ushijima, Kazufumi; Murozono, Mikio

    2017-01-01

    This article reports comparative study of 150-300 W class photovoltaic inverters (Si inverter, SiC inverter 1, and SiC inverter 2). In these sub-kW class inverters, the ON-resistance was considered to have little influence on the efficiency. The developed SiC inverters, however, have exhibited an approximately 3% higher direct current (DC)-alternating current (AC) conversion efficiency as compared to the Si inverter. Power loss analysis indicated a reduction in the switching and reverse recovery losses of SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors used for the DC-AC converter is responsible for this improvement. In the SiC inverter 2, an increase of the switching frequency up to 100 kHz achieved a state-of-the-art combination of the weight (1.25 kg) and the volume (1260 cm3) as a 150-250 W class inverter. Even though the increased switching frequency should cause the increase of the switching losses, the SiC inverter 2 exhibited an efficiency comparable to the SiC inverter 1 with a switching frequency of 20 kHz. The power loss analysis also indicated a decreased loss of the DC-DC converter built with SiC Schottky barrier diodes led to the high efficiency for its increased switching frequency. These results clearly indicated feasibility of SiC devices even for sub-kW photovoltaic inverters, which will be available for the applications where compactness and efficiency are of tremendous importance.

  3. Multiple output power supply circuit for an ion engine with shared upper inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardwell, Jr., Gilbert I. (Inventor); Phelps, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A power supply circuit for an ion engine suitable for a spacecraft is coupled to a bus having a bus input and a bus return. The power supply circuit has a first primary winding of a first transformer. An upper inverter circuit is coupled to the bus input and the first primary winding. The power supply circuit further includes a first lower inverter circuit coupled to the bus return and the first primary winding. The second primary winding of a second transformer is coupled to the upper inverter circuit. A second lower inverter circuit is coupled to the bus return and the second primary winding.

  4. Harmonic suppression and delay compensation for inverters via variable horizon nonlinear model predictive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaeva, G.; Goodwin, G. C.

    2015-07-01

    Inverters play a central role in modern society including renewable energy integration and motor drives. Due to the inherent switched nature of the inverter waveforms harmonic distortion is an issue. Additionally, the switching patterns are perturbed by unavoidable switching delays. Amongst those, nonlinear and load-dependent switching delays (known as inverter 'dead-time delays') are the most difficult to compensate. In this paper, we propose a new approach to delay compensation and harmonic suppression in inverter voltage. The proposed approach is based on variable prediction horizon nonlinear model predictive control.

  5. Harmonic Optimization in Voltage Source Inverter for PV Application using Heuristic Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandil, Shaimaa A.; Ali, A. A.; El Samahy, Adel; Wasfi, Sherif M.; Malik, O. P.

    2016-12-01

    Selective Harmonic Elimination (SHE) technique is the fundamental switching frequency scheme that is used to eliminate specific order harmonics. Its application to minimize low order harmonics in a three level inverter is proposed in this paper. The modulation strategy used here is SHEPWM and the nonlinear equations, that characterize the low order harmonics, are solved using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) to obtain the optimal switching angles that minimize the required harmonics and maintain the fundamental at the desired value. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the output voltage is minimized maintaining selected harmonics within allowable limits. A comparison has been drawn between HSA, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Newton Raphson (NR) technique using MATLAB software to determine the effectiveness of getting optimized switching angles.

  6. Highly tunable local gate controlled complementary graphene device performing as inverter and voltage controlled resistor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Ya; Lipsanen, Harri

    2013-10-04

    Using single-layer CVD graphene, a complementary field effect transistor (FET) device is fabricated on the top of separated back-gates. The local back-gate control of the transistors, which operate with low bias at room temperature, enables highly tunable device characteristics due to separate control over electrostatic doping of the channels. Local back-gating allows control of the doping level independently of the supply voltage, which enables device operation with very low VDD. Controllable characteristics also allow the compensation of variation in the unintentional doping typically observed in CVD graphene. Moreover, both p-n and n-p configurations of FETs can be achieved by electrostatic doping using the local back-gate. Therefore, the device operation can also be switched from inverter to voltage controlled resistor, opening new possibilities in using graphene in logic circuitry.

  7. Dimensional optimization of nanowire--complementary metal oxide--semiconductor inverter.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Yasir; Sidek, Othman

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate dimensional optimization of nanowire-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. Results indicate that optimization depends on both dimensions ratio and digital voltage level (Vdd). Diameter optimization reveals that when Vdd increases, the optimized value of (Dp/Dn) decreases. Channel length optimization results show that when Vdd increases, the optimized value of Ln decreases and that of (Lp/Ln) increases. Dimension ratio optimization reveals that when Vdd increases, the optimized value of Kp/Kn decreases, and silicon nanowire transistor with suitable dimensions (higher Dp and Ln with lower Lp and Dn) can be fabricated.

  8. Resonance amplification of defect emission in ZnO-inverted opal.

    PubMed

    Khunsin, Worawut; Scharrer, Michael; Aagesen, Larry K; Anderson, Mark A; Chang, Robert P H; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M; Romanov, Sergei G

    2009-05-15

    Transformation of broadband emission of oxygen defects in the carcass of ZnO-inverted opal into a multiple-mode amplified spontaneous emission band has been observed in the spectral interval of a photonic bandgap upon increasing excitation intensity. The mode structure has been assigned to amplification of emission coupled to resonance modes of the self-selected distributed Bragg resonator. The surprisingly low 2 W/cm(2) onset of amplification has been explained by the long radiative decay time of defect states populated according to the three-level excitation scheme. The decrease of emission intensity between amplified peaks has been associated with the saturation of the ZnO defect emission.

  9. Liking versus Complexity: Decomposing the Inverted U-curve

    PubMed Central

    Güçlütürk, Yağmur; Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; van Lier, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between liking and stimulus complexity is commonly reported to follow an inverted U-curve. However, large individual differences among complexity preferences of participants have frequently been observed since the earliest studies on the topic. The common use of across-participant analysis methods that ignore these large individual differences in aesthetic preferences gives an impression of high agreement between individuals. In this study, we collected ratings of liking and perceived complexity from 30 participants for a set of digitally generated grayscale images. In addition, we calculated an objective measure of complexity for each image. Our results reveal that the inverted U-curve relationship between liking and stimulus complexity comes about as the combination of different individual liking functions. Specifically, after automatically clustering the participants based on their liking ratings, we determined that one group of participants in our sample had increasingly lower liking ratings for increasingly more complex stimuli, while a second group of participants had increasingly higher liking ratings for increasingly more complex stimuli. Based on our findings, we call for a focus on the individual differences in aesthetic preferences, adoption of alternative analysis methods that would account for these differences and a re-evaluation of established rules of human aesthetic preferences. PMID:27047359

  10. Surface Plasmon Resonance Effect in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Han, Junbo; Cao, Kun; Zhang, Wenjun; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on incorporation of spectrally tuned gold/silica (Au/SiO2) core/shell nanospheres and nanorods into the inverted perovskite solar cells (PVSC). The band gap of hybrid lead halide iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) can be gradually increased by replacing iodide with increasing amounts of bromide, which can not only offer an appreciate solar radiation window for the surface plasmon resonance effect utilization, but also potentially result in a large open circuit voltage. The introduction of localized surface plasmons in CH3NH3PbI2.85Br0.15-based photovoltaic system, which occur in response to electromagnetic radiation, has shown dramatic enhancement of exciton dissociation. The synchronized improvement in photovoltage and photocurrent leads to an inverted CH3NH3PbI2.85Br0.15 planar PVSC device with power conversion efficiency of 13.7%. The spectral response characterization, time resolved photoluminescence, and transient photovoltage decay measurements highlight the efficient and simple method for perovskite devices.

  11. Surface Plasmon Resonance Effect in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Han, Junbo; Cao, Kun; Zhang, Wenjun; Shen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on incorporation of spectrally tuned gold/silica (Au/SiO2) core/shell nanospheres and nanorods into the inverted perovskite solar cells (PVSC). The band gap of hybrid lead halide iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) can be gradually increased by replacing iodide with increasing amounts of bromide, which can not only offer an appreciate solar radiation window for the surface plasmon resonance effect utilization, but also potentially result in a large open circuit voltage. The introduction of localized surface plasmons in CH3NH3PbI2.85Br0.15‐based photovoltaic system, which occur in response to electromagnetic radiation, has shown dramatic enhancement of exciton dissociation. The synchronized improvement in photovoltage and photocurrent leads to an inverted CH3NH3PbI2.85Br0.15 planar PVSC device with power conversion efficiency of 13.7%. The spectral response characterization, time resolved photoluminescence, and transient photovoltage decay measurements highlight the efficient and simple method for perovskite devices. PMID:28174678

  12. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap For Large Traumatic Macular Holes

    PubMed Central

    Abou Shousha, Mohsen Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the role of inverted internal limiting membrane flap as a treatment option for large traumatic macular holes. This is a prospective noncomparative study in which 12 eyes with large traumatic macular holes (basal diameter of 1300–2800 μm) since 3 to 6 months were subjected to standard 23-gauge vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid, brilliant blue G (BBG)-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in a circular fashion keeping it attached to the edge of the hole to create a flap. At the end of the surgery, air fluid exchange was done with inversion of the internal limiting membrane flap inside the macular hole using the soft tipped cannula and sulfur hexafluoride 20% as tamponade. The main follow-up measures are the best corrected visual acuity and the optical coherence tomography for 6 to 9 months. All the included eyes had a closed hole from the first week postoperative and along the follow-up period (6–9 months). The best corrected visual acuity improved from 20/2000 to 20/200 with a median of 20/400 preoperatively to 20/400 to 20/50 with a median of 20/100 at the end of follow-up period. Inverted internal limiting membrane flap is a good adjuvant to standard vitrectomy in the management of large traumatic macular holes that led to the 100% closure rate and improvement of best corrected visual acuity. PMID:26817894

  13. Inverted methoxypyridinium phthalocyanines for PDI of pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Leandro M O; Sousa, Andreina; Gomes, Maria C; Faustino, Maria A F; Almeida, Adelaide; Silva, Artur M S; Neves, Maria G P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Ângela; Tomé, João P C

    2015-10-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pc) are photoactive molecules that can absorb and emit light in a large range of the UV-Vis spectrum with recognized potential for medical applications. Considering the biomedical applications an important limitation of these compounds is their low solubility in water. The use of suitable pyridinium groups on Pc is a good strategy to solve this drawback and to make them more effective to photoinactivate Gram-negative bacteria via a photodynamic inactivation (PDI) approach. Herein, an easy synthetic access to obtain inverted tetra- and octa-methoxypyridinium phthalocyanines (compounds 5 and 6) and also their efficiency to photoinactivate a recombinant bioluminescent strain of Escherichia coli is described. The obtained results were compared with the ones obtained when more conventional thiopyridinium phthalocyanines (compounds 7 and 8) were used. This innovative study comparing thiopyridinium and inverted methoxypyridinium moieties on cationic Pc is reported for the first time taking into account the efficiency of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) generation, water solubility and uptake properties.

  14. Liking versus Complexity: Decomposing the Inverted U-curve.

    PubMed

    Güçlütürk, Yağmur; Jacobs, Richard H A H; van Lier, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between liking and stimulus complexity is commonly reported to follow an inverted U-curve. However, large individual differences among complexity preferences of participants have frequently been observed since the earliest studies on the topic. The common use of across-participant analysis methods that ignore these large individual differences in aesthetic preferences gives an impression of high agreement between individuals. In this study, we collected ratings of liking and perceived complexity from 30 participants for a set of digitally generated grayscale images. In addition, we calculated an objective measure of complexity for each image. Our results reveal that the inverted U-curve relationship between liking and stimulus complexity comes about as the combination of different individual liking functions. Specifically, after automatically clustering the participants based on their liking ratings, we determined that one group of participants in our sample had increasingly lower liking ratings for increasingly more complex stimuli, while a second group of participants had increasingly higher liking ratings for increasingly more complex stimuli. Based on our findings, we call for a focus on the individual differences in aesthetic preferences, adoption of alternative analysis methods that would account for these differences and a re-evaluation of established rules of human aesthetic preferences.

  15. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap For Large Traumatic Macular Holes.

    PubMed

    Abou Shousha, Mohsen Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of inverted internal limiting membrane flap as a treatment option for large traumatic macular holes.This is a prospective noncomparative study in which 12 eyes with large traumatic macular holes (basal diameter of 1300-2800 μm) since 3 to 6 months were subjected to standard 23-gauge vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid, brilliant blue G (BBG)-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in a circular fashion keeping it attached to the edge of the hole to create a flap. At the end of the surgery, air fluid exchange was done with inversion of the internal limiting membrane flap inside the macular hole using the soft tipped cannula and sulfur hexafluoride 20% as tamponade. The main follow-up measures are the best corrected visual acuity and the optical coherence tomography for 6 to 9 months.All the included eyes had a closed hole from the first week postoperative and along the follow-up period (6-9 months). The best corrected visual acuity improved from 20/2000 to 20/200 with a median of 20/400 preoperatively to 20/400 to 20/50 with a median of 20/100 at the end of follow-up period.Inverted internal limiting membrane flap is a good adjuvant to standard vitrectomy in the management of large traumatic macular holes that led to the 100% closure rate and improvement of best corrected visual acuity.

  16. Intestinal Type Adenocarcinoma from Inverted Papilloma: A Rare Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Singh, Meeta; Chandana, Mansi; Nargotra, Namrata

    2016-01-01

    Inverted Papilloma (IP) is an uncommon and locally aggressive benign tumour of sinonasal region, which tends to recur after surgical resection. Most tumours are confined to the lateral nasal wall and sinuses, with maxillary sinus being most commonly affected and a male preponderance. It has a known association with in situ and invasive carcinomas with a <10% rate of malignant transformation. Most common association has been seen with squamous cell carcinoma and extremely rare association with adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma. A 36-year-old male presented with a left sided polypoidal nasal mass and underwent a polypectomy. Pathology results showed IP with mild dysplasia. The polypoidal growth reappeared on the same side after a period of 10 months and on histopathological examination, the growth revealed features of intestinal type adenocarcinoma. IP recurring as adenocarcinoma is rare and even after exhaustive literature search only few cases could be found. Two studies have described recurrence of adenocarcinoma in existing IP previously. We report an unusual case of inverted papilloma showing malignant transformation into an intestinal type adenocarcinoma in a 36-year-old male patient within 10 months of previous surgery. PMID:28050382

  17. Inverted Teaching: Applying a New Pedagogy to a University Organic Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Inverted teaching, not to be confused with hybrid learning, is a relatively new pedagogy in which lecture is shifted outside of class and traditional homework is done in class. Though some inverted teaching (IT) designs have been published in different fields, peer-reviewed reports in university chemistry remain quite rare. To that end, herein is…

  18. Inverting Instruction in Literacy Methods Courses: Making Learning More Active and Personalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawilinski, Lisa M.; Richard, Kimberly A.; Henry, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    Three teacher educators who inverted/flipped instruction in their literacy courses describe their experience in this article. Inverted, or flipped, instruction is a blended learning approach that increases opportunities for active engagement in class by moving basic instructor demonstration and presentation outside of class. The authors provide a…

  19. Mode tunable p-type Si nanowire transistor based zero drive load logic inverter.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kyeong-Ju; Lee, Tae-Il; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Han, Young-Uk; Ham, Moon-Ho; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2012-07-25

    A design platform for a zero drive load logic inverter consisting of p-channel Si nanowire based transistors, which controlled their operating mode through an implantation into a gate dielectric layer was demonstrated. As a result, a nanowire based class D inverter having a 4.6 gain value at V(DD) of -20 V was successfully fabricated on a substrate.

  20. Usefulness of the nipple-suspension piercing device after correction of inverted nipples.

    PubMed

    Hyakusoku, Hiko; Chin, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    The authors have devised a new piercing instrument for postoperative nipple suspension of inverted nipples. The instrument can be used not only postsurgically, but also for nipple suspension in light inverted nipple cases without surgical repair. Details of the device and the method of piercing are described.

  1. Single phase inverter for a three phase power generation and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindena, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    A breadboard design of a single-phase inverter with sinusoidal output voltage for a three-phase power generation and distribution system was developed. The three-phase system consists of three single-phase inverters, whose output voltages are connected in a delta configuration. Upon failure of one inverter the two remaining inverters will continue to deliver three-phase power. Parallel redundancy as offered by two three-phase inverters is substituted by one three-phase inverter assembly with high savings in volume, weight, components count and complexity, and a considerable increase in reliability. The following requirements must be met: (1) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of being synchronized to a three-phase reference system such that its output voltage remains phaselocked to its respective reference voltage. (2) Each single-phase, current-fed inverter must be capable of accepting leading and lagging power factors over a range from -0.7 through 1 to +0.7.

  2. Status and Needs of Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Inverters: Summary Document

    SciTech Connect

    WEST, RICK; MAUCH, KONRAD; QIN,YU CHIN; MOHAN,NED; BONN, RUSSELL H.

    2002-04-01

    Photovoltaic inverters are the most mature of any DER inverter, and their mean time to first failure (MTFF) is about five years. This is an unacceptable MTFF and will inhibit the rapid expansion of PV. With all DER technologies, (solar, wind, fuel cells, and microturbines) the inverter is still an immature product that will result in reliability problems in fielded systems. The increasing need for all of these technologies to have a reliable inverter provides a unique opportunity to address these needs with focused R&D development projects. The requirements for these inverters are so similar that modular designs with universal features are obviously the best solution for a ''next generation'' inverter. A ''next generation'' inverter will have improved performance, higher reliability, and improved profitability. Sandia National Laboratories has estimated that the development of a ''next generation'' inverter could require approximately 20 man-years of work over an 18- to 24-month time frame, and that a government-industry partnership will greatly improve the chances of success.

  3. Status and Needs of Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Inverters: Summary Document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R.; Mauch, K.; Qin, Y. C.; Mohan, N.; Bonn, R.

    2002-05-01

    Photovoltaic inverters are the most mature of any DER inverter, and their mean time to first failure (MTFF) is about five years. This is an unacceptable MTFF and will inhibit the rapid expansion of PV. With all DER technologies, (solar, wind, fuel cells, and microturbines) the inverter is still an immature product that will result in reliability problems in fielded systems. The increasing need for all of these technologies to have a reliable inverter provides a unique opportunity to address these needs with focused R&D development projects. The requirements for these inverters are so similar that modular designs with universal features are obviously the best solution for a 'next generation' inverter. A 'next generation' inverter will have improved performance, higher reliability, and improved profitability. Sandia National Laboratories has estimated that the development of a 'next generation' inverter could require approximately 20 man-years of work over an 18- to 24-month time frame, and that a government-industry partnership will greatly improve the chances of success.

  4. Vortex dynamics and flapping patterns of the inverted flag with a bluff body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeonseong; Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2015-11-01

    Flow-induced vibration of flexible structures for energy harvesting has drawn attention recently. The inverted flag whose trailing edge is clamped and leading edge is free to move was known to self-excite in a uniform flow of both water and air. In this study, we investigated the effect of an upstream bluff body, a flat plate, on the dynamics of the downstream inverted flag. Periodic vortical structures created by an upstream bluff body make the dynamics of the inverted flag quite different from those of the inverted flag without the bluff body. We examined the motion of the inverted flag by varying the relative displacement of the inverted flag from the bluff body and their relative size. Our results show that the inverted flag can flap with higher frequency and larger amplitude with the upstream bluff body. We also compared the dynamics of the inverted flag with those of the general flag with the upstream bluff body. In order to better understand the dynamics of the flag, the analysis of the flow patterns using particle image velocimetry was also conducted.

  5. Impacts of Inverter-Based Advanced Grid Support Functions on Islanding Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Austin; Hoke, Anderson; Miller, Brian; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Bell, Frances; McCarty, Michael

    2016-12-12

    A long-standing requirement for inverters paired with distributed energy resources is that they are required to disconnect from the electrical power system (EPS) when an electrical island is formed. In recent years, advanced grid support controls have been developed for inverters to provide voltage and frequency support by integrating functions such as voltage and frequency ride-through, volt-VAr control, and frequency-Watt control. With these new capabilities integrated into the inverter, additional examination is needed to determine how voltage and frequency support will impact pre-existing inverter functions like island detection. This paper inspects how advanced inverter functions will impact its ability to detect the formation of an electrical island. Results are presented for the unintentional islanding laboratory tests of three common residential-scale photovoltaic inverters performing various combinations of grid support functions. For the inverters tested, grid support functions prolonged island disconnection times slightly; however, it was found that in all scenarios the inverters disconnected well within two seconds, the limit imposed by IEEE Std 1547-2003.

  6. 48 CFR 9.108 - Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations. 9.108 Section 9.108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL....108 Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations....

  7. 48 CFR 9.108 - Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations. 9.108 Section 9.108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL....108 Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations....

  8. 48 CFR 9.108 - Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations. 9.108 Section 9.108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL....108 Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations....

  9. 48 CFR 9.108 - Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations. 9.108 Section 9.108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL....108 Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations....

  10. 48 CFR 9.108 - Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations. 9.108 Section 9.108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL....108 Prohibition on contracting with inverted domestic corporations....

  11. Who's on base? Revealing the catalytic mechanism of inverting family 6 glycoside hydrolases

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Heather B.; Knott, Brandon C.; Crowley, Michael F.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-06-01

    In several important classes of inverting carbohydrate-active enzymes, the identity of the catalytic base remains elusive, including in family 6 Glycoside Hydrolase (GH6) enzymes, which are key components of cellulase cocktails for cellulose depolymerization. Despite many structural and kinetic studies with both wild-type and mutant enzymes, especially on the Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) GH6 cellulase (TrCel6A), the catalytic base in the single displacement inverting mechanism has not been definitively identified in the GH6 family. Here, we employ transition path sampling to gain insight into the catalytic mechanism, which provides unbiased atomic-level understanding of key order parameters involved in cleaving the strong glycosidic bond. Our hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations reveal a network of hydrogen bonding that aligns two active site water molecules that play key roles in hydrolysis: one water molecule drives the reaction by nucleophilic attack on the substrate and a second shuttles a proton to the putative base (D175) via a short water wire. We also investigated the case where the putative base is mutated to an alanine, an enzyme that is experimentally still partially active. The simulations predict that proton hopping along a water wire via a Grotthuss mechanism provides a mechanism of catalytic rescue. Further simulations reveal that substrate processive motion is 'driven' by strong electrostatic interactions with the protein at the product sites and that the -1 sugar adopts a 2SO ring configuration as it reaches its binding site. Lastly, this work thus elucidates previously elusive steps in the processive catalytic mechanism of this important class of enzymes.

  12. Who's on base? Revealing the catalytic mechanism of inverting family 6 glycoside hydrolases

    DOE PAGES

    Mayes, Heather B.; Knott, Brandon C.; Crowley, Michael F.; ...

    2016-06-01

    In several important classes of inverting carbohydrate-active enzymes, the identity of the catalytic base remains elusive, including in family 6 Glycoside Hydrolase (GH6) enzymes, which are key components of cellulase cocktails for cellulose depolymerization. Despite many structural and kinetic studies with both wild-type and mutant enzymes, especially on the Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) GH6 cellulase (TrCel6A), the catalytic base in the single displacement inverting mechanism has not been definitively identified in the GH6 family. Here, we employ transition path sampling to gain insight into the catalytic mechanism, which provides unbiased atomic-level understanding of key order parameters involved in cleaving themore » strong glycosidic bond. Our hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations reveal a network of hydrogen bonding that aligns two active site water molecules that play key roles in hydrolysis: one water molecule drives the reaction by nucleophilic attack on the substrate and a second shuttles a proton to the putative base (D175) via a short water wire. We also investigated the case where the putative base is mutated to an alanine, an enzyme that is experimentally still partially active. The simulations predict that proton hopping along a water wire via a Grotthuss mechanism provides a mechanism of catalytic rescue. Further simulations reveal that substrate processive motion is 'driven' by strong electrostatic interactions with the protein at the product sites and that the -1 sugar adopts a 2SO ring configuration as it reaches its binding site. Lastly, this work thus elucidates previously elusive steps in the processive catalytic mechanism of this important class of enzymes.« less

  13. Low voltage drop plasma switch for inverter and modulator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, D. M.; Poeschel, R. L.; Schumacher, R. W.

    1993-08-01

    A low forward voltage drop plasma switch has been developed for high-efficiency inverter and modulator applications. The switch, called the HOLLOTRON, is based on a grid-controlled, thermionic hollow-cathode discharge. A low forward voltage drop (10-20 V) is achieved by operating the hollow-cathode discharge in a static gas pressure of xenon. The dense plasma generated in the Ba-oxide dispenser hollow cathode is spread over a relatively large control grid area by a diverging magnetic field superimposed on the discharge. Interruption of the discharge current at high current densities (≳4 A/cm2) over the grid area is achieved by biasing the control grid sufficiently negative with respect to the plasma. The HOLLOTRON switch has demonstrated voltage stand-off of up to 20 kV, switching times of ≤0.3 μs, and pulse repetition frequencies of 20 kHz at 50% duty.

  14. Noisy inverted pendulums with time-delayed feedback: Statistical Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, John G.

    2001-03-01

    The question of how an inverted pendulum can be stabilized has puzzled scientists for over 300 years. Studies of postural sway and stick balancing at the fingertip provide insights into how the human nervous system solves this problem. Time delays and noise are intrinsic features of the neural control and thus models are in the form of stochastic delay-differential equations. Examples are presented to show that the statistical properties of the fluctuations in posture and stick balancing are dominated by noise-dependent, nonlinear phenomena: noise-induced switching between limit cycle attractors (postural sway) and "on-off intermittency" arising from the stochastic forcing of a control parameter across a stability boundary (stick balancing). The existence of these phenomena is difficult to reconcile with classical concepts of neural feedback control.

  15. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  16. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Rotational Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duart, J. L.; Montero, B.; Ospina, P. A.; González, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative way to the dynamic modeling of a rotational inverted pendulum using the classic mechanics known as Euler-Lagrange allows to find motion equations that describe our model. It also has a design of the basic model of the system in SolidWorks software, which based on the material and dimensions of the model provides some physical variables necessary for modeling. In order to verify the theoretical results, It was made a contrast between the solutions obtained by simulation SimMechanics-Matlab and the system of equations Euler-Lagrange, solved through ODE23tb method included in Matlab bookstores for solving equations systems of the type and order obtained. This article comprises a pendulum trajectory analysis by a phase space diagram that allows the identification of stable and unstable regions of the system.

  17. ELECTROSTATIC MODELING OF THE JEFFERSON LABORATORY INVERTED CERAMIC GUN

    SciTech Connect

    P. Evtushenko ,F.E. Hannon, C. Hernandez-Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) is currently developing a new 500kV DC electron gun for future use with the FEL. The design consists of two inverted ceramics which support a central cathode electrode. This layout allows for a load-lock system to be located behind the gun chamber. The electrostatic geometry of the gun has been designed to minimize surface electric field gradients and also to provide some transverse focusing to the electron beam during transit between the cathode and anode. This paper discusses the electrode design philosophy and presents the results of electrostatic simulations. The electric field information obtained through modeling was used with particle tracking codes to predict the effects on the electron beam.

  18. Multiplatform information-based sensor management: an inverted UAV demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreucher, Chris; Wegrzyn, John; Beauvais, Michel; Conti, Ralph

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an experimental demonstration of a distributed, decentralized, low communication sensor management algorithm. We first review the mathematics surrounding the method, which includes a novel combination of particle filtering for predictive density estimation and information theory for maximizing information flow. Earlier work has shown the utility via Monte Carlo simulations. Here we present a laboratory demonstration to illustrate the utility and to provide a stepping stone toward full-up implementation. To that end, we describe an inverted Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) test-bed developed by The General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (GDAIS) Michigan Research and Development Center (MRDC) to facilitate and promote the maturation of the research algorithm into an operational, field-able system. Using a modular design with wheeled robots as surrogates to UAVs, we illustrate how the method is able to detect and track moving targets over a large surveillance region by tasking a collection of limited field of view sensors.

  19. Chaos Control for a Pwm H-Bridge Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, B.; Feki, M.; Iu, H. H. C.

    Pulse width modulation (PWM) current-mode single phase inverters are known to exhibit bifurcations and chaos when parameters vary or if the gain of the proportional controller is arbitrarily increased. Our aim in this chapter is to show, using control theory and numerical simulations, how to apply a method to stabilize the desired periodic orbit for larger values of the proportional gain. To accomplish this aim, a time-delayed feedback controller (TDFC) is used in conjunction with the proportional controller in its simple form as well as in its extended form (ETDFC). The main advantages of those methods are the robustness and ease of construction because they do not require the knowledge of an accurate model but only the period of the target unstable periodic orbit (UPO). Moreover, to improve the dynamical performances, an optimal criterion and an adaptive law are defined to determine the control parameters.

  20. Characteristics of GaAs with inverted thermal conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, C. H.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs crystals exhibiting inverted thermal conversion (ITC) of resistivity were investigated in conjunction with standard semiinsulating (SI) GaAs regarding characteristics important in device processing. It was established that dislocation density and Si implant activation are unaffected by transformation to the ITC state. However, in ITC GaAs the controlled increase of the EL2 (native midgap donor) concentration during annealing makes it possible to attain resistivities one order of magnitude greater (e.g., about 10 to the 9th ohm cm of 300 K) than those attained in standard SI GaAs (e.g., 10 to the 7th-10 to the 8th ohm cm).

  1. Analysis of distorted unbalanced waveforms in inverter drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andria, Gregorio; dell'Aquila, Antonio; Salvatore, Luigi

    1989-04-01

    A technique for determining the degree of unbalance in a three-phase electrical system is developed and demonstrated. Expressions for the distorted and unbalanced waveforms are derived; the effects of such waveforms on the performance of induction motors are estimated; the analysis of a typical system is outlined; and the errors inherent in FFT harmonic analysis are evaluated. A PC-based experimental digital measurement system is implemented, tested, and applied to a commercial three-phase PWM inverter with continuous output power 11 kVA, output voltage 380 V, and output frequency 5-50 Hz. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail, demonstrating the effectiveness of the procedure.

  2. EV drivetrain inverter with V/HZ optimization

    DOEpatents

    Gritter, David J.; O'Neil, Walter K.

    1986-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer which calculates optimized machine control data signals from various parametric inputs and during steady state load conditions, seeks a best V/HZ ratio to minimize battery current drawn (system losses) from a D.C. power source (32). In the preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  3. Expression analysis for inverted effects of serotonin transporter inactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Manabu |; Okamura-Oho, Yuko Shimokawa, Kazuro; Kondo, Shinji; Nakamura, Sakiko; Yokota, Hideo |; Himeno, Ryutaro; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide |

    2008-03-28

    Inactivation of serotonin transporter (HTT) by pharmacologically in the neonate or genetically increases risk for depression in adulthood, whereas pharmacological inhibition of HTT ameliorates symptoms in depressed patients. The differing role of HTT function during early development and in adult brain plasticity in causing or reversing depression remains an unexplained paradox. To address this we profiled the gene expression of adult Htt knockout (Htt KO) mice and HTT inhibitor-treated mice. Inverted profile changes between the two experimental conditions were seen in 30 genes. Consistent results of the upstream regulatory element search and the co-localization search of these genes indicated that the regulation may be executed by Pax5, Pax7 and Gata3, known to be involved in the survival, proliferation, and migration of serotonergic neurons in the developing brain, and these factors are supposed to keep functioning to regulate downstream genes related to serotonin system in the adult brain.

  4. Study on model current predictive control method of PV grid- connected inverters systems with voltage sag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, N.; Yang, F.; Shang, S. Y.; Tao, T.; Liu, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    According to the limitations of the LVRT technology of traditional photovoltaic inverter existed, this paper proposes a low voltage ride through (LVRT) control method based on model current predictive control (MCPC). This method can effectively improve the photovoltaic inverter output characteristics and response speed. The MCPC method of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter designed, the sum of the absolute value of the predictive current and the given current error is adopted as the cost function with the model predictive control method. According to the MCPC, the optimal space voltage vector is selected. Photovoltaic inverter has achieved automatically switches of priority active or reactive power control of two control modes according to the different operating states, which effectively improve the inverter capability of LVRT. The simulation and experimental results proves that the proposed method is correct and effective.

  5. Improvement on an inverted decoupling technique for a class of stable linear multivariable processes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Zhang, Weidong

    2007-04-01

    This paper improves an inverted decoupling technique for a class of stable linear multivariable processes with multiple time delays and nonminimum-phase zeros. Two decoupling schemes are proposed based on the inverted decoupling technique. One is a developed inverted decoupling scheme. In this scheme, the decoupler is designed such that the inverted decoupling technique accommodates a wider field than the one introduced in the published literature. However, due to the stability issue, some multivariable processes still cannot be decoupled by the inverted decoupling structure. To solve this problem, another modified decoupling scheme with unity feedback structure is suggested for implementation. The Internal Model Control (IMC) theory is applied here to design PI/PID controllers for the decoupled processes. Furthermore, in the presence of multiplicative input uncertainty, low bounds of the control parameters are derived quantitatively for guaranteeing robust stability of the system. Simulations are illustrated for demonstrating the validity of the proposed control schemes.

  6. Analysis and modeling of a family of two-transistor parallel inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C. Y.; Wilson, T. G.

    1973-01-01

    A family of five static dc-to-square-wave inverters, each employing a square-loop magnetic core in conjunction with two switching transistors, is analyzed using piecewise-linear models for the nonlinear characteristics of the transistors, diodes, and saturable-core devices. Four of the inverters are analyzed in detail for the first time. These analyses show that, by proper choice of a frame of reference, each of the five quite differently appearing inverter circuits can be described by a common equivalent circuit. This equivalent circuit consists of a five-segment nonlinear resistor, a nonlinear saturable reactor, and a linear capacitor. Thus, by proper interpretation and identification of the parameters in the different circuits, the results of a detailed solution for one of the inverter circuits provide similar information and insight into the local and global behavior of each inverter in the family.

  7. Invertible update-then-predict integer lifting wavelet for lossless image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Li, Yanjuan; Zhang, Haiying; Gao, Wenpeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new wavelet family for lossless image compression by re-factoring the channel representation of the update-then-predict lifting wavelet, introduced by Claypoole, Davis, Sweldens and Baraniuk, into lifting steps. We name the new wavelet family as invertible update-then-predict integer lifting wavelets (IUPILWs for short). To build IUPILWs, we investigate some central issues such as normalization, invertibility, integer structure, and scaling lifting. The channel representation of the previous update-then-predict lifting wavelet with normalization is given and the invertibility is discussed firstly. To guarantee the invertibility, we re-factor the channel representation into lifting steps. Then the integer structure and scaling lifting of the invertible update-then-predict wavelet are given and the IUPILWs are built. Experiments show that comparing with the integer lifting structure of 5/3 wavelet, 9/7 wavelet, and iDTT, IUPILW results in the lower bit-rates for lossless image compression.

  8. Stabilization of a Power System including Inverter Type Distributed Generators by the Virtual Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, Kenichi; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi

    The capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs) connected to grid by inverters are growing year and year. The inverters are generally controlled by PLL (Phase Locked Loop) in order to synchronize with power system frequency. Power systems will become unstable, if the capacity of inverter type DGs become larger and larger, because inverter frequency is controlled just to follow the frequency decided by other synchronous generators. There is the idea that inverters are controlled to behave like a synchronous generator. This concept is called Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG). In this paper, a control scheme of VSG is presented, and the design method of required energy storage and the ability of grid stabilizing control by VSG is investigated by computer simulations.

  9. Research on inverter test system of synchronous motor using modbus communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenlun; Chen, Bei; He, Yuyao

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the hardware architecture of the servo system composed by self-made inverter and permanent magnet synchronous motor is introduced as well as its measurement and control system software features. Basing on the Modbus-RTU protocols which contain the CRC data verification between IPC and the inverter, we have built a communication system. The measurement and control software of servo system are realized, which consists of self-made inverter and PMSM. Compared with the servo system which consists of Schindler's ATV31 inverter and SIMO's asynchronous motor, the results are given. The experiment parameters include harmonic content which is contained by phase current and voltage, and also the motor speed. The results show that the measurement and control system are stable and reliable. Both the harmonic content of the Inverter output and the motor speed meet the requirements.

  10. Evaluation of Multiple Inverter Volt-VAR Control Interactions with Realistic Grid Impedances

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Anderson; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-07-03

    Integration of large numbers of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in electric distribution circuits often requires advanced functions (e.g. volt-VAR, frequency-Watt etc.). However, significant concerns have been raised about potential for PV inverters with such controls to interact with one another in a way that could cause grid instability. The lack of standardized inverter models makes it hard to simulate such transient interactions in software. Similarly it is very hard to test these dynamic inverter interactions in the laboratory. In this paper, unique Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) techniques are presented to experimentally test for interactions of multiple PV inverters connected to multiple points-of-common-coupling (PCCs) with grid impedances between them. Sample test results are provided from simulation-only scenarios and PHIL testing. Though simulation results indicated possible harmful interactions between inverters' volt-VAR controllers; no such interactions were found in the limited hardware testing.

  11. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  12. 75 FR 36119 - In the Matter of Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (“CCFL”) Inverter Circuits and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (``CCFL'') Inverter Circuits and Products... United States after importation of certain cold cathode fluorescent lamp inverter circuits and...

  13. Construction and evaluation of photovoltaic power generation and power storage system using SiC field-effect transistor inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Oku, Takeo Matsumoto, Taisuke; Ohishi, Yuya; Hiramatsu, Koichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2016-02-01

    A power storage system using spherical silicon (Si) solar cells, maximum power point tracking charge controller, lithium-ion battery and a direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) inverter was constructed. Performance evaluation of the DC-AC inverter was carried out, and the DC-AC conversion efficiencies of the SiC field-effect transistor (FET) inverter was improved compared with those of the ordinary Si-FET based inverter.

  14. Assumption or Fact? Line-to-Neutral Voltage Expression in an Unbalanced 3-Phase Circuit during Inverter Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masrur, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the situation in a 3-phase motor or any other 3-phase system operating under unbalanced operating conditions caused by an open fault in an inverter switch. A dc voltage source is assumed as the input to the inverter, and under faulty conditions of the inverter switch, the actual voltage applied between the line to neutral…

  15. A Medium-Voltage Motor Drive with a Modular Multilevel PWM Inverter Part I. Experimental Verification by a 400-V, 15-kW Downscaled Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazutoshi; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a medium-voltage motor drive with a three-phase modular multilevel PWM inverter and focuses on its control method and operating performance. This motor drive is particularly suitable for fans, blowers, pumps, and compressors, in which the load torque is proportional to the square of the rotating speed. Particular attention is paid to the dc-capacitor voltage fluctuation of each chopper-cell because it may affect the voltage rating of the power switching devices used. This paper describes the theoretical equations related to the amount of the voltage fluctuation. A downscaled model rated at 400V and 15kW is designed and built to confirm the validity and effectiveness of the nine-level (17-level in line-to-line) PWM inverter that is intended for use in medium-voltage motor drives to achieve energy savings.

  16. Inverting Source Time Functions to determine the fault kinematic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toraldo Serra, E. M.; Orefice, A.; Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.

    2012-04-01

    In seismology, the analisys of source kinematic parameters (slip-rate and rupture velocity ecc.) is a fundamental way to study the time-history of the rupture process that occurs during a seismic event. To this end various method to reconstruct source kinematics models from the inversion of seismogram have been proposed during the time. In this work we present an alternative methodology to infer source models. We aim, indeed, at obtaining the slip and rupture velocity distribution on the fault plane inverting the apparent Source Time Functions (STFs). This kind of analysis, rather than a classical inversion based on a direct study of seismograms recorded at various stations, may have several advantages. A major advantage is related to the possibility to overcome in the forward modeling any problem related to the computation of the Green's function, as the choice of the correct and reliable propagation model. To retrieve reliable STF, we apply the stabilized deconvolution technique proposed by Vallée [2004]. Based on Empirical Green's Functions (EGF) approach, this technique integrates in the deconvolution process four physical constraints on the STFs, that are causality, positivity, limited duration, and equal area. In any case the EGF approach suffers from certain limitations related to the selection of valuable Empirical Green Function, especially for small events. The approach used to invert the STFs is based on the technique of Emolo and Zollo [2005] to invert strong-motion data. In particular, the slip and the rupture velocity values are specified only at a set of control-points on the fault plane and their distributions on the whole fault are then obtained by a bicubic interpolation. The final slip and rupture velocity values at the fault-grid nodes are then determined by searching for the maximum of a fitness function (based of comparison between real and synthetic STFs) by using the Genetic Algorithm. The number of control-points is progressively increased

  17. Baseline Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels for Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Predictor of Poor Prognosis and Subsequent Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Guanqun; Tang Linglong; Mao Yanping; Chen Lei; Li Wenfei; Sun Ying; Liu Lizhi; Li Li; Lin Aihua; Ma Jun

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Cases of NPC (n = 465) that involved treatment with IMRT with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The mean ({+-}SD) and median baseline serum LDH levels for this cohort were 172.77 {+-} 2.28 and 164.00 IU/L, respectively. Levels of LDH were significantly elevated in patients with locoregionally advanced disease (p = 0.016). Elevated LDH levels were identified as a prognostic factor for rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), with p values <0.001 in the univariate analysis and p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively, in the multivariate analysis. Correspondingly, the prognostic impact of patient LDH levels was found to be statistically significant for rates of OS, DFS, and DMFS (p = 0.028, 0.024, and 0.020, respectively). For patients who experienced subsequent liver failure after treatment, markedly higher pretreatment serum LDH levels were detected compared with patients experiencing distant metastasis events at other sites (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Elevated baseline LDH levels are associated with clinically advanced disease and are a poor prognosticator for OS, DFS, and DMFS for NPC patients. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of LDH should be considered when evaluating treatment options.

  18. A new inverter topology using GTO commutation. [Gate Turn Off thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    A new N-phase, forced commutated bridge inverter topology has been developed wherein a single Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO) is used to commutate each of 2N main Thyristors (SCRs). Since, for most applications, the primary loss mechanism is the SCR forward drop, very high efficiencies are possible. Compared with conventional pure SCR and pure GTO inverters, cost per kW is lower - in the former case due to the large cost differential between GTOs and SCRs. Other advantages of the new inverter include high power density, low switching losses and stresses, modulation flexibility and amenability to high voltage and high frequency operation.

  19. A low voltage programmable unipolar inverter with a gold nanoparticle monolayer on plastic.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Huang, Long-Biao; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Li; Roy, V A L

    2013-05-24

    A programmable low voltage unipolar inverter with saturated-load configuration has been demonstrated on a plastic substrate. A self-assembled monolayer of gold (Au) nanoparticles was inserted into the dielectric layer acting as a charge trapping layer. The inverter operated well with supply voltages of < - 5 V and the switching voltage was tuned in a wide range under low program/erase bias. The retention and endurance test at ambient conditions confirmed the reliability of the inverter. Furthermore, the programmable behavior was maintained well at various bending states, demonstrating the adequate flexibility of our devices.

  20. A stereoscopic diagonal inverter (SDI) for wide-angle vitreous surgery.

    PubMed

    Spitznas, M; Reiner, J

    1987-01-01

    All known methods of wide-angle observation of the fundus deliver an inverted image. To overcome these difficulties a stereoscopic diagonal inverter (SDI) was developed, which serves as an accessory to the operating microscope. This device permits the microscopic image to be vertically inverted and laterally reversed, while retaining full stereopsis, and thus makes wide-angle observation devices such as the Rodenstock Panfundoscope contact lens (150 degrees) and a modified version of the binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (70 degrees-90 degrees) usable in vitreous microsurgery.