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Sample records for level prenatal alcohol

  1. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  2. Moderate Level Alcohol During Pregnancy, Prenatal Stress, or Both and Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Response to Stress in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure, prenatal stress, and postnatal response to a challenging event in 6-month-old rhesus monkeys. Forty-one rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) infants were exposed prenatally to moderate level alcohol, maternal stress, or both. Offspring plasma cortisol and…

  3. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enriched environment attenuates changes in water-maze performance and BDNF level caused by prenatal alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tipyasang, Rungpiyada; Kunwittaya, Sarun; Mukda, Sujira; Kotchabhakdi, Nittaya J.; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can result in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), characterized by significant changes in the physiology, structural plasticity of hippocampal function, including long-term deficits in learning and memory. Environmental enrichment has long been known to improve motor and cognitive function levels, causes several neurochemical and morphological alterations in the brain. Therefore, the effects of environmental enrichment on the neurobehavioral and neurotrophic changes in mice exposed prenatally to alcohol were investigated in this study. The pregnant dams were given 25 % ethanol (w/v) or isocaloric sucrose by liquid diet from gestation day 7 to 20. After weaning on postnatal day 28, offspring were exposed to standard cage (CC, CFAS) or enriched living conditions (CE, EFAS) for 8 weeks. Neurobehavioral studies both on hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and place and cue learning strategy, a striatum-dependent test, were measured by the Morris water maze task. Moreover, the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was also used in order to study the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in both the hippocampus and striatum of mice. Neurobehavioral studies show that animals exposed prenatally to alcohol were impaired as shown in both hippocampal-dependent spatial/place and striatal-dependent response/cue learning tests. Moreover, the levels of BDNF expression both in the hippocampus and striatum of mice were also decreased. Interestingly, environmental enrichment can ameliorate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure both on the neurobehavioral and neurotrophic levels. These observations indicated that enriched environment attenuated memory impairment of prenatal alcohol exposure both in hippocampal and striatal circuitry. PMID:26417281

  5. Moderate Level Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Induces Sex Differences in Dopamine D1 Receptor Binding in Adult Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Alexander K.; Moore, Colleen F.; Holden, James E.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Moirano, Jeffrey M.; Larson, Julie A.; Resch, Leslie M.; DeJesus, Onofre T.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Murali, Dhanabalan; Christian, Bradley T.; Schneider, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined the effects of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and/or prenatal stress exposure on D1 receptor binding in a nonhuman primate model. The dopamine D1 receptor is involved in executive function, and it may play a role in cognitive behavioral deficits associated with prenatal alcohol and/or stress exposure. Little is known, however, about the effects of prenatal alcohol and/or stress exposure on the D1 receptor. We expected that prenatal insults would lead to alterations in D1 receptor binding in prefrontal cortex and striatum in adulthood. Methods Rhesus macaque females were randomly assigned to moderate alcohol exposure and/or mild prenatal stress as well as a control condition during pregnancy. Thirty eight offspring were raised identically and studied as adults by non-invasive in vivo neuroimaging using positron emission tomography (PET) with the D1 antagonist radiotracer [11C]SCH 23390. Radiotracer binding in prefrontal cortex and striatum was evaluated by 2 (alcohol) × 2 (stress) × 2 (sex) analysis of variance. Results In prefrontal cortex, a significant alcohol × sex interaction was observed with prenatal alcohol exposure leading to increased [11C]SCH 23390 binding in male monkeys. No main effect of prenatal alcohol or prenatal stress exposure was observed. Conclusions These results suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure results in long-term increases in prefrontal dopamine D1 receptor binding in males. This may help explain gender differences in the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders consequent to prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25581649

  6. Timing of Moderate Level Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Influences Gene Expression of Sensory Processing Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Larson, Julie A.; Barr, Christina S.; DeJesus, Onofre T.; Roberts, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory processing disorder, characterized by over- or under-responsivity to non-noxious environmental stimuli, is a common but poorly understood disorder. We examined the role of prenatal alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR), and striatal dopamine (DA) function on behavioral measures of sensory responsivity to repeated non-noxious sensory stimuli in macaque monkeys. Results indicated that early gestation alcohol exposure induced behavioral under-responsivity to environmental stimuli in monkeys carrying the short (s) rh5-HTTLPR allele compared to both early-exposed monkeys homozygous for the long (l) allele and monkeys from middle-to-late exposed pregnancies and controls, regardless of genotype. Moreover, prenatal timing of alcohol exposure altered the relationship between sensory scores and DA D2R availability. In early-exposed monkeys, a positive relationship was shown between sensory scores and DA D2R availability, with low or blunted DA function associated with under-responsive sensory function. The opposite pattern was found for the middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group. These findings raise questions about how the timing of prenatal perturbation and genotype contributes to effects on neural processing and possibly alters neural connections. PMID:19936317

  7. Playfulness and prenatal alcohol exposure: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pearton, Jordan Louise; Ramugondo, Elelwani; Cloete, Lizahn; Cordier, Reinie

    2014-08-01

    South Africa carries a high burden of alcohol abuse. The effects of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy are most pronounced in poor, rural communities. Earlier research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure have poor social behaviour; however, to date, no research has investigated their playfulness. This study investigated the differences in playfulness of children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Grade one learners with a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) and a reference group without a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) were filmed engaging in free play at their schools. The Test of Playfulness was used to measure playfulness from recordings. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis to calculate interval level measure scores for each participant. The overall measure scores and individual Test of Playfulness social items were subjected to paired samples t-tests to calculate if significant differences existed between the groups. Children with prenatal alcohol exposure had a significantly lower mean overall playfulness score than the reference group (t = -2.51; d.f. = 28; P = 0.02). Children with prenatal alcohol exposure also scored significantly lower than the reference group on 5 of the 12 Test of Playfulness items related to social play. This research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure are more likely to experience poorer overall quality of play, with particular deficits in social play. Considering play is a child's primary occupation, this finding becomes pertinent for occupational therapy practice, particularly in post-apartheid South Africa, where high prenatal alcohol exposure prevalence rates are couched within persistent socio-economic inequalities. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  9. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  10. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Behavior: Rodent and Primate Studies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Colleen F.; Adkins, Miriam M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alcohol by women during pregnancy is a continuing problem. In this review the behavioral effects of prenatal alcohol from animal models are described and related to studies of children and adults with FASD. Studies with monkeys and rodents show that prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects neonatal orienting, attention and motor maturity, as well as activity level, executive function, response inhibition, and sensory processing later in life. The primate moderate dose behavioral findings fill an important gap between human correlational data and rodent mechanistic research. These animal findings are directly translatable to human findings. Moreover, primate studies that manipulated prenatal alcohol exposure and prenatal stress independently show that prenatal stress exacerbates prenatal alcohol-induced behavioral impairments, underscoring the need to consider stress-induced effects in fetal alcohol research. Studies in rodents and primates show long-term effects of prenatal and developmental alcohol exposure on dopamine system functioning, which could underpin the behavioral effects. PMID:21499982

  11. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  12. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  13. Sensory Processing Disorder in a Primate Model: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Alcohol and Prenatal Stress Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Gajewski, Lisa L.; Larson, Julie A.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Converse, Alexander K.; DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted sensory processing, characterized by over- or underresponsiveness to environmental stimuli, has been reported in children with a variety of developmental disabilities. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress and moderate-level prenatal alcohol exposure on tactile sensitivity and its relationship to striatal dopamine system…

  14. Cortical miscommunication after prenatal exposure to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Scott M; Vydrová, Rosa R; Leuthold, Arthur C; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-11-01

    We report on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on resting-state brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG). We studied 37 subjects diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in one of three categories: fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. For each subject, the MEG signal was recorded for 60 s during rest while subjects lay supine. Using time series analysis, we calculated the synchronous neural interactions for all pair-wise combinations of 248 MEG sensors resulting in 30,628 partial correlations for each subject. We found significant differences from control subjects in 6.19 % of the partial zero-lag crosscorrelations (synchronous neural interactions; Georgopoulos et al. in J Neural Eng 4:349-355, 2007), with these differences localized in the right posterior frontal, right parietal, and left parietal/posterior frontal regions. These results show that MEG can detect functional brain differences in the individuals affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Furthermore, these differences may serve as a biomarker for future studies linking symptoms and signs to specific brain areas. This may lead to new insights into the neuropathology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  15. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on development in rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Abou, Elizabeth J; Dominguez, Hector D

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a range of physical, neurological, and behavioral alterations referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Variability in outcome observed among children with FASD is likely related to various pre- and postnatal factors, including nutritional variables. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent animal research indicates that prenatal choline supplementation leads to long-lasting cognitive enhancement, as well as changes in brain morphology, electrophysiology and neurochemistry. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during ethanol exposure effectively reduces fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant dams were exposed to 6.0g/kg/day ethanol via intubation from gestational days (GD) 5-20; pair-fed and lab chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group received choline chloride (250mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Physical development and behavioral development (righting reflex, geotactic reflex, cliff avoidance, reflex suspension and hindlimb coordination) were examined. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited reduced birth weight and brain weight, delays in eye opening and incisor emergence, and alterations in the development of all behaviors. Choline supplementation significantly attenuated ethanol's effects on birth and brain weight, incisor emergence, and most behavioral measures. In fact, behavioral performance of ethanol-exposed subjects treated with choline did not differ from that of controls. Importantly, choline supplementation did not influence peak blood alcohol level or metabolism, indicating that choline's effects were not due to differential alcohol exposure. These data indicate early dietary supplements may reduce the severity of some fetal alcohol effects, findings with important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.

  16. Prenatal alcohol exposure, blood alcohol concentrations and alcohol elimination rates for the mother, fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Blair, J; Dropps, K

    2012-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a common cause of intellectual impairment and birth defects. More recently, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to be a risk factor for fetal mortality, stillbirth and infant and child mortality. This has led to increased concern about detection and management of PAE. One to 2 h after maternal ingestion, fetal blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) reach levels nearly equivalent to maternal levels. Ethanol elimination by the fetus is impaired because of reduced metabolic capacity. Fetal exposure time is prolonged owing to the reuptake of amniotic-fluid containing ethanol by the fetus. Alcohol elimination from the fetus relies on the mother's metabolic capacity. Metabolic capacity among pregnant women varies eightfold (from 0.0025 to 0.02 g dl(-1)  h(-1)), which may help explain how similar amounts of ethanol consumption during pregnancy results in widely varying phenotypic presentations of FASD. At birth physiological changes alter the neonate's metabolic capacity and it rapidly rises to a mean value of 83.5% of the mother's capacity. FASDs are highly recurrent and younger siblings have increased risk. Detection of prenatal alcohol use offers an important opportunity for office-based interventions to decrease exposure for the remainder of pregnancy and identification of women who need substance abuse treatment. Mothers of children with FAS have been found to drink faster, get drunk quicker and to have higher BACs. A modest increase in the prevalence of a polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, which increases susceptibility to adverse outcomes from PAE has been reported. Lastly, detection of alcohol use and appropriate management would decrease risk from PAE for subsequent pregnancies.

  17. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  18. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Infant Information Processing Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A total of 403 black, inner-city infants born to women recruited prenatally on basis of their alcohol consumption during pregnancy were assessed on a battery of tests focusing on information processing and complexity of play. Increased prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with longer fixation duration, a result indicative of less efficient…

  19. Memory and Brain Volume in Adults Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Chen, Xiangchuan; Kable, Julie A.; Johnson, Katrina C.; Hu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on memory and brain development was investigated in 92 African-American, young adults who were first identified in the prenatal period. Three groups (Control, n = 26; Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder, n = 36; and Dysmorphic, n = 30) were imaged using structural MRI with brain volume calculated for…

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure potentiates chronic neuropathic pain, spinal glial and immune cell activation and alters sciatic nerve and DRG cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Noor, Shahani; Sanchez, Joshua J; Vanderwall, Arden G; Sun, Melody S; Maxwell, Jessie R; Davies, Suzy; Jantzie, Lauren L; Petersen, Timothy R; Savage, Daniel D; Milligan, Erin D

    2017-03-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may predispose individuals to secondary medical disabilities later in life. Animal models of PAE reveal neuroimmune sequelae such as elevated brain astrocyte and microglial activation with corresponding region-specific changes in immune signaling molecules such as cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate PAE on the development and maintenance of allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in adult male rat offspring. Because CCI allodynia requires the actions of glial cytokines, we analyzed lumbar spinal cord glial and immune cell surface markers indicative of their activation levels, as well as sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cytokines in PAE offspring in adulthood. While PAE did not alter basal sensory thresholds before or after sham manipulations, PAE significantly potentiated adult onset and maintenance of allodynia. Microscopic analysis revealed exaggerated astrocyte and microglial activation, while flow cytometry data demonstrated increased proportions of immune cells with cell surface major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) and β-integrin adhesion molecules, which are indicative of PAE-induced immune cell activation. Sciatic nerves from CCI rats revealed that PAE potentiated the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) protein levels with a simultaneous robust suppression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. A profound reduction in IL-10 expression in the DRG of PAE neuropathic rats was also observed. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the vulnerability that PAE produces for adult-onset central nervous system (CNS) pathological conditions from peripheral nerve injury.

  1. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  2. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E.; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5–19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  3. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  4. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  5. The relationship between prenatal care, personal alcohol abuse and alcohol abuse in the home environment.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R; Ondersma, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman's home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures.

  6. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p < .001) and ADHD (p < .001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population

  7. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects vasculature development in the neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    Jégou, Sylvie; El Ghazi, Faiza; de Lendeu, Pamela Kwetieu; Marret, Stéphane; Laudenbach, Vincent; Uguen, Arnaud; Marcorelles, Pascale; Roy, Vincent; Laquerrière, Annie; Gonzalez, Bruno José

    2012-12-01

    In humans, antenatal alcohol exposure elicits various developmental disorders, in particular in the brain. Numerous studies focus on the deleterious effects of alcohol on neural cells. Although recent studies suggest that alcohol can affect angiogenesis in adults, the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain microvasculature remains poorly understood. We used a mouse model to investigate effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular network in vivo and ex vivo and the action of alcohol, glutamate, and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) on activity, plasticity, and survival of microvessels. We used quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, calcimetry, and videomicroscopy. We characterized the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cortical microvascular network in human controls and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/partial FAS (pFAS) patients at different developmental stages. In mice, prenatal alcohol exposure induced a reduction of cortical vascular density, loss of the radial orientation of microvessels, and altered expression of VEGF receptors. Time-lapse experiments performed on brain slices revealed that ethanol inhibited glutamate-induced calcium mobilization in endothelial cells, affected plasticity, and promoted death of microvessels. These effects were prevented by VEGF. In humans, we evidenced a stage-dependent alteration of the vascular network in the cortices of fetuses with pFAS/FAS. Whereas no modification was observed from gestational week 20 (WG20) to WG22, the radial organization of cortical microvessels was clearly altered in pFAS/FAS patients from WG30 to WG38. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects cortical angiogenesis both in mice and in pFAS/FAS patients, suggesting that vascular defects contribute to alcohol-induced brain abnormalities. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  8. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  9. Biomarkers for the Detection of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bager, Heidi; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Husby, Steffen; Bjerregaard, Lene

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing literature. Studies were selected to give an overview on clinically relevant neonatal and maternal biomarkers. The direct biomarkers fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) were found to be the most appropriate biomarkers in relation to detection of PAE. To review each biomarker in a clinical context, we have compared the advantages and disadvantages of each biomarker, in relation to its window of detectability, ease of collection, and the ease and cost of analysis of each biomarker. The biomarkers PEth, FAEEs, and EtG were found to be applicable for detection of even low levels of alcohol exposure. Meconium is an accessible matrix for determination of FAEEs and EtG, and blood an accessible matrix for determination of PEth.

  10. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  11. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure assessment: multiple embedded measures in a prenatal questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Burd, Larry; Martsolf, John; Klug, Marilyn G; O'Connor, Ellen; Peterson, Marlene

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy is a well-recognized public health problem. Accurate assessment of prenatal alcohol exposure is especially important to identify women in need of intervention. In this study, a 36-item prenatal questionnaire was utilized to survey a representative sample of prenatal care providers to examine prevalence rates of exposure. The questionnaire included three common screening tools for alcohol use during pregnancy and the items necessary to establish a maternal risk profile. In North Dakota, 1081 pregnant women were included in the sample. Eighty (7.4%) were Native American and 952 (88%) were White. The TWEAK screening tool was positive for 253 (23.4%) of the women. Native American women had a 71% increase in positive TWEAK screenings compared to White women. Logistic regression was used to develop a high-risk model. The data from prenatal care can also be used for maternal risk stratification. Early identification can provide opportunity for early interventions to decrease total exposure during pregnancy and to improve the outcome for the child.

  13. Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Possible Prenatal Alcohol-Related Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Special Education Branch.

    This guide provides a review of the characteristics of children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or possible prenatal alcohol-related effects (PPAE) and describes specific intervention strategies. Section 1 offers a general review of the diagnostic procedures, the prevalence of FAS and the physical, educational, and behavioral characteristics of…

  14. The impact of maternal age on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on attention.

    PubMed

    Chiodo, Lisa M; da Costa, David E; Hannigan, John H; Covington, Chandice Y; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Greenwald, Mark; Ager, Joel; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol has a variety of morphologic and neurobehavioral consequences, yet more than 10% of women continue to drink during pregnancy, placing their offspring at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Identification of at-risk pregnancies has been difficult, in part, because the presence and severity of FASD are influenced by factors beyond the pattern of alcohol consumption. Establishing maternal characteristics, such as maternal age, that increase the risk of FASD is critical for targeted pregnancy intervention. We examined the moderating effect of maternal age on measures of attention in 462 children from a longitudinal cohort born to women with known alcohol consumption levels (absolute ounces of alcohol per day at conception) who were recruited during pregnancy. Analyses examined the impact of binge drinking, as average ounces of absolute alcohol per drinking day. Smoking and use of cocaine, marijuana, and opiates were also assessed. At 7 years of age, the children completed the Continuous Performance Test, and their teachers completed the Achenbach Teacher Report Form. After controlling for covariates, stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed a negative relation between levels of prenatal binge drinking and several measures of attention. The interaction between alcohol consumption and maternal age was also significant, indicating that the impact of maternal binge drinking during pregnancy on attention was greater among children born to older drinking mothers. These findings are consistent with previous findings that children born to older alcohol-using women have more deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on other neurobehavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. What Research Is Being Done on Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Russian Research Community?

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. Results: The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Conclusions: Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD. PMID:24158024

  16. What research is being done on prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in the Russian research community?

    PubMed

    Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD.

  17. Co-regulation of movement speed and accuracy by children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Roger W; Madra, Naju J; Levy, Susan S; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-02-01

    The study investigated how children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure regulate movement speed and accuracy during goal-directed movements. 16 children ages 7 to 17 years with confirmed histories of heavy in utero alcohol exposure, and 21 nonalcohol-exposed control children completed a series of reciprocal tapping movements between two spatial targets. 5 different targets sets were presented, representing a range of task difficulty between 2 and 6 bits of information. Estimates of percent error rate, movement time, slope, and linear fit of the resulting curve confirmed that for goal-directed, reciprocal tapping responses, performance of the group with prenatal alcohol exposure was described by a linear function, as predicted by Fitts' law, by sacrificing movement accuracy. The index of performance was the same for the two groups: it initially increased, then leveled off for more difficult movements.

  18. Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Sobrian, Sonya K.; Holson, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently complex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking, and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms, and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation. PMID:22144967

  19. NGF and BDNF Alterations by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Mauro; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Coccurello, Roberto; Ciafrè, Stefania; Tirassa, Paola; Fiore, Marco

    2017-08-24

    It is now widely established the devastating effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the embryo and fetus development causing marked cognitive and neurobiological deficits in the newborns. The negative effects of the gestational alcohol use have been well documented and known for some time. However, also the subtle role of alcohol consumption by fathers prior to mating is drawing special attention. Both paternal and maternal alcohol exposure have been shown to affect the neurotrophins&#039; signalling pathways in the brain and in target organs of ethanol intoxication. Neurotrophins, in particular nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are molecules playing a pivotal role in the survival, development and function of the peripheral and central nervous systems but also in the pathogenesis of developmental defects caused by alcohol exposure. New researches from the available literature and experimental data from our laboratory are presented in this review to offer the most recent findings regarding the effects of maternal and paternal prenatal ethanol exposure especially on the neurotrophins&#039; signalling pathways. NGF and BDNF changes play a subtle role in short- and long-lasting effects of alcohol in ethanol target tissues, including neuronal cell death and severe cognitive and physiological deficits in the newborns. The review suggests a possible therapeutic intervention based on the use of specific molecules with antioxidant properties in order to induce a potential prevention of the harmful effects of the paternal and/or maternal alcohol exposure. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Relationship of prenatal alcohol use with maternal and prenatal factors in American Indian women.

    PubMed

    Kvigne, V L; Bull, L B; Welty, T K; Leonardson, G R; Lacina, L

    1998-01-01

    Demographic factors and patterns of substance use among women who did not consume alcohol during pregnancy were compared to women who did consume alcohol during pregnancy. One-hundred seventy-seven Northern Plains Indian women who received prenatal care at an urban clinic in a rural state were screened for substance use as part of the validation study with a self-administered questionnaire. Women who drank during pregnancy were more likely to be single and have less education than women who did not drink. While most of the women in the study had available transportation resources, the women who drank during pregnancy were less likely to have transportation than the women who did not drink. Women who drank during pregnancy consumed more alcohol more frequently before pregnancy than did women who drank before but not during pregnancy. Compared to women who did not drink during pregnancy, women who drank during pregnancy were more likely to smoke cigarettes and use illicit drugs, to have parents who drank, to feel they drank the same or more than other pregnant women, or to have experienced more relationship breakups and physical and emotional abuse. Prenatal patients who drink alcohol during pregnancy need more intensive counseling regarding their multiple risk behaviors.

  1. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  2. Human Brain Abnormalities Associated With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jarmasz, Jessica S; Basalah, Duaa A; Chudley, Albert E; Del Bigio, Marc R

    2017-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a common neurodevelopmental problem, but neuropathologic descriptions are rare and focused on the extreme abnormalities. We conducted a retrospective survey (1980-2016) of autopsies on 174 individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure or an FASD diagnosis. Epidemiologic details and neuropathologic findings were categorized into 5 age groups. Alcohol exposure was difficult to quantify. When documented, almost all mothers smoked tobacco, many abused other substances, and prenatal care was poor or nonexistent. Placental abnormalities were common (68%) in fetal cases. We identified micrencephaly (brain weight <5th percentile) in 31, neural tube defects in 5, isolated hydrocephalus in 6, corpus callosum defects in 6 (including some with complex anomalies), probable prenatal ischemic lesions in 5 (excluding complications of prematurity), minor subarachnoid heterotopias in 4, holoprosencephaly in 1, lissencephaly in 1, and cardiac anomalies in 26 cases. The brain abnormalities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure are varied; cause-effect relationships cannot be determined. FASD is likely not a monotoxic disorder. The animal experimental literature, which emphasizes controlled exposure to ethanol alone, is therefore inadequate. Prevention must be the main societal goal, however, a clear understanding of the neuropathology is necessary for provision of care to individuals already affected. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

  3. Neurobehavioral effects of prenatal alcohol: Part II. Partial least squares analysis.

    PubMed

    Sampson, P D; Streissguth, A P; Barr, H M; Bookstein, F L

    1989-01-01

    This paper, the second in a series of three, introduces Partial Least Squares (PLS) methods for assessing the effects of moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure on performance and behavior in young school-age children. Studies of human behavioral teratology pose statistical problems for which standard multiple regression methods are inadequate. Prenatal alcohol exposure, the teratogenic "dose," can be assessed only indirectly through a variety of measures of alcohol consumption. Similarly, the behavioral outcomes we examine--IQ, achievement, classroom behavior, and vigilance--are each measured indirectly in terms of multiple items or indicators. We find that a single latent variable, estimated as a linear combination of the measures of alcohol consumption, provides an appropriate measure of "dose" for summarizing the relationships between alcohol exposure and each of the four blocks of outcome variables. A pattern of alcohol consumption emphasizing binge behavior (i.e., reporting average consumption of multiple drinks per drinking occasion, or at least five drinks on any single occasion) in the period prior to recognition of pregnancy is significantly correlated with latent variables computed from each of the four outcome blocks: IQ, academic achievement, classroom behavior and attention/vigilance.

  4. Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure have different frequency domain signal characteristics when producing isometric force.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tanya T; Ashrafi, Ashkan; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P; Simmons, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    To extend our current understanding of the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the control of isometric force, the present study investigated the signal characteristics of power spectral density functions resulting from sustained control of isometric force by children with and without heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. It was predicted that the functions associated with the force signals would be fundamentally different for the two groups. Twenty-five children aged between 7 and 17 years with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 21 non-alcohol exposed control children attempted to duplicate a visually represented target force by pressing on a load cell. The level of target force (5 and 20% of maximum voluntary force) and the time interval between visual feedback (20 ms, 320 ms and 740 ms) were manipulated. A multivariate spectral estimation method with sinusoidal windows was applied to individual isometric force-time signals. Analysis of the resulting power spectral density functions revealed that the alcohol-exposed children had a lower mean frequency, less spectral variability, greater peak power and a lower frequency at which peak power occurred. Furthermore, mean frequency and spectral variability produced by the alcohol-exposed group remained constant across target load and visual feedback interval, suggesting that these children were limited to making long-time scale corrections to the force signal. In contrast, the control group produced decreased mean frequency and spectral variability as target force and the interval between visual feedback increased, indicating that when feedback was frequently presented these children used the information to make short-time scale adjustments to the ongoing force signal. Knowledge of these differences could facilitate the design of motor rehabilitation exercises that specifically target isometric force control deficits in alcohol-exposed children.

  5. Central and Peripheral Timing Variability in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Roger W.; Levy, Susan S.; Riley, Edward P.; Madra, Naju M.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2008-01-01

    Background The study examined whether prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with increased motor timing variability when the timing response is partitioned into central clock variability, which indexes information processing at the central nervous system (CNS) level and motor delay variability, which reflects timing processes at the level of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Methods Eighteen children with histories of prenatal alcohol exposure and 22 control children were assigned to young (7–11 years) or older (12–17 years) groups. Children tapped a single response key with the index finger in synchrony with a series of externally generated tones (the paced phase). At the conclusion of these tones, children continued tapping (the continuation phase) while attempting to maintain the same rate of tapping imposed by the paced phase. Two blocks of tapping were completed with inter-tone-intervals set at either 400 or 900 ms. Inter-response interval, central clock variability, and motor delay variability produced during the continuation phase were the dependent variables. Results Mean inter-response interval for the four groups did not differ for either time interval. Central clock variability produced by the young alcohol-exposed group was significantly greater than the two older groups for the 400 ms interval and all other groups for the 900 ms interval. Motor delay variability produced by the young alcohol-exposed group was significantly greater than the other three groups for both time intervals. Central and motor delay variability in children with and without alcohol exposure was directly related to the duration of the interval to be reproduced. Conclusions Central and peripheral timing variability was significantly greater for the young alcohol-exposed children. This atypical timing may be related to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, although the negative effects are limited to younger alcohol-exposed children since there were no differences in central

  6. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  7. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  8. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  9. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  10. Discriminating the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure From Other Behavioral and Learning Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Claire D.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are underdiagnosed in general treatment settings. Among the factors involved in identifying the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are (1) the evidence for prenatal alcohol exposure; (2) the effects of the postnatal, caregiving environment; (3) comorbidities; and (4) differential diagnosis, which includes identifying the neurodevelopmental effects of alcohol and discriminating these effects from those characterizing other conditions. This article reviews findings on the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, including learning and memory, motor and sensory/motor effects, visual/spatial skills, and executive functioning and effortful control. Encouraging clinicians to discriminate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure from other conditions may require more education and training but ultimately will improve outcomes for affected children. PMID:23580040

  11. Associative DNA methylation changes in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Benjamin I; Kapalanga, Joachim; Castellani, Christina A; Diehl, Eric J; Yan, Liying; Singh, Shiva M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Previously, we assessed PAE in brain tissue from mouse models, however whether these changes are present in humans remains unknown. In this report, we show some identical changes in DNA methylation in the buccal swabs of six children with FASD using the 450K array. The changes occur in genes related to protocadherins, glutamatergic synapses, and hippo signaling. The results were found to be similar in another heterogeneous replication group of six FASD children. The replicated results suggest that children born with FASD have unique DNA methylation defects that can be influenced by sex and medication exposure. Ultimately, with future clinical development, assessment of DNA methylation from buccal swabs can provide a novel strategy for the diagnosis of FASD.

  12. Effects of pre-natal alcohol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity: Sex, age and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Christine J; Patten, Anna R; Sickmann, Helle M; Helfer, Jennifer L; Christie, Brian R

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol during gestation is detrimental to the developing central nervous system (CNS). The severity of structural and functional brain alterations associated with alcohol intake depends on many factors including the timing and duration of alcohol consumption. The hippocampal formation, a brain region implicated in learning and memory, is highly susceptible to the effects of developmental alcohol exposure. Some of the observed effects of alcohol on learning and memory may be due to changes at the synaptic level, as this teratogen has been repeatedly shown to interfere with hippocampal synaptic plasticity. At the molecular level alcohol interferes with receptor proteins and can disrupt hormones that are important for neuronal signaling and synaptic plasticity. In this review we examine the consequences of prenatal and early postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and highlight the numerous factors that can modulate the effects of alcohol. We also discuss some potential mechanisms responsible for these changes as well as emerging therapeutic avenues that are beginning to be explored.

  13. Perinatal aromatase activity in male and female rats: effect of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F; Roselli, C E; Handa, R J

    1988-12-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been shown to produce long-term feminizing and demasculinizing effects on male rat behaviors which are organizationally dependent upon perinatal androgen levels. Such exposure has previously been shown to suppress the normal surge of testosterone during the critical prenatal period. Since defeminization of male rat behavior is dependent upon estrogen derived from the aromatization of testosterone in brain, brain aromatase activity was measured during the perinatal period in males and females exposed to alcohol beginning on Day 14 of gestation. Aromatase activity was measured in whole hypothalamus of fetuses from Day 16 through 20 of gestation and in the hypothalamic preoptic area and amygdala of animals 6-12 hr postparturition. Hypothalamic aromatase activity was elevated in fetal alcohol exposed males compared to controls on Days 18 and 19 of gestation and on postnatal Day 1. No effect of prenatal alcohol exposure was found in females. A sex effect in aromatase activity in the amygdala was evident on Day 1 when activity was found to be greater in males than females. Overall, these findings indicate that fetal alcohol exposure will elevate regional brain aromatase activity in males, but not females during the perinatal period of neurobehavioral sexual differentiation.

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure and miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Beth A; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    In addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with many other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research suggests that alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. This research has some inherent difficulties, such as the collection of accurate information about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and controlling for comorbid exposures and conditions. Consequently, attributing poor birth outcomes to prenatal alcohol exposure is a complicated and ongoing task, requiring continued attention to validated methodology and to identifying specific biological mechanisms.

  15. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure alters behavior and neuroglial parameters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Brolese, Giovana; Lunardi, Paula; Broetto, Núbia; Engelke, Douglas S; Lírio, Franciane; Batassini, Cristiane; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption by women during gestation has become increasingly common. Although it is widely accepted that exposure to high doses of ethanol has long-lasting detrimental effects on brain development, the case for moderate doses is underappreciated, and benchmark studies have demonstrated structural and behavioral defects associated with moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in humans and animal models. This study aimed to investigate the influence of in utero exposure to moderate levels of ethanol throughout pregnancy on learning/memory, anxiety parameters and neuroglial parameters in adolescent offspring. Female rats were exposed to an experimental protocol throughout gestation up to weaning. After mating, the dams were divided into three groups and treated with only water (control), non-alcoholic beer (vehicle) or 10% (vv) beer solution (moderate prenatal alcohol exposure - MPAE). Adolescent male offspring were subjected to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task to evaluate learning/memory and anxiety-like behavior. Hippocampi were dissected and slices were obtained for immunoquantification of GFAP, NeuN, S100B and the NMDA receptor. The MPAE group clearly presented anxiolytic-like behavior, even though they had learned how to avoid the aversive arm. S100B protein was increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the group treated with alcohol, and alterations in GFAP expression were also shown. This study indicates that moderate ethanol doses administered during pregnancy could induce anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting an increase in risk-taking behavior in adolescent male offspring. Furthermore, the data show the possibility that glial cells are involved in the altered behavior present after prenatal ethanol treatment.

  16. The Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Adolescent Cognitive Processing: A Speed-Accuracy Trade-off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Paul D.; Kerr, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Streissguth, Ann P.; Hunt, Earl; Barr, Helen M.; Bookstein, Fred L.; Thiede, Keith

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of cognitive processing were evaluated for 462 adolescents followed for 14 years. Adolescents had been exposed prenatally to a broad range of maternal drinking, mostly at "social" levels. Alcohol-related deficits on cognitive tasks were summarized by a speed-accuracy trade-off on the spatial-visual reasoning task. (SLD)

  17. Influence of prenatal exposure to cimetidine and alcohol on selected morphological parameters of sexual differentiation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F

    1987-01-01

    Pregnant rats were administered ethanol, cimetidine or a combination of both drugs from day 14 of gestation until parturition. Ano-genital (AG) distance measured at birth was significantly reduced in males exposed to cimetidine, but not in males or females exposed to alcohol. AG distance in males exposed to both ethanol and cimetidine also was not reduced, indicating a possible protective influence of ethanol against this effect of cimetidine. Birthweights in both sexes were reduced by prenatal ethanol exposure, both alone and with cimetidine exposure. Prenatal cimetidine exposure, both alone and in combination with ethanol significantly reduced seminal vesicle weights of adult males. However, no long-term effects of ethanol or cimetidine were observed on adrenal, testicular or ovarian weights. These results indicate that when fetal alcohol exposure is restricted to the critical prenatal period for hormonal actions on sexual differentiation, testosterone levels are maintained at an adequate level for normal morphological development of the genitalia.

  18. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders-- implications for child neurology, part 1: prenatal exposure and dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Paintner, Ashley; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-02-01

    In the United States, approximately 80 000 women consume ethanol through all 3 trimesters of pregnancy each year. In this article, we review prevalence rates of prenatal alcohol exposure in the United States and discuss the mechanisms of prenatal alcohol exposure and placental-umbilical effects. Cigarette smoking and delayed prenatal care are often associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. In addition, increased risk for postnatal adversity is common, including maternal depression, foster care placement, and developmental delay. In part 2, we review prevalence rates and the diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and the implications for child neurologists. We discuss management strategies and the importance of a long-term management plan and anticipatory management to prevent the development of secondary disabilities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Child neurologists play a key role in diagnosis and the development of appropriate intervention programs for affected children and their families.

  19. Comparison of Adaptive Behavior in Children With Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    children with ADHD show impairments in adaptive function relative to controls, but that the pattern of impairment differs between these clinical groups. Adaptive ability in children with prenatal alcohol exposure is characterized by an arrest in development, as evidenced by a lack of improvement with age in socialization and communication scores. In contrast, children with ADHD exhibit a developmental delay in adaptive ability as their scores continued to improve with age, albeit not to the level of control children. Continued research focused on elucidating the patterns of deficits that exist in alcohol-exposed children ultimately will lead to improved differential diagnosis and effective interventions. PMID:19719794

  20. Effects of prenatal alcohol and cigarette exposure on offspring substance use in multiplex, alcohol-dependent families.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jessica W; Hill, Shirley Y

    2014-12-01

    Prenatal exposures to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs of abuse are associated with numerous adverse consequences for affected offspring, including increased risk for substance use and abuse. However, maternal substance use during pregnancy appears to occur more often in those with a family history of alcohol dependence. Utilizing a sample that is enriched for familial alcohol dependence and includes controls selected for virtual absence of familial alcohol dependence could provide important information on the relative contribution of familial risk and prenatal exposures to offspring substance use. A sample of multigenerational families specifically ascertained to be at either high or low risk for developing alcohol dependence (AD) provided biological offspring for a longitudinal prospective study. High-risk families were selected based on the presence of 2 alcohol-dependent sisters. Low-risk families were selected on the basis of minimal first and second-degree relatives with AD. High-risk (HR = 99) and Low-risk offspring (LR = 110) were assessed annually during childhood and biennially in young adulthood regarding their alcohol, drug, and cigarette use. At the first childhood visit, mothers were interviewed concerning their prenatal use of substances. High-risk mothers were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs during pregnancy than low-risk control mothers, and to consume these substances in greater quantities. Across the sample, prenatal exposure to alcohol was associated with increased risk for both offspring cigarette use and substance use disorders (SUD), and prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with increased risk for offspring cigarette use. Controlling for risk status by examining patterns within the HR sample, prenatal cigarette exposure remained a specific predictor of offspring cigarette use, and prenatal alcohol exposure was specifically associated with increased risk for offspring SUD. Women with a family history of

  1. Number processing in adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD: differences in the neurobehavioral phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Joseph L; Dodge, Neil C; Burden, Matthew J; Klorman, Rafael; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2011-03-01

    Poor arithmetic performance is among the most sensitive outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure and is also common in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that prenatal alcohol exposure would be associated with deficits in the most fundamental aspects of number processing, representation of quantity and distance, whereas ADHD would be associated with deficits in calculation, the form of number processing most dependent on attention and memory. Two hundred and sixty-two inner-city, African American adolescents, who had been evaluated prospectively for prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD, were assessed on a number-processing test comprised of 7 subtests. More heavily alcohol-exposed adolescents were 4 times more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD than those whose mothers abstained from alcohol use during pregnancy. Two dimensions of number processing were identified in a factor analysis-magnitude comparison and calculation. As hypothesized, prenatal alcohol exposure was more strongly related to the former and ADHD to the latter. Moreover, the relation of prenatal alcohol to calculation was fully mediated by magnitude comparison, whereas the relation of ADHD to calculation was mediated by IQ but not by magnitude comparison. These data confirm findings from previous studies identifying arithmetic as a particularly sensitive developmental endpoint for prenatal alcohol exposure. Whereas difficulties with arithmetic in ADHD are mediated by domain-general deficits in overall cognitive ability, fetal alcohol-related arithmetic difficulties are mediated primarily by a specific deficit in the core quantity system involving the ability to mentally represent and manipulate number. These data suggest that different interventions are likely to be effective for remediating arithmetic problems in children with prenatal alcohol exposure than in non-exposed children with ADHD. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on

  2. Adoption and Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P., Ed.; Freundlich, Madelyn, Ed.; Brodzinsky, David, Ed.

    As child welfare professionals have become aware of the impact of prenatal substance exposure on children in the adoption process or who are available for adoption, there is a heightened need for understanding a range of issues connected with prenatal alcohol and drug exposure. This book addresses many of these issues, including the impact of…

  3. Handle with Care: Helping Children Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Sylvia Fernandez; And Others

    Intended for teachers and caregivers who deal with children exposed prenatally to substance abuse, this book gives a general overview of the problem of prenatal substance exposure, describes some of the common issues for children living in drug and alcohol involved families, and offers some practical suggestions for helping these children and…

  4. A Framework for Addressing the Needs of Students Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Silvana M. R.; Westby, Carol E.; Gable, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review learning and behavioral problems of children exposed prenatally to alcohol and other drugs, focusing on executive-function deficits such as difficulty shifting tasks, maintaining attention, and manipulating information in working memory. They discuss various risk factors associated with prenatal drug exposure so…

  5. A Framework for Addressing the Needs of Students Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Silvana M. R.; Westby, Carol E.; Gable, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review learning and behavioral problems of children exposed prenatally to alcohol and other drugs, focusing on executive-function deficits such as difficulty shifting tasks, maintaining attention, and manipulating information in working memory. They discuss various risk factors associated with prenatal drug exposure so…

  6. Adoption and Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P., Ed.; Freundlich, Madelyn, Ed.; Brodzinsky, David, Ed.

    As child welfare professionals have become aware of the impact of prenatal substance exposure on children in the adoption process or who are available for adoption, there is a heightened need for understanding a range of issues connected with prenatal alcohol and drug exposure. This book addresses many of these issues, including the impact of…

  7. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol and Cigarette Exposure on Offspring Substance Use in Multiplex, Alcohol-Dependent Families

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Jessica W.; Hill, Shirley Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposures to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs of abuse are associated with numerous adverse consequences for affected offspring, including increased risk for substance use and abuse. However, maternal substance use during pregnancy appears to occur more often in those with a family history of alcohol dependence. Utilizing a sample that is enriched for familial alcohol dependence and includes controls selected for virtual absence of familial alcohol dependence could provide important information on the relative contribution of familial risk and prenatal exposures to offspring substance use. Methods A sample of multigenerational families specifically ascertained to be at either high or low risk for developing alcohol dependence (AD) provided biological offspring for a longitudinal prospective study. High-Risk families were selected based on the presence of two alcohol dependent sisters. Low-Risk families were selected on the basis of minimal first and second degree relatives with AD. High-Risk (HR=99) and Low-Risk offspring (LR=110) were assessed annually during childhood and biennially in young-adulthood regarding their alcohol, drug, and cigarette use. At the first childhood visit mothers were interviewed concerning their prenatal use of substances. Results High-Risk mothers were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs during pregnancy than Low-Risk control mothers, and to consume these substances in greater quantities. Across the sample, prenatal exposure to alcohol was associated with increased risk for both offspring cigarette use and substance use disorders (SUD), and prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with increased risk for offspring cigarette use. Controlling for risk status by examining patterns within the HR sample, prenatal cigarette exposure remained a specific predictor of offspring cigarette use, and prenatal alcohol exposure was specifically associated with increased risk for offspring SUD. Conclusions

  8. Epilogue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure--Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.; Way, Ineke

    2007-01-01

    This epilogue summarizes the six articles presented in the clinical forum focused on understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure. It presents common themes that emerged among the articles and future research directions.

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure and language delay in 2-year-old children: the importance of dose and timing on risk.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Colleen; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L; Dixon, Glenys; Bower, Carol

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of dose and timing of prenatal alcohol exposure with early language acquisition. We examined language delay in a randomly selected, population-based sample of Western Australian children born in 1995-1996 whose mothers had agreed to participate in a longitudinal study on health-related behaviors and who had completed the 2-year questionnaire (N = 1739). Information on alcohol consumption was collected at 3 months after birth for four periods; the three months pre-pregnancy and for each trimester separately. Prenatal alcohol exposure was grouped into none, low, moderate-heavy and binge (>5) based on the total quantity consumed per week, quantity consumed per occasion, and frequency of consumption. The communication scale from the Ages & Stages Questionnaire was used to evaluate language delay. Logistic regression analysis was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for confounding factors. There was no association between low levels of alcohol consumption and language delay at any time period, although there was a nonsignificant 30% increase in risk when moderate-to-heavy levels of alcohol were consumed in the third trimester. Children exposed to a binge pattern of maternal alcohol consumption in the second trimester had nonsignificant, three-fold increased odds of language delay, with a similar estimate following third trimester alcohol exposure after controlling for covariates. This study did not detect an association between low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and language delay when compared with women who abstained from alcohol during pregnancy. A nonsignificant threefold increase in the likelihood of language delay was seen in children whose mothers binged during late pregnancy. However, the small numbers of women with a binge-drinking pattern in late pregnancy limited the power of this study; studies analyzing larger numbers of children exposed to binge drinking in late

  10. Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A

    2006-12-01

    Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor

  11. The incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Magri, Raquel; Gareri, Joey N; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Epidemiologic studies regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy have concentrated on North America, but recent reports have suggested that consumption is significant in many parts of the world. In Uruguay, alcohol consumption has changed into more risky and dangerous patterns and thus has a theoretical risk of having a high rate of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study characterizes the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo, Uruguay, using a novel biomarker, fatty acid ethyl esters, in meconium as well as a survey to mothers. Nine hundred five meconium samples were collected from Hospital Pereira Rossell and Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, Uruguay. A maternal questionnaire was also completed. Meconium was analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Meconium was also analyzed for other drugs of abuse using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-four percent of meconium samples were above the positive cutoff for fatty acid ethyl esters and represent those newborns with risky prenatal exposure during the final two trimesters of pregnancy. Infants with prenatal alcohol exposure were more likely to have prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.20) or any illicit drug (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-5.31). Ethyl linoleate was a significant predictor of infant birth weight along with prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal body mass index, and infant sex. This study highlights a 44% incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  12. Frontostriatal connectivity in children during working memory and the effects of prenatal methamphetamine, alcohol, and polydrug exposure.

    PubMed

    Roussotte, Florence F; Rudie, Jeffrey D; Smith, Lynne; O'Connor, Mary J; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Narr, Katherine L; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2012-01-01

    Various abnormalities in frontal and striatal regions have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol and/or methamphetamine exposure. In a recent fMRI study, we observed a correlation between accuracy on a working-memory task and functional activation in the putamen in children with prenatal methamphetamine and polydrug exposure. Because the putamen is part of the corticostriatal motor loop whereas the caudate is involved in the executive loop, we hypothesized that a loss of segregation between distinct corticostriatal networks may occur in these participants. The current study was designed to test this hypothesis using functional connectivity MRI. We examined 50 children ranging in age from 7 to 15, including 19 with prenatal methamphetamine exposure (15 of whom had concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure), 13 with prenatal exposure to alcohol but not methamphetamine, and 18 unexposed controls. We measured the coupling between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations during a working-memory task in four striatal seed regions and those in the rest of the brain. We found that the putamen seeds showed increased connectivity with frontal brain regions involved in executive functions while the caudate seeds showed decreased connectivity with some of these regions in both groups of exposed subjects compared to controls. These findings suggest that localized brain abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol and/or methamphetamine lead to a partial rewiring of corticostriatal networks. These results represent important progress in the field, and could have substantial clinical significance in helping devise more targeted treatments and remediation strategies designed to better serve the needs of this population.

  13. Impaired odor identification in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Bower, Emily; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P; Murphy, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to behavioral and cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Many of the brain regions impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure are also linked with olfactory processing, and odor identification deficits have been documented in certain neurological disorders associated with these brain regions. As odor identification following prenatal alcohol exposure is not well studied, we compared odor identification in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol (AE) to typically developing controls (CON) (N = 16/group). It was hypothesized that children in the AE group would perform more poorly than children in the CON group on the San Diego Odor Identification Test, an identification test of 8 common household odorants. Children exposed to alcohol during prenatal development were significantly impaired in olfactory identification (M = 5.95, SE = 0.37) compared to typically developing controls (M = 7.24, SE = 0.37). These findings confirmed the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with odor identification deficits, and suggest that further research is warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying these deficits, the integrity of brain areas that are involved, and to determine whether olfactory performance might contribute to better identification of children at risk for behavioral and cognitive deficits.

  14. Neurobiology and neurodevelopmental impact of childhood traumatic stress and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-04-01

    Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic experience alone. Although the harmful effects of both have been well documented individually, there is no research documenting the concurrent effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal trauma on a child's developmental process. Transdisciplinary assessment of the children included the core disciplines of medicine, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, social work, and psychology. Medical examination, standardized developmental and intelligence testing, projective tools, parent questionnaires, and psychosocial interviews provided information in the primary developmental areas. Findings indicated that children who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol along with postnatal traumatic experience had lower intelligence scores and more severe neurodevelopmental deficits in language, memory, visual processing, motor skills, and attention than did traumatized children without prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as greater oppositional/defiant behavior, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social problems. Successful teacher and speech-language pathologist interventions with traumatized children with prenatal alcohol exposure demand a paradigm shift that requires the development of new perspectives and ongoing training.

  15. Impaired Odor Identification in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bower, Emily; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to behavioral and cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Many of the brain regions impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure are also linked with olfactory processing, and odor identification deficits have been documented in certain neurological disorders associated with these brain regions. As odor identification following prenatal alcohol exposure is not well studied, we compared odor identification in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol (AE) to typically developing controls (CON) (N = 16/group). It was hypothesized that children in the AE group would perform more poorly than children in the CON group on the San Diego Odor Identification Test, an identification test of 8 common household odorants. Children exposed to alcohol during prenatal development were significantly impaired in olfactory identification (M = 5.95, SE = 0.37) compared to typically developing controls (M = 7.24, SE = 0.37). These findings confirmed the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with odor identification deficits, and suggest that further research is warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying these deficits, the integrity of brain areas that are involved, and to determine whether olfactory performance might contribute to better identification of children at risk for behavioral and cognitive deficits. PMID:23683527

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  17. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  18. Impact of Prenatal and Subsequent Adult Alcohol Exposure on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Brain Regions Necessary for Simple Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Laurne S; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2017-09-30

    Microglia, the immune cells of the brain, are important and necessary for appropriate neural development; however, activation of microglia, concomitant with increased levels of secreted immune molecules during brain development, can leave the brain susceptible to certain long-term changes in immune function associated with neurological and developmental disorders. One mechanism by which microglia can be activated is via alcohol exposure. We sought to investigate if low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure can alter the neuroimmune response to a subsequent acute dose of alcohol in adulthood. We also used the novel object location and recognition memory tasks to determine whether there are cognitive deficits associated with low prenatal alcohol exposure and subsequent adulthood alcohol exposure. We found that adult rats exposed to an acute binge-like level of alcohol, regardless of gestational alcohol exposure, have a robust increase in the expression of Interleukin (IL)-6 within the brain, and a significant decrease in the expression of IL-1β and CD11b. Rats exposed to alcohol during gestation, adulthood, or at both time points exhibited impaired cognitive performance in the cognitive tasks. These results indicate that both low-level prenatal alcohol exposure and even acute alcohol exposure in adulthood can significantly impact neuroimmune and associated cognitive function.

  19. Detection of alcohol use in the second trimester among low-income pregnant women in the prenatal care settings in Jefferson County, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Hankin, Janet; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Abel, Ernest; Kirby, Russell S.; Keith, Louis G.; Obican, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol use, a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities, remains a prevalent public health concern in the United States. This study aims to detect the proportion and correlates of prenatal alcohol use in the prenatal care settings in Alabama. Prenatal care settings were chosen because of their potential as stable locations to screen for and to reduce prenatal alcohol use within a community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,046 women in the 22 and 23 weeks of gestation who sought prenatal care in eight community-based public clinics and participated in the Perinatal Emphasis Research Center project in Jefferson County, Alabama, in 1997–2001. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use in the past 3 months were assessed by research nurses during face-to-face interviews. We conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of correlates of prenatal alcohol use. Results Participants were predominantly young, African American, and unmarried, 86.5% on Medicaid. The proportion of alcohol use in the second trimester of pregnancy was 5.1%; 0.3% of women reported 4 or more drinks on a drinking day to research nurses. Older maternal age (OR=1.11; 95% CI=1.08–1.15), use of welfare (OR=1.43; 95% CI=1.02–2.02), and male partner–perpetrated violence (OR=2.96; 95% CI=1.92–4.56) were positively associated with elevated risk of prenatal alcohol use. Protective factors included higher levels of self-esteem (OR=0.94; 95% CI=0.89–0.98) and more years of education (OR=0.88; 95% CI=0.78–0.98). Conclusions Prenatal alcohol use remains a public health issue among low-income pregnant women in Jefferson County, Alabama. Research nurses detected it in the second trimester. Future studies need to encourage screening for prenatal alcohol use in the prenatal care settings by obstetrician-gynecologists, family physicians, nurses, and midwifes. Combined

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and traumatic childhood experiences: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Price, Alan; Cook, Penny A; Norgate, Sarah; Mukherjee, Raja

    2017-05-25

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and traumatic childhood experiences (trauma) such as abuse or neglect can each cause central nervous system neurobiological changes or structural damage which can manifest as cognitive and behavioural dysfunction. In cases where both exposures have occurred, the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment may be greater, but this interaction has not been well studied. Here we present a systematic review that identified five primary research studies which investigated either the impact of trauma in children with PAE, or of PAE in children with trauma. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, narrative analysis was applied. Children in these cohorts with both exposures were more likely to show deficits in language, attention, memory and intelligence, and exhibit more severe behavioural problems than children with one exposure in absence of the other. However, the current literature is scarce and methodologically flawed. Further studies are required that: assess dual exposure in other neurodevelopmental domains; feature developmentally impaired yet non-exposed controls; and account for the wide spectrum of effects and different diagnostic criteria associated with PAE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Prenatal Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure: Influences on Cognition, Speech, Language, and Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol and cocaine on children's speech, language, hearing, and cognitive development. The review shows that cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders are the central nervous system manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and cranio-facial…

  2. Prenatal Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure: Influences on Cognition, Speech, Language, and Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol and cocaine on children's speech, language, hearing, and cognitive development. The review shows that cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders are the central nervous system manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and cranio-facial…

  3. Prenatal stress, moderate fetal alcohol, and dopamine system function in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A D; Moore, C F; DeJesus, O T; Barnhart, T E; Larson, J A; Mukherjee, J; Nickles, R J; Schueller, M J; Shelton, S E; Schneider, M L

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the striatal dopamine system integrity and associated behavior in 5- to 7-year-old rhesus monkeys born from mothers that experienced stress and/or consumed moderate levels of alcohol during pregnancy. Thirty-one young adult rhesus monkeys were derived from females randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) control group that consumed isocaloric sucrose solution throughout gestation; (2) stress group that experienced prenatal stress (10-min removal from home cage and exposure to three random loud noise bursts, gestational days 90 through 145); (3) alcohol group that consumed alcohol (0.6 g/kg/day) throughout gestation; or (4) combined alcohol plus stress group that received both treatments. The subjects were assessed for striatal dopamine system function using positron emission tomography (PET), in which the dopamine (DA)-rich striatum was evaluated in separate scans for the trapping of [(18)F]-Fallypride (FAL) and 6-[(18)F]fluoro-m-tyrosine (FMT) to assess dopamine D2 receptor binding potential (BP) and DA synthesis via dopa decarboxylase activity, respectively. Subjects were previously assessed for non-matching-to-sample (NMS) task acquisition, with ratings of behavioral inhibition, stereotypies, and activity made after each NMS testing session. Subjects from prenatal stress conditions (Groups 2 and 4) showed an increase in the ratio of striatal dopamine D2 receptor BP and DA synthesis compared to controls (Group 1). An increase in the radiotracer distribution volume ratios (DVRs), which is used to evaluate the balance between striatal DA synthesis and receptor availability, respectively, was significantly correlated with less behavioral inhibition. The latter supports a hypothesis linking striatal function to behavioral inhibitory control.

  4. Dose-response and time-response analysis of total fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho-Seok; Han, Jung-Yeol; Choi, June-Seek; Ahn, Hyun-Kyong; Kwak, Dong-Wook; Lee, Yeon-Kyung; Koh, Sun-Young; Jeong, Go-Un; Velázquez-Armenta, E Yadira; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A

    2014-09-01

    Little is known on how the dose and timing of exposure co-influence the cumulative concentration of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium. The objective of the study was to assess the cumulative concentration of FAEEs in meconium as a biomarker of light, moderate, or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure occurring at either first, second, or third trimesters of pregnancy. History of prenatal alcohol exposure was obtained in the 34th week of gestation from 294 pregnant women. Meconium was collected from their babies within the first 6 to 12 h after birth and examined for the presence of nine FAEEs. No significant differences were identified between the cumulative levels of FAEEs in the meconium from the babies born to abstainers and those born to mothers with history of light-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure during their pregnancy. Light-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be reliably predicted by the cumulative FAEE concentrations in meconium of exposed babies. A cumulative FAEE level of >10 nmol/g would be required to consider that prenatal alcohol exposure during the second to third trimesters occurred at risky levels in the absence of reliable maternal history of ethanol exposure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Facial Curvature Detects and Explicates Ethnic Differences in Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Suttie, Michael; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Hoyme, H Eugene; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Coles, Claire; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Foroud, Tatiana; Hammond, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. (i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. Facial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes

  6. Biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure: a critical review of fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium.

    PubMed

    Burd, Larry; Hofer, Ryan

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was a review of published studies utilizing measurement of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium as biomarkers for prenatal alcohol exposure. We completed a literature search of PubMed using the terms meconium, fatty acid ethyl esters, biomarkers, and prenatal alcohol exposure. We included only peer reviewed studies utilizing analysis of meconium for the presence of FAEE in humans through the year 2007. We found 10 articles reporting on original research examining the relationship of FAEE from meconium and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The 10 articles used six different PAE assessment strategies and four different analytical techniques for determining FAEE endpoints. The articles included 2,221 subjects (range 4 to 725) with 455 (20.5%) subjects identified as exposed using the methods stated in the articles. FAEE levels above the studies' respective cutoffs were reported for 502 (22.6%) subjects. The accurate identification of alcohol-exposed pregnancies represents a significant challenge in the development of FAEE detection cutoffs to maximize the sensitivity and specificity of the test. We present several options for the improvement of exposure assessment in future studies of FAEE as biomarkers for PAE. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Examining the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga.

    PubMed

    Peters, Nathan Anthony; Schlaff, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    A popular form of pregnancy physical activity (PA) is prenatal yoga. However, little is known about the intensity and energy cost of this practice. To examine the energy cost and intensity level of prenatal yoga. Pregnant women in a prenatal yoga class (n = 19) wore a Sense Wear Armband during eleven 60 min classes each, and self-reported demographic variables, height and weight, prepregnancy weight, and PA behaviors and beliefs. Sense Wear Armband data included kilocalories, metabolic equivalent (MET) values, and time spent in various intensities. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were utilized to describe energy expenditure and intensity. Energy expenditure averaged 109 ± 8 kcals, and the average MET value was 1.5 ± 0.02. On average, 93% and 7% of classes were sedentary and moderate intensity PA, respectively. Time spent in a prenatal yoga class was considered to be primarily a sedentary activity. Future research should utilize larger samples, practice type, and skill level to increase generalizability.

  8. Effect of alcohol consumption in prenatal life, childhood, and adolescence on child development.

    PubMed

    Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Franchin, Laura; Verduci, Elvira; Giovannini, Marcello

    2011-11-01

    The effects of alcohol consumption in adults are well described in the literature, while knowledge about the effects of alcohol consumption in children is more limited and less systematic. The present review shows how alcohol consumption may negatively influence the neurobiological and neurobehavioral development of humans. Three different periods of life have been considered: the prenatal term, childhood, and adolescence. For each period, evidence of the short-term and long-term effects of alcohol consumption, including neurodevelopmental effects and associations with subsequent alcohol abuse or dependence, is presented.

  9. Prenatal alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis in rat brain cerebral cortex: protective effect of folic acid and betaine.

    PubMed

    Sogut, Ibrahim; Uysal, Onur; Oglakci, Aysegul; Yucel, Ferruh; Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Gungor

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the infant. This study aims to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure related neuroapoptosis on the cerebral cortex tissues of newborn rats and possible neuroprotective effects of betaine, folic acid, and combined therapy. Pregnant rats were divided into five experimental groups: control, ethanol, ethanol + betaine, ethanol + folic acid, and ethanol + betaine + folic acid combined therapy groups. We measured cytochrome c release, caspase-3, calpain and cathepsin B and L. enzyme activities. In order to observe apoptotic cells in the early stages, TUNEL method was chosen together with histologic methods such as assessing the diameters of the apoptotic cells, their distribution in unit volume and volume proportion of cortical intact neuron nuclei. Calpain, caspase-3 activities, and cytochrome c levels were significantly increased in alcohol group while cathepsin B and L. activities were also found to be elevated albeit not statistically significant. These increases were significantly reversed by folic acid and betaine + folic acid treatments. While ethanol increased the number of apoptotic cells, this increase was prevented in ethanol + betaine and ethanol + betaine + folic acid groups. Morphometric examination showed that the mean diameter of apoptotic cells was increased with ethanol administration while this increase was reduced by betaine and betaine + folic acid treatments. We observed that ethanol is capable of triggering apoptotic cell death in the newborn rat brains. Furthermore, folic acid, betaine, and combined therapy of these supplements may reduce neuroapoptosis related to prenatal alcohol consumption, and might be effective on preventing fetal alcohol syndrome in infants.

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of Conduct Disorder in exposed compared to unexposed adolescents. Method Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their 4th and 7th prenatal months, and with their children, at birth, 8 and 18 months, 3, 6, 10, 14, and 16 years postpartum. Offspring were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule-IV; maternal and adolescent diagnoses were made using DSM-IV criteria at age 16. The sample was 592 adolescents and their mothers/caretakers. Results Prenatal alcohol exposure is significantly associated with an increased rate of Conduct Disorder in the adolescents. This effect was detected above an average exposure of 1 or more drinks/day in the first trimester. The effect remained significant after controlling for other significant variables including measures of the environment, maternal psychopathology, and other prenatal exposures. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol use in the first trimester is a risk factor for Conduct Disorder in the exposed offspring. PMID:21334566

  11. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    PubMed

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p < 0.001) and ADHD (p < 0.001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication, F(1, 308) = 7.49, p = 0.007, partial η(2) = 0.024, but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure in the Republic of the Congo: prevalence and screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew D; Nkombo, Yannick; Nkodia, Gery; Leonardson, Gary; Burd, Larry

    2013-07-01

    To determine prevalence of prenatal alcohol use in Brazzaville, Congo and to evaluate a prenatal screening tool for use in this population. A prospective population screening program of 3099 women at 10 prenatal care clinics in Brazzaville, Congo using the 1-Question screen. To validate the 1-Question screen in this population we screened 764 of these women again using the T-ACE as a gold standard for comparison study. The study outcomes were as follows: prevalence of self-reported prenatal alcohol use in Brazzaville using the 1-Question screen, estimation of number of drinking days, drinks per drinking day, most drinks on any one occasion. We also estimated the epidemiologic performance criteria for the 1-Question screen. The 3099 women screened were classified as follows: no risk 77% (n=2,384); at risk 3.7% (n=115); and as high risk 19.3% (n=600). Of the women reporting drinking during pregnancy, 87.4% reported drinking 4 or more drinks on any occasion. The agreement for detection of alcohol use during pregnancy by the 1-Question Screen and a positive T-ACE score was 94.7%. 23.3% of women attending prenatal care in Brazzaville reported alcohol use during pregnancy and 83% of them continued to drink after recognition of pregnancy. Prenatal alcohol exposure should be the focus of efforts to improve identification of alcohol use prior to and during pregnancy to improve maternal and child health. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 97:489-496, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces magnetic susceptibility contrast and anisotropy in the white matter of mouse brains.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Li, Wei; Han, Hui; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Sulik, Kathleen K; Allan Johnson, G; Liu, Chunlei

    2014-11-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) refers to a range of permanent birth defects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in the US. Studies by autopsy and conventional structural MRI indicate that the midline structures of the brain are particularly vulnerable to prenatal alcohol exposure. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown that abnormalities in brain white matter especially the corpus callosum are very common in FASD. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique that measures tissue's magnetic property. Such magnetic property is affected by tissue microstructure and molecular composition including that of myelin in the white matter. In this work, we studied three major white matter fiber bundles of a mouse model of FASD and compared it to control mice using both QSM and DTI. QSM revealed clear and significant abnormalities in anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and hippocampal commissure, which were likely due to reduced myelination. Our data also suggested that QSM may be even more sensitive than DTI for examining changes due to prenatal alcohol exposure. Although this is a preclinical study, the technique of QSM is readily translatable to human brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute high doses in vivo. In this study, we used our established moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) model, resulting in maternal blood alcohol content of approximately 20 mM, and subsequent ex vivo cell culture to assess expression of genes related to neurogenesis. Proliferating and differentiating neural progenitor cell culture conditions were established from telencephalic tissue derived from embryonic day (E) 15-17 tissue exposed to alcohol via maternal drinking throughout pregnancy. Gene expression analysis on mRNA derived in vitro was performed using a microarray, and quantitative PCR was conducted for genes to validate the microarray. Student's t tests were performed for statistical comparison of each exposure under each culture condition using a 95% confidence interval. Eleven percent of genes on the array had significantly altered mRNA expression in the prenatal alcohol-exposed neural progenitor culture under proliferating conditions. These include reduced expression of Adora2a, Cxcl1, Dlg4, Hes1, Nptx1, and Vegfa and increased expression of Fgf13, Ndn, and Sox3; bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in cell growth and proliferation. Decreased levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were also found under proliferating conditions. Under differentiating conditions, 7.3% of genes had decreased mRNA expression; these include Cdk5rap3, Gdnf, Hey2, Heyl, Pard6b, and Ptn, which are associated with survival and differentiation as indicated by bioinformatics analysis

  15. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Christina R.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute high doses in vivo. In this study, we used our established moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) model, resulting in maternal blood alcohol content of approximately 20 mM, and subsequent ex vivo cell culture to assess expression of genes related to neurogenesis. Proliferating and differentiating neural progenitor cell culture conditions were established from telencephalic tissue derived from embryonic day (E) 15–17 tissue exposed to alcohol via maternal drinking throughout pregnancy. Gene expression analysis on mRNA derived in vitro was performed using a microarray, and quantitative PCR was conducted for genes to validate the microarray. Student's t tests were performed for statistical comparison of each exposure under each culture condition using a 95% confidence interval. Eleven percent of genes on the array had significantly altered mRNA expression in the prenatal alcohol-exposed neural progenitor culture under proliferating conditions. These include reduced expression of Adora2a, Cxcl1, Dlg4, Hes1, Nptx1, and Vegfa and increased expression of Fgf13, Ndn, and Sox3; bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in cell growth and proliferation. Decreased levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were also found under proliferating conditions. Under differentiating conditions, 7.3% of genes had decreased mRNA expression; these include Cdk5rap3, Gdnf, Hey2, Heyl, Pard6b, and Ptn, which are associated with survival and differentiation as indicated by bioinformatics

  16. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  17. Even Low Levels of Alcohol during Pregnancy Can Affect Fetal Brain Development. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on GABAergic Neurons" (V. C. Cuzone; P. W. L. Yeh; Y. Yanagawa; K. Obata; and H. H. Yeh). Study results indicate that even exposure to low levels of alcohol during…

  18. Even Low Levels of Alcohol during Pregnancy Can Affect Fetal Brain Development. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on GABAergic Neurons" (V. C. Cuzone; P. W. L. Yeh; Y. Yanagawa; K. Obata; and H. H. Yeh). Study results indicate that even exposure to low levels of alcohol during…

  19. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. Up to 40% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects (CHDs) including life-threatening outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies. Previously we established a PAE model in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay looping-stage (early) cardiac function/structure and septation-stage (late) cardiac defects. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septae, and aortic vessels. However, supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, prevented cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valves, and normalized cardiac parameters. Immunofluorescent staining for 5-methylcytosine in transverse embryo sections also revealed that DNA methylation levels were reduced by ethanol but normalized by co-administration of betaine. Furthermore, supplementation with folate, another methyl donor, in the PAE model appeared to normalize retrograde flow levels which are typically elevated by ethanol exposure. Studies are underway to correlate retrograde flow numbers for folate with associated cushion volumes. Finally, preliminary findings have revealed that glutathione, a key endogenous antioxidant which also regulates methyl group donation, is particularly effective in improving alcohol-impacted survival and gross defect rates. Current investigations will determine whether glutathione has any positive effect on PAE-related CHDs. Our studies could have significant implications for public health, especially related to prenatal nutrition recommendations.

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED).

    PubMed

    Singer, Alison B; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Cordero, Christina; Croen, Lisa A; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Fallin, M Daniele; Herring, Amy H; Hooper, Stephen R; Pretzel, Rebecca E; Schieve, Laura A; Windham, Gayle C; Daniels, Julie L

    2017-09-07

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We assessed the association between maternal alcohol use and ASD in the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born between September 2003 and August 2006 in the US Regression analyses included 684 children with research clinician-confirmed ASD, 869 children with non-ASD developmental delays or disorders (DDs), and 962 controls ascertained from the general population (POP). Maternal alcohol exposure during each month from 3 months prior to conception until delivery was assessed by self-report. Mothers of POP children were more likely to report any prenatal alcohol use than mothers of children with ASD or DD. In trimester one, 21.2% of mothers of POP children reported alcohol use compared with 18.1% and 18.2% of mothers of children with ASD or DD, respectively (adjusted OR for ASD vs. POP 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.6, 1.1). During preconception and the first month of pregnancy, one to two drinks on average per week was inversely associated with ASD risk. These results do not support an adverse association between low-level alcohol exposure and ASD, although these findings were based on retrospective self-reported alcohol use. Unmeasured confounding or exposure misclassification may explain inverse associations with one to two drinks per week. Pregnant or potentially pregnant women should continue to follow recommendations to avoid alcohol use because of other known effects on infant health and neurodevelopment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Acetaldehyde reinforcement and motor reactivity in newborns with or without a prenatal history of alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    March, Samanta M; Culleré, Marcela E; Abate, Paula; Hernández, José I; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have shown that early ontogeny seems to be a period of enhanced affinity to ethanol. Interestingly, the catalase system that transforms ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde (ACD) in the brain, is more active in the perinatal rat compared to adults. ACD has been found to share EtOH's behavioral effects. The general purpose of the present study was to assess ACD motivational and motor effects in newborn rats as a function of prenatal exposure to EtOH. Experiment 1 evaluated if ACD (0.35 μmol) or EtOH (0.02 μmol) supported appetitive conditioning in newborn pups prenatally exposed to EtOH. Experiment 2 tested if prenatal alcohol exposure modulated neonatal susceptibility to ACD's motor effects (ACD dose: 0, 0.35 and 0.52 μmol). Experiment 1 showed that EtOH and ACD supported appetitive conditioning independently of prenatal treatments. In Experiment 2, latency to display motor activity was altered only in neonates prenatally treated with water and challenged with the highest ACD dose. Prenatal EtOH experience results in tolerance to ACD's motor activity effects. These results show early susceptibility to ACD's appetitive effects and attenuation of motor effects as a function of prenatal history with EtOH, within a stage in development where brain ACD production seems higher than later in life.

  2. Acetaldehyde reinforcement and motor reactivity in newborns with or without a prenatal history of alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    March, Samanta M.; Culleré, Marcela E.; Abate, Paula; Hernández, José I.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have shown that early ontogeny seems to be a period of enhanced affinity to ethanol. Interestingly, the catalase system that transforms ethanol (EtOH) into acetaldehyde (ACD) in the brain, is more active in the perinatal rat compared to adults. ACD has been found to share EtOH's behavioral effects. The general purpose of the present study was to assess ACD motivational and motor effects in newborn rats as a function of prenatal exposure to EtOH. Experiment 1 evaluated if ACD (0.35 μmol) or EtOH (0.02 μmol) supported appetitive conditioning in newborn pups prenatally exposed to EtOH. Experiment 2 tested if prenatal alcohol exposure modulated neonatal susceptibility to ACD's motor effects (ACD dose: 0, 0.35 and 0.52 μmol). Experiment 1 showed that EtOH and ACD supported appetitive conditioning independently of prenatal treatments. In Experiment 2, latency to display motor activity was altered only in neonates prenatally treated with water and challenged with the highest ACD dose. Prenatal EtOH experience results in tolerance to ACD's motor activity effects. These results show early susceptibility to ACD's appetitive effects and attenuation of motor effects as a function of prenatal history with EtOH, within a stage in development where brain ACD production seems higher than later in life. PMID:23785319

  3. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Congenital Heart Defects: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiaomei; Qiu, Huizhen; Qu, Pengfei; Zhang, Ruo; Zeng, Lingxia; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background There are still inconsistent conclusions about the association of prenatal alcohol drinking with congenital heart defects (CHDs). We conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the risk of overall CHDs and the CHDs subtypes. Methods Case-control and cohort studies published before March 2015 were searched through PubMed and Embase. Two authors independently extracted data and scored the study quality according to the Newcastle-0ttawa Scale. The pooled ORs and 95%CI were estimated using the random-effects model and heterogeneity was assessed by the Q test and I2 statistic. Results A total of 20 studies were finally included. The results provided no evidence of the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the risk of overall CHDs (OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.93–1.22), ventricular septal defects (VSDs) (OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.86–1.25), or atrial septal defects (ASDs) (OR = 1.40, 95%CI = 0.88–2.23). However, prenatal alcohol drinking was marginally significantly associated with conotruncal defects (CTDs) (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 0.97–1.59) and statistically significantly associated with d-Transposition of the Great Arteries (dTGA) (OR = 1.64, 95%CI = 1.17–2.30). Moreover, both prenatal heavy drinking and binge drinking have a strong association with overall CHDs (heavy drinking: OR = 3.76, 95%CI = 1.00–14.10; binge drinking: OR = 2.49, 95%CI = 1.04–5.97), and prenatal moderate drinking has a modest association with CTDs (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05–1.75) and dTGA (OR = 1.86, 95%CI = 1.09–3.20). Conclusions In conclusion, the results suggested that prenatal alcohol exposure was not associated with overall CHDs or some subtypes, whereas marginally significant association was found for CTDs and statistically significant association was found for dTGA. Further prospective studies with large population and better designs are needed to explore the association of prenatal alcohol exposure with CHDs

  4. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Modifies Glucocorticoid Receptor Subcellular Distribution in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Impairs Frontal Cortex-Dependent Learning

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Andrea M.; Goggin, Samantha L.; Caldwell, Kevin K.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been shown to impair learning, memory and executive functioning in children. Perseveration, or the failure to respond adaptively to changing contingencies, is a hallmark on neurobehavioral assessment tasks for human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Adaptive responding is predominantly a product of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and is regulated by corticosteroids. In our mouse model of PAE we recently reported deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory and a dysregulation of hippocampal formation glucocorticoid receptor (GR) subcellular distribution. Here, we examined the effect of PAE on frontal cortical-dependent behavior, as well as mPFC GR subcellular distribution and the levels of regulators of intracellular GR transport. PAE mice displayed significantly reduced response flexibility in a Y-maze reversal learning task. While the levels of total nuclear GR were reduced in PAE mPFC, levels of GR phosphorylated at serines 203, 211 and 226 were not significantly changed. Cytosolic, but not nuclear, MR levels were elevated in the PAE mPFC. The levels of critical GR trafficking proteins, FKBP51, Hsp90, cyclophilin 40, dynamitin and dynein intermediate chain, were altered in PAE mice, in favor of the exclusion of GR from the nucleus, indicating dysregulation of GR trafficking. Our findings suggest that there may be a link between a deficit in GR nuclear localization and frontal cortical learning deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed mice. PMID:24755652

  5. Prologue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…

  6. Behavioral Outcomes of Young Children with Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol: Review and Analysis of Experimental Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rosanne C.; Carta, Judith J.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 51 studies of developmental effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol in children from birth to 72 months found that, although adverse outcomes were found within each domain, age grouping, and exposure category, they comprised fewer than 50% of all outcomes measured. Most adverse outcomes were found in the neurobehavioral domain with…

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco, and Aspirin: Effects on Fine and Gross Motor Preformance in 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Helen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data from 449 children indicated statistically significant relationships between moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and increased errors, increased latency, and increased total time on the Wisconsin Fine Motor Steadiness Battery and poorer balance on the Gross Motor Scale. (RH)

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco, and Aspirin: Effects on Fine and Gross Motor Preformance in 4-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Helen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data from 449 children indicated statistically significant relationships between moderate levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and increased errors, increased latency, and increased total time on the Wisconsin Fine Motor Steadiness Battery and poorer balance on the Gross Motor Scale. (RH)

  10. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure delays the development of the cortical barrel field in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Margret, Cecilia P; Li, Cheng X; Chappell, Tyson D; Elberger, Andrea J; Matta, Shannon G; Waters, Robert S

    2006-06-01

    In-utero alcohol exposure produces sensorimotor developmental abnormalities that often persist into adulthood. The rodent cortical barrel field associated with the representation of the body surface was used as our model system to examine the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on early somatosensory cortical development. In this study, pregnant female rats were intragastrically gavaged daily with high doses of alcohol (6 gm/kg body weight) throughout the first 20 days of pregnancy. Blood alcohol levels were measured in the pregnant dams on gestational days 13 (G13) and G20. The ethanol treated group (EtOH) was compared to the normal control chowfed (CF) group, nutritionally matched pairfed (PF) group, and cross-foster (XF) group. Cortical barrel development was examined in pups across all treatment groups from G25, corresponding to postnatal day 2 (P2), to G32 corresponding to P9. The EtOH and control group pups were weighed, anesthetized, and perfused. Brains were removed and weighed with, and without cerebellum and olfactory bulbs, and neocortex was removed and weighed. Cortices were then flattened, sectioned tangentially, and stained with a metabolic marker, cytochrome oxidase (CO) to reveal the barrel field. Progression of barrel development was distinguished into three categories: (a) absent, (b) cloudy barrel-like pattern, and (c) well-formed barrels with intervening septae. The major findings are: (1) PAE delayed barrel field development by one or more days, (2) the barrel field first appeared as a cloudy pattern that gave way on subsequent days to an adult-like pattern with clearly demarcated intervening septal regions, (3) the barrel field developed differentially in a lateral-to-medial gradient in both alcohol and control groups, (4) PAE delayed birth by one or more days in 53% of the pups, (5) regardless of whether pups were born on G23 (normal expected birth date for non-alcohol controls) or as in the case for the alcohol-delayed pups born as

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral dysfunction following early binge-like prenatal alcohol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Fish, Eric W; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Parnell, Scott E; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    The range of defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes persistent behavioral problems, with anxiety and depression being two of the more commonly reported issues. Previous studies of rodent FASD models suggest that interference with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis structure and/or function may be the basis for some of the prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE)-induced behavioral abnormalities. Included among the previous investigations are those illustrating that maternal alcohol treatment limited to very early stages of pregnancy (i.e., gestational day [GD]7 in mice; equivalent to the third week post-fertilization in humans) can cause structural abnormalities in areas such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and other forebrain regions integral to controlling stress and behavioral responses. The current investigation was designed to further examine the sequelae of prenatal alcohol insult at this early time period, with particular attention to HPA axis-associated functional changes in adult mice. The results of this study reveal that GD7 PAE in mice causes HPA axis dysfunction, with males and females showing elevated corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, respectively, following a 15-min restraint stress exposure. Males also showed elevated CORT levels following an acute alcohol injection of 2.0 g/kg, while females displayed blunted ACTH levels. Furthermore, analysis showed that anxiety-like behavior was decreased after GD7 PAE in female mice, but was increased in male mice. Collectively, the results of this study show that early gestational alcohol exposure in mice alters long-term HPA axis activity and behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral dysfunction following early binge-like prenatal alcohol exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Fish, Eric W.; O’Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Parnell, Scott E.; Sulik, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    The range of defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes persistent behavioral problems, with anxiety and depression being two of the more commonly reported issues. Previous studies of rodent FASD models suggest that interference with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis structure and/or function may be the basis for some of the prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE)-induced behavioral abnormalities. Included among the previous investigations are those illustrating that maternal alcohol treatment limited to very early stages of pregnancy (i.e., gestational day [GD]7 in mice; equivalent to the third week post-fertilization in humans) can cause structural abnormalities in areas such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and other forebrain regions integral to controlling stress and behavioral responses. The current investigation was designed to further examine the sequelae of prenatal alcohol insult at this early time period, with particular attention to HPA axis-associated functional changes in adult mice. The results of this study reveal that GD7 PAE in mice causes HPA axis dysfunction, with males and females showing elevated corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, respectively, following a 15-min restraint stress exposure. Males also showed elevated CORT levels following an acute alcohol injection of 2.0 g/kg, while females displayed blunted ACTH levels. Furthermore, analysis showed that anxiety-like behavior was decreased after GD7 PAE in female mice, but was increased in male mice. Collectively, the results of this study show that early gestational alcohol exposure in mice alters long-term HPA axis activity and behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner. PMID:25709101

  14. MODERATE PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE AND SEROTONIN GENOTYPE INTERACT TO ALTER CNS SEROTONIN FUNCTION IN RHESUS MONKEYS OFFSPRING

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Barr, Christina S.; Larson, Julie A.; Kraemer, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure can contribute to neurodevelopmental impairments and disrupt several neurotransmitter systems. We examined the timing of moderate level alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR), and levels of primary serotonin and dopamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rhesus monkeys. Methods Thirty-two 30-month old rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) from four groups of females were assessed: (1) early alcohol-exposed group (n = 9), in which mothers voluntarily consumed 0.6 g/kg/day alcohol solution on gestational days 0 – 50; (2) middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group (n = 6), mothers consumed 0.6 g/kg/day alcohol solution on gestational days 50 – 135; (3) a continuous-exposure group (n = 8), mothers consumed 0.6 g/kg/day alcohol solution on gestational days 0 – 135; and (4) controls (n = 9), mothers consumed an isocaloric control solution on gestational days 0 – 50, 50 – 135, or 0 – 135. Serotonin transporter promoter region allelic variants (homozygous s/s or heterozygous s/l versus homozygous l/l) were determined. We examined CSF concentrations of the 5-HT and DA metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively, at baseline and 50 hours after separation from cage-mates, when the monkeys were 30 months old. Results Early- and middle-to-late gestation-alcohol exposed monkeys carrying the short allele had lower concentrations of 5-HIAA in CSF relative to other groups. Concentrations of 5-HIAA in CSF were lower for s allele carriers and increased from baseline relative to pre-separation values, while 5-HIAA levels in l/l allele carriers were not affected by separation. Monkeys carrying the short allele had lower basal concentrations of HVA in CSF compared to monkeys homozygous for the long allele. Conclusion Carrying the s allele of the 5-HT transporter increased the probability of reduced 5-HIAA in early- and middle

  15. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  16. Prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and academic achievement at age 10.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2004-01-01

    The effects of prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure on school achievement at 10 years of age were examined. Women were interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 16 years. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, high-school-educated, and light-to-moderate users of marijuana and alcohol. The sample was equally divided between Caucasian and African-American women. At the 10-year follow-up, the effects of prenatal exposure to marijuana or alcohol on the academic performance of 606 children were assessed. Exposure to one or more marijuana joints per day during the first trimester predicted deficits in Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) reading and spelling scores and a lower rating on the teachers' evaluations of the children's performance. This relation was mediated by the effects of first-trimester marijuana exposure on the children's depression and anxiety symptoms. Second-trimester marijuana use was significantly associated with reading comprehension and underachievement. Exposure to alcohol during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy predicted poorer teachers' ratings of overall school performance. Second-trimester binge drinking predicted lower reading scores. There was no interaction between prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure. Each was an independent predictor of academic performance.

  17. [Validity of a maternal alcohol consumption questionnaire in detecting prenatal exposure].

    PubMed

    Manich, A; Velasco, M; Joya, X; García-Lara, N R; Pichini, S; Vall, O; García-Algar, O

    2012-06-01

    Ethanol consumption by pregnant women can produce severe effects in the foetus and the newborn, mainly in neurological and weight-height development, and are included in the term FASD (Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder). Questionnaires are the most used screening method to detect prenatal exposure, but a previous population study questioned its reliability. The objective of this study was to compare alcohol prenatal exposure detection by questionnaire compared with biomarkers in meconium. Sixty two meconium samples from mothers who denied alcohol consumption during pregnancy by questionnaire were analysed. The objective analysis was made by determination of FAEEs (fatty acid ethyl esters) as exposure biomarkers in meconium as biological matrix. In the meconium from 10 of 62 newborns from non-alcohol consuming mothers by questionnaire (16.12%) FAEE values were positive (≥ 2 nmol/g). Questionnaires as a screening method during pregnancy are not a reliable tool. It is necessary to identify prenatal exposure to alcohol as soon as possible by biomarkers analysis in biological matrices from the newborn or the mother. The early detection will allow these patients to benefit from follow up and treatment to reach the best possible neurological development. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Theresa W.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol’s effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero. PMID:26695750

  19. Alcohol intake during prenatal life affects neuroimmune mediators and brain neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aloe, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that alcohol exposure during prenatal gestation, or during early postnatal life may be a risk factor for the manifestation of neurological and for immune-related disorders in later life. The cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity, however, have not been yet clearly established. Recent studies indicated that neurotrophin signaling pathways may be involved in ethanol mediated cell death. The present investigation addressed the question of whether nerve growth factor (NGF), which is the first and best characterized member of the neurotrophin family, and NGF-target cells are affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol. The result of our study indicates that NGF synthesis and the functional activity of NGF-target cells localized in the brain are markedly influenced by ethanol intake. The possible link between such changes and the hypothesis that these alterations may contribute to certain of the neuropathology observed following alcohol exposure would be discussed.

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A 'Mendelian randomization' natural experiment.

    PubMed

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Smith, George Davey; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

    2013-10-01

    There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring's IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N=4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N=6268), contributed to the analyses. Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers' genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes.

  1. Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A ‘Mendelian randomization’ natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Luisa; Lewis, Sarah J; Davey Smith, George; Sayal, Kapil; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Alati, Rosa; Ring, Sue; Macleod, John; Golding, Jean; Heron, Jon; Gray, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Background There is substantial debate as to whether moderate alcohol use during pregnancy could have subtle but important effects on offspring, by impairing later cognitive function and thus school performance. The authors aimed to investigate the unconfounded effect of moderately increased prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive/educational performance. Methods We used mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption. Women of White European origin with genotype and self-reported prenatal alcohol consumption, whose offspring’s IQ score had been assessed in clinic (N = 4061 pairs) or Key Stage 2 (KS2) academic achievement score was available through linkage to the National Pupil Database (N = 6268), contributed to the analyses. Results Women reporting moderate drinking before and during early pregnancy were relatively affluent compared with women reporting lighter drinking, and their children had higher KS2 and IQ scores. In contrast, children whose mothers’ genotype predisposes to lower consumption or abstinence during early pregnancy had higher KS2 scores (mean difference +1.7, 95% confidence interval +0.4, +3.0) than children of mothers whose genotype predisposed to heavier drinking, after adjustment for population stratification. Conclusions Better offspring cognitive/educational outcomes observed in association with prenatal alcohol exposure presumably reflected residual confounding by factors associated with social position and maternal education. The unconfounded Mendelian randomization estimates suggest a small but potentially important detrimental effect of small increases in prenatal alcohol exposure, at least on educational outcomes. PMID:24065783

  2. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Spelling Performance in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Method Ninety-six school-age children comprised two groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n=49) and control children (CON, n=47). Children completed select subtests from the WIAT-II and NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically-related cognitive variables were evaluated using MANOVA and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were utilized to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Results Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance. In addition, a significant group*working memory interaction revealed that working memory independently contributed significantly to spelling only for the AE group. All cognitive variables contributed to reading across groups and a group*working memory interaction revealed that working memory contributed independently to reading only for alcohol-exposed children. Conclusion Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. PMID:25643217

  3. Cognitive factors contributing to spelling performance in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-11-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Prenatal androgen exposure and children's aggressive behavior and activity level.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Debra; Pasterski, Vickie; Neufeld, Sharon; Glover, Vivette; O'Connor, Thomas G; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Hines, Melissa

    2017-09-19

    Some human behaviors, including aggression and activity level, differ on average for males and females. Here we report findings from two studies investigating possible relations between prenatal androgen and children's aggression and activity level. For study 1, aggression and activity level scores for 43 girls and 38 boys, aged 4 to 11years, with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, a genetic condition causing increased adrenal androgen production beginning prenatally) were compared to those of similarly-aged, unaffected relatives (41 girls, 31 boys). Girls with CAH scored higher on aggression than unaffected girls, d=0.69, and unaffected boys scored higher on activity level than unaffected girls, d=0.50. No other group differences were significant. For study 2, the relationship of amniotic fluid testosterone to aggression and activity level was investigated in typically-developing children (48 girls, 44 boys), aged 3 to 5years. Boys scored higher than girls on aggression, d=0.41, and activity level, d=0.50. However, amniotic fluid testosterone was not a significant predictor of aggression or activity level for either sex. The results of the two studies provide some support for an influence of prenatal androgen exposure on children's aggressive behavior, but not activity level. The within-sex variation in amniotic fluid testosterone may not be sufficient to allow reliable assessment of relations to aggression or activity level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Ethylglucuronide in Maternal Hair as a Biomarker of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F.; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila N.

    2015-01-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair might allow for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers (gamma glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT], carbohydrate-deficient transferrin [%dCDT], urine ethyl glucuronide [uEtG], urine ethyl sulfate [uEtS], and phosphatidylethanol [PEth]) in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a University of New Mexico prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders, and followed until early postpartum. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG and other biomarkers. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioiddependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% < high school). The mean maternal age at enrollment was 26.7 ± 4.8 years. Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5–20%) to hEtG in this cohort, but specificities were higher (98–100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with

  6. Comparing diagnostic classification of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure with the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder guidelines: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, James L.; Breen, Rebecca E. Hudson; Netelenbos, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic criteria have recently been introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), for neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). The purpose of this study is to assess the classification of this condition using the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) multidisciplinary diagnostic guidelines as the standard of comparison. First, classification of ND-PAE was compared with Canadian FASD diagnoses of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Second, classification of ND-PAE was compared with FAS and pFAS only, a criterion for which includes facial features highly predictive of prenatal alcohol exposure and effects. Methods: Eighty-two patients underwent multidisciplinary clinical evaluations using the Canadian FASD diagnostic guidelines between 2011 and 2015. Two clinicians independently reviewed patient files for evidence of diagnostic criteria for ND-PAE when applying an impairment cut-off level of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean, or clinically significant impairment in the absence of standardized norm-referenced measures. Results: Good interrater reliability was established between clinicians (κ = 0.79). Classifications of ND-PAE and Canadian FASD diagnoses, including alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, were moderately correlated (Cramer V [82] = 0.44, p < 0.01). However, ND-PAE possessed low sensitivity in FASD identification. Further, there was no correlation between ND-PAE and FAS/pFAS classifications (Cramer V [82] = 0.05, p > 0.05). Interpretation: Although there is considerable overlap between both sets of criteria, ND-PAE was less likely to identify patients with FASD. Although the neurobehavioral domains assessed by ND-PAE are supported in research, its diagnostic structure restricts the identification of FASD at the impairment threshold of 2 or more standard deviations. A

  7. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on social behavior in humans and other species.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S J; Day, N; Streissguth, A P

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development causes central nervous system alterations in both humans and animals. Although the most common behavioral manifestation of these alterations is a reduction in cognitive abilities, it is becoming increasingly apparent that deficits in social behavior may be very prevalent sequelae of developmental alcohol exposure. In infancy and early childhood, deficits in attachment behavior and state regulation are seen in both alcohol-exposed people and animals, suggesting that these changes are largely the result of the alcohol exposure rather than maternal behavior. In the periadolescent period, people exposed to alcohol during development show a variety of difficulties in the social domain as measured by checklists filled out by either a parent or teacher. Rats exposed to alcohol during development show changes in play and parenting behaviors. In adulthood, prenatal alcohol exposure is related to high rates of trouble with the law, inappropriate sexual behavior, depression, suicide, and failure to care for children. These high rates all suggest that there may be fundamental problems in the social domain. In other animals, perinatal alcohol exposure alters aggression, active social interactions, social communication and recognition, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in adults. In conclusion, research suggests that people exposed to alcohol during development may exhibit striking changes in social behavior; the animal research suggests that these changes may be largely the result of the alcohol insult and not the environment.

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure and the neuroapoptosis with long-term effect in visual cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiying; Hu, Yanqiu; Wu, Ping; Cheng, Xiangshu; Li, Mingshan; Yu, Dongming; Deng, Jinbo

    2007-01-01

    The prenatal ethanol exposure induced neuroapoptosis and neuron loss in visual cortex would be investigated in mice at P0, P7 and P14. Intubating pregnant mice ethanol daily began on E5 and continued through the pup's birth. The neuroapoptosis in visual cortex was visualized by the caspase 3 immunocytochemistry, and the neuron loss was observed with Nissl method as well. With prenatal ethanol exposure, the dose-dependent neuroapoptosis and neuron loss in visual cortex could be found at P0 and even at P7 and P14 as well. The prenatal ethanol exposure induced neuroapoptosis and neuron loss will persist into postnatal stage, and the long-term effect of neuroapoptosis might be one of the causes of postnatal neurobehavioural disturbances associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.

  9. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Regionally Thinner Cortex During the Preadolescent Period

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Frances C.; Narr, Katherine L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) may exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology, neurobehavioral deficits, and reduced brain volume. Studies of cortical thickness in FASD have yielded contradictory findings, with 3 reporting thicker cerebral cortex in frontal and temporal brain regions and 2 showing thinner cortex across multiple regions. All 5 studies included subjects spanning a broad age range, and none have examined continuous measures of prenatal alcohol exposure. We investigated the relation of extent of in utero alcohol exposure to cortical thickness in 78 preadolescent children with FASD and controls within a narrow age range. A whole-brain analysis using FreeSurfer revealed no significant clusters where cortical thickness differed by FASD diagnostic group. However, alcohol dose/occasion during pregnancy was inversely related to cortical thickness in 3 regions—right cuneus/pericalcarine/superior parietal lobe, fusiform/lingual gyrus, and supramarginal/postcentral gyrus. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on IQ was mediated by cortical thickness in the right occipitotemporal region. It is noteworthy that a continuous measure of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis and that the effect on cortical thickness was most evident in relation to a measure of maternal binge drinking. PMID:26088967

  11. Relationship between prenatal lead exposure and infant blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Archer, Natalie P; Bradford, Carrie M; Klein, David M; Barnes, Jim; Smith, L J; Villanacci, John F

    2012-10-01

    Recent literature has shown that analyzing newborn dried blood spots (DBS) may be effective in assessing some prenatal environmental exposures, such as exposure to lead. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to lead (as measured by newborn DBS results) and blood lead levels (BLLs) in infants 6 months of age or younger, using public health registry data for infants born in Texas from July 2002 through July 2006. The Texas Child Lead Registry (TCLR) was used to identify infants with documented elevated BLLs of 10 μg/dL or higher as well as infants with documented low BLLs. BLLs for these children were compared to their corresponding newborn DBS results using Pearson correlation coefficients and exact logistic regression models. Overall, a significant but weak positive correlation was found between infant BLLs and corresponding newborn DBS lead levels (r = 0.48). However, the odds of an infant with an elevated newborn DBS lead level having an elevated BLL at 6 months of age or younger were much greater than for an infant with a low newborn DBS lead level of <5 μg/dL (adjusted odds ratio 27.95, 95% CI: 5.52-277.28). Although an association was observed between newborn DBS lead levels and BLLs in infants tested between 0 to 6 months of age, our findings suggest that prenatal exposure may not be the only significant source of lead exposure for infants ≤6 months of age.

  12. β-endorphin neuronal transplantation into the hypothalamus alters anxiety-like behaviors in prenatal alcohol exposed rats and non-preferring and preferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan; Wynne, Olivia; Maglakelidze, George; Zhang, Changqing; O’Connell, Stephanie; Boyadjieva, Nadka I.; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol exposure has adverse effects on stress physiology and behavioral reactivity. This is suggested to be due, in part, to the effect of alcohol on β-endorphin (β-EP) producing neurons in the hypothalamus. In response to stress, β-EP normally provides negative feedback to the HPA axis and interacts with other neurotransmitter systems in the amygdala to regulate behavior. We examined whether β-EP neuronal function in the hypothalamus reduces the corticosterone response to acute stress, attenuates anxiety-like behaviors, and modulates alcohol drinking in rats. Methods To determine if β-EP neuronal transplants modulate the stress response, anxiety behavior and alcohol drinking, we implanted differentiated β-EP neurons into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of normal, prenatal alcohol exposed, and alcohol-preferring (P) and non-preferring (NP) rats. We then assessed corticosterone levels in response to acute restraint stress and other markers of stress response in the brain, and anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and open-field assays. Results We showed that β-EP neuronal transplants into the PVN reduced the peripheral corticosterone response to acute stress and attenuated anxiety-like behaviors. Similar transplants completely reduced the hyper-corticosterone response and elevated anxiety behaviors in prenatal alcohol exposed adult rats. Moreover, we showed that β-EP reduced anxiety behavior in P rats with minimal effects on alcohol drinking during and following restraint stress. Conclusions These data further establish a role of β-EP neurons in the hypothalamus for regulating physiological stress response and anxiety behavior, and resembles a potential novel therapy for treating stress-related psychiatric disorders in prenatal alcohol exposed children and those genetically predisposed to increased alcohol consumption. PMID:25623413

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure and long-term developmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Spohr, H.L.; Willms, J. . Dept. of Pediatrics); Steinhausen, H.C. . Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)

    1993-04-10

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of congenital mental retardation but little is known about the long-term development and adolescent outcome of children with FAS. In a 10-year follow-up study of 60 patients diagnosed as having FAS in infancy and childhood, the authors investigated the long-term sequelae of intrauterine alcohol exposure. The authors found that the characteristic craniofacial malformations of FAS diminish with time, but microcephaly and, to a lesser degree, short stature and underweight (in boys) persist; in female adolescents body weight normalizes. Persistent mental retardation is the major sequela of intrauterine alcohol exposure in many cases, and environmental and educational factors do not have strong compensatory effects on the intellectual development of affected children.

  14. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  15. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  16. Prenatal alcohol exposure results in long-term serotonin neuron deficits in female rats: modulatory role of ovarian steroids.

    PubMed

    Sliwowska, Joanna H; Song, Hyun Jung; Bodnar, Tamara; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on male rodents found that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) decreases the number of serotonin immunoreactive (5-HT-ir) neurons in the brainstem. However, data on the effects of PAE in females are lacking. In light of known sex differences in responsiveness of the 5-HT system and known effects of estrogen (E2 ) and progesterone (P4 ) in the brain, we hypothesized that sex steroids will modulate the adverse effects of PAE on 5-HT neurons in adult females. Adult females from 3 prenatal groups (Prenatal alcohol-exposed [PAE], Pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed Controls [C]) were ovariectomized (OVX), with or without hormone replacement, or underwent Sham OVX. 5-HT-ir cells were examined in key brainstem areas. Our data support the hypothesis that PAE has long-term effects on the 5-HT system of females and that ovarian steroids have a modulatory role in these effects. Intact (Sham OVX) PAE females had marginally lower numbers of 5-HT-ir neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the brainstem compared with PF and C females. This marginal difference became significant following removal of hormones by OVX. Replacement with E2 restored the number of 5-HT-ir neurons in PAE females to control levels, while P4 reversed the effects of E2 . Importantly, despite these differential responses of the 5-HT system to ovarian steroids, there were no differences in E2 and P4 levels among prenatal treatment groups. These data demonstrate long-term, adverse effects of PAE on the 5-HT system of females, as well as differential sensitivity of PAE compared with control females to the modulatory effects of ovarian steroids on 5-HT neurons. Our findings have important implications for understanding sex differences in 5-HT dysfunction in depression/anxiety disorders and the higher rates of these mental health problems in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Prologue: understanding children who have been affected by maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Hyter, Yvette D

    2007-04-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication professionals, prevalence figures for the occurrence of these effects, and a summarization of the articles that have been contributed by a cross section of researchers from various disciplines.

  18. Investigating the Influence of Prenatal Androgen Exposure and Sibling Effects on Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorder in Females from Opposite Sex Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2012-01-01

    Background There are robust sex differences for alcohol phenotypes, with men reporting more drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms than women. However, the sources of these effects are not completely understood. Sex hormones, a substantial biological sex difference, exert neurobehavioral influences and are candidates for influencing sex differences in alcohol phenotypes. The current study investigated the effects of prenatal androgens based on the hypothesis of prenatal hormone transfer, which posits that hormones from one twin influence the development of a co-twin. Methods The current study compared female twins from opposite-sex (OSF) and same-sex (SSF) pairs to investigate associations between prenatal androgens and alcohol phenotypes. Additional analyses distinguished prenatal and postnatal effects by comparing OSFs and SSFs with a close-in-age older (CAO) brother. Results OSFs endorsed more lifetime AUD symptoms than SSFs (d = 0.14). Females with a CAO brother reported greater intoxication frequency (d = 0.35), hangover frequency (d = 0.24), typical drinking quantity (d = 0.33), and max drinks (i.e., the most drinks ever consumed in a 24-hour period; d = 0.29). Controlling for postnatal effects, OSFs still endorsed more lifetime AUD symptoms than SSFs with a CAO brother (d = 0.16). Conclusions Prenatal exposure to a male co-twin was associated with increases in AUD symptoms, above the effect of postnatal exposure to a male sibling. Prenatal exposure to a male co-twin was not associated with increases in other alcohol-related phenotypes, but postnatal exposure to older male siblings produced medium effect sizes for indicators of alcohol consumption. Sex differences in AUDs, but not alcohol use, may be partially due to the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal androgens. However, sibling effects may be larger than any effect of prenatal androgen exposure. PMID:23277915

  19. Understanding specific effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain structure in young adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangchuan; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary E; Hu, Xiaoping

    2012-07-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with various adverse effects on human brain and behavior. Recently, neuroimaging studies have begun to identify PAE effects on specific brain structures. Investigation of such specific PAE effects is important for understanding the teratogenic mechanism of PAE on human brain, which is critical for differentiating PAE from other disorders. In this structural MRI study with young adults, PAE effects on the volumes of automatically segmented cortical and subcortical regions of interest (ROIs) were evaluated both through a group difference approach and a parametric approach. In the group difference approach (comparing among two PAE and a control groups), a disproportionate PAE effect was found in several occipital and temporal regions. This result is inconsistent with previous studies with child samples. Moreover, a gender difference in PAE effect was shown in some cortical ROIs. These findings suggest that sampling and gender may be important factors for interpreting specific PAE effects on human brain. With the parametric approach, it was demonstrated that the higher the PAE level, the smaller the entire brain, the lower the IQ. Several cortical and subcortical ROIs also exhibited a negative correlation between the PAE level and ROI volume. Furthermore, our data showed that the PAE effect on the brain could not be interpreted by the PAE effect on general physical growth until the young adult age. This study provides valuable insight into specific effects of PAE on human brain and suggests important implications for future studies in this field. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Development of brain vessels in human embryos and fetuses in conditions of prenatal exposure to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Solonskii, A V; Logvinov, S V; Kutepova, N A

    2008-05-01

    Light and electron microscopy were used to study the characteristics of the formation of brain vascular structures at the early stages of development in conditions of maternal alcoholization during pregnancy. Computer morphometric methods using the Scion Image system for image analysis showed that fetuses at 11-12 weeks of development in conditions of prenatal alcohol exposure showed a decrease in the mean absolute cross-sectional area of vessels in the intermediate layer of the brain, with an increase in their relative area and an increase per unit area of sections, as compared with the control group. Vessels started to differentiate into arteries and veins from 10 weeks of development.

  1. Executive functioning and working memory deficits on the CANTAB among children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carmen; Soleimani, Maryam; Pei, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) display numerous neuropsychological impairments, including deficits on measures of executive functioning (EF) and working memory. The goal of this project was to examine whether children with PAE and FASD demonstrate EF and working memory deficits on the CANTAB® (a computerized neuropsychological test). Twenty-four children with PAE and 26 control children were tested on the CANTAB®. Children with PAE demonstrated deficits in the areas of executive functioning, working memory, and attention. Among the PAE group, those with FASD were specifically impaired on working memory capacity. The CANTAB® is a useful tool for detecting neurobehavioral deficits in children with PAE.

  2. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters the patterns of facial asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Klingenberg, C P; Wetherill, L; Rogers, J; Moore, E; Ward, R; Autti-Rämö, I; Fagerlund, A; Jacobson, S W; Robinson, L K; Hoyme, H E; Mattson, S N; Li, T K; Riley, E P; Foroud, T

    2010-01-01

    Directional asymmetry, the systematic differences between the left and right body sides, is widespread in human populations. Changes in directional asymmetry are associated with various disorders that affect craniofacial development. Because facial dysmorphology is a key criterion for diagnosing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the question arises whether in utero alcohol exposure alters directional asymmetry in the face. Data on the relative position of 17 morphologic landmarks were obtained from facial scans of children who were classified as either FAS or control. Shape data obtained from the landmarks were analyzed with the methods of geometric morphometrics. Our analyses showed significant directional asymmetry of facial shape, consisting primarily of a shift of midline landmarks to the right and a displacement of the landmarks around the eyes to the left. The asymmetry of FAS and control groups differed significantly and average directional asymmetry was increased in those individuals exposed to alcohol in utero. These results suggest that the developmental consequences of fetal alcohol exposure affect a wide range of craniofacial features in addition to those generally recognized and used for diagnosis of FAS.

  3. A staged screening strategy for prenatal alcohol exposure and maternal risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Burd, Larry; Klug, Marilyn G; Martsolf, John T; Martsolf, Cathy; Deal, Eric; Kerbeshian, Jacob

    2006-03-01

    To present an incremental process for a staged screening strategy to identify women at increased risk of having a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and to enhance the management of women using alcohol during pregnancy. We include an illustrative example of the development of a screening component using an existing data set. We describe a seven-step protocol to screen for alcohol use during pregnancy. The screening process begins with a one-question initial screen, followed by exposure assessment, maternal risk stratification to estimate risk for FASD, and concludes with recommendations for intervention and monitoring of exposure for women drinking during pregnancy. This screening process has very modest time commitments in the early stages. Time commitments increase for women drinking during pregnancy and the process focuses on the population at highest risk of having a child with FASD. The process has the benefit of risk specificity, since the process refines risk estimates for an adverse outcome specific for FASD. The process concludes with a programme to facilitate intervention and to monitor changes in prenatal alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Prevention of FASD is an important public health priority. In addition to the ongoing study of clinical strategies to improve detection rates of alcohol exposure at all stages of pregnancy, additional research on the tools and the process used in screening efforts is urgently needed. The efforts should also include research on both the screening tools and the outcome of the screening process in routine prenatal care settings.

  4. A follow-up study of attentional behavior in 6-year-old children exposed prenatally to marihuana, cigarettes, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    1992-01-01

    Attentional behavior was examined in one hundred twenty-six 72-month-old children for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana, cigarettes, and alcohol has previously been ascertained. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed a dose-response association between prenatal cigarette exposure and impulsive behavior as manifest on poorer performance on a response inhibition task and increased errors of commission on a sustained vigilance task. Performance on a series of memory tasks particularly those requiring verbal recall was also negatively associated with maternal cigarette use. Prenatal marihuana habits were associated with increased omission errors in the vigilance task, possibly reflecting a deficit in sustained attention. In addition, Discriminant Function Analysis revealed a dose-response relationship between prenatal marihuana use and a higher rating by the mothers on an impulsive/hyperactive scale. Relatively low levels of maternal alcohol consumption was related to decreased impulsive responding both in the response inhibition task and in terms of the mothers' perception of the child's behavior. The multifaceted approach of examining attentional behavior was essential to reveal the differential associations with the three prenatally used drugs. The implications of the observations and how the findings relate to and extend the existing literature is discussed.

  5. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  6. Subtle Decreases in DNA Methylation and Gene Expression at the Mouse Igf2 Locus Following Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Effects of a Methyl-Supplemented Diet

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Chris; Johnson, Thomas E; Larson, Colin; Leakey, Tatiana I; Siegfried, Rachel N; Rafferty, Tonya M; Cooney, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6J (B6) mice are susceptible to in utero growth retardation and a number of morphological malformations following prenatal alcohol exposure, while DBA/2J (D2) mice are relatively resistant. We have previously shown that genomic imprinting may play a role in differential sensitivity between B6 and D2 (Downing and Gilliam 1999). The best characterized mechanism mediating genomic imprinting is differential DNA methylation. In the present study we examined DNA methylation and gene expression, in both embryonic and placental tissue, at the mouse Igf2 locus following in utero ethanol exposure. We also examined the effects of a methyl-supplemented diet on methylation and ethanol teratogenesis. In embryos from susceptible B6 mice, we found small decreases in DNA methylation at four CpG sites in one of the differentially methylated regions of the Igf2 locus; only one of the four sites showed a statistically significant decrease. We observed no significant decreases in methylation in placentae. All Igf2 transcripts showed approximately 1.5 fold decreases following intrauterine alcohol exposure. Placing dams on a methyl-supplemented diet before pregnancy and throughout gestation brought methylation back up to control levels. Methyl-supplementation also resulted in lower prenatal mortality, greater prenatal growth, and decreased digit malformations; it dramatically reduced vertebral malformations. Thus, while prenatal alcohol had only small effects on DNA methylation at the Igf2 locus, placing dams on a methyl-supplemented diet partially ameliorated ethanol teratogenesis. PMID:20705422

  7. Subtle decreases in DNA methylation and gene expression at the mouse Igf2 locus following prenatal alcohol exposure: effects of a methyl-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Downing, Chris; Johnson, Thomas E; Larson, Colin; Leakey, Tatiana I; Siegfried, Rachel N; Rafferty, Tonya M; Cooney, Craig A

    2011-02-01

    C57BL/6J (B6) mice are susceptible to in utero growth retardation and a number of morphological malformations following prenatal alcohol exposure, while DBA/2J (D2) mice are relatively resistant. We have previously shown that genomic imprinting may play a role in differential sensitivity between B6 and D2. The best-characterized mechanism mediating genomic imprinting is differential DNA methylation. In the present study we examined DNA methylation and gene expression, in both embryonic and placental tissue, at the mouse Igf2 locus following in utero ethanol exposure. We also examined the effects of a methyl-supplemented diet on methylation and ethanol teratogenesis. In embryos from susceptible B6 mice, we found small decreases in DNA methylation at four CpG sites in one of the differentially methylated regions of the Igf2 locus; only one of the four sites showed a statistically significant decrease. We observed no significant decreases in methylation in placentae. All Igf2 transcripts showed approximately 1.5-fold decreases following intrauterine alcohol exposure. Placing dams on a methyl-supplemented diet before pregnancy and throughout gestation brought methylation back up to control levels. Methyl supplementation also resulted in lower prenatal mortality, greater prenatal growth, and decreased digit malformations; it dramatically reduced vertebral malformations. Thus, although prenatal alcohol had only small effects on DNA methylation at the Igf2 locus, placing dams on a methyl-supplemented diet partially ameliorated ethanol teratogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuropsychological Comparison of Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and an IQ-Matched Comparison Group

    PubMed Central

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2012-01-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual–motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ. PMID:21349236

  9. Neuropsychological comparison of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and an IQ-matched comparison group.

    PubMed

    Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-05-01

    An objective in current research on children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to determine neurobehavioral profiles to identify affected individuals. Deficits observed when children with FASD are compared to typically developing controls may be confounded by lower IQ scores in the subjects with FASD. To determine if prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with neurobehavioral deficits after controlling for IQ differences, multivariate analyses were conducted to compare alcohol-exposed (ALC) subjects to a comparison group closely matched on IQ (IQC). The initial analysis included a broad neuropsychological battery with measures of language, executive function, visual-motor integration, motor ability, and academic achievement. Additional, in depth comparisons focused on visual sustained attention, verbal learning and memory and parent/guardian-reported behavior problems. Group differences (ALC < IQC) were found on verbal learning and parent-rated behavior problems. Group differences were marginally significant (measures within the broad neuropsychological comparison) or not significant (visual attention, retention of verbal material) on the remaining comparisons. Therefore, some deficits (e.g., verbal learning and behavior problems) in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be explained by the lower FSIQ observed in the population. These areas of relative weakness could be useful in distinguishing children with FASD from other children with lowered IQ.

  10. Auditory and visual sustained attention in adolescents prenatally exposed to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Coles, Claire D; Platzman, Kathleen A; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Freides, David

    2002-02-01

    Sustained attention problems and impulsivity are reported in association with prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol syndrome, but research in this area is limited and contradictory. Auditory and visual sustained attention were investigated in 265 low-income, predominantly African-American, adolescents (mean age, 15.12 years; SD, 0.92). Included were 53 unexposed controls and 128 exposed to alcohol and other drugs prenatally, with 46 of these exhibiting dysmorphic features and growth retardation, as well as a special-education contrast group (n = 84). Sustained attention was measured with "AK" subtests from a commercially available Continuous Performance Task program. Outcomes included total correct, total errors, omissions, commissions, preservations, hit rate, false alarms, reaction time, and response sensitivity (d'). A repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance procedure was used with the exposure group (four groups) as the independent variable and presentation mode (visual or auditory) and trial block (four blocks) as within-subject repeated measures. There was an interaction of group with presentation mode for total correct, errors, error type, hit rate, and d'. Most groups processed visual information more effectively than auditory information. In contrast, dysmorphic adolescents performed as effectively when presented with auditory stimuli but were less efficient in processing visual information. Significantly higher error rates, particularly omission errors [F(3,261) = 7.16; p < 0.000], as well as lower d' [F(3,261) = 5.77; p < 0.001], were noted in this group. These results suggest that there may be specific patterns to the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive performance that can be identified during adolescence. In this study of sustained attention, processing in the visual modality was more affected than that in the auditory modality. Deficits in visual processing seemed to result from insensitivity to target stimuli.

  11. Both parental psychopathology and prenatal maternal alcohol dependency can predict the behavioral phenotype in children.

    PubMed

    Staroselsky, Arthur; Fantus, Ellen; Sussman, Reuven; Sandor, Paul; Koren, Gideon; Nulman, Irena

    2009-01-01

    To identify whether a child's behavior phenotype can be predicted by parental psychopathology and/or prenatal maternal alcohol dependency by using the Child Behavior List (CBCL) as a screening tool. A retrospective cohort of four non-exclusive groups of children (aged 8-15 years) was studied: (i) children exposed to alcohol in utero (n = 25); (ii) children not exposed to alcohol in utero (n = 46); (iii) children exposed to parental psychopathology (n = 37); (iv) children not exposed to parental psychopathology (n = 34). To distinguish between the effects of alcohol and parental psychopathology, the children were further subdivided into groups with alcohol exposure in utero and parental psychopathology (n = 23), and psychopathology without alchohol exposure (n = 14). Each child was assessed with the CBCL. Subscale scores and selected subscale items were compared between the groups using t-tests and regression analysis. Children exposed to alcohol in utero scored significantly lower than unexposed children on school competency (p = 0.015). They were more likely to attend special classes (p = 0.048), repeat a grade (p = 0.011), and display more disobedience (p = 0.039) and vandalism (p = 0.033). For special classes and disobedience at school, gender proved to be a significant predictor, while maternal alcohol dependency was a significant predictor of vandalism and repeated grades. Children with parental psychopathology differed from children without parental psychopathology in the anxious/depressed (p = 0.04), social problems (p = 0.004), and attention problems (p = 0.04) subscales. The subscale items that were significantly different between the groups were nervousness (p = 0.002), self-consciousness (p = 0.019), feelings of worthlessness (p = 0.041), loneliness (p = 0.005), and difficulty with concentration (p = 0.02). Parental psychopathology was a significant predictor of all five items. Age and gender, however, were significant predictors only of difficulty with

  12. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-12-14

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring.

  13. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Interhemispheric Transfer of Tactile Information: Detroit and Cape Town Findings

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Neil C.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Bangalore, Sumana; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Hoyme, Eugene H.; Robinson, Luther K.; Khaole, Nathaniel; Avison, Malcolm J.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated that heavy prenatal alcohol exposure affects the size and shape of the corpus callosum (CC) and compromises interhemispheric transfer of information. The aim of this study was to confirm the previous reports of poorer performance on a finger localization test (FLT) of interhemispheric transfer in a cohort of heavily exposed children and to extend these findings to a cohort of moderately exposed young adults. Methods In Study 1, the FLT was administered to 40 heavily-exposed and 23 non-exposed children from the Cape Coloured community of Cape Town, South Africa, who were evaluated for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) dysmorphology and growth. Anatomical images of the CC were obtained using structural MRI on a subset of these children. In Study 2, the FLT was administered to a cohort of 85 moderate-to heavily exposed young adults participating in a 19-year follow-up assessment of the Detroit Prenatal Alcohol Exposure cohort, whose alcohol exposure had been ascertained prospectively during gestation. Results In Study 1, children with FAS showed more transfer-related errors than controls after adjustment for confounding, and increased transfer-related errors were associated with volume reductions in the isthmus and splenium of the CC. In Study 2, transfer-related errors were associated with quantity of alcohol consumed per occasion during pregnancy. More errors were made if the mother reported binge drinking (≥ 5 standard drinks) during pregnancy than if she drank regularly (M ≥ 1 drink/per day) without binge drinking. Conclusions These findings confirm a previous report of impaired interhemispheric transfer of tactile information in children heavily exposed to alcohol in utero and extend these findings to show that these deficits are also seen in more moderately exposed individuals, particularly those exposed to binge-like pregnancy drinking. PMID:19519722

  14. RE-AIM evaluation of the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project: educational resources to inform health professionals about prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.

  15. Schizencephaly: association with young maternal age, alcohol use, and lack of prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Dies, Kira A; Bodell, Adria; Hisama, Fuki M; Guo, Chao-Yu; Barry, Brenda; Chang, Bernard S; Barkovich, A James; Walsh, Christopher A

    2013-02-01

    Schizencephaly is a rare malformation of cortical development characterized by congenital clefts extending from the pial surface to the lateral ventricle that are lined by heterotopic gray matter. The clinical presentation is variable and can include motor or cognitive impairment and epilepsy. The causes of schizencephaly are heterogeneous and can include teratogens, prenatal infection, or maternal trauma. Reported genetic causes include chromosomal aneuploidy, EMX2 mutations, and possible autosomal recessive familial cases based on recurrence in siblings. In an effort to identify risk factors for schizencephaly, we conducted a survey of 48 parents or primary caretakers of patients with schizencephaly born between 1983 and 2004. We discovered that young maternal age, lack of prenatal care, and alcohol use were all significantly associated with risk of schizencephaly. Our results suggest that there are important nongenetic, intrauterine events that predispose to schizencephaly.

  16. Linear Versus Non-Linear Dose-Response Relationship Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Meconium Concentration of Nine Different Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.Y.; Kwak, H.S.; Choi, J.S.; Ahn, H.K.; Oh, Y.J.; Velázquez-Armenta, E.Y.; Nava-Ocampo, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of individual fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium is considered to be a reliable biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure, and their concentration has been found to be linearly associated with poor postnatal development, supporting the widely extended idea that ethanol is a non-threshold teratogen. However, a growing number of epidemiological studies have consistently found a lack of adverse short- and long-term fetal outcomes at low exposure levels. We therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of individual FAEEs and prenatal alcohol exposure in meconium samples collected within the first 6 to 12?h after birth from 182 babies born to abstainer mothers and from 54 babies born to women who self-reported either light or moderate alcohol ingestion in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In most cases, the individual FAEE concentrations were negligible and not significantly different (P >0.05) between exposed and control babies. The concentrations appeared to increase linearly with the dose only in the few babies born to mothers who reported >3 drinks/week. These results provide evidence that the correlation between prenatal alcohol exposure and individual FAEE concentrations in meconium is non-linear shape, with a threshold probably at 3 drinks/week. PMID:26691866

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Understanding the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Supporting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) affect a significant number of children in this country. This article addresses diagnostic issues related to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related disabilities, discusses associated features and behaviors of FASD, and introduces interventions to support children with FASD in…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Understanding the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Supporting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) affect a significant number of children in this country. This article addresses diagnostic issues related to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related disabilities, discusses associated features and behaviors of FASD, and introduces interventions to support children with FASD in…

  19. Prenatal exposure to alcohol affects the ability to maintain postural balance.

    PubMed

    Roebuck, T M; Simmons, R W; Mattson, S N; Riley, E P

    1998-02-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is known to affect gross motor functioning. Animal studies have shown that balance is particularly affected, and there is some evidence that similar deficits exist in alcohol-exposed children. In the current study, postural balance, or the ability to maintain equilibrium, was assessed in a group of alcohol-exposed children (ALC group; n = 11) and controls (NC group; n = 11) individually matched for age and sex. Balance was measured across six conditions designed to systematically manipulate or eliminate visual or somatosensory information. Equilibrium and strategy scores for each condition and a derived composite balance score were analyzed. Although the ALC group had a lower mean composite balance score, their performance was similar to that of the NC group on all conditions where somatosensory input was reliable. However, when somatosensory input was manipulated, and when both somatosensory and visual input were inaccurate, the ALC group performed more poorly than controls. Interestingly, there were no differences between the ALC group and NC group in the type of control strategy used to maintain balance. These results suggest that alcohol-exposed children are overly reliant on somatosensory input. When this input is atypical, alcohol-exposed children display significantly greater anterior-posterior body sway and are unable to compensate using available visual or vestibular information. These deficits may be related to cerebellar anomalies previously reported in fetal alcohol syndrome children.

  20. Executive function and cortical thickness in youths prenatally exposed to cocaine, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Prapti; Warner, Tamara D.; Kan, Eric C.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Small and detrimental, albeit inconsistent, effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) during early childhood have been reported. The teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol (PAE) and tobacco exposure (PTE) on neurobehavior are more firmly established than PCE. We tested if co-exposure to all three drugs could be related to greater differences in brain structure than exposure to cocaine alone. Participants (n=42, PCE=27; age range = 14–16 years) received an executive function battery prior to a T1-weighted 3T structural MRI scan. Cortical thickness was measured using FreeSurfer (v5.1). Fetal drug exposure was quantified through maternal self-reports usage during pregnancy. Using general linear modeling, we found no main effects of PCE on cortical thickness, but significant main effects of PAE and PTE in superior and medial frontal regions, after co-varying for the effects of age, sex, and each drug of exposure. Significant alcohol-by-tobacco interactions, and significant cocaine-by-alcohol interactions on cortical thickness in medial parietal and temporal regions were also observed. Poly-drug exposure and cognitive function also showed significant interactions with cortical thickness: lower cortical thickness was associated with better performance in PCE-exposed adolescents. Results suggest that although children with PCE have subtle but persistent brain cortical differences until mid-to-late adolescence. PMID:25743199

  1. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F.; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the HPA or stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5–18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA. PMID:27286932

  2. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  3. Academic Difficulties in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Presence, Profile, and Neural Correlates.

    PubMed

    Glass, Leila; Moore, Eileen M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2017-05-01

    Academic achievement was evaluated in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure to determine potential strengths and weaknesses, evaluate the utility of different definitions for identifying low academic performance, and explore the neural correlates that may underlie academic performance. Children (8 to 16 years) were assessed using the WIAT-II. Patterns of performance were examined in 2 subject groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 67) and controls (n = 61). A repeated-measures MANCOVA examining group differences on academic domain (reading, spelling, math) scores was conducted. Post hoc comparisons examined within-group profiles. Numbers and percentage of children with low achievement were calculated using several criteria. In a subsample (n = 42), neural correlates were analyzed using FreeSurfer v5.3 to examine relations between cortical structure (thickness and surface area) and performance. The alcohol-exposed group performed worse than controls on all domains and had a unique academic profile, supported by a significant group × academic domain interaction (p < 0.001). For the alcohol-exposed group, math reasoning was significantly lower than numerical operations, which was significantly lower than spelling and word reading. Over half of the alcohol-exposed group (58.2%) demonstrated low achievement on 1 or more academic domains. The number and percentage of children meeting criteria for low achievement varied based on the domain and definition used. The imaging analysis identified several surface area clusters that were differentially related to math (L superior parietal and R lateral/middle occipital) and spelling (bilateral inferior and medial temporal) performance by group, with no relations for the other academic domains. Generally, scores improved as surface area decreased in controls, whereas no relation or a positive relation was observed in the alcohol-exposed group. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated deficits

  4. Low blood alcohol levels in rats despite chronic alcohol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W.; Lin, J.C.; Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rats fed liquid diets containing 36% or 26% of calories from ethanol consume similar amounts of alcohol each day. After 3 weeks on ethanol diet, the blood alcohol levels (BAL) are high in rats fed the 36% alcohol diet, but low or insignificant in those fed the 26% alcohol diet. Rats in either alcohol diet group consume most of their diet in the night. Hence, the low BAL in 26% ethanol diet-fed rats may not be due to a more rapid diet consumption after feeding and clearance of the bulk of ingested alcohol as compared to the rats fed the 36% alcohol diet. BAL at various times during the day (7 AM, 10 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM, 7 PM and 10 PM) are high in rats fed the 36% ethanol diet. However, BAL in those fed the 26% ethanol diet are low during the corresponding times. It appears that the low BAL produced by the enhanced hepatic metabolism of ethanol is related to the improved nutritional status in rats fed the 26% ethanol diet, compared to those fed 36% ethanol diet, because rats fed the 36% ethanol diet ingest reduced amounts of calories and other nutrients. Extrahepatic effects of chronic alcohol consumption caused by high BAL may be abated by an enhanced daily intake of nutrients by the animal.

  5. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alter Depressive- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Verma, Pamela; Yoon, Esther; Yu, Wayne K.; Young, Allan H.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with numerous neuro behavioral alterations, as well as disabilities in a number of domains, including a high incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) also alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, resulting in increased responsiveness to stressors and HPA dysregulation in adulthood. Interestingly, data suggest that pre-existing HPA abnormalities may be a major contributory factor to some forms of depression, particularly when an individual is exposed to stressors later in life. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to stressors in adulthood may unmask an increased vulnerability to depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in PAE animals. Methods Male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol (PAE), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitumfed control (C) treatment groups were tested in adulthood. Animals were exposed to 10 consecutive days of chronic mild stress (CMS), and assessed in a battery of well-validated tasks sensitive to differences in depressive- and / or anxiety-like behaviors. Results We report here that the combination of PAE and CMS in adulthood increases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in a sexually dimorphic manner. PAE males showed impaired hedonic responsivity (sucrose contrast test), locomotor hyperactivity (open field), and alterations in affiliative and nonaffiliative social behaviors (social interaction test) compared to control males. By contrast, PAE and, to a lesser extent, PF, females showed greater levels of “behavioral despair” in the forced swim test, and PAE females showed altered behavior in the final 5 minutes of the social interaction test compared to control females. Conclusions These data support the possibility that stress may be a mediating or contributing factor in the psychopathologies reported in FASD populations. PMID:20102562

  6. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Meintjes, E.M.; Narr, K.L.; der Kouwe, A.J.W. van; Molteno, C.D.; Pirnia, T.; Gutman, B.; Woods, R.P.; Thompson, P.M.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent. PMID:25057467

  7. Prenatal alcohol exposure triggers ceramide-induced apoptosis in neural crest-derived tissues concurrent with defective cranial development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, G; Bieberich, E

    2010-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The reason why specific embryonic tissues are sensitive toward ethanol is not understood. We found that in neural crest-derived cell (NCC) cultures from the first branchial arch of E10 mouse embryos, incubation with ethanol increases the number of apoptotic cells by fivefold. Apoptotic cells stain intensely for ceramide, suggesting that ceramide-induced apoptosis mediates ethanol damage to NCCs. Apoptosis is reduced by incubation with CDP-choline (citicoline), a precursor for the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin. Consistent with NCC cultures, ethanol intubation of pregnant mice results in ceramide elevation and increased apoptosis of NCCs in vivo. Ethanol also increases the protein level of prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4), a sensitizer to ceramide-induced apoptosis. Prenatal ethanol exposure is concurrent with malformation of parietal bones in 20% of embryos at day E18. Meninges, a tissue complex derived from NCCs, is disrupted and generates reduced levels of TGF-β1, a growth factor critical for bone and brain development. Ethanol-induced apoptosis of NCCs leading to defects in the meninges may explain the simultaneous presence of cranial bone malformation and cognitive retardation in FAS. In addition, our data suggest that treatment with CDP-choline may alleviate the tissue damage caused by alcohol. PMID:21364652

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure triggers ceramide-induced apoptosis in neural crest-derived tissues concurrent with defective cranial development.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Bieberich, E

    2010-05-27

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The reason why specific embryonic tissues are sensitive toward ethanol is not understood. We found that in neural crest-derived cell (NCC) cultures from the first branchial arch of E10 mouse embryos, incubation with ethanol increases the number of apoptotic cells by fivefold. Apoptotic cells stain intensely for ceramide, suggesting that ceramide-induced apoptosis mediates ethanol damage to NCCs. Apoptosis is reduced by incubation with CDP-choline (citicoline), a precursor for the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin. Consistent with NCC cultures, ethanol intubation of pregnant mice results in ceramide elevation and increased apoptosis of NCCs in vivo. Ethanol also increases the protein level of prostate apoptosis response 4 (PAR-4), a sensitizer to ceramide-induced apoptosis. Prenatal ethanol exposure is concurrent with malformation of parietal bones in 20% of embryos at day E18. Meninges, a tissue complex derived from NCCs, is disrupted and generates reduced levels of TGF-β1, a growth factor critical for bone and brain development. Ethanol-induced apoptosis of NCCs leading to defects in the meninges may explain the simultaneous presence of cranial bone malformation and cognitive retardation in FAS. In addition, our data suggest that treatment with CDP-choline may alleviate the tissue damage caused by alcohol.

  9. Differentiating prenatal exposure to methamphetamine and alcohol versus alcohol and not methamphetamine using tensor-based brain morphometry and discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Sowell, Elizabeth R; Leow, Alex D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Smith, Lynne M; O'Connor, Mary J; Kan, Eric; Rosso, Carly; Houston, Suzanne; Dinov, Ivo D; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-03-17

    Here we investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) on local brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging. Because many who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined whether local brain volumes differed among 61 children (ages 5-15 years), 21 with prenatal MA exposure, 18 with concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but not MA exposure (ALC group), and 27 unexposed controls. Volume reductions were observed in both exposure groups relative to controls in striatal and thalamic regions bilaterally and in right prefrontal and left occipitoparietal cortices. Striatal volume reductions were more severe in the MAA group than in the ALC group, and, within the MAA group, a negative correlation between full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores and caudate volume was observed. Limbic structures, including the anterior and posterior cingulate, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral and lateral temporal lobes bilaterally, were increased in volume in both exposure groups. Furthermore, cingulate and right IFG volume increases were more pronounced in the MAA than ALC group. Discriminant function analyses using local volume measurements and FSIQ were used to predict group membership, yielding factor scores that correctly classified 72% of participants in jackknife analyses. These findings suggest that striatal and limbic structures, known to be sites of neurotoxicity in adult MA abusers, may be more vulnerable to prenatal MA exposure than alcohol exposure and that more severe striatal damage is associated with more severe cognitive deficit.

  10. Prenatal coke: what's behind the smoke? Prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposure and school-age outcomes: the SCHOO-BE experience.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, V; Covington, C; Templin, T; Ager, J; Martier, S; Compton, S; Sokol, R

    1998-06-21

    Despite media reports and educators' concerns, little substantive data have been published to document or refute the emerging reports that children prenatally exposed to cocaine have serious behavioral problems in school. Recent pilot data from this institution have indeed demonstrated teacher-reported problem behaviors following prenatal cocaine exposure after controlling for the effects of prenatal alcohol use and cigarette exposure. Imperative in the study of prenatal exposure and child outcome is an acknowledgement of the influence of other control factors such as postnatal environment, secondary exposures, and parenting issues. We report preliminary evaluation from a large ongoing historical prospective study of prenatal cocaine exposure on school-age outcomes. The primary aim of this NIDA-funded study is to determine if a relationship exists between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school behavior and, if so, to determine if the relationship is characterized by a dose-response relationship. A secondary aim evaluates the relationship between prenatal cocaine/alcohol exposures and school achievement. Both relationships will be assessed in a black, urban sample of first grade students using multivariate statistical techniques for confounding as well as mediating and moderating prenatal and postnatal variables. A third aim is to evaluate the relationship between a general standardized classroom behavioral measure and a tool designed to tap the effects thought to be specific to prenatal cocaine exposure. This interdisciplinary research team can address these aims because of the existence of a unique, prospectively collected perinatal Database, funded in part by NIAAA and NICHD. The database includes repeated measures of cocaine, alcohol, and other substances for over 3,500 births since 1986. Information from this database is combined with information from the database of one of the largest public school systems in the nation. The final sample will be

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and adolescent stress: Unmasking persistent attentional deficits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, Wendy L; Winstanley, Catharine A; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can produce a myriad of deficits. Unfortunately, affected individuals may also be exposed to the stress of an adverse home environment, contributing to deficits of attentional processes that are the hallmark of optimal executive function. Male offspring of ad libitum-fed Control (Con), Pairfed (PF), and PAE dams were randomly assigned to either a five day period of variable chronic mild stress (CMS) or no CMS (Non CMS) in adolescence. In adulthood, rats were trained in a non-match to sample task (T-maze), followed by extensive assessment in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Once rats acquired the 5-CSRTT (stable accuracy), rats were tested in three challenge conditions, 1) increased sustained attention, 2) selective attention and, 3) varying doses of d- amphetamine, an indirect dopamine and norepinephrine agonist. At birth and throughout the study, PAE offspring showed reduced body weight. Moreover, although PAE were comparable to Con animals in task acquisition, they were progressively less proficient with transitions to shorter stimulus durations (decreased accuracy and increased omissions). Five days of adolescent CMS increased basal corticosterone levels in adolescence and disrupted cognitive performance in adulthood. Further, CMS augmented PAE-related disturbances in acquisition and, to a lesser extent, disrupted attentional processes in Con and PF animals as well. Following task acquisition, challenges unmasked persistent attentional difficulties resulting from both PAE and adolescent CMS. In conclusion, PAE, adolescent CMS, and their interaction produced unique behavioural profiles that suggest vulnerability in select neurobiological processes at different stages of development. PMID:25059261

  12. Neuronal reduction in frontal cortex of primates after prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Palmour, Roberta M; Ervin, Frank R; Ptito, Maurice

    2009-01-07

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) show behavioral and intellectual impairments that indicate frontal lobe dysfunction, but the extent of damage to this region has not been clarified by brain imaging studies. This study uses the St Kitts vervet monkey, a species that voluntarily consumes beverage alcohol, to examine the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant vervets were allowed to drink the equivalent of 3-5 standard drinks four times a week during the third trimester. Using unbiased stereology, we estimated neuronal reduction and found significantly fewer cells in the frontal lobes of FASD offspring as well as an increased density of interstitial white matter neurons. These cytoarchitectonic effects are consistent with the behavioral and cognitive changes observed in FASD.

  13. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Rodents As a Promising Model for the Study of ADHD Molecular Basis

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Padilla-Velarde, Edgar; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the “Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders” (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD. PMID:28018163

  14. Objective Assessment of ADHD Core Symptoms in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Infante, M. Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M.; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14 years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n = 43), and non-exposed children (CON, n = 54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's < .05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, and had longer response latencies and increased variability in response time; moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. PMID:25447751

  15. Objective assessment of ADHD core symptoms in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Nguyen, Tanya T; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n=43), and non-exposed children (CON, n=54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's<.05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, had longer response latencies, and increased variability in response time. Moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD.

  16. Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Alters Functional Connectivity in the Adult Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Davies, Suzy; Calhoun, Vince; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-01

    Past studies of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) have focused on specific brain regions, neurotransmitter systems, and behaviors. However, the effects of PAE on brain function and behavior are complex and not limited to discrete brain regions. Thus, there is a critical need to understand the global effects of moderate PAE on neural function. A primary aim of this research was to explore the functional relationships in neural activity of spatially distinct areas by applying a widely used computational algorithm-group-independent component analysis (gICA)-to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from rats exposed to either an alcohol or saccharin control solution via maternal consumption during pregnancy. Long-Evans rat dams consumed either 5% (v/v) alcohol or a saccharin control solution throughout gestation. Adult offspring from each prenatal treatment group were anesthetized for functional, structural, and perfusion magnetic resonance-based image acquisition sequences. gICA was applied to the functional data to extract components. To determine connectivity, component time-course correlations were computed and compared. Additionally, spectral power analyses were utilized as an additional measure of functional connectivity. Finally, blood perfusion-assessed by arterial spin labeling-and whole-brain volumetric analyses were evaluated. Analyses revealed 17 components in several brain regions such as the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. PAE was associated with reductions in coordinated activity between components, especially in males. PAE was also associated with reductions in low-frequency spectral power, an effect that was more robust in females. Brain volumetric analyses revealed sex-dependent reductions in females while blood flow analyses revealed sex-dependent reductions in males. Moderate PAE leads to persistent changes in functional connectivity in the absence of whole-brain volume or blood flow measures. Future studies will

  17. The influence of aripiprazole and olanzapine on the anxiolytic-like effect observed in prenatally stressed rats (animal model of schizophrenia) exposed to the ethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Piotr; Kus, Krzysztof; Giermaziak, Wojciech; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2016-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a common disease which affect about 1% of global population. In that point of view animal model of schizophrenia seem to be an important tool for better understanding the key theories related to the disease. The aim of the study was to find whether anxiety-like behavior is found in prenatally stressed rats (animal model of schizophrenia) and whether aripiprazole (ARI, 1.5mg/kg) and olanzapine (OLA, 0.5mg/kg) modify those functions. We also were able to determine whether ethyl alcohol consumption has an impact on ARI's and OLA's efficacy as well as anxiety-like behavior of animals. The anxiolytic effects of ARI, OLA and ethyl alcohol were determined in a two compartment exploratory test. The anxiolytic effect was studied in the NSCG (non-stressed control group), NSAG (non-stressed alcohol group), and PSG (prenatally stressed group), PSAG (prenatally stressed alcohol group). Single and chronic treatment of both ARI and OLA produced a statistically significant increase in the number of entries in the white compartment of the two compartment exploratory test in the NSCG rats. In turn in the PSG rats only ARI showed the anxiolytic effect. Moreover ethyl alcohol intake showed anxiolytic effect in both NSAG and PSAG rats. Results also indicate that after prolonged administration of drugs, tolerance related to the anxiolytic effect was observed. ARI and OLA can reduce the level of anxiety which proves drugs effectiveness in course anxiety-like behavior. On the other hand only ARI generated anxiolytic effect in exposure to ethyl alcohol conditions. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces the proportion of newly produced neurons and glia in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Sliwowska, Joanna H.; Lieblich, Stephanie; Ellis, Linda A.; Yu, Wayne L.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters adult neurogenesis and the neurogenic response to stress in male rats. As the effects of stress on neurogenesis are sexually dimorphic, the present study investigated the effects of PAE on adult hippocampal neurogenesis under both non-stressed and stressed conditions in female rats. Pregnant females were assigned to one of three prenatal treatments: 1) Alcohol (PAE) - liquid alcohol (ethanol) diet ad libitum (36% ethanol-derived calories); 2) Pair-fed - isocaloric liquid diet, with maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol, in the amount consumed by a PAE partner (g/kg body wt/day of gestation); and 3) Control - lab chow ad libitum. Female offspring were assigned to either non-stressed (undisturbed) or stressed (repeated restraint stress for 9 days) conditions. On day 10, all rats were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and perfused either 24 hours (cell proliferation) or 3 weeks (cell survival) later. We found that PAE did not significantly alter cell proliferation or survival, whereas females from the Pair-fed condition exhibited elevated levels of cell survival compared to Control females. Importantly, however, the proportion of both new neurons and new glial cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was reduced in PAE compared to Control females. Exposure to stress did not alter neurogenesis in any of the prenatal treatment groups. In summary, compared to females from the Control condition, prenatal dietary restriction enhanced the survival of new neurons, whereas PAE altered the differentiation of newly produced cells in the adult dentate gyrus. Alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis following PAE may contribute to learning and memory deficits seen in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:20736015

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces the proportion of newly produced neurons and glia in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in female rats.

    PubMed

    Uban, Kristina A; Sliwowska, Joanna H; Lieblich, Stephanie; Ellis, Linda A; Yu, Wayne K; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2010-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters adult neurogenesis and the neurogenic response to stress in male rats. As the effects of stress on neurogenesis are sexually dimorphic, the present study investigated the effects of PAE on adult hippocampal neurogenesis under both nonstressed and stressed conditions in female rats. Pregnant females were assigned to one of three prenatal treatments: (1) alcohol (PAE)-liquid alcohol (ethanol) diet ad libitum (36% ethanol-derived calories); (2) pair-fed-isocaloric liquid diet, with maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol, in the amount consumed by a PAE partner (g/kg body wt/day of gestation); and (3) control-lab chow ad libitum. Female offspring were assigned to either nonstressed (undisturbed) or stressed (repeated restraint stress for 9 days) conditions. On day 10, all rats were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and perfused either 24 hours (cell proliferation) or 3 weeks (cell survival) later. We found that PAE did not significantly alter cell proliferation or survival, whereas females from the pair-fed condition exhibited elevated levels of cell survival compared to control females. Importantly, however, the proportion of both new neurons and new glial cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was reduced in PAE compared to control females. Exposure to stress did not alter neurogenesis in any of the prenatal treatment groups. In summary, compared to females from the control condition, prenatal dietary restriction enhanced the survival of new neurons, whereas PAE altered the differentiation of newly produced cells in the adult dentate gyrus. Alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis following PAE may contribute to learning and memory deficits seen in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  20. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, N.; Riley, E.P.; Mattson, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Method Fifty-six children (29 AE, 27 CON) were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory and visual memory data were entered together on step 1 followed by group on step 2, and the interaction terms on step 3. Results Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures, however, model fit improved with the addition of group on step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PMID:25000323

  2. Alcohol odor elicits appetitive facial expressions in human neonates prenatally exposed to the drug.

    PubMed

    Faas, Ana E; March, Samanta M; Moya, Pedro R; Molina, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Specific memories arise during prenatal life as a function of fetal processing of chemosensory stimuli present in the amniotic fluid. Preclinical studies indicate that fetal exposure to alcohol modifies subsequent neonatal and infantile responsiveness towards the sensory attributes of the drug. It has been previously demonstrated that 1-2day-old human neonates recognize ethanol odor as a function of moderate maternal alcohol consumption during gestation. In the present study 7-14day-old newborns were assessed in terms of behavioral responsiveness to alcohol's chemosensory attributes or to a novel odor (lemon). These newborns were representative of mothers that exhibited infrequent or frequent alcohol drinking patterns during pregnancy. Different clinical assessments indicated that all newborns did not suffer congenital or genetic diseases and that they were completely healthy when behaviorally evaluated. Testing was defined by brief presentations of ethanol or lemon odorants. Two sequences of olfactory stimulation were employed. One sequence included five initial trials defined by ethanol odor stimulation followed by one trial with lemon and five additional trials with the scent of the drug (EtOH-Lem-EtOH). The alternative sequence (Lem-EtOH-Lem) was primarily defined by lemon olfactory exposure. The dependent variables under analysis were duration and frequency of overall body movements and of facial expressions categorized as aversive or appetitive. The main results of this study were as follows: a) at the end of the testing procedure and independent of the sequence of olfactory stimulation, babies born to frequent drinkers exhibited signs of distress as operationalized through higher durations of aversive facial expressions, b) despite this effect, babies born to frequent drinkers relative to newborns delivered by infrequent drinkers exhibited significantly higher frequencies of appetitive facial responses when primarily stimulated with ethanol odor (Et

  3. An improved method for rapidly quantifying fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium suitable for prenatal alcohol screening.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Rao, Chitra; Fulga, Netta; Aleksa, Katarina; Koren, Gideon

    2011-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, and elevated levels of FAEE in meconium are a useful biomarker for heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. FAEE in meconium has been recommended as useful and cost-effective for universal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure. To support an efficient universal screening program, an analytical method to detect and quantify FAEE in meconium needs to be accurate, inexpensive, and rapid. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical method that would satisfy these criteria and to validate this method using established laboratory guidelines. A method was developed and validated to detect and quantify four FAEEs (ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate) from 0.5 g of meconium using d(5)-ethyl esters as internal standards. The sample undergoes liquid-liquid extraction with heptane:acetone, the heptane layer is isolated and evaporated, and then, the resulting residue undergoes headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detection limits of the four FAEEs ranged from 0.020 to 0.042 nmol/g and are 6- to 25-fold lower than the individual FAEE threshold concentrations (0.5 nmol/g). This method also has good precision with the coefficient of variation ranging from 2.6 to 19.4% for concentrations of individual FAEE between 0.5 and 2.62 nmol/g meconium (n=4). Calculated concentrations of FAEE that underwent extraction from meconium were 100-101% of the expected concentration, demonstrating the accuracy of the method. The peak shape and retention time of each FAEE were unaffected by the presence of the matrix, and there is no carryover at clinically relevant concentrations. This method was also able to produce clean chromatograms from meconium samples that could not be quantified using a previous method because of high chromatographic background. This method provides an optimal approach to detecting and quantifying FAEE in

  4. White Matter Deficits Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Cognitive Development in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jia; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Taylor, Paul A.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Dodge, Neil C.; Stanton, Mark E.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders comprise the spectrum of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 54 children (age 10.1 ±1.0 years) from the Cape Town Longitudinal Cohort, for whom detailed drinking histories obtained during pregnancy are available: 26 with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 15 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 13 controls. Using voxelwise analyses, children with FAS/PFAS showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in four white matter (WM) regions and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in seven; three regions of FA and MD differences (left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), splenium, and isthmus) overlapped, and the fourth FA cluster was located in the same WM bundle (right ILF) as an MD cluster. HE children showed lower FA and higher MD in a subset of these regions. Significant correlations were observed between three continuous alcohol measures and DTI values at cluster peaks, indicating that WM damage in several regions is dose dependent. Lower FA in the regions of interest was attributable primarily to increased radial diffusivity rather than decreased axonal diffusivity, suggesting poorer axon packing density and/or myelination. Multiple regression models indicated that this cortical WM impairment partially mediated adverse effects of PAE on information processing speed and eyeblink conditioning. PMID:27219850

  5. Comparative effectiveness of a prenatal medical food to prenatal vitamins on hemoglobin levels and adverse outcomes: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan; Hermes, Amy; Phillips, Diane; Daoud, Yahya A; Hanna, Sylvia

    2011-02-01

    The role of folate in pregnancy is well established, with most prenatal vitamins (PNVs) on the market containing at least 800 μg of folic acid. Folic acid must be converted in the body to L-methylfolate, the natural and biologically active form of folate. The role of vitamin B(12) in pregnancy is less characterized, and most PNV formulations contain only 0 to 12 μg. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether taking a prenatal medical food containing L-methylfolate and much higher doses of vitamin B(12) results in higher hemoglobin levels and thus, a lower incidence of anemia during pregnancy. The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate the effects of the prenatal medical food versus standard PNVs on hemoglobin levels and adverse outcomes throughout pregnancy. For this retrospective analysis, we reviewed the charts of female patients taking either a prenatal medical food or standard PNV during pregnancy. Hemoglobin levels measured at initiation of prenatal care, end of second trimester, and delivery were recorded. Patients who had received additional iron supplementation, beyond that contained in the prenatal medical food or PNV they were taking and before anemia screening at the end of the second trimester, were excluded from the study. Fisher exact test, χ(2) test, student t test, and ANOVA were used to evaluate differences between the treatment groups. Data were analyzed from 112 charts: 58 patients (51.8%) were taking the prenatal medical food; 54 patients (48.2%) were taking standard PNVs. Mean (SD) age at first prenatal visit was 27 (4.6) years in the medical food group and 28.8 (3.5) years in the PNV group (P = 0.024). Mean (SD) body mass indices were 29.1 (6.5) and 31.7 (8.9) in the medical food and PNV groups, respectively (P = NS). In the medical food group, 35 women (60.3%) were white/Caucasian, 17 (29.3%) were African American, and 6 (10.4%) were of other races. In the PNV group, 24 women (44.4%) were white/Caucasian, 25 (46

  6. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters response of kisspeptin-ir neurons to estradiol and progesterone in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Sliwowska, Joanna H.; Bodnar, Tamara S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has adverse effects on reproductive function and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) activity. Kisspeptin neurons play a role in mediating feedback effects of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on the HPG axis. We hypothesized that PAE will have long-term effects on the response of kisspeptin neurons to E2 and P4. METHODS Adult female rats (53–58 days) from prenatal ad libitum-fed control (C), pair-fed (PF), and alcohol-exposed (PAE) groups were subjected to Sham ovariectomy (OVX) or OVX without or with replacement with low or high physiological levels of E2 and P4, and terminated under basal conditions. E2 and P4 levels, and the response of kisspeptin-ir neurons in the arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei to these hormones, were measured. As the E2 signal is conveyed to kisspeptin neurons via estrogen receptor-α (ERα), we investigated PAE effects on the number of kisspetin-ir/ERα-ir neurons. To determine if PAE alters interactions between kisspeptin and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, close contacts between kisspeptin-ir fibers and GnRH-ir cell bodies were examined. RESULTS Our data present the novel finding that kisspeptin-ir neurons in the ARC of PAE females show differential responses to E2 and to the combined treatment with E2 and P4 compared to controls: 1) OVX increased the number of kisspeptin-ir neurons in C and PF, but not PAE females compared to their Sham counterparts; 2) E2 replacement restored kisspeptin-ir cell numbers to Sham levels in C and PF females but caused a robust downregulation of kisspeptin-ir neurons below Sham levels in PAE females; 3) OVX and replacement with high physiological concentrations of E2 resulted in fewer kisspeptin-ir cells in PAE than C females; 4) OVX and replacement with high levels of both E2 and P4 markedly decreased the number of kisspeptin-ir neurons, below levels observed following E2 alone, in PF and C females, but had no

  7. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  8. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  9. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on bony craniofacial development: a mouse MicroCT study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Ai, Huisi; Liang, Yun; Ren, Xiaowei; Anthony, Charles Bruce; Goodlett, Charles R; Ward, Richard; Zhou, Feng C

    2013-08-01

    Craniofacial bone dysmorphology is an important but under-explored potential diagnostic feature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. This study used longitudinal MicroCT 3D imaging to examine the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on craniofacial bone growth in a mouse model. C57BL/6J dams were divided into 3 groups: alcohol 4.2% v/v in PMI® liquid diet (ALC), 2 weeks prior to and during pregnancy from embryonic (E) days 7-E16; pair-fed controls (PF), isocalorically matched to the ALC group; chow controls (CHOW), given ad libitum chow and water. The MicroCT scans were performed on pups on postnatal days 7 (P7) and P21. The volumes of the neurocranium (volume encased by the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones) and the viscerocranium (volume encased by the mandible and nasal bone), along with total skull bone volume, head size, and head circumference were evaluated using general linear models and discriminant analyses. The pups in the alcohol-treated group, when compared to the chow-fed controls (ALC vs CHOW) and the isocaloric-fed controls (ALC vs PF), showed differences in head size and circumference at P7 and P21, the total skull volume and parietal bone volume at P7, and volume of all the tested bones except nasal at P21. There was a growth trend of ALC < CHOW and ALC < PF. While covarying for gender and head size or circumference, the treatment affected the total skull and mandible at P7 (ALC > CHOW), and the total skull, parietal bone, and occipital bone at P21 (ALC < CHOW, ALC < PF). While covarying for the P7 measures, the treatment affected only the 3 neurocranial bones at P21 (ALC < CHOW, ALC < PF). Discriminant analysis sensitively selected between ALC and CHOW (AUC = 0.967), between ALC and PF (AUC = 0.995), and between PF and CHOW (AUC = 0.805). These results supported our hypothesis that craniofacial bones might be a reliable and sensitive indicator for the diagnosis of prenatal alcohol exposure. Significantly, we found that the neurocranium (upper

  10. Parenting Children Who Have Been Prenatally Exposed to Drugs or Alcohol: A Handbook for Foster and Adoptive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.; And Others

    This manual provides an overview of the early child development of normal children with low birthweight who have been exposed to drugs before birth. The research on children exposed to cocaine and alcohol during the prenatal period is reviewed, as are the results of studies showing deficiencies in language and social development of drug-exposed…

  11. The chick embryo as a model for the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol on craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kiecker, Clemens

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol results in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a syndrome characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations including craniofacial dysmorphologies and neurological defects. The characterisation of the mechanisms by which ethanol exerts its teratogenic effects is difficult due to the pleiotropic nature of its actions. Different experimental model systems have been employed to investigate the aetiology of FASD. Here, I will review studies using these different model organisms that have helped to elucidate how ethanol causes the craniofacial abnormalities characteristic of FASD. In these studies, ethanol was found to impair the prechordal plate-an important embryonic signalling centre-during gastrulation and to negatively affect the induction, migration and survival of the neural crest, a cell population that generates the cartilage and most of the bones of the skull. At the cellular level, ethanol appears to inhibit Sonic hedgehog signalling, alter levels of retionoic acid activity, trigger a Ca(2+)-CamKII-dependent pathway that antagonises WNT signalling, affect cytoskeletal dynamics and increase oxidative stress. Embryos of the domestic chick Gallus gallus domesticus have played a central role in developing a working model for the effects of ethanol on craniofacial development because they are easily accessible and because key steps in craniofacial development are particularly well established in the avian embryo. I will finish this review by highlighting some potential future avenues of fetal alcohol research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Enhances GluN2B Containing NMDA Receptor Binding and Ifenprodil Sensitivity in Rat Agranular Insular Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Clark W.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Magcalas, Christy M.; Davies, Suzy; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.; Hamilton, Derek A.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol affects the expression and function of glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors in diverse brain regions. The present study was undertaken to fill a current gap in knowledge regarding the regional specificity of ethanol-related alterations in glutamatergic receptors in the frontal cortex. We quantified subregional expression and function of glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors (AMPARs, NMDARs, GluN2B-containing NMDARs, mGluR1s, and mGluR5s) by radioligand binding in the agranular insular cortex (AID), lateral orbital area (LO), prelimbic cortex (PrL) and primary motor cortex (M1) of adult rats exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal development. Increased expression of GluN2B-containing NMDARs was observed in AID of ethanol-exposed rats compared to modest reductions in other regions. We subsequently performed slice electrophysiology measurements in a whole-cell patch-clamp preparation to quantify the sensitivity of evoked NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of AID to the GluN2B negative allosteric modulator ifenprodil. Consistent with increased GluN2B expression, ifenprodil caused a greater reduction in NMDAR-mediated EPSCs from prenatal alcohol-exposed rats than saccharin-exposed control animals. No alterations in AMPAR-mediated EPSCs or the ratio of AMPARs/NMDARs were observed. Together, these data indicate that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure has a significant and lasting impact on GluN2B-containing receptors in AID, which could help to explain ethanol-related alterations in learning and behaviors that depend on this region. PMID:25747876

  13. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory

  14. Commentary on Day and colleagues : the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and behavior at 22 years of age--adverse effects of risky patterns of drinking among low to moderate alcohol-using pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sandra W; Carter, R Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2013-07-01

    Day and colleagues have presented the first data showing that the behavioral effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure seen in childhood and adolescence persist into adulthood. Using the Achenbach Adult Self-Report, they found dose-dependent effects of prenatal exposure on internalizing, externalizing, and attention problems that persist in young adults and, thus, appear to be permanent. To date, few studies have attempted to identify thresholds at which prenatal alcohol exposure is harmful, although the animal literature suggests that even 1 to 2 binge episodes can result in adverse effects in the offspring. Four prospective longitudinal studies have reported adverse effects at what can be characterized as moderate exposure levels based on NIAAA criteria, but moderate drinking women often concentrate their alcohol use on 1 to 2 days per week, thereby engaging in binge drinking. In this study, binge drinking was not a strong predictor of adverse outcome when average daily dose was held constant, a conclusion that the authors note runs "counter to studies that have reported that binge drinking has a greater effect." This inconsistency may be due to the difficulty of allocating variance that is shared (overlapping) between average daily dose and binge drinking (i.e., dose/occasion). Data from laboratory animal studies, in which dosage can be manipulated experimentally, demonstrate that a higher dose per occasion, the key feature of binge drinking, leads to more severe adverse effects. Day and colleagues' findings of adverse effects at low levels of exposure provides clear evidence that there is no safe level of drinking during pregnancy and that, even at low levels, drinking results in irreversible behavioral impairment. On the other hand, given the evidence from the animal and most human studies, it is important for all women who drink during pregnancy, even at light to moderate levels, to recognize that minimizing their intake per occasion and refraining

  15. An evaluation of social skills in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, C; Becker, M; McLennan, J; Urichuk, L; Andrew, G

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social skills deficits among children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who were both referred to a respite programme. Thirty-seven children with PAE and 23 non-exposed children (aged 3 to 8 years) were evaluated on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) by their caregivers and respite workers. As compared with the non-exposed children, those with PAE showed more deficits on caregiver ratings of responsibility, hyperactivity, internalizing problems and overall social skills, as well as respite worker ratings of hyperactivity. The social skills among the PAE group were not related to home placement variables. Among both groups, caregivers rated social skills lower than respite workers, and among the PAE group, girls tended to display more social skills deficits than boys. The SSRS is useful in identifying unique social skills deficits among children with PAE. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A DTI-based tractography study of effects on brain structure associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in newborns

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Paul A.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; van der Kouwe, André; Molteno, Christopher D.; Chen, Gang; Wintermark, Pia; Alhamud, Alkathafi; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have severe, long-term consequences for brain and behavioral development already detectable in infancy and childhood. Resulting features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include cognitive and behavioral effects, as well as facial anomalies and growth deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to analyze white matter development in 11 newborns (age since conception <45 weeks) whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy. Comparisons were made with 9 age-matched controls born to abstainers or light drinkers from the same Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community near Cape Town, South Africa. DTI parameters, T1 relaxation time, proton density and volumes were used to quantify and investigate group differences in white matter (WM) in the newborn brains. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate and to delineate similar tract locations among the subjects for transcallosal pathways, cortico-spinal projection fibers and cortico-cortical association fibers. In each of these WM networks, the axial diffusivity AD was the parameter that showed the strongest association with maternal drinking. The strongest relations were observed in medial and inferior WM, regions in which the myelination process typically begins. In contrast to studies of older individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, FA did not exhibit a consistent and significant relation with alcohol exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI-tractography study of prenatally alcohol exposed newborns. PMID:25182535

  17. Screening and brief intervention in prenatal care settings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Grace

    Pregnant women continue to drink despite evidence that prenatal alcohol consumption can negatively affect fetal growth and development. Because no universally safe level of prenatal alcohol use has been established, it is beneficial to identify and modify a woman's prenatal alcohol use early in her pregnancy, particularly as her past drinking habits can predict her drinking levels during pregnancy. Some women may voluntarily disclose the extent of their prenatal alcohol consumption. If not, the T-ACE, a four-item screening questionnaire based on the CAGE assessment tool, has been demonstrated to be a valuable and efficient method for identifying a range of alcohol use. Studies have shown that combined with brief interventions, early identification of a woman's prenatal alcohol use could avert its more severe adverse consequences and may be the logical first-line approach.

  18. The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on social, cognitive and affective behavioral domains: Insights from rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Kristin; Brigman, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are characterized by deficits in working memory, response inhibition, and behavioral flexibility. However, the combination and severity of impairments are highly dependent upon maternal ethanol consumption patterns, which creates a complex variety of manifestations. Rodent models have been essential in identifying behavioral endpoints of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, experimental model outcomes are extremely diverse based on level, pattern, timing, and method of ethanol exposure, as well as the behavioral domain assayed and paradigm used. Therefore, comparisons across studies are difficult and there is currently no clear comprehensive behavioral phenotype of PAE. This lack of defined cognitive and behavioral phenotype is a contributing factor to the difficulty in identifying FASD individuals. The current review aims to critically examine preclinical behavioral outcomes in the social, cognitive, and affective domains in terms of the PAE paradigm, with a special emphasis on dose, timing, and delivery, to establish a working model of behavioral impairment. In addition, this review identifies gaps in our current knowledge and proposes future areas of research that will advance knowledge in the field of PAE outcomes. Understanding the complex behavioral phenotype, which results from diverse ethanol consumption will allow for development of better diagnostic tools and more critical evaluation of potential treatments for FASD. PMID:26992695

  19. The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on social, cognitive and affective behavioral domains: Insights from rodent models.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Kristin; Brigman, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are characterized by deficits in working memory, response inhibition, and behavioral flexibility. However, the combination and severity of impairments are highly dependent upon maternal ethanol consumption patterns, which creates a complex variety of manifestations. Rodent models have been essential in identifying behavioral endpoints of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, experimental model outcomes are extremely diverse based on level, pattern, timing, and method of ethanol exposure, as well as the behavioral domain assayed and paradigm used. Therefore, comparisons across studies are difficult and there is currently no clear comprehensive behavioral phenotype of PAE. This lack of defined cognitive and behavioral phenotype is a contributing factor to the difficulty in identifying FASD individuals. The current review aims to critically examine preclinical behavioral outcomes in the social, cognitive, and affective domains in terms of the PAE paradigm, with a special emphasis on dose, timing, and delivery, to establish a working model of behavioral impairment. In addition, this review identifies gaps in our current knowledge and proposes future areas of research that will advance knowledge in the field of PAE outcomes. Understanding the complex behavioral phenotype, which results from diverse ethanol consumption will allow for development of better diagnostic tools and more critical evaluation of potential treatments for FASD.

  20. Are prenatal mercury levels associated with subsequent blood pressure in childhood and adolescence? The Avon prebirth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Steve; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There have been conflicting data suggesting that prenatal mercury exposure is associated with adverse cardiovascular measures in children. We therefore analysed a large prospective population study to investigate whether prenatal mercury exposure might influence offspring blood pressure (BP) and heart rate adversely. Design Prospective birth cohort. Setting The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Participants Maternal whole blood collected in the first half of pregnancy was assayed for mercury and selenium. The offspring were followed throughout childhood and adolescence. Outcome measures Offspring resting BP and heart rates measured under standard conditions on six occasions between ages 7 and 17 years (numbers analysed: 1754 at 7 years to 1102 at 17). Results Statistical analyses took account of various factors present in pregnancy, including family adversity, maternal age, parity, smoking and alcohol intake. Unadjusted and adjusted regression analyses assessed the relationship between maternal prenatal mercury levels and offspring resting systolic and diastolic BP, and heart rates. A final set of analyses took account of selenium. Each analysis was carried out for all offspring, those whose mothers had, and those that had not, consumed fish during pregnancy. Further analysis for all offspring ascertained whether there were significant interaction effects between the sexes. There was little evidence to suggest that prenatal mercury exposure resulted in a clinically important increase in offspring BP in the whole group, since no effect size for an increase of 1 SD of blood mercury level was >0.3 mm Hg. Only 1 association was significant at p<0.05 and therefore likely due to chance. Conclusions This study reveals no evidence to support the hypothesis that prenatal mercury exposure has adverse long-term effects on offspring BP or heart rates during childhood or adolescence. PMID:27742626

  1. The Influence of Extrinsic Reinforcement on Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Graham, Diana M; Glass, Leila; Mattson, Sarah N

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure affects inhibitory control and other aspects of attention and executive function. However, the efficacy of extrinsic reinforcement on these behaviors has not been tested. Alcohol-exposed children (AE; n = 34), children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 23), and controls (CON; n = 31) completed a flanker task with 4 reward conditions (no reward, reward, reward+occasional response cost, equal probability of reward+response cost). Inhibitory control was tested in the no reward conditions using a 3(group) × 2(flanker type) ANCOVA. Response to reinforcement was tested using 3(group) × 4(reward condition) × 4(flanker type) analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Response time (RT) and accuracy were tested independently. Groups did not differ on demographic variables. The flanker task was successful in taxing interference control, an aspect of executive attention (i.e., responses to incongruent stimuli were slower than to congruent stimuli) and the AE group demonstrated impaired executive control over the other groups. Overall, the AE group had significantly slower RTs compared to the CON and ADHD groups, which did not differ. However, reinforcement improved RT in all groups. While occasional response cost had the greatest benefit in the CON group, the type of reinforcement did not differentially affect the AE and ADHD groups. Accuracy across reward conditions did not differ by group, but was dependent on flanker type and reward condition. Alcohol-exposed children, but not children with ADHD, had impaired interference control in comparison with controls, supporting a differential neurobehavioral profile in these 2 groups. Both clinical groups were equally affected by introduction of reinforcement, although the type of reinforcement did not differentially affect performance as it did in the control group, suggesting that reward or response cost could be used interchangeably to result in the same benefit. Copyright

  2. Plasma miRNA Profiles in Pregnant Women Predict Infant Outcomes following Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Schafer, Jordan J.; Tseng, Alexander M.; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Zymak-Zakutnya, Natalya; Chambers, Christina D.; Miranda, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are difficult to diagnose since many heavily exposed infants, at risk for intellectual disability, do not exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology or growth deficits. Consequently, there is a need for biomarkers that predict disability. In both animal models and human studies, alcohol exposure during pregnancy resulted in significant alterations in circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in maternal blood. In the current study, we asked if changes in plasma miRNAs in alcohol-exposed pregnant mothers, either alone or in conjunction with other clinical variables, could predict infant outcomes. Sixty-eight pregnant women at two perinatal care clinics in western Ukraine were recruited into the study. Detailed health and alcohol consumption histories, and 2nd and 3rd trimester blood samples were obtained. Birth cohort infants were assessed by a geneticist and classified as unexposed (UE), heavily prenatally exposed and affected (HEa) or heavily exposed but apparently unaffected (HEua). MiRNAs were assessed in plasma samples using qRT-PCR arrays. ANOVA models identified 11 miRNAs that were all significantly elevated in maternal plasma from the HEa group relative to HEua and UE groups. In a random forest analysis classification model, a combination of high variance miRNAs, smoking history and socioeconomic status classified membership in HEa and UE groups, with a misclassification rate of 13%. The RFA model also classified 17% of the HEua group as UE-like, whereas 83% were HEa-like, at least at one stage of pregnancy. Collectively our data indicate that maternal plasma miRNAs predict infant outcomes, and may be useful to classify difficult-to-diagnose FASD subpopulations. PMID:27828986

  3. Prenatal exposure to vanilla or alcohol induces crawling after these odors in the neonate rat: The role of mu and kappa opioid receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Aranda-Fernández, P Ezequiel; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    Rat fetuses can perceive chemosensory stimuli derived from their mother's diet, and they may learn about those stimuli. In previous studies we have observed that prenatal exposure to alcohol during the last days of gestation increases the acceptance and liking of an alcohol flavor in infant and adolescent rats. While these results were not found after prenatal exposure to vanilla, cineole or anise, suggesting that the pharmacological properties of alcohol, mediated by the opioid system, underlie the effects observed with this drug. Considering that other studies report enhanced acceptance of non-alcohol flavors experienced prenatally when subjects were tested before infancy, we explore the possibility of observing similar results if testing 1-day old rats exposed prenatally to vanilla. Using an "odor-induced crawling" testing procedure, it was observed that neonates exposed prenatally to vanilla or alcohol crawl for a longer distance towards the experienced odor than to other odors or than control pups. Blocking mu, but not kappa opioid receptors, reduced the attraction of vanilla odor to neonates exposed to vanilla in utero, while the response to alcohol in pups exposed prenatally to this drug was affected by both antagonists. Results confirm that exposure to a non-alcohol odor enhances postnatal responses to it, observable soon after birth, while also suggesting that the mu opioid receptor system plays an important role in generating this effect. The results also imply that with alcohol exposure, the prenatal opioid system is wholly involved, which could explain the longer retention of the enhanced attraction to alcohol following prenatal experience with the drug.

  4. Effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on impulsivity and motor activity in preadolescent rats prenatally-treated with alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Jorge; Guerrero-Álvarez, Ángeles

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal alcohol treatment (PA) produces a decrease in dopaminergic neuron activity in the ventral tegmental area, an alteration that is alleviated with methylphenidate treatment. Evidence exists that PA also produces hyperactivity, inattention and enhanced impulsivity, behavioral alterations that have been related to dopaminergic and noradrenergic functions. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on impulsivity and motor activity in preadolescent male rats prenatally exposed to alcohol. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to either alcohol or an isocaloric solution from Days 8 to 20 of gestation. Starting at 24 postnatal days, male offspring were tested for motor activity and trained in a delay-discounting task for impulsivity assessment before, and during, treatment with either 3 mg/kg i.p. of methylphenidate, 2 mg/kg i.p. of atomoxetine, or saline i.p. The group prenatally exposed to alcohol showed higher motor activity and more frequent choices of immediate, but small, rewards than the control group; a finding indicative of higher impulsivity. Atomoxetine reduced both motor activity and impulsivity. In contrast, methylphenidate had only a mild effect on impulsivity. Results suggest an important participation of noradrenergic transmission in cognitive impulsivity and hyperactivity in preadolescent rats with previous alterations in these behaviors. Dopaminergic participation in these behaviors is partially supported by the present findings on the basis of the effects of methylphenidate.

  5. Occipital-temporal Reduction and Sustained Visual Attention Deficit in Prenatal Alcohol Exposed Adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Ma, Xiangyang; Peltier, Scott; Hu, Xiaoping; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2008-03-01

    Visual attention problems have been reported in association with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). With related behavioral data documented in literature, further investigation of this PAE effect would benefit from integrating functional and anatomical imaging data to ascertain its neurobiological basis. The current study investigated the possible functional and anatomical bases for the PAE-related visual sustained attention deficit. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected while the subjects performed a sustained visual attention task. High resolution, three dimensional anatomical images were also collected for morphometric evaluation. In the alcohol-affected subjects, we observed a significant white and gray matter volume reduction in the occipital-temporal area. Meanwhile, their fMRI activations in the same region resided more superiorly than that of the controls resulting in reduced activation in the ventral occipital-temporal area. The location of this PAE functional abnormality approximately matches that of the significant structural reduction. In addition to the well documented corpus callosum abnormalities observed in PAE subjects, the present results reveal a teratogenic effect on the occipital-temporal area. Furthermore, as the occipital-temporal area plays an important role in visual attention, the current observation suggests a neurobiological underpinning for the PAE related deficit in sustained visual attention.

  6. Comparison of verbal learning and memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2011-06-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have deficits in verbal learning and recall. However, the specificity of these deficits has not been adequately tested. In the current study, verbal learning and memory performance of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure was compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disorder commonly seen in alcohol-exposed children. Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) was examined in 3 groups of children (N=22/group): (i) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD (ALC), (ii) nonexposed with ADHD (ADHD), and (iii) nonexposed typically developing (CON). Groups were matched on age, sex, race, ethnicity, handedness, and socioeconomic status (SES). Group differences were noted on learning trials (CON >ADHD> ALC). On the delayed recall trial, CON children performed better than both clinical groups, who did not differ from each other. Children in the ALC group demonstrated poorer recognition than children in the CON and ADHD groups, who did not differ from each other. Marginally significant group differences were noted on retention of previously learned material. Post hoc analyses indicated that ADHD children showed worse retention relative to the CON group, whereas retention in the ALC children remained intact. These data suggest that children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and nonexposed children with ADHD show differential patterns of deficit on the CVLT-C. Performance of alcohol-exposed children reflects inefficient encoding of verbal material, whereas performance of the ADHD group may be better characterized by a deficit in retrieval of learned material. Differences noted between clinical groups add to a growing neurobehavioral profile of FASD that may aid in differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. The clinical utility and specificity of parent report of executive function among children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tanya T; Glass, Leila; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) result in behavioral issues related to poor executive function (EF). This overlap may hinder clinical identification of alcohol-exposed children. This study examined the relation between parent and neuropsychological measures of EF and whether parent ratings aid in differential diagnosis. Neuropsychological measures of EF, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), were administered to four groups of children (8-16 years): alcohol-exposed with ADHD (AE+, n=80), alcohol-exposed without ADHD (AE-, n=36), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=93), and controls (CON, n=167). Primary caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). For parent ratings, multivariate analyses of variance revealed main effects of Exposure and ADHD and an interaction between these factors, with significant differences between all groups on nearly all BRIEF scales. For neuropsychological measures, results indicated main effects of Exposure and ADHD, but no interaction. Discriminant function analysis indicated the BRIEF accurately classifies groups. These findings confirm compounded behavioral, but not neuropsychological, effects in the AE+ group over the other clinical groups. Parent-report was not correlated with neuropsychological performance in the clinical groups and may provide unique information about neurobehavior. Parent-report measures are clinically useful in predicting alcohol exposure regardless of ADHD. Results contribute to a neurobehavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTRINSIC REINFORCEMENT ON CHILDREN WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Diana M.; Glass, Leila; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure affects inhibitory control and other aspects of attention and executive function. However, the efficacy of extrinsic reinforcement on these behaviors has not been tested. Methods Alcohol-exposed children (AE; n=34), children with ADHD (ADHD; n=23), and controls (CON; n=31) completed a flanker task with four reward conditions (no reward, reward, reward+occasional response cost, equal probability of reward+response cost). Inhibitory control was tested in the no reward conditions using a 3(group) x 2(flanker type) ANCOVA. Response to reinforcement was tested using 3(group) x 4(reward condition) x 4(flanker type) ANCOVA. Response time (RT) and accuracy were tested independently. Results Groups did not differ on demographic variables. The flanker task was successful in taxing interference control, an aspect of executive attention (i.e., responses to incongruent stimuli were slower than to congruent stimuli) and the AE group demonstrated impaired executive control over the other groups. Overall, the AE group had significantly slower response times compared to the CON and ADHD groups, which did not differ. However, reinforcement improved RT in all groups. While occasional response cost had the greatest benefit in the CON group, the type of reinforcement did not differentially affect the AE and ADHD groups. Accuracy across reward conditions did not differ by group, but was dependent on flanker type and reward condition. Conclusions Alcohol-exposed children, but not children with ADHD, had impaired interference control in comparison to controls, supporting a differential neurobehavioral profile in these two groups. Both clinical groups were equally affected by introduction of reinforcement, although the type of reinforcement did not differentially affect performance as it did in the control group, suggesting that reward or response cost could be used interchangeably to result in the same benefit. PMID:26842253

  9. Changes to histone modifications following prenatal alcohol exposure: An emerging picture.

    PubMed

    Chater-Diehl, Eric J; Laufer, Benjamin I; Singh, Shiva M

    2017-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are important for facilitating gene-environment interactions in many disease etiologies, including Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Extensive research into the role of DNA methylation and miRNAs in animal models has illuminated the complex role of these mechanisms in FASD. In contrast, histone modifications have not been as well researched, due in part to being less stable than DNA methylation and less well-characterized in disease. It is now apparent that even changes in transient marks can have profound effects if they alter developmental trajectories. In addition, many histone methylations are now known to be relatively stable and can propagate themselves. As technologies and knowledge have advanced, a small group has investigated the role of histone modifications in FASD. Here, we synthesize the data on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on histone modifications. Several key points are evident. AS with most alcohol-induced outcomes, timing and dosage differences yield variable effects. Nevertheless, these studies consistently find enrichment of H3K9ac, H3K27me2,3, and H3K9me2, and increased expression of histone acetyltransferases and methyltransferases. The consistency of these alterations may implicate them as key mechanisms underlying FASD. Histone modification changes do not often correlate with gene expression changes, though some important examples exist. Encouragingly, attempts to reproduce specific histone modification changes are very often successful. We comment on possible directions for future studies, focusing on further exploration of current trends, expansion of time-point and dosage regimes, and evaluation of biomarker potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of prenatal tobacco, alcohol and marijuana exposure on processing speed, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer.

    PubMed

    Willford, Jennifer A; Chandler, Lynette S; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-year-old adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Adolescents (age 16, n=320) participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal substance exposure on developmental outcomes were evaluated in this study. The computerized Bimanual Coordination Test (BCT) was used to assess each domain of function. Other important variables, such as demographics, home environment, and psychological characteristics of the mother and adolescent were also considered in the analyses. There were significant and independent effects of PTE, PAE, and PME on processing speed and interhemispheric transfer of information. PTE and PME were associated with deficits in visual-motor coordination. There were no interactions between PAE, PTE, and PME. Current tobacco use predicted deficits in speed of processing. Current alcohol and marijuana use by the offspring were not associated with any measures of performance on the BCT.

  11. Effects of Prenatal Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Exposure on Processing Speed, Visual-Motor Coordination, and Interhemispheric Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Willford, Jennifer A.; Chandler, Lynette S.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-year-old adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Adolescents (age 16, n=320) participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal substance exposure on developmental outcomes were evaluated in this study. The computerized Bimanual Coordination Test (BCT) was used to assess each domain of function. Other important variables, such as demographics, home environment, and psychological characteristics of the mother and adolescent were also considered in the analyses. There were significant and independent effects of PTE, PAE, and PME on processing speed and interhemispheric transfer of information. PTEand PME were associated with deficits in visual motor coordination. There were no interactions between PAE, PTE, and PME. Current tobacco use predicted deficits in speed of processing. Current alcohol and marijuana use by the offspring were not associated with any measures of performance on the BCT. PMID:20600845

  12. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Review of Evidence and Guidelines for Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lauren R.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of prenatal alcohol use have been well documented. In this review, we discuss the inclusion of Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) as a condition for further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We present a review of the evidence for impairment in three domains highlighted in ND-PAE: neurocognitive functioning, self2 regulation, and adaptive functioning. In addition, we provide guidelines for clinical assessment of each domain. When considering ND-PAE, it is essential to obtain as comprehensive an assessment as possible, including multidisciplinary/multimethod assessment of the individual by a qualified team. It is our aim to provide clinicians with a useful reference for assessing ND-PAE and highlight important guidelines to be followed when conducting neuropsychological assessment. PMID:26509108

  13. The effect of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Tikellis, Gabriella; Sun, Cong; Pezic, Angela; Wang, Linhong; Wells, Jonathan CK; Cochrane, Jennifer; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal influence on fetal growth is mediated through the placenta and this influence may have an implication for the offspring’s long-term health. The placenta-to-birth weight ratio has been regarded as an indicator of placental function. However, few studies have examined the effect of maternal lifestyle exposures on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. This study aims to examine the associations of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption with the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. Methods Data for 7945 term singletons, gestation ≥37 weeks, were selected from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey; a 1988–1995 Australian cohort study. Placenta and birth weight were extracted from birth notification records. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy was strongly associated with a 6.77g/kg higher (95% CI 4.83 to 8.71) placenta-to-birth weight ratio when compared to non-smoking mothers. Maternal prenatal smoking was associated with lower placental (β=−15.37g; 95% CI –23.43 to -7.31) and birth weights (β=−205.49g; 95% CI −232.91 to −178.08). Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy had a lower placenta–to-birth weight ratio (β=−2.07g/kg; 95% CI −4.01 to −0.12) than mothers who did not consume alcohol. The associations of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy with placental and birth weight did not reach statistical significance. Discussion Maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption may influence fetal growth by either directly or indirectly altering the function of the placenta. Conclusions The alteration of the in utero environment induced by smoking and alcohol consumption appears to affect placental and fetal growth in differing ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism. PMID:24816479

  14. The effect of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Tikellis, G; Sun, C; Pezic, A; Wang, L; Wells, J C K; Cochrane, J; Ponsonby, A-L; Dwyer, T

    2014-07-01

    Maternal influence on fetal growth is mediated through the placenta and this influence may have an implication for the offspring's long-term health. The placenta-to-birth weight ratio has been regarded as an indicator of placental function. However, few studies have examined the effect of maternal lifestyle exposures on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. This study aims to examine the associations of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption with the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. Data for 7945 term singletons, gestation≥37 weeks, were selected from the Tasmanian Infant Health Survey; a 1988-1995 Australian cohort study. Placenta and birth weight were extracted from birth notification records. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was strongly associated with a 6.77 g/kg higher (95% CI 4.83-8.71) placenta-to-birth weight ratio when compared to non-smoking mothers. Maternal prenatal smoking was associated with lower placental (β = -15.37 g; 95% CI -23.43 to -7.31) and birth weights (β = -205.49 g; 95% CI -232.91 to -178.08). Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy had a lower placenta-to-birth weight ratio (β = -2.07 g/kg; 95% CI -4.01 to -0.12) than mothers who did not consume alcohol. The associations of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy with placental and birth weight did not reach statistical significance. Maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption may influence fetal growth by either directly or indirectly altering the function of the placenta. The alteration of the in utero environment induced by smoking and alcohol consumption appears to affect placental and fetal growth in differing ways. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Verbal Learning and Memory in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Nicole; Vaurio, Linnea; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have deficits in verbal learning and recall. However, the specificity of these deficits has not been adequately tested. In the current study, verbal learning and memory performance of children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure was compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disorder commonly seen in alcohol-exposed children. Methods Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test – Children's Version (CVLT-C) was examined in three groups of children (N=22/group): (1) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD (ALC), (2) nonexposed with ADHD (ADHD), and (3) nonexposed typically developing (CON). Groups were matched on age, sex, race, ethnicity, handedness, and socioeconomic status. Results Group differences were noted on learning trials (CON > ADHD > ALC). On the delayed recall trial, CON children performed better than both clinical groups, who did not differ from each other. Children in the ALC group demonstrated poorer recognition than children in the CON and ADHD groups, who did not differ from each other. Marginally significant group differences were noted on retention of previously learned material. Post hoc analyses indicated that ADHD children showed worse retention relative to the CON group, whereas retention in the ALC children remained intact. Conclusions These data suggest that children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and nonexposed children with ADHD show differential patterns of deficit on the CVLT-C. Performance of alcohol-exposed children reflects inefficient encoding of verbal material, whereas performance of the ADHD group may be better characterized by a deficit in retrieval of learned material. Differences noted between clinical groups add to a growing neurobehavioral profile of FASD that may aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:21410480

  16. Provincial prenatal record revision: a multiple case study of evidence-based decision-making at the population-policy level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nancy; Semenic, Sonia; Premji, Shahirose; Montgomery, Phyllis; Williams, Beverly; Olson, Joanne; Mansi, Omaima

    2008-12-19

    There is a significant gap in the knowledge translation literature related to how research evidence actually contributes to health care decision-making. Decisions around what care to provide at the population (rather than individual) level are particularly complex, involving considerations such as feasibility, cost, and population needs in addition to scientific evidence. One example of decision-making at this "population-policy" level involves what screening questions and intervention guides to include on standardized provincial prenatal records. As mandatory medical reporting forms, prenatal records are potentially powerful vehicles for promoting population-wide evidence-based care. However, the extent to which Canadian prenatal records reflect best-practice recommendations for the assessment of well-known risk factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption varies markedly across Canadian provinces and territories. The goal of this study is to better understand the interaction of contextual factors and research evidence on decision-making at the population-policy level, by examining the processes by which provincial prenatal records are reviewed and revised. Guided by Dobrow et al.'s (2004) conceptual model for context-based evidence-based decision-making, this study will use a multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis to examine contextual factors influencing the prenatal record revision process in different Canadian provinces and territories. Data will be collected using multiple methods to construct detailed case descriptions for each province/territory. Using qualitative data analysis techniques, decision-making processes involving prenatal record content specifically related to maternal smoking and alcohol use will be compared both within and across each case, to identify key contextual factors influencing the uptake and application of research evidence by prenatal record review committees. All study participants will be required

  17. Ethylglucuronide in maternal hair as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2015-09-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair allows for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a UNM prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioid-dependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% < high school). The mean maternal age at enrollment was 26.7 ± 4.8 years. Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5-20%) to hEtG but specificities were higher (98-100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with less frequent shampooing and those who did not use hair dyes/chemical treatments. These data suggest that hEtG alone is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific biomarker to be used separately for the identification of PAE, but might be useful in a battery along with other maternal biomarkers.

  18. Establishment of the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Resource Center for Children with Prenatal Alcohol/Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Løhaugen, Gro C. C.; Flak, Marianne Møretrø; Gerstner, Thorsten; Sundberg, Cato; Lerdal, Bjørn; Skranes, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1) provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2) provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3) initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions. PMID:26692762

  19. Validation of a self-administered questionnaire to screen for prenatal alcohol use in Northern Plains Indian women.

    PubMed

    Bull, L B; Kvigne, V L; Leonardson, G R; Lacina, L; Welty, T K

    1999-04-01

    This study among American Indian prenatal patients was conducted to validate a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ) designed to (1) identify women who had consumed alcohol during pregnancy, (2) identify women who may be at risk of drinking during pregnancy, and (3) determine the quantity and frequency of alcohol and other substance use just before and during pregnancy. The validation involved three components: (1) review of the SAQ responses by a public health nurse; (2) structured patient interview with the research nurse; and (3) medical record abstraction postpartum. Compared to extensive interview and medical record data, the SAQ is sensitive (76.6%) and specific (92.8%) in detecting pregnant women who had consumed alcohol during pregnancy. The SAQ is a useful screening tool for alcohol use in this population.

  20. Changes in health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice following provision of educational resources about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Payne, Janet; France, Kathryn; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather; Bartu, Anne; O'Leary, Colleen; Elliott, Elizabeth; Bower, Carol

    2011-07-01

    We provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and assessed changes in their knowledge, attitudes and practice concerning fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Following our 2002 survey of health professionals in WA, we developed and distributed educational resources to 3348 health professionals in WA in 2007. Six months later we surveyed 1483 of these health professionals. Prevalence rate ratios [PRR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated to compare 2007 results with results from the 2002 survey. Of the 1001 responding health professionals, 69.8% had seen the educational resources; of these 77.1% have used them and 48.5% said the resources had assisted them to change their practice or their intention to change their practice. Compared with 2002, there was an increase in the proportion who knew all the essential features of FAS from 11.7% to 15.8% [PRR 1.35; 95% CI 1.09, 1.67] and had diagnosed FAS, from 4.8% to 7.3% [PRR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08, 2.13]. In 2007, 98.1% of health professionals stated they would advise pregnant women to consider not drinking at all or advise them that no alcohol in pregnancy is the safest choice. Health professionals surveyed in 2007 have increased their knowledge, changed their attitudes and practice about FAS, and altered the advice they give to pregnant women about alcohol consumption since our survey in 2002. It is essential that we build on this change and continue to support health professionals' knowledge, attitudes and practice about the prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The educational resources for health professionals may be ordered as hard copies and downloaded from the internet http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy.

  1. Pre-conception and prenatal alcohol exposure from mothers and fathers drinking and head circumference: results from the Norwegian Mother-Child Study (MoBa)

    PubMed Central

    Zuccolo, Luisa; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Wills, Andrew K.; Davey Smith, George; Suren, Pål; Roth, Christine; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per

    2016-01-01

    Although microcephaly is a feature of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, it is currently unknown whether low-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure affects head circumference. Small magnitude associations reported in observational studies are likely to be misleading due to confounding and misclassification biases. Alternative analytical approaches such as the use of family negative controls (e.g. comparing the effects of maternal and paternal exposure) could help disentangle causal effects. We investigated the association of maternal and paternal alcohol drinking before and early in pregnancy with infant head circumference, using data from 68,244 mother-father-offspring trios from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (1999–2009). In analyses adjusted for potential confounders, we found no consistent pattern of association between maternal or paternal alcohol intake before or during pregnancy and offspring head circumference modelled as a continuous outcome. However, we found higher odds of microcephaly at birth for higher paternal, but not maternal, alcohol consumption before pregnancy, and similar but weaker effect estimates for first trimester drinking. Associations with paternal drinking before pregnancy were unexpected and should be regarded as hypothesis generating, until independently replicated, although potentially important given the absence of guidelines on safe drinking levels for men in couples trying for a pregnancy. PMID:28008975

  2. Pre-conception and prenatal alcohol exposure from mothers and fathers drinking and head circumference: results from the Norwegian Mother-Child Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Zuccolo, Luisa; DeRoo, Lisa A; Wills, Andrew K; Davey Smith, George; Suren, Pål; Roth, Christine; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per

    2016-12-23

    Although microcephaly is a feature of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, it is currently unknown whether low-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure affects head circumference. Small magnitude associations reported in observational studies are likely to be misleading due to confounding and misclassification biases. Alternative analytical approaches such as the use of family negative controls (e.g. comparing the effects of maternal and paternal exposure) could help disentangle causal effects. We investigated the association of maternal and paternal alcohol drinking before and early in pregnancy with infant head circumference, using data from 68,244 mother-father-offspring trios from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (1999-2009). In analyses adjusted for potential confounders, we found no consistent pattern of association between maternal or paternal alcohol intake before or during pregnancy and offspring head circumference modelled as a continuous outcome. However, we found higher odds of microcephaly at birth for higher paternal, but not maternal, alcohol consumption before pregnancy, and similar but weaker effect estimates for first trimester drinking. Associations with paternal drinking before pregnancy were unexpected and should be regarded as hypothesis generating, until independently replicated, although potentially important given the absence of guidelines on safe drinking levels for men in couples trying for a pregnancy.

  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters methyl metabolism and programs serotonin transporter and glucocorticoid receptor expression in brain

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Ying Fai; Sulistyoningrum, Dian C.; O'Neill, Ryan; Innis, Sheila M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in HPA dysregulation and hyperresponsiveness to stressors in adulthood. Molecular mechanisms mediating these alterations are not fully understood. Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, a source of methyl donors for epigenetic processes, contributes to alcoholic liver disease. We assessed whether PAE affects one-carbon metabolism (including Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA) and programming of HPA function genes (Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Slc6a4) in offspring from ethanol-fed (E), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. At gestation day 21, plasma total homocysteine and methionine concentrations were higher in E compared with C dams, and E fetuses had higher plasma methionine concentrations and lower whole brain Mtr and Mat2a mRNA compared with C fetuses. In adulthood (55 days), hippocampal Mtr and Cbs mRNA was lower in E compared with C males, whereas Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA were higher in E compared with C females. We found lower Nr3c1 mRNA and lower nerve growth factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A) protein in the hippocampus of E compared with PF females, whereas hippocampal Slc6a4 mRNA was higher in E than C males. By contrast, hypothalamic Slc6a4 mRNA was lower in E males and females compared with C offspring. This was accompanied by higher hypothalamic Slc6a4 mean promoter methylation in E compared with PF females. These findings demonstrate that PAE is associated with alterations in one-carbon metabolism and has long-term and region-specific effects on gene expression in the brain. These findings advance our understanding of mechanisms of HPA dysregulation associated with PAE. PMID:26180184

  4. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters methyl metabolism and programs serotonin transporter and glucocorticoid receptor expression in brain.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Ying Fai; Sulistyoningrum, Dian C; O'Neill, Ryan; Innis, Sheila M; Weinberg, Joanne; Devlin, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in HPA dysregulation and hyperresponsiveness to stressors in adulthood. Molecular mechanisms mediating these alterations are not fully understood. Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, a source of methyl donors for epigenetic processes, contributes to alcoholic liver disease. We assessed whether PAE affects one-carbon metabolism (including Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA) and programming of HPA function genes (Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Slc6a4) in offspring from ethanol-fed (E), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. At gestation day 21, plasma total homocysteine and methionine concentrations were higher in E compared with C dams, and E fetuses had higher plasma methionine concentrations and lower whole brain Mtr and Mat2a mRNA compared with C fetuses. In adulthood (55 days), hippocampal Mtr and Cbs mRNA was lower in E compared with C males, whereas Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA were higher in E compared with C females. We found lower Nr3c1 mRNA and lower nerve growth factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A) protein in the hippocampus of E compared with PF females, whereas hippocampal Slc6a4 mRNA was higher in E than C males. By contrast, hypothalamic Slc6a4 mRNA was lower in E males and females compared with C offspring. This was accompanied by higher hypothalamic Slc6a4 mean promoter methylation in E compared with PF females. These findings demonstrate that PAE is associated with alterations in one-carbon metabolism and has long-term and region-specific effects on gene expression in the brain. These findings advance our understanding of mechanisms of HPA dysregulation associated with PAE.

  5. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Mark W.; Inyatkin, Alexey; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R.; Palmour, Roberta M.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) to (1) investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2) determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years). Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation. PMID:27801790

  6. Long-term alterations to DNA methylation as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure: From mouse models to human children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Benjamin I; Chater-Diehl, Eric J; Kapalanga, Joachim; Singh, Shiva M

    2017-05-01

    Rodent models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) have revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in differential DNA cytosine methylation in the developing brain. The resulting genome-wide methylation changes are enriched in genes with neurodevelopmental functions. The profile of differential methylation is dynamic and present in some form for life. The methylation changes are transmitted across subsequent mitotic divisions, where they are maintained and further modified over time. More recent follow up has identified a profile of the differential methylation in the buccal swabs of young children born with FASD. While distinct from the profile observed in brain tissue from rodent models, there are similarities. These include changes in genes belonging to a number of neurodevelopmental and behavioral pathways. Specifically, there is increased methylation at the clustered protocadherin genes and deregulation of genomically imprinted genes, even though no single gene is affected in all patients studied to date. These novel results suggest further development of a methylation based strategy could enable early and accurate diagnostics and therapeutics, which have remained a challenge in FASD research. There are two aspects of this challenge that must be addressed in the immediate future: First, the long-term differential methylomics observed in rodent models must be functionally confirmed. Second, the similarities in differential methylation must be further established in humans at a methylomic level and overcome a number of technical limitations. While a cure for FASD is challenging, there is an opportunity for the development of early diagnostics and attenuations towards a higher quality of life. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual and Area Level Factors Associated with Prenatal, Delivery, and Postnatal Care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Harbison, Hanne

    2015-10-01

    This research examines individual and area level factors associated with maternal health care utilization in Pakistan. The 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys data was used to model five outcomes: prenatal care within the first trimester, four plus prenatal visits, birth attendance by a skilled attendant, birth in a medical facility, and receipt of postnatal care. Less than half of births were to mothers receiving prenatal care in the first trimester, and approximately 57 % had trained personnel at delivery. Over half were born to mothers who received postnatal care. Evidence was found to support the positive effect of individual level variables, education and wealth, on the utilization of maternal health care across all five measures. Although, this study did not find unilateral differences between women residing in rural and urban settings, rural women were found to have lower odds of utilizing prenatal services as compared to mothers in urban environments. Additionally, women who cited distance as a barrier, had lower odds of receiving postnatal health care, but still engaged in prenatal services and often had a skilled attendant present at delivery. The odds of utilizing prenatal care increased when women resided in an area where prenatal utilization was high, and this variability was found across measures across provinces. The results found in this paper highlight the uneven progress made around improving prenatal, delivery, and postnatal care in Pakistan; disparities persist which may be attributed to factors both at the individual and community level, but may be addressed through a consorted effort to change national policy around women's health which should include the promotion of evidence based interventions such as incentivizing health care workers, promoting girls' education, and improving transportation options for pregnant women and recent mothers with the intent of ultimately lowering the Maternal Mortality Rate as recommended in the U

  8. Variation in Excessive Fetal Growth across Levels of Prenatal Care among Women with Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hale, Nathan L; Probst, Janice C; Liu, Jihong; Bennett, Kevin J; Martin, Amy Brock; Glover, Saundra

    2011-10-01

    Examine the association between prenatal care and excessive fetal growth outcomes among mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2004-2007 singleton live births to South Carolina women, limited to those for whom both birth certificate and hospital discharge data were available (N = 179 957). Gestational diabetes mellitus was identified from birth certificate and/or hospital discharge claims. Measures of excessive fetal growth were large for gestational age (90th and 95th percentiles) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g). The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization index was used to measure prenatal care. Gestational diabetes mellitus was recorded for 6.9% of women in the study population. Women with GDM were more likely than other women to have an infant with excessive fetal growth, regardless of the level of prenatal care; however, there was a significant interaction between GDM status and levels of prenatal care. All women with GDM had increased odds for large infant outcomes. However, those receiving inadequate prenatal care were markedly more likely to experience excessive fetal growth outcomes (odds ratio = 1.38, confidence interval = 1.15-1.66) than women also with GDM and intermediate/adequate prenatal care. Similar patterns were noted for large for gestational age (95th) and macrosomia (total birth weight ≥ 4500 g). Observed associations suggest a link between inadequate prenatal care and a higher risk for excessive fetal growth among women with GDM. Further research is needed to clarify the nature of the association and suggest ways to get high-risk women into care sooner.

  9. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse.

    PubMed

    Sluyter, Frans; Jamot, Laure; Bertholet, Jean-Yves; Crusio, Wim E

    2005-04-22

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF) terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J). RESULTS: Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype) at adult age. CONCLUSION: Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures) or involve different animal models.

  10. Prenatal exposure to alcohol does not affect radial maze learning and hippocampal mossy fiber sizes in three inbred strains of mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sluyter, Frans; Jamot, Laure; Bertholet, Jean-Yves; Crusio, Wim E

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on radial-maze learning and hippocampal neuroanatomy, particularly the sizes of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF) terminal fields, in three inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J). Results Although we anticipated a modification of both learning and IIPMF sizes, no such effects were detected. Prenatal alcohol exposure did, however, interfere with reproduction in C57BL/6J animals and decrease body and brain weight (in interaction with the genotype) at adult age. Conclusion Prenatal alcohol exposure influenced neither radial maze performance nor the sizes of the IIPMF terminal fields. We believe that future research should be pointed either at different targets when using mouse models for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (e.g. more complicated behavioral paradigms, different hippocampal substructures, or other brain structures) or involve different animal models. PMID:15916699

  11. Blood alcohol levels for American Indian mothers and newborns.

    PubMed

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Randall, Brad; Simanton, Edward G; Brenneman, George; Welty, Thomas K

    2012-10-01

    Very little is known about the alcohol elimination rates of newborns who have had chronic alcohol exposure in utero. In these case reports, blood alcohol levels were taken immediately before delivery, at delivery, and postdelivery for 2 mothers who drank alcohol during their pregnancies and 3 single-birth newborns. Newborn A1 of Mother A had no physical characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The initial blood alcohol level for this newborn was 38.4 mg/dL 129 minutes after birth, with a subsequent blood alcohol level of 5.5 mg/dL 304 minutes after delivery, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 11.3 mg/dL per hour. The blood alcohol level for Mother A was 87.4 mg/dL 66 minutes before delivery. Newborn A2 of mother A had FAS. Sixty minutes after delivery, the blood alcohol level for this newborn was 39.5 mg/dL, and the alcohol level of the mother was 42.1 mg/dL. Newborn B1 of mother B had FAS. At 67 minutes after birth, newborn B1 had a blood alcohol level of 246.5 mg/dL, which dropped to 178.7 mg/dL 302 minutes after birth, resulting in an alcohol elimination rate of 17.3 mg/dL per hour. This alcohol elimination rate is within the metabolism range (15-49 mg/dL per hour) of adults with alcoholism. The maternal blood alcohol level was 265.9 mg/dL 27 minutes before delivery. Blood alcohol levels drawn on both the mother and newborn at delivery and 2 or 3 hourly follow-up levels can provide evidence that fetal alcohol dehydrogenase activity is induced by chronic maternal alcohol use.

  12. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  13. Computing Health: Programing Problem 3, Computing Peak Blood Alcohol Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    The Alcohol Metabolism Program, a computer program used to compute peak blood alcohol levels, is expanded upon to include a cover page, brief introduction, and techniques for generalizing the program to calculate peak levels for any number of drinks. (DF)

  14. Prenatal Testosterone Increases Sensitivity to Prenatal Stressors in Males with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.; Roberts, Bethan A.

    2014-01-01

    Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring boys, and prenatal testosterone exposure appears to be part of the complex etiology of these disorders. The current study examines whether high prenatal testosterone exposure may heighten risk for DBD symptoms in males by increasing susceptibility to negative environmental conditions such as maternal nicotine and alcohol use during pregnancy. Participants were 109 three- to six-year-olds (64% male; 72% with DBD) and their 109 primary caregivers and 55 daycare providers/teachers who completed a multi-informant diagnostic procedure. A proxy of prenatal testosterone exposure, finger-length ratios, interacted with maternal report of prenatal nicotine use to predict teacher-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity during preschool, for boys, but not girls, although the three-way interaction was not significant. Prenatal testosterone interacted with prenatal alcohol exposure to predict teacher-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity and ODD symptoms differentially based on child sex (significant three-way interaction). Boys with higher levels of prenatal testosterone who were also exposed to higher levels of nicotine and alcohol during pregnancy exhibited increased hyperactivity-impulsivity during early childhood, but girls did not exhibit this same pattern. Thus, high prenatal testosterone exposure seems to increase risk for DBD symptoms particularly in males by increasing susceptibility to prenatal environmental stressors. PMID:24819590

  15. Rats exposed prenatally to alcohol exhibit impairment in spatial navigation test.

    PubMed

    Gianoulakis, C

    1990-01-22

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol causes learning disabilities and low I.Q. scores. The objective of the present studies was to investigate whether exposure of rats to ethanol in utero, would induce a deficit in spatial memory in adult life. Pregnant rats were fed with an ethanol diet from day 1 of pregnancy till parturition. Control rats were either pair-fed with an isocaloric sucrose diet or were fed with lab-chow ad libitum. On the first day of birth, offspring exposed to ethanol in utero were placed with a control mother fed with lab-chow, while offspring of the lab-chow fed dams were placed with ethanol-treated dams. At 40, 60 and 90 days postnatally, behavioral testing was performed using the Morris swim maze, a test of spatial memory. Results indicated that the offspring exposed to ethanol in utero presented deficits in spatial memory processes. Ethanol did not completely block the learning of the swim maze task but the alcohol-exposed offspring exhibited longer latencies to perform the task, swam longer distances prior to locating and climbing onto the platform, and when the platform was removed, searched for it in all 4 quadrants of the pool. Restricted caloric intake during gestation and maternal behavior in early postnatal life also induced deficits in the performance on the swim maze task. However, these deficits were mild and short-lasting being absent at 60 and 90 days of age. In contrast, the deficits induced by ethanol were more severe and longer-lasting, being present in adult life.

  16. Alcohol Consumption as a Response to Anxiety Level and Alcohol Expectancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Response to Anxiety Level and Alcohol Expectancy 6. AUTHOR (S) Robert E. Steed, Captain 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING... definitons are used: Alcohol abuse refers to ingestion of alcohol which causes any personal, physical, psychological, familial, social, legal, employment...alcohol is decried. Moralists debate whether or not alcohol has any appropriate purpose for human consumption while legal and medical authorities try to

  17. Factors Associated With High Levels of Perceived Prenatal Stress Among Inner-City Women.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Kendra L; Heaman, Maureen I

    2016-01-01

    To explore the factors associated with high rates of perceived prenatal stress among inner-city women. Observational cross-sectional study. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 603 inner-city women. In our study, 330 participants (54.7%) self-identified as First Nations, Metis, or First Nations/Metis. Prenatal stress was measured with Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. A social ecological model provided the theoretical framework for the study, and variables representing all levels of the model were selected for study. Data analyses included t tests to compare women with high stress and low/moderate stress, univariable logistic regression analysis to determine the association of selected factors with maternal stress, and multivariable logistic regression analysis to provide adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the factors. Of the 603 participants, 17.2% (104) reported high levels of perceived stress, and 82.8% (499) reported low/moderate levels. The high-stress group included a significantly greater proportion of First Nations, Metis, or First Nations/Metis women (76.0%) than the low/moderate-stress group (50.3%). Low rates of self-esteem and social support, residential mobility, abuse before/during pregnancy, and experiencing discrimination were significantly associated with high levels of perceived prenatal stress. Our findings demonstrated that factors that influence prenatal stress occur at all levels of the social ecological model. The identified factors are amenable to change, and implications for practice include the need for psychosocial risk assessment, alternative forms of prenatal care, relational care, and advocacy initiatives. A greater understanding of the complex factors associated with high rates of perceived prenatal stress can inform the development of effective interventions for inner-city women. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood balance ability: findings from a UK birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; May, Margaret; Zuccolo, Luisa; Macleod, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of prenatal alcohol exposure with balance in10-year-old children. Design Population-based prospective longitudinal study. Setting Former Avon region of UK (Southwest England). Participants 6915 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children who had a balance assessment at age 10 and had data on maternal alcohol consumption. Outcome measures 3 composite balance scores: dynamic balance (beam-walking), static balance eyes open, static balance eyes closed (heel-to-toe balance on a beam and standing on one leg, eyes open or closed). Results Most mothers (95.5%) consumed no-to-moderate amounts (3–7 glasses/week) of alcohol during pregnancy. Higher total-alcohol consumption was associated with maternal-social advantage, whereas binge drinking (≥4 units/day) and abstinence were associated with maternal social disadvantage. No evidence was found of an adverse effect of maternal-alcohol consumption on childhood balance. Higher maternal-alcohol use during pregnancy was generally associated with better offspring outcomes, with some specific effects appearing strong (static balance eyes open and moderate total alcohol exposure at 18 weeks, adjusted OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.49); static balance eyes closed and moderate total alcohol exposure at 18 weeks, adjusted OR 1.25 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.48). Similar results were found for both paternal and postnatal maternal alcohol exposure. A Mendelian-randomization approach was used to estimate the association between maternal genotype and offspring balance using the non-synonymous variant rs1229984*A (ADH1B) to proxy for lower maternal alcohol consumption; no strong associations were found between this genotype/proxy and offspring balance. Conclusions No evidence was found to indicate that moderate maternal alcohol consumption in this population sample had an adverse effect on offspring balance at age 10. An apparent beneficial effect of higher total maternal alcohol

  19. The investigation of the prenatal and postnatal alcohol exposure-induced neurodegeneration in rat brain: protection by betaine and/or omega-3.

    PubMed

    Kusat Ol, Kevser; Kanbak, Güngör; Oğlakcı Ilhan, Ayşegül; Burukoglu, Dilek; Yücel, Ferruh

    2016-03-01

    We aim to study the effect of neurodegeneration on the brain of rat pups caused by prenatal and postnatal ethanol exposure with modified liquid diet to elucidate protective effects of betaine and omega-3 supplementation. When ethanol is consumed during prenatal and postnatal periods, it may result in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the offspring. Rats were divided into control, ethanol, ethanol + betaine, ethanol + omega-3, ethanol + omega-3 + betaine groups. The effect of betaine and omega-3 in response to ethanol-induced changes on the brain, by biochemical analyses cytochrome c, caspase-3, calpain, cathepsin B and L, DNA fragmentation, histological and morfometric methods were evaluated. Caspase-3, calpain, cathepsin B, and cytochrome c levels in ethanol group were significantly higher than control. Caspase-3, calpain levels were decreased in ethanol + betaine, ethanol + omega-3, and ethanol + omega-3 + betaine groups compared to ethanol group. Cathepsin B in ethanol + omega-3 + betaine group was decreased compared to ethanol, ethanol + betaine groups. Cathepsin L and DNA fragmentation were found not statistically significant. We found similar results in histological and morfometric parameters. We found that pre- and postnatal ethanol exposure is capable of triggering necrotic cell death in rat brains, omega-3, and betaine reduce neurodegeneration. Omega-3 and betaine may prove beneficial for neurodegeneration, particularly in preventing FAS.

  20. Alcohol use, injuries, and prenatal visits during three successive pregnancies among American Indian women on the Northern Plains who have children with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Leonardson, Gary R; Borzelleca, Joseph; Brock, Ellen; Neff-Smith, Martha; Welty, Thomas K

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare three sequential pregnancies of American Indian women who have children with FAS or children with incomplete FAS with women who did not have children with FAS. Two retrospective case-control studies were conducted of Northern Plains American Indian children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (Study 1) or incomplete FAS (Study 2) in 1981-1993. Three successive pregnancies ending in live births of 43 case mothers who had children with FAS, and 35 case mothers who had children with incomplete FAS were compared to the pregnancies of 86 and 70 control mothers who did not have children with FAS, respectively, in the two studies. Prenatal records were abstracted for the index child (child with FAS or incomplete FAS) and siblings born just before and just after the index child, and comparable prenatal records for the controls. Compared to the controls, significantly more case mothers used alcohol before and after all three pregnancies and during pregnancy with the before sibling and the index child. Mothers who had children with FAS reduced their alcohol use during the pregnancy following the birth of the index child. All Study 1 case mothers (100%) and 60% of Study 2 case mothers used alcohol during the pregnancy with the index child compared to 20 and 9% of respective control mothers. More study 1 case mothers experienced unintentional injuries (OR 9.50) and intentional injuries during the index pregnancy (OR 9.33) than the control mothers. Most case mothers began prenatal care in the second trimester. Alcohol use was documented before, during and after each of the three pregnancies. Women of child-bearing age should be screened for alcohol use whenever they present for medical services. Mothers who had a child with FAS decreased their alcohol consumption with the next pregnancy, a finding that supports the importance of prenatal screening throughout pregnancy. Women who receive medical care for injuries should be screened for

  1. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Altered Subcellular Distribution of Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Receptors in the Adolescent Mouse Hippocampal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Kevin K; Goggin, Samantha L; Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that several of the long-term consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are the result of changes in the development and function of cortico-limbic structures, including the hippocampal formation. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key regulators of hippocampal formation development, structure, and functioning and, thus, are potential mediators of PAE’s effects on this brain region. In the present studies, we assessed the impact of PAE on components of corticosteroid signaling pathways in the mouse hippocampal formation. Methods Throughout pregnancy, mouse dams were offered either 10% (w/v) ethanol sweetened with 0.066% (w/v) saccharin (SAC) or 0.066% (w/v) SAC alone using a limited (4-hour) access, drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. The hippocampal formation was isolated from naïve postnatal day 40 to 50 offspring, and subcellular fractions were prepared. Using immunoblotting techniques, we measured the levels of GR, MR, 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1), and the FK506-binding proteins 51 (FKBP51, FKBP5) and 52 (FKBP52, FKBP4). Finally, we determined the effect of PAE on context discrimination, a hippocampal-dependent learning/memory task. Results PAE was associated with reduced MR and elevated GR nuclear localization in the hippocampal formation, whereas cytosolic levels of both receptors were not significantly altered. FKBP51 levels were reduced, while FKBP52 levels were unaltered, and 11β-HSD1 levels were increased in postnuclear fractions isolated from PAE mouse hippocampal formation. These neurochemical alterations were associated with reduced context discrimination. Conclusions The data support a model in which PAE leads to increased nuclear localization of GRs secondary to reductions in FKBP51 and increases in 11β-HSD1 levels in the adolescent mouse hippocampal formation. Persistent dysregulation of GR subcellular distribution is predicted to damage the

  2. Prenatal Earthquake Exposure and Midlife Uric Acid Levels Among Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chunpeng; Li, Yanping; Cui, Liufu; Cai, Jianfang; Shi, Jihong; Cheng, Feon W; Li, Yuqing; Curhan, Gary C; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-05-01

    To test whether prenatal exposure to earthquake (as a surrogate for acute prenatal stress) could have unfavorable effects on uric acid levels later in life. We included 536 individuals who had been prenatally exposed to the Tangshan earthquake in 1976, and 536 sex- and age-matched individuals without that exposure. Serum uric acid concentrations were measured based on fasting blood samples, which were repeatedly collected in 2006, 2008, and 2010. Mean uric acid concentrations in 2010 and the increasing rate from 2006 to 2010 were compared between the 2 groups, after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and other potential confounders. We also used multiple logistic regression to estimate the risk of hyperuricemia (>416 μmole/liter in men or >357 μmole/liter in women) in 2010 by calculating the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) after adjustment for the previously mentioned covariates. Participants with prenatal exposure to the earthquake had higher concentrations of serum uric acid (adjusted means 315 μmole/liter versus 296 μmole/liter; P = 0.001) and a higher likelihood of having hyperuricemia (multivariate adjusted OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.09-2.66]) in 2010 relative to those without the exposure. Prenatal exposure to the earthquake was consistently significantly associated with a faster increase in uric acid concentration from 2006 to 2010 (P < 0.001). Prenatal exposure to the earthquake was associated with higher serum uric acid and higher odds of hyperuricemia in early adulthood. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Effects of Three Levels of Early Intervention Services on Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claussen, Angelika H.; Scott, Keith G.; Mundy, Peter C.; Katz, Lynne F.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is a high-risk indicator for adverse developmental outcomes. Three levels of intervention (center, home, and primary care) were compared in a full service, birth to age 3, early intervention program serving children exposed to cocaine prenatally. Data were collected on 130 children from urban, predominantly poor,…

  4. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure, adaptive function, and entry into adult roles in a prospective study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A; Coles, Claire D

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n =5 9) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure: assessment of voluntary maternal participation in an open meconium screening program.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-05-01

    Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are validated biomarkers of fetal alcohol exposure. Meconium FAEE testing can potentially be used as a screen by health-care professionals to identify neonates at-risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, thereby permitting diagnostic follow-up of these children and early intervention in those who develop disabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess whether women would willingly partake in a screening program of this nature. This was determined by launching a pilot screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure in a high-risk obstetric unit previously shown to have a high prevalence of FAEE-positive meconium via anonymous meconium testing. The program involved voluntary testing of meconium for FAEEs and long-term developmental follow-up of positive cases through an existing public health program. The participation rate in the screening program was significantly lower than when testing was conducted anonymously (78% vs. 95%, respectively; p < 0.05), and the positivity rate was 3% in contrast to 30% observed under anonymous conditions (p < 0.001). These low rates suggest that the majority of mothers who consumed alcohol in pregnancy refused to participate. We conclude that despite the potential benefits of such screening programs, maternal unwillingness to consent, likely due to fear, embarrassment, and guilt, may limit the effectiveness of meconium testing for population-based open screening, highlighting the need for public education and social marketing efforts for such programs to be of benefit.

  7. Fetal alcohol exposure alters neurosteroid levels in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Jerri C; Wu, Yan; Mameli, Manuel; Purdy, Robert H; Li, Pui-Kai; Akwa, Yvette; Savage, Daniel D; Engen, John R; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2004-09-01

    Neurosteroids are modulators of neuronal function that may play important roles in brain maturation. We determined whether chronic prenatal ethanol exposure altered neurosteroid levels in the developing brain. Rat dams were exposed to: (i) a 5% ethanol-containing liquid diet that produces peak maternal blood alcohol levels near the legal intoxication limit (approximately 0.08 g/dL); (ii) an isocaloric liquid diet containing maltose-dextrin instead of ethanol with pair-feeding; (iii) rat chow ad libitum. Neurosteroid levels were assessed in offspring brains using radioimmunoassay or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. A prenatal ethanol exposure-induced increase in pregnenolone sulfate levels, but not dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels, was evident at the earliest time point studied (embryonic day 14). This effect lasted until post-natal day 5. Levels of other neurosteroids were assessed at embryonic day 20; pregnenolone levels, but not allopregnanolone levels, were elevated. Pregnenolone sulfate levels were not altered in the maternal brain. Neither pregnenolone nor pregnenolone sulfate levels were significantly altered in the fetal liver, placenta and maternal blood, indicating that the effect of ethanol is not secondary to accumulation of peripherally-produced steroids. Fetal ethanol exposure has been shown to decrease both cellular and behavioral responsiveness to neurosteroids, and our findings provide a plausible explanation for this effect.

  8. Abnormal brain activation during working memory in children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse: the effects of methamphetamine, alcohol, and polydrug exposure.

    PubMed

    Roussotte, Florence F; Bramen, Jennifer E; Nunez, S Christopher; Quandt, Lorna C; Smith, Lynne; O'Connor, Mary J; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2011-02-14

    Structural and metabolic abnormalities in fronto-striatal structures have been reported in children with prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure. The current study was designed to quantify functional alterations to the fronto-striatal circuit in children with prenatal MA exposure using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because many women who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined 50 children (age range 7-15), 19 with prenatal MA exposure, 15 of whom had concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but no MA exposure (ALC group), and 18 unexposed controls (CON group). We hypothesized that MA exposed children would demonstrate abnormal brain activation during a visuospatial working memory (WM) "N-Back" task. As predicted, the MAA group showed less activation than the CON group in many brain areas, including the striatum and frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. The ALC group showed less activation than the MAA group in several regions, including the right striatum. We found an inverse correlation between performance and activity in the striatum in both the CON and MAA groups. However, this relationship was significant in the caudate of the CON group but not the MAA group, and in the putamen of the MAA group but not the CON group. These findings suggest that structural damage in the fronto-striatal circuit after prenatal MA exposure leads to decreased recruitment of this circuit during a WM challenge, and raise the possibility that a rewiring of cortico-striatal networks may occur in children with prenatal MA exposure.

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Postnatal Acceptability of Nicotine Odor and Taste in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mantella, Nicole M.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  11. Special Issues in Child Care: Supporting Infants Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ginger L.; Mullins, Sharon M.

    2007-01-01

    Infants and children with prenatal drug exposure and/or a caregiver with a substance abuse problem participate in child care centers and homes throughout the United States. Thus, child care providers are in a position to monitor not only the need for physical, cognitive, or behavioral early intervention, but also to collaborate with parents on…

  12. Neither Damned Nor Doomed: Educating Children Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedlin, Allan, Jr., Ed.

    Thousands of children exposed prenatally to drugs are now of school age, presenting schools and educators as well as social service agencies with enormous challenges. This book provides information from education, medical, public health, and social service experts on the degree of damage these children have sustained, whether that damage will be…

  13. Neither Damned Nor Doomed: Educating Children Prenatally Exposed to Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shedlin, Allan, Jr., Ed.

    Thousands of children exposed prenatally to drugs are now of school age, presenting schools and educators as well as social service agencies with enormous challenges. This book provides information from education, medical, public health, and social service experts on the degree of damage these children have sustained, whether that damage will be…

  14. Dietary Predictors of Maternal Prenatal Blood Mercury Levels in the ALSPAC Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Steer, Colin D.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Lowery, Tony; Jones, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very high levels of prenatal maternal mercury have adverse effects on the developing fetal brain. It has been suggested that all possible sources of mercury should be avoided. However, although seafood is a known source of mercury, little is known about other dietary components that contribute to the overall levels of blood mercury. Objective: Our goal was to quantify the contribution of components of maternal diet to prenatal blood mercury level. Methods: Whole blood samples and information on diet and sociodemographic factors were collected from pregnant women (n = 4,484) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The blood samples were assayed for total mercury using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry. Linear regression was used to estimate the relative contributions of 103 dietary variables and 6 sociodemographic characteristics to whole blood total mercury levels (TBM; untransformed and log-transformed) based on R2 values. Results: We estimated that maternal diet accounted for 19.8% of the total variation in ln-TBM, with 44% of diet-associated variability (8.75% of the total variation) associated with seafood consumption (white fish, oily fish, and shellfish). Other dietary components positively associated with TBM included wine and herbal teas, and components with significant negative associations included white bread, meat pies or pasties, and french fries. Conclusions: Although seafood is a source of dietary mercury, seafood appeared to explain a relatively small proportion of the variation in TBM in our UK study population. Our findings require confirmation, but suggest that limiting seafood intake during pregnancy may have a limited impact on prenatal blood mercury levels. Citation: Golding J, Steer CD, Hibbeln JR, Emmett PM, Lowery T, Jones R. 2013. Dietary predictors of maternal prenatal blood mercury levels in the ALSPAC birth cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1214

  15. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal volume, verbal learning, and verbal and spatial recall in late childhood.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Karen A; Sheard, Erin D; Nash, Kelly; Rovet, Joanne

    2008-11-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) show deficits in verbal learning and spatial memory, as well as abnormal hippocampal development. The relationship between their memory and neuroanatomic impairments, however, has not been directly explored. Given that the hippocampus is integral for the synthesis and retrieval of learned information and is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, we assessed whether reduced learning and recall abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are associated with abnormal hippocampal volumes. Nineteen children with FASDs and 18 typically developing controls aged 9 to 15 years were assessed for verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images were analyzed for total intracranial volume and for right and left hippocampal volumes. Results revealed smaller left hippocampi and poorer verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall performance in children with FASDs than controls, as well as positive correlations between selective memory indices and hippocampal volumes only in the FASD group. Additionally, hippocampal volumes increased significantly with age in controls only, suggesting that PAE may be associated with long-term abnormalities in hippocampal development that may contribute to impaired verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall.

  16. Developmental Trajectories for Visuo-Spatial Attention are Altered by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Longitudinal FMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Gautam, P; Nuñez, S C; Narr, K L; Mattson, S N; May, P A; Adnams, C M; Riley, E P; Jones, K L; Kan, E C; Sowell, E R

    2015-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reveals brain activation abnormalities during visuo-spatial attention and working memory among those with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in cross-sectional reports, but little is known about how activation changes over time during development within FASD or typically developing children. We studied 30 controls and 31 individuals with FASD over 2 years (7-14 years at first participation) with a total of 122 scans, as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Despite comparable performance, there were significant group differences in visuo-spatial activation over time bilaterally in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Controls showed an increase in signal intensity in these multiple regions whereas FASD participants showed a decrease in brain activation. Effects were also found in 2 small independent samples from the USA, corroborating the findings from the larger group. Results suggest that the long-lasting effect of prenatal alcohol may impact the maturation of visuo-spatial attention and differentiate those with FASD from controls. Based on this first longitudinal fMRI study in FASD children, our novel findings suggest a possible neural mechanism for attention deficits common among individuals with FASD.

  17. Prenatal Influences on the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of embryology and prenatal brain, sensory, and motor development. Includes discussion of maternal nutrition, chemical exposure, prenatal drug and alcohol hazards, cigarette smoking, and some causes of neural tube defects and premature birth. (Author/KB)

  18. Prenatal Influences on the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of embryology and prenatal brain, sensory, and motor development. Includes discussion of maternal nutrition, chemical exposure, prenatal drug and alcohol hazards, cigarette smoking, and some causes of neural tube defects and premature birth. (Author/KB)

  19. Differences in cortico-striatal-cerebellar activation during working memory in syndromal and nonsyndromal children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Goradia, Dhruman; Dodge, Neil C; Warton, Christopher; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2013-08-01

    Although children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure may exhibit the distinctive facial dysmorphology seen in full or partial fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS/PFAS), many lack that dysmorphology. This study examined the functional organization of working memory in the brain in three groups of children-those meeting diagnostic criteria for FAS or PFAS, heavily exposed (HE) nonsyndromal children, and healthy controls. A verbal n-back task (1-back and 0-back) was administered to 47 children (17 with FAS/PFAS, 13 HE, and 17 controls) during fMRI. Intra-group one-sample t-tests were used to identify activity regions of interest central to verbal working memory including the dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC), inferior frontal gyrus, caudate/putamen, parietal cortex, and cerebellar Crus I/lobule VI and lobule VIIB-IX. Whereas groups did not differ in task sensitivity, fMRI analyses suggested different patterns of sub-network recruitment across groups. Controls primarily recruited left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). By contrast, HE primarily recruited an extensive set of fronto-striatal regions, including left dPFC and left caudate, and the FAS/PFAS group relied primarily on two cerebellar subregions and parietal cortex. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate differential recruitment of critical brain regions that subserve basic function in children with different fetal alcohol spectrum disorders compared to controls. The distinct activation patterns seen in the two exposed groups may be related to substantial differences in alcohol dose/occasion to which these groups were exposed in utero.

  20. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder-associated depression: evidence for reductions in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Kevin K; Sheema, S; Paz, Rodrigo D; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L; Laughlin, Mary H; Spence, Nathan E; Roehlk, Michael J; Alcon, Sara N; Allan, Andrea M

    2008-10-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with an increased incidence of depressive disorders in patient populations. However, the mechanisms that link prenatal ethanol exposure and depression are unknown. Several recent studies have implicated reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex as important contributors to the etiology of depression. In the present studies, we sought to determine whether prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with behaviors that model depression, as well as with reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampal formation and/or medial frontal cortex, in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Compared to control adult mice, prenatal ethanol-exposed adult mice displayed increased learned helplessness behavior and increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test. Prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with decreased BDNF protein levels in the medial frontal cortex, but not the hippocampal formation, while total BDNF mRNA and BDNF transcripts containing exons III, IV or VI were reduced in both the medial frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation of prenatal ethanol-exposed mice. These results identify reduced BDNF levels in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampal formation as potential mediators of depressive disorders associated with FASD.

  1. Free carnitine and acylcarnitine levels in sera of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Alonso de la Peña, C; Rozas, I; Alvarez-Prechous, A; Pardiñas, M C; Paz, J M; Rodriguez-Segade, S

    1990-08-01

    We report the free, acyl-, and total carnitine contents of 49 clinically healthy volunteers and 167 chronic alcoholics with various clinically and/or anatomopathologically identified degrees of hepatic affection. There was a gradual upward trend in carnitine levels as the degree of hepatic affection increased. In cirrhotic patients, both free and acylcarnitine levels were significantly higher than normal, but there was no systematic hypercarnitinemia in other stages of alcoholism; on the contrary, noncirrhotic alcoholic patients accounted for 82.6% of all hypocarnitinemia cases. Hypercarnitinemia among cirrhotic alcoholics was due chiefly to increased free carnitine concentrations. Acylcarnitine levels in patients with hepatic steatosis were significantly higher than those in normal subjects (P less than 0.001), but there were no other statistically significant differences in either acyl- or free carnitine levels between normals on the one hand and, on the other, patients with hepatic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, slight hepatopathy, or chronic hepatopathy without portal hypertension.

  2. Prenatal alcohol exposure and cellular differentiation: a role for Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins in FAS phenotypes?

    PubMed

    Veazey, Kylee J; Muller, Daria; Golding, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol significantly alters the developmental trajectory of progenitor cells and fundamentally compromises tissue formation (i.e., histogenesis). Emerging research suggests that ethanol can impair mammalian development by interfering with the execution of molecular programs governing differentiation. For example, ethanol exposure disrupts cellular migration, changes cell-cell interactions, and alters growth factor signaling pathways. Additionally, ethanol can alter epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression. Normally, lineage-specific regulatory factors (i.e., transcription factors) establish the transcriptional networks of each new cell type; the cell's identity then is maintained through epigenetic alterations in the way in which the DNA encoding each gene becomes packaged within the chromatin. Ethanol exposure can induce epigenetic changes that do not induce genetic mutations but nonetheless alter the course of fetal development and result in a large array of patterning defects. Two crucial enzyme complexes--the Polycomb and Trithorax proteins--are central to the epigenetic programs controlling the intricate balance between self-renewal and the execution of cellular differentiation, with diametrically opposed functions. Prenatal ethanol exposure may disrupt the functions of these two enzyme complexes, altering a crucial aspect of mammalian differentiation. Characterizing the involvement of Polycomb and Trithorax group complexes in the etiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders will undoubtedly enhance understanding of the role that epigenetic programming plays in this complex disorder.

  3. Prenatal Exposure to Low Levels of Androgen Accelerates Female Puberty Onset and Reproductive Senescence in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Witham, Emily A.; Meadows, Jason D.; Shojaei, Shadi; Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex steroid hormone production and feedback mechanisms are critical components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and regulate fetal development, puberty, fertility, and menopause. In female mammals, developmental exposure to excess androgens alters the development of the HPG axis and has pathophysiological effects on adult reproductive function. This study presents an in-depth reproductive analysis of a murine model of prenatal androgenization (PNA) in which females are exposed to a low dose of dihydrotestosterone during late prenatal development on embryonic d 16.5–18.5. We determined that PNA females had advanced pubertal onset and a delay in the time to first litter, compared with vehicle-treated controls. The PNA mice also had elevated testosterone, irregular estrous cyclicity, and advanced reproductive senescence. To assess the importance of the window of androgen exposure, dihydrotestosterone was administered to a separate cohort of female mice on postnatal d 21–23 [prepubertal androgenization (PPA)]. PPA significantly advanced the timing of pubertal onset, as observed by age of the vaginal opening, yet had no effects on testosterone or estrous cycling in adulthood. The absence of kisspeptin receptor in Kiss1r-null mice did not change the acceleration of puberty by the PNA and PPA paradigms, indicating that kisspeptin signaling is not required for androgens to advance puberty. Thus, prenatal, but not prepubertal, exposure to low levels of androgens disrupts normal reproductive function throughout life from puberty to reproductive senescence. PMID:22778229

  4. Satisfaction Level of New Mothers with Prenatal Care and the Healthcare Professionals Who Provide It

    PubMed Central

    Pozo-Cano, MD; Castillo, RF; Guillen, J Francisco; Florido, J; García García, I

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prenatal care is a key strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The aims of this work were to ascertain the level of satisfaction of new mothers with their pregnancy monitoring and with the medical professionals who provided prenatal care. Subject and methods: A descriptive study was conducted on 265 new mothers, 18-43 years of age, who had given birth at the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital and the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) in April and May 2012. The data were collected with a questionnaire consisting of 28 items that elicited information from the subjects about their pregnancy, prenatal care activities, the healthcare professionals that provided the care, and those that they would like to monitor future pregnancies. There were also two open questions. The first was about the perceived needs of the participants and the second asked them to suggest ways that prenatal care could be improved. Results: The majority of the subjects (59.6%) had given birth for the first time. The midwife was the healthcare professional who performed most of the monitoring activities and resolved their doubts and problems (32.74%), gave the subjects tranquillity and security (37.86%) and listened to their worries (34.53%). The subjects' satisfaction with the healthcare professionals was generally high. This was particularly true of the midwife (90.75%). Half of the subjects surveyed said that they wanted the midwife, obstetrician and general practitioner to monitor their pregnancy. They also underlined the need for longer and more visits with the midwife as well as more consultations with the obstetrician and higher number of ultrasounds. Conclusions: The subjects were very satisfied with the work of the healthcare professionals that monitored their pregnancy, particularly with the midwife. However, they also highlighted expectations and needs that, if met, would increase their satisfaction. PMID:25867581

  5. Satisfaction Level of New Mothers with Prenatal Care and the Healthcare Professionals Who Provide It.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Cano, M D; Castillo, R F; Francisco Guillen, J; Florido, J; García-García, I

    2014-12-01

    Prenatal care is a key strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The aims of this work were to ascertain the level of satisfaction of new mothers with their pregnancy monitoring and with the medical professionals who provided prenatal care. A descriptive study was conducted on 265 new mothers, 18-43 years of age, who had given birth at the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital and the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain) in April and May 2012. The data were collected with a questionnaire consisting of 28 items that elicited information from the subjects about their pregnancy, prenatal care activities, the healthcare professionals that provided the care, and those that they would like to monitor future pregnancies. There were also two open questions. The first was about the perceived needs of the participants and the second asked them to suggest ways that prenatal care could be improved. The majority of the subjects (59.6%) had given birth for the first time. The midwife was the healthcare professional who performed most of the monitoring activities and resolved their doubts and problems (32.74%), gave the subjects tranquility and security (37.86%) and listened to their worries (34.53%). The subjects' satisfaction with the healthcare professionals was generally high. This was particularly true of the midwife (90.75%). Half of the subjects surveyed said that they wanted the midwife, obstetrician and general practitioner to monitor their pregnancy. They also underlined the need for longer and more visits with the midwife as well as more consultations with the obstetrician and higher number of ultrasounds. The subjects were very satisfied with the work of the healthcare professionals that monitored their pregnancy, particularly with the midwife. However, they also highlighted expectations and needs that, if met, would increase their satisfaction.

  6. Prenatal protein level impacts homing behavior in Long-Evans rat pups.

    PubMed

    Fischer, L K; McGaughy, J A; Bradshaw, S E; Weissner, W J; Amaral, A C; Rosene, D L; Mokler, D J; Fitzmaurice, G M; Galler, J R

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of varying prenatal protein levels on the development of homing behavior in rat pups. Long-Evans rats were fed one of the four isocaloric diets containing 6% (n = 7 litters), 12% (n = 9), 18% (n = 9), or 25% (n = 10) casein prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to well-nourished control mothers fed a 25% casein diet during pregnancy, and an adequate protein diet (25% casein) was provided to weaning. On postnatal days 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13, homing behaviors, including activity levels, rate of successful returns to the nest quadrant and latencies to reach the nest over a 3-minute test period were recorded from two starting positions in the home cage. Adult body and brain weights were obtained at sacrifice (postnatal day 130 or 200). Growth was impaired in pups whose mothers were fed a 6% or, to a lesser extent, a 12% casein diet relative to pups whose mothers were fed the 18 and 25% casein diets. The 6 and 12% prenatal protein levels resulted in lower activity levels, with the greatest reduction on postnatal day 13. However, only the 6% pups had reduced success and higher latencies in reaching the nest quadrant when compared with pups from the three other nutrition groups. Latency in reaching the nest quadrant was significantly and negatively associated with adult brain weight. Home orientation is a sensitive measure of developmental deficits associated with variations in prenatal protein levels, including levels of protein deficiency that do not lead to overt growth failure.

  7. Prenatal low-level mercury exposure and neonatal anthropometry in rural northern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guodong; Cui, Chang; Chen, Limei; Gao, Yu; Zhou, Yijun; Shi, Rong; Tian, Ying

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous heavy metal that can negatively affect human health; however, few studies have examined the impact of prenatal low-level Hg exposure on fetal growth. We investigated prenatal exposure levels of Hg and the relationship between Hg levels and neonatal anthropometrics, including birth weight, length, and head circumference. A total of 258 mother-infant pairs were recruited from a rural community located on the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay of the Bohai Sea in northern China between September 2010 and December 2011. We measured maternal and cord whole blood Hg levels and examined their association with neonatal anthropometrics. The geometric means (GMs) of Hg in maternal and cord whole blood were 0.84μgL(-1) and 1.46μgL(-1), respectively. The Hg exposure levels in our study population were much lower than those reported in previous domestic studies. No significant associations were found between maternal or cord blood Hg levels and birth weight, length, and head circumference. However, our results should be interpreted with caution given the high toxicity of Hg and its persistence in the body. Studies focusing on long-term adverse outcomes are needed to further examine the cumulative effects of low-level Hg exposure.

  8. The Use of Open- and Closed-Loop Control During Goal-Directed Force Responses by Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Roger W; Nguyen, Tanya T; Thomas, Jennifer D; Riley, Edward P

    2015-09-01

    Many daily functional activities involve goal-directed responses based on open-loop and closed-loop motor control, yet little is known about how children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure organize and regulate these 2 types of control systems when completing a goal-directed force response. Children with (n = 19) or without (n = 23) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure were required to match a target force (25 and 50% of maximum voluntary force) in a specified target time (200, 800, and 2,000 ms). Target force and produced force were visually displayed on a computer monitor. The analog force-time record was parsed into 2 segments: the period beginning from force initiation to the first reversal in force was designated the open-loop phase, and the remainder of the response was the closed-loop phase. Compared to controls, alcohol-exposed children produced a significantly shorter duration of open-loop control, a higher open-loop phase rate of force development, a shorter time to reach maximum force during the closed-loop phase, and greater absolute target force error. Increasing target force magnitude did not differentially alter the performance of the clinical group. The results indicate that alcohol-exposed children experience deficits in completing goal-directed force responses that likely stem from an alcohol-related insult to the central nervous system. Therapeutic exercises should be designed to recalibrate internal timing systems and improve visuomotor integration. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Levels and Types of Alcohol Biomarkers in DUI and Clinic Samples for Estimating Workplace Alcohol Problemsa

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways – a workplace for many – provides an example for work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this report, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average 8 months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programs log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher program entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This report summarizes selected biomarkers’ potential for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cutoff levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

  10. Levels and types of alcohol biomarkers in DUI and clinic samples for estimating workplace alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways--a workplace for many--provides an example of work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this paper, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average eight months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (driving under the influence; DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programmes log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher programme entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This paper summarizes the potential of selected biomarkers for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cut-off levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context.

  11. Holism and High Level Wellness in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Robert; Davis, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how a holistic and wellness philosophy is a viable alternative in the treatment of alcoholism. Describes five major dimensions of high-level wellness: nutritional awareness, physical fitness, stress management, environmental sensitivity, and self-responsibility. (RC)

  12. Risk and Reality: Implications of Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Joanne P.; And Others

    Experts now estimate that one half to three quarters of a million infants are born each year who have been exposed in utero to one or more illicit drugs. When legal drugs--alcohol and tobacco--are added, the figure rises to considerably more than one million substance-exposed infants. This monograph is one in a series created by the Educational…

  13. The Use of Open- and Closed-Loop Control During Goal-Directed Force Responses by Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Roger W.; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many daily functional activities involve goal-directed responses based on open-loop and closed-loop motor control, yet little is known about how children with heavy prenatal alcohol-exposure organize and regulate these two types of control systems when completing a goal-directed force response. Methods Children with (n = 19) or without (n = 23) heavy prenatal alcohol exposure were required to match a target force (25% and 50% of maximum voluntary force) in a specified target time (200 ms, 800 ms, and 2000 ms). Target force and produced force were visually displayed on a computer monitor. The analog force-time record was parsed into two segments: the period beginning from force initiation to the first reversal in force was designated the open-loop phase, and the remainder of the response was the closed-loop phase. Results Compared to controls, alcohol-exposed children produced a significantly shorter duration of open-loop control, a higher open-loop phase rate of force development, a shorter time to reach maximum force during the closed-loop phase and greater absolute target force error. Increasing target force magnitude did not differentially alter the performance of the clinical group. Conclusions The results indicate that alcohol-exposed children experience deficits in completing goal-directed force responses that likely stem from an alcohol related insult to the CNS. Therapeutic exercises should be designed to re-calibrate internal timing systems and improve visuomotor integration. PMID:26248225

  14. Functional significance of subjective response to alcohol across levels of alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Bujarski, Spencer; Hutchison, Kent E; Prause, Nicole; Ray, Lara A

    2017-01-01

    Pre-clinical neurobiological models of addiction etiology including both the allostatic model and incentive sensitization theory suggest that alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals will be dissociated from hedonic reward as positive reinforcement mechanisms wane in later stage dependence. The aims of this study are to test this claim in humans by examining the relationship between dimensions of subjective responses to alcohol (SR) and alcohol craving across levels of alcohol exposure. Non-treatment-seeking drinkers (n = 205) completed an i.v. alcohol challenge (final target breath alcohol concentration = 0.06 g/dl) and reported on SR and craving. Participants were classified as light-to-moderate drinkers (LMD), heavy drinkers (HD) or AD. Analyses examined group differences in SR and craving response magnitude, as well as concurrent and predictive associations between SR domains and craving. At baseline, LMD and AD reported greater stimulation than HD, which carried over post-alcohol administration. However, stimulation was dose-dependently associated with alcohol craving in HD only. Furthermore, lagged models found that stimulation preceded craving among HD only, whereas this hypothesized pattern of results was not observed for craving preceding stimulation. Sedation was also positively associated with craving, yet no group differences were observed. In agreement with the prediction of diminished positive reinforcement in alcohol dependence, this study showed that stimulation/hedonic reward from alcohol did not precede craving in AD, whereas stimulation was dose-dependently associated with and preceded craving among non-dependent HD.

  15. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress.

    PubMed

    Uban, Kristina A; Comeau, Wendy L; Ellis, Linda A; Galea, Liisa A M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-10-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine (DA) systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic DA activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and DA systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and DA systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24h following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared to CVS-exposed control

  16. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy; Ellis, Linda A.; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic dopamine activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and dopamine (DA) systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and dopamine systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24 hours following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared

  17. Low-level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: Language development

    SciTech Connect

    Ernhart, C.B.; Greene, T. )

    1990-11-01

    Inconsistent results continue to be reported from studies linking low-level lead exposure and child development. This inconsistency is seen for both prenatal exposure and exposure in the preschool years. The primary outcome measures in most reports are indices of cognitive development, including IQ. Verbal skills may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. The fact that 2 y of age is both a time of peak exposure and also a time of rapid language development suggests that this may be a critical period for such an effect. The later prenatal and early infancy period, at which time the nervous system is developing rapidly, may also be critical exposure period. We examined the relationship of maternal and cord blood lead (PbB) at birth and venous PbB at 6 mo, 2 y, and 3 y with language measures at 1, 2, and 3 y of age. The sample consisted of disadvantaged urban children. Multivariate analyses revealed no statistically significant relationship of either prenatal PbB or early preschool PbB with language measures after control of cofactors. Supplementary partial correlations revealed a marginal relationship of cord PbB and mean length of utterance (MLU), which describes a child's ability to form meaningful word combinations. Because this analysis was one of a large number of analyses with both positive and negative regression coefficients, the possibility that this was a chance effect was considered. If there is an effect of low-level lead exposure on language development, that effect is not robust.

  18. [Prenatal care at the first level of care: characteristics of providers that affect users' satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Bronfman-Pertzovsky, Mario Norberto; López-Moreno, Sergio; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Moreno-Altamirano, Alejandra; Rutstein, Shea

    2003-01-01

    To assess the satisfaction level attained by prenatal care users in primary health services in Mexico, and to compare the level of satisfaction according to characteristics of the provider and the service. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze data from 217 care provider-user pairs. Interviews were carried out in 95 primary care units in eight Mexican states. The information was collected through a) direct observation of the medical encounter, b) interviews with providers and users, and c) a questionnaire and knowledge examination to providers. Users' satisfaction was analyzed according to providers' clinical ability and the treatment received during the visit. Summary and dispersion measures of the main issues were calculated, as well as bivariate and trends analysis. User satisfaction in prenatal care is associated with the treatment received during the visit and to the waiting time before being attended, but not with the provider's clinical ability, nor with his or her age or gender. The treatment received during the visit was also associated with the user's socioeconomic level, where the poorer users received the worst treatment. Health services should assess users' satisfaction according with the type of medical encounter, particularly where resources are scarce and where economic disparities are present. In such cases, the provision of healthcare services may intensify inequality, with greater impact on the poorest. The English version of this paper is available at:http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.

  19. Graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A population-based study in remote Australia.

    PubMed

    Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jirikowic, Tracy; Tsang, Tracey W; Watkins, Rochelle E; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, Jane; Fitzpatrick, James P; Oscar, June; Carter, Maureen; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2017-02-01

    Few studies have examined graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Graphomotor skills were assessed in 108 predominantly Australian Aboriginal children aged 7.5-9.6 years in remote Western Australia using clinical observations (pencil grasp; writing pressure) and standardised assessment tools (the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting; and the Miller Function and Participation Scales - The Draw-a-Kid Game). Skills were compared between children (i) without PAE, (ii) PAE but not FASD and (iii) FASD. Most children used a transitional pencil grasp and exerted heavy handwriting pressure (83.3% and 30.6% of the cohort). The percentage of letters (M = 62.9%) and words (M = 73.3%) written legibly was low. Children with FASD were more likely than children without PAE to use a cross-thumb grasp (P = 0.027), apply heavy writing pressure (P = 0.036), be unable to write a sentence (P = 0.041) and show poorer word legibility (P = 0.041). There were no significant differences between groups for drawing outcomes, although some children with FASD drew pictures that appeared delayed for their age. There were no significant differences between children without PAE and those with PAE but who were not diagnosed with FASD. Overall, graphomotor skills were poor in this cohort, but children with FASD performed significantly worse than children without PAE. Findings suggest the need for improved occupational therapy services for children in remote regions and evaluation of graphomotor skills in children with PAE. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  20. Long-term genomic and epigenomic dysregulation as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure: a model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kleiber, Morgan L.; Diehl, Eric J.; Laufer, Benjamin I.; Mantha, Katarzyna; Chokroborty-Hoque, Aniruddho; Alberry, Bonnie; Singh, Shiva M.

    2014-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a range of behavioral and cognitive impairments, categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). These disorders are pervasive in Western cultures and represent the most common preventable source of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The genetic and epigenetic etiology of these phenotypes, including those factors that may maintain these phenotypes throughout the lifetime of an affected individual, has become a recent topic of investigation. This review integrates recent data that has progressed our understanding FASD as a continuum of molecular events, beginning with cellular stress response and ending with a long-term “footprint” of epigenetic dysregulation across the genome. It reports on data from multiple ethanol-treatment paradigms in mouse models that identify changes in gene expression that occur with respect to neurodevelopmental timing of exposure and ethanol dose. These studies have identified patterns of genomic alteration that are dependent on the biological processes occurring at the time of ethanol exposure. This review also adds to evidence that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA regulation may underlie long-term changes to gene expression patterns. These may be initiated by ethanol-induced alterations to DNA and histone methylation, particularly in imprinted regions of the genome, affecting transcription which is further fine-tuned by altered microRNA expression. These processes are likely complex, genome-wide, and interrelated. The proposed model suggests a potential for intervention, given that epigenetic changes are malleable and may be altered by postnatal environment. This review accentuates the value of mouse models in deciphering the molecular etiology of FASD, including those processes that may provide a target for the ammelioration of this common yet entirely preventable disorder. PMID:24917881

  1. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Junior High Level. Volume II, A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual on Alcohol and Alcohol Safety is designed as a teacher's guide for junior high level students. The topics it covers are: (1) safety; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and reasons people drink; (3) physical and behavioral effects; (4) interpersonal situations; (5) laws and customs; and (6) problem drinking and alcoholism. Each…

  2. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety: A Curriculum Manual for Senior High Level. Volume II, A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual on Alcohol and Alcohol Safety is designed as a teacher's guide for senior high level students. The topics it covers are: (1) safety; (2) attitudes toward alcohol and reasons people drink; (3) physical and behavioral effects; (4) alcohol industry; (5) interpersonal situations; (6) laws and customs; and (7) problem drinking…

  3. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the development of white matter volume and change in executive function.

    PubMed

    Gautam, P; Nuñez, S C; Narr, K L; Kan, E C; Sowell, E R

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a wide range of deficits in executive function that persist throughout life, but little is known about how changes in brain structure relate to cognition in affected individuals. In the current study, we predicted that the rate of white matter volumetric development would be atypical in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) when compared to typically developing children, and that the rate of change in cognitive function would relate to differential white matter development between groups. Data were available for 103 subjects [49 with FASD, 54 controls, age range 6-17, mean age = 11.83] with 153 total observations. Groups were age-matched. Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and an executive function (EF) battery. Using white matter volumes measured bilaterally for frontal and parietal regions and the corpus callosum, change was predicted by modeling the effects of age, intracranial volume, sex, and interactions with exposure status and EF measures. While both groups showed regional increases in white matter volumes and improvement in cognitive performance over time, there were significant effects of exposure status on age-related relationships between white matter increases and EF measures. Specifically, individuals with FASD consistently showed a positive relationship between improved cognitive function and increased white matter volume over time, while no such relationships were seen in controls. These novel results relating improved cognitive function with increased white matter volume in FASD suggest that better cognitive outcomes could be possible for FASD subjects through interventions that enhance white matter plasticity.

  4. Amphetamine sensitization and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress: impact of prenatal alcohol exposure in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606

  5. Association Between Alcohol Intoxication and Alcohol-Related Problems: An Event-level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Dan J.; Carey, Kate B.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy drinking students experience a myriad of alcohol-related negative consequences. Use of event-level data permits predictions to be made regarding (a) the likelihood of alcohol-related consequences occurring after specific drinking events, and (b) moderators of the association between intoxication and consequences. College students (N = 183, 64% female) completed four consecutive 7-day drinking diaries and turned them in weekly. The diaries yielded prospective event-level data on daily drinks, time spent drinking, and negative consequences related to each drinking event. Alcohol intoxication on a given day was significantly associated with increased levels of risk, although this association was moderated by average level of intoxication. Furthermore, self-control was associated with increased likelihood of negative consequences at all levels of intoxication, and self-regulation and impulsivity moderated the event-level association between daily intoxication and likelihood of negative consequences. Results suggest that self-regulation subsumes impulsivity and self-control. PMID:17563139

  6. Prenatal and Childhood Growth, and Hospitalization for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adulthood: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Jari; Lahti, Marius; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Forsén, Tom; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G.; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-01-01

    Background Small birth size - an indicator of a sub-optimal prenatal environment - and variation in growth after birth have been associated with non-communicable diseases in later life. We tested whether birth size or growth in childhood associated with the risk of hospital admission for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) from early to late adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 6544 men and 6050 women born between 1934 and 1944 in Helsinki, Finland. Data on anthropometric measures were extracted from medical records and diagnoses of AUD from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register and Causes of Death Register covering a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. Results Altogether 171 women (2.8%) and 657 men (10.0%) were diagnosed at a hospital with AUD. After adjusting for major confounders, shorter length at birth, shorter height up to two years of age, and lower weight at two years associated with hospitalization for AUD in women. In men, slower growth in height, particularly from 2 to 7 years, and slower weight gain from 7 to 11 years as well as shorter height and lower weight at 7 and 11 years associated with a diagnosis of AUD in men. Conclusions Pre- and postnatal growth associates with the risk for AUD later in life differently in women than in men: the fetal period and infancy seem to be the sensitive periods for women, whereas those for men the occur from toddlerhood onwards. PMID:24489908

  7. Effect of low-level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of low-dose prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and neurobehavioral development, and whether alterations would manifest at dosages lower than those which produce anatomic malformations from exposure at the most sensitive period of organogenesis. Ninety-eight Wistar strain rats were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 Gy X-radiation of were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. A conventional teratologic evaluation was completed on half of the animals (572 fetuses). The age of appearance of four physiologic markers and of acquisition of six reflexes was observed in 372 offspring. Exposure during early organogenesis at these levels had no effect on any of these parameters. Prenatal exposure to X-radiation on the 17th day of gestation at dosage levels greater than 0.1 Gy resulted in alterations in the appearance of three postnatal neurophysiologic parameters. Growth retardation throughout the postpartum period also was observed in the offspring. The induction of developmental and reflex alterations had a comparable threshold to the known threshold for anatomic malformations on the 9th day. These results indicate that all of the parameters studied had thresholds either at or above 0.2 Gy acute radiation, and that the postpartum developmental and reflex acquisition measures were not more sensitive indicators of exposure to X-radiation than growth parameters.

  8. Intrauterine metabolic programming alteration increased susceptibility to non-alcoholic adult fatty liver disease in prenatal caffeine-exposed rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlong; Shen, Lang; Ping, Jie; Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhongfen; Wu, Yong; Liu, Yansong; Huang, Hegui; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-30

    An increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndromes (MetS) in rat offspring that experienced prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) has been previously demonstrated. The present study aimed to clarify this increased susceptibility and elucidate the mechanism of foetal origin that causes or contributes to adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a result of PCE. Based on the results from both foetal and adult studies of rats that experienced PCE (120 mg/kgd), the foetal weight and serum triglyceride levels decreased significantly and hepatocellular ultrastructure was altered. Foetal livers exhibited inhibited insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), enhanced lipogenesis and reduced lipid output. In adult female offspring of PCE+lab chow, lipid synthesis, oxidation and output were enhanced, whereas lipogenesis was inhibited in their male conterparters. Furthermore, in adult offspring of PCE+ high-fat diet, catch-up growth appeared obvious with enhanced hepatic IGF-1, especially in females. Both males and females showed increased lipid synthesis and reduced output, which were accompanied by elevated serum triglyceride. Severe NAFLD appeared with higher Kleiner scores. Gluconeogenesis was continuously enhanced in females. Therefore, increased susceptibility to diet-induced NAFLD in PCE offspring was confirmed, and it appears to be mediated by intrauterine glucose and alterations in lipid metabolic programming. This altered programming enhanced foetal hepatic lipogenesis and reduced lipid output in utero, which continued into the postnatal phase and reappeared in adulthood with the introduction of a high-fat diet, thereby aggravating hepatic lipid accumulation and causing NAFLD.

  9. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: cord blood levels and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Vioque, Jesus; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guxens, Mònica; Casas, Maribel; Murcia, Mario; Ruiz, María; Amurrio, Ascensión; Rebagliato, Marisa; Marina, Loreto Santa; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardon, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2μg/dL). A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06μg/dL and 19μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2μg/dL. In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  11. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  12. Prenatal and neonatal peripheral blood mercury levels and autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yau, Vincent M; Green, Peter G; Alaimo, Christopher P; Yoshida, Cathleen K; Lutsky, Marta; Windham, Gayle C; Delorenze, Gerald; Kharrazi, Martin; Grether, Judith K; Croen, Lisa A

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal and early-life exposures to mercury have been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study investigated the association between ASDs and levels of total mercury measured in maternal serum from mid-pregnancy and infant blood shortly after birth. The study sample was drawn from the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Study. Three groups of children who were born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: children with ASD (n=84), children with intellectual disability or developmental delay (DD) (n=49), and general population controls (GP) (n=159). Maternal serum specimens and newborn bloodspots were retrieved from the California Department of Public Health prenatal and newborn screening specimen archives. Blood mercury levels were measured in maternal serum samples using mass spectrometer and in infant bloodspots with a 213 nm laser. Maternal serum and infant blood mercury levels were significantly correlated among all study groups (all correlations >0.38, p<0.01). Adjusted logistic regression models showed no significant associations between ASD and log transformed mercury levels in maternal serum samples (ASD vs. GP: OR [95% CI]=0.96 [0.49-1.90]; ASD vs. DD: OR [95% CI]=2.56 [0.89-7.39]). Results for mercury levels in newborn blood samples were similar (ASD vs. GP: OR [95% CI]=1.18 [0.71-1.95]; ASD vs. DD: OR [95% CI]=1.96 [0.75-5.14]). Results indicate that levels of total mercury in serum collected from mothers during mid-pregnancy and from newborn bloodspots were not significantly associated with risk of ASD, though additional studies with greater sample size and covariate measurement are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal and postnatal energetic conditions and sex steroids levels across the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amanda L; Lampl, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Human biologists have documented variability in reproductive maturation, fertility, and cancer risk related to developmental conditions. Yet no previous studies have directly examined the impact of prenatal and postnatal energetic environments on sex steroids in infancy, a critical period for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis development. Thus, we examined the impact of maternal characteristics, birth size, and feeding practices on fecal sex steroid production in a longitudinal sample of 31 American infants followed from 2 weeks to 12 months of age. Maternal characteristics and birth size were collected at study enrollment, infant diet was assessed through weekly 24-h food diaries, and anthropometrics were measured weekly. Fecal estradiol and testosterone levels were assessed weekly using validated microassay RIA techniques. Mixed models were used to test for associations between maternal and birth characteristics, feeding practices, and sex steroids across the first year of life. Formal mediation analysis examined whether the relationship between infant feeding and hormone levels was mediated by infant size. Maternal and birth characteristics had persistent effects on fecal sex steroid levels, with taller maternal height and larger birth size associated with lower estradiol levels in girls and higher testosterone levels in boys. Infant diet was also associated with sex steroid levels independently of infant size. Formula feeding was associated with higher estradiol levels in boys and girls and with higher testosterone in girls. These results suggest that markers of early energy availability influence sex hormone levels with potential long-term consequences for reproductive development and function. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Influence of low level maternal Pb exposure and prenatal stress on offspring stress challenge responsivity.

    PubMed

    Virgolini, M B; Rossi-George, A; Weston, D; Cory-Slechta, D A

    2008-11-01

    We previously demonstrated potentiated effects of maternal Pb exposure producing blood Pb(PbB) levels averaging 39microg/dl combined with prenatal restraint stress (PS) on stress challenge responsivity of female offspring as adults. The present study sought to determine if: (1) such interactions occurred at lower PbBs, (2) exhibited gender specificity, and (3) corticosterone and neurochemical changes contributed to behavioral outcomes. Rat dams were exposed to 0, 50 or 150ppm Pb acetate drinking water solutions from 2 mos prior to breeding through lactation (pup exposure ended at weaning; mean PbBs of dams at weaning were <1, 11 and 31microg/dl, respectively); a subset in each Pb group underwent prenatal restraint stress (PS) on gestational days 16-17. The effects of variable intermittent stress challenge (restraint, cold, novelty) on Fixed Interval (FI) schedule controlled behavior and corticosterone were examined in offspring when they were adults. Corticosterone changes were also measured in non-behaviorally tested (NFI) littermates. PS alone was associated with FI rate suppression in females and FI rate enhancement in males; Pb exposure blunted these effects in both genders, particularly following restraint stress. PS alone produced modest corticosterone elevation following restraint stress in adult females, but robust enhancements in males following all challenges. Pb exposure blunted these corticosterone changes in females, but further enhanced levels in males. Pb-associated changes showed linear concentration dependence in females, but non-linearity in males, with stronger or selective changes at 50ppm. Statistically, FI performance was associated with corticosterone changes in females, but with frontal cortical dopaminergic and serotonergic changes in males. Corticosterone changes differed markedly in FI vs. NFI groups in both genders, demonstrating a critical role for behavioral history and raising caution about extrapolating biochemical markers across

  16. Volume changes and brain-behavior relationships in white matter and subcortical gray matter in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Prapti; Lebel, Catherine; Narr, Katherine L; Mattson, Sarah N; May, Philip A; Adnams, Colleen M; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Kan, Eric C; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may have cognitive, behavioral and brain abnormalities. Here, we compare rates of white matter and subcortical gray matter volume change in PAE and control children, and examine relationships between annual volume change and arithmetic ability, behavior, and executive function. Participants (n = 75 PAE/64 control; age: 7.1-15.9 years) each received two structural magnetic resonance scans, ~2 years apart. Assessments included Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), the Child Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Subcortical white and gray volumes were extracted for each hemisphere. Group volume differences were tested using false discovery rate (q < 0.05). Analyses examined group-by-age interactions and group-score interactions for correlations between change in volume and raw behavioral scores. Results showed that subjects with PAE had smaller volumes than control subjects across the brain. Significant group-score interactions were found in temporal and parietal regions for WISC arithmetic scores and in frontal and parietal regions for behavioral measures. Poorer cognitive/ behavioral outcomes were associated with larger volume increases in PAE, while control subjects generally showed no significant correlations. In contrast with previous results demonstrating different trajectories of cortical volume change in PAE, our results show similar rates of subcortical volume growth in subjects with PAE and control subjects. We also demonstrate abnormal brain-behavior relationships in subjects with PAE, suggesting different use of brain resources. Our results are encouraging in that, due to the stable volume differences, there may be an extended window of opportunity for intervention in children with PAE.

  17. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  18. Prenatal urinary phthalate metabolites levels and neurodevelopment in children at two and three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Cantoral, Alejandra; Cantonwine, David E.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Peterson, Karen; Hu, Howard; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that prenatal phthalate exposure affects neurodevelopment and behavior during the first years of life. Objectives To evaluate the effect of maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites during pregnancy on mental and psychomotor development in children 24-36 months of age. Methods This analysis was conducted on the first three years of life among a subsample of 136 mother-child pairs from the ELEMENT cohort studies conducted in Mexico City. Maternal urine samples collected during the third trimester of pregnancy were analyzed for 9 phthalate metabolites: Mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), Mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), Mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), and four di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites [mono-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP)]. Among the 136 children, 135 (99.3%) completed the study period. Child neurodevelopment was assessed using mental and psychomotor development indexes (MDI and PDI) from a Bayley (BSID II) test at 24, 30, and 36 months of age. The effect of prenatal phthalate exposure on neurodevelopment was estimated using linear regression models for longitudinal data clustered at the individual level. Results No significant associations were observed among all children combined, but differential effects by gender were found. Among girls, there was a negative association between MDI and DEHP metabolites MEHP (β = −2.11 [95% CI: −3.73, −0.49]), MEHHP (β = −1.89 [95% CI: −3.64, −0.15]), MEOHP (β = −1.80 [95% CI: −3.58, −0.03]) MECPP (β = −2.52 [95% CI: −4.44, −0.61]), and DEHP (β = −3.41 [95% CI: −5.26, −1.55]); there was no significant effect among boys. Male PDI was positively related to MBzP (β = 1.79 [95% CI: 0.14, 3.45]) and MCPP (β = 1.64 [95% CI: 0

  19. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Falgreen Eriksen, H-L; Mortensen, E L; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, U S

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Prospective follow-up study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child's age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. The WPPSI-R. No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2-18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4-24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  1. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  2. Prenatal malnutrition and lead intake produce increased brain lipid peroxidation levels in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Cedillo, Brenda Gabriela; Díaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Montes, Sergio; Galván-Arzate, Sonia; Ríos, Camilo; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Díaz-Cintra, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead intoxication (Pb) have adverse effects on neuronal development; one of the cellular mechanisms involved is a disruption of the pro- and anti-oxidant balance. In the developing brain, the vulnerability of neuronal membrane phospholipids is variable across the different brain areas. This study assesses the susceptibility of different brain regions to damage by quitar tissue oxidative stress and lead quitar concentrations to determine whether the combined effect of prenatal malnutrition (M) and lead (Pb) intoxication is worse than the effect of either of them individually. M was induced with an isocaloric and hypoproteinic (6% casein) diet 4 weeks before pregnancy. Intoxication was produced with lead acetate in drinking water, from the first gestational day. Both the M and Pb models were continued until the day of birth. Four brain regions (hippocampus, cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) were dissected out to analyze the lipid peroxidation (LP) levels in four groups: normally nourished (C); normally nourished but intoxicated with lead (CPb); malnourished (M); and M intoxicated with lead (MPb). Dam body and brain weights were significantly reduced in the fourth gestational week in the MPb group. Their pups had significantly lower body weights than those in the C and CPb groups. The PbM group exhibited significant increases of lead concentration and LP in all areas evaluated. A potentiation effect of Pb and M on LP was found in the cerebellum. This study provides information on how environmental conditions (intoxication and malnutrition) during the intrauterine period could differentially affect the development of neuronal plasticity and, in consequence, alter adult brain functions such as learning and memory.

  3. Prenatal and postnatal manganese teeth levels and neurodevelopment at 7, 9, and 10.5 years in the CHAMACOS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana M.; Arora, Manish; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Parra, Kimberly; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Gunier, Robert B.; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Donald R.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies of school-age children have observed that exposure to manganese (Mn) adversely affects neurodevelopment. However, few prospective studies have looked at the effects of both prenatal and postnatal Mn exposure on child neurodevelopment. Methods We measured Mn levels in prenatal and early postnatal dentine of shed teeth and examined their association with behavior, cognition, memory, and motor functioning in 248 children aged 7, 9, and/or 10.5 years living near agricultural fields treated with Mn-containing fungicides in California. We used generalized linear models and generalized additive models to test for linear and nonlinear associations, and generalized estimating equation models to assess longitudinal effects. Results We observed that higher prenatal and early postnatal Mn levels in dentine of deciduous teeth were adversely associated with behavioral outcomes, namely internalizing, externalizing, and hyperactivity problems, in boys and girls at 7 and 10.5 years. In contrast, higher Mn levels in prenatal and postnatal dentine were associated with better memory abilities at ages 9 and 10.5, and better cognitive and motor outcomes at ages 7 and 10.5 years, among boys only. Higher prenatal dentine Mn levels were also associated with poorer visuospatial memory outcomes at 9 years and worse cognitive scores at 7 and 10.5 years in children with higher prenatal lead levels (≥0.8 μg/dL). All these associations were linear and were consistent with findings from longitudinal analyses. Conclusions We observed that higher prenatal and early postnatal Mn levels measured in dentine of deciduous teeth, a novel biomarker that provides reliable information on the developmental timing of exposures to Mn, were associated with poorer behavioral outcomes in school-age boys and girls and better motor function, memory, and/or cognitive abilities in school-age boys. Additional research is needed to understand the inconsistencies in the

  4. Evaluation of a Multilevel and Integrated Program to Raise Awareness of the Harmful Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in a Local Community.

    PubMed

    Bazzo, Stefania; Battistella, Giuseppe; Riscica, Patrizia; Moino, Giuliana; Marini, Francesco; Bottarel, Mery; Dal Pozzo, Giuseppe; Padovan, Mara

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate a multilevel program to raise awareness of the risks of prenatal exposure to alcohol in the area of Treviso (Italy). The program started in 2008 and consists of an action-research experience involving health professionals of maternal-child services, and in the campaign 'Mamma Beve Bimbo Beve', targeted to the childbearing-aged population. A comparative study was carried out in 2013. Surveys using semi-structured self-report questionnaires were carried out among professionals and pregnant women in Treviso, and among control groups belonging to another local area of Italy (Verona). The questionnaires investigated awareness and opinions about alcohol and pregnancy, as well as sources and kind of information provided and received. Health professionals in Treviso, who had been exposed both to the action-research experience and to the campaign, showed a more rational approach to alcohol than colleagues in the control group, and were more aware and sensitized about the risks of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Physicians and midwives had a higher probability of having advised pregnant women to abstain from alcohol in Treviso. Pregnant women in Treviso, who had received information through the campaign and from professionals, had a higher probability of having received only correct advice about the issue of alcohol and pregnancy, but did not hold perceptions different to women in Verona. The multilevel program carried out in the Treviso area was effective in increasing awareness and improving attitudes towards the risks of alcohol use during pregnancy among local healthcare professionals, compared with the control group. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors in the explanation of social inequalities in low birth weight in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Pfinder, Manuela

    2014-01-08

    There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  6. Beer promotes high levels of alcohol intake in adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Garth A; Wang, Emyo Y J; Lawrence, Andrew J; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that high levels of alcohol consumption can be obtained in laboratory rats by using beer as a test solution. The present study extended these observations to examine the intake of beer and equivalent dilute ethanol solutions with an inbred line of alcohol-preferring P rats. In Experiment 1, male adolescent P rats and age-matched Wistar rats had access to either beer or equivalent ethanol solutions for 1h daily in a custom-built lickometer apparatus. In subsequent experiments, adolescent (Experiment 2) and adult (Experiment 3) male P rats were given continuous 24-h home cage access to beer or dilute ethanol solutions, with concomitant access to lab chow and water. In each experiment, the alcohol content of the beer and dilute ethanol solutions was gradually increased from 0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, 4.4, 5 to 10% EtOH (vol/vol). All three experiments showed a major augmentation of alcohol intake when rats were given beer compared with equivalent ethanol solutions. In Experiment 1, the overall intake of beer was higher in P rats compared with Wistar rats, but no strain difference was found during the 1-h sessions with plain ethanol consumption. Experiment 1 also showed that an alcohol deprivation effect was more readily obtained in rats with a history of consuming beer rather than plain ethanol solutions. In Experiments 2 and 3, voluntary beer intake in P rats represented ethanol intake of 10-15 g/kg/day, among the highest reported in any study with rats. This excessive consumption was most apparent in adolescent rats. Beer consumption markedly exceeded plain ethanol intake in these experiments except at the highest alcohol concentration (10%) tested. The advantage of using beer rather than dilute ethanol solutions in both selected and nonselected rat strains is therefore confirmed. Our findings encourage the use of beer with alcohol-preferring rats in future research that seeks to obtain high levels of alcohol self-administration.

  7. Prenatal binge-like alcohol exposure alters brain and systemic responses to reach sodium and water balance.

    PubMed

    Godino, A; Abate, P; Amigone, J L; Vivas, L; Molina, J C

    2015-12-17

    The aim of the present work is to analyze how prenatal binge-like ethanol exposure to a moderate dose (2.0 g/kg; group Pre-EtOH) during gestational days (GD) 17-20 affects hydroelectrolyte regulatory responses. This type of exposure has been observed to increase ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal day 30-32). In this study we analyzed basal brain neural activity and basal-induced sodium appetite (SA) and renal response stimulated by sodium depletion (SD) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption as a function of vehicle or ethanol during late pregnancy. In adolescent offspring, SD was induced by furosemide and a low-sodium diet treatment (FURO+LSD). Other animals were analyzed in terms of immunohistochemical detection of Fra-like (Fra-LI-ir) protein and serotonin (5HT) and/or vasopressin (AVP). The Pre-EtOH group exhibited heightened voluntary ethanol intake and a reduction in sodium and water intake induced by SD relative to controls. Basal Na and K concentrations in urine were also reduced in Pre-EtOH animals while the induced renal response after FURO treatment was similar across prenatal treatments. However, the correlation between urine volume and water intake induced by FURO significantly varied across these treatments. At the brain level of analysis, the number of basal Fra-LI-ir was significantly increased in AVP magnocellular neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and in 5HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in Pre-EtOH pups. In the experimental group, we also observed a significant increase in Fra-LI along the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in the central extended amygdala nuclei. In summary, moderate Pre-EtOH exposure produces long-lasting changes in brain organization, affecting basal activity of central extended amygdala nuclei, AVP neurons and the inhibitory areas of SA such as the NTS and the 5HT-DRN. These changes possibly modulate the above described variations in basal-induced drinking behaviors and renal

  8. Prenatal exposure to pesticides disrupts testicular histoarchitecture and alters testosterone levels in male Caiman latirostris.

    PubMed

    Rey, Florencia; González, Marianela; Zayas, Marcelo A; Stoker, Cora; Durando, Milena; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2009-07-01

    The increased use of agrochemical pesticides, such as atrazine (ATZ) and endosulfan (END), may have a significant impact on ecosystem health and biodiversity. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of in ovum exposure to ATZ and END on Caiman latirostris gonadal histo-functional features. Caiman eggs were collected from environmentally pristine areas and incubated in controlled conditions at male producing temperature (33 degrees C). At stage 20 of embryonic development, the sensitive stage for gonadal sex determination, eggs were exposed to one dose of either END or ATZ. Gonadal histo-morphology was examined in caiman hatchlings and serum levels of testosterone were measured. Regardless of treatment condition, all eggs incubated at 33 degrees C resulted in male hatchlings. Tortuous seminiferous tubules with increased perimeter, disrupted distribution of peritubular myoid cells (desmin positive), and emptied tubular lumens characterized the testes of pesticide-exposed caiman. An imbalance between proliferative activity and cell death was observed in the testes of caiman exposed to the higher doses of END, mainly due to a high frequency of apoptosis in intratubular cells. This altered cell turnover was associated with decreased testosterone levels. Prenatal exposure to only one dose of END and ATZ disrupted neonatal male gonadal histo-functional features. Alterations described here could have detrimental effects on the sexual maturation of the caiman and, ultimately, on the success of male caiman reproduction.

  9. Commentary: how individual and profession-level factors influence discussion of disability in prenatal genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jan; Weil, Jon

    2012-02-01

    Hodgson and Weil (Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2011) reports on two interactive workshops in which genetic counselors identified a broad set of counseling issues that may be impediments to promoting an adequate discussion of disability in prenatal genetic counseling. The present commentary discusses two factors that we infer underlie these counseling issues. First, countertransference concerning disability, which is normal and expected, may influence genetic counselors' decisions about raising and exploring the complex topic of disability in prenatal genetic counseling. Second, the limited involvement of the profession of genetic counseling in the complex social and ethical issues of disability provide little guidance to the individual genetic counselor with respect to discussing disability in prenatal diagnosis counseling. We suggest both factors must be acknowledged and addressed in order to adequately implement the recommendations presented in Hodgson and Weil (Journal of Genetic Counseling, 2011) as well as other efforts to increase discussion of disability in prenatal diagnosis counseling in the service of informed decision making.

  10. A systematic review of the influence on alcohol use of community level availability and marketing of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Anna; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin; Petticrew, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to a high number of alcohol outlets and adverts within a community may lead to higher alcohol use by local residents. The aim of this systematic review was to explore evidence on the influence on alcohol use of community level availability and marketing of alcohol. 26 studies met the eligibility criteria. While the findings were not conclusive, there was some indication that higher outlet density and greater exposure to advertising in a local community may be associated with an increase in alcohol use, particularly among adolescents. This review disentangled the existing evidence on the overall relationships between availability, marketing and alcohol use at a community level. Further studies are required to better understand the influence of these factors on alcohol use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Meng; Luo, Han-Wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-Xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-Guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-11-15

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30-120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8-20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta.

  12. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in North Carolina: assessing arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead levels in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Alison P; Flood, Kaye; Chiang, Shu; Herring, Amy H; Wolf, Leslie; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals during the prenatal period carries the potential for adverse developmental effects to the fetus, yet such exposure remains largely unmonitored in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess maternal exposure to four toxic metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) in a cohort of pregnant women in North Carolina. We analyzed blood samples submitted to the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services for blood typing to assess toxic metal levels in pregnant women (n = 211) across six North Carolina counties. Whole blood metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The association between maternal characteristics, including county of residence, age, and race, and metal exposure was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. A large fraction of the blood samples showed detectable levels for each of the four metals. Specifically, As (65.7%), Cd (57.3%), Hg (63.8%), and Pb (100%) were detected in blood samples. Moreover, compared with adult females participating in the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and guidelines for pregnant women, some women in the sample population exceeded benchmark levels of Cd, Hg, and Pb. Evidence from this pilot study indicates that pregnant women in North Carolina are exposed to As, Cd, Hg, and Pb and suggests that factors related to maternal county of residence and race may impact maternal exposure levels. As increased levels of one or more of these metals in utero have been associated with detrimental developmental and reproductive outcomes, further study is clearly warranted to establish the impacts to newborns.

  13. Towards Prenatal Biomonitoring in North Carolina: Assessing Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury, and Lead Levels in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Alison P.; Flood, Kaye; Chiang, Shu; Herring, Amy H.; Wolf, Leslie; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals during the prenatal period carries the potential for adverse developmental effects to the fetus, yet such exposure remains largely unmonitored in the United States. The aim of this study was to assess maternal exposure to four toxic metals (arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb)) in a cohort of pregnant women in North Carolina. We analyzed blood samples submitted to the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services for blood typing to assess toxic metal levels in pregnant women (n = 211) across six North Carolina counties. Whole blood metal concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The association between maternal characteristics, including county of residence, age, and race, and metal exposure was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. A large fraction of the blood samples showed detectable levels for each of the four metals. Specifically, As (65.7%), Cd (57.3%), Hg (63.8%), and Pb (100%) were detected in blood samples. Moreover, compared with adult females participating in the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals and guidelines for pregnant women, some women in the sample population exceeded benchmark levels of Cd, Hg, and Pb. Evidence from this pilot study indicates that pregnant women in North Carolina are exposed to As, Cd, Hg, and Pb and suggests that factors related to maternal county of residence and race may impact maternal exposure levels. As increased levels of one or more of these metals in utero have been associated with detrimental developmental and reproductive outcomes, further study is clearly warranted to establish the impacts to newborns. PMID:22427803

  14. Impairments in hippocampal synaptic plasticity following prenatal ethanol exposure are dependent on glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Patten, Anna R; Brocardo, Patricia S; Sakiyama, Claire; Wortman, Ryan C; Noonan, Athena; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes a significant deficit in synaptic plasticity, namely long-term potentiation (LTP), in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus of male rats. PNEE has also been shown to induce an increase in oxidative stress and a reduction in antioxidant capacity in the brains of both male and female animals. In this study the interaction between LTP and the major antioxidant in the brain, glutathione (GSH), is examined. We show that depletion of the intracellular reserves of GSH with diethyl maleate (DEM) reduces LTP in control male, but not female animals, mirroring the effects of PNEE. Furthermore, treatment of PNEE animals with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a cysteine donor for the synthesis of GSH, increases GSH levels in the hippocampus and completely restores the deficits in LTP in PNEE males. These results indicate that in males GSH plays a major role in regulating LTP, and that PNEE may cause reductions in LTP by reducing the intracellular pool of this endogenous antioxidant.

  15. Inadequate prenatal care and elevated blood lead levels among children born in Providence, Rhode Island: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Greene, Anna; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether children born to mothers receiving inadequate prenatal care are at an increased risk for having an elevated blood lead level during early childhood. The authors conducted a population-based study of children born in Providence, Rhode Island, from 1997 to 2001 whose mothers had received adequate, intermediate, or inadequate prenatal care. The children's blood lead levels were compared between groups using bivariate and logistic regression. To understand the regulatory implications and public health impact of changing the definition of an elevated blood lead level, "elevated" was defined as 5 microg/dL, 10 microg/dL, and 15 microg/dL. Children born to mothers who received inadequate prenatal care were at an elevated risk for having an elevated blood lead level later in life. This relationship remained statistically significant for each definition of elevated blood lead level and after controlling for other socio-economic status measures and birthweight (at 5 microg/dL, odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.68, p = 0.006; at 10 microg/dL, OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.26, 2.24, p < 0.0004; at 15 microg/dL, OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.10, 3.04, p = 0.019) represent an opportune moment to identify expectant mothers living in lead-contaminated environments. Results suggest that conducting lead screening as a regular part of prenatal care provision could help identify women possibly experiencing ongoing lead exposure and help reduce or prevent exposures to their offspring.

  16. Effects of prenatal malnutrition on GABAA receptor alpha1, alpha3 and beta2 mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Janine L; Alexander, Mark J; Galler, Janina R; Farb, David H; Russek, Shelley J

    2003-09-15

    Exposure of pregnant rats to protein malnutrition throughout pregnancy alters the developing hippocampus, leading to increased inhibition and selective changes in hippocampal-mediated behaviors. Given that GABA mediates most inhibitory neurotransmission, we asked whether selective changes in the levels of GABA receptor subunit mRNAs might result. Quantitative RNase protection profiling of 12 GABAA and GABAB receptor subunit mRNAs show that alpha1 and beta2 decrease in the adult (P90) hippocampal formation of prenatally malnourished rats, while the levels of alpha3 are increased. Moreover, the distribution of alpha1, alpha3 and beta2 mRNAs remains unchanged in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subfields relative to dentate gyrus. The data suggest that prenatal malnutrition produces global changes of certain GABAA, but not GABAB, receptor mRNAs in the hippocampal formation.

  17. Crash Culpability and the Role of Driver Blood Alcohol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kufera, Joseph A.; Soderstrom, Carl A.; Dischinger, Patricia C.; Ho, Shiu M.; Shepard, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years ago the American Medical Association reported the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and crash causation. This study addresses culpability, age, gender and BAC in a population of drivers injured in motor vehicle crashes. Five years of hospital and crash data were linked, using probabilistic techniques. Trends in culpability were analyzed by BAC category. Given BAC level, the youngest and oldest drivers were more likely to have caused their crash. Women drivers had significantly higher odds of culpability at the highest BAC levels. Seatbelt use was also associated with culpability, perhaps as a marker for risk-taking among drinkers. PMID:16968631

  18. [Beta-endorphin and endogenous alcohol level of the blood in alcoholic patients].

    PubMed

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Iukhananov, R Iu; Kovalenko, A K

    1984-11-01

    Radioimmunoassay was used to measure the blood content of beta-endorphines in patients with chronic alcoholism. The concentration of endogenous ethanol in these patients was determined by gas chromatography. The blood concentration of beta-endorphines was found to be high in patients who showed atypical affective disorders off the period of abstinence. It is assumed that peripheral beta-endorphine is not linked with the development of the narcomanic syndrome proper but mirrors the pathogenetic mechanisms of psychopathological disorders. The levels of endogenous ethanol vary in alcoholics and healthy subjects within the same ranges. However, the percentage distribution indicates that in patients, they are shifted toward lower concentrations, which is likely to be conditioned by the induction of enzymatic systems that metabolize ethanol.

  19. Ghrelin system in alcohol-dependent subjects: role of plasma ghrelin levels in alcohol drinking and craving

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Cardone, Silvia; Nesci, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Malandrino, Noemi; Capristo, Esmeralda; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics. This investigation consisted of two studies. Study 1 was a 12-week study with alcohol-dependent subjects, where plasma ghrelin determinations were assessed four times (T0-T3) and related to alcohol intake and craving [Penn Alcohol Craving Score (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)]. Serum growth hormone (GH) levels and assessment of the nutritional/metabolic status were also performed. Study 2 was a pilot case-control study to assess ghrelin gene polymorphisms (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met) in alcohol-dependent individuals. Study 1 showed no significant differences in ghrelin levels in the whole sample, while there was a statistical difference for ghrelin between non-abstinent and abstinent subjects. Baseline ghrelin levels were significantly and positively correlated with the PACS score at T1 and with all craving scores both at T2 and T3 (PACS, OCDS, obsessive and compulsive OCDS subscores). In Study 2, although there was a higher frequency of the Leu72Met ghrelin gene polymorphism in alcohol-dependent individuals, the distribution between healthy controls and alcohol dependent individuals was not statistically significant. This investigation suggests that ghrelin is potentially able to affect alcohol-seeking behaviors, such as alcohol drinking and craving, representing a new potential neuropharmacological target for AD. PMID:21392177

  20. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    PubMed Central

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Madsbad, Sten; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Nielsen, Flemming; Andersen, Helle R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal POP exposures and increased BMI, waist circumference and change in BMI from 5 to 7 years of age, though only among girls with overweight mothers. Objectives In the same birth cohort, we investigated whether prenatal POP exposure was associated with serum concentrations of insulin and leptin among 5-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. Methods The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in maternal pregnancy serum and breast milk. Children were followed-up at the age of 5 years where a non-fasting blood sample was drawn; 520 children (273 boys and 247 girls) had adequate serum amounts available for biomarker analyses by Luminex® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age 5 while taking into account confounders. Results Girls with highest prenatal POP exposure were more likely to have high non-fasting insulin levels (PCBs 4th quartile: OR=3.71; 95% CI: 1.36, 10.01. DDE 4th quartile: OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.90. HCB 4th quartile: OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.69) compared to girls in the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed with leptin, or among boys. A mediating effect of insulin or leptin on later obesity was not observed. Conclusion

  1. Disinhibition of olfaction: human olfactory performance improves following low levels of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Endevelt-Shapira, Yaara; Shushan, Sagit; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that true human olfactory abilities are obscured by cortical inhibition. Alcohol reduces inhibition. We therefore tested the hypothesis that olfactory abilities will improve following alcohol consumption. We measured olfaction in 85 subjects, 45 in a between-subjects design, and 40 in a repeated-measures within-subjects design before and after consumption of alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverages. Subjects were also assessed using neurocognitive measures of inhibition. Following alcohol consumption, blood alcohol levels ranged from 0.005% to 0.11%. Across subjects, before any consumption of alcohol, we found that individuals who were less inhibited had lower (better) olfactory detection thresholds (r=0.68, p<0.005). Moreover, after alcohol consumption, subjects with low alcohol levels could make olfactory discriminations that subjects with 0% alcohol could not make (chance=33%, alcohol=51.3±22.7%, control=34.7±31.6%, t(43)=2.03, p<0.05). Within subjects, we found correlations between levels of alcohol and olfactory detection (r=0.63, p<0.005) and discrimination (r=-0.50, p<0.05), such that performance was improved at low levels of alcohol (significantly better than baseline for detection) and deteriorated at higher levels of alcohol. Finally, levels of alcohol-induced improved olfactory discrimination were correlated with levels of alcohol-induced cognitive disinhibition (r=0.48, p<0.05). Although we cannot rule out alternative non-inhibitory alcohol-induced routes of influence, we conclude that improved olfaction at low levels of alcohol supports the notion of an inhibitory mechanism obscuring true olfactory abilities.

  2. Effects of prenatal alcohol consumption on cognitive development and ADHD-related behaviour in primary-school age: a multilevel study based on meconium ethyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Anna; Hudler, Linda; Grunitz, Juliane; Grimm, Jennifer; Raabe, Eva; Goecke, Tamme W; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kratz, Oliver; Moll, Gunther H; Kornhuber, Johannes; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2017-09-11

    Alcohol intake during pregnancy is considered to be a risk factor for child development. Child biomarkers of intrauterine alcohol exposure have been rarely studied. We investigated whether a meconium alcohol metabolite (ethyl glucuronide, EtG) was associated with cognitive development, ADHD-related behaviour and neurophysiological markers of attention and executive control of children at primary-school age. Mothers provided self-report on prenatal alcohol consumption during their 3rd trimester. Meconium samples were collected at birth. A total of 44 children with a meconium EtG above the detection limit (≥10 ng/g) and 44 nonexposed matched controls were compared. A second threshold (≥154 ng/g) was applied to study the dose effects. When children reached primary-school age, mothers rated ADHD-related behaviour, child cognitive development was measured using an IQ test battery, and event-related potentials were recorded during a cued go/nogo task. Children in both EtG-positive groups allocated fewer attentional resources than controls to the go/nogo task (reduced P3 component in go-trials). Children with a meconium EtG above 154 ng/g were also found to have an IQ that was six points lower than the other groups. Within the EtG ≥ 154 ng/g group, there was a positive correlation between EtG value and ADHD-related behaviour. These significant effects were not observed in relation to the maternal self-report data. Associations between EtG and cognitive deficits, attentional resource capacity and ADHD-related behaviour could be documented with effects that were partially dose-dependent. In addition to maternal self-reports, this biomarker of intrauterine alcohol exposure may be considered as a predictor of child development. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. The Effect of Prenatal Alcohol Co-Exposure on Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in Infants Born to Mothers in Opioid Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kreitinger, Christine; Gutierrez, Hilda; Hamidovic, Ajna; Schmitt, Cheryl; Sarangarm, Preeyaporn; Rayburn, William F.; Leeman, Lawrence; Bakhireva, Ludmila N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the incidence and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Study design For this pilot study, 70 pregnant women on opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) were recruited from a perinatal substance abuse clinic. Subjects were categorized into three study groups based on the timing of alcohol use during pregnancy as assessed by repeated self-reported measures and a comprehensive panel of ethanol biomarkers. NAS outcomes included: duration of hospital stay, the need for pharmacological treatment of NAS, newborn age at the initiation of NAS treatment, duration of treatment, and cumulative methadone dose administered. Results The study included a large proportion of ethnic minorities (81.4% Hispanic, 5.7% American Indian), women with less than a high school education (52.2%) and unplanned pregnancy (82.9%). In multivariate analysis, PAE was not associated with NAS outcomes; however, one newborn diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome demonstrated much more severe NAS compared to other PAE infants. Interestingly, 3rd trimester PAE was associated with a higher prevalence of microcephaly (62.5%) compared to the PAE abstaining group (36.8%; p=0.08). Conclusion In this study, PAE was not associated with NAS severity; however, further examination in a larger study is needed. PMID:25758627

  4. The effect of prenatal alcohol co-exposure on neonatal abstinence syndrome in infants born to mothers in opioid maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Kreitinger, Christine; Gutierrez, Hilda; Hamidovic, Ajna; Schmitt, Cheryl; Sarangarm, Preeyaporn; Rayburn, William F; Leeman, Lawrence; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the incidence and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). For this pilot study, 70 pregnant women on opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) were recruited from a perinatal substance abuse clinic. Subjects were categorized into three study groups based on the timing of alcohol use during pregnancy as assessed by repeated self-reported measures and a comprehensive panel of ethanol biomarkers. NAS outcomes included: duration of hospital stay, the need for pharmacological treatment of NAS, newborn age at the initiation of NAS treatment, duration of treatment and cumulative methadone dose administered. The study included a large proportion of ethnic minorities (81.4% Hispanic, 5.7% American Indian), women with less than a high school education (52.2%) and unplanned pregnancy (82.9%). In multivariate analysis, PAE was not associated with NAS outcomes; however, one newborn diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) demonstrated much more severe NAS compared to other PAE infants. Interestingly, 3rd trimester PAE was associated with a higher prevalence of microcephaly (62.5%) compared to the PAE abstaining group (36.8%; p = 0.08). In this study, PAE was not associated with NAS severity; however, further examination in a larger study is needed.

  5. Cognitive Biases for Social Alcohol-Related Pictures and Alcohol Use in Specific Social Settings: An Event-Level Study.

    PubMed

    Groefsema, Martine; Engels, Rutger; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Smit, Koen; Luijten, Maartje

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use occurs mainly among friends, in social contexts, and for social reasons. Moreover, cognitive biases, such as attentional and approach biases, have repeatedly been associated with alcohol use. This study aimed to test whether nondependent drinkers display cognitive biases for social alcohol-related (SA) pictures and whether these biases are associated with alcohol use in social drinking contexts. The visual dot probe task and stimulus-response compatibility tasks were used to measure attentional and approach biases for alcohol-related pictures at baseline. Event-level alcohol use was measured using Ecological Momentary Assessments via personal smartphones. One hundred and ninety-two young adults (51.6% men; Mage  = 20.73) completed the study, resulting in 11,257 assessments conducted on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday evenings for 5 consecutive weeks. While no overall attentional bias for alcohol-related pictures was found, young adults showed an approach bias for both social and nonsocial alcohol-related pictures. Multilevel models revealed no direct association between cognitive biases for alcohol-related pictures and alcohol use. However, higher levels of attentional bias for SA pictures were associated with more drinking when individuals were surrounded by a greater number of friends of opposite gender. Higher levels of an approach bias for SA pictures were associated with more drinking in women surrounded by a greater number of friends of the same gender. In a nondependent sample, cognitive biases for SA pictures could not be associated with drinking directly. However, a cognitive bias for SA pictures moderated the association between alcohol use and number of friends present. As most observed effects were gender and situation specific, replication of these effects is warranted. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Development of glial cells cultured from prenatally alcohol treated rat brain: effect of supplementation of the maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract.

    PubMed

    Ledig, M; Holownia, A; Copin, J C; Tholey, G; Anokhina, I

    1996-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of supplementation of a maternal alcohol diet with a grape extract on glial cell development. Glial cells were cultured during 4 weeks from cortical brain cells of the new born offspring in DMEM medium supplemented with fetal calf serum. Enzymatic markers of nerve cell development were measured (enolase isoenzymes and glutamine synthetase). Since alcohol consumption produces free radicals the antioxidant system superoxide dismutase was also investigated. Compared to the decrease found in only alcohol treated animals, all parameters except neuron-specific enolase were antagonized and even stimulated after grape extract supplementation. The effect was more important after only 1 month than 3 months of treatment. Also in the total brain an alcohol antagonizing effect and a glutamine synthetase activation were found. Our data demonstrate that addition of a grape extract to the maternal alcohol diet may partially or completely overcome the alcohol induced retardation of glial cell development.

  7. [Exposure level and risk factors of heavy metal in prenatal period among Shanghai infants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Yan, Chong-Huai; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Tian, Ying; Cao, Lu-Lu; Yu, Xiao-Gang; Wu, Mei-Qin; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jun-Xia; Zhou, Xin

    2011-09-01

    To explore the exposure level and risk factors of heavy metal among Shanghai infants in their prenatal period. A total of 1652 pregnant or puerperal women were recruited from 10 midwifery-qualified hospitals in Shanghai since October 2008 to October 2009, by the stratified cluster sampling method. They answered the questionnaire and their umbilical cord blood and serum were collected to detect the content of Pb, Hg, Mn, Cd, As and Tl. The risk factors were analyzed by single and multiple regression methods respectively. The median value of the content of Pb, Hg, Mn, Cd, As and Tl were 41.00, 1.88, 4.10, 0.03, 0.86 and 0.02 µg/L respectively. The Hg concentration of pregnant women who ate fish for 4 - 7 times per week (9.7% (160/1652)) was 2.76 µg/L, which was higher than that of pregnant women who only ate fish for 1-3 times per week (49.3% (814/1652)) and those who seldom ate fish (40.0% (661/1652)); the Hg concentration in the two groups above were 2.41 and 2.03 µg/L separately. The difference had statistical significance (χ(2) = 36.40, P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the concentrations of Pb and Tl in the group of pregnant women whose houses were remodeled by PVC pipe (85.0% (1404/1652)) was higher than the concentrations in group of pregnant women whose houses were remodeled by galvanized pipe (15.0% (248/1652)); the Pb concentration in the two groups above were 45.54 and 40.00 µg/L (Z = 2.54, P < 0.05) and the Tl concentration in the two groups above were 0.021 and 0.018 µg/L (Z = 2.97, P < 0.05). However, the As concentration in the group of PVC pipe remodeled was 4.33 µg/L, which was lower than that in the group of galvanized pipe (9.37 µg/L). The difference had statistical significance (Z = 3.99, P < 0.01). The concentrations of Mn, Cd and Tl in the groups of pregnant women whose house had been remodeled in the last 3 years (38.0% (628/1652)) were 14.78, 0.51 and 0.022 µg/L separately, which were all significantly higher than those in the groups of women

  8. Prenatal substance exposure: neurobiologic organization at 1 month.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Lester, Barry M; Tronick, Ed; LaGasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the autonomic nervous system and neurobehavioral response to a sustained visual attention challenge in 1-month-old infants with prenatal substance exposure. We measured heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and neurobehavior during sustained visual orientation tasks included in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale in 1129 1-month-old infants with prenatal substance exposure. Four groups were compared: infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure, infants with cocaine exposure, infants with opiate exposure, and infants with exposure to other substances (ie, alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco). The infants with prenatal exposure to both cocaine and opiates had the highest heart rates and lowest levels of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during a sustained visual attention challenge compared with the other 3 groups. Infants with prenatal cocaine and opiate exposure had poorer quality of movement and more hypertonicity during the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale examination. They also had more nonoptimal reflexes and stress/abstinence signs compared with infants with prenatal exposure to cocaine only and those with prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Problems with arousal regulation were identified in infants with prenatal substance exposure. Autonomic dysregulation has been implicated as a mechanism by which these difficulties occur. Our results suggest that infants with prenatal exposure to both cocaine and opiates have the greatest autonomic response to the challenge of a sustained visual attention task, possibly putting these infants at risk for problems associated with physiologic and behavioral regulation, a necessary prerequisite for early learning. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...

  10. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...

  11. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...

  12. The effect of different information sources on the anxiety level of pregnant women who underwent invasive prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Mehmet; Tari Kasnakoglu, Berna; Ökem, Zeynep Güldem; Okuducu, Ümmühan; Beksaç, M Sinan

    2016-12-01

    The goal is to explore the effects of age, education, obstetric history and information sources on the (Beck) anxiety levels of pregnant women attending invasive prenatal testing. Questionnaire results from 152 pregnant women are utilized. Results are analyzed through an independent samples t-test and a two-step cluster analysis attempting to categorize patients in terms of the chosen variables. t-Tests reveal that age, education and bad obstetric history do not significantly affect anxiety levels. Descriptive statistics indicate that almost 60% of patients feel anxious mostly because of the fear of receiving bad news, followed by the fear of miscarriage, the fear of pain and the fear of hurting the baby. According to the cluster analysis, patients who use doctors or nurses as information sources have significantly lower anxiety levels, while those who do not receive information from any source have the second lowest level of anxiety. Patients who receive information from personal sources (i.e. friends and family) have the highest level of anxiety. Anxiety levels do not change according to test type. Doctors and nurses should allocate enough time for providing information about prenatal diagnosis before the procedure. This will reduce the anxiety level as well as the felt necessity to search for information from other sources, such as personal or popular which will further increase the level of anxiety.

  13. Low level lead exposure in the prenatal and early preschool periods: early preschool development.

    PubMed

    Ernhart, C B; Morrow-Tlucak, M; Marler, M R; Wolf, A W

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that low level lead exposure in the fetal and early preschool years is related to neuropsychological deficit was examined in a prospective study of child development. We also tested the hypothesis of reverse causality, i.e., that lead level is a function of prior developmental status. Fetal lead exposure was measured in maternal and cord blood while preschool lead level was measured in venous blood samples at ages six months, two years and three years. These blood lead measures (PbB) were related to concurrent and ensuing scores on developmental measures at six months, one year, two years, and three years. With statistical control of covariate measures (age, sex, race, birth weight, birth order, gestational exposure to other toxic substances, maternal intelligence, and several indicators of the quality of the caretaking environment) as well as potentially confounding risk factors (gestational exposure to alcohol and other toxic substances), most statistically significant associations of PbB with concurrent and later development were completely attenuated. Effects of lead exposure, significant or not, were not consistent in direction. In reverse-causality analyses, PbB was not related significantly to prior measures of developmental retardation or acceleration. It was concluded that the relationship of lead level and measures of development in these early years was primarily a function of the dependence of each on the quality of the caretaking environment.

  14. Alcohol outlet density, levels of drinking and alcohol-related harm in New Zealand: a national study.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennie L; Kypri, Kypros; Bell, Melanie L; Cousins, Kimberly

    2011-10-01

    Previous research shows associations of geographical density of alcohol outlets with a range of alcohol-related harms. Socioeconomic conditions that are associated with both outlet density and alcohol-related outcomes may confound many studies. We examined the association of outlet density with both consumption and harm throughout New Zealand while controlling for indicators of area deprivation and individual socioeconomic status (SES). Individual alcohol consumption and drinking consequences were measured in a 2007 national survey of 18-70 year olds (n=1925). All alcohol outlets in New Zealand were geocoded. Outlet density was the number of outlets of each type (off-licences (stores that sell alcoholic beverages for consumption elsewhere), bars, clubs, restaurants) within 1 km of a person's home. We modelled the association of outlet density with total consumption, binge drinking, risky drinking (above New Zealand guidelines) and two measures of effects ('harms' and 'troubles' due to drinking) in the previous year. Logistic regression and zero-inflated Poisson models were used, adjusting for sex, educational level, a deprivation index (NZDep06) and a rurality index. No statistically significant association was seen between outlet density and either average alcohol consumption or risky drinking. Density of off-licences was positively associated with binge drinking, and density of all types of outlet was associated with alcohol-related harm scores, before and after adjustment for SES. Associations of off-licences and clubs with trouble scores were no longer statistically significant in the adjusted analysis. The positive associations seen between alcohol outlet density and both individual level binge drinking and alcohol-related problems appear to be independent of individual and neighbourhood SES. Reducing density of alcohol outlets may reduce alcohol-related harm among those who live nearby.

  15. A comparison of the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure obtained via maternal self-reports versus meconium testing: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal self-reports, used for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), may lack validity, necessitating the use of an objective biomarker. The detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (products of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism) in meconium has been established as a novel biomarker of PAE. The purpose of the current study was to compare the prevalence of PAE as reported via maternal self-reports with the results of meconium testing, and to quantify the disparity between these two methods. Methods A systematic literature search for studies reporting on the prevalence of PAE, using maternal self-reports in combination with meconium testing, was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated based on eight studies, using the Mantel-Haenszel method, assuming a random effects model. A random effects meta-regression was performed to test for a difference. Results The pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by meconium testing was 4.26 (95% CI: 1.34-13.57) times the pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by maternal self-reports. Large variations across the studies in regard to the difference between estimates obtained from maternal self-reports and those obtained from meconium testing were observed. Conclusions If maternal self-reports are the sole information source upon which health care professionals rely, a number of infants who were prenatally exposed to alcohol are not being recognized as such. However, further research is needed in order to validate existing biomarkers, as well as discover new biomarkers, for the detection of PAE. PMID:24708684

  16. Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns.

    PubMed

    Herr, Caroline E W; Ghosh, Rakesh; Dostal, Miroslav; Skokanova, Venuse; Ashwood, Paul; Lipsett, Michael; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yap, Poh-Sin; Frost, Joshua D; Sram, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms by which exposure to ambient air pollutants influences respiratory health may include altered prenatal immune development. To analyze associations between elevated cord serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and maternal air pollution exposure during each month of gestation. Total cord serum IgE was determined by the CAP system and mothers' total IgE levels by nephelometry for 459 births in the Czech Republic from May 1994 to mid-January 1997. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter <2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5) ) were measured in ambient air, and arithmetic means were calculated for each gestational month. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for elevated cord serum IgE (≥0.9 IU/ml) adjusting for district of residence, year of birth, and in further models, for maternal IgE (a surrogate for atopy) and gestational season. Heterogeneity by maternal atopy status was evaluated for associations of air pollution and of cigarette smoke. In adjusted models, PAH and PM(2.5) exposures in the second month of gestation were each associated with a lower prevalence of elevated cord serum IgE. For an average increase of 100 ng/m(3) of PAHs, the PR was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95); for 25 μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) , the PR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.07). Conversely, exposures later in gestation were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated cord IgE: in the fifth month, the PR for PAH exposure was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.08), while for PM(2.5) in the sixth month, it was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.13). In analyses stratified by maternal atopy, air pollutants were associated with altered cord serum IgE only among neonates with non-atopic mothers. Similarly, an association of cigarette smoke with elevated cord serum IgE was found only in non-atopic mothers. PAHs and PM(2.5) , constituents of both ambient air pollution and

  17. Determining Prenatal, Early Childhood and Cumulative Long-Term Lead Exposure Using Micro-Spatial Deciduous Dentine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manish; Austin, Christine; Sarrafpour, Babak; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb) levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal bone, umbilical cord blood, and childhood serial blood samples collected from the ages of 3 months to ≥6 years. We found that Pb levels (as 208Pb:43Ca) in dentine formed at birth were significantly associated with cord blood Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.69; n = 27; p<0.0001). The association of prenatal dentine Pb with maternal patella Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.48; n = 59; p<0.0001) was stronger than that observed for tibia Pb levels (Spearman ρ = 0.35; n = 41; p<0.03). When assessing postnatal exposure, we found that Pb levels in dentine formed at 3 months were significantly associated with Pb concentrations in children’s blood collected concurrently (Spearman ρ = 0.64; n = 55; p<0.0001). We also found that mean Pb concentrations in secondary dentine (that is formed from root completion to tooth shedding) correlated positively with cumulative blood lead index (Spearman ρ = 0.38; n = 75; p<0.0007). Overall, our results support that micro-spatial measurements of Pb in dentine can be reliably used to reconstruct Pb exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods, and secondary dentine holds the potential to estimate long-term exposure up to the time the tooth is shed. PMID:24841926

  18. Acceptability of prenatal HIV screening at the primary care level in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Daniel, O J; Oladapo, O T

    2006-04-01

    A survey of 333 pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the primary healthcare centres in Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, southwest Nigeria was conducted between January and March 2005 to assess the acceptability of prenatal HIV screening among them. A total of 325 (97.8%) of the respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS but only 181 (54.3%) of them believed it is a problem in Nigeria. A total of 257 (77.2%) respondents agreed to undergo voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of associated factors indicated that being married, self-perception of no risk of HIV infection, awareness of benefits of prenatal HIV testing and Christianity are independent predictors of acceptance of prenatal HIV testing in this population. Most of the respondents (78.9%) who were unwilling to take the test cited fear of being infected with its consequences of stigma and discrimination as the reason for their attitude. The survey suggests that a successful integration of VCT programme into the existing primary healthcare services for prevention of vertical HIV transmission is feasible in this part of Nigeria.

  19. Effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on thyroid hormone levels, mental and psychomotor development of infants: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Minatoya, Machiko; Naka Jima, Sonomi; Sasaki, Seiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ikeno, Tamiko; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Yuko; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-15

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used phthalates and concerns of adverse effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on neonatal thyroid hormone (TH) and neurodevelopment are increasing. However, there is no report regarding association between prenatal DEHP exposure and infant neurodevelopment including TH levels in Japanese population. Thus the aim of present study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and mental and psychomotor development of infants 6 and 18months along with investigating influence on neonatal free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the prospective birth cohort study. Maternal blood samples collected between 23 and 41weeks of gestation was analyzed for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), metabolite of DEHP levels. Neonatal FT4 and TSH were obtained from mass screening data. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley Scale of Infant Development second edition at 6 and 18month of age. For the final analysis, 328 participants were included. The median levels of maternal MEHP was 10.6ng/ml, neonatal TSH and FT4 was 2.20 μU/ml and 2.03ng/ml, respectively. We did not find any associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and neonatal TH levels or infant mental and psychomotor development at 6 and 18month. In this study, prenatal DEHP exposure did not show adverse effects on infant TH levels or mental and psychomotor development in early life stage. However, our previous study revealed negative effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on sex hormone levels, continuous investigation on neurodevelopment in later life in association with prenatal DEHP exposure is necessary.

  20. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  1. 33 CFR 95.025 - Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS OPERATING A VESSEL WHILE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies...

  2. Alcohol concentration and carbonation of drinks: the effect on blood alcohol levels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C; Robinson, S P

    2007-10-01

    Alcohol absorption and elimination vary considerably amongst individuals, and are subject to influences from a variety of factors. The effects of alcohol concentration and beverage mixer type on the rate of alcohol absorption, in a controlled environment was studied. 21 subjects (12 male, 9 female) consumed a solution containing alcohol, on three separate occasions. The three solutions were, A: Neat vodka (37.5 vol%), B: Vodka mixed with still water (18.75 vol%), C: Vodka mixed with carbonated water (18.75 vol%). The volume of alcohol each subject consumed was determined by Widmark's equation. The alcohol was drunk in a 5 min period following an overnight fast and breath alcohol concentrations were measured over a 4h period using a breathalyser. 20/21 subjects absorbed the dilute alcohol at a faster rate than the concentrated alcohol. The difference between the absorption rates was found to be significant (p<0.001). The use of a carbonated mixer had varying effects on the alcohol absorption rate. 14/21 subjects absorbed the alcohol with the carbonated mixer at a faster rate, with 7 subjects showing either no change or a decrease in rate. The mean absorption rate for solution C was 4.39+/-0.45 (mg/100ml/min), and the difference between this absorption rate and that with the still mixer (1.08+0.36) was significant (p=0.006).

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  5. Dopamine and serotonin levels following prenatal viral infection in mouse--implications for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christine; Reutiman, Teri J; Folsom, Timothy D; Sohr, Reinhard; Wolf, Rainer J; Juckel, Georg; Fatemi, S Hossein

    2008-10-01

    Prenatal viral infection has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. It has previously been demonstrated that viral infection causes deleterious effects on brain structure and function in mouse offspring following late first trimester (E9) and middle-late second trimester (E18) administration of influenza virus. Neurochemical analysis following infection on E18 using this model has revealed significantly altered levels of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and taurine, but not dopamine. In order to monitor these different patterns of monoamine expression in exposed offspring in more detail and to see if there are changes in the dopamine system at another time point, pregnant C57BL6J mice were infected with a sublethal dose of human influenza virus or sham-infected using vehicle solution on E16. Male offspring of the infected mice were collected at P0, P14, and P56, their brains removed and cerebellum dissected and flash frozen. Dopamine and serotonin levels were then measured using HPLC-ED technique. When compared to controls, there was a significant decrease in serotonin levels in the cerebella of offspring of virally exposed mice at P14. No differences in levels of dopamine were observed in exposed and control mice, although there was a significant decrease in dopamine at P14 and P56 when compared to P0. The present study shows that the serotonergic system is disrupted following prenatal viral infection, potentially modelling disruptions that occur in patients with schizophrenia and autism.

  6. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity levels in subgroups of alcoholics: diagnostic, temporal, and clinical correlates.

    PubMed

    Anthenelli, R M; Smith, T L; Craig, C E; Tabakoff, B; Schuckit, M A

    1995-09-15

    Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity levels were measured in 47 male inpatient alcoholics to determine whether this biological marker might be useful in differentiating subtypes of alcoholics. Of the subgrouping methods tested, only type 2 alcoholics defined by the criteria of Gilligan et al had significantly lower platelet MAO activity than type 1 alcoholics at intake, but this finding was not stable over time in a subset of subjects. Neither separating male veteran alcoholics into either of two other variations of the type 1/type 2 subtypes, nor classifying the sample into primary alcoholics versus primary ASPD with secondary alcoholism categories, yielded significant differences between subgroups. Generally, enzyme activity levels (Vmax) were higher about 10 days after stopping drinking compared to platelet MAO values determined in thrombocytes obtained after approximately 4 weeks abstinence; these levels remained relatively stable 3 months later in a cohort of subjects. Tobacco smoking was significantly negatively correlated to platelet MAO activity levels.

  7. Prenatal choline supplementation increases NGF levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sandstrom, Noah J; Loy, Rebekah; Williams, Christina L

    2002-08-23

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats received approximately 300 mg/kg per day of choline chloride through their drinking water on days 11 of pregnancy through birth and the level of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of their male offspring was measured at 20 and 90 days of age. Prenatal choline supplementation caused significant increases in hippocampal NGF levels at 20 and 90 days of age, while levels of NGF in the frontal cortex were elevated in choline-supplemented rats at 20 days of age, but not 90 days of age. These results suggest that increases in NGF levels during development or adulthood may be one mechanism underlying improvements in spatial and temporal memory of adult rats exposed to elevated levels of choline chloride perinatally.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Neuropsychological and Behavioral Features

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Sarah N.; Crocker, Nicole; Nguyen, Tanya T.

    2012-01-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can cause alterations to the developing brain. The resulting neurobehavioral deficits seen following this exposure are wide-ranging and potentially devastating and, therefore, are of significant concern to individuals, families, communities, and society. These effects occur on a continuum, and qualitatively similar neuropsychological and behavioral features are seen across the spectrum of effect. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has been used to emphasize the continuous nature of the outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) representing one point on the spectrum. This paper will provide a comprehensive review of the neuropsychological and behavioral effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, including a discussion of the emerging neurobehavioral profile. Supporting studies of lower levels of exposure, brain-behavior associations, and animal model systems will be included when appropriate. PMID:21503685

  9. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  10. The association between prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and thyroid hormone levels in newborns in Yancheng, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengcheng; Cheng, Yibin; Tang, Quan; Lin, Shaobin; Li, Yonghong; Hu, Xiaojian; Nian, Juan; Gu, Heng; Lu, Yifu; Tang, Hong; Dai, Shougui; Zhang, Hongqun; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Haijing; Jin, Yuanyuan; Jin, Yinlong

    2014-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides can interfere with the thyroid hormones that play an important role in early neurodevelopment. Although organochlorine pesticides have been banned in China since 1983, their residues are still detectable in the environment. However, few studies have investigated the adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticide residues on newborns in China. The present study, conducted in Yancheng City, Jiangsu Province, China, aimed to examine the association between the levels of organochlorine pesticides in maternal and cord sera and to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides on thyroid hormone levels in cord serum. Eleven organochlorine pesticides in maternal and cord sera were measured in 247 mother-infant pairs recruited from Yancheng City between February 2010 and June 2010. The concentration of the thyroid hormones free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyrotropin (TSH) were determined in cord serum. Among the 11 tested organochlorine pesticides, the detectable levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocycolohexane (β-HCH) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in both maternal and cord sera were above 50%. The levels of β-HCH and p,p'-DDE in maternal sera were positively associated with the levels in cord sera (r=0.421, P<0.01; r=0.288, P<0.01). After adjusting for confounders, the TSH level in cord serum samples was negatively associated with the HCB level (OR=0.535, 95% CI=(0.304-0.941)). Our data demonstrated that DDT, β-HCH and HCB residues bioconcentrate in maternal and cord sera. Moreover, the correlation analysis suggested that organochlorine pesticides in maternal blood can transfer through the placenta and affect newborn thyroid hormone levels.

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  12. Prenatal exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide alters sciatic nerve myelination in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Carratù, M R; Cagiano, R; Desantis, S; Labate, M; Tattoli, M; Trabace, L; Cuomo, V

    2000-08-25

    Prenatal exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO, 75 and 150 ppm from day 0 to day 20 of gestation), resulting in maternal blood HbCO concentrations equivalent to those maintained by human cigarette smokers, leads to subtle myelin alterations in the sciatic nerve of male rat offspring. The rapid growth spurt in pup body weight was related to the period of maximal increase in myelin sheath thickness in both control and CO-exposed animals. A significant reduction in myelin sheath thickness of sciatic nerve fibers, paralleled by changes in the frequency distribution, occurred in both 40- and 90-day-old rats exposed in utero to CO (75 and 150 ppm). Myelin deficit observed in 75 and 150 ppm CO-exposed animals showed up only after the major spurt in myelination but not early during development. The subtle myelin alterations observed in CO-exposed offspring were not accompanied by changes in developmental pattern of axon diameters and did not result in a gross impairment of motor activity. These results suggest that the myelination process is selectively targeted by a prenatal exposure model simulating the CO exposure observed in human cigarette smokers.

  13. The effect of antidepressant drugs on the HPA axis activity, glucocorticoid receptor level and FKBP51 concentration in prenatally stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Magdalena; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Jaworska-Feil, Lucylla; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław

    2009-07-01

    Dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is thought to be an important factor in pathogenesis of depression. In animals, stress or glucocorticoids given in prenatal period lead to long-lasting behavioral and neuroendocrine changes similar to those observed in depressed patients. However, molecular basis for HPA disturbances in animals exposed to prenatal stress - a model of depression - have been only partially recognized. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of prenatal stress on behavioral changes, blood corticosterone level, concentrations of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and its cochaperone, FKBP51, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in adult rats. It has been found that prenatally stressed rats display high level of immobility in the Porsolt test and anxiety-like behavior. The HPA axis hyperactivity in theses animals was evidenced by corticosterone hypersecretion at the end of the light phase and 1h following acute stress. Western blot study revealed that GR level was significantly elevated in the hippocampus but not in the frontal cortex of prenatally stressed rats, whereas concentration of FKBP51 was decreased only in the former brain structure. Chronic treatment with imipramine, fluoxetine, mirtazapine and tianeptine have diminished both behavioral and biochemical alterations observed in this animal model of depression. These data indicate that the increase in hippocampal GR level and low concentration of FKBP51 in the frontal cortex may be responsible for enhanced glucocorticoid action in depression.

  14. Genetic control of alcohol dehydrogenase levels in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Maroni, G

    1978-06-01

    Among the progeny of Drosophila flies heterozygous for two noncomplementing Adh-negative alleles, two individuals were found that had recovered appreciable alcohol dehydrogenase activity, thereby surviving the ethanol medium used as a screen. The most likely explanation is that these Adh-positive flies are the product of intracistronic recombination within the Adh locus. Judging by the distribution of outside markers, one of the crossovers would have been a conventional reciprocal exchange while the other appears to have been an instance of nonreciprocal recombination. The enzymes produced in strains derived from the original survivors can be easily distinguished from wild-type enzymes ADH-S and ADH-F on the basis of their sensitivity to denaturing agents. None of various physical and catalytic properties tested revealed differences between the enzymes of the survivor strains except that in one of them the level of activity is 55--65% of the other. Quantitative immunological determinations of ADH gave estimates of enzyme protein which are proportional to the measured activity levels. These results are interpreted to indicate that different amounts of ADH protein are being accumulated in the two strains.

  15. An expanded evaluation of the relationship of four alleles to the level of response to alcohol and the alcoholism risk.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xianzhang; Oroszi, Gabor; Chun, Jeffrey; Smith, Tom L; Goldman, David; Schuckit, Marc A

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex, genetically influenced disorder the cause of which may be better understood through the study of genetically influenced phenotypes that mediate the risk. One such intermediate phenotype is the low level of response (LR) to alcohol. This project used a case-control approach to search for genes that may contribute to LR. Data were available from alcohol challenges at approximately age 20 and regarding the development of alcohol use disorders over the subsequent 20 years for 85 men, including 40 reported in a previous genetic analysis. LR was evaluated using oral consumption of 0.75 ml/kg of alcohol, after which changes in subjective feelings of intoxication and body sway were measured. Alcohol abuse and dependence were diagnosed by DSM-III-R criteria through structured interviews administered to both the participant and an informant (usually the spouse) 10, 15, and 20 years after initial testing. Four polymorphisms were evaluated, including the serotonin transporter HTTLPR promoter ins/del, GABAAalpha6 Pro385Ser, NPY Leu7Pro, and catalase 262C>T. Two of these, HTTLPR and GABAAalpha6 Pro385Ser, had been previously associated with LR and alcoholism in a preliminary study. The HTTLPR L allele was significantly related to both the LR and alcoholism in an allele-dosage (stepwise) manner. Furthermore, the association remained when L alleles were subdivided into recently reported functional subtypes: the lowest LR was associated with genotypes correlated with the highest serotonin transporter expression. The GABAAalpha6 Ser385 allele showed a nonsignificant trend for association to a low LR, as had been previously observed, although the Ser385 allele is uncommon, and only 18 heterozygotes were in the current group. However, the six men with both LL and Pro385/Ser385 genotypes had the lowest LR, and each had developed alcoholism during follow-up. Neither NPY nor catalase was associated with either LR or alcoholic outcomes, although the sample did not

  16. Meta-analysis of gene expression patterns in animal models of prenatal alcohol exposure suggests role for protein synthesis inhibition and chromatin remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Rogic, Sanja; Wong, Albertina; Pavlidis, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in an array of morphological, behavioural and neurobiological deficits that can range in their severity. Despite extensive research in the field and a significant progress made, especially in understanding the range of possible malformations and neurobehavioral abnormalities, the molecular mechanisms of alcohol responses in development are still not well understood. There have been multiple transcriptomic studies looking at the changes in gene expression after PAE in animal models, however there is a limited apparent consensus among the reported findings. In an effort to address this issue, we performed a comprehensive re-analysis and meta-analysis of all suitable, publically available expression data sets. Methods We assembled ten microarray data sets of gene expression after PAE in mouse and rat models consisting of samples from a total of 63 ethanol-exposed and 80 control animals. We re-analyzed each data set for differential expression and then used the results to perform meta-analyses considering all data sets together or grouping them by time or duration of exposure (pre- and post-natal, acute and chronic, respectively). We performed network and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to further characterize the identified signatures. Results For each sub-analysis we identified signatures of differential expressed genes that show support from multiple studies. Overall, the changes in gene expression were more extensive after acute ethanol treatment during prenatal development than in other models. Considering the analysis of all the data together, we identified a robust core signature of 104 genes down-regulated after PAE, with no up-regulated genes. Functional analysis reveals over-representation of genes involved in protein synthesis, mRNA splicing and chromatin organization. Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that existing studies, despite superficial dissimilarity in findings, share features that allow us

  17. A State of Double Jeopardy: Impact of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Adverse Environments on the Social Communicative Abilities of School-Age Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Truman E.; Timler, Geralyn R.; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a retrospective examination of environmental risk, language performance, and narrative discourse data from a clinical database of school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Method: A case-defined diagnostic approach for measuring and reporting the full spectrum of disabilities in children with…

  18. A State of Double Jeopardy: Impact of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Adverse Environments on the Social Communicative Abilities of School-Age Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Truman E.; Timler, Geralyn R.; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article is a retrospective examination of environmental risk, language performance, and narrative discourse data from a clinical database of school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Method: A case-defined diagnostic approach for measuring and reporting the full spectrum of disabilities in children with…

  19. Clipped Wings: The Fullest Look Yet at How Prenatal Exposure to Drugs, Alcohol, and Nicotine Hobbles Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lucile F.; Buka, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes degrees of mental and physical impairment in newborns caused by mothers' use of drugs, tobacco, and alcohol during pregnancy. Discusses infant day care and related programs which have succeeded in raising the I.Q. scores of children at risk for intellectual impairment. (DM)

  20. The effects of prenatal undernutrition and postnatal high-fat diet on hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA and serum leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Yamasaki, Mikio; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition increase the risk of some metabolic disorders in adulthood, and hypothalamic leptin resistance makes an important contribution to these effects. Leptin plays important roles in the maintenance of reproductive function, and its actions might be partially mediated by kisspeptin, which is a potent positive regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In this study, the effects of prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition on reproductive parameters and sexual maturation during the peripubertal period were evaluated. Rats subjected to prenatal undernutrition (IUGR) and fed a postnatal high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 7) exhibited 40% higher serum leptin levels and 30% lower hypothalamic Kiss1 (the gene encoding kisspeptin) mRNA levels than those subjected to prenatal undernutrition (IUGR) and fed a normal diet (n = 7). No such HFD-induced postnatal alterations were observed in the rats fed a normal diet during the prenatal period (control) (n = 7 per group). Although the consumption of the HFD did not affect the serum luteinizing hormone levels or body weight of the IUGR or control rats, it did promote vaginal opening in both groups (evaluated in 14 rats per group). These findings indicate that hypothalamic leptin resistance might occur in IUGR-HFD rats, but these changes do not influence downstream effectors of the reproductive endocrinological system. They also suggest that the relationships between nutritional conditions, body weight, reproductive factors, and sexual maturation are complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters adult hippocampal VGLUT2 expression with concomitant changes in promoter DNA methylation, H3K4 trimethylation and miR-467b-5p levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Christine R; Ho, Mei-Fong; Vega, Michelle C Sanchez; Burne, Thomas H J; Chong, Suyinn

    2015-01-01

    Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is associated with a range of physical, cognitive and behavioural outcomes in the offspring which are collectively called foetal alcohol spectrum disorders. We and others have proposed that epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications, mediate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on gene expression and, ultimately, phenotype. Here we use an inbred C57BL/6J mouse model of early gestational ethanol exposure equivalent, developmentally, to the first 3-4 weeks of pregnancy in humans to examine the long-term effects on gene expression and epigenetic state in the hippocampus. Gene expression analysis in the hippocampus revealed sex- and age-specific up-regulation of solute carrier family 17 member 6 (Slc17a6), which encodes vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2). Transcriptional up-regulation correlated with decreased DNA methylation and enrichment of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, an active chromatin mark, at the Slc17a6 promoter. In contrast to Slc17a6 mRNA levels, hippocampal VGLUT2 protein levels were significantly decreased in adult ethanol-exposed offspring, suggesting an additional level of post-transcriptional control. MicroRNA expression profiling in the hippocampus identified four ethanol-sensitive microRNAs, of which miR-467b-5p was predicted to target Slc17a6. In vitro reporter assays showed that miR-467b-5p specifically interacted with the 3'UTR of Slc17a6, suggesting that it contributes to the reduction of hippocampal VGLUT2 in vivo. A significant correlation between microRNA expression in the hippocampus and serum of ethanol-exposed offspring was also observed. Prenatal ethanol exposure has complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional effects on Slc17a6 (VGLUT2) expression in the mouse hippocampus. These effects are observed following a relatively moderate exposure that is restricted to early pregnancy, modelling human consumption of alcohol

  2. Prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of low-level true mosaicism for trisomy 21 using uncultured amniocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Wang, Yeou-Lih; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yen-Ni; Chen, Shin-Wen; Chen, Li-Feng; Lee, Meng-Shan; Yang, Chien-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2016-04-01

    We present a prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic characterization of low-level true mosaicism for trisomy 21 using uncultured amniocytes. A 35-year-old woman presented with a borderline-positive result of noninvasive prenatal testing for trisomy 21. She underwent amniocentesis at 18 weeks of gestation, which revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21(5)/46,XY(53). Repeat amniocentesis at 22 weeks of gestation revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+21(6)/46,XY(26). Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed mosaic levels of 10% to 15% for trisomy 21. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on uncultured amniocytes revealed a mosaic level of 21.7% (28/129 cells) for trisomy 21. Following genetic counseling and detailed ultrasound examination, the parents decided to continue the pregnancy. The pregnancy was carried to term, and a normal 3664-g male baby was delivered. The cord blood lymphocytes had a karyotype of 47,XY,+21(2)/46,XY(38). Postnatal interphase FISH analysis of urine detected no trisomy 21 in all 39/39 urinary cells. The neonate was phenotypically normal at age 7 months. Low-level true mosaicism for trisomy 21 can be associated with a favorable fetal outcome. aCGH and interphase FISH analyses on uncultured amniocytes are useful for rapid confirmation of low-level true mosaicism for trisomy 21 at repeated amniocentesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Feasibility of matching alcohol patients to ASAM levels of care.

    PubMed

    Kosanke, Nicole; Magura, Stephen; Staines, Graham; Foote, Jeffrey; DeLuca, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of implementing treatment recommendations derived from the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) Patient Placement Criteria in an urban addiction treatment program that offered a continuum of levels of care (LOC). A cohort of 281 applicants for alcoholism treatment were evaluated and the reasons for observed differences ("mismatches") between recommended and actual LOC placements were determined. Overall, 88% of the applicants entered treatment, and 72% of these were matched to LOC vs. 28% who were mismatched. Presumptive overtreatment (59%) was more common than undertreatment (41%) among the mismatched patients. The reasons for overtreatment were availability of Medicaid coverage for inpatient rehabilitation (93%), referral sources' treatment philosophy of gradually "stepping down" from inpatient detoxification (59%), social pressures on patients (28%), and mandated treatment (8%). The reasons for presumptive undertreatment were work schedule conflicts (72%), patient reluctance (48%), insurance coverage (15%), and interference with family or personal responsibilities (9%). These results indicate multiple barriers that need to be overcome to enable full implementation of the ASAM Criteria in real world program settings, even when a continuum of care is available.

  4. Maternal prenatal cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use and risk of infant leukaemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Slater, Megan E; Linabery, Amy M; Blair, Cindy K; Spector, Logan G; Heerema, Nyla A; Robison, Leslie L; Ross, Julie A

    2011-11-01

    Several case-control studies have evaluated associations between maternal smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use during pregnancy and risk of childhood leukaemia. Few studies have specifically focused on infants (<1 year) with leukaemia, a group that is biologically and clinically distinct from older children. We present data from a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of 443 infants diagnosed with acute leukaemia [including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] between 1996 and 2006 and 324 population controls. Mothers were queried about their cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use 1 year before and throughout pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Maternal smoking (>1 cigarette/day) and illicit drug use (any amount) before and/or during pregnancy were not significantly associated with infant leukaemia. Alcohol use (>1 drink/week) during pregnancy was inversely associated with infant leukaemia overall [OR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.43, 0.94], AML [OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.28, 0.87], and leukaemia with mixed lineage leukaemia gene rearrangements ('MLL+') [OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36, 0.97]. While our results agree with the fairly consistent evidence that maternal cigarette smoking is not associated with childhood leukaemia, the data regarding alcohol and illicit drug use are not consistent with prior reports and are difficult to interpret. It is possible that unhealthy maternal behaviours during pregnancy, some of which carry potential legal consequences, may not be adequately measured using only self-report. Future case-control studies of childhood leukaemia that pursue these exposures may benefit from incorporation of validated instruments and/or biomarkers when feasible. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Post-mortem alcohol analysis in synovial fluid: an alternative method for estimation of blood alcohol level in medico-legal autopsies?

    PubMed

    Büyük, Yalçin; Eke, Murat; Cagdir, A Sadi; Karaaslan, Hicran K

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of synovial fluid alcohol concentration in prediction of blood alcohol concentration, synovial fluid and blood was studied of 50 autopsy cases and the alcohol levels determined by using Head Space Gas Chromatography method. To exclude the effect of decomposition on alcohol levels, corpses with post-mortem intervals less than 24 hours and not showing signs of decomposition were selected. Of 50 cases, alcohol was detected in 15 cases both in blood and in synovial fluid. In 35 cases alcohol analysis was negative both in blood and synovial fluid. No false positive results were seen in terms of synovial fluid. In two of the 15 cases, the alcohol determined was methyl alcohol and in others the alcohol was ethyl alcohol. In these 15 cases, only in one case was SAC level lower than the BAC level, and in 14 cases; SAC levels were higher than those of BAC. BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration)/SAC (Synovial Fluid Alcohol Concentration) ratios were determined, and in 13 ethanol cases the mean ratio was determined to be 0.95 (0.90 +/- 0.07). The regression analysis showed a fairly linear relationship between the BAC and SAC, with a correlation coefficient of 0.984 (y = 0.86x + 10.4). The present study demonstrates that the synovial fluid is a valuable body fluid that can be used in prediction of blood alcohol concentration in forensic autopsy cases in which blood can not be properly obtained.

  6. Genetic Correlation and Gene–Environment Interaction Between Alcohol Problems and Educational Level in Young Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M.; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Viken, Richard J.; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A lower level of education often co-occurs with alcohol problems, but factors underlying this co-occurrence are not well understood. Specifically, whether these outcomes share part of their underlying genetic influences has not been widely studied. Educational level also reflects various environmental influences that may moderate the genetic etiology of alcohol problems, but gene–environment interactions between educational attainment and alcohol problems are unknown. Method: We studied the two nonmutually exclusive possibilities of common genetic influences and gene–environment interaction between alcohol problems and low education using a population-based sample (n = 4,858) of Finnish young adult twins (Mage = 24.5 years, range: 22.8–28.6 years). Alcohol problems were assessed with the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index and self-reported maximum number of drinks consumed in a 24-hour period. Years of education, based on completed and ongo-ing studies, represented educational level. Results: Educational level was inversely associated with alcohol problems in young adulthood, and this association was most parsimoniously explained by overlapping genetic influences. Independent of this co-occurrence, higher education was associated with increased relative importance of genetic influences on alcohol problems, whereas environmental factors had a greater effect among twins with lower education. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a complex relationship between educational level and alcohol problems in young adulthood. Lower education is related to higher levels of alcohol problems, and this co-occurrence is influenced by genetic factors affecting both phenotypes. In addition, educational level moderates the importance of genetic and environmental influences on alcohol problems, possibly reflecting differences in social-control mechanisms related to educational level. PMID:21388594

  7. Genetic correlation and gene-environment interaction between alcohol problems and educational level in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Suvisaari, Jaana; Viken, Richard J; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    A lower level of education often co-occurs with alcohol problems, but factors underlying this co-occurrence are not well understood. Specifically, whether these outcomes share part of their underlying genetic influences has not been widely studied. Educational level also reflects various environmental influences that may moderate the genetic etiology of alcohol problems, but gene-environment interactions between educational attainment and alcohol problems are unknown. We studied the two non-mutually exclusive possibilities of common genetic influences and gene-environment interaction between alcohol problems and low education using a population-based sample (n = 4,858) of Finnish young adult twins (M(age) = 24.5 years, range: 22.8-28.6 years). Alcohol problems were assessed with the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index and self-reported maximum number of drinks consumed in a 24-hour period. Years of education, based on completed and ongoing studies, represented educational level. Educational level was inversely associated with alcohol problems in young adulthood, and this association was most parsimoniously explained by overlapping genetic influences. Independent of this co-occurrence, higher education was associated with increased relative importance of genetic influences on alcohol problems, whereas environmental factors had a greater effect among twins with lower education. Our findings suggest a complex relationship between educational level and alcohol problems in young adulthood. Lower education is related to higher levels of alcohol problems, and this co-occurrence is influenced by genetic factors affecting both phenotypes. In addition, educational level moderates the importance of genetic and environmental influences on alcohol problems, possibly reflecting differences in social-control mechanisms related to educational level.

  8. Prenatal parenting.

    PubMed

    Glover, Vivette; Capron, Lauren

    2017-06-01

    Parenting begins before birth. This includes prenatal maternal and paternal bonding with the baby, and biological effects on fetal development. Recent research has confirmed how prenatal maternal stress can alter the development of the fetus and the child, and that this can persist until early adulthood. Children are affected in different ways depending, in part, on their own genetic makeup. The fetus may also have a direct effect on prenatal maternal mood and later parenting behaviour via the placenta. The father is important prenatally too. An abusive partner can increase the mother's prenatal stress and alter fetal development, but he can also be an important source of emotional support. New research suggests the potential benefits of prenatal interventions, including viewing of prenatal scans and cognitive behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pre-pubertal serum leptin levels and sensitivity to central leptin injection of prenatally undernourished female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Murakami, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Mikio; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that intrauterine undernutrition is closely associated with the pathogeneses of certain diseases in adulthood; i.e., insulin resistance and diabetes, and that leptin resistance plays a pivotal role in the pathology of such intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)-related conditions. Therefore, examinations of IUGR-induced leptin resistance in early developmental period are important for protecting against future disease. In this study, the effects of prenatal undernutrition on the serum leptin levels and central leptin responses of rats during the neonatal and/or pre-pubertal period were examined. The 50% food-restricted undernourished dams' offspring (UNO) exhibited a significantly lower birth weight than the normal nutrition dams' offspring (NNO). However, the UNO grew rapidly, and their mean body weight had caught up with that of the NNO by postnatal day 8. Thus, there were no significant differences between the body weights of the two groups at postnatal day 12, 16, 20, or 28. The serum leptin levels of the UNO were significantly higher than those of the NNO at postnatal days 20 and 28. At postnatal day 28, no significant difference in the hypothalamic mRNA level of neuropeptide Y, which is the main target of leptin, or that of ObRb, which is the leptin receptor, was detected between the NNO and UNO. The chronic intracerebroventricular injection of leptin attenuated body weight gain in both the NNO and UNO; however, there were no significant differences between the body weights of the two groups at any of the examined postnatal time points, indicating that the UNO and NNO exhibited similar central sensitivity to leptin during the pre-pubertal period. These results suggest that prenatal undernutrition induces leptin resistance until the neonatal to pre-pubertal period and that these alterations might be caused by impaired transportation of leptin to central tissues. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  11. Relationship between the prenatal exposure to low-level of mercury and the size of a newborn's cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Cace, I Bilic; Milardovic, A; Prpic, I; Krajina, R; Petrovic, O; Vukelic, P; Spiric, Z; Horvat, M; Mazej, D; Snoj, J

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to methylmercury at any stage of central nervous system development could induce alterations and result in severe congenital abnormalities. Total mercury level in maternal hair during pregnancy correlates well with blood levels of methylmercury and with total mercury levels in fetal brain. A prospective study has been conducted and a total of 137 childbearing women living at the coastal region with term, normal pregnancies were included and their newborns evaluated by ultrasonography. Mothers and their newborns are divided in two groups according to their hair mercury levels; examined group with high body levels of mercury (≥ 1 μg/g) and control group with low body levels of mercury (<1 μg/g). Neurosonographic examination was conducted to all newborns. Two dimensions of cerebellum in the sagital-medial plane have been measured: maximum height and width starting from the roof of the fourth chamber. Majority of mothers had hair mercury levels lower than 1 μg/g (N = 107). Mean value was 0.88 μg/g (SD 1.24), ranging from 0.02 to 8.71 μg/g. There was no significant difference between the two groups when it comes to the width of cerebellum (Mann-Whitney test: Z = 1471; p = 0.141). However, comparison related to the length of cerebellum shows statistically significant smaller cerebellum in newborns whose mother had hair mercury levels higher than 1 μg/g (Mann-Whitney test: Z = 2329; p = 0.019). Our results lead to a conclusion that prenatal exposure to, what we consider to be, low-levels of methylmercury does influence fetal brain development detected as decreased size of newborn's cerebellum. From a clinical point of view, a question related to the influence of prenatal low-level methylmercury exposure on fetal neurodevelopment remains open. Our further objectives are to direct the research towards performing detailed neuropshychological tests on children at the age of 18 months. Such tests could indicate the presence of subtle neurological or

  12. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall.

  13. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: A multi-level analysis across U.S. States

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Higher levels of women’s alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men’s and women’s alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women’s socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women’s political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women’s and men’s drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall. PMID:22521679

  14. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Exposure, Antioxidant Levels and Behavioral Development of Children Ages 6–9

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Stigter, Laura; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Wang, Shuang; Roen, Emily L.; Majewska, Renata; Kieltyka, Agnieszka; Mroz, Elzbieta; Perera, Frederica P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure has been shown to increase DNA adduct levels and to affect neurodevelopment. Micronutrients may modify the adverse effect of PAH on neurodevelopment. Thus, we examined if micronutrient concentrations modified the association between PAH exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods 151 children from a birth cohort who had micronutrient concentrations measured in cord blood and completed the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL), between the ages of 6 and 9 years, were evaluated. Prenatal airborne PAH exposure was measured by personal air monitoring. The betas and 95% CI for the associations of antioxidant concentrations and PAH exposure with each of the outcomes of CBCL raw score and dichotomized standardized T-score (based on clinical cutpoints) were estimated, respectively, by multivariable poisson and logistic models. Results Children below the median for alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentrations, compared to those above, were more likely to have thought problems, aggressive behavior and externalizing problems (p<0.05). Lower carotenoid concentration was associated with more thought problems (MVβ=0.60, p<0.001) and externalizing problems (MVβ=0.13, p<0.05) for the same contrast. No statistically significant associations were observed between retinol concentrations and neurodevelopmental symptoms. Overall, no consistent patterns were observed when we examined the interaction between antioxidants (e.g., alpha-tocopherol) and PAH in relation to CBCL symptoms (e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems, p<0.05). Conclusions Lower alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and carotenoid levels may adversely affect healthy neurodevelopment, even after accounting for PAH exposure. Future research to confirm these findings are warranted given the importance of identifying modifiable factors for reducing harmful PAH effects. PMID:25863187

  15. The 2D:4D ratio, a proxy for prenatal androgen levels, differs in men with and without MS.

    PubMed

    Bove, Riley; Malik, Muhammed T; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Chua, Alicia; Saraceno, Taylor J; Bargiela, David; Greeke, Emily; Glanz, Bonnie I; Healy, Brian C; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2015-10-06

    To determine whether the 2D:4D ratio (ratio of the second and fourth digit lengths), a proxy for lower prenatal androgen to estrogen ratio, differs in men with and without multiple sclerosis (MS) using a case-control study design. We obtained 2 digital scans of the right hand for men with MS presenting to a scheduled clinic visit at a large MS referral center, and for men without autoimmune or endocrine diseases. All individuals were aged 18 to 65 years, right-handed, and reported no prior digit trauma. We calculated a mean 2D:4D ratio using digital calipers. In participants with MS, we assessed age at first MS symptoms, MS type, and the MS Severity Score; 51 had provided a testosterone level within 10 years of symptom onset. Our primary analysis was a cross-sectional comparison of the 2D:4D ratio between men with and without MS, using a 2-sample t test for independent samples assuming unequal variance. In total, we scanned 137 men with MS and 145 men without MS. A statistically significant association between 2D:4D ratio and MS status was observed in the univariate logistic regression model (p<0.05). These differences were not associated with age or race, which differed between the 2 groups. In participants with MS, the 2D:4D ratio was not correlated with MS type, age at first symptoms, or MS Severity Score (p>0.15 for each), and it was not correlated with adult testosterone levels (r=0.06, p=0.68, n=51). During the prenatal period, low androgens could represent a risk factor for MS. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. The 2D:4D ratio, a proxy for prenatal androgen levels, differs in men with and without MS

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley; Malik, Muhammed T.; Diaz-Cruz, Camilo; Chua, Alicia; Saraceno, Taylor J.; Bargiela, David; Greeke, Emily; Glanz, Bonnie I.; Healy, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the 2D:4D ratio (ratio of the second and fourth digit lengths), a proxy for lower prenatal androgen to estrogen ratio, differs in men with and without multiple sclerosis (MS) using a case-control study design. Methods: We obtained 2 digital scans of the right hand for men with MS presenting to a scheduled clinic visit at a large MS referral center, and for men without autoimmune or endocrine diseases. All individuals were aged 18 to 65 years, right-handed, and reported no prior digit trauma. We calculated a mean 2D:4D ratio using digital calipers. In participants with MS, we assessed age at first MS symptoms, MS type, and the MS Severity Score; 51 had provided a testosterone level within 10 years of symptom onset. Our primary analysis was a cross-sectional comparison of the 2D:4D ratio between men with and without MS, using a 2-sample t test for independent samples assuming unequal variance. Results: In total, we scanned 137 men with MS and 145 men without MS. A statistically significant association between 2D:4D ratio and MS status was observed in the univariate logistic regression model (p < 0.05). These differences were not associated with age or race, which differed between the 2 groups. In participants with MS, the 2D:4D ratio was not correlated with MS type, age at first symptoms, or MS Severity Score (p > 0.15 for each), and it was not correlated with adult testosterone levels (r = 0.06, p = 0.68, n = 51). Conclusions: During the prenatal period, low androgens could represent a risk factor for MS. PMID:26341868

  17. IMPACT OF GESTATIONAL COCAINE TREATMENT OR PRENATAL COCAINE EXPOSURE ON EARLY POSTPARTUM OXYTOCIN mRNA LEVELS AND RECEPTOR BINDING IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, M.S.; Cox, E.T.; Jarrett, T.M.; Williams, S.K.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research reported decreased oxytocin levels in specific brain regions correlated with disruptions in maternal care following gestational cocaine treatment in rats. Similarly, prenatal exposure to cocaine impaired subsequent maternal behavior in adulthood, but behavioral alterations were not associated with decreases in oxytocin levels in the same brain regions as were found in their cocaine-treated rat dams. To determine if other aspects of the oxytocin system are disrupted by cocaine treatment or prenatal exposure to cocaine during critical time points associated with maternal care, oxytocin mRNA transcription and receptor binding were examined on postpartum day two in relevant brain regions following gestational treatment with, or prenatal exposure to, either cocaine or saline. We hypothesized that oxytocin mRNA levels and receptor binding would be differentially affected by cocaine in the early postpartum period of dams and their offspring. Our findings indicate that gestational cocaine treatment resulted in significant increases in oxytocin mRNA levels in only the paraventricular nucleus of cocaine-treated dams, with almost significant increases in both generations in the supraoptic nucleus, but no significant effects of cocaine on receptor binding in either generation of dams. These findings indicate that in addition to oxytocin levels, cocaine treatment or prenatal exposure primarily affects oxytocin mRNA synthesis, with little effect on receptor binding in specific brain regions associated with maternal behavior in the early postpartum period of the rat. PMID:18579201

  18. Enhancement of placental antioxidative function and P-gp expression by sodium ferulate mediated its protective effect on rat IUGR induced by prenatal tobacco/alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yan, You-E; Wang, Hui

    2011-11-01

    This study was aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of sodium ferulate (SF) on rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and then to clarify the corresponding mechanism. Pregnant rats were divided into normal group, tobacco/alcohol exposure group, and tobacco/alcohol+SF groups. Fetal developmental indices, placental weight, histological alteration, oxidative and antioxidative-function (e.g. MDA, SOD, CAT) and Mdr1 levels were assayed. Results showed exposure to tobacco/alcohol resulted in reduced fetal developmental indices and placental histological alteration, as well as the increased MDA content, decreased SOD and CAT activities and decreased Mdr1a level. After SF treatment, fetal developmental indices, and placental weight, histological alteration, oxidative and antioxidative-function and mdr1a levels were reversed. Our study indicated SF may be effective in reversing IUGR production, and its underlying mechanism may be due to enhanced placental antioxidative function and P-gp expression, which may be related to IUGR formation by tobacco/alcohol exposure.

  19. Prenatal exposure of a girl with autism spectrum disorder to 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense) herbal remedy and alcohol: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder in which the interactions of genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences are thought to play a causal role. In humans, throughout embryonic and fetal life, brain development is exquisitely susceptible to injury caused by exposure to toxic chemicals present in the environment. Although the use of herbal supplements during pregnancy is relatively common, little information is available on their association with fetal neurodevelopment. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report in the literature to associate a new plausible mechanism of neurodevelopmental toxicity with a case of autism spectrum disorder through a vitamin deficiency potentiated by concomitant use of herbal supplements and ethanol exposure. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a three-year-old Caucasian girl with an autism spectrum disorder. We utilized her pediatric environmental history to evaluate constitutional, genetic, and environmental factors pertinent to manifestation of neurodevelopment disorders. Both parents reported prenatal exposure to several risk factors of interest. A year prior to conception the mother began a weight loss diet and ingested 1200 mg/day of 'horsetail' (Equisetum arvense) herbal remedies containing thiaminase, an enzyme that with long-term use can lead to vitamin deficiency. The mother reported a significant weight loss during the pregnancy and a deficiency of B-complex vitamins. Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency could have been potentiated by the horsetail's thiaminase activity and ethanol exposure during pregnancy. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and careful pediatric environmental history, which includes daily intake, herbal remedies and ethanol exposure, should be obtained from all patients with autism spectrum disorder. Maternal consumption of ethanol and of herbal supplements with suspected or potential toxicity should be

  20. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition.

  1. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  2. A systematic review of the influence of community level social factors on alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Bryden, Anna; Roberts, Bayard; Petticrew, Mark; McKee, Martin

    2013-05-01

    To explore evidence on the influence of community level social factors on alcohol use among adults and adolescents. Major bibliographic databases were searched for quantitative studies meeting inclusion criteria. After screening, narrative synthesis and a quality review were applied. Forty-eight studies met the eligibility criteria. While the findings were inconclusive for associations between alcohol use and deprivation, poverty, income, unemployment, social disorder and crime, there was some indication that social capital characteristics were protective. Social capital has a potentially important association with reducing alcohol use. Further studies are required to better understand social influences on alcohol use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  4. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  5. Alcohol-related blackouts among college students: impact of low level of response to alcohol, ethnicity, sex, and environmental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Priscila D; Smith, Tom L; Anthenelli, Robert M; Danko, George; Schuckit, Marc A

    2017-08-31

    To explore how a genetically-influenced characteristic (the level of response to alcohol [LR]), ethnicity, and sex relate to environmental and attitudinal characteristics (peer drinking [PEER], drinking to cope [COPE], and alcohol expectancies [EXPECT]) regarding future alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to evaluate how baseline variables related to ARB patterns in 462 college students over 55 weeks. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study of heavy drinking and its consequences at a U.S. university. In the SEM analysis, female sex and Asian ethnicity directly predicted future ARBs (beta weights 0.10 and -0.11, respectively), while all other variables had indirect impacts on ARBs through alcohol quantities (beta weights ~ 0.23 for European American ethnicity and low LR, 0.21 for cannabis use and COPE, and 0.44 for PEER). Alcohol quantities then related to ARBs with beta = 0.44. The SEM explained 23% of the variance. These data may be useful in identifying college students who are more likely to experience future ARBs over a 1-year period. They enhance our understanding of whether the relationships of predictors to ARBs are direct or mediated through baseline drinking patterns, information that may be useful in prevention strategies for ARBs.

  6. Prenatal Hemoglobin Levels and Early Cognitive and Motor Functions of One-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Mireku, Michael O; Davidson, Leslie L; Koura, Ghislain K; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Boivin, Michael J; Xiong, Xu; Accrombessi, Manfred M K; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2015-07-01

    To explore the relationship between prenatal hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and infant cognitive and motor functions. Our prospective cohort study included 1-year-old children born to women enrolled at their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Allada, Benin, before 29 weeks of pregnancy, within a trial comparing the efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and mefloquine. Hb concentrations of pregnant women were determined from venous blood samples collected at first and second ANC visits of at least 1-month interval and at delivery. Women were prescribed oral iron, folic acid, and anthelminthics after the first ANC visit. A total of 636 children (76.8% of eligible children) were assessed by trained research nurses for cognitive and motor functions by using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Prevalence of anemia (Hb < 110 g/L) decreased from 67.0% at first ANC visit (mean gestational age [SD], 22.1 [4.0] weeks) to 38.4% at delivery. Mean (SD) Hb concentrations increased from 103.7 (12.3) at first ANC visit to 112.4 (14.1) at delivery. We observed a significant negative quadratic relationship between infant gross motor (GM) function and Hb concentration at first and second ANC visits. Thus, infant GM scores increased sharply with increasing maternal Hb concentration until 90 g/L where increasing GM was mild, and began to decline after 110 g/L. There appears to be an Hb concentration range that may be optimal for GM function of 1-year-old children. This may reflect the importance of physiologic hemodilution, which occurs after the second trimester until 34 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. The effects of moderate alcohol consumption on female hormone levels and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Gill, J

    2000-01-01

    Studies that have investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the level of oestrogens and progesterone in both pre- and post-menopausal women are reviewed. It is concluded that several lines of evidence point to an alcohol-induced rise in natural or synthetic oestrogen levels in women. Proposed mechanisms include an increased rate of aromatization of testosterone or a decreased rate of oxidation of oestradiol to oestrone. Moderate alcohol consumption has also been linked to decreased progesterone levels in pre-menopausal women. The relevance of these findings to female health, fertility and the timing of the menopause is considered.

  8. An event-level examination of sex differences and subjective intoxication in alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In this investigation, the authors used 4 years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. They found support for several such findings: (a) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; (b) this association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and (c) within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol's relation with aggression.

  9. Short- and long-term effects of stress during adolescence on emotionality and HPA function of animals exposed to alcohol prenatally.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Chew, Leanne; Mok, Perry; Ellis, Linda; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-12-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with extremely high rates of psychopathologies, which may be mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation observed in exposed individuals. Of relevance, PAE carries an increased risk of exposure to stressful environments throughout life. Importantly, stressful experiences during adolescence increase vulnerability to psychopathologies. However, little is known about how adolescent stressful experiences in the context of PAE-induced HPA dysregulation may further alter the developmental trajectory and potentially contribute to the disproportionally high rate of psychopathologies observed in this population. Here we investigate the short- and long-term effects of adolescent chronic mild stress (CMS) on the emergence of anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors (open-field and forced swim test - FST) and on HPA activity (corticosterone and type 1 CRH receptor - CRHR1) in PAE male and female rats. Under non-CMS conditions, open field results indicate that PAE induced inappropriate behavior (increased time in center) in males and females, with increased activity in female adolescents, but anxiety-like behavior in adult PAE females. Conversely, FST results indicate that PAE induced depressive-like behavior in adolescent males. Exposure to CMS resulted in increased activity in adolescent males and anxiety-like behaviors in adult females. Moreover, PAE and/or CMS altered corticosterone and CRHR1 expression in the mPFC and amygdala. Together, these results suggest that PAE and adolescent CMS induce dynamic neurobehavioral alterations that manifest differently depending on the age and sex of the animal. These results highlight the importance of using both sexes as well as an ontogenetic approach when investigating the effects of environmental adversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal immune activation leads to multiple changes in basal neurotransmitter levels in the adult brain: implications for brain disorders of neurodevelopmental origin such as schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christine; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Sohr, Reinhard; Morgenstern, Rudolf; Feldon, Joram; Juckel, Georg; Meyer, Urs

    2009-05-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy enhances the offspring's risk for severe neuropsychiatric disorders in later life, including schizophrenia. Recent attempts to model this association in animals provided further experimental evidence for a causal relationship between in-utero immune challenge and the postnatal emergence of a wide spectrum of behavioural, pharmacological and neuroanatomical dysfunctions implicated in schizophrenia. However, it still remains unknown whether the prenatal infection-induced changes in brain and behavioural functions may be associated with multiple changes at the neurochemical level. Here, we tested this hypothesis in a recently established mouse model of viral-like infection. Pregnant dams on gestation day 9 were exposed to viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyI:C, 5 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle treatment, and basal neurotransmitter levels were then compared in the adult brains of animals born to PolyI:C- or vehicle-treated mothers by high-performance liquid chromatography on post-mortem tissue. We found that prenatal immune activation significantly increased the levels of dopamine and its major metabolites in the lateral globus pallidus and prefrontal cortex, whilst at the same time it decreased serotonin and its metabolite in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and lateral globus pallidus. In addition, a specific reduction of the inhibitory amino acid taurine in the hippocampus was noted in prenatally PolyI:C-exposed offspring relative to controls, whereas central glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was largely unaffected by prenatal immune activation. Our results thus confirm that maternal immunological stimulation during early/middle pregnancy is sufficient to induce long-term changes in multiple neurotransmitter levels in the brains of adult offspring. This further supports the possibility that infection-mediated interference with early fetal brain development may predispose the developing organism

  11. Prenatal Drug Exposure: Implications for Personnel Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Silvana M. R.; Westby, Carol E.

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 34 children (ages 5-16) prenatally and environmentally exposed to drugs or alcohol, found teachers perceived the students as distractible, lazy, stubborn, and impulsive. Teachers who knew the children had been prenatally exposed seemed to be willing to adjust expectations and to modify the learning environment. (Contains…

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – ... this article? Getting the Facts What Is Alcohol? How Does It Affect the Body? Why Do Teens Drink? Why Shouldn't I ...

  13. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  14. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anxiety levels in women undergoing prenatal maternal serum screening for Down syndrome: the effect of a fast reporting system by mobile phone short-message service.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Po-Jen; Wu, Tzong-Lin; Shaw, Sheng-Wen; Chueh, Ho-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Tao; Hsu, Jenn-Jeih; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang; Soong, Yung-Kuei

    2008-05-01

    To study the effect of fast reporting by mobile phone short-message service (SMS) on anxiety levels in women undergoing prenatal biochemical screening for Down syndrome. From January 2005 to December 2006, 2782 women undergoing prenatal biochemical serum screening were randomized into fast reporting by SMS (group A) or without mobile phone reporting (group B). Anxiety levels were measured with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before prenatal screen testing, before the appointed clinic (when the SMS report had already been given to group A), and 3 days after the appointed clinic (when the full screening report had been given to groups A and B). For screen-negative women, anxiety scores did not differ between groups before prenatal screen testing and 3 days after the appointed clinic. The state-anxiety scores measured on the second occasion had declined significantly in group A. The state-anxiety scores in both groups increased over the 3-week period after being informed of positive screen results. The trait- and state-anxiety scores at all points did not differ between the two groups of screen-positive women. The provision of a routine reporting system plus additional SMS report revealed some overall benefits in reducing anxiety among women with screen-negative result. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  16. A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Monitoring Population Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Scottish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Results: Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Conclusion: Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption. PMID:22926649

  17. A review of the validity and reliability of alcohol retail sales data for monitoring population levels of alcohol consumption: a Scottish perspective.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption.

  18. Neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke sex dependently influences methylation and mRNA levels of the Igf axis in lungs of mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K F; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kooistra, W; Reinders-Luinge, M; Timens, W; Kobzik, L; Plösch, T; Hylkema, M N

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal smoke exposure is a risk factor for abnormal lung development and increased sex-dependent susceptibility for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Birth cohort studies show genome-wide DNA methylation changes in children from smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is limited. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in lung development. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to smoke induces lasting changes in promoter methylation patterns of Igf1 and Igf1r, thus influencing transcriptional activity and contributing to abnormal lung development. We measured and compared mRNA levels along with promoter methylation of Igf1 and Igf1r and their protein concentrations in lung tissue of 30-day-old mice that had been prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke (PSE) or filtered air (control). Body weight at 30 days after birth was measured as global indicator of normal development. Female PSE mice showed lower mRNA levels of Igf1 and its receptor (Igf1: P = 0.05; Igf1r: P = 0.03). Furthermore, CpG-site-specific methylation changes were detected in Igf1r in a sex-dependent manner and the body weight of female offspring was reduced after prenatal exposure to smoke, while protein concentrations were unaffected. Prenatal exposure to smoke induces a CpG-site-specific loss of Igf1r promoter methylation, which can be associated with body weight. These findings highlight the sex-dependent and potentially detrimental effects of in utero smoke exposure on DNA methylation and Igf1 and Igf1r mRNA levels. The observations support a role for Igf1 and Igf1r in abnormal development. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Aggression levels in treatment seeking inpatients with alcohol-related problems compared to levels in the general population in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József; Bácskai, Erika; Czobor, Pál

    2007-08-01

    Association between aggression and heavy alcohol use is documented in the literature in various disparate samples and settings. Comparison of trait aggression levels using a uniform methodology across different samples is almost entirely lacking. This study compared trait aggression levels of treated inpatients with severe alcohol-related problems with those of a nationally representative sample of the general adult population using the same methodology. Results indicated that in the patient population the trait aggression levels were substantially higher than in the general population. Because several studies have demonstrated that aggressive personality traits are closely linked with violence after drinking alcohol, our results further highlight the importance of treatment programs in this at-risk population. From a methodological perspective, the higher trait aggression level of inpatients with alcohol-related problems compared with the general population supports the assumption that the underrepresentation of alcoholics in the population surveys may restrict the range in the severity of alcohol use and dependence, and may therefore produce severely biased results in such studies.

  1. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels

    PubMed Central

    Bershad, Anya K.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Seiden, Jacob A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”), appears to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of two other “social” drugs on plasma oxytocin levels: methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin. In Study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended three sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10mg or 20mg) or placebo under double blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In Study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received one beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither drug increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified. PMID:25853370

  2. Law Enforcement Officers' Involvement Level in Hurricane Katrina and Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Heavey, Sarah Cercone; Homish, Gregory G; Andrew, Michael E; McCanlies, Erin; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Violanti, John M; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between alcohol use and level of involvement during Hurricane Katrina among law enforcement officers, and to investigate whether marital status or previous military training offer resilience against negative outcomes. Officers in the immediate New Orleans geographic area completed surveys that assessed their involvement in Hurricane Katrina and alcohol use (Alcohol Use and Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyze level of hazardous alcohol use; interactions were tested to examine protective influences of marriage and prior military training (controlling for age and gender). There was a significant association between heavy involvement in Hurricane Katrina and having a greater AUDIT score (exp(β)[EB]=1.81; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.17; p<0.05), indicating higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. Contrary to original hypotheses, marital status and military training were not protective against alcohol use (p>0.05). These results illustrate an association between law enforcement officers' heavy involvement during Hurricane Katrina and greater levels of hazardous alcohol use when compared to officers with low or moderate involvement. This has important treatment implications for those with high involvement in disasters as they may require targeted interventions to overcome the stress of such experiences.

  3. Law Enforcement Officers' Involvement Level in Hurricane Katrina and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Heavey, Sarah Cercone; Homish, Gregory G.; Andrew, Michael E.; McCanlies, Erin; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Violanti, John M.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the relationship between alcohol use and level of involvement during Hurricane Katrina among law enforcement officers, and to investigate whether marital status or previous military training offer resilience against negative outcomes. Officers in the immediate New Orleans geographic area completed surveys that assessed their involvement in Hurricane Katrina and alcohol use (Alcohol Use and Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyze level of hazardous alcohol use; interactions were tested to examine protective influences of marriage and prior military training (controlling for age and gender). There was a significant association between heavy involvement in Hurricane Katrina and having a greater AUDIT score (exp(β)[EB]=1.81; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.17; p<0.05), indicating higher levels of hazardous alcohol use. Contrary to original hypotheses, marital status and military training were not protective against alcohol use (p>0.05). These results illustrate an association between law enforcement officers' heavy involvement during Hurricane Katrina and greater levels of hazardous alcohol use when compared to officers with low or moderate involvement. This has important treatment implications for those with high involvement in disasters as they may require targeted interventions to overcome the stress of such experiences. PMID:26688672

  4. The Role of Alcohol Consumption in Regulating Circulating Levels of Adiponectin: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Context: The role of alcohol intake in influencing longitudinal trajectories of adiponectin is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between alcohol intake and changes in the circulating levels of adiponectin over repeat measures. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 2855 men and women (74% men with a mean age of 50 y at baseline) drawn from the Whitehall II study. Data from study phases 3 (1991–1993), 5 (1997–1999), and 7 (2002–2004) were used. Main Outcome Measure: Adiponectin serum concentrations (nanograms per milliliter) were measured, and alcohol intake was defined in terms of number of UK units (1 U = 8 g ethanol) consumed in the previous 7 days on three occasions. Cross-sectional associations between alcohol and adiponectin levels were calculated using linear regression. A bivariate dual-change score model was used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake on upcoming change in adiponectin. Models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status. Results: Alcohol consumption was cross-sectionally associated with (log transformed) adiponectin levels (β ranging from .001 to .004, depending on phase and level of adjustment) but was not associated with changes in adiponectin levels over time [γ = −0.002 (SE 0.002), P = 0.246]. Conclusion: Alcohol intake is not associated with changes in circulating adiponectin levels in this cohort. This finding provides evidence that adiponectin levels are unlikely to mediate the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. It is important to consider dynamic longitudinal relationships rather than cross-sectional associations. PMID:26000546

  5. Urinary D-glucaric acid and serum hepatic enzyme levels in chronic alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Tutor, J C; Alvarez-Prechous, A; Bernabeu, F; Pardiñas, M C; Paz, J M; Lareu, V

    1988-06-01

    Urinary D-glucaric acid (DGA) and the activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and other hepatic enzymes in serum were determined in 33 noncirrhotic male alcoholics who had continued to consume alcohol until at least 24 h prior to the taking of samples. DGA excretion was significantly greater in them than in a group of 30 healthy controls (p less than 0.001), exceeding the upper reference level in 38% of the alcoholic cases (as compared with 88% for GGT). In the alcoholic patients, there was highly significant correlation between urinary DGA and serum GGT (r = 0.613, p less than 0.001), suggesting that in both cases the increased levels are due to enzyme induction. None of the biochemical variables studied were significantly correlated with estimated daily alcohol consumption. Urinary DGA levels fell off rapidly with abstinence, and in 31 alcoholic patients who had consumed no alcohol for 5 days, there was no statistically significant correlation between DGA excretion and serum GGT (r = 0.158, p congruent to 0.4).

  6. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. We found support for several such findings: 1) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; 2) This association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and 3) Within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol’s relation with aggression. PMID:23421356

  7. Alcohol intake in prairie voles is influenced by the drinking level of a peer

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Allison M. J.; Loftis, Jennifer M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Peer interactions can have important effects on alcohol drinking levels, in some cases increasing use, and in other cases preventing it. In a previous study we have established the prairie vole as a model animal for the effects of social relationships on alcohol intake, and have observed a correlation of alcohol intake between individual voles housed together as pairs. Here we investigated this correlated drinking behavior, hypothesizing that one animal alters its alcohol intake to match the drinking of its partner. Methods Adult prairie voles were tested for baseline drinking levels with continuous access to 10% alcohol and water for four days. In Experiment 1, high alcohol drinkers (>9g/kg/day) were paired with low alcohol drinkers (<5g/kg/day) of the same sex on either side of a mesh divider for four days with continuous access to the same two-bottle choice test. In Experiment 2, high drinkers were paired with high drinkers and low drinkers paired with low drinkers. In both experiments, animals were again separated following pairing and drinking was retested in isolation. In Experiment 3, alcohol-naïve animals were tested for saccharin consumption (0.05%) first in isolation and then in high saccharin drinkers paired with low saccharin drinkers, and then in another isolation period. Results In Experiment 1, high drinkers paired with low drinkers significantly decreased their alcohol intake and preference from baseline drinking in isolation, and drinking levels remained significantly lower during isolation following pairing. Interestingly, there was variability between pairs in whether the high drinker decreased or the low drinker increased intake. In Experiment 2, high drinkers paired with high drinkers did not significantly change their intake level or preference, nor did low drinkers paired with low drinkers, and no changes occurred during the subsequent isolation. In Experiment 3, there was no change in saccharin intake or preference when high

  8. Effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on neurocognition and BDNF levels in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Tan, Yun-Long; Chen, Da-Chun; Tan, Shu-Ping; Yang, Fu-De; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B; Soares, Jair C

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have examined the potential interactive effect of both smoking and drinking on cognition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in cognition. This is the first study to examine the neurocognitive consequences of cigarette smoking combined with chronic alcohol consumption and their relationship to serum BDNF levels in a Chinese Han population. We recruited 191 healthy male subjects, including 47 isolated smokers, 31 isolated chronic alcohol users, 58 combined smokers and chronic alcohol users, and 55 non-smokers and non-alcohol users. We then compared the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) scores and serum BDNF levels in these four groups. When compared to the non-smoking + non-alcohol-using group, the smoking group performed worse on immediate memory, attention, language, and RBANS total score. There were no significant differences in the RBANS scores between the alcohol-using group and non-smoking + non-alcohol-using group, or between the smoking group and smoking + alcohol-using group. We did not find an association between BDNF and smoking or drinking status or between BDNF and cognitive performance. In the smoking group, there was a significant correlation between BDNF and carbon monoxide concentration, and between BDNF and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) total score. Our results suggest that smoking is associated with cognitive decline, but not with BDNF levels in a normal population. However, smoking severity is positively associated with BDNF levels. Concomitant alcohol use does not worsen the cognitive decline caused by smoking.

  9. Multiplex Immunoassay of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Men with Alcoholism and the Relationship to Psychiatric Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; Poje, Albert B.; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use alters adaptive immunity and cytokine activity influencing immunological and hormone responses, inflammation, and wound healing. Brain cytokine disturbances may impact neurological function, mood, cognition and traits related to alcoholism including impulsiveness. We examined the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and self-rated psychiatric symptoms in 40 adult males (mean age 51 ± 6 years; range 33–58 years) with current alcohol dependence and 30 control males (mean age 48 ± 6 years; range 40–58 years) with no history of alcoholism using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Log-transformed cytokine levels were analyzed for their relationship with the Symptom Checklist-90R (SCL-90R), Barratt Impulsivity Scales (BIS) and Alcoholism Severity Scale (ASS). Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) were significantly elevated in alcoholism compared to controls while bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cytokines and chemokines (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF); soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L); growth-related oncogene (GRO)) were significantly reduced. GRO and RANTES levels were positively correlated with BIS scales; and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels were positively correlated with SCL-90R scale scores (p < 0.05). Elevated inflammatory mediators in alcoholism may influence brain function leading to increased impulsiveness and/or phobia. The novel association between RANTES and GRO and impulsivity phenotype in alcoholism should be further investigated in alcoholism and psychiatric conditions with core impulsivity and anxiety phenotypes lending support for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27043532

  10. Multiplex Immunoassay of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Men with Alcoholism and the Relationship to Psychiatric Assessments.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; Poje, Albert B; Penick, Elizabeth C; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-29

    Chronic alcohol use alters adaptive immunity and cytokine activity influencing immunological and hormone responses, inflammation, and wound healing. Brain cytokine disturbances may impact neurological function, mood, cognition and traits related to alcoholism including impulsiveness. We examined the relationship between plasma cytokine levels and self-rated psychiatric symptoms in 40 adult males (mean age 51 ± 6 years; range 33-58 years) with current alcohol dependence and 30 control males (mean age 48 ± 6 years; range 40-58 years) with no history of alcoholism using multiplex sandwich immunoassays with the Luminex magnetic-bead based platform. Log-transformed cytokine levels were analyzed for their relationship with the Symptom Checklist-90R (SCL-90R), Barratt Impulsivity Scales (BIS) and Alcoholism Severity Scale (ASS). Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1); regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)) were significantly elevated in alcoholism compared to controls while bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cytokines and chemokines (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF); soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L); growth-related oncogene (GRO)) were significantly reduced. GRO and RANTES levels were positively correlated with BIS scales; and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) levels were positively correlated with SCL-90R scale scores (p < 0.05). Elevated inflammatory mediators in alcoholism may influence brain function leading to increased impulsiveness and/or phobia. The novel association between RANTES and GRO and impulsivity phenotype in alcoholism should be further investigated in alcoholism and psychiatric conditions with core impulsivity and anxiety phenotypes lending support for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  12. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  13. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  14. Investigation into the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on postnatal spine development and expression of synaptophysin and PSD95 in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Elibol-Can, Birsen; Kilic, Ertugrul; Yuruker, Sinan; Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol is known as a potent teratogen responsible for the fetal alcohol syndrome characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Since the mechanisms of these deficits and following partial recovery are not fully elucidated, the aim of the present study was to investigate the process of synaptogenesis in the hippocampus over the first two months of life in control and fetal-alcohol rats. Ethanol was delivered to the pregnant dams by intragastric intubation throughout 7-21 gestation days at the daily dose of 6g/kg generating a mean blood alcohol level of 246.6±40.9mg/dl on gestation day 20. The spine densities as well as the expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, synaptophysin (SYP) and PSD-95 protein, were evaluated for three distinct hippocampal regions: CA1, CA2+3, and DG and four postnatal days: PD1, PD10, PD30 and PD60, independently. Our results confirmed an intensive synaptogenesis within the brain spurt period (first 10 postnatal days), however, the temporal pattern of changes in the SYP and PSD-95 expression was different. The ethanol exposure during half of the 1st and the whole 2nd human trimester equivalent resulted in an overall trend toward lower values of synaptic indices at PD1 with a fast recovery from these deficits observed already at PD10. At PD30, around the age when the most pronounced behavioral deficits have been previously reported in juvenile fetal-alcohol subjects, no significant changes were found in either the hippocampal levels of synaptic proteins or in the spine density in principal hippocampal neurons.

  15. Prenatal vitamin C deficiency results in differential levels of oxidative stress during late gestation in foetal guinea pig brains.

    PubMed

    Paidi, Maya D; Schjoldager, Janne G; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant defences are comparatively low during foetal development making the brain particularly susceptible to oxidative stress during antioxidant deficiencies. The brain is one of the organs containing the highest concentration of vitamin C (VitC) and VitC deficiency during foetal development may place the brain at risk of redox status imbalance. In the present study, we investigated the developmental pattern and effect of VitC deficiency on antioxidants, vitamin E and superoxide dismutase (SOD), assessed oxidative damage by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxynonenal (HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NT) and analysed gene and protein expression of apoptosis marker caspase-3 in the guinea pig foetal brain at two gestational (GD) time points, GD 45/pre-term and GD 56/near term following either a VitC sufficient (CTRL) or deficient (DEF) maternal dietary regime. We show that except for SOD, antioxidants and oxidative damage markers are differentially expressed between the two GDs, with high VitC (p<0.0001), NT modified proteins (p<0.0001) and active caspase-3 levels (p<0.05) at pre-term and high vitamin E levels (p<0.0001), HNE (p<0.0001) and MDA (p<0.0001) at near term. VitC deficiency significantly increased SOD activity (p<0.0001) compared to CTRLs at both GDs indicating a compensatory response, however, low levels of VitC significantly elevated MDA levels (p<0.05) in DEF at near term. Our results show a differential regulation of the investigated markers during late gestation and suggest that immature brains are susceptible to oxidative stress due to prenatal vitC deficiency in spite of an induction of protective adaptation mechanisms.

  16. Alterations of homocysteine serum levels during alcohol withdrawal are influenced by folate and riboflavin: results from the German Investigation on Neurobiology in Alcoholism (GINA).

    PubMed

    Heese, Peter; Linnebank, Michael; Semmler, Alexander; Muschler, Marc A N; Heberlein, Annemarie; Frieling, Helge; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Kornhuber, Johannes; Banger, Markus; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that plasma homocysteine (HCY) serum levels are elevated in actively drinking alcohol-dependent patients a during alcohol withdrawal, while rapidly declining during abstinence. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated not only with blood alcohol concentration (BAC), but also with deficiency of different B-vitamins, particularly folate, pyridoxine and cobalamin. Our study included 168 inpatients (110 men, 58 women) after admission for detoxification treatment. BAC, folate, cobalamin, pyridoxine, thiamine and riboflavin were obtained on admission (Day 1). HCY was assessed on Days 1, 7 and 11. HCY levels significantly declined during withdrawal. General linear models and linear regression analysis showed an influence of BAC, folate and riboflavin on the HCY levels on admission as well as on HCY changes occurring during alcohol withdrawal. No significant influence was found for thiamine, cobalamin and pyridoxine. These findings show that not only BAC and plasma folate levels, but also plasma levels of riboflavin influence HCY plasma levels in alcohol-dependent patients.

  17. Community level alcohol availability and enforcement of possession laws as predictors of youth drinking.

    PubMed

    Dent, Clyde W; Grube, Joel W; Biglan, Anthony

    2005-03-01

    Despite a minimum legal drinking age, many young people use alcohol. Environmental strategies to control youth drinking focus on restricting access and the enforcement of possession laws. This study examines the relationship between use of these strategies and the frequency of youth alcohol use and related problems. Participants were 16,694 students, ages 16-17 in 92 communities in Oregon. A multi-level analysis of a repeated cross-sectional statewide student survey was conducted. The outcome measures examined include 30-day frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, use of alcohol at school, and drinking and driving. The rate of illegal merchant sales in the communities directly related to all four alcohol-use outcomes. There was also evidence that communities with higher minor in possession law enforcement had lower rates of alcohol use and binge drinking. The use of various sources in a community expanded and contracted somewhat depending on levels of access and enforcement. This evidence provides empirical support for the potential utility of local efforts to maintain or increase alcohol access control and possession enforcement.

  18. Smoking, alcoholism and genetic polymorphisms alter CYP2B6 levels in human brain.

    PubMed

    Miksys, Sharon; Lerman, Caryn; Shields, Peter G; Mash, Deborah C; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2003-07-01

    CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed in both neurons and astrocytes. CYP2B6 levels were higher in brains of smokers and alcoholics, particularly in cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, cells known to be damaged in alcoholics. Significantly more (p<0.05) CYP2B6 protein was seen in four brain regions of smoking alcoholics compared to non-smoking non-alcoholics: hippocampus (5.8-fold), caudate nucleus (3.3-fold), putamen (3.0-fold) and cerebellar hemisphere (1.6-fold). The genetic variant C1459T (R487C) has been associated with reduced hepatic enzyme levels, stability and activity. Preliminary genotyping of this small sample (n=24) suggested that individuals with the CC genotype had higher brain CYP2B6 than those with the CT or TT genotype. Higher brain CYP2B6 activity in smokers and alcoholics may cause altered sensitivity to centrally acting drugs, increased susceptibility to neurotoxins and carcinogenic xenobiotics and contribute to central tolerance to nicotine.

  19. Prenatal and postnatal energetic conditions and sex steroids levels across the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L.; Lampl, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Human biologists have documented variability in reproductive maturation, fertility, and cancer risk related to developmental conditions. Yet no previous studies have directly examined the impact of pre- and post-natal energetic environments on sex steroids in infancy, a critical period for hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis development. Thus, we examined the impact of maternal characteristics, birth size, and feeding practices on fecal sex steroid production in a longitudinal sample of 31 American infants followed from 2 weeks to 12 months of age. Methods Maternal characteristics and birth size were collected at study enrollment, infant diet was assessed through weekly 24-hr food diaries, and anthropometrics were measured weekly. Fecal estradiol and testosterone levels were assessed weekly using validated microassay RIA techniques. Mixed models were used to test for associations between maternal and birth characteristics, feeding practices, and sex steroids across the first year of life. Formal mediation analysis examined whether the relationship between infant feeding and hormone levels was mediated by infant size. Results Maternal and birth characteristics had persistent effects on fecal sex steroid levels, with taller maternal height and larger birth size associated with lower estradiol levels in girls and higher testosterone levels in boys. Infant diet was also associated with sex steroid levels independently of infant size. Formula feeding was associated with higher estradiol levels in boys and girls and with higher testosterone in girls. Conclusion These results suggest that markers of early energy availability influence sex hormone levels with potential long-term consequences for reproductive development and function. PMID:23904043

  20. Individual and household-level socioeconomic position is associated with harmful alcohol consumption behaviours among adults.

    PubMed

    Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin; Bentley, Rebecca; Kavanagh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    To examine associations between individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and harmful alcohol consumption. Adults aged 18-76 residing in 50 neighbourhoods in Melbourne completed a postal questionnaire (n= 2349, 58.7% response rate). Alcohol-related behaviours were classified by risk of short- and long-term harm. Individual-, household- and neighbourhood-level SEP were ascertained by education, household income and proportion of low-income households, respectively. The association were examined by multi-level logistic regression. Participants lower education or household income were less likely to consume alcohol frequently compared to their more-advantaged counterparts. Lower-educated men were more likely to be at risk of short-term harm [OR 1.75 (1.23 - 2.48)]. Low-income women were less likely to be at risk of short-term harm [OR 0.44 (0.23 - 0.81)]. Neighbourhood disadvantage was not associated with alcohol consumption. Men and women from socioeconomically advantaged backgrounds were more frequent consumers of alcohol, whereas their disadvantaged counterparts drank less frequently but in greater quantities on each drinking occasion. Socioeconomic disadvantage at the individual and household levels may be an important determinant of alcohol consumption among Australian adults. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  1. Relationship between craving and ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin levels in patients with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Akkişi Kumsar, Neslihan; Dilbaz, Nesrin

    2015-04-01

    Alcoholism is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. The most widely accepted hypothesis of its etiology is multidimensional and includes biological, psychological, and sociological factors. The biological factors have been the focus of investigation. In recent years, pathways related to nutrition and the relationship between alcohol addiction and craving have been studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between the appetite hormones (adiponectin, ghrelin, and resistin) and alcohol craving. Blood samples were obtained from 107 male patients over a 7-day period. Levels of adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin, the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) score, and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS) score were assessed on days 0 and 7. Adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin levels were also tested in 83 healthy males in the control group. The sample group consisted of 190 males (107 patients and 83 healthy controls). Comparison of alcohol craving scales with biological markers in the patient group showed a positive correlation between adiponectin levels and the OCDS compulsive subscale scores, and a positive correlation between ghrelin levels and the OCDS total and compulsive subscale scores and the PACS resistance subscale scores. Resistin levels were negatively correlated with the OCDS total, obsessive subscale, and compulsive subscale scores. Although we did not observe a significant relationship between craving and any of the 3 biomarkers on day 0, craving was positively correlated with the levels of adiponectin and ghrelin and negatively correlated resistin levels on day 7. Our findings support the hypothesis that appetite hormones are trait markers for alcohol craving. Nevertheless, more conclusive results require future studies that evaluate the relationship between these hormones and withdrawal/detoxification period or long-term soberness. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Level of response to alcohol as a factor for targeted prevention in college students.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jeanne E; Neale, Zoe; Cho, Seung Bin; Hancock, Linda; Kalmijn, Jelger A; Smith, Tom L; Schuckit, Marc A; Donovan, Kristen Kidd; Dick, Danielle M

    2015-11-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption and alcohol problems among college students are widespread and associated with negative outcomes for individuals and communities. Although current methods for prevention and intervention programming have some demonstrated efficacy, heavy drinking remains a problem. A previous pilot study and a recent large-scale evaluation (Schuckit et al., , ) found that a tailored prevention program based on a risk factor for heavy drinking, low level of response (low LR) to alcohol, was more effective at reducing heavy drinking than a state-of-the-art (SOTA) standard prevention program for individuals with the low LR risk factor. This study enrolled 231 first-semester college freshmen with either high or low LR into the same level of response-based (LRB) or SOTA online prevention programs as in the previous reports (consisting of 4 weeks of video modules), as well as a group of matched controls not receiving alcohol prevention, and compared changes in alcohol use between these groups across a 6-month period. Individuals in alcohol prevention programs had a greater reduction in maximum drinks per occasion and alcohol use disorder symptoms than controls. There was limited evidence for interactions between LR and prevention group in predicting change in alcohol use behaviors; only among participants with strict adherence to the program was there an interaction between LR and program in predicting maximum drinks per occasion. However, overall, low LR individuals showed greater decreases in drinking behaviors, especially risky behaviors (e.g., maximum drinks, frequency of heavy drinking) than high LR individuals. These results indicate that prevention programs, including brief and relatively inexpensive web-based programs, may be effective for persons at highest risk for heavier drinking, such as those with a low LR. Tailored programs may provide incremental benefits under some conditions. Long-term follow-ups and further investigations of tailored

  3. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  4. Prenatal and Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Levels and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Vincent M.; Lutsky, Marta; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Lasley, Bill; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle; Gee, Nancy; Croen, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay…

  5. A rapid increase in lipoprotein (a) levels after ethanol withdrawal in alcoholic men

    SciTech Connect

    Kervinen, K.; Savolainen, J.J.; Kesaeniemi, Y.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were studied in 11 male alcoholics at the end of a drinking period and monitored during subsequent abstinence. Lp(a) levels showed a daily increase for four consecutive days after the beginning of abstinence, the values for the third and the fourth day being significantly higher than those of the first day. The changes in Lp(a) showed no association with the changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In one alcoholic subject with a heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia who was monitored for 11 days, the Lp(a) levels rose up to the fourth day and remained at a high level thereafter. These results suggest that ethanol ingestion may be associated with a lower of Lp(a) levels, which may contribute to the delayed progression of atherosclerosis observed in alcohol drinkers.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Prenatal Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... many problems and prevent others. Your doctor or midwife will give you a schedule for your prenatal ... diabetes or high blood pressure, your doctor or midwife will probably want to see you more often. ...

  8. Effects of pre-natal and continued lead exposure on activity levels in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Zimering, R T; Burright, R G; Donovick, P J

    1982-01-01

    Binghamton heterogeneous (HET) stock mice were exposed to 0.5% lead acetate solution from conception through adulthood. Activity was measured in an open field, shuttle-box, and the home cage. Independent groups of animals were tested at several ages in the light (day) and dark (night). Despite significant blood-lead level differences between the control and lead treated animals, developmental and activity differences between groups were restricted to selected measures. The lead-treatment appeared to alter only jumping in the open field and some consummatory behaviors observed in the home cage. This research does not provide support for a model which proposes a simple, direct relationship between low-level lead toxicity and hyperactive behavior. It is suggested that future research focus on the specific conditions under which activity is measured. Animal parallels to a human "hyperactive disorder" may need to be reformulated in terms of attention deficits which mark the childhood disorder.

  9. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  10. Prenatal folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels and child brain volumes, cognitive development and psychological functioning: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Ars, Charlotte L; Nijs, Ilse M; Marroun, Hanan E; Muetzel, Ryan; Schmidt, Marcus; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; van der Lugt, Aad; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; White, Tonya

    2016-01-22

    Previous studies have suggested that prenatal maternal folate deficiency is associated with reduced prenatal brain growth and psychological problems in offspring. However, little is known about the longer-term impact. The aims of this study were to investigate whether prenatal maternal folate insufficiency, high total homocysteine levels and low vitamin B12 levels are associated with altered brain morphology, cognitive and/or psychological problems in school-aged children. This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective population-based cohort study. The study sample consisted of 256 Dutch children aged between 6 and 8 years from whom structural brain scans were collected using MRI. The mothers of sixty-two children had insufficient (9·1 µmol/l) predicted poorer performance on the language (B -0·31; 95 % CI -0·56, -0·06; P=0·014) and visuo-spatial domains (B -0·36; 95 % CI -0·60, -0·11; P=0·004). No associations with psychological problems were found. Our findings suggest that folate insufficiency in early pregnancy has a long-lasting, global effect on brain development and is, together with homocysteine levels, associated with poorer cognitive performance.

  11. Prenatal and Newborn Immunoglobulin Levels from Mother-Child Pairs and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grether, Judith K.; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Yolken, Robert H.; Anderson, Meredith C.; Torres, Anthony R.; Westover, Jonna B.; Sweeten, Thayne; Hansen, Robin L.; Kharrazi, Martin; Croen, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: An etiological role for immune factors operating during early brain development in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has not yet been established. A major obstacle has been the lack of early biologic specimens that can be linked to later diagnosis. In a prior study, we found lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of maternally-derived total IgG and Toxoplasmosis gondii (Toxo) IgG in newborn blood spot specimens from children later diagnosed with ASD compared to population controls. Methods: We obtained maternal mid-gestational serum specimens and newborn screening blood spots from the California Genetics Disease Screening Program (GDSP) for linked mother-baby pairs for 84 children with ASD and 49 children with developmental delay but not ASD (DD) identified from California Department of Developmental Services records and for 159 population controls sampled from birth certificates.Immunoglobulin levels in maternal and newborn specimens were measured by solid phase immunoassays and analyzed in logistic regression models for total IgG, total IgM, and Toxo IgG, and, for maternal specimens only, Toxo IgM. Correlations between maternal and newborn ranked values were evaluated. Results: In both maternal and newborn specimens, we found significantly lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of Toxo IgG. In addition, point estimates for all comparisons were < 1.0 suggesting an overall pattern of lower immunoglobulin levels associated with higher ASD risk but most did not reach statistical significance. We did not find differences in maternal or newborn specimens comparing children with DD to controls. Discussion: These results are consistent with evidence from our prior study and other published reports indicating that immune factors during early neurodevelopment may be etiologically relevant to ASD. Lowered immunoglobulin levels may represent suboptimal function of the maternal immune system or reduced maternal exposure to common

  12. Prenatal and Newborn Immunoglobulin Levels from Mother-Child Pairs and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Grether, Judith K; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Yolken, Robert H; Anderson, Meredith C; Torres, Anthony R; Westover, Jonna B; Sweeten, Thayne; Hansen, Robin L; Kharrazi, Martin; Croen, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    An etiological role for immune factors operating during early brain development in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has not yet been established. A major obstacle has been the lack of early biologic specimens that can be linked to later diagnosis. In a prior study, we found lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of maternally-derived total IgG and Toxoplasmosis gondii (Toxo) IgG in newborn blood spot specimens from children later diagnosed with ASD compared to population controls. We obtained maternal mid-gestational serum specimens and newborn screening blood spots from the California Genetics Disease Screening Program (GDSP) for linked mother-baby pairs for 84 children with ASD and 49 children with developmental delay but not ASD (DD) identified from California Department of Developmental Services records and for 159 population controls sampled from birth certificates.Immunoglobulin levels in maternal and newborn specimens were measured by solid phase immunoassays and analyzed in logistic regression models for total IgG, total IgM, and Toxo IgG, and, for maternal specimens only, Toxo IgM. Correlations between maternal and newborn ranked values were evaluated. In both maternal and newborn specimens, we found significantly lower risk of ASD associated with higher levels of Toxo IgG. In addition, point estimates for all comparisons were < 1.0 suggesting an overall pattern of lower immunoglobulin levels associated with higher ASD risk but most did not reach statistical significance. We did not find differences in maternal or newborn specimens comparing children with DD to controls. These results are consistent with evidence from our prior study and other published reports indicating that immune factors during early neurodevelopment may be etiologically relevant to ASD. Lowered immunoglobulin levels may represent suboptimal function of the maternal immune system or reduced maternal exposure to common infectious agents. Patterns seen in these

  13. Level of Response to Alcohol as a Factor for Targeted Prevention in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jeanne E.; Neale, Zoe; Cho, Seung Bin; Hancock, Linda; Kalmijn, Jelger A.; Smith, Tom L.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Donovan, Kristen Kidd; Dick, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption and alcohol problems among college students are widespread and associated with negative outcomes for individuals and communities. Though current methods for prevention and intervention programming have some demonstrated efficacy, heavy drinking remains a problem. A previous pilot study and a recent large scale evaluation (Schuckit et al., 2012; 2015) found that a tailored prevention program based on a risk factor for heavy drinking, low level of response (low LR) to alcohol, was more effective at reducing heavy drinking than a state of the art (SOTA) standard prevention program for individuals with the low LR risk factor. Methods The present study enrolled 231 first-semester college freshmen with either high or low LR into the same level of response-based (LRB) or SOTA online prevention programs as in the previous reports (consisting of four weeks of video modules), as well as a group of matched controls not receiving alcohol prevention, and compared changes in alcohol use between these groups across a six-month period. Results Individuals in alcohol prevention programs had a greater reduction in maximum drinks per occasion and alcohol use disorder symptoms than controls. There was limited evidence for interactions between level of response and prevention group in predicting change in alcohol use behaviors; only among participants with strict adherence to the program was there an interaction between LR and program in predicting maximum drinks per occasion. However, overall, low LR individuals showed greater decreases in drinking behaviors, especially risky behaviors (e.g. maximum drinks, frequency of heavy drinking) than high LR individuals. Conclusions These results indicate that prevention programs, including brief and relatively inexpensive web-based programs, may be effective for persons at highest risk for heavier drinking, such as those with a low LR. Tailored programs may provide incremental benefits under some conditions

  14. The effects of prenatal exposure to low-level cadmium, lead and selenium on birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the current maternal and fetal exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and their potential effect on newborn birth outcomes, a cross-sectional study involving an assessment of the levels of these three metals in maternal blood, urine and umbilical cord blood was conducted in 209 pregnant women living in Eastern China. The maternal blood, urine and cord blood samples were collected and measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The maternal blood concentrations of Cd, Pb and Se (the geometric means (GMs) were 0.48, 39.50 and 143.53 μg L(-1)) were significantly higher than and correlated with those in the cord blood (GM: 0.09, 31.62 and 124.61 μg L(-1)). In the urine samples, the GMs for Cd, Pb and Se were 0.13, 0.48, and 4.78 μg L(-1), respectively. Passive smoking was found to positively correlate with urine Cd (r=0.16) and negatively correlate with urine Se (r=-0.29). The maternal blood Se level was negatively associated with the cord Cd levels (r=-0.41). The blood Cd concentration in the mother could significantly affect the newborn birth weight (r=-0.22), but it was not correlated with birth height. We identified cord Se as a new factor which significantly correlated with birth weight. In conclusion, maternal Cd, Pb, Se exposure correlated with their umbilical cord concentration, and maternal Cd exposure might affect the newborn birth weight. Increasing the Se intake might reduce the cord blood Cd concentration and promote the fetal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does low urine creatinine level indicate the presence of urine alcohol in methadone maintenance treatment patients?

    PubMed

    Varenbut, Michael; Plater-Zyberk, Carolyn J; Worster, Andrew; Daiter, Jeff

    2010-07-01

    We sought to test the assumption that a low urine creatinine level is indicative of the prese