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Sample records for level underground laboratory

  1. Underground laboratories in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  2. North American deep underground laboratories: Soudan Underground Laboratory, SNOLab, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, Kevin T.

    2015-08-01

    Over the past several decades, fundamental physics experiments have required access to deep underground laboratories to satisfy the increasingly strict requirements for ultra-low background environments and shielding from cosmic rays. In this presentation, I summarize the existing and anticipated physics programs and laboratory facilities of North America's deep facilities: The Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota, SNOLab in Ontario, Canada, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota.

  3. The world deep underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettini, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper is an introduction to a series of coordinated articles of an EPJ Plus Focus Point on underground physics laboratories, written by the directors of the larger ones and by the coordinators of the principal new projects. The paper is largely based on the text of my lecture Perspectives of underground physics, given at the Enrico Fermi Varenna International School, Course CLXXXII (2011), Neutrino physics and astrophysics, reproduced here by permission of the Italian Physical Society. Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to explore the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators, by searching for extremely rare phenomena. Experiments range from the direct search of the dark-matter particles that constitute the largest fraction of matter in the Universe, to the exploration of the properties of the neutrinos, the most elusive of the known particles and which might be particle and antiparticle at the same time, to the investigation on why our universe contains only matter and almost no antimatter, and much more.

  4. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  5. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  6. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  7. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-31

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  8. Visit to the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    U.S. Department of Energy scientists and administrators join members of the National Science Foundation and South Dakotas Sanford Underground Laboratory for the deepest journey yet to the proposed site of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL).

  9. Modane underground laboratory: Status and project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piquemal, F.

    2012-09-01

    The Modane Underground Laboratory is located 4800 meter water equivalent below the Fréjus mountain in the middle of the Fréjus road tunnel between France and Italy. This laboratory is a multi-disciplinary platform for experiments requiring low radioactive environment in particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics but also for environmental sciences, biology, applications and industrial test benches. There exits a project for a new laboratory, 5 times bigger than the present one. It should be digged in 2013 during the excavation of the safety tunnel of the Fréjus road tunnel.

  10. LAFARA: a new underground laboratory in the French Pyrénées for ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Lansard, B; Bourquin, M; Reyss, J-L; von Ballmoos, P; Jean, P

    2013-02-01

    We describe a new underground laboratory, namely LAFARA (for "LAboratoire de mesure des FAibles RAdioactivités"), that was recently created in the French Pyrénées. This laboratory is primarily designed to analyze environmental samples that display low radioactivity levels using gamma-ray spectrometry. Two high-purity germanium detectors were placed under 85 m of rock (ca. 215 m water equivalent) in the tunnel of Ferrières (Ariège, France). The background is thus reduced by a factor of ∼20 in comparison to above-ground laboratories. Both detectors are fully equipped so that the samples can be analyzed in an automatic mode without requiring permanent presence of a technician in the laboratory. Auto-samplers (twenty positions) and systems to fill liquid nitrogen automatically provide one month of autonomy to the spectrometers. The LAFARA facility allows us to develop new applications in the field of environmental sciences based on the use of natural radionuclides present at low levels in the environment. As an illustration, we present two of these applications: i) dating of marine sediments using the decay of (226)Ra in sedimentary barite (BaSO(4)), ii) determination of (227)Ac ((231)Pa) activities in marine sediment cores.

  11. Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zimbal, Andreas; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Degering, Detlev; Zuber, Kai

    2013-08-08

    We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a {sup 228}Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed {sup 228}Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10{sup −6}. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

  12. SUNLAB - The Project of a Polish Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kisiel, J.; Dorda, J.; Konefall, A.; Mania, S.; Szeglowski, T.; Budzanowski, M.; Haranczyk, M.; Kozak, K.; Mazur, J.; Mietelski, J. W.; Puchalska, M.; Szarska, M.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Zalewska, A.; Chorowski, M.; Polinski, J.; Cygan, S.; Hanzel, S.; Markiewicz, A.; Mertuszka, P.

    2010-11-24

    The project of the first Polish underground laboratory SUNLAB, in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine, belonging to the KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. holding, is presented. Two stages of the project are foreseen: SUNLAB1 (a small laboratory in the salt layer exhibiting extremely low level of natural radioactivity) and SUNLAB2 (a big laboratory in the anhydrite layer, able to host the next generation liquid argon detector - GLACIER, which is considered within the LAGUNA FP7 project). The results of the natural radioactivity background measurements performed in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice salt cavern are also briefly summarized.

  13. SUNLAB-The Project of a Polish Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, J.; Budzanowski, M.; Chorowski, M.; Cygan, S.; Dorda, J.; Hanzel, S.; Harańczyk, M.; Horoszczak, L.; Januszewska, K.; Jaroń, L.; Konefalł, A.; Kozak, K.; Lankof, L.; Mania, S.; Markiewicz, A.; Markowski, P.; Mazur, J.; Mertuszka, P.; Mietelski, J. W.; Poliński, J.; Puchalska, M.; Pytel, W.; Raczyński, M.; Sadecki, Z.; Sadowski, A.; Ślizowski, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Szeglowski, T.; Tomankiewicz, E.; Urbańczyk, K.; Zalewska, A.

    2010-11-01

    The project of the first Polish underground laboratory SUNLAB, in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper mine, belonging to the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. holding, is presented. Two stages of the project are foreseen: SUNLAB1 (a small laboratory in the salt layer exhibiting extremely low level of natural radioactivity) and SUNLAB2 (a big laboratory in the anhydrite layer, able to host the next generation liquid argon detector-GLACIER, which is considered within the LAGUNA FP7 project). The results of the natural radioactivity background measurements performed in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice salt cavern are also briefly summarized.

  14. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, and [sup 233]U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  15. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 233}U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak.

  16. Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemmerer, D.; Cowan, T. E.; Gohl, S.; Ilgner, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Rimarzig, B.; Reinicke, S.; Röder, M.; Schmidt, K.; Schwengner, R.; Stöckel, K.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, proteced from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise has been carried out using the same HPGe detector in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup at several sites, including the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory. It was found that its rock overburden of 45m rock, together with an active veto against the remaining muon flux, reduces the background to a level that is similar to the deep underground scenario. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem with 250 μA upcharge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is underway. The project is now fully funded. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the planned access possibilities for external users will be reported.

  17. Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim

    2006-10-01

    The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

  18. Experiences and prospects of nuclear astrophysics in underground laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Junker, M.

    2014-05-09

    Impressive progress has been made in the course the last decades in understanding astrophysical objects. Increasing precision of nuclear physics data has contributed significantly to this success, but now a better understanding of several important findings is frequently limited by uncertainties related to the available nuclear physics data. Consequently it is desirable to improve significantly the quality of these data. An important step towards higher precision is an excellent signal to background ratio of the data. Placing an accelerator facility inside an underground laboratory reducing the cosmic ray induced background by six orders of magnitude is a powerful method to reach this goal, even though careful reduction of environmental and beam induced background must still be considered. Experience in the field of underground nuclear astrophysics has been gained since 20 years due to the pioneering work of the LUNA Collaboration (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) operating inside the underground laboratories of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. Based on the success of this work presently also several other projects for underground laboratories dedicated to nuclear astrophysics are being pursued worldwide. This contribution will give a survey of the past experience in underground nuclear astrophysics as well as an outlook on future developments.

  19. Laboratory Investigation of Containment of Underground Explosions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    the mechanics of containing gases in cavities formed by underground nuclear explosions. One experimental technique uses constant flow rate...30 2.3 Containment Experiment Apparatus...........................31 2.4 Constant Flow -Rate Hydrofracture System ................... 32 2.5 Overall...charge size (3/8 gram PETN), overburden pressure [1000 psi (6.895 MPa). viscosity of the hydrofracture fluid (I centipoise), and rate of fluid 0 flow

  20. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Russell O.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.

  1. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Veselinović, N. Dragić, A. Maletić, D. Joković, D. Savić, M. Banjanac, R. Udovičić, V. Aničin, I.

    2015-02-24

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations.

  2. Laboratory study of the underground sound generated by debris flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ching-Jer; Shieh, Chieng-Lun; Yin, Hsiao-Yuan

    2004-03-01

    This experimental study investigates the underground sound generated by different kinds of rock motions that occur in debris flows. The experiments were divided into two parts. The first part consisted of measuring the main characteristics of the underground sound caused by friction of a rock rubbed against a bed of gravel and of that caused by a free-falling rock hitting a similar bed of gravel. In the second part a hydrophone was installed at the bottom of a laboratory channel to measure the underground sound of debris flows in that channel. The sound signals were analyzed using both the fast Fourier transform and the Gabor transform to represent the signals in both the frequency and time-frequency domains. The measurement results reveal that the frequency of the sound generated by the rock-gravel bed friction is relatively low, being mostly between 20 and 80 Hz. In contrast, the frequency range of the collision sound is relatively higher, between 10 and 500 Hz. Finally, the frequency of the underground sound caused by the debris flows in the flume is in the range of 20-300 Hz.

  3. Muon tomography in the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, N.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.; Carlus, B.; Nussbaum, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Mont Terri underground rock laboratory (Switzerland) was excavated in a Mesozoic shale formation constituted by Opalinus clay. This impermeable formation presents suitable properties for hosting repository sites of radioactive waste. A muon telescope has been placed in this laboratory in October 2009 to establish the feasibility of the muon tomography and to test the sensor performance in a calm environment, where we are protected from atmospheric noisy particles. However, the presence of radon in the gallery as well as charged particles issued from the decay of gamma rays may create a background noise. This noise shift and smooths the signal inducing an under estimation of the rock density. The uncorrelated background has been measured by placing the planes of detection in anti-coincidence. This estimation is preponderant and has to be combined to the theoretical feasibility evaluation to determine the best experimental set-up to observe muon flux fluctuations due to density variations. The muon densitometry experience is here exposed with the estimation of its feasibility. The data acquired from different locations inside the underground laboratory are presented. They are compared to two models representing the layer above the laboratory corresponding to a minimum and a maximum muon flux expectation depending on the values of the rock density.

  4. The Underground Laboratory in South Korea : facilities and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeongduk

    2017-01-01

    We have developed underground physics programs for last 15 years in South Korea. The scientific and technical motivation for this initiative was the lack of local facility of a large accelerator in Korea. Thanks to the large underground electric power generator in Yangyang area, we could construct a deep underground laboratory (Yangyang Laboratory, Y2L) and has performed some pioneering experiments for dark matter search and double beta decay experiments. Since year of 2013, a new research center in the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Underground Physics (CUP), is approved by the government and Y2L laboratory is managed by CUP. Due to the limited space in Y2L, we are proposing to construct a new deep underground laboratory where we can host larger scale experiments of next generation. The site is in an active iron mine, and will be made in 1100 meter underground with a space of about 2000 m2 by the end of 2019. I will describe the status and future plan for this underground laboratory. CUP has two main experimental programs. (1) Identification of dark matter : The annual modulation signal of DAMA/LIBRA experiment has been contradictory to many other experiments such as XENON100, LUX, and Super CDMS. Yale University and CUP (COSINE-100) experimentalists agreed to do an experiment together at the Y2L and recently commissioned a 100kg scale low background NaI(Tl) crystal experiment. In future, we will develop NaI(Tl) crystals with lower internal backgrounds and try to run identical detectors at both north and south hemisphere. Low mass WIMP search is also planned with a development of low temperature sensors coupled with highly scintillating crystals. (2) Neutrinoless double beta decay search : The mass of the lightest neutrino and the Majorana nature of the neutrinos are not determined yet. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiment can answer both of the questions directly, and ultra-low backgrounds and excellent energy resolution are critical to

  5. Radon Monitoring and Early Low Background Counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K. J.; Mei, D.-M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

    2011-04-27

    Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

  6. Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.J.; Mei, D.M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

    2010-09-01

    Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

  7. A Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at Kimballton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2004-11-01

    The National Academy of Science, as well as several long-range plans from the physics communities, have endorsed the need to create a large, multi-disciplinary underground laboratory in the US. Several potential sites have been identified, and the National Science Foundation has begun a solicitation process to help formulate the science program as well as to identify and develop candidate sites. The only site on the East Coast is at Kimballton, near Blacksburg, in western Virginia. Of all the sites, it is the only one located in sedimentary rocks. This makes it an IDEAL and unique location for both physics, geoscience, and engineering studies. Kimballton is also only half an hour from Virginia Tech, the largest university in the state of Virginia. A multi-institution group has been developing this possibility, and will be competing on the national scale to have DUSEL located at Kimballton. One of the assets of this location is a large limestone mine, already at a depth of 2300 ft (1850 mwe), with true drive-in access and extremely large caverns. The DUSEL facility at this location will try to take advantage of the existing infrastructure, while at the same time develop complementary and adjacent facilities down to 7000 ft (6000 mwe) to allow independent operation of the future facility. Since 2003, Virginia Tech and the Naval Research Laboratory have been working to also develop a general low-level facility at this location. The initial program is to help develop extremely low-background germanium and gas proportional counters, and a single super-module of the Low-Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) detector -- designed to measure the real-time low-energy neutrino spectrum from the Sun, including the pp-flux. Progress in this program (including seismic imaging), and the proposed overall extensive science program (Phys, Geo, Eng, Bio) which can be addressed at Kimballton will be presented. For further information, see our webpage http://www.phys.vt.edu/ kimballton

  8. Results of ultra-low level 71ge counting for application in the Gallex-solar neutrino experiment at the Gran Sasso Underground Physics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Huebner, M.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Schneider, K.; Schlotz, R.

    1985-01-01

    It has been experimentally verified that the Ultra-Low-Level Counting System for the Gallex solar neutrino experiment is capable of measuring the expected solar up silon-flux to plus or minus 12% during two years of operation.

  9. Making of the underground scientific experimental programme at the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory, North Eastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Vinsot, Agnès; Krieguer, Jean-Marie; Rebours, Hervé; Armand, Gilles

    In November 1999 Andra began building an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) on the border of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in eastern France. The research activities of the URL are dedicated to study the feasibility of reversible, deep geological disposal of high-activity, long-lived radioactive wastes in an argillaceous host rock. The Laboratory consists of two shafts, an experimental drift at 445 m depth and a set of technical and experimental drifts at the main level at 490 m depth. The main objective of the research is to characterize the confining properties of the argillaceous rock through in situ hydrogeological tests, chemical measurements and diffusion experiments. In order to achieve this goal, a fundamental understanding of the geoscientific properties and processes that govern geological isolation in clay-rich rocks has been acquired. This understanding includes both the host rocks at the laboratory site and the regional geological context. After establishing the geological conditions, the underground research programme had to demonstrate that the construction and operation of a geological disposal will not introduce pathways for waste migration. Thus, the construction of the laboratory itself serves a research purpose through the monitoring of excavation effects and the optimization of construction technology. These studies are primarily geomechanical in nature, though chemical and hydrogeological coupling also have important roles. In order to achieve the scientific objectives of this project in the underground drifts, a specific methodology has been applied for carrying out the experimental programme conducted concurrently with the construction of the shafts and drifts. This methodology includes technological as well as organizational aspects and a systematic use of feedback from other laboratories abroad and every scientific zone of the URL already installed. This methodology was first applied to set up a multi-purpose experimental area

  10. Early Earth Science Activities in the Sanford Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Glaser, S. D.; Moore, J. R.; Hart, K.; King, G.; Regan, T.; Bang, S. S.; Sani, R. K.; Roggenthen, W. M.

    2007-12-01

    On July 10, 2007, the former Homestake Mine, Lead, South Dakota, was selected as the development site for the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory, to become the Sanford Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake. Work on refurbishment and certification of the Ross Shaft began in August 2007 to effect pumping of water that had reached the 5000 level in late July. Completion of this work will allow a physics and geosciences laboratory to be constructed on the 4,850 ft level (1,478 m from the surface). Concurrent with reentry operations, several earth science research activities have been initiated. These early activities are as follows: (1) Seismic monitoring system: Accelerometers will be installed in surface boreholes and underground drifts as they become available as a result of the reentry work. (2) Evaluation of the 300 level (91 m), which has multiple locations for horizontal access, is ongoing. This near- surface level, with varying overburden thicknesses, offers excellent opportunities to investigate the "critical zone" in terms of hydrology, ecology, and geochemistry, yielding measurements of both moisture and carbon fluxes to evaluate fluid exchanges with the atmosphere. (3) Water and soil samples were collected in the Ross Shaft as part of the first reentry work. Molecular survey of microbial diversity showed the presence of mesophilic and thermophilic cellulose-degrading microorganisms. (4) Supercritical carbon dioxide injection experiments are being planned that will take advantage of three pairs of existing, nearly vertical, open 8-inch (0.2 m) boreholes that are easily accessible from the Ross Shaft. The candidate holes are located between the 1550 and the 2900 levels and are between 90 to 180 m in length (5) Monitoring of the response of the water during the dewatering operations will be facilitated by the use of existing boreholes. Ultimately, the dewatering operation provide access to the 8000 level (depth of 2,438 m

  11. The PTB underground laboratory for dosimetry and spectrometry

    PubMed

    Neumaier; Arnold; Bohm; Funck

    2000-07-01

    In 1991, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt established an underground laboratory for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) at the Asse salt mine, near Braunschweig. Due to the depth of 925 m below ground (equivalent to about 2100 m of water), the cosmic ray muon intensity in this facility is reduced by more than 5 orders of magnitude. In addition, the low specific activity of the pure rock salt and a low concentration of radon lead to an extremely low ambient dose equivalent rate of less than 1 nSv/h. The UDO facility is therefore well suited for dosimetry at very low dose rates, as well as for Ultra-Low-Background (ULB) gamma-ray spectrometry. In 1998, a coaxial low-background HPGe-detector (88% relative efficiency, FWHM 2.0 keV at 1.33 MeV) with an extended shielding (20 cm low-activity lead, 1 cm electrolytic copper, N2-flushing) was installed at UDO; the count rate per mass of germanium, integrated over the energy range from 40 to 2750 keV, was measured to be 0.012 s(-1) kg(-1). Results from test measurements and first applications are reported. The design of a ULB gamma-detector system, presently under construction, is described.

  12. Development of a HPGe shielding system for radioactivity measurements at Cheongpyeong Underground Radiation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. I.; Huh, J. Y.; Lee, E. K.; Choi, S. H.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, Y. D.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, K. W.; Park, S. Y.; Yoo, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    We constructed an underground laboratory called Cheongpyeong Underground Radiation Laboratory (CURL) for measuring the radioactivity levels of various samples by using HPGe detectors. CURL is located underground at a depth of 1000-m water equivalent in the Cheongpyeong Pumped Storage Power Plant. We developed a shielding system, which consists of 15-cm-thick Pb blocks and 5-cm-thick Cu blocks and completely surrounds a 100% HPGe detector. We measured the background radiations and the gamma peaks from sources with and without the shield. The shielding efficiencies were also estimated using MCNP5 simulations, and they were compared to our measured data. The shielding system blocked more than 99.99% of gamma rays with energies up to 3.0 MeV. The HPGe detector with the shielding system at CURL blocked both high-energy cosmic rays and background radiation from surrounding rocks and materials. Our CURL detector system was optimized for gamma-ray measurements of meterials with ultra-low radioactivity.

  13. Seismic anisotropy in granite at the Underground Research Laboratory, Manitoba

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, G.M.; Crampin, S.; Young, R.P.

    2000-05-01

    The Shear-Wave Experiment at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory was probably the first controlled-source shear-wave survey in a mine environment. Taking place in conjunction with the excavation of the Mine-by test tunnel at 420 m depth, the shear-wave experiment was designed to measure the in situ anisotropy of the rockmass and to use shear waves to observe excavation effects using the greatest variety of raypath directions of any in situ shear-wave survey to date. Inversion of the shear-wave polarizations shows that the anisotropy of the in situ rockmass is consistent with hexagonal symmetry with an approximate fabric orientation of strike 023{degree} and dip 35{degree}. The in situ anisotropy is probably due to microcracks with orientations governed by the in situ stress field and to mineral alignment within the weak gneissic layering. However, there is no unique interpretation as to the cause of the in situ anisotropy as the fabric orientation agrees approximately with both the orientation expected from extensive-dilatancy anisotropy and that of the gneissic layering. Eight raypaths with shear waves propagating wholly or almost wholly through granodiorite, rather than granite, do not show the expected shear-wave splitting and indicate a lower in situ anisotropy, which may be due to the finer grain size and/or the absence of gneissic layering within the granodiorite. These results suggest that shear waves may be used to determine crack and mineral orientations and for remote monitoring of a rockmass. This has potential applications in mining and waste monitoring.

  14. Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrchota, Janet

    1974-01-01

    At a time when the future of New York's subway system looked bleak, new underground zoning legislation (the first ever) has been enacted. This new law requires buildings constructed near a subway station to provide transit easement space to allow public access to the subway through the building property. (MA)

  15. Low-background Gamma Spectroscopy at Sanford Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiller, Christopher; Alanson, Angela; Mei, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    Rare-event physics experiments require the use of material with unprecedented radio-purity. Low background counting assay capabilities and detectors are critical for determining the sensitivity of the planned ultra-low background experiments. A low-background counting, LBC, facility has been built at the 4850-Level Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility to perform screening of material and detector parts. Like many rare event physics experiments, our LBC uses lead shielding to mitigate background radiation. Corrosion of lead brick shielding in subterranean installations creates radon plate-out potential as well as human risks of ingestible or respirable lead compounds. Our LBC facilities employ an exposed lead shield requiring clean smooth surfaces. A cleaning process of low-activity silica sand blasting and borated paraffin hot coating preservation was employed to guard against corrosion due to chemical and biological exposures. The resulting lead shield maintains low background contribution integrity while fully encapsulating the lead surface. We report the performance of the current LBC and a plan to develop a large germanium well detector for PMT screening. Support provided by Sd governors research center-CUBED, NSF PHY-0758120 and Sanford Lab.

  16. The Dresden Felsenkeller shallow-underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics - Status and first physics program

    SciTech Connect

    Ilgner, Ch.

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background in underground laboratories, low-background accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used for many years with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, protected from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies than those available at LUNA. Also the study of solar fusion reactions necessitates new data at higher energies. As a result, in the present NuPECC long range plan for nuclear physics in Europe, the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators is strongly recommended. An intercomparison exercise using the same High-Purity Ge detector at several sites has shown that, with a combination of 45 m rock overburden, as can be found in the Felsenkeller underground site in Dresden, and an active veto against the remaining muon flux, in a typical nuclear astrophysics setup a background level can be achieved that is similar to the deep underground scenario as in the Gran- Sasso underground laboratory, for instance. Recently, a muon background study and geodetic measurements were carried out by the REGARD group. It was estimated that the rock overburden at the place of the future ion accelerator is equivalent to 130 m of water. The maximum muon flux measured was 2.5 m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} s{sup -1}, in the direction of the tunnel entrance. Based on this finding, a used 5 MV pelletron tandem accelerator with 250 μA up-charge current and external sputter ion source has been obtained and transported to Dresden. Work on an additional radio-frequency ion source on the high voltage terminal is in progress and far advanced. The installation of the accelerator in the Felsenkeller is expected for the near future. The status of the project and the

  17. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development.

    PubMed

    Aalseth, C E; Bonicalzi, R M; Cantaloub, M G; Day, A R; Erikson, L E; Fast, J; Forrester, J B; Fuller, E S; Glasgow, B D; Greenwood, L R; Hoppe, E W; Hossbach, T W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Merriman, J H; Myers, A W; Overman, C T; Overman, N R; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A; Warren, G A; Runkle, R C

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  18. Geomechanics for an Underground Physics Laboratory in Alluvium

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F; Rees, D; Swift, R; Zipf, K

    2002-07-31

    The Lawrence Livermore (LLNL) and Los Alamos (LANL) National Laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy perform high-energy physics experiments in an underground mine, the Ula complex, at the Nevada Test Site. The mine-operating contractor is Bechtel Nevada Corporation (BN). The peculiarity of this mine is that it is in an alluvium with an unconfined compressive strength of about 1 MPa, at a depth of 300m. So, the in-situ vertical stress is about 6 MPa. Two shafts mark the north and south boundaries of the Ula complex, the Ulh (brand new) and Ula (older) shafts respectively. Their centerlines are separated by a distance of 510 m. The east-west dimension of the complex currently is about 340 m. The drifts and chambers are horizontal and have a width up to 6.6 meters and a height up to 5.1 meters, with locally larger openings at the shaft stations. The drifts are excavated using an Alpine Miner and are taken in two steps, heading and bench, or full heading. At present, ground support is by means of 2.4 m to 5.1 m long rock bolts and wire mesh, that are covered by a 7.5 to 15-cm layer of steel-fiber reinforced shotcrete applied as a dry mix. A few years ago, some significant distress was observed in the shotcrete and the bare alluvium at several locations in the complex. In addition, significant yielding of the ground was surmised at load transfer distances of up to 60 meters. At that time, there were only a minimal number of diagnostic instruments to provide any understanding of the ground behavior. A Mining Review Board was formed in 2000, and a geomechanics program was designed and implemented to guide future expansion of the complex. The paper describes the geomechanics results and their interpretation. Several areas are discussed: (1) Strength properties of rock material; potential scale effects. (2) Rock mass deformation: multi-position extensometer and closure station time-dependent data. (3) Alluvium creep properties: considerable difference are shown in

  19. Construction of the NuMI underground laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Laughton, Christopher; Bruen, Michael P

    2003-01-01

    At Fermilab, a 4000-ft long underground complex has recently been constructed for a high-energy physics experiment. The complex is sited up to 350 ft, below grade principally in bedrock. The rock excavations were mined by TBM and drill and blast methods and supported by a combination of rock bolts, dowels and shotcrete. Water control was achieved using a combination of pre- and post-excavation grouting, drainage systems, drip shielding and air desiccation measures.

  20. Laboratory and Field Studies of Fracture Flow and Its Extension in Underground Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hudson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Basic studies of fracture flow, such as the cubic law, were widely cited for over four decades and used in understanding processes in fractured media. We evaluate the fracture flow law implications and its extensions. The understanding of fluid flow through fractured rocks is important for progress in the many existing and proposed engineering projects dedicated to the support of mankind. Moreover, the characterization of this understanding is crucial during the use of the supporting computer modeling—which is becoming evermore ambitious and ubiquitous. The calculations and resultant outputs need to be validated, both in order to ensure appropriate engineering decisions and because there is increasing emphasis on the use of the Earth's resources, their sustainability and more accountability of engineers' decisions. Within this context, there remain many unknowns: how do we establish the geometrical and hydro-geological properties of fractures in a specific rock mass?; how do we establish the link between the hydro-geological fracture properties and other variables such as the in situ stress state?; and how do we validate the results at the full scale? Concurrently with the laboratory and numerical studies of fracture flows, we have made progresses in developing underground research laboratories (URLs) in both hard and soft rocks, in housing large halls for particle detections at great depths, and in testing the energy and resource recovery capacities and the waste disposal potentials through borehole complexes. In addition to existing worldwide networks for radioactive wastes, we initiate comparisons of different underground laboratories and facilities, including also physics laboratories and borehole complexes. The 2011-2012 findings of a Commission for the International Society for Rock Mechanics on URL Networking are summarized. Side drifts of roadway tunnels, dedicated facilities with tunneling and shafting to reach desired depths, and levels in active and

  1. Siting, Constructing, and Maintaining a Deep Underground Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Robert R.

    1983-03-01

    Experience from a recent site selection study has shown that the important considerations in siting a deep underground science facility are numerous, complicated, and most often based in economics. Even so, there are natural constraints on the maximum depth, size of openings, and construction techniques that can be attained or utilized at any particular site. In general, these are set by the local geothermal gradient, hydrologic regime, and properties of the rock mass or substance that are pertinent to geological, mining, and drilling engineering. At the same time, economics control the type of access, means of dewatering, and methods of sustaining the openings that are most feasible. If major faults can be avoided, sites offering acceptable temperature, a low water table, no outstanding aquifers or badly broken ground above the main openings, and strong, massive, largely impermeable rocks surrounding them at depth are best. Upon completion of a facility, the investment and safety of the occupants demand it rigorous maintenance.

  2. Characterization of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory:. Status and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzón, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; Iguaz, F.; Irastorza, I. G.; Gómez, H.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Rodríguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Villar, J. A.

    2007-08-01

    The new Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC) was inaugurated on March 2006. We report the first measurements of radon concentration, gamma background and muon fluxes performed in the Laboratory.

  3. Radon levels in underground workplaces: a map of the Italian regions.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Marta; Esposito, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The indoor radon exposition is a widely recognised health hazard, so specific laws and regulations have been produced in many countries and so-called radon-risk maps have consequently been produced. In Italy the regulation applies to general workplaces and a national survey was carried out in the 1990s to evaluate the exposure to radon in dwellings. Failing a national coordinated mapping programme, some Italian regions performed a survey to identify radon-prone areas, nevertheless with different methodologies. In this work a national map of the average annual radon concentration levels in underground workplaces, obtained from the results of 8695 annual indoor radon measurements carried out by U-Series laboratory between 2003 and 2010, was presented. Due to underground locations, the mean radon concentration is higher than that from previous map elaborated for dwellings and a significant radon concentration was also found in Regions traditionally considered as low-risk areas.

  4. Minerals Associated with Biofilms Occurring on Exposed Rock in a Granitic Underground Research Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D. Ann; Kamineni, D. Choudari; Sawicki, Jerzy A.; Beveridge, Terry J.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of disposal of nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock requires the effects of microbial action to be investigated. The Underground Research Laboratory excavated in a pluton of the Canadian Shield provides a unique opportunity to study these effects. Three biofilms kept moist by seepage through fractures in granitic rock faces of the Underground Research Laboratory have been examined. The biofilms contained a variety of gram-negative and gram-positive morphotypes held together by an organic extracellular matrix. Nutrient levels in the groundwater were low, but energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has shown biogeochemical immobilization of several elements in the biofilms; some of these elements were concentrated from extremely dilute environmental concentrations, and all elements were chemically complexed together to form amorphous or crystalline fine-grained minerals. These were seen by transmission electron microscopy to be both associated with the surfaces of the bacteria and scattered throughout the extracellular matrix, suggesting their de novo development through bacterial surface-mediated nucleation. The biofilm consortia are thought to concentrate elements both by passive sorption and by energy metabolism. By Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, one of the biofilms showed that iron was both oxidized and precipitated as ferrihydrite or hematite aerobically and reduced and precipitated as siderite anaerobically. We believe that some Archean banded-iron formations could have been formed in a manner similar to this, as it would explain the deposition of hematite and siderite in close proximity. This biogeochemical development of minerals may also affect the transport of material in waste disposal sites. Images PMID:16349374

  5. The Use of Underground Research Laboratories to Support Repository Development Programs. A Roadmap for the Underground Research Facilities Network.

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, Robert J.

    2015-10-26

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), nationally developed underground research laboratories (URLs) and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form an Underground Research Facilities (URF) Network for training in and demonstration of waste disposal technologies and the sharing of knowledge and experience related to geologic repository development, research, and engineering. In order to achieve its objectives, the URF Network regularly sponsors workshops and training events related to the knowledge base that is transferable between existing URL programs and to nations with an interest in developing a new URL. This report describes the role of URLs in the context of a general timeline for repository development. This description includes identification of key phases and activities that contribute to repository development as a repository program evolves from an early research and development phase to later phases such as construction, operations, and closure. This information is cast in the form of a matrix with the entries in this matrix forming the basis of the URF Network roadmap that will be used to identify and plan future workshops and training events.

  6. Underground Research Laboratories for Crystalline Rock and Sedimentary Rock in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeta, N.; Takeda, S.; Matsui, H.; Yamasaki, S.

    2003-02-27

    The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started two off-site (generic) underground research laboratory (URL) projects, one for crystalline rock as a fractured media and the other for sedimentary rock as a porous media. This paper introduces an overview and current status of these projects.

  7. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  8. Cold dark matter searches at the Canfranc underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrián, S.; García, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Irastorza, I. G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Ortiz, A.; Peruzzi, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Scopel, S.; Villar, J. A.

    2000-07-01

    An overview of the searches for weak interacting massive particles (WIMPs) through detection of their scattering off various target nuclei carried out in the Canfranc Tunnel Astroparticle Laboratory (at 675 and at 2450 metres of water equivalent (m.w.e.)) is given. The main experimental results both for conventional (COSME, IGEX and NaI-32) and for cryogenic detectors (ROSEBUD) are sketched, and a briefing on the forthcoming experiment ANAIS is also presented. The results of a solar axion search are also reported.

  9. Summary report for the tank tightness testing of underground storage tanks, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Between August 14, 1989, and August 26, 1989, 16 underground storage tanks were tank tightness tested for leaks as part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory tank management program. This report summarizes the results of these tank tightness tests, the modifications and repairs made to the tank systems, fuel transfer records, and any problems that affected the tank testing schedule. Of the 16 underground storage tanks tested, five failed the tank tightness test. Attempts were made to repair the tanks that failed the tank tightness test. Of those tanks, two were tested three times (one passed and one failed), and three were tested twice (two passed and one failed). The five failed tanks were removed and will be replaced with tanks that meet the Environmental Protection Agency regulations of underground storage tanks. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Background study of absorbed dose in biological experiments at the Modane Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampe, Nathanael; Marin, Pierre; Castor, Jean; Warot, Guillaume; Incerti, S.; Maigne, Lydia; Sarramia, David; Breton, Vincent

    2016-09-01

    Aiming to explore how biological systems respond to ultra-low background environ-ments, we report here our background studies for biological experiments in the Modane Under-ground Laboratory. We find that the minimum radioactive background for biology experiments is limited by the potassium content of the biological sample itself, coming from its nutritive me-dium, which we find in our experimental set-up to be 26 nGy hr-1. Compared to our reference radiation environment in Clermont-Ferrand, biological experiments can be conducted in the Modane laboratory with a radiation background 8.2 times lower than the reference above-ground level. As the radiation background may be further reduced by using different nutritive media, we also provide measurements of the potassium concentration by gamma spectroscopy of yeast extract (63.3±1.2 mg g-1) and tryptone (2.5±0.2 mg g-1) in order to guide media selection in future experiments.

  11. Dark matter search in the Fréjus Underground Laboratory EDELWEISS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bellefon, A.; Bergé, L.; Berkès, I.; Broszkiewicz, D.; Chambon, B.; Chapellier, M.; Chardin, G.; Charvin, Ph.; Chazal, V.; Coron, N.; de Jesus, M.; Drain, D.; Dumoulin, L.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Guerrier, G.; Goldbach, C.; Hadjout, J. P.; Leblanc, J.; Messous, Y.; Navick, X. F.; Nollez, G.; Pastor, C.; Pari, P.; Prostakov, I.; Perillo-Isaac, M. C.; Yvon, D.

    1996-02-01

    The status of the EDELWEISS experiment (Experience pour DEtecter Les Wimps En SIte Souterrain) in the Fréjus Underground Laboratory is reported. The cryostat is described with the main lines of low radioactivity design and readout system. The first results using bolometer detectors together with the measurement of the internal radioactive background using a 100 cm3 classical Ge crystal are reported. The future program of the experiment will be outlined.

  12. Controlled drill & blast excavation at AECL`s Underground Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Onagi, D.P.; Thompson, P.M.

    1996-12-01

    A controlled drill and blast method has been developed and used to excavate the Underground Research Laboratory, a geotechnical facility constructed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in crystalline rock. It has been demonstrated that the method can effectively reduce the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and is suitable for the construction of a used fuel disposal vault in the plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield.

  13. The study of the thermal neutron flux in the deep underground laboratory DULB-4900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, V. V.; Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Gezhaev, A. M.; Dzhappuev, D. D.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kudzhaev, A. U.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A.; Yakimenko, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the study of thermal neutron flux using monitors based on mixture of ZnS(Ag) and LiF enriched with a lithium-6 isotope at the deep underground laboratory DULB-4900 at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. An annual modulation of thermal neutron flux in DULB-4900 is observed. Experimental evidences were obtained of correlation between the long-term thermal neutron flux variations and the absolute humidity of the air in laboratory. The amplitude of the modulation exceed 5% of total neutron flux.

  14. Construction of a Shallow Underground Low-background Detector for a CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Joel B.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.

    2013-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and in addition to a series of radionuclide monitoring stations, contains sixteen radionuclide laboratories capable of verification of radionuclide station measurements. This paper presents an overview of a new commercially obtained low-background detector system for radionuclide aerosol measurements recently installed in a shallow (>30 meters water equivalent) underground clean-room facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Specifics such as low-background shielding materials, active shielding methods, and improvements in sensitivity to IMS isotopes will be covered.

  15. Underground Research Laboratories to characterize fault reactivation in shales and carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, C.; Guglielmi, Y.; Dick, P.; Henry, P.; Gout, C.

    2014-12-01

    Since a decade, observations and experiments conducted in underground environments worldwide (mines, underground research laboratories - URL) allowed to bridge the scale gap between laboratory scale and large earthquake scale. Indeed, underground rock laboratories allow developing decameter scale relatively well constrained experiments at the smallest distance from the hypocenters. URL's experiments allowed developing new monitoring technologies coupling pressure-strain-seismic measurements and reproducing complete earthquakes sequence analogue to natural ones. They also allowed exploring past movements of faults and sometimes also paleofluids in three dimensions and characterizing different fault architectures and hydromechanical properties in unaltered conditions. This is particularly important in the study of faults affecting clay formations which could not be observed at the Earth's surface because of the high alteration. Here we show how examples from the Mont Terri (Switzerland) and Tournemire (France) URLs may help in (i) defining the concepts of fault architecture in shales, complemented with some examples from Rustrel (LSBB URL, France) in carbonates, (ii) estimating fault hydromechanical properties from field decameter scale experiments. Some key results are that faults which are critically stressed or at the rupture limit can reactivate for stresses variations within the range of the ones produced by such shallow underground excavations, and that slight micrometer-to-millimeter scale reactivations may lead to large factor-of-10-to-more permeability increases. This appears to be more related to complex multi-scale geological processes linked to fault history such as differential hardening, partial sealing, pressure solution and gouge development within the fault zones than to the regional state of stresses.

  16. Measurements of cosmic-ray correlated events at the Soudan underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Villano, A. N.; Cushman, P.; Bunker, R.

    2013-08-08

    The ceiling and walls of the Low Background Facility at the Soudan Underground Laboratory are lined proportional tubes which form a 30 m × 17 m ×12 m muon tracker. The data acquisition records GPS-generated time stamps along with position information. The tracker is a refurbished version of the Soudan 2 proton-decay muon veto shield. It can now be used in conjunction with other experiments housed within its walls. Particularly interesting is the possible measurement of cavern muons coincident with high-energy neutron detections in the Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM), a 4-tonne gadolinium-loaded water Cherenkov neutron capture detector atop a 20-kilotonne lead target. Here we cover the ability of the shield and co-located detectors to achieve coincident timing resolutions of about 1 microsecond via GPS-synchronized absolute timing electronics. The usage of such technology for constraining muon-neutron correlations underground is discussed.

  17. Simultaneous seismic and magnetic measurements in the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB) of Rustrel, France, during the 2001 January 26 Indian earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, S.; Guglielmi, Y.; Virieux, J.; Waysand, G.; Chwala, A.; Stolz, R.; Emblanch, C.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.

    2003-12-01

    Since the decommission of the underground launching control room of the ground-based component of the French nuclear missile system, the whole installation has been turned into a cross-disciplinary underground laboratory. The LSBB is a unique low-noise underground laboratory because of its initial military conception and its location in the regional park of Luberon far from large cities, industry and heavy traffic. The deepest point is 500 m below the surface. At this depth a huge and non-conventional shielded cylindrical capsule is installed with no μ-metal, 1268 m3 in volume, with a residual electromagnetic noise lower than 2 fT Hz-1/2 above 10 Hz. As a result, fluctuations of the Earth's magnetic field under 10 Hz can be recorded at a very low-noise level with a low-Tc SQUID 3-D magnetometer. Taking advantage of the main gallery topology, a broad-band underground seismic array has been deployed since 2001. An analysis of data recorded simultaneously by the seismic underground array and by the magnetometer sensors during the Indian earthquake of 2001 January 26 is presented. Evidence of a magnetic field perturbation induced by the seismic waves at teleseismic distance (6250 km) is supported by a polarization analysis of seismic and magnetic signals. Spectral analysis shows specific frequency bands of perturbation related to physical processes such as ground water flow acceleration within the mountain structure.

  18. Design of a Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for a Shallow Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrell, John; Aalseth, Craig; Bernacki, Bruce; Douglas, Matt; Erchinger, Jennifer; Fuller, Erin; Keillor, Martin; Morley, Shannon; Mullen, Crystal; Panisko, Mark; Shaff, Sarah; Warren, Glen; Wright, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates a 35-meter water-equivalent overburden, shallow underground laboratory for measuring low-concentration radioactive isotopes in environmental samples collected. A low-background liquid scintillation counter is under development. Liquid scintillation counting is useful for beta-emitting isotopes without (or low) gamma ray yields. The high-efficiency beta detection in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of a shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides for increased-sensitivity measurements to a range of isotopes. Benchmarked simulations have evaluated the shield design requirements to assess the background rate achievable. Assay of shield construction materials provides the basis for the shield design development. The low background design is informed by efforts in experimental design of neutrinoless double beta decay experiments, direct detection dark matter experiments, and low energy neutrino detection experiments. In this vein a background budget for the instrument is presented with attention to low background methods directed toward applications of nuclear measurements.

  19. Feasibility study of a Megaton-scale Underground Laboratory at the Frejus site

    SciTech Connect

    MOSCA, L.

    2007-11-08

    After a brief review of the main scientific motivations of LAGUNA, European cooperation projects (GLACIER, LENA and MEMPHYS), and of the virtues of the Frejus site, a preliminary feasibility study for a Megaton-scale Underground Laboratory at Frejus is presented and its positive results discussed. The need for a future more detailed investigation (Design Study), which will be performed in the framework of the LAGUNA collaboration, is stressed. The excellent opportunity presented by the recently approved Frejus Safety Tunnel (d = 8 m) project is also underlined.

  20. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  1. The ICARUS T600 Experiment in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisiel, J.; Cieślik, K.; Dąbrowska, A.; Holeczek, J.; Kiełczewska, D.; Kochanek, I.; Kozłowski, T.; Łagoda, J.; Mania, S.; Mijakowski, P.; Palczewski, T. J.; Posiadała, M.; Przewłocki, P.; Rondio, E.; Sobczyk, J.; Stefan, D.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Szeglowski, T.; Szeptycka, M.; Wąchała, T.; Zalewska, A.

    2009-11-01

    With a mass of about 600 tons of Liquid Argon (LAr), the ICARUS T600 detector is the biggest, up to now, LAr Time Projection Chamber (TPC). Following its successful test run, on the Earth surface, in Pavia (Italy) in 2001, the detector is now very close to start data taking in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The main features of the LAr TPC technique, together with a short discussion of some of the ICARUS T600 test run results, are presented in this paper.

  2. New cosmic rays experiments in the underground laboratory of IFIN-HH from Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan; Stanca, Denis; Brancus, Iliana; Margineanu, Romul; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Gomoiu, Claudia; Saftoiu, Alexandra; Toma, Gabriel; Gherghel-Lascu, Alexandru; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Mihai; Rebel, Heinigerd; Haungs, Andreas; Sima, Octavian

    2015-02-24

    Since 2006 a modern laboratory has been developed by IFIN-HH in the underground of Slanic Prahova salt ore. This work presents a short review of previous scientific activities performed in the underground laboratory, in parallel with some plans for the future. A mobile detector for cosmic muon flux measurements has been set up at IFIN-HH, Romania. The device is used to measure the muon flux on different locations at the surface and underground and it consists of two detection layers, each one including four large scintillator plates. A new rotatable detector for measurements of the directional variation of the muon flux has been designed and it is presently under preliminary tests. Built from four layers of sensitive material and using for collecting the signals and directing them to the micro PMTs a new technique, through optical fibers instead wave length shifters, it allows an easy discrimination of the moun flux on the arrival directions of muons. Combining the possibility to rotate and the directionality properties, the underground muon detector is acting like a muon tomography device, being able to scan, using cosmic muons, the rock material above the detector. In parallel new detection system based on SiPM will be also installed in the following weeks. It should be composed by four layers, each layer consisting in 4 scintillator plates what we consider in the following as a module of detection. For this purpose, first two scintillator layers, with the optical fibers positioned on perpendicular directions are put in coincidence with other two layers, 1 m distance from the first two, with similar optical fiber arrangement, thus allowing reconstructing muon trajectory. It is intended also to design and construct an experimental device for the investigation of such radio antennas and the behavior of the signal in rock salt at the Slanic salt mine in Romania. Another method to detect high energy neutrinos is based on the detection of secondary particles resulting

  3. Hydraulic Monitoring of Low-Permeability Argillite at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Cruchaudet, Martin

    ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Déchets Radioactifs) has developed an electromagnetic permanent gauge (EPG) for long term monitoring of pore pressures in low permeability Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The EPG is a pressure gauge that is permanently cemented into a borehole with no wire or tubing connections. The EPG transmits its data electromagnetically through the rock. Improvements in batteries have extended the life of the EPG to six years or more. Data from EPG installations in two holes near ANDRAs underground laboratory provide information on hydraulic conductivity and head. The heads in the argillites of the laboratory site are higher than heads in the two encasing carbonate units. These anomalous overpressures provide evidence for the very low permeability of the rock. Possible mechanisms for the overpressure include osmotic flows due to chemical potential gradients or delayed responses to the evolution of the regional groundwater hydrodynamics.

  4. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory in South America: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertou, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    The construction of the Agua Negra tunnel through the Andes between Argentina and Chile is a unique opportunity to build a world class deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere, with 1750 m of rock overburden. At 30 degrees latitude south, far from nuclear power plants, it provides a unique site for Dark Matter searches and Neutrino experiments, and can host multidisciplinary experiments with a specific focus on Earth sciences given its location in a peculiar geoactive region. Its operation is foreseen to be coordinated by an international consortium and to start in 2026. In this presentation the current status of the Agua Negra tunnel and the ANDES initiative will be reviewed, and the scientific programme of the planned laboratory will be discussed.

  5. In situ chemical osmosis experiment in the Boom Clay at the Mol underground research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavito, A. M.; De Cannière, P.; Kooi, H.

    Studies on the compatibility of Boom Clay with large amounts of nitrate- bearing bituminized radioactive waste have recently raised a particular interest for osmosis-induced effects in this reference formation in Belgium. Indeed, water flow and solute transport may be associated with several types of driving forces, or gradients (chemical, electrical, thermal), in addition to the hydraulic forces, resulting in the so-called coupled flows. Fluid flow caused by driving forces different than hydraulic gradients is referred to as osmosis. Chemical osmosis, the water flow induced by a chemical gradient across a semi-permeable membrane, can generate pressure increase. The question thus arises if there is a risk to create high pore pressures that could damage the near-field of medium-level waste (MLW) galleries, if osmotically driven water flows towards the galleries are produced by the release of large amounts of NaNO 3 (750 t) in the formation. To what extent a low-permeability clay formation such as the Boom Clay acts as an osmotic membrane is thus a key issue to assess the relevance of osmosis phenomena for the disposal of medium-level waste. An in situ osmosis experiment has been conducted at the H ADES underground research laboratory to determine the osmotic efficiency of Boom Clay at the field scale. A recently developed chemical osmosis flow continuum model has been used to design the osmosis experiment, and to interpret the water pressure measurements. Experimental data could be reproduced quite accurately by the model, and the inferred parameter values are consistent with independent determinations for Boom Clay. A rapid water pressure increase (but limited to about a 2 m water column) was observed after 12 h in the filter containing the more saline water. Then, the osmotically induced water pressure slowly decays on several months. So, the experimental results obtained in situ confirm the occurrence of non-hydraulic flow phenomena (chemical osmosis) in a low

  6. First results on low-mass WIMPs from the CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Yue, Q.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Bai, Y.; Bi, Y.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, C.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Hu, X. H.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Liu, S. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, W.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhong, S. N.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.

    2013-09-01

    The China Dark Matter Experiment Collaboration reports the first experimental limit on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) dark matter from 14.6 kg-days of data taken with a 994 g p-type point-contact germanium detector at the China Jinping underground laboratory where the rock overburden is more than 2400 m. The energy threshold achieved was 400 eVee. According to the 14.6 kg-day live data, we placed the limit of σχN=1.75×10-40cm2 at a 90% confidence level on the spin-independent cross section at a WIMP mass of 7 GeV before differentiating bulk signals from the surface backgrounds.

  7. Operation and performance of the ICARUS T600 cryogenic plant at Gran Sasso underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, M.; Aprili, P.; Baibussinov, B.; Boffelli, F.; Bubak, A.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieślik, K.; Cline, D. B.; Cocco, A. G.; Dabrowska, A.; Dermenev, A.; Disdier, J. M.; Falcone, A.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Ivashkin, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Lagoda, J.; Mania, S.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Montanari, C.; Otwinowski, S.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P. R.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Stefan, D.; Sulej, R.; Szarska, M.; Terrani, M.; Torti, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H. G.; Yang, X.; Zalewska, A.; Zani, A.; Zaremba, K.

    2015-12-01

    ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber is the first large mass electronic detector of a new generation able to combine the imaging capabilities of the old bubble chambers with an excellent calorimetric energy measurement. After the three months demonstration run on surface in Pavia during 2001, the T600 cryogenic plant was significantly revised, in terms of reliability and safety, in view of its long term operation in an underground environment. The T600 detector was activated in Hall B of the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory during spring 2010, where it was operated without interruption for about three years, taking data exposed to the CERN to Gran Sasso long baseline neutrino beam (CNGS) and cosmic rays. In this paper the T600 cryogenic plant is described in detail together with the commissioning procedures that lead to the successful operation of the detector shortly after the end of the filling with liquid argon. Overall plant performance and stability during the underground run are discussed. Finally, the decommissioning procedures, carried out about six months after the end of the CNGS neutrino beam operation, are reported.

  8. Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search at Soudan Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    We present results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search at Soudan Underground Laboratory for two-tower arrays of detector. Twelve detectors were operated from March 25 to August 8, 2004, or 74.5 detector live days.Within expected background, no statistically significant indication of a WIMP signal was observed. Based on this null observation and combined with our previous results, we exclude a spin-averaged WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section above 1.6 x 10{sup -43} cm{sup 2} for Ge detectors, and 3 x 10{sup -42} cm{sup 2} for Si detectors, for a WIMP mass 60GeV/c{sup 2} with 90%C.L. This result constrains parameter space of minimal supersymmetric standard models (MSSM) and starts to reach the parameter space of a constrained model (CMSSM).

  9. Seasonal variations of the rate of multiple-muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronga, F.

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that the rate of cosmic ray muons depends on the atmospheric temperature, and that for events with a single muon the peak of the rate is in summer, in underground laboratories in the northern hemisphere. In 2015 the MINOS experiment, in USA, found that, for small distances between the multiple-muons, the rate of multiple-muons peaks in the winter and that the amplitude of the modulation is smaller than in the case of a single muon. I have done a re-analysis of data of the past MACRO experiment. The result is that under Gran Sasso the rate of multiple-muons at small distances peaks in the summer. This difference with MINOS could be explained by differences in the atmospheric temperature due to latitude. This results could be of interest for dark matter experiments looking to dark matter seasonal modulation due to the Earth's motion.

  10. Correlative and multivariate analysis of increased radon concentration in underground laboratory.

    PubMed

    Maletić, Dimitrije M; Udovičić, Vladimir I; Banjanac, Radomir M; Joković, Dejan R; Dragić, Aleksandar L; Veselinović, Nikola B; Filipović, Jelena

    2014-11-01

    The results of analysis using correlative and multivariate methods, as developed for data analysis in high-energy physics and implemented in the Toolkit for Multivariate Analysis software package, of the relations of the variation of increased radon concentration with climate variables in shallow underground laboratory is presented. Multivariate regression analysis identified a number of multivariate methods which can give a good evaluation of increased radon concentrations based on climate variables. The use of the multivariate regression methods will enable the investigation of the relations of specific climate variable with increased radon concentrations by analysis of regression methods resulting in 'mapped' underlying functional behaviour of radon concentrations depending on a wide spectrum of climate variables.

  11. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  12. Planning and Analysis of Fractured Rock Injection Tests in the Cerro Brillador Underground Laboratory, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Oyarzún L, R.; Villegas, G.

    2015-12-01

    Early theories of fluid migration in unsaturated fractured rock hypothesized that matrix suction would dominate flow up to the point of matrix saturation. However, experiments in underground laboratories such as the ESF (Yucca Mountain, NV) have demonstrated that liquid water can migrate significant distances through fractures in an unsaturated porous medium, suggesting limited interaction between fractures and unsaturated matrix blocks and potentially rapid transmission of recharge to the sat- urated zone. Determining the conditions under which this rapid recharge may take place is an important factor in understanding deep percolation processes in arid areas with thick unsaturated zones. As part of an on-going, Fondecyt-funded project (award 11150587) to study mountain block hydrological processes in arid regions, we are plan- ning a series of in-situ fracture flow injection tests in the Cerro Brillador/Mina Escuela, an underground laboratory and teaching facility belonging to the Universidad la Serena, Chile. Planning for the tests is based on an analytical model and curve-matching method, originally developed to evaluate data from injection tests at Yucca Mountain (Fairley, J.P., 2010, WRR 46:W08542), that uses a known rate of liquid injection to a fracture (for example, from a packed-off section of borehole) and the observed rate of seepage discharging from the fracture to estimate effective fracture aperture, matrix sorptivity, fracture/matrix flow partitioning, and the wetted fracture/matrix interac- tion area between the injection and recovery points. We briefly review the analytical approach and its application to test planning and analysis, and describe the proposed tests and their goals.

  13. DUSEL CO2: A deep underground laboratory for geologic carbon sequestration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P. F.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Scherer, G.; Onstott, T. C.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Freifeld, B. M.; Celia, M. A.; Wang, J. S.; Prevost, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy is the long-term containment of CO2 in deep underground formations. To develop a sound understanding of geologic carbon sequestration, we will build a deep underground laboratory to study the processes of storing and trapping CO2, including the risks of unintended leakage. The laboratory will be part of the new DUSEL facility at the Homestake mine in South Dakota. In this presentation, we will highlight the features and capabilities of the planned facility, to be called “DUSEL CO2”. The experimental design exploits the nearly half-kilometer vertical extent of existing “sandline” borings at Homestake. Pipes will be installed within the sandlines to serve as long flow columns. These columns will contain the CO2 and allow experimentation at the same pressure and temperature conditions as in deep subsurface reservoirs. Fill materials will mimic sedimentary layering, as well as cements in plugged wells. Instrumentation will enable detailed monitoring of flow, pressure, temperature, brine composition, geomechanics, and microbial activity. As part of the initial suite of experiments, we plan to simulate a leak in which CO2 changes from a supercritical fluid to a subcritical gas as the pressure drops during upflow over tens to hundreds of meters. We will test for possible acceleration in CO2 flow due to increasing buoyancy. Also, we will examine the interactions of CO2 with caprocks and well cements, and determine whether CO2 will enlarge flow pathways or cause self-sealing. Finally, we will investigate the effects of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria on CO2 conversion to methane and carbonate. The findings from these unique experiments will advance carbon management technology worldwide and help reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. First Microbial Community Assessment of Borehole Fluids from the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, D. P.; Anderson, C.; Bang, S.; Jones, T. L.; Boutt, D.; Kieft, T.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Murdoch, L. C.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Bruckner, J.; Fisher, J. C.; Newburn, J.; Wheatley, A.; Onstott, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid and gas samples were collected from two flowing boreholes at the 4100 (1,250 m) and 4850 ft (1478 m) levels of the former Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota. Service- and flood water samples were also collected as comparative benchmarks. With a maximum depth of 8,000 ft, (2,438 m), this mine currently hosts the Sanford Laboratory and is the proposed location for the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The uncased 4100L hole is a legacy of mining; whereas, the cased 4850 hole was drilled in 2009 in support of large cavity construction. Both were packered or valved to exclude mine air and sampled anaerobically using aseptic technique. Physical measurements, aquatic and dissolved gas chemistry, cell counts, and microbial community assessments (SSU rRNA libraries) were performed on all samples. This study represents the first at Sanford Lab/DUSEL specifically focused on the deep biosphere rather than mine microbiology. Fluids from the two holes differed markedly, with that from 4100L being characterized by NaHCO3 and 4850 by Na2SO4. pH values of 8.2 vs. 7.5, conductivities (μS) of 1790 vs. 7667 and alkalinities (mg/L) of 767 vs. 187 were obtained from 4100L and 4850, respectively. As expected, the deeper 4850L hole had the higher temperature (38 vs. 30 oC). Neither had measureable nitrate, but both had similar dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations (0.8 vs. 0.9 mg/L). Sulfate was present at 337 vs. 4,470 mg/L in 4100L and 4850L. Major dissolved gases were N2 (91 and 81 vol%), O2 (12 and 16 vol%) and CH4 (0.07 and 3.35 vol%) in 4100L and 4850L. The δ13C of CH4 was -51 and -56.7 permil in 4100L and 4850, respectively. The uncorrected 14C age of DIC was calculated at 25,310 (+/- 220) and 47,700 (+/-3,100) years for the two fluids. Cell counts were 5.9e3 and 2.01e5 in 4100L and 4850. Microbial community structure was diverse in both holes and distinct from that of service water. A large proportion of rRNA library clones were

  15. Geoengineering Research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauldon, M.

    2004-12-01

    A process to identify world-class research for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the USA has been initiated by NSF. While allowing physicists to study, inter alia, dark matter and dark energy, this laboratory will create unprecedented opportunities for biologists to study deep life, geoscientists to study crustal processes and geoengineers to study the behavior of rock, fluids and underground cavities at depth, on time scales of decades. A substantial portion of the nation's future infrastructure is likely to be sited underground because of energy costs, urban crowding and vulnerability of critical surface facilities. Economic and safe development of subsurface space will require an improved ability to engineer the geologic environment. Because of the prevalence of sedimentary rock in the upper continental crust, much of this subterranean infrastructure will be hosted in sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are fundamentally anisotropic due to lithology and bedding, and to discontinuities ranging from microcracks to faults. Fractures, faults and bedding planes create structural defects and hydraulic pathways over a wide range of scales. Through experimentation, observation and monitoring in a sedimentary rock DUSEL, in conjunction with high performance computational models and visualization tools, we will explore the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of layered rock. DUSEL will permit long-term experiments on 100 m blocks of rock in situ, accessed via peripheral tunnels. Rock volumes will be loaded to failure and monitored for post-peak behavior. The response of large rock bodies to stress relief-driven, time-dependent strain will be monitored over decades. Large block experiments will be aimed at measurement of fluid flow and particle/colloid transport, in situ mining (incl. mining with microbes), remediation technologies, fracture enhancement for resource extraction and large scale long-term rock mass response to induced

  16. Life in Inner Space: Subsurface Microbiology Investigations in Underground Research Laboratories and Deep Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Onstott, T. C.; van Heerden, E.; Kieft, T. L.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    extinct life beyond Earth as well, as Mars, like the Precambrian cratons, is dominated by billion year old tectonically quiescent geologic terrains, some with serpentinized ultramafics capable of sustaining production of hydrogen and potentially other reduced gases. Taking advantage of deep boreholes, subsurface mines and deep research laboratories worldwide, researchers in geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, microbiology and genomics are mobilizing to explore Earth's "Inner Space". The presentation will highlight work at underground sites in 2-3 billion year old Precambrian Shield rocks in South Africa, Canada and Finland where isotope geochemistry has identified large accumulations of free H2 gas, methane, higher hydrocarbons and noble gases dissolved in saline fracture waters with residence times on the order of millions of years. Within these fracture waters, a low biomass chemolithotrophic microbial community couples H2 consumption to sulfate-reduction to eke out an existence at maintenance levels in an exotic outpost of life far from the photosphere.

  17. The Second-phase Development of the China JinPing Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianmin; Ji, Xiangdong; Haxton, Wick; Wang, Joseph S. Y.

    During 2013-2015 an expansion of the China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) will be undertaken along a main branch of a bypass tunnel in the JinPing tunnel complex. This second phase of CJPL will increase laboratory space to approximately 96,000 m3, which can be compared to the existing CJPL-I volume of ∼ 4,000 m3. One design configuration has eight additional hall spaces, each over 60 m long and approximately12 m in width, with overburdens of about 2.4 km of rock, oriented parallel to and away from the main water transport and auto traffic tunnels. There are additional possibilities for further expansions at a nearby second bypass tunnel and along the entrance and exit branches of both bypass tunnels, potentially leading to an expanded CJPL comparable in size to Gran Sasso. Concurrent with the excavation activities, planning is underway for dark matter and other rare-event detectors, as well as for geophysics/engineering and other coupled multi-disciplinary sensors. In the town meeting on 8 September, 2013 at Asilomar, CA, associated with the 13th International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP), presentations and panel discussions addressed plans for one-ton expansions of the current CJPL germanium detector array of the China Darkmatter EXperiment (CDEX) collaboration and of the duel-phase xenon detector of the Panda-X collaboration, as well as possible new detector initiatives for dark matter studies, low-energy solar neutrino detection, neutrinoless double beta searches, and geoneutrinos. JinPing was also discussed as a site for a low-energy nuclear astrophysics accelerator. Geophysics/engineering opportunities include acoustic and micro-seismic monitoring of rock bursts during and after excavation, coupled-process in situ measurements, local, regional, and global monitoring of seismically induced radon emission, and electromagnetic signals. Additional ideas and projects will likely be developed in the next few years

  18. The second-phase development of the China JinPing underground laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Jianmin; Ji, Xiangdong; Haxton, Wick; ...

    2015-03-24

    During 2013-2015 an expansion of the China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) will be undertaken along a main branch of a bypass tunnel in the JinPing tunnel complex. This second phase of CJPL will increase laboratory space to approximately 96,000 m³, which can be compared to the existing CJPL-I volume of ~ 4,000 m³. One design configuration has eight additional hall spaces, each over 60 m long and approximately 12 m in width, with overburdens of about 2.4 km of rock, oriented parallel to and away from the main water transport and auto traffic tunnels. There are additional possibilities for furthermore » expansions at a nearby second bypass tunnel and along the entrance and exit branches of both bypass tunnels, potentially leading to an expanded CJPL comparable in size to Gran Sasso. Concurrent with the excavation activities, planning is underway for dark matter and other rare-event detectors, as well as for geophysics/engineering and other coupled multi-disciplinary sensors. In the town meeting on 8 September, 2013 at Asilomar, CA, associated with the 13th International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP), presentations and panel discussions addressed plans for one-ton expansions of the current CJPL germanium detector array of the China Darkmatter EXperiment (CDEX) collaboration and of the duel-phase xenon detector of the Panda-X collaboration, as well as possible new detector initiatives for dark matter studies, low-energy solar neutrino detection, neutrinoless double beta searches, and geoneutrinos. JinPing was also discussed as a site for a low-energy nuclear astrophysics accelerator. Geophysics/engineering opportunities include acoustic and micro-seismic monitoring of rock bursts during and after excavation, coupled-process in situ measurements, local, regional, and global monitoring of seismically induced radon emission, and electromagnetic signals. Additional ideas and projects will likely be developed in the next few

  19. The second-phase development of the China JinPing underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianmin; Ji, Xiangdong; Haxton, Wick; Wang, Joseph S.Y.

    2015-03-24

    During 2013-2015 an expansion of the China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) will be undertaken along a main branch of a bypass tunnel in the JinPing tunnel complex. This second phase of CJPL will increase laboratory space to approximately 96,000 m³, which can be compared to the existing CJPL-I volume of ~ 4,000 m³. One design configuration has eight additional hall spaces, each over 60 m long and approximately 12 m in width, with overburdens of about 2.4 km of rock, oriented parallel to and away from the main water transport and auto traffic tunnels. There are additional possibilities for further expansions at a nearby second bypass tunnel and along the entrance and exit branches of both bypass tunnels, potentially leading to an expanded CJPL comparable in size to Gran Sasso. Concurrent with the excavation activities, planning is underway for dark matter and other rare-event detectors, as well as for geophysics/engineering and other coupled multi-disciplinary sensors. In the town meeting on 8 September, 2013 at Asilomar, CA, associated with the 13th International Conference on Topics in Astroparticle and Underground Physics (TAUP), presentations and panel discussions addressed plans for one-ton expansions of the current CJPL germanium detector array of the China Darkmatter EXperiment (CDEX) collaboration and of the duel-phase xenon detector of the Panda-X collaboration, as well as possible new detector initiatives for dark matter studies, low-energy solar neutrino detection, neutrinoless double beta searches, and geoneutrinos. JinPing was also discussed as a site for a low-energy nuclear astrophysics accelerator. Geophysics/engineering opportunities include acoustic and micro-seismic monitoring of rock bursts during and after excavation, coupled-process in situ measurements, local, regional, and global monitoring of seismically induced radon emission, and electromagnetic signals. Additional ideas and projects will likely be developed in the

  20. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  1. First Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search in the Soudan Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alvaro-Dean, J.; Armel-Funkhouser, M. S.; Attisha, M. J.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, J.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Burke, S. P.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Callahan, D.; Castle, J. P.; Chang, C. L.; Choate, R.; Crisler, M. B.; Cushman, P.; Dixon, R.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Driscoll, D. D.; Duong, L.; Emes, J.; Ferril, R.; Filippini, J.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Haldeman, M.; Hale, D.; Holmgren, D.; Huber, M. E.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W.; Kamat, S.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kula, L.; Kyre, S.; Lambin, B.; Lu, A.; Mahapatra, R.; Manalaysay, A. G.; Mandic, V.; May, J.; McDonald, R.; Merkel, B.; Meunier, P.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Morrison, S.; Nelson, H.; Nelson, R.; Novak, L.; Ogburn, R. W.; Orr, S.; Perera, T. A.; Perillo Isaac, M. C.; Ramberg, E.; Rau, W.; Reisetter, A.; Ross, R. R.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Savage, C.; Schmitt, R. L.; Schnee, R. W.; Seitz, D. N.; Serfass, B.; Smith, A.; Smith, G.; Spadafora, A. L.; Sundqvist, K.; Thompson, J.-P. F.; Tomada, A.; Wang, G.; Williams, J.; Yellin, S.; Young, B. A.

    2004-11-01

    We report the first results from a search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Four Ge and two Si detectors were operated for 52.6live days, providing 19.4kg d of Ge net exposure after cuts for recoil energies between 10 and 100keV. A blind analysis was performed using only calibration data to define the energy threshold and selection criteria for nuclear-recoil candidates. Using the standard dark-matter halo and nuclear-physics WIMP model, these data set the world's lowest exclusion limits on the coherent WIMP-nucleon scalar cross section for all WIMP masses above 15 GeV/c2, ruling out a significant range of neutralino supersymmetric models. The minimum of this limit curve at the 90% C.L. is 4×10-43 cm2 at a WIMP mass of 60 GeV/c2.

  2. First results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search in the Soudan Underground Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Akerib, D S; Alvaro-Dean, J; Armel-Funkhouser, M S; Attisha, M J; Baudis, L; Bauer, D A; Beaty, J; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Burke, S P; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Callahan, D; Castle, J P; Chang, C L; Choate, R; Crisler, M B; Cushman, P; Dixon, R; Dragowsky, M R; Driscoll, D D; Duong, L; Emes, J; Ferril, R; Filippini, J; Gaitskell, R J; Haldeman, M; Hale, D; Holmgren, D; Huber, M E; Johnson, B; Johnson, W; Kamat, S; Kozlovsky, M; Kula, L; Kyre, S; Lambin, B; Lu, A; Mahapatra, R; Manalaysay, A G; Mandic, V; May, J; McDonald, R; Merkel, B; Meunier, P; Mirabolfathi, N; Morrison, S; Nelson, H; Nelson, R; Novak, L; Ogburn, R W; Orr, S; Perera, T A; Perillo Isaac, M C; Ramberg, E; Rau, W; Reisetter, A; Ross, R R; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Savage, C; Schmitt, R L; Schnee, R W; Seitz, D N; Serfass, B; Smith, A; Smith, G; Spadafora, A L; Sundqvist, K; Thompson, J-P F; Tomada, A; Wang, G; Williams, J; Yellin, S; Young, B A

    2004-11-19

    We report the first results from a search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. Four Ge and two Si detectors were operated for 52.6 live days, providing 19.4 kg d of Ge net exposure after cuts for recoil energies between 10 and 100 keV. A blind analysis was performed using only calibration data to define the energy threshold and selection criteria for nuclear-recoil candidates. Using the standard dark-matter halo and nuclear-physics WIMP model, these data set the world's lowest exclusion limits on the coherent WIMP-nucleon scalar cross section for all WIMP masses above 15 GeV/c2, ruling out a significant range of neutralino supersymmetric models. The minimum of this limit curve at the 90% C.L. is 4 x 10(-43) cm2 at a WIMP mass of 60 GeV/c2.

  3. Seismoelectric and seismomagnetic measurements: original experiments within the Low Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel (France) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordes, C.; Jouniaux, L.; Garambois, S.; Dietrich, M.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation in fluid-filled porous materials induces electromagnetic effects due to relative pore-fluid motions. We present the original experimental apparatus built within the ultra-shielded chamber of the Low Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel (France) in order to detect the seismomagnetic couplings theoretically predicted by Pride (1994). This experiment included accelerometers, electric dipoles and induction magnetometers to characterize the seismo-electromagnetic propagation phenomena. Extra care has been taken to ensure the mechanical decoupling between the sand column and the magnetometers to avoid spurious vibrations of the magnetometers and misinterpretations of the recorded signals. Our results confirm that seismoelectric and seismomagnetic signals are associated with different wave propagation modes. Combined experimental and analytical approaches lead us to the conclusion that the measured seismo-magnetic field is probably about 0.35 nT for a 10m.s-2 seismic source acceleration (1 g). A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic and electric energy are necessary. In this communication we compare frequency content and spectral ratios for seismic and seismoelectromagnetic signals, by analyzing transfert functions. Measured amplitudes are discussed in light of theoretical predictions taking into account the porous media properties.

  4. Development of the ultra-low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX at Modane underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudanin, V. B.; Egorov, V. G.; Hodák, R.; Klimenko, A. A.; Loaiza, P.; Mamedov, F.; Piquemal, F.; Rukhadze, E.; Rukhadze, N.; Štekl, I.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Warot, G.; Yakushev, E. A.; Zampaolo, M.

    2017-02-01

    A new ultra low-background spectrometer based on a HPGe detector with a sensitive volume of 600 cm3 was developed to investigate rare nuclear processes, such as resonant neutrino-less double electron capture (0νEC/EC) and double beta decay processes (2ν2β‑, 2νβ+EC, 2νEC/EC) to the excited states of daughter nuclei. The spectrometer was installed at the Modane underground laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). Sensitivity of the spectrometer and its background were tested. A new method for the efficiency calibration in measurements of low-active samples was developed. The spectrometer was used for the measurements of low active materials and samples. Results obtained in 395 h investigation of resonant 0νEC/EC decay of 106Cd to the 2718 keV and 2741 keV excited states of 106Pd with ~23.2 g of enriched 106Cd and 2ν2β‑ decay of 100Mo sample with a mass of 2588 g to the 0+, 1130 keV and 2+, 539.5 keV excited states of 100Ru are presented.

  5. A heating experiment in the argillites in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wileveau, Yannick; Su, Kun; Ghoreychi, Mehdi

    2007-07-01

    A heating experiment named TER is being conducted with the objectives to identify the thermal properties, as well as to enhance the knowledge on THM processes in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory (France). The in situ experiment has being switched on from early 2006. The heater, 3 m length, is designed to inject the power in the undisturbed zone at 6 m from the gallery wall. A heater packer is inflated in a metallic tubing. During the experiment, numerous sensors are emplaced in the surrounding rock and are experienced to monitor the evolution in temperature, pore-water pressure and deformation. The models and numerical codes applied should be validated by comparing the modeling results with the measurements. In parallel, some lab testing have been achieved in order to compare the results given with two different scales (cm up to meter scale). In this paper, we present a general description of the TER experiment with installation of the heater equipment and the surrounding instrumentation. Details of the in situ measurements of temperature, pore-pressure and strain evolutions are given for the several heating and cooling phases. The thermal conductivity and some predominant parameters in THM processes (as linear thermal expansion coefficient and permeability) will be discussed. (authors)

  6. Low-background gamma-ray spectrometry in the Garching underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Mannel, T.; Sivers, M. V.

    2013-08-01

    We describe two setups that were built for low-background gamma-ray spectrometry in the Garching Underground Laboratory (˜ 10 m.w.e.). Both setups are based on HPGe detectors surrounded by several layers of passive shielding as well as an active muon veto. The first setup (GEM) comprises a single HPGe detector surrounded by a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector that serves as anti-Compton veto. The second setup (LoAx) consists of two smaller HPGe detectors which are arranged face-to-face to cover a large solid angle around the sample. The detection efficiency of both systems is determined using a calibrated Monte-Carlo simulation. The count rate finally achieved in the energy range 40-2700keV is 10250±26cts/day for the GEM setup, and 5258±27cts/day and 6876±31cts/day between 20-1500keV for the two detectors of the LoAx setup. This leads to detection sensitivities of a few mBq/kg for U and Th at both screening stations.

  7. Anisotropy of electrical conductivity of the excavation damaged zone in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicollin, Florence; Gibert, Dominique; Lesparre, Nolwenn; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2010-04-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements were performed to characterize the anisotropy of electrical resistivity of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) at the end-face of a gallery in the Opalinus clay of the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL). The data were acquired with a combination of square arrays in 18 zones on the gallery's face and in two series of four boreholes perpendicular to the face. Each data set is independently inverted using simulated annealing to recover the resistivity tensor. Both the stability and the non-uniqueness of the inverse problem are discussed with synthetic examples. The inversion of the data shows that the face is split in two domains separated by a tectonic fracture, with different resistivity values but with a common orientation. The direction of the maximum resistivity is found perpendicular to the bedding plane, and the direction of minimum resistivity is contained in the face's plane. These results show that the geo-electrical structure of the EDZ is controlled by a combination of effects due to tectonics, stratigraphy, and recent fracturing produced by the excavation of the gallery.

  8. Investigation of dust levels in different areas of underground coal mines.

    PubMed

    Onder, Mustafa; Onder, Seyhan; Akdag, Tuncay; Ozgun, Firat

    2009-01-01

    Dust concentration levels in underground coal mines are of primary importance and have to be controlled to prevent pulmonary disease in miners. Different mining areas are exposed to different dust levels and to minimize the probability of occupational respiratory disease of coal miners, it is necessary to evaluate dust concentration in the different working areas. This study aimed to evaluate dust concentration levels in different areas of underground coal mines. Data obtained from the measurements in 1978-2006 were evaluated with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer procedure. It was concluded that production areas had higher dust concentration levels; thus, production workers may have respiratory disorders related to exposure to coal dust in their work environment.

  9. Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland-Research Program And Key Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, C. O.; Bossart, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants and the potential for self-sealing, has brought clay formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation, the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in the Jura Mountains of NW Switzerland is an important international test site for researching clay formations. Research is carried out in the underground facility, which is located adjacent to the security gallery of the Mont Terri motorway tunnel. Fifteen partners from European countries, USA, Canada and Japan participate in the project. The objectives of the research program are to analyze the hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the Opalinus Clay, to determine the changes induced by the excavation of galleries and by heating of the rock formation, to test sealing and container emplacement techniques and to evaluate and improve suitable investigation techniques. For the safety of deep geological disposal, it is of key importance to understand the processes occurring in the undisturbed argillaceous environment, as well as the processes in a disturbed system, during the operation of the repository. The objectives are related to: 1. Understanding processes and mechanisms in undisturbed clays and 2. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations. Experiments of the first group are dedicated to: i) Improvement of drilling and excavation technologies and sampling methods; ii) Estimation of hydrogeological, rock mechanical and geochemical parameters of the undisturbed Opalinus Clay. Upscaling of parameters from laboratory to in situ scale; iii) Geochemistry of porewater and natural gases; evolution of porewater over time scales; iv) Assessment of long-term hydraulic transients associated with erosion and thermal

  10. [Serum hormonal levels in diamond-extracting industry workers of Yakutia, with surface and underground type of work].

    PubMed

    Seliatitskaia, V G; Kuz'minova, O I; Nikolaev, Iu A; Galanova, Zh M

    2011-01-01

    The authors studied influence of work type (surface or underground) on serum hormonal levels in male workers of "International" mine within diamond-extracting complex of Yakutia-Sakha Republic. The results obtained show compensation and adaptation changes of endocrine system in males engaged into underground work vs. those of surface work.

  11. In situ corrosion studies on candidate container materials for the underground disposal of high level radioactive waste in Boom Clay

    SciTech Connect

    Kursten, B.; Iseghem, P. Van

    1999-07-01

    SCK{center{underscore}dot}CEN has developed in the early 1980's, with the support of NIRAS/ONDRAF and EC, an extensive in situ corrosion program to evaluate the long-term corrosion behavior of various candidate container materials for the disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. The in situ corrosion experiments were performed in the underground research facility, HADES, situated in the Boom Clay formation at a depth of 225 meters below ground level. These experiments place the samples either in direct contact with clay (type I), in a humid clay atmosphere (type 2), or in a concrete saturated clay atmosphere (type 3). During the period 1985--1994, twelve in situ corrosion experiments were installed in the underground laboratory. The exploitation of these experiments ended in 1996. All samples were recuperated and analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the type 1 corrosion experiments (samples in direct contact with Boom Clay). Surface analyses tend to indicate that the so-called corrosion-resistant materials, e.g. stainless steels, Ni- and Ti-alloys, remain intact after exposure to Boom Clay between 16 and 170 C, whereas carbon steel presents significant pitting corrosion. Carbon steel seems to be unsuitable for the Belgian repository concept (pits up to 240{micro}m deep are detected after direct exposure to the argillaceous environment for 2 years at 90 C). The stainless steels look very promising candidate container materials.

  12. Hydrogeological conceptual model determined from baseline and construction phase groundwater pressure and surface tilt-meter data at the Mizunami underground research laboratory, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Salden, Walter; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Arai, Takashi; Matsuki, Koji

    2007-07-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model has been developed based on pressure responses observed at multilevel pressure monitoring zones in seven boreholes and surface tilt data in and around the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory site. Pressure changes caused by some earthquakes, cross-hole hydraulic testing, and shaft excavation activities are considered. Surface tilt has been measured from the half way of the shaft excavation phase. The shaft excavation has been commenced from July 2003 with two shafts (Main shaft and Ventilation shaft). By the end of October 2005, discharging of water in the shafts has been halted at the depths of 172 m and 191 m respectively to allow modifications to be made to the water treatment facility due to an excess of F and B concentration in the water. This results in the recovery of the groundwater levels and filling of the underground workings. Beginning in February 2006 pumping has been resumed and the underground workings have been re-occupied. Continuous groundwater pressure and surface tilt measurements with some numerical analysis during the shaft excavation phase show the existence of the flow barrier fault predicted from the surface-based investigation phase and hydraulic parameter around the shafts. (authors)

  13. Opportunities for Multidisciplinary Research in Partnership with Rock Engineers at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughton, C.

    2008-12-01

    For the last half century the physics community has increasingly turned to the use of underground space to conduct basic research. The community is currently planning to conduct a new generation of underground experiments at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). DUSEL will be constructed within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Gold Mine, located in Lead, South Dakota. Physics proposals call for the construction of new caverns in which to conduct major new experiments. Some of the proposed laboratory facilities will be significantly larger and deeper than any previously constructed. The talk will highlight possible opportunities for integrating multi-disciplinary research in to the cavern construction program, and will stress the need to work closely with design and construction contractors to ensure that research goals can be achieve with minimal impact on project work. The constructors of large caverns should be particularly receptive to, and encouraging of geoscience research that could improve the engineering characterization of the rock mass. An improved understanding of the rock mass, as the host construction material, would result in a more reliable cavern design and construction process, and a reduced construction risk to the Project.

  14. Background Underground at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, Ernst-Ingo; Hime, A.; Bowles, T. J.

    2001-04-01

    Recent interest to establish a dedicated underground laboratory in the United States prompted an experimental program at to quantify the enviromental backgrounds underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. An outline of this program is provided along with recent experimental data on the cosmic ray muon flux at the 650 meter level of WIPP. The implications of the cosmic ray muon and fast neutron background at WIPP will be discussed in the context of new generation, low background experiments envisioned in the future.

  15. Wireless Transmission of Monitoring Data out of the HADES Underground Laboratory - 12450

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.J.; Hart, J.

    2012-07-01

    As part of the European 7. framework project MoDeRn, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) performed experiments in order to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless data transmission through the subsurface over larger distances by low frequency magnetic fields. The main objective of NRG's contribution is to characterize and optimize the energy use of this technique within the specific context of post-closure monitoring. For this, measurements have been performed in the HADES underground laboratory located at Mol, Belgium, at 225 m depth. The experimental set-up makes use of a loop antenna for the transmitter that has been matched into the existing infrastructure of the HADES. The experimental work of NRG is divided into several stages: in 2010, the necessary hardware has been designed and assembled and tested in the Netherlands. Site-specific magnetic background noise in Mol and frequency-dependent signal attenuation by the geologic medium has been measured. Signal transmission has been demonstrated and several transmission channels around 1 kHz have been identified. In 2011, additional measures and experiments have been performed in order to characterize and test relevant element of the transmission chain and to optimize the energy use of the set-up. A mathematical model description has been developed that includes the most relevant characteristics of the transmitter, receiver and transmission path and was used to analyse possible options to optimize the set-up. In 2012, experiments are planned in order to test several data transmission options. Results so far have shown that signal transmission over larger distances through the subsurface is feasible. However, to make quantitative conclusions on the energy need per bit of transmitted data, additional experiments planned in 2012 are necessary. The experimental and theoretical results gained by NRG, as part of the European 7. framework project MoDeRn, so far demonstrated that signal transmission through 225

  16. Radiological characterization of the ancient Roman tuff-pozzolana underground quarry in Orvieto (Italy): A natural laboratory to revisit the interactions between radionuclides and aerosols.

    PubMed

    Nuccetelli, C; Trevisi, R; Leonardi, F; Ampollini, M; Cardellini, F; Tonnarini, S; Kovler, K; Vargas Trassiera, C

    2017-03-01

    Orvieto (Italy) has a large network of underground tunnels quarried to extract tuff and pozzolana by Etruscans and Romans. One of these tunnels was chosen as natural laboratory to compare different radiation measurement and dose assessment methods. Indeed, tuff and pozzolana are very rich in natural radioactivity and are interesting from the radiation protection point of view since they are still used as building materials. In order to characterize this site an in situ experimental procedure was followed. It consisted in measurements carried out with different instruments: two portable gamma ray spectrometers, two gamma dose rate meters, two radon monitors and one two channel working level monitor. Samples of tuff and pozzolana stones were also collected to be measured with gamma spectrometry in laboratory. Due to the high content of (238)U, (232)Th (more than 200 Bq kg(-1) for both radionuclides) and (40)K (more than 2000 Bq kg(-1)) of tuff and pozzolana, elevated levels of exposure to natural radioactivity were found: indeed, with different instruments and approach, a gamma dose rate of about 1 μGy h(-1) and an average radon concentration of about 10,000 Bq m(-3), with a Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) of 288 MeV cm(-3), were measured. The radiological characteristics of Orvieto underground quarry make it a perfect site for "in field" intercomparisons of different measurement and dose assessment methods.

  17. Underground and ground-level particulate matter concentrations in an Italian metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartenì, Armando; Cascetta, Furio; Campana, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    All around the world, many studies and experimental results have assessed elevated concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM) in underground metro systems, with non-negligible implications for human health due to protracted exposure to fine particles. Starting from this consideration, an intensive particulate sampling campaign was carried out in January 2014 measuring the PM concentrations in the Naples (Italy) Metro Line 1, both at station platforms and inside trains. Naples Metro Line 1 is about 18 km long, with 17 stations (3 ground-level and 14 below-ground ones). Experimental results show that the average PM10 concentrations measured in the underground station platforms range between 172 and 262 μg/m3 whilst the average PM2.5 concentrations range between 45 and 60 μg/m3. By contrast, in ground-level stations no significant difference between stations platforms and urban environment measurements was observed. Furthermore, a direct correlation between trains passage and PM concentrations was observed, with an increase up to 42% above the average value. This correlation is possibly caused by the re-suspension of the particles due to the turbulence induced by trains. The main original finding was the real-time estimations of PM levels inside the trains travelling both in ground-level and underground sections of Line 1. The results show that high concentrations of both PM10 (average values between 58 μg/m3 and 138 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (average values between 18 μg/m3 and 36 μg/m3) were also measured inside trains. Furthermore, measurements show that windows left open on trains caused the increase in PM concentrations inside trains in the underground section, while in the ground-level section the clean air entering the trains produced an environmental "washing effect". Finally, it was estimated that every passenger spends on average about 70 min per day exposed to high levels of PM.

  18. Variations of Magnetic Tipper in Relation with an Underground Water Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losseva, T. V.; Kuzmicheva, M.; Spivak, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Long period geomagnetic variations at the Earth's surface contain information about geodynamic processes both at the near-surface plots of the earth's crust and in upper layers of Earth lithosphere. It is possible to suppose that some variations of the magnetic field are connected with periodic changes of physical and mechanical properties of the near-surface earth crust areas, for example, their conductivity or magnetic permeability. One of the main reasons for variability of the properties of the crust is a change of its water saturation. Magnetic tipper is an important parameter determined by medium properties. We compared long period geomagnetic variations at the near-surface earth crust with a change of an underground water regime. As input data we used results of instrumental observations carried out in 2008-2012 at the geophysical observatory "Mikhevo" of Institute of Geospheres Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences, located at the central area of East-European plate (54.960N; 37.7740E). Magnetic field components were recorded by flux-gate magnetometer LEMI-18. The level of the underground water in a free aquifer was determined in an open well (note that in the case of the free aquifer water level variations are proportional to variations of water thickness). Observations were carried out using dipping sonde LMR 308i, securing automatic recording of a water level with discontinuity of 1 s and error about of 0.1 mm. Numerical rows of average daily magnitudes of an absolute level of the underground water were used. Data analysis shows, the first, a presence of synchronous variations of the magnetic tipper and the underground water level in the open well, carried out in the free aquifer, and secondly, a significant correlation between them. Numerical phenomenological model was proposed to describe an influence of the hydrogeological regime on the magnetic tipper variations. The results obtained are possible to be used in diagnostics of changeability of local

  19. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cotthem, Alain; Van Humbeeck, Hughes

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  20. Experiments in a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) Hosted in Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbey, T. J.; Kimballton, M. O.; Science Team

    2004-12-01

    Sedimentary-rock environments, particularly those dominated by carbonate rock, provide unique opportunities for geoscientists, geobiologists, and geophysicists, to perform revolutionary experiments aimed at answering fundamental science questions and satisfying our societal demands for resources and environmental stewardship. As part of the National Science Foundation's DUSEL initiative, the selected site should offer structurally and biologically diverse environments. At the same time, the site should offer host rock capable of providing safely engineered hallways and laboratories at depths as great as 2,200 m for numerous deep underground physics, engineering, and earth science experiments. An ideal sedimentary-rock environment offers the prospect of highly folded, thrusted, and fractured rocks that allow opportunities to study the 3-D behavior of thrusts that propagate parallel to bedding as well as those that ramp across bedding. Flow dynamics along and across deeply buried faults is poorly understood. Experiments will be developed at various scales to assess flow and transport processes to better quantify hydrogeological mechanisms influencing flow and possible aquifer compartmentalization. Seismic reflection images, vertical seismic profiles, and tomograms will provide details of the fault properties and geometry, which can be verified in-situ. Repeated overthrusted sequences provide opportunities for geobiologists to investigate how microbes in rocks of similar age are affected by differences in pressure, temperature, and depth. Carbonate rocks provide opportunities to study energy sources and adaptations for nutrient acquisition, reproduction, stability, survival, and repair under extreme conditions. Results from these investigations will permit comparisons with other foreland fold-thrust belts worldwide. Fossil fuels remain the world's main energy resource and the large majority of these are hosted in sedimentary rocks. Improved methods for reservoir

  1. Turning Points in Containment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, B C; Rambo, J T; Pawloski, G A; Burkhard, N R

    2006-11-21

    Sometime in 1987 Billy Hudson, a long-time LLNL Containment Scientist and the Task Leader for Containment Diagnostics, put together a presentation entitled ''Turning Points in Containment''. This presentation identifies challenges, lessons learned, and changes made in containment practice over a 20-year period, from 1967-1987. Besides providing a significant historical summary, the presentation is valuable as we maintain a position of readiness 14 years after the last underground nuclear detonation. It is particularly valuable to personnel who are new to the program and have no first-hand experience in implementing underground nuclear test containment for actual tests. We now view this material as a unique containment summary with timeless importance. We envision this report to be particularly useful to new Containment Program members and anyone interested in the history of underground nuclear test containment practices. We believe that the Barnwell test, detonated in 1989, would have been added to this summary if Billy Hudson had the opportunity to update the presentation. We have chosen to add a few slides to the end of the original presentation to describe the issues and lessons learned from Barnwell.

  2. [Impact of precipitation and underground water level in the edge of oases on growth and decline of Nitraria tangugtorum community].

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Gao, Z

    2000-12-01

    Based on the data from underground water monitoring, meterological measuring and fixed sample square investigating in successive years at the edge of the oasis in Minqin, Gansu, the impact of precipitation and underground water on the growth and decline of Nitraria tangutorum community was studied. The result showed that the desiccated environment in oases driven by the decline of underground water level was favorable for the growth and develoment of N. tangutorum community, and made this species more xerophilous. This declining underground water level was not a limiting factor for N. tangutorum growth in late years. These N. tangutorum-dominated communities were predicted to survive comparatively longer, and to function as sand fixer and wind breaker at oasis edge in Minqin. When average annual precipitation was about 110 mm, N. tangutorum would maintain its normal growth, but the community couldn't spread freely. Only when the annual precipitation was up 140 mm in two years running, could its growth be improved.

  3. Hydrogeological characterization on surface-based investigation phase in the Mizunami underground research laboratory project, in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Ohyama, Takuya

    2007-07-01

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project is being carried out by Japan Atomic Energy Agency in the Cretaceous Toki granite in the Tono area, central Japan. The MIU project is a purpose-built generic underground research laboratory project that is planned for a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of nuclear wastes. One of the main goals of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for investigation, analysis, and assessment of the deep geological environment. The MIU project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based Investigation (Phase I), Construction (Phase II) and Operation (Phase III). Hydrogeological investigations using a stepwise process in Phase I have been carried out in order to obtain information on important properties such as, location of water conducting features, hydraulic conductivity and so on. Hydrogeological modeling and groundwater flow simulations in Phase I have been carried out in order to synthesize these investigation results, to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrogeological model and to identify the main issues for further investigations. Using the stepwise hydrogeological characterization approach and combining the investigation with modeling and simulation, understanding of the hydrogeological environment has been progressively improved. (authors)

  4. HPPP Hydromechanical tests and developments at the LSBB Underground Research Laboratory (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, Y.; Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2010-12-01

    The LSBB is a French National Underground Facility dedicated to the observation of coupled THMC processes in the shallow crust. This URL is nested at a 500m depth in a perfect analogue to current middle-eastern oil carbonate reservoirs with porosity varying between 5 and 20%. LSBB galleries give a direct access to the unaltered reservoir porosity under a realistic state of natural stresses and at a meter-to-decameter scale which is the borehole near-field crucial scale in all reservoir engineering problems. The very low seismo-electro-magnetic noise in the LSBB underground environment allowed to conduct high accuracy hydromechanical experiments that were designed (i) to test and develop the High Pulse Poro-Elasticity Protocol (HPPP) and (ii) to improve the knowledge of stress flow coupling processes in fractured-porous reservoirs. The HPPP project relies in the development of a downhole probe that allows synchronous pressure/3D-deformation monitoring of the rock response to a localized source made of a water pressure pulse generated in an injection chamber between packers. The use of Bragg fiber-optic sensors makes it possible to conduct a wide range of frequencies (1-500 Hz) and high accuracy (10-6) sampling of pressure and deformations for the in situ study of variations of Biot-Gassman parameters at the metric to decameter scale. We present some preliminary results from a set of HPPP pressure pulse tests that were performed in boreholes drilled from a horizontal gallery of the LSBB URL. The HPPP protocol enabled to detect infinitesimal deformation components both radial and axial to the borehole related to the complex 3D-deformation of a pressurized 3m thick fractured-porous layer. The realistic experimental conditions of the LSBB URL galleries maked the method look promising to characterize and actively monitor hydraulic and mechanical properties variations of rocks within deep boreholes and underground facilities.

  5. Wireless Transmission of Monitoring Data out of an Underground Repository: Results of Field Demonstrations Performed at the HADES Underground Laboratory - 13589

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, T.J.; Rosca-Bocancea, E.; Hart, J.

    2013-07-01

    As part of the European 7. framework project MoDeRn, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) performed experiments in order to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless data transmission through the subsurface over large distances by low frequency magnetic fields in the framework of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The main objective of NRG's contribution is to characterize and optimize the energy use of this technique within the specific context of post-closure monitoring of a repository. For that, measurements have been performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (URL) located at Mol, Belgium, at 225 m depth. The experimental set-up utilizes a loop antenna for the transmitter that has been matched to the existing infrastructure of the HADES. Between 2010 and 2012 NRG carried out several experiments at the HADES URL in order to test the technical set-up and to characterize the propagation behavior of the geological medium and the local background noise pattern. Transmission channels have been identified and data transmission has been demonstrated at several frequencies, with data rates up to 10 bit/s and bit error rates <1%. A mathematical model description that includes the most relevant characteristics of the transmitter, transmission path, and receiver has been developed and applied to analyze possible options to optimize the set-up. With respect to the energy-efficiency, results so far have shown that data transmission over larger distances through the subsurface is a feasible option. To support the conclusions on the energy need per bit of transmitted data, additional experiments are foreseen. (authors)

  6. The Antei uranium deposit: A natural analogue of an SNF repository and an underground geodynamic laboratory in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.; Nasimov, R. M.; Hammer, J.; Burmistrov, A. A.; Shchukin, S. I.

    2008-10-01

    The estimation of the long-term stability of crystalline rock massifs with respect to natural and technogenic loads in the course of long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is a special area of surveys at underground research laboratories (URLs). In parallel with these surveys, data on uranium deposits—natural analogues of repositories of SNF consisting of 95% UO2—are used for obtaining insight into the dynamics of radionuclide migration and validating barrier properties of host rocks. Examples of URLs located in granitic massifs of Sweden (Äspö), Canada (Whiteshell), Switzerland (Grimsel), Japan (Mizunami), and Finland (ONKALO), as well as the El Berrocal (Spain), Palmottu (Finland), Sanerliu (China), and Kamaishi (Japan) deposits, are considered in the paper. The objects listed above are distinct in tectonic settings, geology, control of ore mineralization, redox conditions of uranium migration, and character and intensity of filtration and transportation, which predetermine the direction and specific features of research conducted therein. A variant in which a URL and a natural analogue are combined in one object is especially promising for validation of safe long-term isolation of SNF. The Antei vein-stockwork uranium deposit in the southeastern Transbaikal region, localized in Paleozoic granite at a depth of 400 1000 m and opened by mine workings at six levels, is such an object. Its geological features, stress-strain state, and infrastructure of mine workings offer an opportunity to study the entire spectrum of processes proceeding in near-and far-field of an SNF repository. The structural geology, mineralogy and petrography, and petrophysical and tectonophysical features of the deposit at its three lower levels are considered. The sequence of metasomatic alteration of rocks and the dynamics of formation of ore-bearing faults that crosscut prototectonic elements, as well as relationships of physicomechanical properties of rocks as a function of

  7. Geochemistry research planning for the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report is a preliminary attempt to plan a comprehensive program of geochemistry research aimed at resolving problems connected with the underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The problems and research needs were identified in a companion report to this one. The research needs were taken as a point of departure and developed into a series of proposed projects with estimated manpowers and durations. The scope of the proposed research is based on consideration of an underground repository as a multiple barrier system. However, the program logic and organization reflect conventional strategies for resolving technological problems. The projects were scheduled and the duration of the program, critical path projects and distribution of manpower determined for both full and minimal programs. The proposed research was then compared with ongoing research within DOE, NRC and elsewhere to identify omissions in current research. Various options were considered for altering the scope of the program, and hence its cost and effectiveness. Finally, recommendations were made for dealing with omissions and uncertainties arising from program implementation. 11 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  8. A BHR Composite Network-Based Visualization Method for Deformation Risk Level of Underground Space

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoya; Lu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a visualization processing method for the deformation risk level of underground space. The proposed method is based on a BP-Hopfield-RGB (BHR) composite network. Complex environmental factors are integrated in the BP neural network. Dynamic monitoring data are then automatically classified in the Hopfield network. The deformation risk level is combined with the RGB color space model and is displayed visually in real time, after which experiments are conducted with the use of an ultrasonic omnidirectional sensor device for structural deformation monitoring. The proposed method is also compared with some typical methods using a benchmark dataset. Results show that the BHR composite network visualizes the deformation monitoring process in real time and can dynamically indicate dangerous zones. PMID:26011618

  9. A BHR Composite Network-Based Visualization Method for Deformation Risk Level of Underground Space.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoya; Lu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a visualization processing method for the deformation risk level of underground space. The proposed method is based on a BP-Hopfield-RGB (BHR) composite network. Complex environmental factors are integrated in the BP neural network. Dynamic monitoring data are then automatically classified in the Hopfield network. The deformation risk level is combined with the RGB color space model and is displayed visually in real time, after which experiments are conducted with the use of an ultrasonic omnidirectional sensor device for structural deformation monitoring. The proposed method is also compared with some typical methods using a benchmark dataset. Results show that the BHR composite network visualizes the deformation monitoring process in real time and can dynamically indicate dangerous zones.

  10. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  11. Search for weakly interacting massive particles with the first five-tower data from the cryogenic dark matter search at the soudan underground laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Z; Akerib, D S; Arrenberg, S; Attisha, M J; Bailey, C N; Baudis, L; Bauer, D A; Beaty, J; Brink, P L; Bruch, T; Bunker, R; Burke, S; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cooley, J; Cushman, P; Dejongh, F; Dragowsky, M R; Duong, L; Emes, J; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Filippini, J; Fritts, M; Gaitskell, R J; Golwala, S R; Grant, D R; Hall, J; Hennings-Yeomans, R; Hertel, S; Holmgren, D; Huber, M E; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Nelson, H; Novak, L; Ogburn, R W; Pyle, M; Qiu, X; Ramberg, E; Rau, W; Reisetter, A; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schmitt, R; Schnee, R W; Seitz, D N; Serfass, B; Sirois, A; Sundqvist, K M; Tarka, M; Tomada, A; Wang, G; Yellin, S; Yoo, J; Young, B A

    2009-01-09

    We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search at the Soudan Underground Laboratory (CDMS II) featuring the full complement of 30 detectors. A blind analysis of data taken between October 2006 and July 2007 sets an upper limit on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) nucleon spin-independent cross section of 6.6x10;{-44} cm;{2} (4.6x10;{-44} cm;{2} when combined with previous CDMS II data) at the 90% confidence level for a WIMP mass of 60 GeV/c;{2}. This achieves the best sensitivity for dark matter WIMPs with masses above 44 GeV/c;{2}, and significantly restricts the parameter space for some favored supersymmetric models.

  12. Determination of the thermal conductivity of opalinus clay via simulations of experiments performed at the Mont Terri underground laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mügler, C.; Filippi, M.; Montarnal, Ph.; Martinez, J.-M.; Wileveau, Y.

    2006-02-01

    Storage in deep geological formations is a potential solution for the management of high-level radioactive wastes. In this context, different types of rocks such as argillite are extensively studied. In the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), several experiments have been performed in order to characterize the properties of the opalinus clay. One of these experiments, called HE-C, has consisted in measuring in situ the time evolution of the rock temperature submitted to a heating source. Experimental measurements have shown that the thermal behaviour of the clay was not homogeneous around the borehole where the heater was installed. Furthermore, 3D direct numerical simulations of this experiment performed with the code Cast3M have proved that it was necessary to introduce a new parameter α to model the amount of electric power lost in cables and by air convection inside the metallic tube containing the heater. A numerical simulation-optimization technique has been used to estimate the thermal longitudinal and transverse conductivities ( λ// and λ⊥) of the host rock. It consists in minimizing an objective function that is the sum of the squared differences between measured and calculated temperatures. But this method induced a lot of Cast3M simulations. In order to drastically reduce the CPU time, we used a neural network approximation built from a sample training of 1100 Cast3M simulations. It allowed us to calculate the objective function for 500 000 different values of the triplet ( λ//, λ⊥, α). Finally, we obtained the following values for the thermal conductivities on one side of the borehole, λ// = 1.84 ± 0.04 W m - 1 K - 1 and λ⊥ = 0.55 ± 0.03 W m - 1 K - 1 ; on the other side, λ// = 1.90 ± 0.07 W m - 1 K - 1 and λ⊥ = 1.07 ± 0.09 W m - 1 K - 1 . The estimated thermal conductivities λ⊥ perpendicular to the bedding plane are quite different. It is perhaps caused by the presence of an intensive fractured zone on one side of

  13. Particle dark matter and solar axion searches with a small germanium detector at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A.; Avignone, F. T., III; Brodzinski, R. L.; Cebrián, S.; García, E.; González, D.; Irastorza, I. G.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, J.; de Solórzano, A. Ortiz; Puimedón, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Sarsa, M. L.; Scopel, S.; Villar, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A small, natural abundance, germanium detector (COSME) has been operating recently at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Spanish Pyrenees) in improved conditions of shielding and overburden with respect to a previous operation of the same detector (Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 321 (1992) 410; Phys. Rev. D 51 (1995) 1458). An exposure of 72.7 kg day in these conditions has at present a background improvement of about one order of magnitude compared to the former operation of the detector. These new data have been applied to a direct search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and solar axions. New WIMP exclusion plots improving the current bounds for low masses are reported. The paper also presents a limit on the axion-photon coupling obtained from the analysis of the data looking for a Primakoff axion-to-photon conversion and Bragg scattering inside the crystal.

  14. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2011, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-01-30

    This report evaluates collapse evolution for selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly called the Nevada Test Site). The work is being done to support several different programs that desire access to the ground surface above expended underground nuclear tests. The programs include: the Borehole Management Program, the Environmental Restoration Program, and the National Center for Nuclear Security Gas-Migration Experiment. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Evaluation of cavity collapse and crater formation is input into the safety decisions. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program who participated in weapons testing activities perform these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, ground motion, and radiological release information. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. The evaluations do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2011 was published on March 2, 2011. This report, considered Part 2 of work undertaken in calendar year 2011, compiles evaluations requested after the March report. The following unclassified summary statements describe collapse evolution and crater

  15. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Exploratory simulations of multiphase effects in gas injection and ventilation tests in an underground rock laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S. . Versuchsanstalt fuer Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaciologie); Schlueter, E.; Pruess, K. )

    1990-06-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) through the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the Swiss Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfaella (Nagra) and concluded in September 1989. 16 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Hydrogeological Investigations in Deep Wells at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Distinguin, Marc

    ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Déchets Radioactifs) has developed an integrated approach to characterizing the hydrogeology of the carbonate strata that encase the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at the Meuse/Haute-Marne Laboratory site. The argillites are difficult to characterize due to their low permeability. The barrier properties of the argillites can be inferred from the flow and chemistry properties of the encasing Oxfordian and Dogger carbonates. Andras deep hole approach uses reverse air circulation drilling, geophysical logging, flow meter logging, geochemical sampling, and analyses of the pumping responses during sampling. The data support numerical simulations that evaluate the argillites hydraulic behaviour.

  18. Exhaled nitric oxide levels and lung function changes of underground coal miners in Newcastle, Australia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Salter, Amy; Thomas, Paul; Leigh, James; Wang, He

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in combination with lung function as a marker of airway inflammation produced by coal mining exposure was determined presuming that workers exposed to airborne hazards would possess different concentrations of eNO and decreased lung function indices, relative to control subjects recruited from the same area. The effect of smoking was also considered. A study (exposed) group comprising 186 male subjects (aged 19-58 yr) was recruited from Newcastle coal mining companies with 86 male subjects (aged 20-64 yr) from the same area, but working outside of the coal mining location, serving as controls. The parameters examined were eNO, lung function, and variables derived from an interview-administered questionnaire survey. After adjustment for age, body weight, and smoking status, no significant differences between exposed coal mining workers and controls were found for various lung function parameters. However, the exposed group was shown to have significantly lower concentrations of eNO. In the exposed group, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV(1) (%) predicted were found to be significantly different between nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of eNO were not significantly different between smoking and nonsmokers within the exposed group. The consideration of nonsmokers alone showed that eNO was significantly lower in the exposed group compared to the control group. The consideration of smokers alone found that eNO was significantly lower in exposed subjects. In the exposed group, no significant association was detected between eNO levels and underground work duration but a significant negative association was shown between eNO and age. Data suggest that exposure to airborne hazards in coal mining is not significantly associated with lung function changes but is correlated with decreased eNO concentrations in exposed workers. While underground work duration was not found to

  19. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014.

    PubMed

    Torres Rey, Carlos Humberto; Ibañez Pinilla, Milciades; Briceño Ayala, Leonardo; Checa Guerrero, Diana Milena; Morgan Torres, Gloria; Groot de Restrepo, Helena; Varona Uribe, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2). An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982), medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260-4.201), length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806-5.748), and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938-2.334). These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured.

  20. Underground Coal Mining: Relationship between Coal Dust Levels and Pneumoconiosis, in Two Regions of Colombia, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Torres Rey, Carlos Humberto; Ibañez Pinilla, Milciades; Briceño Ayala, Leonardo; Checa Guerrero, Diana Milena; Morgan Torres, Gloria; Groot de Restrepo, Helena; Varona Uribe, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    In Colombia, coal miner pneumoconiosis is considered a public health problem due to its irreversibility, high cost on diagnosis, and lack of data related to its prevalence in the country. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in underground coal mining workers in two regions of Colombia. The results showed a 35.9% prevalence of pneumoconiosis in the study group (42.3% in region 1 and 29.9% in region 2). An association was found between a radiologic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and a medium risk level of exposure to carbon dust (OR: 2.901, 95% CI: 0.937, 8.982), medium size companies (OR: 2.301, 95% CI: 1.260–4.201), length of mining work greater than 25 years (OR: 3.222, 95% CI: 1.806–5.748), and a history of smoking for more than one year (OR: 1.479, 95% CI: 0.938–2.334). These results establish the need to generate an intervention strategy aimed at preventing the identified factors, as well as a timely identification and effective treatment of pneumoconiosis in coal miners, in which the commitment of the General Health and Social Security System and the workers compensation system is ensured. PMID:26366418

  1. On the development of an underground geoscience laboratory at Boulby in NE England (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petley, D. N.; Rosser, N.; Barlow, J.; Brain, M. J.; Lim, M.; Sapsford, M.; Pybus, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Boulby Mine in NE England is a major potash extraction facility located in NE England. Opened in 1973, the mine extracts both potash and rock salt from Zechstein deposits located at a depth of about 1100 m below the land surface. For the last 20 years the mine has housed an important laboratory built to provide a base for Dark Matter research. However, in the last ten years the mine has progressively become been the site of research into geophysical and geological processes, primarily through a strategic partnership between the mine operators, Cleveland Potash Ltd, and the University of Durham. The site is now the base for an initial proof of concept project, funded by the Regional Development Agency One Northeast, to explore the viability of establishing a permanent geosciences research facility at Boulby. The vision is a facility that provides access for researchers into the range of geological environments at Boulby, extending from the coastal cliffs at the surface, through the access shafts to the deepest potash seams. The facility is designed to host research in geophysics, hydrology, geophysics, geomorphology, geochemistry, microbiology, rock mechanics, mining engineering, petrology and related fields. This proof of concept study has three key strategic aims: 1. To establish the range of uses of a research laboratory at Boulby and to determine the nature of the facilities required; 2. To initiate research programmes into: a. palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Zechstein deposits; b. the mechanics of the potash and halite rocks; and c. the mechanisms of failure of the coastal cliffs; 3. To construct an initial four serviced research caverns within the mine. The proof of concept stage of the project is intended to run until September 2010, with development of the facility being completed by 2015. However, the facility is currently in a position to host research projects across a wide range of disciplines.

  2. LSBB: a Low Noise Laboratory for Inter--Disciplinary Underground Science and Technology in Rustrel--Pays d'Apt, Vaucluse, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffet, S.

    2008-12-01

    Located in the Provence-Alpes--Côte d'Azur region (Southern France), LSBB is an underground facility that is dedicated since 10 years ago, to interdisciplinary fundamental and applied R&D activities in a low level anthropogenic area that secures the site with one of the lowest environmental noise in the world. LSBB is both a host-laboratory for private and academic experiments and a unique access-laboratory to study near- surface multi-physics environmental processes. This site offers operational facilities characterized by a fully connected fiber-optics network managed by a team of 3 permanent engineers and the collaboration with more than 30 research units in Europe. Initially designed for the French nuclear defence and converted in 1997 into an academic laboratory, LSBB is a hardened facility made of 3.7~km of horizontal galleries and vaults buried 500~m deep within the unsaturated zone of a carbonate platform which is a typical analogue of the currently exploited water and oil reservoirs of the Middle--East. Another major attraction of the LSBB is that it hosts a unique--in--the--world broad low-pass filter magnetic shielded zone (1500~m3 with electromagnetic noise level below 2~fT/√Hz for frequencies above 50~Hz). Thanks to such an exceptional environmental and technological context, LSBB provides one of the best european opportunities for the development of research projects related to near-surface imaging and multiscale and multiphysics coupled processes in natural porous media; magnetic field perturbations coupled to seismic wave excitations; thermo--hydromechanical and chemical fluid--rock interaction in heterogeneous carbonates; dark matter research; reliability and sensitivity to the natural radioactive environment of nano-- electronic and nano--structures. Projects interact through co--sharing of the multi--parametric and at--the-- leading--edge measurements and results, that are centralised in a dedicated internet plateform.

  3. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2011-01-03

    This report evaluates collapse evolution for selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly called the Nevada Test Site). The work is being done at the request of Navarro-Interra LLC, and supports environmental restoration efforts by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the Nevada Site Office. Safety decisions must be made before a surface crater area, or potential surface crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and surface crater formation are input into their safety decisions. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the surface collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, and ground motion. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty.

  4. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation for Selected Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Nuclear Tests - 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S K; Pawloski, G A; Raschke, K

    2007-04-26

    This report describes evaluation of collapse evolution for selected LLNL underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The work is being done at the request of NSTec and supports the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Association Nevada Site Office Borehole Management Program (BMP). The primary objective of this program is to close (plug) weapons program legacy boreholes that are deemed no longer useful. Safety decisions must be made before a crater area, or potential crater area, can be reentered for any work. Our statements on cavity collapse and crater formation are input into their safety decisions. The BMP is an on-going program to address hundreds of boreholes at the NTS. Each year NSTec establishes a list of holes to be addressed. They request the assistance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Containment Programs to provide information related to the evolution of collapse history and make statements on completeness of collapse as relates to surface crater stability. These statements do not include the effects of erosion that may modify the collapse craters over time. They also do not address possible radiation dangers that may be present. Subject matter experts from the LLNL Containment Program and the Chemical Sciences Division who had been active in weapons testing activities performed these evaluations. Information used included drilling and hole construction, emplacement and stemming, timing and sequence of the selected test and nearby tests, geology, yield, depth of burial, collapse times, surface crater sizes, cavity and crater volume estimations, and ground motion. Both classified and unclassified data were reviewed. Various amounts of information are available for these tests, depending on their age and other associated activities. Lack of data can hamper evaluations and introduce uncertainty. We make no attempt to quantify this uncertainty. The following unclassified summary

  5. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.; Brady, B.H.G.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Obelix, a new low-background HPGe at Modane Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loaiza, P.; Piquemal, F.; Warot, G.; Zampaolo, M.

    2015-08-17

    An ultra-low background coaxial HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry with a relative efficiency of 160%, corresponding to a 600 cm{sup 3} Ge crystal, was installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France (4800 m.w.e). To reduce the instrinsic detector background, all parts involved in the detector cryostat were selected for their low radioactivity contamination. A shielding, composed of an inner layer of roman lead and an external layer of regular lead was installed, together with a system to reduce the Rn level inside the sample chamber. The shielding was designed to allow the measurement of Marinelli-shaped samples. We present the constructional details which lead to a remarkable low detector background of 73 cts/kg·d in [40, 3000] keV. Measured samples showed that sensitivities about 100 μBq/kg in {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th are reached for samples of some kg and 30 days of lifetime.

  7. An improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity to minimise radiation levels in underground uranium mines.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad

    2015-02-01

    Ventilation is the primary means of controlling radon and its daughter concentrations in an underground uranium mine environment. Therefore, prediction of air quantity is the vital component for planning and designing of ventilation systems to minimise the radiation exposure of miners in underground uranium mines. This paper comprehensively describes the derivation and verification of an improved mathematical model for prediction of air quantity, based on the growth of radon daughters in terms of potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), to reduce the radiation levels in uranium mines. The model also explains the prediction of air quantity depending upon the quality of intake air to the stopes. This model can be used to evaluate the contribution of different sources to radon concentration in mine atmosphere based on the measurements of radon emanation and exhalation. Moreover, a mathematical relationship has been established for quick prediction of air quantity to achieve the desired radon daughter concentration in the mines.

  8. From the Cosmos to the Geosphere: the quest of four European Deep Underground Laboratories originally built for Astroparticle Physics to understand Global Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafioti, I.

    2014-12-01

    A number of deep underground laboratories exist around the world, all originally developed to advance our understanding of the Universe. They were built to host 'low-background' Astroparticle Physics experiments, needing to be shielded from interference produced by cosmic radiation. These unique infrastructures show great diversity in terms of depth, size, and geological and environmental characteristics. Over the last decade, the four European deep underground laboratories - LSM in France, LSC in Spain, LNGS in Italy and Boulby in the UK - supported by their funding agencies, have been making great efforts to get integrated into a single distributed research infrastructure. At the same time, they have been asking "how can our facilities, primarily built for Astroparticle Physics, be used to tackle global challenges?". Astroparticle Physicists have wide experience in forming long-term large international collaborations, developing innovative technologies, building unique facilities and organising data handling, reduction, storage and analysis: all of these were put to the disposal of scientists from other disciplines. As a result, a number of very interesting multidisciplinary projects have been hosted in the labs with excellent scientific results: geologists, climatologists, environmental scientists and biologists from academia and public authorities have all used these deep underground environments. Even more recently, the four European labs have decided to go one step further: in order to treat global challenges, global cooperation is necessary, so they are trying to unite the global deep underground science community around these multidisciplinary synergies. The objective of this talk is to present the bottom-up policy adopted by these world-leading European research infrastructures related to global environmental change, including some of the most interesting scientific results received so far (e.g. muon tide detector for continuous, passive monitoring of

  9. Perceptions of Competence of Three Levels of Medical Laboratory Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Judith A.

    Commonalities and differences in the perception of competence among three levels of medical laboratory personnel were assessed through a survey of 100 educators, chief technologists, and working technicians. Respondents rated medical technologists (MTs), medical laboratory technicians (MLTs), and certified laboratory assistants (CLAs) on 270 tasks…

  10. 3D imaging of geological structures by R-VSP utilizing vibrations caused by shaft excavations at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Hodotsuka, Y.; Ishigaki, K.; Lee, C.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency is now conducting the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project. The MIU consists of two shafts (main shaft: 6.5m, ventilation shaft: 4.5m diameter) and horizontal research galleries, in sedimentary and granitic rocks at Mizunami City, Central Japan. The MIU project is a broad scientific study of the deep geological environment providing the basis for research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste. One of the main goals is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock. As a part of the MIU project, we carried out the Reverse-Vertical Seismic Profile (R-VSP) using vibrations from the blasting for the shaft excavations and drilling of boreholes in the horizontal research galleries and examined the applicability of this method to imaging of geological structures around underground facilities, such as the unconformity between the sedimentary rocks and the basal granite, and faults and fracture zones in the granite. R-VSP method is a seismic method utilizing the receiver arrays on surface and seismic sources underground (e.g. in boreholes). This method is advantageous in that planning of 3-dimensional surveys is easy compared with reflection seismic surveying and conventional VSP because seismic source arrays that are major constraint for conducting surveys on surface are unnecessary. The receiver arrays consist of six radial lines on surface with a central focus on the main shaft. Seven blast rounds for the main shaft excavation from GL-52.8m to GL-250m and the borehole drilling in the GL-200m horizontal research gallery were observed. Three types of data processing, conventional VSP data processing (VSP-CDP transform and VSP migration), Reflection data processing utilizing Seismic interferometry method (“Seismic interferometry”) and Reflection mapping utilizing Image Point transform method (“IP transform

  11. Assessment and evaluation of noise controls on roof bolting equipment and a method for predicting sound pressure levels in underground coal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matetic, Rudy J.

    Over-exposure to noise remains a widespread and serious health hazard in the U.S. mining industries despite 25 years of regulation. Every day, 80% of the nation's miners go to work in an environment where the time weighted average (TWA) noise level exceeds 85 dBA and more than 25% of the miners are exposed to a TWA noise level that exceeds 90 dBA, the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Additionally, MSHA coal noise sample data collected from 2000 to 2002 show that 65% of the equipment whose operators exceeded 100% noise dosage comprise only seven different types of machines; auger miners, bulldozers, continuous miners, front end loaders, roof bolters, shuttle cars (electric), and trucks. In addition, the MSHA data indicate that the roof bolter is third among all the equipment and second among equipment in underground coal whose operators exceed 100% dosage. A research program was implemented to: (1) determine, characterize and to measure sound power levels radiated by a roof bolting machine during differing drilling configurations (thrust, rotational speed, penetration rate, etc.) and utilizing differing types of drilling methods in high compressive strength rock media (>20,000 psi). The research approach characterized the sound power level results from laboratory testing and provided the mining industry with empirical data relative to utilizing differing noise control technologies (drilling configurations and types of drilling methods) in reducing sound power level emissions on a roof bolting machine; (2) distinguish and correlate the empirical data into one, statistically valid, equation, in which, provided the mining industry with a tool to predict overall sound power levels of a roof bolting machine given any type of drilling configuration and drilling method utilized in industry; (3) provided the mining industry with several approaches to predict or determine sound pressure levels in an underground coal mine utilizing laboratory test results from a roof bolting

  12. Magnetic susceptibility and cyclostratigraphy of upper Jurassic marly formations (ANDRA, underground research laboratory, Bure, Eastern Paris Basin): Record of Milankovitch cycles, sedimentary gaps, and implications for regional correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilia, H.; Bruno, G.; Pierre-Yves, C.; Slah, B.; Pascal, E.; Linda, H.; Christian, R.

    2006-05-01

    This study integrates research conducted by ANDRA at the Underground Research Laboratory of Bure (Meuse, France) to investigate the feasibility of a deep geological waste repository in clay for high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste. The aim of this study is to detect possible sedimentary gaps in the upper Callovian-lower Oxfordian homogeneous marly formation where the laboratory is located, and to estimate the duration of stages and biostratigraphic zonation by comparison with a basin sequence from the southeast of France that is presumed to have accumulated continuously. The search for hiatuses was made using a high resolution cyclostratigraphic approach based on the study of magnetic susceptibility (MS) fluctuations. Four ANDRA boreholes (EST 342, EST 322, EST 103 and EST 312) oriented on a SW-NE transect (40 kilometers) were analyzed. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were made on core samples with a Bartington Instruments MS2E1 sensor every 4 centimeters. Sedimentological data suggest that variations of the clay content influence the long term evolution of MS. The high frequency variations in MS were subjected to spectral analysis. Composite cycles of 0.5, 1 and 2.5 m thickness were recognized on the basis of frequency ratio and correspond to the frequency ratio of orbital Milankovitch cycles. The duration of the Mariae ammonite zone in the Paris Basin was estimated by counting the cycles, to be between 2.4 and 2.6 My ± 0.3 ky (borehole EST 322 & EST 103). The amplitude spectrum shows (1) sedimentation rate variations in particular in the lower Oxfordian and (2) interruptions in cycle evolution correlated to sequential limits. We interpret these zones as short condensed levels. The same methods were applied to sections from the southeast of France (Aspres-sur-Buëch, Thuoux), and the Mariae ammonite zone estimated to be between 2.3 and 2.8 My of age. By comparison of this biostratigraphic zone between the two studied regions

  13. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-04-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper.

  14. Drilling effect on subsurface microbial community structure in groundwater from the -250 m gallery at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ise, K.; Amano, Y.; Sasaki, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.

    2014-12-01

    The deep geological disposal system is regarded as the most secure and practical disposal method of high-level radioactive waste in the world. In this disposal system, preservation of reducing condition is one of the key requirements, because most of radionuclides have low solubilities in such condition. However, the host rocks near the shafts and galleries would be affected by oxidization during the construction and operation period of a repository (for about 50 years). Therefore, the recovery of reducing condition after closing the repository should be verified. During the recovery processes, it is considered that microbial activities play important roles, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the changes in microbial communities by molecular method to evaluate microbial response toward the oxygen stress. The groundwater samples were collected from a borehole of 250 m depth at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, for two years immediately after drilling of a borehole without any contamination as much as possible. Immediately after drilling of the borehole, the phylotype related to Arcobacter spp. was dominated about 65 % of the total clone library. Arcobacter spp. is known as sulfide oxidizer and which can growth chemoautotrophically. Half a year later, the phylotype related to Azoarcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. known as nitrate reducing bacteria increased, instead of the phylotype related to Arcobacter spp. One year later, in addition to nitrate reducing bacteria, phylotype related to Dethiobacterspp. known as thiosulfate reducing bacteria was dominantly detected. Two years later, most of detected clones were related to uncultured species such as candidate division WS6 and JS1 which are detected frequently in deep-sea sediments. Our results indicate that these redox sequential reactions could contribute to the recovery and maintenance of reducing conditions and provide a conceptual model for evaluating the capacity to

  15. Objectives and Current Status of the IAEA Network of Centers of Excellence: Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M. J.; Knapp, M. R.

    2003-02-27

    Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) to develop and demonstrate technologies for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes have been established for national purposes by several Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Under the auspices of the IAEA, nationally developed URLs and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form a Network of Centers of Excellence for training in and development of waste disposal technologies. Experience gained in the operation of the facilities, and through associated experimentation and demonstrations, will be transferred to participating Member States through hands-on work at the facilities. The Network consists of Network Members and Network Participants who share co-operative activities. Network Members are owners of facilities who have offered them to be part of the Network. At this time there are eight Members consisting of six underground facilities, a laboratory, and a university. Network Participants can potentially come from any interested IAEA Member State having spent nuclear fuel for disposal, with or without an established program for geologic disposal. There are presently about 15 Network Participants. A significant Network activity beginning in 2003 will be a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on characterization and evaluation of swelling clays for use in engineered barrier systems of geologic repositories. At the end of this project, every involved Member State should be able to identify and characterize a swelling clay that is suitable for use in a geologic repository. As the Network grows, additional CRPs to be carried out in the Underground Research Facilities of the Network Members will be defined.

  16. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, Steven Derek

    2014-03-01

    The Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF) is an operating deep underground research facility with six active projects, and greater than 50 trained researchers. KURF is 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech (VT) campus in an operating limestone mine with drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' × 20 +' the current lab is 35' × 22' × 100'), and 1700' of overburden (1450m.w.e.). The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ~0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. The current users are funded by NSF, DOE, and NNSA. Current user group: 1) mini-LENS (VT, Louisiana State University, BNL); 2) Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); 3) HPGe Low-Background Screening (University of North Carolina (UNC), VT); 4) MALBEK (UNC); 5&6) Watchman - 5) Radionuclide Detector and 6) MARS detector (LLNL, SNL, UC-Davis, UC-Berkeley, UH, Hawaii Pacific, UC-Irvine, VT).

  17. High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

    2005-05-01

    Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv.

  18. Survey of laboratory-acquired infections around the world in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, N; Papa, A; Hukic, M; Di Caro, A; Leparc-Goffart, I; Leroy, E; Landini, M P; Sekeyova, Z; Dumler, J S; Bădescu, D; Busquets, N; Calistri, A; Parolin, C; Palù, G; Christova, I; Maurin, M; La Scola, B; Raoult, D

    2016-08-01

    Laboratory-acquired infections due to a variety of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi have been described over the last century, and laboratory workers are at risk of exposure to these infectious agents. However, reporting laboratory-associated infections has been largely voluntary, and there is no way to determine the real number of people involved or to know the precise risks for workers. In this study, an international survey based on volunteering was conducted in biosafety level 3 and 4 laboratories to determine the number of laboratory-acquired infections and the possible underlying causes of these contaminations. The analysis of the survey reveals that laboratory-acquired infections have been infrequent and even rare in recent years, and human errors represent a very high percentage of the cases. Today, most risks from biological hazards can be reduced through the use of appropriate procedures and techniques, containment devices and facilities, and the training of personnel.

  19. Laboratory development of methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.; Burgess, M.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Perona, J.J.; Kent, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    Improved centralized treatment methods are needed in the management of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). LLLW, which usually contains radioactive contaminants at concentrations up to millicurie-per-liter levels, has accumulated in underground storage tanks for over 10 years and has reached a volume of over 350,000 gal. These wastes have been collected since 1984 and are a complex mixture of wastes from past nuclear energy research activities. The waste is a highly alkaline 4-5 M NaNO{sub 3} solution with smaller amounts of other salts. This type of waste will continue to be generated as a consequence of future ORNL research programs. Future LLLW (referred to as newly generated LLLW or NGLLLW) is expected to a highly alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide with a smaller concentration of sodium nitrate. New treatment facilities are needed to improve the manner in which these wastes are managed. These facilities must be capable of separating and reducing the volume of radioactive contaminants to small stable waste forms. Treated liquids must meet criteria for either discharge to the environment or solidification for onsite disposal. Laboratory testing was performed using simulated waste solutions prepared using the available characterization information as a basis. Testing was conducted to evaluate various methods for selective removal of the major contaminants. The major contaminants requiring removal from Melton Valley Storage Tank liquids are {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Principal contaminants in NGLLLW are {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 106}Ru. Strontium removal testing began with literature studies and scoping tests with several ion-exchange materials and sorbents.

  20. First radon measurements and occupational exposure assessments in underground geodynamic laboratory the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ Castle (SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the results of the first radon activity concentration measurements conducted continuously between 17(th) May 2014 and 16(th) May 2015 in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences Space Research Centre in Książ. The data were registered with the use of three Polish semiconductor SRDN-3 detectors located the closest (SRDN-3 No. 6) to and the furthest (SRDN-3 No. 3) from the facility entrance, and in the fault zone (SRDN-3 No. 4). The study was conducted to characterize the radon behaviour and check it possibility to use with reference to long- and short-term variations of radon activity concentration observed in sedimentary rocks strongly fractured and intersected by systems of multiple faults, for integrated comparative assessments of changes in local orogen kinetics. The values of radon activity concentration in the underground geodynamic laboratory of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) Space Research Centre in Książ undergo changes of a distinctly seasonal character. The highest values of radon activity concentration are recorded from late spring (May/June) to early autumn (October), and the lowest - from November to April. Radon activity concentrations varied depending on the location of measurement points. Between late spring and autumn they ranged from 800 Bq·m(-3) to 1200 Bq·m(-3), and even 3200 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. Between November and April, values of radon activity concentration are lower, ranging from 500 Bq·m(-3) to 1000 Bq·m(-3) and 2700 Bq·m(-3) in the fault zone. The values of radon activity concentration recorded in the studied facility did not undergo short-term changes in either the whole annual measuring cycle or any of its months. Effective doses received by people staying in the underground laboratory range from 0.001 mSv/h to 0.012 mSv/h. The mean annual effective dose, depending on the measurement site, equals 1 or is slightly higher than 10 mSv/year, while the maximum

  1. Underground Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhlrott, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of underground buildings constructed primarily during last two decades for various reasons (energy conservation, density of environment, preservation of landscape and historic buildings) notes advantages, disadvantages, and psychological and design considerations. Examples of underground libraries, built mainly in United States, are…

  2. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  3. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  4. Distribution of U and REE on colloids in granitic groundwater and quality-controlled sampling at the Mizunami underground research laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munemoto, Takashi; Ohmori, Kazuaki; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2014-12-01

    Colloids and their association with analogue elements, uranium, and rare earth elements (REEs), in deep granitic groundwater were investigated at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU). Groundwater was sampled from underground boreholes and gallery walls, and the colloids were separated by size-fractionated ultrafiltration (pore sizes, 0.2 μm, 10 kDa, and 1 kDa). For the groundwater sampled from fractures in excavation walls, the size-fractionated concentrations of the colloid-forming elements were approximately constant relative to different size fractions (0.2 μm, 200 kDa, 50 kDa, and 10 kDa). The contamination of Fe- and Al-bearing materials was insignificant in the filtered groundwater from fracture seepages. Changes in the concentrations of U in the groundwater sampled from boreholes and excavation walls were associated with the Al-bearing colloids, Fe-bearing colloids, and organic matter. The REE-bearing material(s) that were >0.2 μm in size were mobile in the deep granitic groundwater, rather than occurring in association with Al-bearing, Fe-bearing colloids, and organic matter. It is suggested that sampling from water-conducting fractures in host rock and colloid elimination in borehole are important components of water quality control in geochemical investigations.

  5. Characterisation and monitoring of the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) in fractured gneisses of the Roselend underground laboratory: permeability measurements, transport property changes and related radon bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassermann, Jérôme; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Richon, Patrick; Pontreau, Sébastien; Guillon, Sophie; Pili, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The Roselend tunnel was drilled in the fifties by blasting in the micashists, granites and gneisses of the Méraillet massif (French Alps). It is situated on the shore of the Roselend reservoir Lake near its dam. Several tectonic shear fractures related to the Alpine orogeny intersect the dead end tunnel (with length of 128 m and section about 2 m), indeed the fracture density varies from 0.45 to 1 fracture per meter along the tunnel (Dezayes and Villemin 2002). Some fractures are partially or totally filled with secondary minerals. The flow rates of percolating water through the fractured medium are seasonal dependent. Large fractures drain a large fluid volume unlike small ones that drain limited fluid volume (Patriarche et al. 2007). The Roselend underground laboratory allows the study of the geochemical and geophysical responses of a fractured rock mass to periodic sollicitations due to water level variations of the nearby Roselend reservoir Lake. The tunnel was instrumented in the nineties to understand the relationship between radon (Rn-222) concentration and water level variations of the Roselend reservoir Lake (Trique et al. 1999). In order to characterize the geometry and the extent of the EDZ, core drilling and permeability measurements through pneumatic testing are performed along the Roselend tunnel. Drilled core analysis consists of direct observations at a macroscopic scale of fractures (density of fractures from EDZ) and also at a microscopic scale via thin sections. Method of pressure build-up in wells (Jakubick and Franz 1993, Bossart et al. 2002) is used to determine permeability profile along each borehole and hence to precise the extent and geometry of the EDZ. A strong correlation is observed between permeability profiles and the density of fractures estimated from core analysis. The extent of the EDZ appears to be about one tunnel radius i.e. one meter around the tunnel corridor. Another experiment consisting of continuous differential

  6. Groundwater Level Status Report for 2005 Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    S.P. Allen; R.J. Koch

    2006-05-15

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 2005 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 to provide a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 137 monitoring wells, including 41 regional aquifer wells, 22 intermediate wells, and 74 alluvial wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 118 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  7. Fate of water pumped from underground and contributions to sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-08-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model simulation, we show that only 80% of GWD ends up in the ocean. An increase in runoff to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/-0.004) mm yr-1 in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/-0.04) mm yr-1 in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 (+/-0.04) mm yr-1, suggesting that the net terrestrial water contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  8. Fate of Water Pumped from Underground and Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Lo, Min-Hui; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Wu, Ren-Jie; Tseng, Yu-Heng

    2016-01-01

    The contributions from terrestrial water sources to sea-level rise, other than ice caps and glaciers, are highly uncertain and heavily debated1-5. Recent assessments indicate that groundwater depletion (GWD) may become the most important positive terrestrial contribution6-10 over the next 50 years, probably equal in magnitude to the current contributions from glaciers and ice caps6. However, the existing estimates assume that nearly 100% of groundwater extracted eventually ends up in the oceans. Owing to limited knowledge of the pathways and mechanisms governing the ultimate fate of pumped groundwater, the relative fraction of global GWD that contributes to sea-level rise remains unknown. Here, using a coupled climate-hydrological model11,12 simulation, we show that only 80% of GWDends up in the ocean. An increase in runo to the ocean accounts for roughly two-thirds, whereas the remainder results from the enhanced net flux of precipitation minus evaporation over the ocean, due to increased atmospheric vapour transport from the land to the ocean. The contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise amounted to 0.02 (+/- 0.004)mm yr(sup-1) in 1900 and increased to 0.27 (+/- 0.04)mm yr(sup-1) in 2000. This indicates that existing studies have substantially overestimated the contribution of GWD to global sea-level rise by a cumulative amount of at least 10 mm during the twentieth century and early twenty-first century. With other terrestrial water contributions included, we estimate the net terrestrial water contribution during the period 1993-2010 to be +0.12 +/-0.04)mm yr(sup-1), suggesting that the net terrestrialwater contribution reported in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report report is probably overestimated by a factor of three.

  9. The Laser Level as an Optics Laboratory Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutzner, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    For decades now, the laser has been used as a handy device for performing ray traces in geometrical optics demonstrations and laboratories. For many ray- trace applications, I have found the laser level 3 to be even more visually compelling and easy for student use than the laser pointer.

  10. The Laser Level as an Optics Laboratory Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Mickey

    2013-12-01

    For decades now, the laser has been used as a handy device for performing ray traces in geometrical optics demonstrations and laboratories. , 2 For many ray- trace applications, I have found the laser level3 to be even more visually compelling and easy for student use than the laser pointer.

  11. New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Mark T.; Deitcher, Robert W.; Xi, Yuanzhou; Davis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A new laboratory course has been developed at the University of Virginia for senior- level chemical engineering students. The new course is based on three 4-week long experiments in bioprocess engineering, energy conversion and catalysis, and polymer synthesis and characterization. The emphasis is on the integration of process steps and the…

  12. Groundwater level status report for 2009, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2009 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 179 monitoring wells, including 55 regional aquifer wells (including 11 regional/intermediate wells), 26 intermediate wells, 98 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 161 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells.

  13. Groundwater level status report for 2010, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2010 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 194 monitoring wells, including 63 regional aquifer wells (including 10 regional/intermediate wells), 34 intermediate wells, 97 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 162 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells and seasonal responses to snowmelt runoff observed in intermediate wells.

  14. Groundwater level status report for 2008, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Richard J.; Schmeer, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2008 is provided in this report. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 179 monitoring wells, including 45 regional aquifer wells, 28 intermediate wells, 8 regional/intermediate wells, 106 alluvial wells, and 12 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 166 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well. The report also summarizes the groundwater temperatures recorded in intermediate and regional aquifer monitoring wells.

  15. Modeling of the T S D E Heater Test to Investigate Crushed Salt Reconsolidation and Rock Salt Creep for the Underground Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Wolters, R.; Lux, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Rock salt is a potential medium for the underground disposal of nuclear waste because it has several assets, in particular its water and gas tightness in the undisturbed state, its ability to heal induced fractures and its high thermal conductivity as compared to other shallow-crustal rocks. In addition, the run-of-mine, granular salt, may be used to backfill the mined open spaces. We present simulation results associated with coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical processes in the TSDE (Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement) experiment, conducted in the Asse salt mine in Germany [1]. During this unique test, conceived to simulate reference repository conditions for spent nuclear fuel, a significant amount of data (temperature, stress changes and displacements, among others) was measured at 20 cross-sections, distributed in two drifts in which a total of six electrical heaters were emplaced. The drifts were subsequently backfilled with crushed salt. This test has been modeled in three-dimensions, using two sequential simulators for flow (mass and heat) and geomechanics, TOUGH-FLAC and FLAC-TOUGH [2]. These simulators have recently been updated to accommodate large strains and time-dependent rheology. The numerical predictions obtained by the two simulators are compared within the framework of an international benchmark exercise, and also with experimental data. Subsequently, a re-calibration of some parameters has been performed. Modeling coupled processes in saliniferous media for nuclear waste disposal is a novel approach, and in this study it has led to the determination of some creep parameters that are very difficult to assess at the laboratory-scale because they require extremely low strain rates. Moreover, the results from the benchmark are very satisfactory and validate the capabilities of the two simulators used to study coupled thermal, mechanical and hydraulic (multi-component, multi-phase) processes relative to the underground disposal of high-level

  16. Radiological study of exposure levels in El Maghara underground coal mine.

    PubMed

    Amer, Hany A; Shawky, S; Hussein, Mohamed I; Abd el-Hady, M L

    2002-08-01

    Coal is largely composed of organic matter, but it is the inorganic matter in coal minerals and trace elements that have been cited as possible causes of health, environmental and technological problems associated with the use of coal. Some trace elements in coal are naturally radioactive. These radioactive elements include uranium (U), thorium (Th) and their numerous decay products, including radium (Ra) and radon (Rn). Although these elements are less chemically toxic than other coal constituents, such as arsenic, selenium or mercury, questions have been raised concerning the possible risk from radiation. In order to accurately address these questions and to predict the mobility of radioactive elements during the coal fuel cycle, it is important to determine the specific activity, distribution and form of radioactive elements in coal. The assessment of the radiation exposure from coal burning is critically dependent on the specific activity of radioactive elements in coal and in the fly ash that remains after combustion. The El-Maghara coal mine is the only producing coal mine in Egypt. It is located in the middle of the Sinai desert about 250 km north-east of Cairo, where a coal-fired power plant is intended to be built. In this study, a pre-operational radiological baseline of the site and the occupational radiation exposures due to radon progeny in the mine were determined. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil and coal dust samples collected along the main gallery ranges were found to be 6-22.9, 9.6-47.3 and 77-489 Bq kg-1, respectively. Soil samples collected around the mine showed concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the ranges 2.7-20.2, 3.2-12.6 and 14.6-201 Bq kg-1, respectively. All of the mean values of radon progeny were lower than the action levels for working places recommended in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 65.

  17. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations in underground and ground-level rail systems of the Los Angeles Metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Winnie; Cheung, Kalam; Daher, Nancy; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2011-03-01

    Elevated concentrations of particulate matter (PM) have been found in a number of worldwide underground transit systems, with major implications regarding exposure of commuters to PM and its associated health effects. An extensive sampling campaign was conducted in May-August 2010 to measure PM concentrations in two lines of the Los Angeles Metro system - an underground subway line (Metro red line) and a ground-level light-rail line (Metro gold line). The campaign goals were to: 1) determine personal PM exposure of commuters of both lines, and 2) measure and compare PM concentrations at station platforms and inside the train. Considering that a commuter typically spent 75% of time inside the train and 25% of time waiting at a station, subway commuters were exposed on average to PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations that were 1.9 and 1.8 times greater than the light-rail commuters. The average PM 10 concentrations for the subway line at station platforms and inside the train were 78.0 μg m -3 and 31.5 μg m -3, respectively; for the light-rail line, corresponding PM 10 concentrations were 38.2 μg m -3 and 16.2 μg m -3. Regression analysis demonstrated that personal exposure concentrations for the light-rail line are strongly associated with ambient PM levels ( R2 = 0.61), while PM concentrations for the subway line are less influenced by ambient conditions ( R2 = 0.38) and have a relatively stable background level of about 21 μg m -3. Our findings suggest that local emissions (i.e., vehicular traffic, road dust) are the main source of airborne PM for the light-rail line. The subway line, on the other hand, has an additional source of PM, most likely generated from the daily operation of trains. Strong inter-correlation of PM 10 between the train and station microenvironments shows that airborne PM at stations are the main source of PM inside the trains for both lines ( R2 = 0.91 and 0.81 for subway and light-rail line, respectively). In addition, PM 2.5 and coarse PM

  18. Underground Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  19. Relationship Between Faults Oriented Parallel and Oblique to Bedding in Neogene Massive Siliceous Mudstones at The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, Akira; Ishii, Eiichi

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanical relationship between bedding-parallel and bedding-oblique faults in a Neogene massive siliceous mudstone at the site of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Hokkaido, Japan, on the basis of observations of drill-core recovered from pilot boreholes and fracture mapping on shaft and gallery walls. Four bedding-parallel faults with visible fault gouge, named respectively the MM Fault, the Last MM Fault, the S1 Fault, and the S2 Fault (stratigraphically, from the highest to the lowest), were observed in two pilot boreholes (PB-V01 and SAB-1). The distribution of the bedding-parallel faults at 350 m depth in the Horonobe URL indicates that these faults are spread over at least several tens of meters in parallel along a bedding plane. The observation that the bedding-oblique fault displaces the Last MM fault is consistent with the previous interpretation that the bedding- oblique faults formed after the bedding-parallel faults. In addition, the bedding-parallel faults terminate near the MM and S1 faults, indicating that the bedding-parallel faults with visible fault gouge act to terminate the propagation of younger bedding-oblique faults. In particular, the MM and S1 faults, which have a relatively thick fault gouge, appear to have had a stronger control on the propagation of bedding-oblique faults than did the Last MM fault, which has a relatively thin fault gouge.

  20. Scientific investigation in deep wells for nuclear waste disposal studies at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, Northeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delay, Jacques; Rebours, Hervé; Vinsot, Agnès; Robin, Pierre

    Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is constructing an underground test facility to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. This paper describes the processes, the methods and results of a scientific characterization program carried out from the surface via deep boreholes with the aim to build a research facility for radioactive waste disposal. In particular this paper shows the evolution of the drilling programs and the borehole set up due to the refinement of the scientific objectives from 1994 to 2004. The pre-investigation phase on the Meuse/Haute-Marne site started in 1994. It consisted in drilling seven scientific boreholes. This phase, completed in 1996, led to the first regional geological cross-section showing the main geometrical characteristics of the host rock. Investigations on the laboratory site prior to the sinking of two shafts started in November 1999. The sinking of the shafts started in September 2000 with the auxiliary shaft completed in October 2004. The experimental gallery, at a depth of 445 m in the main shaft, was in operation by end 2004. During the construction of the laboratory, two major scientific programs were initiated to improve the existing knowledge of the regional hydrogeological characteristics and to accelerate the process of data acquisition on the shales. The aim of the 2003 hydrogeological drilling program was to determine, at regional scale, the properties of groundwater transport and to sample the water in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestones. The 2003-2004 programs consisted in drilling nine deep boreholes, four of which were slanted, to achieve an accurate definition of the structural features.

  1. 3D Calculation of Seismic Wave Interaction with Topography and Near-surface Structures at the LSBB Underground Laboratory, Rustrel, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maufroy, E.; Gaffet, S.; Operto, S.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Senechal, G.; Dietrich, M.; Zeyen, H.; Sardou, O.; Boyer, D.

    2008-12-01

    The understanding of seismic wave interaction with both topography and geological structures is one of a principal focus of seismic risk characterization. Seasonal or artificial variations of water (or more generally fluid or gas) saturation in the medium revealed by local variations of rheological parameters (VP, VS, QP, QS, and density) may strongly impact the seismic and the hydro-mechanical site response. The problem addressed here is the characterization of these potential site effects, which are of great interest in the context of underground storage and effects of anthropogenic structures. With the foregoing in mind, a seismic experiment was carried out in 2006 at the LSBB Underground Laboratory (http://lsbb.unice.fr), Rustrel, France. A total of 189 seismometers (3D 0.1 Hz Agecodagis) were spread on the surface of the massif with a slope of 30%, 150 vertical geophones (14 Hz) distributed along the roof of the 800 m long tunnel at LSBB. A two-dimensional profile of 100 shots (150 g equiv. TNT) were used for imaging the rheological properties of the subterranean karstic medium. A 3D P-velocity model was obtained from the reflection and surface to depth transmission P-wave travel times featuring the foregoing 2D tomographic profile. Main faults and P-wave velocities correlate well with the two main lithological formations (Barremian and Bedoulian limestones) [S.S.B.S. program, 1965]. As a preliminary step, finite difference modelling [Shake3D, Cruz-Atienza et al., 2007] using fixed VP/VS ratio provided a means for topographic site effect assessment. With these parameters, deduced mean amplification factors reach values from 3 to 6. There are shadow regions with low ground motion. There are also seismic lenses where seismic energy focusing occurs. These depend on the topography shape and relative source location. In a more realistic medium deduced from full waveform inversion [Operto et al., 2004], variations of VP/VS ratio and quality factors QP, QS, are

  2. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems.

  3. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2011-10-01

    A new deep underground research facility is open and operating only 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech campus. It is located in an operating limestone mine, and has drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' x 20' x 100'; the current lab is 35'x100'x22'), and is located where there is a 1700' overburden. The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ˜ 0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. There are currently six projects using the facility: mini-LENS - Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (Virginia Tech, Louisiana State University, BNL); Neutron Spectrometer (University of Maryland, NIST); Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); HPGe Low-Background Screening (North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina, Virginia Tech); MALBEK - Majorana neutrinoless double beta decay (University of North Carolina); Ar-39 Depleted Argon (Princeton University). I will summarize the current program, and exciting plans for the future.

  4. Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, S. Derek; Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2012-03-01

    A new deep underground research facility is open and operating only 30 minutes from the Virginia Tech campus. It is located in an operating limestone mine, and has drive-in access (eg: roll-back truck, motor coach), over 50 miles of drifts (all 40' x 20+'; the current lab is 35' x 22' x 100'), and is located where there is a 1700' overburden. The laboratory was built in 2007 and offers fiber optic internet, LN2, 480/220/110 V power, ample water, filtered air, 55 F constant temp, low Rn levels, low rock background activity, and a muon flux of only ˜0.004 muons per square meter, per second, per steradian. There are currently six projects using the facility: mini-LENS - Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (Virginia Tech, Louisiana State University, BNL); Neutron Spectrometer (University of Maryland, NIST); Double Beta Decay to Excited States (Duke University); HPGe Low-Background Screening (North Carolina State University, University of North Carolina, Virginia Tech); MALBEK - Majorana neutrinoless double beta decay (University of North Carolina); Ar-39 Depleted Argon (Princeton University). I will summarize the current program and exciting potential for the future.

  5. Progress in High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lockie, K. A.; McNaught, W. B.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is making preparations to close two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 300,000 gallon tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in August 2001. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system also uses existing waste transfer technology (steam-jets) to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. By using this existing transfer system and commercially available equipment, the cost of developing custom designed cleaning equipment can be avoided. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. This system is also compliant with operational and safety performance requirements at INTEC. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has demonstrated the capability to clean tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. The tank cleaning system deployed at the INTEC offers unique advantages over other approaches evaluated at the INEEL and throughout the DOE Complex. The system's ability to agitate and homogenize the tank heel sludge will simplify verification-sampling techniques and reduce the total quantity of samples required to

  6. The Sanford underground research facility at Homestake

    SciTech Connect

    Heise, J.

    2014-06-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories' new high level acoustic test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J. D.; Hendrick, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    A high intensity acoustic test facility has been designed and is under construction at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. The chamber is designed to provide an acoustic environment of 154dB (re 20 {mu}Pa) overall sound pressure level over the bandwidth of 50 Hz to 10,000 Hz. The chamber has a volume of 16,000 cubic feet with interior dimensions of 21.6 ft {times} 24.6 ft {times} 30 ft. The construction of the chamber should be complete by the summer of 1990. This paper discusses the design goals and constraints of the facility. The construction characteristics are discussed in detail, as are the acoustic performance design characteristics. The authors hope that this work will help others in designing acoustic chambers. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Speakers' comfort and voice level variation in classrooms: laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Pelegrín-García, David; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-07-01

    Teachers adjust their voice levels under different classroom acoustics conditions, even in the absence of background noise. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to understand further this relationship and to determine optimum room acoustic conditions for speaking. Under simulated acoustic environments, talkers do modify their voice levels linearly with the measure voice support, and the slope of this relationship is referred to as room effect. The magnitude of the room effect depends highly on the instruction used and on the individuals. Group-wise, the average room effect ranges from -0.93 dB/dB, with free speech, to -0.1 dB/dB with other less demanding communication tasks as reading and talking at short distances. The room effect for some individuals can be as strong as -1.7 dB/dB. A questionnaire investigation showed that the acoustic comfort for talking in classrooms, in the absence of background noise, is correlated to the decay times derived from an impulse response measured from the mouth to the ears of a talker, and that there is a maximum of preference for decay times between 0.4 and 0.5 s. Teachers with self-reported voice problems prefer higher decay times to speak in than their healthy colleagues.

  9. The use of novel DNA nanotracers to determine groundwater flow paths - a test study at the Grimsel Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittilä, Anniina; Evans, Keith; Puddu, Michela; Mikutis, Gediminas; Grass, Robert N.; Deuber, Claudia; Saar, Martin O.

    2016-04-01

    earlier test. In this study, we present the results of tests of applying novel DNA nanotracers to characterize groundwater flow properties and the flow pathways in a fracture-dominated reservoir in the Deep Underground Geothermal (DUG) Laboratory at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. This study is motivated by subsequent comparisons of similar characterizations of fractured rock masses after hydraulic stimulation. These will take place at the DUG Lab at the end of 2016. The results of the flow-path characterization are also compared with those obtained from classical solute tracer tests.

  10. Contamination level of alginate impressions arriving at a dental laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sofou, A; Larsen, T; Fiehn, N-E; Owall, B

    2002-09-01

    The contamination level of alginate impressions delivered to a large dental laboratory in Sweden was determined. One hundred and seven consecutive alginate impressions were included during 7 days. Samples were taken and transferred into sterile physiological saline and analysed microbiologically for colony-forming units (cfu) as well as nonhemolytic, alpha-hemolytic, and beta-hemolytic colonies. After sampling, the clinics were contacted and asked to fill in simple questionnaires about their routines of disinfecting impressions. The questionnaire study revealed that about half of the clinics had some kind of disinfection routine, while the others rinsed in running water only. Seventy-two percent of the impressions yielded growth of bacteria, with a median number of 1.3x10(2) cfu. Thirteen per cent of the samples yielded >10(3) cfu, with a maximum number of 3.4x10(4) cfu. The majority of isolates were non- and alpha-hemolytic bacteria. Growth was recorded in 61.3% of disinfected impressions, and the numbers of bacteria in disinfected and nondisinfected impressions were similar. These findings raise the question of whether impressions need to be disinfected or if proper handling and hygienic procedures are sufficient to block the possible route of infection.

  11. Tuberculosis infection control strategies in a biosafety level-3 laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.M.; Martinez, K.F.

    1996-05-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a request to conduct an evaluation at a state public health mycobacteriology laboratory. The request concerned the potential for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the laboratory resulting from the handling of incoming samples, from the preparation of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears, and from culturing clinical specimens potentially containing Mtb. NIOSH representatives evaluated the tuberculin skin testing (TST) program, assessed laboratory practices, reviewed the use of safety equipment, and determined the operational status of the ventilation system. In summary, NIOSH representatives concluded that a health hazard existed for the laboratory employees who may be exposed to infectious aerosols generated in the laboratory. These hazards were present due to deficiencies in the design of the laboratory and operation of the ventilation system, and the lack of appropriate respiratory protection. Exhaust ductwork, located in the ceiling plenum above the ante-room in the TB containment laboratory, was disconnected thereby allowing potentially contaminated air to reach the return air plenum. Perforated ceiling tiles were present throughout the containment laboratory, rather than a {open_quotes}hard-surfaced{close_quotes} sealed ceiling which is recommended by CDC and NIH. Without the BSC fan operating, the TB laboratory was under positive pressure. The laboratory should be under negative pressure regardless of the operation of the BSC. According to the calculated air changes per hour (ACH), all three rooms were achieving greater than six ACH. Based on the observations and measurements compiled during the evaluation, recommendations regarding the maintenance of the existing ventilation system and the design of the laboratory were provided.

  12. Acoustic Impedance Measurement for Underground Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockcroft, Paul William

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis investigates the measurement of acoustic impedance for surfaces likely to be found in underground coal mines. By introducing the concepts of industrial noise, the effects of noise on the ear and relevant legislation the need for the protection of workers can be appreciated. Representative acoustic impedance values are vital as input for existing computer models that predict sound levels in various underground environments. These enable the mining engineer to predict the noise level at any point within a mine in the vicinity of noisy machinery. The concepts of acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance are investigated and different acoustic impedance measurement techniques are detailed. The possible use of either an impedance tube or an intensity meter for these kinds of measurements are suggested. The problems with acoustic intensity and acoustic impedance measurements are discussed with reference to the restraints that an underground environment imposes on any measurement technique. The impedance tube method for work in an acoustics laboratory is shown and the theory explained, accompanied by a few representative results. The use of a Metravib intensity meter in a soundproof chamber to gain impedance values is explained in detail. The accompanying software for the analysis of the two measured pressure signals is shown as well as the actual results for a variety of test surfaces. The use of a Nagra IV-SJ tape recorder is investigated to determine the effect of recording on the measurement and subsequent analysis of the input signals, particularly with reference to the phase difference introduced between the two simultaneous pressure signals. The subsequent use of a Norwegian Electronic intensity meter, including a proposal for underground work, is shown along with results for tests completed with this piece of equipment. Finally, recommendations are made on how to link up

  13. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-08-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  14. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, J.

    2015-05-01

    The former Homestakegold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinolessdouble-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low- background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long- baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  15. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    SciTech Connect

    Heise, J.

    2015-08-17

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability.

  16. Detection of underground structures and tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.M.; Moses, R.W.; Kelly, R.E.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H.; Cogbill, A.H.; Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There is a continuing need in the United States defense and drug interdiction for effective over, convert, and standoff means of detecting underground tunnels, structures, and objects. This project sought to begin an assessment of electromagnetic and gravitational gradient detection approaches to the detection of underground structures and tunnels.

  17. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  18. Upper-Level Undergraduate Chemistry Students' Goals for Their Laboratory Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to reform undergraduate chemistry laboratory coursework typically focus on the curricula of introductory-level courses, while upper-level courses are bypassed. This study used video-stimulated recall to interview 17 junior- and senior- level chemistry majors after they carried out an experiment as part of a laboratory course. It is assumed…

  19. Vitrified underground structures

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Mark T.; Buelt, James L.; Stottlemyre, James A.; Tixier, Jr., John S.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  20. Commissioning of the ArDM experiment at the Canfranc underground laboratory: first steps towards a tonne-scale liquid argon time projection chamber for Dark Matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, J.; Cantini, C.; Crivelli, P.; Daniel, M.; Di Luise, S.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Montes, B.; Mu, W.; Murphy, S.; Natterer, G.; Nguyen, K.; Periale, L.; Quan, Y.; Radics, B.; Regenfus, C.; Romero, L.; Rubbia, A.; Santorelli, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.

    2017-03-01

    The Argon Dark Matter (ArDM) experiment consists of a liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC) sensitive to nuclear recoils, resulting from scattering of hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) on argon targets. With an active target mass of 850 kg ArDM represents an important milestone towards developments for large LAr Dark Matter detectors. Here we present the experimental apparatus currently installed underground at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain. We show data on gaseous or liquid argon targets recorded in 2015 during the commissioning of ArDM in single phase at zero E-field (ArDM Run I). The data confirms the overall good and stable performance of the ArDM tonne-scale LAr detector.

  1. Mathematics Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…

  2. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  3. Multiweek Cell Culture Project for Use in Upper-Level Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Rebecca E.; Gardner, Grant E.; Parks, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory protocol for a multiweek project piloted in a new upper-level biology laboratory (BIO 426) using cell culture techniques. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were used, and several culture media and supplements were identified for students to design their own experiments. Treatments included amino acids, EGF,…

  4. Underground statistical measurements of the world-wide magnetic-background level in the millihertz frequency range with the [SQUID]2 magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzo di Borgo, E.; Marfaing, J.; Waysand, G.

    2012-04-01

    The passive ground sensor system [SQUID]2 (SQUID with Shielding QUalified for Ionosphere Detection) is a three-axis cryogenically cooled magnetometer installed within the LSBB (Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit) in the South-East of France. This permanent operating device is sheltered by a unique underground shielded cell buried under 518m of karstic rock in a low noise environment, leading to a noise level lower than 3 fT/√Hz above 40Hz. Various phenomena, mainly linked to earthquakes contributions, have been identified at the local scale through a magneto-hydrodynamic correlation or at the global ones, resulting from the Earth-ionosphere coupling. As standing waves altering the surface of the Earth, free oscillations of Earth consecutive to earthquake events can also contribute to the magnetic field variation. Because the ionosphere is a complex and nonlinear system affected by a large number of independent parameters, it appears obvious to constrain the number of sources. Investigation of the ULF magnetic pulsations detected by [SQUID]2 over very quiet seismic and ionospheric conditions allows to defined a first experimental baseline of ionosphere magnetic noise [Marfaing et al. 2009]. Here, the analysis is performed to a set of 24 magnetically quiet days in order to establish a statistical baseline for the "global minimal magnetic level" in the site. The mean magnetic spectrum obtained in the millihertz range is characterized by several pulsations of noticeable amplitude above the flicker noise. An attempt of discrimination of the seismogenic contribution has been proposed through the polarization analysis proposed by Hayakawa et al. [2007]. Some frequencies coincide with the Earth's eigenmodes with less than 1% deviation; this includes the possibility of the superposition of several interplaying signals in the spectra of ionospheric or Earth's origin, assumed by the weak turbulence theory. These results provide complementary analysis to validate the

  5. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, K. T.

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.

  6. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, K. T.

    2015-03-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.

  7. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    DOE PAGES

    Lesko, K. T.

    2015-03-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark mattermore » experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.« less

  8. Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

    1995-09-01

    A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0{degree}, {plus_minus}45{degrees} relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole.

  9. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by- products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The kinetics study which is investigating hydration reactions of the ADM by-product (Subtask 2.2) was continued this quarter. This study further aided in gaining information on mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions during hydration of the ADM materials. The information is of importance for a comprehensive understanding of the factors that control strength and long-term stability during aging of FGD materials. The decision was made by Addington, Inc., DOE, and the University of Kentucky that the originally selected mine site for the emplacement demonstration must be changed, mainly for safety reasons. Mine selection will be a priority for the next quarter (Jul--Sep, 1995). Another activity during this reporting period was related to Subtask 4.3, the selection and testing of the transport system for the FGD material. A laboratory-scale pneumatic emplacement test unit (ETU) for dry FGD materials was built at the CAER to generate data so that a final selection of the field demonstration technology can be made. A dry pneumatic system was chosen for laboratory testing because the equipment and expertise available at the CAER matched this sort of technology best. While the design of the laboratory system was based on shotcrete technology, the physical properties of the emplaced FGD material is expected to be similar for other transport techniques, either pneumatic or hydraulic. In other words, the selection of a dry pneumatic transport system for laboratory testing does not necessarily imply that a scaled-up version will be used for the field demonstration. The ETU is a convenient means of producing samples for subsequent chemical and physical testing by a representative emplacement technology. Ultimately, the field demonstration technology will be chosen based on the laboratory data and the suitability of locally available equipment.

  10. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  11. A Facility Goes Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Norman

    1980-01-01

    Ohio's Sinclair Community College met the challenge of building a campus in an urban area with limited space by connecting the system with underground tunnels. This underground complex has made a comprehensive physical education, recreation, and intercollegiate program available to students and the community. (CJ)

  12. Simultaneously evaluate the toxic levels of fluoride and arsenic species in underground water of Tharparkar and possible contaminant sources: a multivariate study.

    PubMed

    Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naseem, Shahid; Arain, Sadia Sadaf; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Faheem

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated total arsenic (tAs), inorganic arsenic (iAs) species and fluoride ion (F(-)) contamination in underground water of Mithi and Nangarparkar subdistricts of Tharparkar, Pakistan. Statistical parameters, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, sodium absorption ratio and saturation indices (SI) were used to detect interrelation and sources of concentration of tAs, iAs species (As(3+) and As(5+)), F(-) and others physicochemical parameters. The concentration of As(3+) was measured by cloud point extraction using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) as complexing reagent, while inorganic arsenic (iAs) was determined by solid phase extraction, using titanium dioxide. The positive correlation was observed between F(-) contents with As species and other major ions, found in the underground water of the study area. The resulted data indicated that underground water samples of two areas of Tharparkar were severely contaminated with arsenic (0.100-3.83 mg/L) and fluoride ion (13.8-49.3mg/L), which were exceeded the World Health Organization provisional guideline values, 0.01 mg/L and 1.5mg/L, respectively. The SI of fluorite and calcite in the underground water samples showed that most of the samples were oversaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite.

  13. Customer satisfaction survey with clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young Rae; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, In Suk; Chang, Chulhun L; Lee, Eun Yup; Son, Han Chul; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2014-09-01

    We performed customer satisfaction surveys for physicians and nurses regarding clinical laboratory services, and for outpatients who used phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level to evaluate our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Thus, we wish to share our experiences with the customer satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Board members of our laboratory designed a study procedure and study population, and developed two types of questionnaire. A satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory services was conducted with 370 physicians and 125 nurses by using an online or paper questionnaire. The satisfaction survey for phlebotomy services was performed with 347 outpatients who received phlebotomy services by using computer-aided interviews. Mean satisfaction scores of physicians and nurses was 58.1, while outpatients' satisfaction score was 70.5. We identified several dissatisfactions with our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. First, physicians and nurses were most dissatisfied with the specimen collection and delivery process. Second, physicians and nurses were dissatisfied with phlebotomy services. Third, molecular genetic and cytogenetic tests were found more expensive than other tests. This study is significant in that it describes the first reference survey that offers a survey procedure and questionnaire to assess customer satisfaction with clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level.

  14. Groundwater Level Status Report for Fiscal Year 2007 - Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon P. Allen, Richard J. Koch

    2008-03-17

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2007 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 to provide a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 166 monitoring wells, including 45 regional aquifer wells, 25 intermediate wells, and 96 alluvial wells, and 11 water supply wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 133 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  15. Groundwater Level Status Report for Fiscal Year 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon P. Allen, Richard J. Koch

    2007-03-30

    The status of groundwater level monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2006 is provided in this report. The Groundwater Level Monitoring Project was instituted in 2005 for providing a framework for the collection and processing of quality controlled groundwater level data. This report summarizes groundwater level data for 158 monitoring wells, including 43 regional aquifer wells, 23 intermediate wells, and 92 alluvial wells. Pressure transducers were installed in 132 monitoring wells for continuous monitoring of groundwater levels. Time-series hydrographs of groundwater level data are presented along with pertinent construction and location information for each well.

  16. Progress Toward a Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) Experiment in the Homestake Mine Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Maher, K.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Uzunlar, N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Olsen, N. J.; Jones, T. L.; Cruz, M. F.; Torchinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of performing a long-term hydrothermal experiment in a deep mine is to gain a scientific understanding of the coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place in fractured rock under the influence of mechanical stress, thermal effects, and fluid flow. Only in a controlled experiment in a well-characterized rock mass, can a fractured rock be probed in 3-D through geophysical imaging, in situ measurements, geochemical/biological sampling, and numerical modeling. Our project is focused on the feasibility of a THMCB experiment in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota to study the long-term evolution (10+ years) of a perturbed heterogeneous rock mass. In addition to the experiment as a laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has direct application to Enhanced Geothermal Systems, carbon sequestration, and contaminant transport. Field activities have focused on fracture and feature mapping, flux measurements from flowing fractures, and collection of water and rock samples for geochemical, biological, and isotopic analyses. Fracture mapping and seepage measurements are being used to develop estimates of permeability and fluxes at different length scales and design the location and orientation of the heater array. Fluxes measured up to several liters/minute indicate localized regions of very high fracture permeability, likely in excess of 10-10 m2. Isotopic measurements indicate heterogeneity in the fracture network on the scale of tens of meters in addition to the large-scale geochemical heterogeneity observed in the mine. New methods for sampling and filtering water samples were developed and tested with the goal of performing radiocarbon analyses in DNA and phospholipid fatty acids. Analytical and numerical models of the thermal perturbation have been used to design the heater orientation and spacing. Reaction path and THC simulations were performed to assess geochemical and porosity/permeability changes as a function of the heat input

  17. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Robert J.

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  18. Factors associated with biosafety level-2 research workers' laboratory exit handwashing behaviors and glove removal compliance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Merrill, Ray M; Zimmerman, Grant C; Collingwood, Scott C; Reading, James C

    2016-01-01

    Biosafety level-2 laboratories are designated for work with human-derived samples or moderate-risk microorganisms that transmit primarily by direct contact exposures. Many laboratory procedures generate unseen droplets that contaminate workers' hands, equipment, and work surfaces. Workers' strict adherence to glove removal and handwashing is required prior to laboratory exit to prevent inadvertent transmission of pathogens to self or others. However, little is known about biosafety level-2 workers' compliance with these behaviors. In this article, glove removal and handwashing compliance upon laboratory exit were measured by direct observation of 93 biosafety level-2 research workers from 21 university laboratories. Participants completed a 41-item survey measuring social cognitive theory-based variables related to handwashing, self-reported compliance, and demographic factors. Survey items, observed exit frequency, and laboratory characteristics were evaluated for associations with handwashing compliance. Overall, observed glove removal and handwashing compliance upon laboratory exit were 43.0% (Standard Error [SE] = 2.3%), and 8.2% (SE = 1.2%), respectively, while workers' self-reported glove removal and handwashing compliance were 73.7% (SE = 3.6%) and 35.5% (SE = 4.1%), respectively. The average number of observed laboratory exits per hour was 2.8 for workers with any handwashing compliance vs. 5.4 for workers with no handwashing compliance (p = 0.0013). Among the cognitive variables, behavioral modeling by supervisors and coworkers had the strongest association with workers' compliance (slope = 3.5, SE = 1.3, p = 0.0113). Workers in laboratories with a written handwashing policy had higher compliance (Mean = 14.1%, SE = 5.9%) than workers in laboratories with no written policy (Mean = 1.1%, SE = 1.0%; p = 0.0488). Multi-faceted interventions that encourage modeling of the behavior by supervisors and coworkers, implementation of written handwashing policies

  19. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

  20. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  1. Underground hibernation in a primate.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Marina B; Dausmann, Kathrin H; Ranaivoarisoa, Jean F; Yoder, Anne D

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation in mammals is a remarkable state of heterothermy wherein metabolic rates are reduced, core body temperatures reach ambient levels, and key physiological functions are suspended. Typically, hibernation is observed in cold-adapted mammals, though it has also been documented in tropical species and even primates, such as the dwarf lemurs of Madagascar. Western fat-tailed dwarf lemurs are known to hibernate for seven months per year inside tree holes. Here, we report for the first time the observation that eastern dwarf lemurs also hibernate, though in self-made underground hibernacula. Hence, we show evidence that a clawless primate is able to bury itself below ground. Our findings that dwarf lemurs can hibernate underground in tropical forests draw unforeseen parallels to mammalian temperate hibernation. We expect that this work will illuminate fundamental information about the influence of temperature, resource limitation and use of insulated hibernacula on the evolution of hibernation.

  2. Underground hibernation in a primate

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Marina B.; Dausmann, Kathrin H.; Ranaivoarisoa, Jean F.; Yoder, Anne D.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation in mammals is a remarkable state of heterothermy wherein metabolic rates are reduced, core body temperatures reach ambient levels, and key physiological functions are suspended. Typically, hibernation is observed in cold-adapted mammals, though it has also been documented in tropical species and even primates, such as the dwarf lemurs of Madagascar. Western fat-tailed dwarf lemurs are known to hibernate for seven months per year inside tree holes. Here, we report for the first time the observation that eastern dwarf lemurs also hibernate, though in self-made underground hibernacula. Hence, we show evidence that a clawless primate is able to bury itself below ground. Our findings that dwarf lemurs can hibernate underground in tropical forests draw unforeseen parallels to mammalian temperate hibernation. We expect that this work will illuminate fundamental information about the influence of temperature, resource limitation and use of insulated hibernacula on the evolution of hibernation. PMID:23636180

  3. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.; Davis, D.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program.

  4. Science Center Goes Underground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A unique underground science center at Bluffton College, designed to save energy and preserve trees, rolling landscape, and other environmental features of the campus, is under construction in Bluffton, Ohio. (Author)

  5. Comparison of the bulk geochemical features and thermal reactivity of kerogens from Mol (Boom Clay), Bure (Callovo-Oxfordian argillite) and Tournemire (Toarcian shales) underground research laboratories.

    PubMed

    Deniau, I; Devol-Brown, I; Derenne, S; Behar, F; Largeau, C

    2008-01-25

    Deep argillaceous formations are potential repositories for the long-term disposal of nuclear waste because of their low permeability and high sorption capacity with respect to radioelements and heavy metals. Such sedimentary rocks contain organic matter, mostly macromolecular and insoluble (kerogen). Upon temperature elevation related to high-level long-lived radioactive waste disposal, the kerogen may release significant quantities of gaseous and liquid effluents, especially oxygen-containing ones, which may influence the ability of the clay to retain radionuclides. The aim of the present study is to assess the global geochemical features and the thermal reactivity of the kerogens isolated from samples collected in the Bure and Tournemire sites, France (Callovo-Oxfordian Clay and Toarcian Shales, respectively) and to draw comparisons with data previously obtained for the Mol site, Belgium (Boom Clay). The study is based on a combination of elemental, spectroscopic (FTIR, solid state (13)C NMR) and pyrolytic (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) analyses. Different levels of maturity and resulting differences in the relative abundance of oxygen-containing groups were thus observed for the three kerogens. This is linked with differences in their ability to generate CO(2) and various oxygen-containing, low molecular weight, water-soluble compounds under thermal stress, decreasing from Mol to Bure and to Tournemire.

  6. Underground physics in Japan - Present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, T.

    1986-04-01

    Japanese underground-physics projects and Japanese participation in international programs are reviewed. Consideration is given to the large-solid-angle 30-100-m-deep underground-detector/surface-EAS-array installation at Ohya-cho; the Kamioka-mine Cerenkov detector; the DUMAND project near Hawaii; development of Super-Mutrons A and B at Ohya-cho; the results obtained in the JACEE project regarding quark-gluon-plasma muon pairs, muon bundles, and muon point sources; and a pair calorimeter and a proton-decay experiment for Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. Diagrams, graphs, and drawings are provided.

  7. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  8. Creating a Research-Rich Chemistry Curriculum with an Integrated, Upper-Level-Undergraduate Laboratory Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, Liz U.; Hales, David A.; Teague, M. Warfield

    2007-01-01

    A new research-rich chemistry curriculum with an integrated, upper-level undergraduate laboratory program has recently been developed to impart better understanding to the students. The program is called Advanced techniques in Experimental Chemistry and helps prepare students for more real-world problems.

  9. Investigating Macroscopic, Submicroscopic, and Symbolic Connections in a College-Level General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadison, Felicia Culver

    2011-01-01

    Explanations of chemical phenomena rely on understanding the behavior of submicroscopic particles. Because this level is "invisible," it is described using symbols such as models, diagrams and equations. For this reason, students often view chemistry as a "difficult" subject. The laboratory offers a unique opportunity for the students to…

  10. Profile of laboratory instruction in secondary school level chemistry and indication for reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei

    This study is a profile of the laboratory component of instruction in secondary school level chemistry. As one of several companion studies, the purpose of the study is to investigate present practices related to instruction as a means of producing reform that improve cognitive and non-cognitive learning outcomes. Five hundred-forty students, from 18 chemistry classes taught by 12 teachers in ten high schools were involved in this study. Three schools included public and private schools, urban school, suburban schools, and rural schools. Three levels or types of chemistry courses were offered in these schools: school regular chemistry for college bound students, Chemistry in the Community or "ChemCom" for non-college bound students, and a second year of chemistry or advanced placement chemistry. Laboratory sessions in each of these three levels of courses were observed, videotaped, and later analyzed using the Modified Revised Science Teachers Behaviors Inventory (MR-STBI). The 12 chemistry teachers, eight science supervisors, and selected students were interviewed to determine their professional backgrounds and other factors that might influence how they teach, how they think, and how they learn. The following conclusions developed from the research are: (1) The three levels of chemistry courses are offered across high schools of varying sizes and locations. (2) Teachers perceive that students come to chemistry classes poorly prepared to effectively carry out laboratory experiences and/or investigations. (3) While students indicated that they are able to effectively use math skills in analyzing the results of chemistry laboratory experiments, teachers, in general, are not satisfied with the level at which students are prepared to use these skills, or to use writing skills. (4) Students working in pairs, is the typical approach. Group cooperation is sometimes used in carrying out the laboratory component of chemistry instruction in the ChemCom and AP chemistry

  11. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  12. Risk, mercury levels, and birds: relating adverse laboratory effects to field biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Gochfeld, M

    1997-11-01

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of mercury in a variety of organisms and there are a number of studies that demonstrate the adverse effects of mercury on laboratory animals, but few studies examine the relationship between the two. Thus it is often difficult to determine the ecological relevance of mercury concentrations found in nature, or to predict the ecosystem consequences of current levels. In this paper we review the levels in tissues that are associated with adverse effects in birds from laboratory studies and compare these with levels found in wild bird populations in the New York Bight to provide a basis for interpreting values in avian populations. We use feathers from fledgling birds which would have been fed on locally obtained food to eliminate the problem of where toxic burdens were acquired by more mobile adult birds. Laboratory studies indicate that in some species mercury levels of 1.5 ppm in eggs and/or 5 to 40 ppm in the feathers of birds are associated with adverse effects, including impaired reproduction. We report egg levels in birds that range as high as 3.8 ppm and feather levels that range as high as 10.3 ppm, although means are much lower. The levels in eggs of some wild birds in the New York Bight are within the range known to lower hatchability, embryo and chick survival, and chick weight, all variables that reduce reproductive success. Species with high egg levels include Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and black skimmer (Rynchops niger). Levels in feathers of some young wild birds from the New York Bight are within the range associated with reduced hatchability of eggs, behavioral abnormalities of adults, and infertility. Species with dangerously elevated mercury levels in feathers include great egret (Ardea [=Egretta] alba), snowy egret [Egretta thula), and black skimmers.

  13. Above- and underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Canning, K.; Kilbourne, A.

    1997-09-01

    Storage tanks are the primary means of storing liquid, fluid and gas products. Federal and state environmental regulations, as well as local building and fire codes, take into account leaks and spills, tank emissions, underground tank seepage and safety issues, and they define standards for tank manufacturers and owners. For specific regulatory information pertaining to your application, contact the local authorities having jurisdiction. Storage tanks listed within this product guide have been classified as underground or aboveground, with subcategories including modular, process and temporary tanks. Tank construction materials include aluminum, carbon steel, concrete, fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) and stainless steel. A variety of accessories, including automatic tank gauging systems, level monitors, leak detectors, overfill protection and tank inspection systems, also are listed. Aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) have less than 10 percent of their tank volume and piping below ground. Available in both vertical and horizontal configurations, they can be either erected in the field or fabricated in a factory. Underground storage tanks (USTs) are primarily used to contain regulated substances; USTs have at least 10% of their tank volume and piping buried belowground. Common UST construction materials include carbon steel, coated steel, cathodically protected steel and FRP. USTs are required to have corrosion protection, spill and overfill prevention and control and release detection in place by December 1998.

  14. Comparison of the acceptability ratings of appetizers under laboratory, base level and high altitude field conditions.

    PubMed

    Premavalli, K S; Wadikar, D D; Nanjappa, C

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between laboratory and field ratings was investigated for six different appetizers, including four ready-to-reconstitute mixes and two ready-to-eat munches. Liking ratings on a 5-point hedonic scale were obtained from an Indian Army field study at base level as well as at an altitude of 11,500 ft above sea level and for the same appetizers in the laboratory. The field trials of the six products were conducted in two phases and results revealed that the products were more acceptable at altitude, with increased liking scores as compared to base level. Subjective ratings for hunger revealed that at altitude, appetizer consumption had stimulated the appetite of the soldiers. The ability of laboratory ratings to predict acceptability of foods consumed under realistic conditions appears to depend on the convenience of the appetizer as well as the environmental conditions and the psycho-physiological status of the participants. The appetizers received higher ratings at altitude because of the pungent and spicy nature of appetizer mixes as compared with base field and laboratory conditions. However, for all the appetizers the pungent and sweet taste of the appetizer munches was highly preferred.

  15. Exploring students' interactions, arguments, and reflections in general chemistry laboratories with different levels of inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haozhi

    Students' learning in inquiry-based investigations has drawn considerable attention of the science education community. Inquiry activities can be viewed as knowledge construction processes in which students are expected to develop conceptual understanding and critical thinking abilities. Our study aimed to explore the effect of experiments with different levels of inquiry on students' interactions in the laboratory setting, as well as on students' written arguments and reflections. Our results are based on direct observations of group work in college general chemistry laboratories and analysis of associated written lab reports. The analysis of students' interactions in the laboratory was approached from three major analytic dimensions: Functional analysis, cognitive processing, and social processing. According to our results, higher levels of inquiry were associated with an increase in the relative frequency of episodes where students were engaged in proposing ideas versus asking and answering each others' questions. Higher levels of inquiry also favored episodes in which experimental work was approached in a more exploratory (versus procedural) manner. However, no major changes were observed in the extent to which students were engaged in either interpretive discussions of central scientific concepts and ideas. As part of our study we were also interested in characterizing the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the structure and adequacy of university general chemistry students' written arguments, as well as on the nature of their reflections about laboratory work. Our findings indicate that the level of inquiry of the observed experiments had no significant impact on the structure or adequacy of arguments generated by students. However, the level of inquiry of the experiments seemed to have a major impact on several areas of students' written reflections about laboratory work. In general, our results elicit trends and highlight issues

  16. Implementing and Measuring the Level of Laboratory Service Integration in a Program Setting in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Henry; Negedu-Momoh, Olubunmi Ruth; Adedokun, Oluwasanmi; Ikani, Patrick Anibbe; Balogun, Oluseyi; Sanwo, Olusola; Ochei, Kingsley; Ekanem, Maurice; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    Background The surge of donor funds to fight HIV&AIDS epidemic inadvertently resulted in the setup of laboratories as parallel structures to rapidly respond to the identified need. However these parallel structures are a threat to the existing fragile laboratory systems. Laboratory service integration is critical to remedy this situation. This paper describes an approach to quantitatively measure and track integration of HIV-related laboratory services into the mainstream laboratory services and highlight some key intervention steps taken, to enhance service integration. Method A quantitative before-and-after study conducted in 122 Family Health International (FHI360) supported health facilities across Nigeria. A minimum service package was identified including management structure; trainings; equipment utilization and maintenance; information, commodity and quality management for laboratory integration. A check list was used to assess facilities at baseline and 3 months follow-up. Level of integration was assessed on an ordinal scale (0 = no integration, 1 = partial integration, 2 = full integration) for each service package. A composite score grading expressed as a percentage of total obtainable score of 14 was defined and used to classify facilities (≤80% FULL, 25% to 79% PARTIAL and <25% NO integration). Weaknesses were noted and addressed. Results We analyzed 9 (7.4%) primary, 104 (85.2%) secondary and 9 (7.4%) tertiary level facilities. There were statistically significant differences in integration levels between baseline and 3 months follow-up period (p<0.01). Baseline median total integration score was 4 (IQR 3 to 5) compared to 7 (IQR 4 to 9) at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000). Partial and fully integrated laboratory systems were 64 (52.5%) and 0 (0.0%) at baseline, compared to 100 (82.0%) and 3 (2.4%) respectively at 3 months follow-up (p = 0.000). Discussion This project showcases our novel approach to measure the status of each

  17. A laboratory simulation of a single-axis dual-level precision pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, G. F.; Morrell, F. R.; Romanczyk, K. C.

    1973-01-01

    The laboratory simulation of a scaled single-axis dual-level control system for a large space telescope is demonstrated. The dual-level control system consists of a coarse-body-pointing system and a fine-pointing system, which uses an image motion compensator, an image dissector tube, and digital electronics. The results of the simulation indicate that the dual-level system can be used to provide tracking capability within one-tenth of a diffraction-limited image diameter of a 3-meter f/100 telescope for stars up to a +12.3 visual magnitude.

  18. Environmental Assessment Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, low-level and mixed waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0843, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level and mixed waste processing. The original proposed action, as reviewed in this EA, was (1) to incinerate INEL`s mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF); (2) reduce the volume of INEL generated low-level waste (LLW) through sizing, compaction, and stabilization at the WERF; and (3) to ship INEL LLW to a commercial incinerator for supplemental LLW volume reduction.

  19. Multiweek cell culture project for use in upper-level biology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Marion, Rebecca E; Gardner, Grant E; Parks, Lisa D

    2012-06-01

    This article describes a laboratory protocol for a multiweek project piloted in a new upper-level biology laboratory (BIO 426) using cell culture techniques. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were used, and several culture media and supplements were identified for students to design their own experiments. Treatments included amino acids, EGF, caffeine, epinephrine, heavy metals, and FBS. Students researched primary literature to determine their experimental variables, made their own solutions, and treated their cells over a period of 2 wk. Before this, a sterile technique laboratory was developed to teach students how to work with the cells and minimize contamination. Students designed their experiments, mixed their solutions, seeded their cells, and treated them with their control and experimental media. Students had the choice of manipulating a number of variables, including incubation times, exposure to treatment media, and temperature. At the end of the experiment, students observed the effects of their treatment, harvested and dyed their cells, counted relative cell numbers in control and treatment flasks, and determined the ratio of living to dead cells using a hemocytometer. At the conclusion of the experiment, students presented their findings in a poster presentation. This laboratory can be expanded or adapted to include additional cell lines and treatments. The ability to design and implement their own experiments has been shown to increase student engagement in the biology-related laboratory activities as well as develop the critical thinking skills needed for independent research.

  20. Laboratory and field tests of the Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Bryars, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Three Sutron RLR-0003-1 water level sensors were tested in laboratory conditions to evaluate the accuracy of the sensor over the manufacturer’s specified operating temperature and distance-to-water ranges. The sensor was also tested for compliance to SDI-12 communication protocol and in field conditions at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgaging site. Laboratory results were compared to the manufacturer’s accuracy specification for water level and to the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) policy requirement that water level sensors have a measurement uncertainty of no more than 0.01 foot or 0.20 percent of the indicated reading. Except for one sensor, the differences for the temperature testing were within 0.05 foot and the average measurements for the sensors were within the manufacturer’s accuracy specification. Two of the three sensors were within the manufacturer’s specified accuracy and met the USGS accuracy requirements for the laboratory distance to water testing. Three units passed a basic SDI-12 communication compliance test. Water level measurements made by the Sutron RLR-0003-1 during field testing agreed well with those made by the bubbler system and a Design Analysis Associates (DAA) H3613 radar, and they met the USGS accuracy requirements when compared to the wire-weight gage readings.

  1. Underground physics with DUNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  2. Underground physics with DUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-06-09

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  3. Underground physics with DUNE

    DOE PAGES

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2016-06-09

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches.more » In this study, we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.« less

  4. Underground mineral extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  5. Derived concentration guideline levels for Argonne National Laboratory's building 310 area.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamboj, S., Dr.; Yu, C ., Dr.

    2011-08-12

    The derived concentration guideline level (DCGL) is the allowable residual radionuclide concentration that can remain in soil after remediation of the site without radiological restrictions on the use of the site. It is sometimes called the single radionuclide soil guideline or the soil cleanup criteria. This report documents the methodology, scenarios, and parameters used in the analysis to support establishing radionuclide DCGLs for Argonne National Laboratory's Building 310 area.

  6. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ``Dynamic Stripping`` to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92.

  7. Proposed low-level radioactive waste handling building at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Building at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. As a result of the high energy physics program at Fermilab, small quantities of low-level radioactive wastes are generated. These wastes are collected, sorted and packaged for shipment to an off-site disposal facility in Hanford, Washington. The proposed project includes the construction of a new building to house, all low-level radioactive waste handling operations. The building would provide workspace for five full-time workers. The proposed project would improve the efficiency and safety of the low-level radioactive waste handling at Fermilab by upgrading equipment and consolidating operations into one facility.

  8. Underground Coal Mining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  9. Underground Tank Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    The harm to human health and our environment caused by leaking underground storage tanks can be devastating. Schools can meet new federal waste management standards by instituting daily inventory monitoring, selecting a reliable volumetric testing company, locating and repairing leaks promptly, and removing and installing tanks appropriately. (MLH)

  10. Underground neutrino astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1983-02-01

    A review is made of possible astronomical neutrino sources detectable with underground facilities. Comments are made about solar neutrinos and gravitational-collapse neutrinos, and particular emphasis is placed on ultra-high-energy astronomical neutrino sources. An appendix mentions the exotic possibility of monopolonium.

  11. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Janosko, Krisztina; Holbrook, Michael R.; Adams, Ricky; Barr, Jason; Bollinger, Laura; Newton, Je T'aime; Ntiforo, Corrie; Coe, Linda; Wada, Jiro; Pusl, Daniela; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure (“space”) suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits. PMID:27768063

  12. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures.

    PubMed

    Janosko, Krisztina; Holbrook, Michael R; Adams, Ricky; Barr, Jason; Bollinger, Laura; Newton, Je T'aime; Ntiforo, Corrie; Coe, Linda; Wada, Jiro; Pusl, Daniela; Jahrling, Peter B; Kuhn, Jens H; Lackemeyer, Matthew G

    2016-10-03

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure ("space") suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits.

  13. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  14. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  15. Nevada National Security Site Underground Radionuclide Inventory, 1951-1992: Accounting for Radionuclide Decay through September 30, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Finnegan, David Lawrence; Bowen, Scott Michael; Thompson, Joseph L.; Miller, Charles M.; Baca, Phyllis L.; Olivas, Loretta F.; Geoffrion, Carmen G.; Smith, David K.; Goishi, Wataru; Esser, Bradley K.; Meadows, Jesse W.; Namboodiri, Neil; Wild, John F.

    2016-03-16

    This report is an update of report LA-13859-MS (Bowen et al., 2001). In that original report, the underground radionuclide inventory at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was decay corrected to September 23, 1992, the date of the last underground nuclear test at the NNSS. In this report, the inventory is updated to account for the decay of radionuclides over two additional decades (1992-2012) and revised tritium, fission product and actinide inventory figures and tables are presented. The maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides were also updated to Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) (CFR, 2013). Also, a number of minor errata found in the original publication were corrected. An inventory of radionuclides produced by 828 underground nuclear tests conducted at the NNSS by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Department of the Defense from 1951 to 1992 includes tritium, fission products, actinides, and activation products. The inventory presented in this report provides an estimate of radioactivity remaining underground at the NNSS after nuclear testing. The original test inventory is decayed to September 30, 2012, and predictions of inventory decay over the subsequent 1000 years are presented. For the purposes of summary and publication, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory authors of this report subdivided the inventory into five areas corresponding to the principal geographic test centers at the NNSS. The five areas roughly correspond to Underground Test Area “Corrective Action Units” (CAUs) for remediation of groundwater. In addition, the inventory is further subdivided for the Yucca Flat region by tests where the working point depth is more than 328 feet (100 meters) above the water table and tests that were detonated below that level. Water levels used were those from the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (1997

  16. Student perceptions of an upper-level, undergraduate human anatomy laboratory course without cadavers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Shirley J

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This study describes the development of and student reactions to an upper-level human anatomy laboratory course for undergraduate students that used a regional approach and contemporary, alternative teaching methods to a cadaver-based course. The alternative pedagogy to deliver the curriculum included use of commercially available, three-dimensional anatomical virtual dissection software, anatomical models coupled with a learning management system to offer Web-based learning, and a new laboratory manual with collaborative exercises designed to develop the student's anatomical skills and collaborative team skills. A Likert-scale survey with open-ended questions was used to ascertain student perceptions of the course and its various aspects. Students perceived that the noncadaver-based, upper-level human anatomy course with an engaging, regional approach is highly valuable in their learning of anatomy. anatomy.

  17. Laboratory interproximal access efficacy comparison of bi-level and flat bristled toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Yankell, S L; Emling, R C

    1994-01-01

    A laboratory method for testing interproximal access efficacy (IAE) differentiates between different toothbrush designs and has been correlated with clinical plaque removal efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the bi-level trim Advanced Design Research (ADR) toothbrush with two flat-trim toothbrushes, Oral-B 40 (OB) and Colgate Plus Full Size (CPFS) toothbrushes, all in soft texture, for IAE using this laboratory method. Vertical and horizontal motions were used on simulated anterior and posterior tooth shapes at 250, 500, and 750 g brushing weights. Brushing times were 60 seconds. IAE is a measurement of the maximum width of the brushing stroke around the simulated teeth. Sixteen brushes of each design were tested for each parameter monitored. For both brushing motions and tooth shapes tested, at the 250 g brushing weight, ADR had significantly higher IAE (p < 0.01 by ANOVA) compared to OB and CPFS. The IAE values at 500 g for ADR were consistently higher than the other two brushes, while not always significantly different. At 750 g the three brushes approximated each other on IAE and were equally effective. When total IAE (means of all weights tested) were evaluated, the ADR was superior (p < 0.05 by the Student's t-test) to the OB and CPFS products. In this laboratory study, the Advanced Design Research toothbrush had consistently and significantly higher interproximal access efficacy compared to the Oral-B and Colgate Plus toothbrushes. These results were predictive of a recent clinical plaque removal study.

  18. Background Models for Muons and Neutrons Underground

    SciTech Connect

    Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2005-09-08

    Cosmogenic-induced activity is an issue of great concern for many sensitive experiments sited underground. A variety of different arch-type experiments - such as those geared toward the detection of dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay and solar neutrinos - have reached levels of cleanliness and sensitivity that warrant careful consideration of secondary activity induced by cosmic rays. This paper reviews some of the main issues associated with the modeling of cosmogenic activity underground. Comparison with data, when such data is available, is also presented.

  19. Risk characterization data manual for inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (USTs) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration Program, the 29 LLLW USTs that have been sampled for preliminary characterization were considered. Each tank was scored on a scale of 1 to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was then weighted according to perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank's total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation.

  20. Early History of Physics Laboratories for Students at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Melba

    1981-01-01

    Traces the development of college physics laboratories. Discusses the motivating forces that produced these laboratories, sources of experiments and the first and most influential laboratory manual prepared by E. C. Pickering for use at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (JN)

  1. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOEpatents

    Saha, Anuj J.; Grant, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  2. National Underground Mines Inventory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    that the contents necessaZiy reflect the views and policies of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. FINAL REPORT RTI/2506/OO-O1F NATIONAL...UNDERGROUND MINES INVENTORY Prepared by: M. Wright R. Chessin K. Reeves S. York, III Prepared for: Federal Emergency Management Agency Washington , D.C. 20472...Emergency Management Agency October 1983 Washington , DC 20472 I. NUMBEROFPAGES 80 14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME A ADORESS(1lierent bum Controflhi Office

  3. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Mary; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    Suitable for elementary level students, this study unit helps increase students' comprehension of the risks involved in a black person's flight from slavery and of Harriet Tubman's success in leading more than 300 slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Five activity suggestions are followed by a reading on the life of Harriet Tubman.…

  4. The Relationship between Serum Zonulin Level and Clinical and Laboratory Parameters of Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Küme, Tuncay; Acar, Sezer; Tuhan, Hale; Çatlı, Gönül; Anık, Ahmet; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between zonulin levels and clinical and laboratory parameters of childhood obesity. Methods: The study included obese children with a body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile and healthy children who were of similar age and gender distribution. Clinical (BMI, waist circumferences, mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold, percentage of body fat, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure) and biochemical (glucose, insulin, lipid levels, thyroid function tests, cortisol, zonulin and leptin levels) parameters were measured. Results: A total of 43 obese subjects (23 males, mean age: 11.1±3.1 years) and 37 healthy subjects (18 males, mean age: 11.5±3.5 years) were included in this study. Obese children had significantly higher insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), zonulin and leptin levels than healthy children (p<0.05), while glucose levels were not different (p>0.05). Comparison of the obese children with and without insulin resistance showed no statistically significant differences for zonulin levels (p>0.05). Zonulin levels were found to negatively correlate with HDL-C and positively correlate with leptin levels, after adjusting for age and BMI. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the relationship between circulating zonulin level (as a marker of intestinal permeability) and insulin resistance and leptin (as markers of metabolic disturbances associated with obesity) in childhood obesity. The results showed that zonulin was significantly higher in obese children when compared to healthy children, a finding indicating a potential role of zonulin in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and related disturbances. PMID:28008865

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. A Review of Bachelor’s Degree Medical Laboratory Scientist Education and Entry Level Practice in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The baccalaureate degree is generally the degree that provides the laboratory professional with the greatest level of general scientific background, training, job flexibility, and advancement opportunities. It is widely considered the requirement for entry-level work in the field of medical laboratory science, especially for those that covet work in management or specialty areas. This paper focuses on the educational models and levels of practice for MLS professionals including the entry level competencies of new professionals at the baccalaureate level. The accreditation of MLS programs and professional certification serve as important quality management systems to ensure program quality and professional competency prior to the start of entry level work. PMID:27683433

  7. A Review of Bachelor's Degree Medical Laboratory Scientist Education and Entry Level Practice in the United States.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Perry M

    2013-04-01

    The baccalaureate degree is generally the degree that provides the laboratory professional with the greatest level of general scientific background, training, job flexibility, and advancement opportunities. It is widely considered the requirement for entry-level work in the field of medical laboratory science, especially for those that covet work in management or specialty areas. This paper focuses on the educational models and levels of practice for MLS professionals including the entry level competencies of new professionals at the baccalaureate level. The accreditation of MLS programs and professional certification serve as important quality management systems to ensure program quality and professional competency prior to the start of entry level work.

  8. Uranium, Thorium, Potassium Contents of Materials in the Homestake Underground, Lead, SD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenthen, W.; Smith, A.

    2008-12-01

    The uranium, thorium, and potassium contents (UTK) of materials in the underground laboratory at the Homestake DUSEL in Lead, SD, can significantly affect the radioactive backgrounds experienced by detectors in physics experiments planned for the facility. Many highly sensitive experiments require low activities both in terms of direct gamma and neutron radiation as well as radon that might emanate from the materials. Specific issues requiring characterization include evaluation of the rock in which laboratory rooms will be emplaced, the design of the cement and aggregate used in shotcreting the laboratory areas used for the physics experiments, estimates of requirements for shielding from radiation from the country rock, and estimates of radon emanation. The rocks of most importance from this standpoint in the laboratory underground include the Poorman Formation, the Yates Member of the Poorman Formation, and Tertiary igneous rocks. The laboratory at the 7400 level currently is planned for construction in the Yates, whereas the laboratories at the 4850 level are scheduled for construction in both the general Poorman Fm. and the Yates. The UTK contents of Poorman and Yates from the underground are generally very low (0.1 - 0.2 ppm U and 0.2 - 0.4 ppm Th). Rhyolitic intrusive rocks, which occur as thin dikes in the vicinity of the 4850 level laboratory, have substantially higher values that are reflective of their more silicic nature with typical U values in the range of 8 - 9 ppm. Many of the laboratory rooms for the detector experiments will have walls that have been shotcreted and floors finished with concrete. The concrete consists of at least two components, the cement and the aggregate. The choices for cement material are limited by local availability but the UTK content is in the 3 ppm range for U. Analyses of potential aggregates show that sources of aggregate from standard regional aggregate resources appear to have higher values of UTK content than is

  9. The Levels of Inquiry Matrix in developing written lesson plans for laboratory-centered science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, William Robert

    This study examines the effectiveness of a full-semester inservice program in reforming the lesson planning practices of science teachers. The Levels of Inquiry Matrix was used as a model of inquiry focused, laboratory centered science instruction throughout the inservice program. Effective planning is crucial to the development and execution of good instruction and the Levels of Inquiry Matrix may serve as a tool toward reaching this goal. Thirty practicing science teachers completed courses designed to reform their teaching toward a greater emphasis on inquiry. The inservice teachers completed a background survey and wrote three lesson plans. The first was prepared prior to course treatment, the second was prepared at mid-course, and the third was prepared as a final project. A set of "Guidelines for Using the Levels of Inquiry Matrix" was prepared to aid in the objective classification of the level of inquiry planned for in each written lesson plan. Also, a list of permutations of the Levels of Inquiry Matrix was developed in order to classify the level of inquiry demonstrated by written lesson plans that did not match a sequence of student and teacher responsibility found on the Levels of Inquiry Matrix. The study demonstrated that inservice teachers in one of the two courses significantly improved in ability to write lesson plans that reflect greater levels of inquiry as defined by the Levels of Inquiry Matrix. The inservice teachers, in both courses, believed that they were planning for higher levels of inquiry than they actually demonstrated through the written lesson plans. They also believed they were improving in their ability to write lesson plans that reflected higher levels of inquiry whether they actually achieved this or not. No correlation was found between the inservice teachers' years of experience teaching science, educational background, certification status and the level of inquiry demonstrated by the lesson plans. Finally, the Inquiry Lesson

  10. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  11. Revisions of Physical Geology Laboratory Courses to Increase the Level of Inquiry: Implications for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, April N.; Czajka, C. Douglas; McConnell, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The introductory physical geology laboratory courses taught at North Carolina State University aims to promote scientific thinking and learning through the use of scientific inquiry-based activities. A rubric describing five possible levels of inquiry was applied to characterize the laboratory activities in the course. Two rock and mineral…

  12. Nitric oxide levels regulate the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster reference laboratory strains to bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Eleftherianos, Ioannis; More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other strains. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among strains, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other strains upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster reference strains.

  13. Nitric Oxide Levels Regulate the Immune Response of Drosophila melanogaster Reference Laboratory Strains to Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other strains. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among strains, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other strains upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster reference strains. PMID:25047850

  14. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p <0.05. Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p <0.05. We conclude that dietary intervention differentially affects the oxidative markers in obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  15. On the integration of technology readiness levels at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Beatriz R.; Mitchell, John Anthony

    2006-09-01

    Integrating technology readiness levels (TRL) into the management of engineering projects is critical to the mitigation of risk and improved customer/supplier communications. TRLs provide a common framework and language with which consistent comparisons of different technologies and approaches can be made. At Sandia National Laboratories, where technologies are developed, integrated and deployed into high consequence systems, the use of TRLs may be transformational. They are technology independent and span the full range of technology development including scientific and applied research, identification of customer requirements, modeling and simulation, identification of environments, testing and integration. With this report, we provide a reference set of definitions for TRLs and a brief history of TRLs at Sandia National Laboratories. We then propose and describe two approaches that may be used to integrate TRLs into the NW SMU business practices. In the first approach, we analyze how TRLs can be integrated within concurrent qualification as documented in TBP-100 [1]. In the second approach we take a look at the product realization process (PRP) as documented in TBP-PRP [2]. Both concurrent qualification and product realization are fundamental to the way weapons engineering work is conducted at this laboratory and the NWC (nuclear weapons complex) as a whole. Given the current structure and definitions laid out in the TBP-100 and TBP-PRP, we believe that integrating TRLs into concurrent qualification (TBP-100) rather than TBP-PRP is optimal. Finally, we note that our charter was to explore and develop ways of integrating TRLs into the NW SMU and therefore we do not significantly cover the development and history of TRLs. This work was executed under the auspices and direction of Sandia's Weapon Engineering Program. Please contact Gerry Sleefe, Deputy Program Director, for further information.

  16. The emergency avoidance solidification campaign of liquid low-level waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Myrick, T.E.; Helms, R.E.; Scanlan, T.F.; Schultz, R.M.; Scott, C.B.; Williams, L.C.; Homan, F.J.; Keigan, M.V.; Monk, T.H.; Morrow, R.W.; Van Hoesen, S.D. ); du Mont, S.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Since the beginning of nuclear research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 1943, the generation, collection, treatment, storage, and disposal of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) stream has been an integral part of ORNL's waste management operations. This waste stream, consisting principally of a high nitrate (4.5 molar), high pH (pH 13--14) mixture of reactor, hot cell, and research laboratory liquid radioactive wastes (<5 Ci/gal), has been treated and disposed of in a variety of ways over the years. Most recently, the hydrofracture technology had been used for deep-well disposal of a grout mix of LLLW, cement, fly ash, and other additives. In 1984, this disposal technique was discontinued due to regulatory permitting issues and the need for extensive facility modifications for future operations. With loss of this disposal capability and the continued generation of LLLW by ORNL research activities, the limited tank storage capacity was rapidly being depleted.

  17. A computerized data-capture system for animal biosafety level 4 laboratories.

    PubMed

    Bente, Dennis A; Friesen, Jeremy; White, Kyle; Koll, Jordan; Kobinger, Gary P

    2011-09-01

    The restrictive nature of an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL4) laboratory complicates even simple clinical evaluation including data capture. Typically, clinical data are recorded on paper during procedures, faxed out of the ABSL4, and subsequently manually entered into a computer. This system has many disadvantages including transcriptional errors. Here, we describe the development of a highly customizable, tablet-PC-based computerized data-capture system, allowing reliable collection of observational and clinical data from experimental animals in a restrictive biocontainment setting. A multidisciplinary team with skills in containment laboratory animal science, database design, and software engineering collaborated on the development of this system. The goals were to design an easy-to-use and flexible user interface on a touch-screen tablet PC with user-supportable processes for recovery, full auditing capabilities, and cost effectiveness. The system simplifies data capture, reduces the necessary time in an ABSL4 environment, offers timely reporting and review of data, facilitates statistical analysis, reduces potential of erroneous data entry, improves quality assurance of animal care, and advances the use and refinement of humane endpoints.

  18. A Computerized Data-Capture System for Animal Biosafety Level 4 Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Bente, Dennis A; Friesen, Jeremy; White, Kyle; Koll, Jordan; Kobinger, Gary P

    2011-01-01

    The restrictive nature of an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL4) laboratory complicates even simple clinical evaluation including data capture. Typically, clinical data are recorded on paper during procedures, faxed out of the ABSL4, and subsequently manually entered into a computer. This system has many disadvantages including transcriptional errors. Here, we describe the development of a highly customizable, tablet-PC-based computerized data-capture system, allowing reliable collection of observational and clinical data from experimental animals in a restrictive biocontainment setting. A multidisciplinary team with skills in containment laboratory animal science, database design, and software engineering collaborated on the development of this system. The goals were to design an easy-to-use and flexible user interface on a touch-screen tablet PC with user-supportable processes for recovery, full auditing capabilities, and cost effectiveness. The system simplifies data capture, reduces the necessary time in an ABSL4 environment, offers timely reporting and review of data, facilitates statistical analysis, reduces potential of erroneous data entry, improves quality assurance of animal care, and advances the use and refinement of humane endpoints. PMID:22330712

  19. Current (2004-07) Conditions and Changes in Ground-Water Levels from Predevelopment to 2007, Southern High Plains Aquifer, East-Central New Mexico-Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal aquifer in Curry and Roosevelt Counties, N. Mex., and primary source of water in southeastern New Mexico. Successful water-supply planning for New Mexico's Southern High Plains requires knowledge of the current aquifer conditions and a context to estimate future trends given current aquifer-management policy. This report provides a summary of the current (2007) water-level status of the Southern High Plains aquifer in New Mexico, including a basis for estimating future trends by comparison with historical conditions. This report includes estimates of the extent of ground-water level declines in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey-Lingo Ground-water Management Area parts of the High Plains Aquifer in eastern New Mexico since predevelopment. Maps representing 2007 water levels, water-level declines, aquifer saturated thickness, and depth to water accompanied by hydrographs from representative wells for the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Curry County, Portales, and Causey Lingo Underground Water Basins were prepared in cooperation with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. The results of this mapping show the water level declined as much as 175 feet in the study area at rates as high as 1.76 feet per year.

  20. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  1. Development of Low-Level Environmental Sampling Capabilities for Uranium at Brazilian and Argentine Laboratories by ABACC

    SciTech Connect

    Guidicini, Olga M.; Hembree, Doyle M.; Carter, Joel A.; Olsen, Khris B.; Hayes, Susan M.; Whitaker, Michael

    2003-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of the latest exercises to demonstrate that laboratories in both Argentina and Brazil have the capability to measure both the amount and isotopic composition of urnaium at the levels expected in typical environmental samples.

  2. Commercial disposal options for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.L.; Widmayer, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated site. Significant quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been generated and disposed of onsite at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The INEL expects to continue generating LLW while performing its mission and as aging facilities are decommissioned. An on-going Performance Assessment process for the RWMC underscores the potential for reduced or limited LLW disposal capacity at the existing onsite facility. In order to properly manage the anticipated amount of LLW, the INEL is investigating various disposal options. These options include building a new facility, disposing the LLW at other DOE sites, using commercial disposal facilities, or seeking a combination of options. This evaluation reports on the feasibility of using commercial disposal facilities.

  3. Characterization of low-level liquid wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.; Clark, B.R.; Scott, C.B.; Berry, J.B.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates existing data on samples taken from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLW) system. Although the primary focus is on the contents of the eight 50,000-gal Melton Valley Storage Tanks, data on raw LLW from the source facilities, Evaporator Service Tanks, and past operations involving the Gunite Storage Tanks are also included. A brief overview of the ORNL LLW system is provided. Methods of sample collection and analytical procedures are described. Data from each set of samples are reported and evaluated against criteria for classification of wastes. The quality and self-consistency of the data set are also discussed. Issues ranging from classifying as transuranic or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste to providing input for dose-rate calculations and evaluations of chemical compatibility with potential processing options are discussed. Remaining data voids are identified, and activities for filling those voids are recommended. 13 figs., 41 tabs.

  4. FY 1995 separation studies for liquid low-level waste treatment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D.; Burgess, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    During FY 1995, studies were continued to develop improved methods for centralized treatment of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus in this reporting period was on (1) identifying the parameters that affect the selective removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, two of the principal radioactive contaminants expected in the waste; (2) validating the effectiveness of the treatment methods by testing an ac Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate; (3) evaluating the optimum solid/liquid separation techniques for the waste; (4) identifying potential treatment methods for removal of technetium from LLLW; and (5) identifying potential methods for stabilizing the high-activity secondary solid wastes generated by the treatment.

  5. Filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory simulated liquid low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1989-08-01

    A method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) is being developed in which the material will be solidified in cement and stored in an aboveground engineered storage facility. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic isotopes. Filtration methods to remove transuranic isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) were investigated in this study. Initial batch studies using waste from MVST indicate that {gt}99.9{percent} of the transuranic isotopes can be removed from the bulk liquid by simple filtration. Bench-scale studies with a nonradioactive surrogate waste indicate that {gt}99.5{percent} of the suspended solids can be removed from the bulk liquid via inertial crossflow filtration. 4 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Underground petroleum tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This book presents the results of a survey of 46 state underground storage tank program officials. The survey covers: Whether petroleum tank insurance (mandated by the EPA) is available in each state and whether category 3 and 4 owners can obtain it; state programs that help owners meet the financial responsibility and/or technical requirements of such insurance; and lending institutions' attitudes towards providing loans to storage tank owners. A survey of the number and terms of insurance policies offered to tank owners is also presented.

  7. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  8. Vitrification as a low-level radioactive mixed waste treatment technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; No, Hyo J.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is developing plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated onsite. The ultimate objective of this project is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the annual generation and historic stockpiles of selected LLMW streams. This project is currently in the process of identifying a range of processible glass compositions that can be produced from actual mixed wastes and additives, such as boric acid or borax. During the formulation of these glasses, there has been an emphasis on maximizing the waste content in the glass (70 to 90 wt %), reducing the overall final waste volume, and producing a stabilized low-level radioactive waste glass. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced alkali borosilicate glasses that pass the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals well above the expected levels in actual wastes, also pass the TCLP test. These results provide compelling evidence that the vitrification system and the glass waste form will be robust enough to accommodate expected variations in the LLMW streams from ANL-E. Approximately 40 crucible melts will be studied to establish a compositional envelope for vitrifying ANL-E mixed wastes. Also being determined is the identity of volatilized metals or off-gases that will be generated.

  9. Underground coal mining section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  10. The mathematical model of radon-222 accumulation in underground mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimshin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Necessity to control underground mine air radon level arises during building and operating mines as well as auto and railway tunnels including those for metros. Calculation of underground mine air radon level can be fulfilled for estimation of potential radon danger of area for underground structure building. In this work the new mathematical model of radon accumulation in underground mines has been suggested. It takes into consideration underground mine dimensions, air exchange factor and soils ability to emanate radon. The following assumptions have been taken for model development. It is assumed that underground mine is a cylinder of length L and of base area S. Due to ventilation atmosphere air of volume activity Catm, is coming in through one cylinder base and is going out of volume activity Cind from underground mine. Diffusion radon flux is coming in through side surfaces of underground mine. The sources of this flux are radium-226 atoms distributed evenly in rock. For simplification of the task it considered possible to disregard radon emanation by loosened rock and underground waters. As a result of solution of the radon diffusion equation the following expression for calculation of radon volume activity in underground space air has been got: 2·r0 ·λv ·Catm-·l·K0(r0/l)-+D-·K1(r0/l)·C0- Cind = 2·(λ+ λv)·r0 ·l·K0 (r0/l)+ D ·K1(r0/l) . The following designations are used in this expression: Kν(r) - the second genus modified Bessel's function, C0 - equilibrium radon volume activity in soil air, l - diffusion radon length in soil, D - radon diffusion factor, r0 - radius of underground tunnel, λv - factor of air exchange. Expression found may be used for calculation of the minimum factor of necessary air exchange for ensuring safe radon levels in underground spaces. With this worked out model expected levels of radon volume activity were calculated for air in the second metro line underground spaces in the city of Yekaterinburg, Russia.

  11. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, C.W.; Giraud, K.M.

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  12. Underground corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion of underground metallic structures continues to be a crucial concern within society and the engineering community. Costs associated with corrosion losses are staggering. Indirect costs associated with environmental damage as well as loss of public confidence has in many cases out-stripped direct costs for facility repair and replacement. NACE Group Committee T-10, responsible for the study and advancement of technology necessary for engineering solutions for underground corrosion problems, is divided into five key unit committees as follows: cathodic protection; interference problems; electric power and communications; protective coating systems; and internal corrosion of pipelines. The papers presented in this publication reflect the most recent developments in field practice in all five areas. Cathodic protection criteria, protection of pipelines, tanks and pilings, test methods, transit systems investigations, power and communication cables, and compliance with regulations are addressed. Interference testing, refinery problems, methods of safely mitigating the effects of induced AC on pipelines, and experience with alternate engineering materials such as prestressed concrete cylinder pipe and ductile iron pipe are included. All 37 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. DIANA: nuclear astrophysics with a deep underground accelerator facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemut, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Current stellar model simulations are at a level of precision such that nuclear reaction rates represent a major source of uncertainty for theoretical predictions and for the analysis of observational signatures. To address several open questions in cosmology, astrophysics, and non-Standard-Model neutrino physics, new high precision measurements of direct-capture nuclear fusion cross sections are essential. Experimental studies of nuclear reaction of astrophysical interest are hampered by the exponential drop of the cross-section. The extremely low value of σ (E) within the Gamow peak prevents measurement in a laboratory at the earth surface. The signal to noise ratio would be too small, even with the highest beam intensities presently available from industrial accelerators, because of the cosmic ray interactions with the detectors and surrounding materials. An excellent solution is to install an accelerator facility deep underground where the cosmic rays background into detectors is reduced by several order of magnitude, allowing the measurements to be pushed to far lower energies than presently possible. This has been clearly demonstrated at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) by the successful studies of critical reactions in the pp-chains and first reaction studies in the CNO cycles. However many critical reactions still need high precision measurements, and next generation facilities, capable of very high beam currents over a wide energy range and state of the art target and detection technology, are highly desirable. The DIANA accelerator facility is being designed to achieve large laboratory reaction rates by delivering high ion beam currents (up to 100 mA) to a high density (up to 1018 atoms/cm2), super-sonic jet-gas target as well as to a solid target. DIANA will consist of two accelerators, 50-400 kV and 0.4-3 MV, that will cover a wide range of ion beam intensities, with sufficient energy overlap to consistently connect the

  14. Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

    2007-06-18

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States

  15. Reducing Benzene and Cresol Levels in National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Pilot-Scale Biorefinergy Scrubber Water

    SciTech Connect

    Buzek, M.L.; Phillips, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory converts biomass into energy by gasification or pyrolysis. The aqueous effluent generated in these processes must be disposed of as hazardous waste according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act because certain components exceed the regulatory concentration limit. Gas stripping of the scrubber water was investigated as a method of reducing benzene and cresol levels. A custom-designed packed-bed column was built and a half-factorial experimental design was implemented to determine the effects of gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, and column packing height on the final benzene concentration in the liquid. The experimental results show that packing height had a significant effect on final benzene concentration; gas flow rate and liquid flow rate had little effect. The effects of each design variable on final cresol concentration were not determined. Although the current column design did significantly reduce the benzene and cresol levels in the scrubber water, it did not reduce the concentrations below the regulatory limits. A full-factorial experimental design will be implemented with an increased packing height. Other variables, including column diameter and packing type, will be investigated to determine their effects on final benzene and cresol concentrations. Once the packed-bed column is determined to be effective in reducing contaminant concentrations below the regulatory limit, photocatalytic oxidation will be explored for remediating the benzene and cresol from the gas stream.

  16. Vitrification of low-level radioactive mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, J.J.; Rosine, S.D.; No, H.J.

    1995-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is proceeding with plans to use vitrification to treat low-level radioactive mixed wastes (LLMW) generated on-site. The objective is to install a full-scale vitrification system at ANL-E capable of processing the entire annual generation of selected LLMW streams. Crucible glass studies with actual mixed waste streams have produced sodium borosilicate glasses under conditions achievable in commercially available melters. These same glass compositions, spiked with toxic metals above the expected levels in actual wastes, pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Earlier evaluations of the likely off-gases that will result from vitrification indicated that the primary off-gases will include compounds of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and CO{sub 2}. These evaluations are being experimentally confirmed with a mass spectrometer analysis of the gases evolved from samples of the ANL-E wastes. The composition of the melter feed can be adjusted to minimize volatilization of some components, if necessary. The full-scale melter will be designed to handle the annual generation of at least three LLMW waste streams: evaporator concentrator bottoms sludge (ECB), storage tank sludge (STS), and HEPA filter media. Each waste stream is mixed waste by virtue of its failure to pass the TCLP test with respect to toxic metal leaching. Additional LLMW streams under consideration for vitrification include historical mixed waste glass from past operations and spent abrasive from a planned decontamination facility.

  17. Investigation of the liquid low-level waste evaporator steam coil failure and supporting laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, S.J.; Keiser, J.R.; Longmire, H.F.

    1995-05-01

    Using a remote video camera, the internals of a low-level waste evaporator tank (termed 2A2, type 304L stainless steel construction, known to have failed steam coils) were inspected. This inspection revealed at least three rather substantial holes as opposed to crack- or pit-like leak sites near the nominal solution level position on one particular steam coil. This section was removed from the evaporator vessel, and subsequent hot cell examination revealed extensive general corrosion on the process side of the coil with little or no attack on the steam side. Hot cell metallography confirmed intense general corrosion on the process side and, in addition, revealed shallow intergranular attack at the leading edge of corrosion. No pits or cracks were detected in this section of the steam coil. Laboratory corrosion tests with coupons of 304L (and other high-alloy materials) isothermally exposed in a range of solutions similar to those expected in the evaporator reveal only very low corrosion rates below 40% sodium hydroxide and the solution boiling point. However, {open_quotes}dried film{close_quotes} experiments revealed that much more dilute solutions became aggressive to stainless steel due to concentrating effects (evaporation and periodic wetting) at the air/solution interface. The high general corrosion rates observed on the failed coil section occurred at or near the air/solution interface and were attributed to such {open_quotes}splash zone{close_quotes} activity.

  18. Relationship between aerosol oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Lambe, A. T.; Ahern, A. T.; Williams, L. R.; Ehn, M.; Mikkilä, J.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Brune, W. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M.; Laaksonen, A.; Kolb, C. E.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments investigated the relationship between oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles generated via OH radical oxidation in an aerosol flow reactor. The hygroscopic growth factor at 90% RH (HGF90%), the CCN activity ($\\kappa$ORG,CCN) and the level of oxidation (atomic O:C ratio) of the SOA particles were measured. Both HGF90% and $\\kappa$ORG,CCN increased with O:C; the HGF90% varied linearly with O:C, while $\\kappa$ORG,CCN mostly followed a nonlinear trend. An average HGF90% of 1.25 and $\\kappa$ORG,CCN of 0.19 were measured for O:C of 0.65, in agreement with results reported for ambient data. The $\\kappa$ORG values estimated from the HGF90% ($\\kappa$ORG,HGF) were 20 to 50% lower than paired $\\kappa$ORG,CCN values for all SOA particles except 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), the least hygroscopic of the SOA systems. Within the limitations of instrumental capabilities, we show that differences in hygroscopic behavior among the investigated SOA systems may correspond to differences in elemental composition.

  19. Underground natural gas storage reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this study is to research technologies and methodologies that will reduce the costs associated with the operation and maintenance of underground natural gas storage. This effort will include a survey of public information to determine the amount of natural gas lost from underground storage fields, determine the causes of this lost gas, and develop strategies and remedial designs to reduce or stop the gas loss from selected fields. Phase I includes a detailed survey of US natural gas storage reservoirs to determine the actual amount of natural gas annually lost from underground storage fields. These reservoirs will be ranked, the resultant will include the amount of gas and revenue annually lost. The results will be analyzed in conjunction with the type (geologic) of storage reservoirs to determine the significance and impact of the gas loss. A report of the work accomplished will be prepared. The report will include: (1) a summary list by geologic type of US gas storage reservoirs and their annual underground gas storage losses in ft{sup 3}; (2) a rank by geologic classifications as to the amount of gas lost and the resultant lost revenue; and (3) show the level of significance and impact of the losses by geologic type. Concurrently, the amount of storage activity has increased in conjunction with the net increase of natural gas imports as shown on Figure No. 3. Storage is playing an ever increasing importance in supplying the domestic energy requirements.

  20. A Case for Underground Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The underground school offers several advantages. Preliminary studies in Oklahoma have shown that these schools perform exceptionally well as learning environments. The lack of noise and distractions helps teachers keep the attention of their students. Underground structures can protect people against a broad range of natural and man-made…

  1. A Course on Underground Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Clarence A.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses a one-semester course on recovering fossil fuels and minerals from underground formations. Includes course outline and information of its major divisions: (1) Geological Background; (2) Flow, Transport, and Interfacial Phenomena in Porous Media; and (3) Description of Underground Processes. (SK)

  2. Thermal loading as a causal factor in exceeding the 0.1 PPM laboratory fume hood control level.

    PubMed

    Chessin, Saul J; Johnston, James D

    2002-07-01

    Tracer gas testing per ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to investigate the role of thermal loading in exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Three types of typical laboratory burners (blast, Meeker, and economy) were used to provide a thermal challenge. Heat outputs of between 0 and 61,610 Btu/hr were based on fuel heat capacity (for liquid propane gas) and fuel gas flow rates. Breathing zone concentrations were measured with a MIRAN 1B2 infrared gas analyzer. Also, for each test, the difference between the room and duct temperatures (delta temperature) was measured. Results indicated a linear relationship between heat loads and tracer gas breathing zone concentrations for both Btu/hr and delta temperature. Control levels of 0.1 ppm were exceeded at less than 12,000 Btu/hr. Also, control levels were exceeded at a lower heat load when the tracer gas generation rate was increased. These results indicate that thermal loads in laboratory fume hoods increase the risk of exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Some compensatory measures relative to hood configuration and flow rates are recommended for laboratory operations involving heat sources.

  3. A teaching intervention for reading laboratory experiments in college-level introductory chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Maria Kristine

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that a pre-laboratory guide, conceptualized as a "scientific story grammar," has on college chemistry students' learning when they read an introductory chemistry laboratory manual and perform the experiments in the chemistry laboratory. The participants (N = 56) were students enrolled in four existing general chemistry laboratory sections taught by two instructors at a women's liberal arts college. The pre-laboratory guide consisted of eight questions about the experiment, including the purpose, chemical species, variables, chemical method, procedure, and hypothesis. The effects of the intervention were compared with those of the traditional pre-laboratory assignment for the eight chemistry experiments. Measures included quizzes, tests, chemistry achievement test, science process skills test, laboratory reports, laboratory average, and semester grade. The covariates were mathematical aptitude and prior knowledge of chemistry and science processes, on which the groups differed significantly. The study captured students' perceptions of their experience in general chemistry through a survey and interviews with eight students. The only significant differences in the treatment group's performance were in some subscores on lecture items and laboratory items on the quizzes. An apparent induction period was noted, in that significant measures occurred in mid-semester. Voluntary study with the pre-laboratory guide by control students precluded significant differences on measures given later in the semester. The groups' responses to the survey were similar. Significant instructor effects on three survey items were corroborated by the interviews. The researcher's students were more positive about their pre-laboratory tasks, enjoyed the laboratory sessions more, and were more confident about doing chemistry experiments than the laboratory instructor's groups due to differences in scaffolding by the instructors.

  4. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  5. NEW APPROACHES: Measurement of the mean lifetime of cosmic ray muons in the A-level laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, Peter; Costich, David; O'Sullivan, Sean

    1998-09-01

    The Turning Points in Physics module from the NEAB A-level Modular Physics syllabus requires students to have an understanding of relativistic time dilation and offers the measurement of the mean lifetime of cosmic ray muons as an example of supporting experimental evidence. This article describes a direct measurement of muon lifetime carried out in the A-level laboratory.

  6. Water-level data for wells in Burial Ground 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1975-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., solid waste materials contaminated by low levels of radioactivity are disposed of in shallow trench burial areas termed ' burial grounds'. Data pertaining to wells in Burial Ground 6 are presented for the period 1975 to 1979. Included are an inventory of wells, measurements of water levels, well hydrographs, and a map showing the location of the wells. (USGS)

  7. Undergraduate Student Attitudes and Perceptions toward Low- and High-Level Inquiry Exercise Physiology Teaching Laboratory Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henige, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare student attitudes toward two different science laboratory learning experiences, specifically, traditional, cookbook-style, low-inquiry level (LL) activities and a high-inquiry level (HL) investigative project. In addition, we sought to measure and compare students' science-related attitudes and…

  8. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, Kym S; Burdz, Tamara V; Turenne, Christine Y; Sharma, Meenu K; Kabani, Amin M; Wolfe, Joyce N

    2005-01-01

    Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation) may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226) was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7%) of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18), resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation) or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a CL3 laboratory. This

  9. A Systems-Level Analysis of the JHU/APL Time and Frequency Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Frequency Laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. We have discussed our ensemble of hydrogen maser and cesium beam...ensemble. The clocks maintained in our laboratory are three cesium-beam atomic frequency standards and four hydrogen masers . However, one hydrogen maser ...an aging NASA Research Maser ) is not included in the APL Timescale. With only six clocks in the ensemble contributing to the APL Timescale, we

  10. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology. PMID:26133768

  11. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  12. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Rocque, Louis-Marie; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2015-01-01

    The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured), heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium), PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17) and PCBs (5-15 out of 18). Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1) varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology.

  13. Relationship between aerosol oxidation level and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoli, P.; Lambe, A.; Ahern, A.; Williams, L. R.; Ehn, M.; Mikkila, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Brune, W. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J.; Petdjd, T. T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Laaksonen, A.; Kolb, C. E.; Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory experiments investigated the relationship between degree of oxidation and hygroscopic properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles. The hygroscopic growth factor (HGF), the CCN activity (κCCN) and the degree of aerosol oxidation (represented by the atomic O:C ratio) were measured for α-pinene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB), m-xylene and α pinene/m-xylene mixture SOA generated via OH radical oxidation in an aerosol flow reactor. Our results show that both HGF and κCCN increase with O:C. The TMB and m-xylene SOA were, respectively, the least and most hygroscopic of the system studied. An average HGF of 1.25 and a κCCN of 0.2 were measured at O:C of 0.65, in agreement with results reported for ambient data. The HGF based κ(κHGF) under predicted the κCCN values of 20 to 50% for all but the TMB SOA. Within the limitations of instrumental capabilities, we define the extent to which the hygroscopic properties of SOA particles can be predicted from their oxidation level and provide parameterizations suitable for interpreting ambient data.

  14. Feasible modifications for the low-level waste treatment plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, J.M.

    1984-06-01

    Aqueous, low-level, radioactive wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contain small amounts of /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides. These wastes are processed by passage through beds of a strong-acid cation exchange resin, and the treated water is then discharged to the environment. Studies show that pretreatment of the waste with a weak-acid cation exchange resin would result in a significant decrease in regeneration reagents and a saving of manpower. This can be accomplished in the present plant by piping changes on the existing columns. The effluent from the cation treatment process contains all of the radionuclides that are present in anionic form. Routinely, this consists only of approximately one-half of the /sup 60/Co. Under certain conditions, other anions (such as /sup 131/I) could be present. Studies show that these can be removed by use of an anion exchange resin bed at the end of the process. This would require the construction of an additional column, if the head-end treatment described above is also installed. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure.

  16. A New Shallow Underground Gas-Proportional Counting Lab - First Results and Ar-37 Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Richard M.

    2013-11-01

    Abstract A new ultra-low-background proportional counter was recently developed with an internal volume of 100 ml and has been characterized at pressures from 1-10 atmospheres with P-10 (90% Ar, 10% methane) gas. This design, along with a counting system providing event digitization and passive and active shielding, has been developed to complement a new shallow underground laboratory (30 meters water-equivalent). Backgrounds and low-level reference materials have been measured, and system sensitivity for Ar-37 has been calculated.

  17. Risk characterization data manual for Category D inactive liquid low-level waste tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This manual reports the results of a risk characterization of Category D inactive liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) underground storage tanks (Uses) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The risk characterization is required by the Federal Facility Agreement between the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office, the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The intent of the risk characterization is to determine relative priorities for assessment and remediation. A total of 55 FFA Category D inactive LLLW tanks are discussed in this manual. Of the 39 tanks at ORNL that have been accepted into the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program, all have been sampled for preliminary characterization, except for 5 tanks that were found to be empty plus I that was found not to exist. The remaining 16 tanks are in the Waste Management (WM) Program. Twelve were sampled for preliminary characterization, and four were found empty. Each sampled tank was scored on a scale of I to 5 on the basis of three criteria: (1) leak characteristics, (2) location, and (3) toxicological characteristics of residual sludges and liquids. Each criterion was assigned a weighing factor based on perceived importance. The criterion score multiplied by the weighting factor equaled the tank`s total score for that criterion. The three weighted criterion scores for each tank were then summed for a total score for that tank. When the scores for all tanks had been weighted and summed, the tanks were ranked in descending order on the basis of their total scores. The highest possible score for a tank is 30. The descending rank order represents the recommended priorities for evaluation: the higher the score, the higher the priority for evaluation. Of the 54 tanks sampled in the risk characterization, 23 tanks scored 16 or higher, 11 scored between 10 and 15, 5 scored between 4 and 9, and 15 scored 3 or less.

  18. Green Chemistry Decision-Making in an Upper-Level Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Landon J. G.; Koroluk, Katherine J.; Golmakani, Mehrnaz; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    A self-directed independent synthesis experiment was developed for a third-year undergraduate organic laboratory. Students were provided with the CAS numbers of starting and target compounds and devised a synthetic plan to be executed over two 4.5 h laboratory periods. They consulted the primary literature in order to develop and carry out an…

  19. 12. Credit BG. Typical view down one of the underground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Credit BG. Typical view down one of the underground tunnels connecting the Control and Recording Center with all the JPL Edwards Facility test stands. In addition to personnel traffic, the tunnel system carried electrical power cables, instrumentation and control circuits, and high pressure helium and nitrogen lines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 6. UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM, INTERIOR. Looking southeast to escape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM, INTERIOR. Looking southeast to escape tunnel. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Role of secondary level laboratories in strengthening quality at primary level health facilities' laboratories: an innovative approach to ensure accurate HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria test results in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Paterniti, Antonio D; Redfield, Robert R; Marinucci, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Providing regular external quality assessment of primary level laboratories and timely feedback is crucial to ensure the reliability of testing capacity of the whole laboratory network. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of primary level laboratories in Southwest Showa Zone in Ethiopia. An external quality assessment protocol was devised whereby from among all the samples collected on-site at 4 health centers (HCs), each HC sent to a district hospital (DH) on a weekly basis 2 TB slides (1 Ziehl-Neelsen stained and another unstained), 2 malaria slides (1 Giemsa stained and another unstained), and 2 blood samples for HIV testing (1 whole blood and another plasma) for a comparative analysis. Similarly, the DH preserved the same amount and type of specimens to send to each HC for retesting. From October to November 2011, 192 single-blinded specimens were rechecked: 64 TB slides, 64 malaria slides, and 64 blood specimens for HIV testing. The analyses demonstrated an overall agreement of 95.3% (183/192) between the test and the retest, and 98.4% (63/64), 92.2% (59/64,) and 95.3% (61/64) for TB microscopy, malaria microscopy, and HIV rapid testing, respectively. Of the total TB slides tested positive, 20/23 (87%) were quantified similar in both laboratories. The agreement on HIV rapid testing was 100% (32/32) when plasma samples were tested either at HC (16/16) or at DH (16/16), while when whole blood specimens were tested, the agreement was 87.5% (14/16) and 93.8% (15/16) for samples prepared by HCs and DH, respectively. Results of this new approach proved that secondary laboratories could play a vital role in assuring laboratory qualities at primary level HCs, without depending on remotely located national and regional laboratories to provide this support.

  2. Male convict cichlid 11-ketotestosterone levels throughout the reproductive cycle: an exploratory profile study in laboratory and field populations

    PubMed Central

    Snekser, Jennifer L.; Itzkowitz, Murray

    2015-01-01

    The convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) has been extensively examined in relation to many behavioral topics, such as courtship, pair-bonding, bi-parental care, and territoriality. Recently, this model species has been utilized in studies on genetics, endocrinology, and neuroanatomy, with an ultimate goal of connecting behavior with its underlying mechanisms. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1) profile the circulating levels of plasma 11KT in the male convict cichlid at multiple points during the reproductive cycle and (2) generally compare the hormonal profiles of the widely used laboratory populations and those of a free-living population in the streams of Costa Rica. The results of the field experiment showed that male convict cichlids had higher levels of circulating 11KT during courtship and lower during the parental care and non-breeding phases. The profile of the laboratory population was similar to the profile of the free-living individuals, with significantly higher levels of 11KT occurring during courtship than during parental care, though the level of 11KT during non-breeding phase was elevated in the laboratory. The high levels of 11KT during courtship and low levels of 11KT during parental care found in both the field and the laboratory is similar to what has been reported in other species of teleosts, and may suggest an important function of 11KT in the expression of courtship behavior and the subsequent onset of parental behaviors in this model species. PMID:26020006

  3. Observations of temporary plant stress induced by the surface shock of a 1-kt underground chemical explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, W.L.

    1995-12-04

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved carefully monitoring a 1-kt chemical underground explosion using extensive seismological measurements and low-altitude overhead imagery. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has conducted a study to determine whether the multispectral overhead imagery acquired during the NPE can be combined with other techniques to locate the ground zero (GZ) of an underground nuclear explosion within the seismic error ellipse. This report describes the use of such overhead images to detect the changes in plant metabolisms, normally referred to as plant stress, that appear to have been induced by the surface accelerations caused by the NPE underground explosion. The metabolic condition of the plants on the surface above the explosion point was determined using a published plant stress measuring methodology to analyze the multispectral images taken from a low-flying aircraft. The surface areas that experienced accelerations greater than 0.2 g show measurable plant stress, within 56 hours of the underground explosion, in all of the plant species. The pattern of the plants` stress generally follows the pattern of the measured surface acceleration. Seven days after the explosion, the levels of apparent plant stress had relaxed to about one-third what they were 56 hours after the explosion, while the pattern of the apparent plant stress remained the same.

  4. Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The DOE complex currently has 332 underground storage tanks (USTs) that have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production. Very little of the over 100 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste has been treated and disposed of in final form. Two waste storage tank design types are prevalent across the DOE complex: single-shell wall and double-shell wall designs. They are made of stainless steel, concrete, and concrete with carbon steel liners, and their capacities vary from 5000 gallons (19 m{sup 3}) to 10{sup 6} gallons (3785 m{sup 3}). The tanks have an overburden layer of soil ranging from a few feet to tens of feet. Responding to the need for remediation of tank waste, driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements (FFCAs) at all participating sites, the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program was created by the US DOE Office of Technology Development in February 1991. Its mission is to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat to concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to the public and the regulators. The UST-ID has focused on five DOE locations: the Hanford Site, which is the host site, in Richland, Washington; the Fernald Site in Fernald, Ohio; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site in Savannah River, South Carolina.

  5. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  6. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground shops shall be equipped with an automatic fire suppression system meeting the requirements of §...

  7. Water-level data for wells in and near Burial Ground 3, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1975-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Data pertaining to wells in and near Burial Ground 3 (radioactive wastes) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee are presented for the period 1975 to 1979. It includes an inventory of wells, measurements of water levels, well hydrographs, and a map showing the location of the wells. (USGS)

  8. Water-level data for wells in and near burial ground 4, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1975-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Data pertaining to wells in and near Burial Ground 4 (radioactive waste) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee is presented for the period 1975-1979. An inventory of wells, measurements of water levels, well hydrographs, and a map showing the location of the wells, are included. (USGS)

  9. Water-level data for wells in Burial Ground 5, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1975-1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Benjamin, Pamela K.; Tranum, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Data pertaining to wells in and near Burial Ground 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, is presented for the period 1975 to 1979. It includes an inventory of wells, measuments of water levels, well hydrographs, and a map showing the location of the wells. (USGS)

  10. Effectiveness of a MORE Laboratory Module in Prompting Students to Revise Their Molecular-Level Ideas about Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Lydia T.; Teichert, Melonie A.; Rickey, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of the implementation of the Model-Observe-Reflect-Explain (MORE) laboratory module in prompting different populations of general chemistry students to revise their molecular-level ideas regarding chemical compounds dissolved in water is examined. The module is effective for encouraging students to revise their ideas about…

  11. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  12. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B.; Britten, J. A.

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  13. Description of the MHS Health Level 7 Chemistry Laboratory for Public Health Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    3 Data Origination and Flow Process...Methods used to determine timeframe in HL7 data…………………………………….…….14 Figure 1: HL7 Laboratory data flow process…………………………………………………………………….7 Figure...laboratory testing. Document Title 5 5 EpiData Center Department HL7 Microbiology Technical Document Data Origination and Flow Process Figure

  14. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Examples: Sandia National Laboratories and Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.R.; Parsons, A.M.; Waters, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    The disposal of mixed low-level waste has become an issue for the U.S. Department of Energy and the States since the inception of the Federal Facilities Compliance Act in 1992. Fifteen sites, including Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), have been evaluated to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of this type of waste after it has been subjected to treatment processes. The analyses were designed to quantify the maximum permissible concentrations of radioactive and hazardous constituents in mixed low-level waste that could potentially be disposed of in a facility at one of the fifteen sites and meet regulatory requirements. The evaluations provided several major insights about the disposal of mixed low-level waste. All of the fifteen sites have the technical capability for disposal of some waste. Maximum permissible concentrations for the radioactive component of the waste at and sites such as SNL and LANL are almost exclusively determined by pathways other than through groundwater. In general, for the hazardous component of the waste, travel times through groundwater to a point 100 meters from the disposal facility are on the order of thousands of years. The results of the evaluations will be compared to actual treated waste that may be disposed of in a facility at one of these fifteen evaluated sites. These comparisons will indicate which waste streams may exceed the disposal limitations of a site and which component of the waste limits the technical acceptability for disposal. The technical analyses provide only partial input to the decision-making process for determining the disposal sites for mixed low-level waste. Other, less quantitative factors such as social and political issues will also be considered.

  15. Modelling of Train Noise in Underground Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.

    1996-08-01

    TNS, a computer model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of train noise in underground stations, is developed. The train is regarded as a series of sections, and the train noise distribution in a station is calculated by inputting the sound attenuation from a train section source in the underground system (i.e., the station and tunnel). This input can be obtained by physical scale modelling. The prediction by TNS in an underground station in London shows good agreement with site measurements. A series of computations in the station demonstrates that: (1) the overall level of the train noise in the area near the end walls is slightly less than the other areas; (2) some conventional architectural acoustic treatments in the station are effective when a train is still in the tunnel but not as helpful when the train is already in the station; and (3) train noise has a significant effect on the speech intelligibility of public address systems as measured by the Speech Transmission Index (STI).

  16. Integration of Computer Technology Into an Introductory-Level Neuroscience Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evert, Denise L.; Goodwin, Gregory; Stavnezer, Amy Jo

    2005-01-01

    We describe 3 computer-based neuroscience laboratories. In the first 2 labs, we used commercially available interactive software to enhance the study of functional and comparative neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. In the remaining lab, we used customized software and hardware in 2 psychophysiological experiments. With the use of the computer-based…

  17. Estimation of Wildlife Hazard Levels Using Interspecies Correlation Models and Standard Laboratory Rodent Toxicity Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity data from laboratory rodents are widely available and frequently used in human health assessments as an animal model. We explore the possibility of using single rodent acute toxicity values to predict chemical toxicity to a diversity of wildlife species and to estimate ...

  18. Radio Active Waste Management: Underground Repository Method

    SciTech Connect

    Rudrapati Sandesh Kumar; Payal Shirvastava

    2002-07-01

    Finding a solution for nuclear waste is a key issue, not only for the protection of the environment but also for the future of the nuclear industry. Ten years from now, when the first decisions for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants will have to be made, The general public will require to know the solution for nuclear waste before accepting new nuclear plants. In other words, an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Most existing wastes are being stored in safe conditions waiting for permanent solution, with some exceptions in the former Eastern Bloc. Temporary surface or shallow storage is a well known technique widely used all over the world. A significant research effort has been made by the author of this paper in the direction of underground repository. The underground repository appears to be a good solution. Trying to transform dangerous long lived radionuclides into less harmful short lived or stable elements is a logical idea. It is indeed possible to incinerate or transmute heavy atoms of long lived elements in fast breeder reactors or even in pressurised or boiling water reactors. There are also new types of reactors which could be used, namely accelerator driven systems. High level and long lived wastes (spent fuel and vitrified waste) contain a mixture of high activity (heat producing) short lived nuclides and low activity long lived alpha emitting nuclides. To avoid any alteration due to temperature of the engineered or geological barrier surrounding the waste underground, it is necessary to store the packages on the surface for several decades (50 years or more) to allow a sufficient temperature decrease before disposing of them underground. In all cases, surface (or shallow) storage is needed as a temporary solution. This paper gives a detailed and comprehensive view of the Deep Geological Repository, providing a pragmatic picture of the means to make this method, a

  19. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students†

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Dale L.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic “parts,” students construct a “reporter plasmid” expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a “sensor plasmid,” the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. PMID:26753032

  20. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students.

    PubMed

    Beach, Dale L; Alvarez, Consuelo J

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic "parts," students construct a "reporter plasmid" expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a "sensor plasmid," the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses.

  1. Model based, sensor-directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.; Thunborg, S. )

    1990-06-01

    Sensor-rich, intelligent robots that function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is performing technology development and experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of cleaning up waste stored in underground tanks. The tasks addressed in the SNL experiments are in situ physical characterizations of underground storage tanks (USTs) as well as the contained waste and the removal of the waste from the tank both for laboratory analysis and as part of the tank cleanup process. Both fully automatic and manual robot control technologies are being developed and demonstrated. The SNL-developed concept of human-assisted computer control will be employed whenever manual control of the robot is required. The UST Robot Technology Development Laboratory (URTDL) consists of a commercial gantry robot modified to allow hybrid force/position control.

  2. Trace-level beryllium analysis in the laboratory and in the field: State of the art, challenges, and opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    BRISSON, MICHAEL

    2006-03-30

    Control of workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing issue in the United States and other nations. As the health risks associated with low-level exposure to beryllium are better understood, the need increases for improved analytical techniques both in the laboratory and in the field. These techniques also require a greater degree of standardization to permit reliable comparison of data obtained from different locations and at different times. Analysis of low-level beryllium samples, in the form of air filters or surface wipes, is frequently required for workplace monitoring or to provide data to support decision-making on implementation of exposure controls. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the current permissible exposure level is 2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air), and the United States Department of Energy has implemented an action level of 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3} (air) and 0.2 {micro}g/100 cm{sup 2} (surface). These low-level samples present a number of analytical challenges, including (1) a lack of suitable standard reference materials, (2) unknown robustness of sample preparation techniques, (3) interferences during analysis, (4) sensitivity (sufficiently low detection limits), (5) specificity (beryllium speciation), and (6) data comparability among laboratories. Additionally, there is a need for portable, real-time (or near real-time) equipment for beryllium air monitoring and surface wipe analysis that is both laboratory-validated and field-validated in a manner that would be accepted by national and/or international standards organizations. This paper provides a review of the current analytical requirements for trace-level beryllium analysis for worker protection, and also addresses issues that may change those requirements. The current analytical state of the art and relevant challenges facing the analytical community will be presented, followed by suggested criteria for real-time monitoring equipment. Recognizing and addressing these challenges will

  3. Trace-level beryllium analysis in the laboratory and in the field: state of the art, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Michael J; Ashley, Kevin; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Ekechukwu, Amy A; Creek, Kathryn L

    2006-06-01

    Control of workplace exposure to beryllium is a growing issue in the United States and other nations. As the health risks associated with low-level exposure to beryllium are better understood, the need increases for improved analytical techniques both in the laboratory and in the field. These techniques also require a greater degree of standardization to permit reliable comparison of data obtained from different locations and at different times. Analysis of low-level beryllium samples, in the form of air filters or surface wipes, is frequently required for workplace monitoring or to provide data to support decision-making on implementation of exposure controls. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the current permissible exposure level is 2 microg m(-3) (air) and the United States Department of Energy has implemented an action level of 0.2 microg m(-3) (air) and 0.2 microg/100 cm(2) (surface). These low-level samples present a number of analytical challenges, including (1) a lack of suitable standard reference materials, (2) unknown robustness of sample preparation techniques, (3) interferences during analysis, (4) sensitivity (sufficiently low detection limits), (5) specificity (beryllium speciation) and (6) data comparability among laboratories. Additionally, there is a need for portable, real-time (or near real-time) equipment for beryllium air monitoring and surface wipe analysis that is both laboratory-validated and field-validated in a manner that would be accepted by national and/or international standards organizations. This paper provides a review of the current analytical requirements for trace-level beryllium analysis for worker protection and also addresses issues that may change those requirements. The current analytical state of the art and relevant challenges facing the analytical community will be presented, followed by suggested criteria for real-time monitoring equipment. Recognizing and addressing these challenges will present

  4. Crystal-growth Underground Breeding Extra-sensitive Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Dongming

    2012-02-01

    CUBED (Center for Ultra-Low Background Experiments at DUSEL) collaborators from USD, SDSMT, SDSU, Sanford Lab, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are working on the development of techniques to manufacture crystals with unprecedented purity levels in an underground environment that may be used by experiments proposed for DUSEL. The collaboration continues to make significant progress toward its goal of producing high purity germanium crystals. High quality crystals are being pulled on a weekly basis at the temporary surface growth facility located on the USD campus. The characterization of the grown crystals demonstrates that the impurity levels are nearly in the range of the needed impurity level for detector-grade crystals. Currently, the crystals are being grown in high-purity hydrogen atmosphere. With an increase in purity due to the zone refining, the group expects to grow high-purity crystals by the end of 2011. The one third of the grown crystals will be manufactured to be detectors; the remaining will be fabricated in to wafers that have large applications in electro and optical devices as well as solar panels. This would allow the research to be connected to market and create more than 30 jobs and multi millions revenues in a few years.

  5. Low-level waste characterization plan for the WSCF Laboratory Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.A.

    1994-10-04

    The Waste Characterization Plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex describes the organization and methodology for characterization of all waste streams that are transferred from the WSCF Laboratory Complex to the Hanford Site 200 Areas Storage and Disposal Facilities. Waste generated at the WSCF complex typically originates from analytical or radiological procedures. Process knowledge is derived from these operations and should be considered an accurate description of WSCF generated waste. Sample contribution is accounted for in the laboratory waste designation process and unused or excess samples are returned to the originator for disposal. The report describes procedures and processes common to all waste streams; individual waste streams; and radionuclide characterization methodology.

  6. Optimized background reduction in low-level gamma-ray spectrometry at a surface laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, S; García-León, M; García-Tenorio, R

    2006-09-01

    The background of a coaxial Ge detector placed at a surface laboratory has been reduced by means of a background reduction setup consisting of a passive shield of low-activity lead, a simple radon suppression system and an active shield with a plastic scintillation plate. In particular, we have devoted our efforts to in-depth optimization of each parameter associated with different anticoincidence setups and to their subsequent intercomparison. The overall performance of the active shield was improved by using the optimum time parameters for each setup. The final objective is to decrease the cosmic-ray background and, by this way, to reduce the detection limits of gamma-ray spectrometers at conventional laboratories, and consequently make them competitive for different measurements like (210)Pb dating.

  7. Underground at Black Diamond Mines

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1989-10-01

    Although California is noted for its mining history and annually leads the nation in total monetary value of minerals produced, there a few opportunities for the public to tour underground mines. One reason is that nearly all mining in the state today is done above ground in open pits. Another reason is that active underground mines are not commonly favorable to public tours. There is one place, Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve, where the public can safely tour a formerly active underground mine. Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve is a 3,600-acre parkland about 5 miles southwest of Antioch in Contra Costa County. The Preserve was established in the early 1970s and is administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. Black Diamond Mines Preserve is noteworthy for its mining history as well as its natural history, both of which are briefly described here.

  8. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego

    2009-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory’s recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy’s ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho.

  9. The State of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Moo Y.

    2016-10-01

    As a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SubTER (Subsurface Technology and Engineering Research, Development and Demonstration) initiative, University of Wisconsin- Madison, Sandia National Laboratories, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory conducted the Permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies (kISMET) project. The objectives of the project are to define the in situ status of stress in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota and to establish the relations between in situ stress and induced fracture through hydraulically stimulating the fracture. (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota. In situ tests are conducted in a 7.6 cm diameter and 100 long vertical borehole located in the 4850 Level West Access Drift near Davies Campus of SURF (Figure 1). The borehole is located in the zone of Precambrian Metamorphic Schist.

  10. Liquid-Level Monitor for Pressurized Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless-steel cylinders, based on differences in gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in water and air, developed. Full-scale laboratory prototype system constructed to test technique. Technique usable with liquids other than water, since linear attenuation coefficients for intermediate-energy gamma rays in air considerably lower than in liquids. Also adaptable for continuous monitoring of liquid levels in resevoir systems and in underground storage tanks.

  11. Locating nuclear power plants underground.

    PubMed

    Scott, F M

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the questions that have been asked by experts and others as to why nuclear power plants are not located or placed underground. While the safeguards and present designs make such installations unnecessary, there are some definite advantages that warrant the additional cost involved. First of all, such an arrangement does satisfy the psychological concern of a number of people and, in so doing, might gain the acceptance of the public so that such plants could be constructed in urban areas of load centers. The results of these studies are presented and some of the requirements necessary for underground installations described, including rock conditions, depth of facilities, and economics.

  12. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  13. High levels of agreement between clinic-based ethyl glucuronide (EtG) immunoassays and laboratory-based mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Leickly, Emily; McDonell, Michael G.; Vilardaga, Roger; Angelo, Frank A.; Lowe, Jessica M.; McPherson, Sterling; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoassay urine drug screening cups that detect use for two or more days are commonly used in addiction treatment settings. Until recently, there has been no comparable immunoassay test for alcohol use in these settings. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the agreement of a commercially available ethyl glucuronide immunoassay (EtG-I) test conducted at an outpatient addiction clinic and lab-based EtG mass spectrometry (EtG-MS) conducted at a drug testing laboratory at three cut-off levels. High agreement between these two measures would support the usefulness of EtG-I as a clinical tool for monitoring alcohol use. Methods Forty adults with co-occurring alcohol dependence and serious mental illnesses submitted 1068 urine samples over a 16-week alcohol treatment study. All samples were tested using EtG-I on a benchtop analyzer and 149 were randomly selected for EtG-MS analysis at a local laboratory. Agreement was defined as the number of samples where EtG-I and EtG-MS were both above or below a specific cut-off level. Agreement was calculated at low cut-off levels (100 and 250 ng/ml), as well as at a higher cut-off level (500 ng/ml) recommended by most by commercial drug testing laboratories. Results Agreement between EtG-I and EtG-MS was high across all cut-off levels (90.6% at 100 ng/ml, and 96.6% at 250 and 500 ng/ml). Conclusions EtG immunoassays conducted at low cut-off levels in point-of-care testing settings have high agreement with lab-based EtG-MS. EtG-I can be considered a useful clinical monitoring tool for alcohol use in community-based addiction treatment settings. PMID:25695340

  14. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. F.; Cohen, J. J.; McKone, T. E.

    1980-06-01

    Work in the area of hazard indices was reviewed. A geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground is presented. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking water levels; a persistence factor to chracterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  15. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites.

  16. Artificial intelligence models for predicting iron deficiency anemia and iron serum level based on accessible laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Azarkhish, Iman; Raoufy, Mohammad Reza; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2012-06-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. Measuring serum iron is time consuming, expensive and not available in most hospitals. In this study, based on four accessible laboratory data (MCV, MCH, MCHC, Hb/RBC), we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to diagnose the IDA and to predict serum iron level. Our results represent that the neural network analysis is superior to ANFIS and logistic regression models in diagnosing IDA. Moreover, the results show that the ANN is likely to provide an accurate test for predicting serum iron levels with high accuracy and acceptable precision.

  17. Creation and Plan of an Underground Geologic Radioactive Waste Isolation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, T A; Kudinov, K G; Jardine, L J; Williams, J

    2004-11-09

    This joint geologic repository project in Russia was initiated in May 2002 between the United States (U.S.) International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise ''All-Russian Research and Design Institute of Production Engineering'' (VNIPIPT). The project (ISTC Partner Project 2377) is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE-RW) for a period of 2-1/2 years. ISTC project activities were integrated into other ongoing geologic repository site characterization activities near the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC K-26) site. This allowed the more rapid development of a plan for an underground research laboratory, including underground design and layouts. It will not be possible to make a final choice between the extensively studied Verkhne-Itatski site or the Yeniseiski site for construction of the underground laboratory during the project time frame because additional data are needed. Several new sources of data will become available in the next few years to help select a final site. Studies will be conducted at the 1-km deep borehole at the Yeniseisky site where drilling started in 2004. And in 2007, after the scheduled shutdown of the last operating reactor at the MCC K-26 site, data will be collected from the rock massif as the gneiss rock cools, and the cool-down responses modeled. After the underground laboratory is constructed, the data collected and analyzed, this will provide the definitive evidence regarding the safety of the proposed geologic isolation facilities for radioactive wastes (RW). This data will be especially valuable because they will be collected at the same site where the wastes will be subsequently placed, rather than on hypothetical input data only. Including the operating costs for 10 to 15 years after construction, the cost estimate for the laboratory is $50M. With additional funding from non-ISTC sources, it will be possible to complete this

  18. Education: a microfluidic platform for university-level analytical chemistry laboratories.

    PubMed

    Greener, Jesse; Tumarkin, Ethan; Debono, Michael; Dicks, Andrew P; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2012-02-21

    We demonstrate continuous flow acid-base titration reactions as an educational microfluidic platform for undergraduate and graduate analytical chemistry courses. A series of equations were developed for controlling and predicting the results of acid-base neutralisation reactions conducted in a microfluidic format, including the combinations of (i) a strong base and a strong acid, (ii) a strong base and a weak acid, and (iii) a strong base and a multiprotic acid. Microfluidic titrations yielded excellent repeatability. The small experimental footprint is advantageous in crowded teaching laboratories, and it offers limited waste and exposure to potentially hazardous acids and bases. This platform will help promote the utilisation of microfluidics at an earlier stage of students' careers.

  19. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  20. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes and large explosions. Therefore, the displacement due to earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters.

  1. Underground technology benefits surface operations

    SciTech Connect

    Swaim, M.

    2008-09-15

    Sensitive ground fault relays (GFRs) on high voltage underground electrical equipment have been in used for a number of years to improve mine safety. Advanced GFRs do more than just interrupt fault current flow. They can also reveal linkages as they develop so ground faults are detected before they become critical. 3 figs.

  2. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  3. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  4. Statistical Analysis of Resistivity Anomalies Caused by Underground Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, V.; Averbach, A.; Frid, M.; Dudkinski, D.; Liskevich, G.

    2017-03-01

    Geophysical prospecting of underground caves being performed on a construction site is often still a challenging procedure. Estimation of a likelihood level of an anomaly found is frequently a mandatory requirement of a project principal due to necessity of risk/safety assessment. However, the methodology of such estimation is not hitherto developed. Aiming to put forward such a methodology the present study (being performed as a part of an underground caves mapping prior to the land development on the site area) consisted of application of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) together with statistical analysis utilized for the likelihood assessment of underground anomalies located. The methodology was first verified via a synthetic modeling technique and applied to the in situ collected ERT data and then crossed referenced with intrusive investigations (excavation and drilling) for the data verification. The drilling/excavation results showed that the proper discovering of underground caves can be done if anomaly probability level is not lower than 90 %. Such a probability value was shown to be consistent with the modeling results. More than 30 underground cavities were discovered on the site utilizing the methodology.

  5. Utilizing an Artificial Outcrop to Scaffold Learning Between Laboratory and Field Experiences in a College-Level Introductory Geology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Meredith

    Geologic field trips are among the most beneficial learning experiences for students as they engage the topic of geology, but they are also difficult environments to maximize learning. This action research study explored one facet of the problems associated with teaching geology in the field by attempting to improve the transition of undergraduate students from a traditional laboratory setting to an authentic field environment. Utilizing an artificial outcrop, called the GeoScene, during an introductory college-level non-majors geology course, the transition was studied. The GeoScene was utilized in this study as an intermediary between laboratory and authentic field based experiences, allowing students to apply traditional laboratory learning in an outdoor environment. The GeoScene represented a faux field environment; outside, more complex and tangible than a laboratory, but also simplified geologically and located safely within the confines of an educational setting. This exploratory study employed a mixed-methods action research design. The action research design allowed for systematic inquiry by the teacher/researcher into how the students learned. The mixed-methods approach garnered several types of qualitative and quantitative data to explore phenomena and support conclusions. Several types of data were collected and analyzed, including: visual recordings of the intervention, interviews, analytic memos, student reflections, field practical exams, and a pre/post knowledge and skills survey, to determine whether the intervention affected student comprehension and interpretation of geologic phenomena in an authentic field environment, and if so, how. Students enrolled in two different sections of the same laboratory course, sharing a common lecture, participated in laboratory exercises implementing experiential learning and constructivist pedagogies that focused on learning the basic geological skills necessary for work in a field environment. These laboratory

  6. Spectroscopy in Sol-Gel Matrices: An Open-Ended Laboratory Experience for Upper-Level Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginbotham, Catrena; Pike, Charles F.; Rice, Jeanette K.

    1998-04-01

    Guided-inquiry/cooperative learning laboratory experiences encourage critical thinking, problem- solving and teamwork skills in students, and have been proposed for many undergraduate laboratories, particularly general and organic. Fewer reports have appeared for upper level courses such as instrumental analysis. In this report, we discuss our recent conversion of our Instrumental Analysis:Spectroscopy course to guided-inquiry format, and describe an appropriate novel experiment. Sol-gel technology is incorporated as a means to investigate spectral properties of various organic molecules. Students are exposed to silicate glass synthesis as well as modern spectroscopic techniques. Experimental details are researched, designed and executed by the students, and the results presented in both written format as well as oral presentation/examination.

  7. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E

    2005-03-31

    The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

  8. Effects of low levels of road traffic noise during the night: a laboratory study on number of events, maximum noise levels and noise sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the laboratory study presented here was to elucidate the importance of the number of noise events of a relatively low maximum noise level for sleep disturbance effects (body movements, subjective sleep quality, mood and performance). Twelve test persons slept eight nights under home-like laboratory settings. During four of these nights, each test person was exposed to 16, 32, 64 and 128 noise events respectively from recorded road traffic noise at a maximum noise level of 45 dB(A). All test persons (aged 20-42 years) considered themselves rather or very sensitive towards noise. The results show a significant decrease in subjective sleep quality at 32 noise events per night. At 64 noise events, 50% of the test persons experienced difficulties in falling asleep and, as compared with quiet nights, the time required to fall asleep was on average 12 minutes longer. The occurrence of body movements was significantly related to the reported number of awakenings, and the number of body movements was three times higher during the noisy periods of the night as compared with the quiet periods, indicating acute noise effects. The results of a vigilance test indicate that noise during the night might prolong the time needed to solve the test. Finally, and regardless of number of noise events, a significant increase in tiredness during the day was found after nights with noise exposure. In the paper comparisons are also made with earlier experiments using maximum noise levels of 50 and 60 dB(A).

  9. Organic Contaminant Levels in Three Fish Species Downchannel from the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Beveridge, J.W.

    1999-06-01

    The LANL contribution, if any, to organic contaminant levels in the common carp, the channel catfish, and the white sucker in the Rio Grande appear to be small; however, low sample sizes, high variation, and potential interaction of species effect with location treatment effect require additional sampling and analysis.

  10. Laboratory to Classroom: The Practical Application of IPR in a Master's Level Prepracticum Counselor Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, James D.

    1972-01-01

    This study analyzed the comparative effectiveness of two prepracticum methods on the subsequent interviewing skills of candidates for a master's degree in counseling. The results indicate that it is possible to incorporate media techniques into a training model within the financial and time limitations of an ongoing master's level program. (Author)

  11. Student Perceptions of an Upper-Level, Undergraduate Human Anatomy Laboratory Course without Cadavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Shirley J.

    2012-01-01

    Several programs in health professional education require or are considering requiring upper-level human anatomy as prerequisite for their applicants. Undergraduate students are confronted with few institutions offering such a course, in part because of the expense and logistical issues associated with a cadaver-based human anatomy course. This…

  12. Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: technology development - annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report provides a collection of annotated bibliographies for documents prepared under the Hanford High-Level Waste Vitrification (Plant) Program. The bibliographies are for documents from Fiscal Year 1983 through Fiscal Year 1995, and include work conducted at or under the direction of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The bibliographies included focus on the technology developed over the specified time period for vitrifying Hanford pretreated high-level waste. The following subject areas are included: General Documentation; Program Documentation; High-Level Waste Characterization; Glass Formulation and Characterization; Feed Preparation; Radioactive Feed Preparation and Glass Properties Testing; Full-Scale Feed Preparation Testing; Equipment Materials Testing; Melter Performance Assessment and Evaluations; Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter; Cold Crucible Melter; Stirred Melter; High-Temperature Melter; Melter Off-Gas Treatment; Vitrification Waste Treatment; Process, Product Control and Modeling; Analytical; and Canister Closure, Decontamination, and Handling

  13. Preliminary siting criteria for the proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson-Waters, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office. This facility will provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies the siting requirements imposed on facilities that treat and store these waste types by Federal and State regulatory agencies and the US Department of Energy. Site selection criteria based on cost, environmental, health and safety, archeological, geological and service, and support requirements are presented. These criteria will be used to recommend alternative sites for the new facility. The National Environmental Policy Act process will then be invoked to evaluate the alternatives and the alternative sites and make a final site determination.

  14. Undergraduate student attitudes and perceptions toward low- and high-level inquiry exercise physiology teaching laboratory experiences.

    PubMed

    Henige, Kim

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare student attitudes toward two different science laboratory learning experiences, specifically, traditional, cookbook-style, low-inquiry level (LL) activities and a high-inquiry level (HL) investigative project. In addition, we sought to measure and compare students' science-related attitudes and attitudes toward science. Students participated in 5 wk of LL activities followed by a 5-wk HL project. An open-ended survey administered at the end of the semester and analyzed by a χ(2)-test revealed that 1) students enjoyed the HL project more than the LL activities, 2) high-level inquiry did not have a negative effect on student motivation in the laboratory, and 3) students perceived that they learned more about physiology principles with the LL activities. Most students liked the HL project, particularly the independence, responsibility, freedom, and personal relevance. Of the students who did not like the HL project, many reported being uncomfortable with the lack of structure and guidance. Many students gained a more positive and realistic view about scientific research, often reporting an increased respect for science. Likert scale surveys administered before and after each 5-wk period showed no significant changes in student attitudes to scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, enjoyment of science lessons, or motivation toward science when the three time points were compared. The findings in this study have helped to provide suggestions for better implementation of HL projects in the future.

  15. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  16. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O'Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  17. Physical protection against airborne pathogens and pollutants by a novel animal isolator in a level 3 containment laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Wathes, C. M.; Johnson, H. E.

    1991-01-01

    A containment laboratory unit for research with aerosols of group 2 pathogenic microorganisms is described. The design criteria are based on current UK guidelines, which imply containment at group 3 level during aerosol production, storage, exposure of animals and sampling. Within the aerosol laboratory, primary containment is provided by a Henderson apparatus operating at a negative pressure to the external environment. Flexible film isolators under negative pressure are used for all hazardous microbiological work, e.g. tissue homogenization, and for housing infected laboratory rodents. A novel feature of the animal isolator is the separate ventilation of each cage, which minimizes the risk of cross-infection by aerosol transmission and ensures a similar environment within each cage. The results of an intentional release of a cloud of non-pathogenic microorganisms are presented to show the effectiveness of the containment barriers. Recommendations are given for the safe operation of a containment unit based upon practical experience. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:1908783

  18. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Sara; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Rafi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance. Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated papers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions according to the method described by WHO. Number of take-offs were counted during 15 minutes of exposure time. Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group. Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended. PMID:27308276

  19. Roof Rockmass Characterization in an Illinois Underground Coal Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osouli, Abdolreza; Shafii, Iman

    2016-08-01

    Among all United States underground coal fields, those in Illinois have the highest rate of roof fall events due to their weak and severely moisture sensitive roof rock units. Rockmass characterization is the key initial step in designing safe and economical roof control measures in underground coal mines. In this study, a performance-based roof rockmass characterization is investigated. The geologic conditions as well as underground mine geographic specifications, roof fall analysis, mining method, utilized supplemental roof control measures, and geotechnical properties of roof rock units were considered to link the roof performance to rockmass characterization. The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) rockmass characterization method was used to evaluate the roof conditions and roof support design for an underground coal mine located in the Illinois Coal Basin. The results of several mine visit mappings, laboratory test results, and geotechnical issues and concerns are presented and discussed. The roof support designs are analyzed based on the rockmass characterization and are compared with the observed performance. This study shows that (1) CMRR index is a reasonable method for characterizing roof rockmass; (2) moisture sensitivity and bedding strengths in the horizontal direction are essential parameters for roof support design in mines with weak roof conditions; and (3) the applicability of the analysis of roof bolt system for roof support design of the studied mine is questionable.

  20. Evacuation of aged persons from inundated underground space.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, T; Asai, Y; Nakahata, Y; Shimada, H; Baba, Y; Toda, K

    2010-01-01

    Underground is an important space that supports function of cities, such as subways, shopping malls and basement parking. However in consequence a new type of disaster, the "urban flood" menaces these spaces. In the last decade, urban floods struck Tokyo, Nagoya and Fukuoka. When underground inundation occurs, people must evacuate to the ground as soon as possible. But, when such an inundation situation happens, aged persons may not be able to evacuate quickly to ground level. In this paper, the method of safety assessment for aged persons is discussed on the experimental results and flood simulation data in an underground space. As a criterion of the safety evacuation, the specific force per unit width is used in this study. From the result of experiments, it is difficult to implement safety evacuation when the specific force per unit width is over 0.100 m(2) for the aged male.

  1. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, E.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Park, S. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example 106Cd and 156Dy) and rare β decays (96Zr, 180mTa , etc ) are under study.

  2. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, E.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Hahn, I. S.; Kim, G. W.; Park, S. Y.

    2015-08-17

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example {sup 106}Cd and {sup 156}Dy) and rare β decays ({sup 96}Zr, {sup 180m}Ta , etc ) are under study.

  3. Comparative vibration levels perceived among species in a laboratory animal facility.

    PubMed

    Norton, John N; Kinard, Will L; Reynolds, Randall P

    2011-09-01

    The current study was performed to determine the vibration levels that were generated in cages on a ventilated rack by common construction equipment in frequency ranges likely to be perceived by humans, rats, and mice. Vibration generated by the ventilated rack blower caused small but significant increases in some of the abdominal, thoracic, and head resonance frequency ranges (RFR) and sensitivity frequency ranges (SFR) in which each species is most likely to be affected by and perceive vibration, respectively. Vibration caused by various items of construction equipment at 3 ft from the cage were evaluated relative to the RFR and SFR of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. In addition, the vibration levels in the RFR and SFR that resulted from the use of a large jackhammer and were measured at various locations and distances in the facility and evaluated in terms of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. Taken together, the data indicate that a given vibration source generates vibration in frequency ranges that are more likely to affect rats and mice as compared with humans.

  4. Evaporation studies on Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, V.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1993-03-01

    Evaporation studies were performed with Melton Valley storage tank liquid low-level radioactive waste concentrate and with surrogates (nonradioactive) to determine the feasibility of a proposed out-of-tank-evaporation project. Bench-scale tests indicated that volume reductions ranging from 30 to 55% could be attained. Vendor-site tests were conducted (with surrogate waste forms) using a bench-scale single-stage, low-pressure (subatmospheric), low-temperature (120 to 173{degree}F) evaporator similar to units in operation at several nuclear facilities. Vendor tests were successful; a 30% volume reduction was attained with no crystallization of solids and no foaming, as would be expected from a high pH solution. No fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces occurred during these tests. It is projected that 52,000 to 120,000 gal of water could be evaporated from the supernate stored in the Melton and Bethel Valley liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) storage tanks with this type of evaporator.

  5. Laboratory actinide partitioning - Whitlockite/liquid and influence of actinide concentration levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjamin, T. M.; Jones, J. H.; Heuser, W. R.; Burnett, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    The partition coefficients between synthetic whitlockite (beta Ca-phosphate) and coexisting silicate melts are determined for the actinide elements Th, U and Pu. Experiments were performed at 1 bar pressure and 1250 C at oxygen fugacities from 10 to the -8.5 to 10 to the -0.7 bars, and partitioning was determined from trace element radiography combined with conventional electron microprobe analysis. Results show Pu to be more readily incorporated into crystalline phases than U or Th under reducing conditions, which is attributed to the observation that Pu exists primarily in the trivalent state, while U and Th are tetravalent. Corrected partition coefficients for whitlockite of 3.6, less than or equal to 0.6, 1.2, 0.5 and less than or equal to 0.002 are estimated for Pu(+3), Pu(+4), Th(+4), U(+4) and U(+6), respectively. Experiments performed at trace levels and percent levels of UO2 indicate that Si is involved in U substitution in whitlockite, and show a reduced partition coefficient at higher concentrations of U that can be explained by effects on melt structure or the fraction of tetravalent U.

  6. Comparative Vibration Levels Perceived Among Species in a Laboratory Animal Facility

    PubMed Central

    Norton, John N; Kinard, Will L; Reynolds, Randall P

    2011-01-01

    The current study was performed to determine the vibration levels that were generated in cages on a ventilated rack by common construction equipment in frequency ranges likely to be perceived by humans, rats, and mice. Vibration generated by the ventilated rack blower caused small but significant increases in some of the abdominal, thoracic, and head resonance frequency ranges (RFR) and sensitivity frequency ranges (SFR) in which each species is most likely to be affected by and perceive vibration, respectively. Vibration caused by various items of construction equipment at 3 ft from the cage were evaluated relative to the RFR and SFR of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. In addition, the vibration levels in the RFR and SFR that resulted from the use of a large jackhammer and were measured at various locations and distances in the facility and evaluated in terms of humans, rats, and mice in 3 anatomic locations. Taken together, the data indicate that a given vibration source generates vibration in frequency ranges that are more likely to affect rats and mice as compared with humans. PMID:22330711

  7. Territorial aggression, body weight, carbohydrate metabolism and testosterone levels of wild rats maintained in laboratory colonies.

    PubMed

    Lucion, A B; De-Almeida, R M; Da-Silva, R S

    1996-12-01

    Aggressive territorial behavior was studied in 15 colonies of wild rats (Rattus norvegicus), each consisting of 2 males and 1 female. One of the males attacked an intruder rat more frequently and had a higher body weight than the less aggressive one. In another experiment, male and female rats were raised in colonies from weaning to adulthood. Animals were weighed every 7 days until 90 days of age when plasma testosterone was measured in males, and plasma glucose, hepatic and muscle glycogen were measured in both males and females. THe heavier (and thus possibly dominant) males in the colonies of 3 males and 1 female also had a higher body weight than males raised with females, but without any male partner. In this long-term social relationship there were no significant differences in carbohydrate metabolism among the animals. The differential growth rate among males was established around the period of sexual maturity. Moreover, when adult, heavier males had higher plasma testosterone levels compared to the other members of the colony and also to males that had no other competitive male partner. This higher androgenic hormone level may be one of the causal factors involved in the weight increase of the dominant male in the colony.

  8. 12. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage, elevator and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of drawing of underground missile storage, elevator and ground-level launchers from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1956 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  9. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  10. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  11. The stress and underground environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  12. Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping

    SciTech Connect

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-03-01

    Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks.

  13. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  14. Application of seismic tomography in underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.F.; Williams, T.J.; Friedel, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic tomography, as used in mining, is based on the principle that highly stressed rock will demonstrate relatively higher P-wave velocities than rock under less stress. A decrease or increase in stress over time can be verified by comparing successive tomograms. Personnel at the Spokane Research Center have been investigating the use of seismic tomography to identify stress in remnant ore pillars in deep (greater than 1220 in) underground mines. In this process, three-dimensional seismic surveys are conducted in a pillar between mine levels. A sledgehammer is used to generate P-waves, which are recorded by geophones connected to a stacking signal seismograph capable of collecting and storing the P-wave data. Travel times are input into a spreadsheet, and apparent velocities are then generated and merged into imaging software. Mine workings are superimposed over apparent P-wave velocity contours to generate a final tomographic image. Results of a seismic tomographic survey at the Sunshine Mine, Kellogg, ED, indicate that low-velocity areas (low stress) are associated with mine workings and high-velocity areas (higher stress) are associated with areas where no mining has taken place. A high stress gradient was identified in an area where ground failed. From this tomographic survey, as well, as four earlier surveys at other deep underground mines, a method was developed to identify relative stress in remnant ore pillars. This information is useful in making decisions about miner safety when mining such ore pillars.

  15. The Jiangmen underground neutrino observatory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugière, Timothée

    2017-02-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy as a primary physics goal, by detecting reactor antineutrinos from two power plants at 53-km distance. The detector is placed at 1800-m.w.e. deep underground and consists of a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator contained in a 34.5 m-diameter acrylic ball, instrumented by more than 17,000 20-in. PMTs ensuring a 77% photocatode coverage. To reach an unprecedented 3% energy resolution (at 1 MeV), the PMTs need a quantum efficiency of more than 30% and the attenuation length of the liquid has to be better than 20 m (at 430 nm). This precision on the energy is a key point to determine at the 3-4 σ significance level the neutrinos mass hierarchy with six years of running. The measurement of the antineutrino spectrum will also lead to the precise determination of three out of the six oscillation parameters to an accuracy of better than 1%. The experiment will also be able to observe neutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. The international collaboration of JUNO was established in 2014, the civil construction started in 2015 and the R&D of the detectors is ongoing. JUNO is planning to start data taking in 2020.

  16. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  17. Polymer containment barriers for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Colombo, P.

    1994-12-31

    Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier that consists of a wall of low permeability material. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been involved in several tasks to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced polymer materials for use in subsurface barriers throughout the DOE complex. Binders investigated as barrier composites include polyester styrenes, vinylester styrenes, high molecular weight acrylics, sulfur polymer cement, polyacrylic acids, bitumen and a furfuryl alcohol based furan polymer. Aggregates include: recycled glass, stone, sand, and natural soils (from Hanford). A series of performance tests were used to determine the performance characteristics of polymer composites. This paper details a substrate of this characterization pertaining to subsurface barriers for containing underground storage tanks with emphasis on the DOE`s Hanford site. Testing includes measuring permeability to water, wet-dry cycling, chemical resistivity to ground water, acid, base, and nitrate brine, resistance to irradiation, and measuring compressive strengths. Polymer grouts having a wide range of viscosities have been demonstrated to have desirable qualities for a subterranean barrier. The goal of soil mortar permeabilities of 1 x 10{sup -10} m/s and {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} aggregate composites of 1 x 10{sup -11} m/s was met. Performance values indicate polymers exist that can meet the requirements for containment barriers for USTs throughout the DOE complex. Proper choice of binder and aggregate followed by the appropriate site specific compatibility testing will result in a durable, high strength, low permeability barrier.

  18. The Development of Low-Level Measurement Capabilities for Total and Isotopic Uranium in Environmental Samples at Brazilian and Argentine Laboratories by ABACC

    SciTech Connect

    Guidicini, Olga M.; Olsen, Khris B.; Hembree, Doyle M.; Carter, Joel A.; Whitaker, Michael; Hayes, Susan M.

    2005-07-01

    In June 1998, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), with assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), began a program to assess environmental sampling and analysis capabilities at laboratories in Argentina and Brazil. The program began with staff training conducted in South America and the United States by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Both laboratories are participating members of DOE’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) that support IAEA’s environmental sampling program. During the initial planning meeting, representatives from ABACC and all the participating analytical laboratories supporting ABACC were briefed on how the first exercise would be managed and on key aspects necessary to analyze low-level environmental samples for uranium. Subsequent to this training, a laboratory evaluation exercise (Exercise 1) was conducted using standard swipe samples prepared for this exercise by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The results of Exercise 1 determined that sample contamination was a major factor in the analysis, and a thorough review of laboratory procedures was required to reduce the level of contamination to acceptable levels. Following modification of sample preparation procedures, the laboratories performed Exercise 2, an analysis of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1547, Peach Leaves. The results of Exercise 2 demonstrated that several laboratories were capable of accurately determining the total uranium and uranium isotopic distribution in the peach leaves. To build on these successes, Exercise 3 was performed using a series of standard swipe samples prepared by the IAEA and distributed to laboratories supporting ABACC and to PNNL and ORNL. The results of Exercise 3 demonstrate that ABACC now has support laboratories in both Argentina and Brazil, which are capable

  19. The influence of risk perception on biosafety level-2 laboratory workers' hand-to-face contact behaviors.

    PubMed

    Johnston, James D; Eggett, Dennis; Johnson, Michele J; Reading, James C

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen transmission in the laboratory is thought to occur primarily through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by direct contact with mucous membranes on the face. While significant research has focused on controlling inhalation exposures, little has been written about hand contamination and subsequent hand-to-face contact (HFC) transmission. HFC may present a significant risk to workers in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories where there is typically no barrier between the workers' hands and face. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and location of HFC among BSL-2 workers, and to identify psychosocial factors that influence the behavior. Research workers (N = 93) from 21 BSL-2 laboratories consented to participate in the study. Two study personnel measured workers' HFC behaviors by direct observation during activities related to cell culture maintenance, cell infection, virus harvesting, reagent and media preparation, and tissue processing. Following observations, a survey measuring 11 psychosocial predictors of HFC was administered to participants. Study personnel recorded 396 touches to the face over the course of the study (mean = 2.6 HFCs/hr). Of the 93 subjects, 67 (72%) touched their face at least once, ranging from 0.2-16.0 HFCs/hr. Among those who touched their face, contact with the nose was most common (44.9%), followed by contact with the forehead (36.9%), cheek/chin (12.5%), mouth (4.0%), and eye (1.7%). HFC rates were significantly different across laboratories F(20, 72) = 1.85, p = 0.03. Perceived severity of infection predicted lower rates of HFC (p = 0.03). For every one-point increase in the severity scale, workers had 0.41 fewer HFCs/hr (r = -.27, P < 0.05). This study suggests HFC is common among BSL-2 laboratory workers, but largely overlooked as a major route of exposure. Workers' risk perceptions had a modest impact on their HFC behaviors, but other factors not considered in this study, including social modeling and

  20. Level III baseline risk evaluation for Building 3505 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Mostella, W.B. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    The Level III Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) for Building 3505, the ORNL Metal Recovery Facility, provides an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects, current or future, associated with the presence of hazardous substances in the building. The Metal Recovery Facility was used from 1952 through 1960 to process large quantities of radioactive material using the PUREX process for the recovery of uranium-238, plutonium-239, neptunium-237, and americium-241. The facility consists of seven process cells (A through G), a canal, a dissolver room, a dissolver pit, an office, locker room, storage area, control room, electrical gallery, shop, and makeup area. The cells were used to house the nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment, and the canal was constructed to be used as a water-shielded transfer canal. Currently, there are no known releases of radioactive contaminants from Building 3505. To perform the BRE, historical radiological survey data were used to estimate the concentration of alpha- and beta/gamma emitting radionuclides in the various cells, rooms, and other areas in Building 3505. Data from smear surveys were used to estimate the amount of transferable contamination (to which receptors can be exposed via inhalation and ingestion), and data from probe surveys were used to estimate the amount of both fixed and transferable contamination (from which receptors can receive external exposure). Two land use scenarios, current and future, and their subsequent exposure scenarios were explored in the BRE. Under the current land use scenario, two exposure scenarios were evaluated. The first was a worst-case industrial exposure scenario in which the receptor is a maintenance worker who works 8 hours/day, 350 days/year in the building for 25 years. In the second, more realistic exposure scenario, the receptor is a surveillance and maintenance (S&M) worker who spends two 8-hour days/year in the building for 25 years.

  1. Soviet underground coal gasification on the rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-13

    According to the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the U.S.S.R. has abandoned large-scale development plans for coal-gasification projects, due to the low heating value of the gas produced at test burns at Angren, and to the cost, estimated at 132% of the standard Lurgi value, in contrast to the cost of approx. 65% of the standard Lurgi value in U.S. experimental burns. The U.S.S.R. coal-gasification effort has been in development since 1950, with a peak production of approx. 2 billion cu m/yr in 1966. The poor test burn results might have been caused by: drilling the boreholes too close to each other, which would increase drilling costs; the loss of a large amount of heat through a porous overburden; the lack of good underground diagnostics before and during a burn; and a lack of a good laboratory support program. The gas heating value was too low to warrant transportation far from the burn site, but most suitable burn sites are in remote areas. In the U.S.S.R., natural gas and open-pit lignite mining appear to be cheaper sources of energy.

  2. Environmental Regulation of Plant Gene Expression: An Rt-qPCR Laboratory Project for an Upper-Level Undergraduate Biochemistry or Molecular Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eickelberg, Garrett J.; Fisher, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel laboratory project employing "real-time" RT-qPCR to measure the effect of environment on the expression of the "FLOWERING LOCUS C" gene, a key regulator of floral timing in "Arabidopsis thaliana" plants. The project requires four 3-hr laboratory sessions and is aimed at upper-level undergraduate…

  3. Bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of the antidepressants sertraline and fluoxetine in laboratory-constructed, three-level aquatic food chains.

    PubMed

    Boström, Marja L; Ugge, Gustaf; Jönsson, Jan Åke; Berglund, Olof

    2016-10-03

    Although reports of pharmaceutical bioconcentration in aquatic organisms are increasing, less is known about trophic transfer in aquatic food webs. In the present study, we tested the bioaccumulation and trophodynamics of sertraline and fluoxetine, two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) frequently detected in aquatic environments, by exposing constructed aquatic food chains under controlled laboratory conditions. Both of these ionizable, weak base pharmaceuticals, showed lower bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) with increasing trophic level, i.e. no biomagnification, in two three-level food chains (Acer platanoides, fed to Asellus aquaticus, in turn fed to Notonecta glauca or Pungitius pungitius). Mean sertraline BAFs (L/kg) in A. platanoides, A. aquaticus, N. glauca, and P. pungitus were: 2200, 360, 26, and 49, respectively, and mean fluoxetine BAFs: 1300, 110, 11, and 41, respectively. The weak influence of diet was further demonstrated by measured BAFs being equal to, or lower than measured bioconcentration factors (BCFs). Organism lipid content was not positively correlated with BAFs, suggesting other processes driving interspecific differences in SSRI bioaccumulation. The empirically derived parameter values were introduced into a proposed bioaccumulation model and a poor correlation was found between modelled and empirical BAFs (r(2) =-0.63). In conclusion, the apparent lack of biomagnification of these ionizable pharmaceuticals suggest that environmental concern should not necessarily focus on higher trophic levels only, but on species showing high bioconcentration factors at any trophic level. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  5. Quality assurance aspects of geotechnical practices for underground radioactive waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In August 1988, the National Research Council, through the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, held a colloquium to discuss the practice of quality assurance that is being implemented in the high-level radioactive waste storage program. The intent of the colloquium was to bring together program managers of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to discuss with the technical community both the advantages and problems associated with applying current quality assurance practices to underground science and engineering. The colloquium program included talks from 14 individuals that provided a variety of perspectives on both programmatic and technical issues. The talks initiated extended discussions from the 71 participants representing 7 government agencies, 8 academic institutions, and 22 private companies. The competencies of the participants were many and varied including, among others, geochemistry, hydrology, geotechnical engineering, computer programming, engineering and structural geology, underground design and construction, rock mechanics, laboratory testing, systems engineering, nuclear engineering, law, and environmental science. Based on a transcript of the meeting, this report summarizes the talks and discussions which took place. 2 figs.

  6. Subjective Reaction to Structurally Radiated Sound from Underground Railways: Field Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadillo, E. G.; Herreros, J.; Walker, J. G.

    1996-05-01

    Structurally radiated noise from underground railways is becoming a major problem for railways administrations, due to the increase in the number of tunnels in urban areas, and to the increase in train speeds, wheelset tonnage and operation frequency. As a result, the number of complaints from residents living above railway tunnels is also increasing. Several control measures have been proposed in the past 15 years, both for the track design and for the vehicle design. Nevertheless, these measures are expensive, and not always effective. While several standards have been proposed for vibration limits in the type of problem, there are few standards to define acceptable levels for this type of structure-borne sound. This paper presents field results obtained during 1994 and 1995 in the vicinity of underground railways, where measurements of vibration and low-frequency noise were obtained during train pass-bys. These results, together with measurements of environment noise due to other sources, are considered together with the responses to a questionnaire completed by the people by the people affected. This paper complements laboratory work carried out at the ISVR [1].

  7. Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competitive-level female ice hockey

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Tommy; Vescovi, Jason D; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine; Gilenstam, Kajsa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-based and/or laboratory-based assessments are valid tools for predicting key performance characteristics of skating in competitive-level female hockey players. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Twenty-three female ice hockey players aged 15–25 years (body mass: 66.1±6.3 kg; height: 169.5±5.5 cm), with 10.6±3.2 years playing experience volunteered to participate in the study. The field-based assessments included 20 m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30-second repeated jump test, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, 20 m shuttle run test, isometric leg pull, one-repetition maximum bench press, and one-repetition maximum squats. The laboratory-based assessments included body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), maximal aerobic power, and isokinetic strength (Biodex). The on-ice tests included agility cornering s-turn, cone agility skate, transition agility skate, and modified repeat skate sprint. Data were analyzed using stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between key performance characteristics of skating and the predictor variables. Results Regression models (adj R2) for the on-ice variables ranged from 0.244 to 0.663 for the field-based assessments and from 0.136 to 0.420 for the laboratory-based assessments. Single-leg tests were the strongest predictors for key performance characteristics of skating. Single leg standing long jump alone explained 57.1%, 38.1%, and 29.1% of the variance in skating time during transition agility skate, agility cornering s-turn, and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Isokinetic peak torque in the quadriceps at 90° explained 42.0% and 32.2% of the variance in skating time during agility cornering s-turn and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Conclusion Field-based assessments, particularly single-leg tests, are an adequate

  8. Cultural Resource Protection Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, Brenda Ringe; Gilbert, Hollie Kae

    2015-05-01

    This plan addresses cultural resource protection procedures to be implemented during construction of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The plan proposes pre-construction review of proposed ground disturbing activities to confirm avoidance of cultural resources. Depending on the final project footprint, cultural resource protection strategies might also include additional survey, protective fencing, cultural resource mapping and relocation of surface artifacts, collection of surface artifacts for permanent curation, confirmation of undisturbed historic canal segments outside the area of potential effects for construction, and/or archaeological test excavations to assess potential subsurface cultural deposits at known cultural resource locations. Additionally, all initial ground disturbing activities will be monitored for subsurface cultural resource finds, cultural resource sensitivity training will be conducted for all construction field personnel, and a stop work procedure will be implemented to guide assessment and protection of any unanticipated discoveries after initial monitoring of ground disturbance.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  10. Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Heinz J.

    2013-06-24

    The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

  11. Might underground waste repositories blow up?

    SciTech Connect

    Hippel, F. von

    1996-03-01

    Some writers have presented possible scenarios in which a subcritical underground deposit of plutonium or other fissile material might be changed into a critical configuration. The underground criticalities that occurred in Gabon some 1.7 billion years ago in deposits of natural uranium is cited. Other scientists assert that it is virtually impossible that such a configuration could develop in an underground repository. The author presents the pros and cons of these views. 5 refs.

  12. Shotcrete for underground support VI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings consists of papers presented at the Shotcrete for Underground Support VI Conference held in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, May 2-6, 1993. It covers three broad themes concerning shotcrete - engineering, research, and applications. Specifically, the proceedings presents papers on: (1) materials engineering; (2) shotcrete research; (3) engineering design; and (4) tunneling, soil nailing, and mining applications. The book concludes by presenting an international compilation of guidelines and recommendations on shotcrete. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Deep underground rotation measurements: GINGERino ring laser gyroscope in Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfi, Jacopo; Beverini, Nicolò; Bosi, Filippo; Carelli, Giorgio; Cuccato, Davide; De Luca, Gaetano; Di Virgilio, Angela; Gebauer, André; Maccioni, Enrico; Ortolan, Antonello; Porzio, Alberto; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Simonelli, Andreino; Terreni, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    GINGERino is a large frame laser gyroscope investigating the ground motion in the most inner part of the underground international laboratory of the Gran Sasso, in central Italy. It consists of a square ring laser with a 3.6 m side. Several days of continuous measurements have been collected, with the apparatus running unattended. The power spectral density in the seismic bandwidth is at the level of 10-10 (rad/s) /√{Hz} . A maximum resolution of 30 prad/s is obtained with an integration time of few hundred seconds. The ring laser routinely detects seismic rotations induced by both regional earthquakes and teleseisms. A broadband seismic station is installed on the same structure of the gyroscope. First analysis of the correlation between the rotational and the translational signal is presented.

  14. Evaluation of transmission risks associated with in vivo replication of several high containment pathogens in a biosafety level 4 laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Alimonti, Judie; Leung, Anders; Jones, Shane; Gren, Jason; Qiu, Xiangguo; Fernando, Lisa; Balcewich, Brittany; Wong, Gary; Ströher, Ute; Grolla, Allen; Strong, James; Kobinger, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Containment level 4 (CL4) laboratories studying biosafety level 4 viruses are under strict regulations to conduct nonhuman primate (NHP) studies in compliance of both animal welfare and biosafety requirements. NHPs housed in open-barred cages raise concerns about cross-contamination between animals, and accidental exposure of personnel to infectious materials. To address these concerns, two NHP experiments were performed. One examined the simultaneous infection of 6 groups of NHPs with 6 different viruses (Machupo, Junin, Rift Valley Fever, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Nipah and Hendra viruses). Washing personnel between handling each NHP group, floor to ceiling biobubble with HEPA filter, and plexiglass between cages were employed for partial primary containment. The second experiment employed no primary containment around open barred cages with Ebola virus infected NHPs 0.3 meters from naïve NHPs. Viral antigen-specific ELISAs, qRT-PCR and TCID50 infectious assays were utilized to determine antibody levels and viral loads. No transmission of virus to neighbouring NHPs was observed suggesting limited containment protocols are sufficient for multi-viral CL4 experiments within one room. The results support the concept that Ebola virus infection is self-contained in NHPs infected intramuscularly, at least in the present experimental conditions, and is not transmitted to naïve NHPs via an airborne route. PMID:25059478

  15. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  16. Measurements of Chlorpyrifos Levels in Forager Bees and Comparison with Levels that Disrupt Honey Bee Odor-Mediated Learning Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Urlacher, Elodie; Monchanin, Coline; Rivière, Coraline; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Lombardi, Christie; Michelsen-Heath, Sue; Hageman, Kimberly J; Mercer, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide used around the world to protect food crops against insects and mites. Despite guidelines for chlorpyrifos usage, including precautions to protect beneficial insects, such as honeybees from spray drift, this pesticide has been detected in bees in various countries, indicating that exposure still occurs. Here, we examined chlorpyrifos levels in bees collected from 17 locations in Otago, New Zealand, and compared doses of this pesticide that cause sub-lethal effects on learning performance under laboratory conditions with amounts of chlorpyrifos detected in the bees in the field. The pesticide was detected at 17 % of the sites sampled and in 12 % of the colonies examined. Amounts detected ranged from 35 to 286 pg.bee(-1), far below the LD50 of ~100 ng.bee(-1). We detected no adverse effect of chlorpyrifos on aversive learning, but the formation and retrieval of appetitive olfactory memories was severely affected. Chlorpyrifos fed to bees in amounts several orders of magnitude lower than the LD50, and also lower than levels detected in bees, was found to slow appetitive learning and reduce the specificity of memory recall. As learning and memory play a central role in the behavioral ecology and communication of foraging bees, chlorpyrifos, even in sublethal doses, may threaten the success and survival of this important insect pollinator.

  17. Coordinated underground measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides for plasma physics research.

    PubMed

    Tzika, Faidra; Hult, Mikael; Fenyvesi, András; Bandac, Iulian; Degering, Detlev; Ianni, Aldo; Laubenstein, Matthias; de Vismes-Ott, Anne; Marissens, Gerd; Stroh, Heiko; Lutter, Guillaume; Son, Soohyun; Hong, Suk-Ho; Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Junghee; Cheon, Mun Seung; Jo, Jungmin; Braun, Mihály; Németh, József; Zoletnik, Sándor; Bonheure, Georges

    2016-12-24

    Forty-eight samples made of CaF2, LiF and YVO4 were placed inside the KSTAR Tokamak and irradiated by neutrons and charged particles from eight plasma pulses. The aim was to provide information for plasma diagnostics. Due to the short pulse durations, the activities induced in the samples were low and therefore measurements were performed in five low-background underground laboratories. Details of the underground measurements, together with data on the quality control amongst the radiometric laboratories, are presented.

  18. The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Charles E.

    In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

  19. Underground storage tank management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  20. The Gran Sasso Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votano, L.

    2012-09-01

    The Gran Sasso underground laboratory is one of the four national laboratories run by the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). It is located under the Gran Sasso massif, in central Italy, between the cities of L'Aquila and Teramo, 120 km far from Rome. It is the largest underground laboratory for astroparticle physics in the world and the most advanced in terms of complexity and completeness of its infrastructures. The scientific program at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS)is mainly focused on astroparticle, particle and nuclear physics. The laboratory presently hosts many experiments as well as R&D activities, including world-leading research in the fields of solar neutrinos, accelerator neutrinos (CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso), dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay and nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest. Associate sciences like earth physics, biology and fundamental physics complement the activities. The laboratory is operated as an international science facility and hosts experiments whose scientific merit is assessed by an international advisory Scientific Committee. A review of the main experiments carried out at LNGS will be given, together with the most recent and relevant scientific results achieved.

  1. Efficient Inactivation of Burkholderia pseudomallei or Francisella tularensis in infected Cells for Safe Removal from Biosafety Level 3 Containment Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Felicia D.; Stabenow, Jennifer M.; Miller, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Working with infectious agents that require BSL-3 level containment agents offers many challenges for researchers. BSL-3 containment laboratories are usually not equipped with expensive specialty equipment that is needed for studies such as flow cytometric analysis, microscopy, and proteomic analyses. Therefore, for most researchers that are working with BSL-3 level infectious agents, removal of samples from BSL-3 labs for these types of studies is necessary, and methods for complete and dependable inactivation of the samples are required. In this report we have done a thorough characterization of the effectiveness of paraformaldehyde fixation for inactivation of cell samples infected with the intracellular bacterial agents Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Francisella tularensis (Ft), both of which are Tier 1 select agent pathogens that require BSL-3 containment. We have demonstrated that cells infected with these pathogens are completely inactivated via 5-minute treatment with 4% paraformaldehyde. Moreover, a 15-minute treatment with 2% paraformaldehyde completely sterilized both Bp- and Ft-infected cells. These studies also revealed that Bp is significantly more sensitive to paraformaldehyde treatment than Ft. Our findings have clearly demonstrated that a 15-minute treatment of Bp- or Ft-infected cells with 4% paraformaldehyde solution will allow for safe removal of the cell samples from BSL-3 labs for downstream studies. PMID:24449562

  2. Removal of technetium-99 from simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory Newly-Generated Liquid Low-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.E.; Osborne, P.E.; Bunch, D.H.; Fellows, R.L.; Sellers, G.F.; Shoemaker, J.L.; Bowser, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    We report laboratory investigations on treatment options for the removal of the radionuclide {sup 99}{Tc} (as the pertechnetate anion, {Tc}O{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) from simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory Newly Generated Liquid Low-Level Waste. The waste stimulant is alkaline (pH 12-13), containing sodium carbonate ({approximately}0.10 mot/L) and sodium hydroxide ({approximately} 0.125 mol/L), plus a modest concentration of sodium nitrate ({approximately}0.06 mol/L). Several organic resin anion exchange media were tested; Dowex{trademark} 1-X-8 and Reillex{trademark} HPQ resins were notably effective (with equilibrium distribution coefficients {approximately}2,000 mL/g, as-received basis). We also tested steel wool as a reagent to chemically reduce and sorb {sup 99}Tc. At pH values above {approximately}10, the iron surface was passivated and became ineffective as a reagent for technetium; however, as the test solution pH value was adjusted to near-neutrality (e.g., pH 8-9), the steel was noted to be more effective than the organic resins tested. In dynamic flow conditions, steel wool packed in a column was noted to continuously leak {approximately}1--3% of the amount of {sup 99}{Tc} activity in the feed solution, although no additional increase in eluent activity was noted for the duration of the testing ({approximately}1200 bed volumes of {approximately}0.11 mg/L {sup 99}{Tc} flowed at a rate equivalent to {approximately}0.5 gal/min/ft{sup 2} of column cross sectional area). Although no breakthrough was noted (other than the 1--3 % continuous ``bleed`` noted previously) during the column operation ({approximately} 2 weeks), the steel in the column was deteriorated, causing plugging and erratic flow toward the end of the testing interval.

  3. The search for sterile neutrinos at reactors and underground laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    From the initial discovery of neutrinos to the observation of neutrino oscillations, unexpected results have lead to deeper understanding of physics. However, as experiments and theoretical predictions have improved, new anomalies have surfaced that could point to beyond the Standard Model physics. Leading hypotheses invoke a new form of matter, sterile neutrinos, as a possible resolution of these outstanding questions. New experimental efforts are underway to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations with reactors and radioactive sources. This talk will highlight developments in current and next generation experiments and present possible outcomes for the next few years.

  4. Laboratory Studies of Containment in Underground Nuclear Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-31

    Summary of containment investigations .. .. ........ 48 3.2 Pressure and volume for explosive products of PETN /Lucite mixture...of PETN was chosen and the cavity was vented. Results of the reproducibility tests provide comparison data for assessing the effects on containment of...design, which consists of 3/8-gram of PETN in a 3/8-inch-OD (9.52-mm) Lucite case with a wall thickness of 34 mils (0.864 mm). A constant explosive

  5. Searching for Dark Matter at the Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquijo, Phillip

    2016-09-01

    facility to be built in 2016, located 1 km below the surface in western Victoria, Australia. I will discuss the status of the proposed SABRE experiment, which will be comprised of a pair of high purity 50-60 kg NaI crystal detectors with active veto shielding to be located in labs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres respectively. I also discuss projects beyond SABRE, including directional dark matter detectors, which will be used to determine the origin of any true dark matter signals.

  6. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  7. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  8. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affect the safety of employees underground. (f) Communications. (1) When natural unassisted voice... working alone underground in a hazardous location, who is both out of the range of natural unassisted... lamp in his or her work area for emergency use, unless natural light or an emergency lighting...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and... toxic gases from a fire originating in an underground shop where maintenance work is routinely done...

  10. State Certification of Underground Storage Tanks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-15

    This audit was part of the overall audit of "DoD Management of Underground Storage Tanks ," (Project No. 6CK-5051). The overall audit was jointly...Committee inquiry about whether state environmental regulatory agencies would be able to certify that DoD underground storage tanks were compliant

  11. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  12. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  13. Transport Model of Underground Sediment in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Guangqian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment. PMID:24288479

  14. The Case for an Underground Neutrino Facility in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2017-01-01

    Experiments in physics, Astro-particle physics and cosmology that require careful shielding against cosmic rays includes dark matter searches, studies of radioactive decays, and neutrino detection experiments. The need for such shielding has motivated the construction of laboratory caverns in mines and adjacent to tunnels under mountains. There are currently about a dozen such laboratories, in existence or under construction, all in the Northern Hemisphere. A motivation has been made for the establishment of a Southern Hemisphere facility. In this paper a feasibility study of measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gamma ray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samplesfor the establishment of such a facility in the South Africa is presented. Keywords: Underground laboratory, Neutrinos, Gamma ray, Radon, Dark matter, Background.

  15. Twenty Years of Underground Research at Canada's URL

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, N. A.

    2003-02-27

    Construction of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) began in 1982. The URL was designed to address the needs of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program. Over the years, a comprehensive program of geologic characterization and underground hydrogeologic, geotechnical and geomechanical projects have been performed, many of which are ongoing. The scientific work at the URL has evolved through a number of different phases to meet the changing needs of Canada's waste management program. The various phases of the URL have included siting, site evaluation, construction and operation. Collaboration with international organizations is encouraged at the URL, with the facility being a centre of excellence in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of underground facilities. One of AECL's major achievements of the past 20 year program has been the preparation and public defense of a ten-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a conceptual deep geologic repository. Completion of this dissertation on the characterization, construction and performance modeling of a conceptual repository in the granite rock of the Canadian Shield was largely based on work conducted at the URL. Work conducted over the seven years since public defense of the EIS has been directed towards developing those engineering and performance assessment tools that would be required for implementation of a deep geologic repository. The URL continues to be a very active facility with ongoing experiments and demonstrations performed for a variety of Canadian and international radioactive waste management organizations.

  16. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  17. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H. O.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Rogers, H.; Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S.

    2011-04-27

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO{sub 2} facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  18. Underground Cross Section Measurements of Stellar Reactions at Astrophysically Relevant Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formicola, A.; Gugliemetti, A.

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is important to understand the generation of energy, the luminosity of neutrinos, and the synthesis of elements in stars and in the primordial nucleosynthesis. An innovative experimental approach for the study of nuclear fusion reactions based on an accelerator installed in a low background underground laboratory (the LUNA experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory) was able to give breaktrough results in this field over the last 25 years. By going underground and by using the typical techniques of low background physics, it is possible to measure nuclear cross sections down to the energy of stellar interest. In this proceeding, the experimental techniques adopted in underground nuclear astrophysics and an overwiev of present and proposed future facilities and of their major scientific drivers are reported.

  19. Incorporation of high-level wastes in SYNROC: results from recent process-engineering studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Hoenig, C.L.; Ackerman, F.J.; Peters, P.E.; Grens, J.Z.

    1982-04-15

    In this paper, highlights from recent engineering research and development, in particular, results from fluidized bed calcination studies of SYNROC slurry are summarized. A schematic diagram of the envisioned SYNROC process (at this stage of development) is also presented. It shows the use of a fluidized bed calciner to prepare SYNROC powder that is then fed to a storage hopper. Bellows-type canisters are filled, evacuated, sealed and preheated. The preheated canisters are loaded into a hot isotactic pressing unit where they are densified, then removed and cooled and finally loaded into a waste storage container. After sealing, this container is decontaminated and transferred to the interim storage facility and then, ultimately, to an underground repository.

  20. Incorporation of high level wastes in SYNROC: Results from recent process engineering studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. H.; Hoenig, C. L.; Ackerman, F. J.; Peters, P. E.; Grens, J. Z.

    1982-04-01

    Highlights from recent engineering research and development, in particular, results from fluidized bed calcination studies of SYNROC slurry are summarized. A schematic diagram of the envisoned SYNROC process (at this stage of development) is also presented. It shows the use of a fluidized bed calciner to prepare SYNROC powder that is then fed to a storage hopper. Bellows-type canisters are filled, evacuated, sealed and preheated. The preheated canisters are loaded into a hot isotactic pressing unit where they are densified, then removed and cooled and finally loaded into a waste storage container. After sealing, this container is decontaminated and transferred to the interim storage facility and then, ultimately, to an underground repository.

  1. The development of a highly constrained health level 7 implementation guide to facilitate electronic laboratory reporting to ambulatory electronic health record systems.

    PubMed

    Sujansky, Walter V; Overhage, J Marc; Chang, Sophia; Frohlich, Jonah; Faus, Samuel A

    2009-01-01

    Electronic laboratory interfaces can significantly increase the value of ambulatory electronic health record (EHR) systems by providing laboratory result data automatically and in a computable form. However, many ambulatory EHRs cannot implement electronic laboratory interfaces despite the existence of messaging standards, such as Health Level 7, version 2 (HL7). Among several barriers to implementing laboratory interfaces is the extensive optionality within the HL7 message standard. This paper describes the rationale for and development of an HL7 implementation guide that seeks to eliminate most of the optionality inherent in HL7, but retain the information content required for reporting outpatient laboratory results. A work group of heterogeneous stakeholders developed the implementation guide based on a set of design principles that emphasized parsimony, practical requirements, and near-term adoption. The resulting implementation guide contains 93% fewer optional data elements than HL7. This guide was successfully implemented by 15 organizations during an initial testing phase and has been approved by the HL7 standards body as an implementation guide for outpatient laboratory reporting. Further testing is required to determine whether widespread adoption of the implementation guide by laboratories and EHR systems can facilitate the implementation of electronic laboratory interfaces.

  2. [Characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments].

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Chen, Kun-Kun; Jiang, Guang-Hui

    2011-02-01

    Karst aquifers are one of the most important aquifers in Southwestern China. One of the characteristics of karst aquifers is the enhanced permeability permits high flow velocities are capable of transporting suspended and bedload sediments. Mobile sediment in karst may act as a vector for the transport of contaminates. 14 sediment samples were collected from two underground rivers in two typical karst areas in Liuzhou city, Guangxi Autonomous Region, China. According to simulated experiment methods, characteristic of adsorption of ammonia nitrogen on sediment was studied. The results of ammonia nitrogen adsorption dynamics on sediments showed that the maximum adsorption velocity was less than 2 h. The adsorption balance quantity in 5 h accounted for 71% - 98% of the maximum adsorption quantity. The maximum adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen was 385.5 mg/kg, which was sediment from a cave in the middle areas of Guancun underground river system. The study of isotherm adsorption indicated adsorption quantity of NH4+ increase followed by incremental balance concentration of NH4+ in the aquatic phase. Adsorption quantity of ammonia nitrogen in sediments has a relative linear relationship with adsorption balance concentrations. Adsorption-desorption balance concentrations were all low, indicating sediments from underground rivers have great adsorption potential. Under the condition of low and high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in overlying water, Langmuir and Tempkin couldn't simulate or simulate results couldn't reach remarkable level, whilst Linear and Freundlich models could simulate well. Research on different type sediments, sampling times and depths from two underground rivers shows characteristic of ammonia nitrogen adsorption on karst underground river sediments doesn't have good correspondence with the type of sediments. One of the reasons is there is no big difference between sediments in the development of climate, geology, hydrological conditions

  3. Augmented reality for underground pipe inspection and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Pretlove, John R. G.

    1998-12-01

    The University of Surrey is engaged in developing augmented reality systems and teleoperation techniques for enhanced visual analysis and task performance in hostile environments. One particular current project in the UK is addressing the development of stereo vision systems, augmented reality, image processing techniques and specialist robotic vehicles which may be used for the future examination and maintenance of underground sewage pipes. This paper describes the components of the stereo vision and augmented reality system and illustrates some preliminary results of the use of the stereo robotic system mounted on a mobile laboratory vehicle and calibrated using a pin-hole camera model.

  4. Statistical Description of Liquid Low-Level Waste System Transssuranic Wastes at Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The US DOE has presented plans for processing liquid low-level wastes (LLLW) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the LLLW tank system. These wastes are among the most hazardous on the Oak Ridge reservation and exhibit both RCRA toxic and radiological hazards. The Tennessee Department of Health and Environment has mandated that the processing of these wastes must begin by the year 2002 and the the goal should be permanent disposal at a site off the Oak Ridge Reservation. To meet this schedule, DOE will solicit bids from various private sector companies for the construction of a processing facility on land located near the ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tanks to be operated by the private sector on a contract basis. This report will support the Request for Proposal process and will give potential vendors information about the wastes contained in the ORNL tank farm system. The report consolidates current data about the properties and composition of these wastes and presents methods to calculate the error bounds of the data in the best technically defensible manner possible. The report includes information for only the tank waste that is to be included in the request for proposal.

  5. Integration of computational modeling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory low level radioactive waste disposal performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.L.; Birdsell, K.H.; Springer, E.P.; Hollis, D.K.; Shuman, R.

    1995-12-01

    The preliminary Performance Assessment for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Area G is drawing to completion. The disposal site is located on the top of a finger mesa in the complex terrain of a semi-arid region which leads to considerable complications in the atmospheric and subsurface transport and in the requisite modeling. Infiltration and run-off are evaluated for the proposed disposal unit closure configuration. A new analytic source release model characterizes the disposal unit performance utilizing detailed source term characterization from the inventory data base. This analysis provides input to the subsurface modeling done by the sophisticated finite element transport code, FEHM, using realistic 2-D cross-sections of the geologic units stratigraphies and the disposal units. Subsurface transport via lateral flow to intermittent alluvial waters in adjacent canyons is evaluated in addition to the usual deep aquifer. Vapor phase flow has been treated separately and calibrated to field data for tritium migration. Atmospheric transport is based on Gaussian dispersion with a correction for complex canyon terrain evaluated from on-going 3-D atmospheric transport studies. Indications to date are that the Performance Assessment objectives are met for all migration pathways.

  6. New technological methods for protecting underground waters from agricultural pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanov, Gani

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural production on the irrigated grounds can not carry on without mineral fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. Especially it is shown in Uzbekistan, in cultivation of cotton. There is an increase in mineralization, rigidity, quantity of heavy metals, phenols and other pollutions in the cotton fields. Thus there is an exhaustion of stocks of fresh underground waters. In the year 2003 we were offered to create the ecological board to prevent pollution to get up to a level of subsoil waters in the top 30 centimeter layer of the ground. We carried out an accumulation and pollution processing. This layer possesses a high adsorbing ability for heavy metals, mineral oil, mineral fertilizers remnants, defoliants and pesticides. In order to remediate a biological pollution treatment processing should be take into account. The idea is consisted in the following. The adsorption properties of coal is all well-known that the Angren coal washing factories in Tashkent area have collected more than 10 million tons of the coal dust to mix with clays. We have picked up association of anaerobic microorganisms which, using for development, destroys nutrients of coal waste pollutions to a harmless content for people. Coal waste inoculation also are scattered by these microorganisms on the field before plowing. Deep (up to 30 cm) plowing brings them on depth from 5 up to 30 cm. Is created by a plough a layer with necessary protective properties. The norm of entering depends on the structure of ground and the intensity of pollutions. Laboratory experiments have shown that 50% of pollutions can be treated by the ecological board and are processed up to safe limit.

  7. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature.

  8. [Manufacture and Utilization of a Low-level Radioactive 68Ge/68Ga Generator in a Radiochemistry Laboratory Course].

    PubMed

    Washiyama, Kohshin; Amano, Ryohei; Nozaki, Tadashi; Ogawa, Koji; Nagatsu, Kotaro; Sakama, Minoru; Ido, Tatuo; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    The low-level radioactivity of a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator is a suitable tool for measuring radioactive growth and decay after (68)Ga milking due to their desirable nuclear decay properties, such as the EC decay of (68)Ge with no γ-ray emission andthe β(+) decay of (68)Ga with a weak γ-ray emission. To experience andund erstandrad ioactive equilibrium during a university laboratory course, we surveyedandtestedthe production of a small amount of (68)Ge and set up educational programs to manufacture a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator for measuring the growth andd ecay of (68)Ga. The irradiation of natGa with 25 μA of a 30 MeV proton beam from a cyclotron for 4 h yields ca. 111 MBq of (68)Ge, which was sufficient to supply to several universities. For use as the adsorbent of the generator column, particles of hydrated tin (VI) oxide were prepared from precipitated tin hydroxide gel. Repeated elution of (68)Ga from the handmade (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator gave constant amounts of (68)Ga with acceptable breakthrough of (68)Ge. The feedback from the student's experience with the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator was evaluatedby annual questionnaire surveys, which were given to all students taking the course every year from 2012 to 2014. It has been made clear that more than half of the students were interested in the (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator program, andthis interest increasedfrom 54.9%in 2012 to 78.6%in 2014. A low-level radioactive (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator is thus expectedto be a suitable experimental tool for demonstrating the phenomenon of radioactivity to students in an intriguing way.

  9. Shoot-level terpenoids emission in Norway spruce (Picea abies) under natural field and manipulated laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Raffaela; Lusini, Ilaria; Kristýna Večeřová; Petra Holišová; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-11-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a strong emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In the present study we investigated how shoot canopy position and high levels of stressors such as high temperature and ozone concentration, affect BVOC emission rates by means of in-situ and ex-situ experimental measurements. Therefore, BVOC emission from current-year spruce shoots was investigated under field and manipulated (temperature, ozone) laboratory conditions. Emitted BVOCs were sampled on desorption tubes, coupled with gas-exchange measurements of CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, and detected by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Total BVOC emission rates from sun shoots under standard conditions were higher than those from shade shoots, although this was significant only in July, on the contrary, only α-pinene and γ-terpinene emission rates showed significant differences between sun and shade acclimated shoots in August. Limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and myrcene were identified as the most abundant BVOCs in both campaigns with emission rates above 0.2 nmol m(-2) s(-1). Ex-situ measurements revealed a significantly higher total BVOC emissions under high temperature level (40 °C) by ca. 175% as compared with standard temperature (30 °C), while a short-term fumigation of acute O3 concentration (200 ppb) had no effect on BVOC emissions and its spectrum. These findings might have a relevance considering the role of these compounds in protecting against oxidative stress and their possible stimulation in particular stressful conditions. Implication of such results into emission models may contribute to a more accurate estimation of BVOC emissions for Central European mountain regions dominated by Norway spruce forests and their rate under predicted climate change.

  10. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  11. GIS surface effects archive of underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.N.

    2001-11-02

    This report presents a new comprehensive, digital archive of more than 40 years of geologic surface effects maps produced at individual detonation sites throughout the Yucca Flat and Pahute Mesa nuclear testing areas of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The Geographic Information System (GIS) surface effects map archive on CD-ROM (this report) comprehensively documents the surface effects of underground nuclear detonations conducted at two of the most extensively used testing areas of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1951 and 1992, numerous investigators of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency meticulously mapped the surface effects caused by underground nuclear testing. Their work documented the effects of more than seventy percent of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Yucca Flat and all of the underground nuclear detonations conducted at Pahute Mesa.

  12. Muon flux Measurements at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility with the Majorana Demonstrator Veto System

    DOE PAGES

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, F. T.; ...

    2017-02-16

    Here, we report the first measurement of the total muon flux underground at the Davis Campus of the Sanford Underground Research Facility at the 4850 ft level. Measurements were performed using the MajoranaDemonstratormuon veto system arranged in two different configurations. The measured total flux is (5.31±0.17)×10–9μ/s/cm2.

  13. Noble Gas Migration Experiment to Support the Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Woods, Vincent T.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Lowrey, Justin D.; Lukins, Craig D.; Suarez, Reynold; Humble, Paul H.; Ellefson, Mark D.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Zhong, Lirong; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Emer, Dudley; Biegalski, S.

    2016-03-01

    A Noble Gas Migration Experiment (NGME) funded by the National Center for Nuclear Security and conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory and National Security Technology provided critical on-site inspection (OSI) information related to the detection of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) event using noble gas signatures.

  14. Assessing the acoustical climate of underground stations.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Designing a proper acoustical environment--indispensable to speech recognition--in long enclosures is difficult. Although there is some literature on the acoustical conditions in underground stations, there is still little information about methods that make estimation of correct reverberation conditions possible. This paper discusses the assessment of the reverberation conditions of underground stations. A comparison of the measurements of reverberation time in Warsaw's underground stations with calculated data proves there are divergences between measured and calculated early decay time values, especially for long source-receiver distances. Rapid speech transmission index values for measured stations are also presented.

  15. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mikobi, Tite Minga; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Mvumbi Lelo, Georges; Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean Jacques; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; Mbuyi Mwamba, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA) were selected as a control group. Results The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 *) between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *), and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *). A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Conclusion The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease. PMID:25946088

  16. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  17. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect

    Back, H.O.; Alton, A.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Kendziora, C.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  18. The Black Underground: Fugitives from Slavery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Benjamin

    1969-01-01

    A brief account of the activities prior to the American Civil War of those who assisted black slaves in their flight from the South to the Northern States and Canada by an underground railroad movement. (RJ)

  19. Establishing sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering.

    PubMed

    Curiel-Esparza, Jorge; Canto-Perello, Julian; Calvo, Maria A

    2004-07-01

    Growth of urban areas, the corresponding increased demand for utility services and the possibility of new types of utility systems are overcrowding near surface underground space with urban utilities. Available subsurface space will continue to diminish to the point where utilidors (utility tunnels) may become inevitable. Establishing future sustainable strategies in urban underground engineering consists of the ability to lessen the use of traditional trenching. There is an increasing interest in utility tunnels for urban areas as a sustainable technique to avoid congestion of the subsurface. One of the principal advantages of utility tunnels is the substantially lower environmental impact compared with common trenches. Implementing these underground facilities is retarded most by the initial cost and management procedures. The habitual procedure is to meet problems as they arise in current practice. The moral imperative of sustainable strategies fails to confront the economic and political conflicts of interest. Municipal engineers should act as a key enabler in urban underground sustainable development.

  20. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  1. The underground seismic array of Gran Sasso (UNDERSEIS), central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, R.; Muscente, R.; Tronca, F.; Fischione, C.; Rotella, P.; Abril, M.; Alguacil, G.; Martini, M.; de Cesare, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since early May, 2002, a small aperture seismic array has been installed in the underground Physics Laboratories of Gran Sasso, located near seismic active faults of central Apennines, Italy. This array is presently composed by 21 three-component short period seismic stations (Mark L4C-3D), with average distance 90 m and semi-circular aperture of 400 m x 600 m. It is intersecting a main seismogenic fault where the presence of slow earthquakes has been recently detected through two wide band geodetic laser interferometers. The underground Laboratories are shielded by a limestone rock layer having 1400 m thickness. Each seismometer is linked, through a 24 bits A/D board, to a set of 6 industrial PC via a serial RS-485 standard. The six PC transmit data to a server through an ethernet network. Time syncronization is provided by a Master Oscillator controlled by an atomic clock. Earthworm package is used for data selection and transmission. High quality data have been recorded since May 2002, including local and regional earthquakes. In particular the 31 October, 2002, Molise (Mw=5.8 earthquake) and its aftershocks have been recorded at this array. Array techniques such as polarisation and frequency-slowness analyses with the MUSIC noise algorithm indicate the high performance of this array, as compared to the national seismic network, for identifying the basic source parameters for earthquakes located at distance of few hundreds of km.

  2. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  3. Underground tank vitrification: Engineering-scale test results

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Bonner, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    Contamination associated with underground tanks at US Department of Energy sites and other sites may be effectively remediated by application of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soil and buried wastes such as underground tanks into a glass and crystalline block, similar to obsidian with crystalline phases. A radioactive engineering-scale test performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in September 1989 demonstrated the feasibility of using ISV for this application. A 30-cm-diameter (12-in.-diameter) buried steel and concrete tank containing simulated tank sludge was vitrified, producing a solid block. The tank sludge used in the test simulated materials in tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous components of the tank sludge were immobilized or removed and captured in the off-gas treatment system. The steel tank was converted to ingots near the bottom of the block and the concrete walls were dissolved into the resulting glass and crystalline block. Although one of the four moving electrodes froze'' in place about halfway into the test, operations were able to continue. The test was successfully completed and all the tank sludge was vitrified. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the...

  5. System for remote control of underground device

    DOEpatents

    Brumleve, T.D.; Hicks, M.G.; Jones, M.O.

    1975-10-21

    A system is described for remote control of an underground device, particularly a nuclear explosive. The system includes means at the surface of the ground for transmitting a seismic signal sequence through the earth having controlled and predetermined signal characteristics for initiating a selected action in the device. Additional apparatus, located with or adjacent to the underground device, produces electrical signals in response to the seismic signals received and compares these electrical signals with the predetermined signal characteristics.

  6. Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-09-01

    number of these local villagers re- portedly aided the Viet Cong in infiltrating the base area and obtaining enough information to make a life- size model ...instigate, and support subversive under- grounds, have been included. The report is designed to provide the military user with a text to complement...underground organizations is compart- mentalization, designed to protect the organization’s security. The cellular structure follows the underground "fail

  7. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Thomas N; Bos, Rabdall J

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  8. Comparison of species-level identification and antifungal susceptibility results from diagnostic and reference laboratories for bloodstream Candida surveillance isolates, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Naicker, Serisha D; Govender, Nevashan; Patel, Jaymati; Zietsman, Inge L; Wadula, Jeannette; Coovadia, Yacoob; Kularatne, Ranmini; Seetharam, Sharona; Govender, Nelesh P

    2016-11-01

    From February 2009 through August 2010, we compared species-level identification of bloodstream Candida isolates and susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin between diagnostic and reference South African laboratories during national surveillance for candidemia. Diagnostic laboratories identified isolates to genus/species level and performed antifungal susceptibility testing, as indicated. At a reference laboratory, viable Candida isolates were identified to species-level using automated systems, biochemical tests, or DNA sequencing; broth dilution susceptibility testing was performed. Categorical agreement (CA) was calculated for susceptibility results of isolates with concordant species identification. Overall, 2172 incident cases were detected, 773 (36%) by surveillance audit. The Vitek 2 YST system (bioMérieux Inc, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used for identification (360/863, 42%) and susceptibility testing (198/473, 42%) of a large proportion of isolates. For the five most common species (n = 1181), species-level identification was identical in the majority of cases (Candida albicans: 98% (507/517); Candida parapsilosis: 92% (450/488); Candida glabrata: 89% (89/100); Candida tropicalis: 91% (49/54), and Candida krusei: 86% (19/22)). However, diagnostic laboratories were significantly less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans versus C. albicans (607/664, 91% vs. 507/517, 98%; P < .001). Susceptibility data were compared for isolates belonging to the five most common species and fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin in 860, 580, and 99 cases, respectively. Diagnostic laboratories significantly under-reported fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis (225/393, 57% vs. 239/393, 61%; P < .001) but over-reported fluconazole non-susceptibility in C. albicans (36/362, 10% vs. 3/362, 0.8%; P < .001). Diagnostic laboratories were less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans, under

  9. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W.

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  10. Recommendations to improve the cleanup process for California`s leaking underground fuel tanks (LUFTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.W.; Dooher, B.P.; Cullen, S.J.; Everett, L.G.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Grose, R.D.; Marino, M.A.

    1996-12-01

    This document summarizes the findings, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from an 18 month review of the regulatory framework and cleanup process currently applied to California`s leaking underground fuel tanks (LUFT). This review was conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California at Berkeley, Davis, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara at the request of the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), Underground Storage Tank Program. The recommendations are made to improve and streamline the LUFT cleanup decision-making process.

  11. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  12. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

  13. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: Important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process. PMID:25297350

  14. Developing waste disposal options in the underground storage tank - integrated demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, J.M.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The principal objective of the Underground Storage Tank - Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID Program is the demonstration and continued development of technologies suitable for the remediation of USTs. The most promising new technologies from industry, universities, national laboratories, and other government agencies are selected for demonstration, testing, and evaluation. The objective is the eventual transfer of new technologies as part of a system to full-scale remediation at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and alternately into the private sector. Technologies under development in the UST-ID Program are targeted toward use in remediation actions at the following five DOE participant sites: Hanford, Fernald, Idaho, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. Combined, these participant sites have more than 300 USTs containing more than 381,800 m{sup 3} (100 Mgal) of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste. This paper focuses on the Low-Level Waste Disposal area of the UST-ID, summarizing the two currently funded technology development projects: the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) Process and Polyethylene Encapsulation. Both technologies are considered options to the-current baseline disposal approaches being developed at the participant sites. For the Hanford Site, this baseline is a grout waste form that is nearing implementation for disposal of low-level liquid tank wastes.

  15. CAVSIM. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A., Thorsness, C.B. )

    1989-03-03

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  16. An in situ moisture monitoring system for a solid low-level radioactive disposal pit at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.F. New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM . Dept. of Geology)

    1990-01-01

    At the end of the 1950's, Los Alamos National Laboratory began to develop a Laboratory-wide, shallow-land, solid low-level radioactive waste disposal area on top of Mesita del Buey at TA-54, Area G. An in situ hydrologic monitoring system in the zone of aeration was developed in early 1990 to detect the presence of the infiltration of meteoric water into Pit 37 at Area G. Monitoring the water movement through the pit cap into the waste with leaching and transport the containment rock and possible contamination of the main aquifer is of primary concern. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Close-range photogrammetry in underground mining ground control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Donovan J.; Chambers, Amy J.; Raffaldi, Michael J.; Finley, Seth A.; Powers, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring underground mine deformation and support conditions has traditionally involved visual inspection and geotechnical instrumentation. Monitoring displacements with conventional instrumentation can be expensive and time-consuming, and the number of locations that can be effectively monitored is generally limited. Moreover, conventional methods typically produce vector rather than tensor descriptions of geometry changes. Tensor descriptions can provide greater insight into hazardous ground movements, particularly in recently excavated openings and in older workings that have been negatively impacted by high stress concentrations, time-dependent deformation, or corrosion of ground support elements. To address these issues, researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane Mining Research Division are developing and evaluating photogrammetric systems for ground control monitoring applications in underground mines. This research has demonstrated that photogrammetric systems can produce millimeter-level measurements that are comparable to conventional displacement-measuring instruments. This paper provides an overview of the beneficial use of close-range photogrammetry for the following three ground control applications in underground mines: monitoring the deformation of surface support, monitoring rock mass movement, and monitoring the corrosion of surface support. Preliminary field analyses, case studies, limitations, and best practices for these applications are also discussed.

  18. An underground characterization program for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault in plutonic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.M.; Everitt, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP) is developing a concept for disposing of nuclear fuel waste that involves placing and sealing it in a disposal vault excavated 500 to 1,000 m deep in the stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. In this concept, engineered and natural barriers serve to isolate the waste from the biosphere. Since 1983, underground characterization and testing in support of the CNFWMP has been ongoing at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in southeastern Manitoba. This paper draws on experience gained at the URL to recommend an approach to underground characterization that would provide the necessary information to make design decisions for a disposal vault in plutonic rock.

  19. Using Chemistry and Color To Analyze Household Products: A 10-12-Hour Laboratory Project at the General Chemistry Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosma, Wayne B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a set of experiments using a UV-VIS spectrometer to identify food colorings and to measure the pH of soft drinks. The first laboratory component uses locations and shapes of visible absorption peaks as a means of identifying dyes while the second portion uses the spectrometer for determining pH. (PVD)

  20. Development of a Semester-Long, Inquiry-Based Laboratory Course in Upper-Level Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, Pushpalatha P. N.; Thompson, Martin; Hungwe, Kedmon

    2014-01-01

    A semester-long laboratory course was designed and implemented to familiarize students with modern biochemistry and molecular biology techniques. The designed format involved active student participation, evaluation of data, and critical thinking, and guided students to become independent researchers. The first part of the course focused on…

  1. Ab Initio Determinations of Photoelectron Spectra Including Vibronic Features: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Richard L.; Davis, Lisa; Millam, Evan L.; Brown, Eric; Offerman, Chad; Wray, Paul; Green, Susan M. E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a first-principles determination of the photoelectron spectra of water and hypochlorous acid as a laboratory exercise accessible to students in an undergraduate physical chemistry course. This paper demonstrates the robustness and user-friendliness of software developed for the Franck-Condon factor calculation. While the calculator is…

  2. A Participative and Individualized Laboratory: A Strategy for Increasing Student Success in College-Level Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro Clarke, Jose Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This research was carried out within a qualitative research paradigm. The objective was to observe, analyze and enrich pedagogical practice through the use of pedagogical learning strategies. The learning strategy was a participative and individualized lab carried out during a research project in a non-Traditional Laboratory (LnT). The primary aim…

  3. Predicting surface vibration from underground railways through inhomogeneous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Simon; Hunt, Hugh

    2012-04-01

    Noise and vibration from underground railways is a major source of disturbance to inhabitants near subways. To help designers meet noise and vibration limits, numerical models are used to understand vibration propagation from these underground railways. However, the models commonly assume the ground is homogeneous and neglect to include local variability in the soil properties. Such simplifying assumptions add a level of uncertainty to the predictions which is not well understood. The goal of the current paper is to quantify the effect of soil inhomogeneity on surface vibration. The thin-layer method (TLM) is suggested as an efficient and accurate means of simulating vibration from underground railways in arbitrarily layered half-spaces. Stochastic variability of the soil's elastic modulus is introduced using a K-L expansion; the modulus is assumed to have a log-normal distribution and a modified exponential covariance kernel. The effect of horizontal soil variability is investigated by comparing the stochastic results for soils varied only in the vertical direction to soils with 2D variability. Results suggest that local soil inhomogeneity can significantly affect surface velocity predictions; 90 percent confidence intervals showing 8 dB averages and peak values up to 12 dB are computed. This is a significant source of uncertainty and should be considered when using predictions from models assuming homogeneous soil properties. Furthermore, the effect of horizontal variability of the elastic modulus on the confidence interval appears to be negligible. This suggests that only vertical variation needs to be taken into account when modelling ground vibration from underground railways.

  4. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  5. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance...

  6. In situ water and gas injection experiments performed in the Hades Underground Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Volckaert, G.; Ortiz, L.; Put, M.

    1995-12-31

    The movement of water and gas through plastic clay is an important subject in the research at SCK-CEN on the possible disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay layer at Mol. Since the construction of the Hades underground research facility in 1983, SCK-CEN has developed and installed numerous piezometers for the geohydrologic characterization and for in situ radionuclide migration experiments. In situ gas and water injection experiments have been performed at two different locations in the underground laboratory. The first location is a multi filter piezometer installed vertically at the bottom of the shaft in 1986. The second location is a three dimensional configuration of four horizontal multi piezometers installed from the gallery. This piezometer configuration was designed for the MEGAS (Modelling and Experiments on GAS migration through argillaceous rocks) project and installed in 1992. It contains 29 filters at distances between 10 m and 15 m from the gallery in the clay. Gas injection experiments show that gas breakthrough occurs at a gas overpressure of about 0.6 MPa. The breakthrough occurs by the creation of gas pathways along the direction of lowest resistance i.e. the zone of low effective stress resulting from the drilling of the borehole. The water injections performed in a filter -- not used for gas injection -- show that the flow of water is also influenced by the mechanical stress conditions. Low effective stress leads to higher hydraulic conductivity. However, water overpressures up to 1.3 MPa did not cause hydrofracturing. Water injections performed in a filter previously used for gas injections, show that the occluded gas hinders the water flow and reduces the hydraulic conductivity by a factor two.

  7. Effect of underground urban structures on eutrophic coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Watanabe, Masataka; Tanji, Kazunori; Morioka, Tohru

    2007-02-01

    The NIES Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model was expanded to include the density current and solute-transport process of groundwater in the Kanto Plain and to incorporate the effects of water table and tidal fluctuations around the eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan (NICE-SEA). The simulation reproduced excellently the observed values of river discharge and groundwater level in the catchment. The simulated groundwater level shows a minus value (below the sea level) around the Tokyo metropolitan area because of excessive withdrawal around the urban area in the past. The model shows that the underground urban structures, sewage pipes, seashore concrete dikes, and embankments have changed the hydrologic cycle in the catchment and the nutrient supply to Tokyo Bay. In particular, the groundwater flow is interrupted and the phase is delayed, resulting in an increase in the groundwater level, and a decrease of groundwater seepage into Tokyo Bay. Furthermore, we propose four types of political scenario for provisioning human ecosystem service (ES) sites to promote infiltration. The simulated result forecasts that the groundwater level increases predominantly at a maximum value exceeding 40 cm in a scenario for farmland and productive green areas and that the level recovers in some parts of the urban area. This phenomenon is related to the cut-off of groundwater flow by underground urban structures and the sewer leakage into the aquifer, which also influences the decrease of submarine groundwater discharge around the western side of Tokyo Bay.

  8. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schroer, A F W; Belgers, J D M; Brock, T C M; Matser, A M; Maund, S J; Van den Brink, P J

    2004-04-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with previous data on pyrethroids. The midge Chaoborus obscuripes was most sensitive (48- and 96-h EC50 = 2.8 ng/L). Other insect larvae (Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera) and macrocrustacea (Amphipoda, Isopoda) were also relatively sensitive, with 48- and 96-h EC50 values between 10 and 100 ng/L. Generally, microcrustacea (Cladocera, Copepoda) and larvae of certain insect groups (Odonata and Chironomidae) were less sensitive, with 48-h EC50 values higher than 100 ng/L. Mollusca and Plathelminthes were insensitive and were unaffected at concentrations at and above the water solubility (5 microg/L). Generally, the EC50 values based on initial population responses in field enclosures were similar to values derived from laboratory tests with the same taxa. Also, the corresponding fifth and tenth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5 and HC10) were similar (laboratory HC5 = 2.7 ng/L and field HC5 = 4.1 ng/L; laboratory and field HC10 = 5.1 ng/L), at least when based on the same sensitive taxonomic groups (insects and crustaceans) and when a similar concentration range was taken into account. In the three field enclosure experiments and at a treatment level of 10 ng/L, consistent effects were observed for only one population (Chaoborus obscuripes), with recovery taking place within 3 to 6 weeks. The laboratory HC5 (2.7 ng/L) and HC10 (5.1 ng/L) based on acute EC50 values of all aquatic arthropod taxa were both lower than this 10 ng/L, a concentration that might represent the "regulatory acceptable concentration." The HC5 and HC10 values in this study in The Netherlands (based on static laboratory tests with freshwater arthropods) were very similar to those derived from a previous study in

  9. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  10. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  11. Review: Impact of underground structures on the flow of urban groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Guillaume; Winiarski, Thierry; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Property economics favours the vertical development of cities but flow of groundwater can be affected by the use of underground space in them. This review article presents the state of the art regarding the impact of disturbances caused by underground structures (tunnels, basements of buildings, deep foundations, etc.) on the groundwater flow in urban aquifers. The structures built in the underground levels of urban areas are presented and organised in terms of their impact on flow: obstacle to the flow or disturbance of the groundwater budget of the flow system. These two types of disturbance are described in relation to the structure area and the urban area. The work reviewed shows, on one hand, the individual impacts of different urban underground structures, and on the other, their cumulative impacts on flow, using real case studies. Lastly, the works are placed in perspective regarding the integration of underground structures with the aim of operational management of an urban aquifer. The literature presents deterministic numerical modelling as a tool capable of contributing to this aim, in that it helps to quantify the effect of an underground infrastructure project on groundwater flow, which is crucial for decision-making processes. It can also be an operational decision-aid tool for choosing construction techniques or for formulating strategies to manage the water resource.

  12. Status and Growth of Underground Science at WIPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempe, Norbert T.

    2008-10-01

    The science community is increasingly taking advantage of research opportunities in the government-owned Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 655m underground near Carlsbad, NM. Discoveries so far include viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in 250 million-year old salt, preserved in an ultra-low background-radiation setting. Supplementing the overburden's shielding against cosmic radiation, terrestrial background from the host formation is less than five percent that of average crustal rock. In the past, WIPP accommodated development and testing of neutral current detectors for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and dark matter research, and it currently hosts two experiments pursuing neutrino-less double-beta decay. That scientists can listen to whispers from the universe in proximity to megacuries of radioactive waste lends, of course, credibility to the argument that WIPP itself is very safe. Almost a century of regional petroleum and potash extraction history and more than three decades of WIPP studies have generated a comprehensive body of knowledge on geology, mining technology, rock mechanics, geochemistry, and other disciplines relevant to underground science. Existing infrastructure is being used and can be expanded to fit experimental needs. WIPP's exemplary safety and regulatory compliance culture, low excavating and operating cost, and the high probability of the repository operating at least another 40 years make its available underground space attractive for future research and development. Recent proposals include low-photon energy counting to study internal dose received decades ago, investigations into ultra-low radiation dose response in cell cultures and laboratory animals (e.g., hormesis vs. linear no-threshold) and detectors for dark matter, solar and supernova neutrinos, and proton decay. Additional proposals compatible with WIPP's primary mission are welcome.

  13. New reporting procedures based on long-term method detection levels and some considerations for interpretations of water-quality data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, Carolyn J. Oblinger; Foreman, William T.; Connor, Brooke F.; Maloney, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory?s approach for determining long-term method detection levels and establishing reporting levels, details relevant new reporting conventions, and provides preliminary guidance on interpreting data reported with the new conventions. At the long-term method detection level concentration, the risk of a false positive detection (analyte reported present at the long-term method detection level when not in sample) is no more than 1 percent. However, at the long-term method detection level, the risk of a false negative occurrence (analyte reported not present when present at the long-term method detection level concentration) is up to 50 percent. Because this false negative rate is too high for use as a default 'less than' reporting level, a more reliable laboratory reporting level is set at twice the determined long-term method detection level. For all methods, concentrations measured between the laboratory reporting level and the long-term method detection level will be reported as estimated concentrations. Non-detections will be censored to the laboratory reporting level. Adoption of the new reporting conventions requires a full understanding of how low-concentration data can be used and interpreted and places responsibility for using and presenting final data with the user rather than with the laboratory. Users must consider that (1) new laboratory reporting levels may differ from previously established minimum reporting levels, (2) long-term method detection levels and laboratory reporting levels may change over time, and (3) estimated concentrations are less certain than concentrations reported above the laboratory reporting level. The availability of uncensored but qualified low-concentration data for interpretation and statistical analysis is a substantial benefit to the user. A decision to censor data after they are reported from the laboratory may still be made by the user, if

  14. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    DOEpatents

    Germata, Daniel Thomas

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  15. Method for making generally cylindrical underground openings

    DOEpatents

    Routh, J.W.

    1983-05-26

    A rapid, economical and safe method for making a generally cylindrical underground opening such as a shaft or a tunnel is described. A borehole is formed along the approximate center line of where it is desired to make the underground opening. The borehole is loaded with an explodable material and the explodable material is detonated. An enlarged cavity is formed by the explosive action of the detonated explodable material forcing outward and compacting the original walls of the borehole. The enlarged cavity may be increased in size by loading it with a second explodable material, and detonating the second explodable material. The process may be repeated as required until the desired underground opening is made. The explodable material used in the method may be free-flowing, and it may be contained in a pipe.

  16. Underground Corrosion of Activated Metals, 6-Year Exposure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2006-03-01

    The subsurface radioactive disposal site located at the Idaho National Laboratory contains neutronactivated metals from non-fuel nuclear-reactor-core components. A long-term underground corrosion test is being conducted to obtain site-specific corrosion rates to support efforts to more accurately estimate the transfer of activated elements in the surrounding arid vadose zone environment. The test uses nonradioactive metal coupons representing the prominent neutron-activated materials buried at the disposal location, namely, Type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403), Type 316L stainless steel (S31603), nickel-chromium alloy (UNS NO7718), beryllium, aluminum 6061-T6 (A96061), and a zirconium alloy (UNS R60804). In addition, carbon steel (the material presently used in the cask disposal liners and other disposal containers) and a duplex stainless steel (UNS S32550) are also included in the test. This paper briefly describes the ongoing test and presents the results of corrosion analysis from coupons exposed underground for 1, 3, and 6 years.

  17. University-level Non-proliferation and Safeguards Education and Human Capital Development Activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bachner K. M.; Pepper, S.; Gomera, J.; Einwechter, M.; Toler, L. T.

    2016-07-24

    BNL has offered Nuclear Nonproliferation, Safeguards and Security in the 21st Century,? referred to as NNSS, every year since 2009 for graduate students in technical and policy fields related to nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. The course focuses on relevant policy issues, in addition to technical components, and is part of a larger NGSI short course initiative that includes separate courses that are delivered at three other national laboratories and NNSA headquarters. [SCHOLZ and ROSENTHAL] The course includes lectures from esteemed nonproliferation experts, tours of various BNL facilities and laboratories, and in-field and table-top exercises on both technical and policy subjects. Topics include the history of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other relevant treaties, the history of and advances in international nuclear safeguards, current relevant political situations in countries such as Iran, Iraq, and the Democratic Peoples? Republic of Korea (DPRK), nuclear science and technology, instrumentation and techniques used for verification activities, and associated research and development. The students conduct a mock Design Information Verification (DIV) at BNL?s decommissioned Medical Research Reactor. The capstone of the course includes a series of student presentations in which students act as policy advisors and provide recommendations in response to scenarios involving a current nonproliferation related event that are prepared by the course organizers. ?The course is open to domestic and foreign students, and caters to students in, entering, or recently having completed graduate school. Interested students must complete an application and provide a resume and a statement describing their interest in the course. Eighteen to 22 students attend annually; 165 students have completed the course to date. A stipend helps to defray students? travel and subsistence expenses. In 2015, the course was shortened from three weeks to

  18. Suicide on the London Underground System.

    PubMed

    Farmer, R; O'Donnell, I; Tranah, T

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an increase in the numbers of people jumping/falling in front of trains on the London Underground system. Case-fatality rates have fallen from 70% in the 1950s to 55% today. The proportion certified as suicide has fallen while the proportions certified as accidents or open verdicts have risen. There is unusual clustering of events at some stations which are adjacent to psychiatric units. The hypothesis that ease of access to London Underground stations may sometimes be a determinant of suicide is investigated.

  19. Evaluation of gamma radiation levels for reducing pathogenic bacteria and fungi in animal sewage and laboratory effluents.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M M; Brooks, B W; Stewart, R B; Dion, W; Trudel, J R; Ouwerkerk, T

    1987-01-01

    Sewage samples collected from animal wastes and from effluents at an animal disease laboratory were inoculated with known numbers of pathogenic organisms and subjected to various doses of gamma radiation from a 60Co source. Surviving test organisms were quantitatively determined by selective and enrichment techniques. The experiment was modeled as a quantal assay in which probit analysis was applied to obtain D10 values. The D10 value represents the irradiating dose required to reduce the population by 90%. The D10 value ranged from 13.4 krad for Campylobacter fetus to 156.6 krad for Streptococcus faecalis in animal sewage. However, the D10 value for the laboratory effluent was generally lower. Based on the estimated D10 values, the rating of the test organisms in decreasing order of radiosensitivity appeared as follows: Brucella abortus, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter laridis, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Salmonella muenster, Candida albicans, Clostridium difficile and Streptococcus faecalis. If the D5 and D1 values were utilized, this listing would be only slightly altered. PMID:3651881

  20. Management of petroleum underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, L.M.; Mihalic, M.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report represents the timetables, responsible organizations, and methods required to comply with the newly promulgated Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-360 Underground Storage Tank (UST) Regulations which became effective December 29, 1990. This report only addresses UST systems that contain nonradioactive material. A total of 84 tanks at the Hanford Site are currently regulated under WAC 173-360. In addition, 32 regulated tanks have been removed as a result of the federally mandated program and the newly implemented state regulations. The majority of the USTs at the Hanford Site are operated by Westinghouse Hanford; however, one is operated by Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) and one by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). 6 refs.

  1. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  2. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  3. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  4. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  5. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  6. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  7. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the trolley wire....

  8. 7. PHOTOCOPY, PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL PLAN AND DETAILS FOR UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, PLUMBING AND MECHANICAL PLAN AND DETAILS FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. MEASUREMENT OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM UNDERGROUND DISTRIBUTION MAINS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results of measurements of methane emissions from underground distribution mains and services. In the program, leakage from underground distribution systems is estimated by combining leak measurements with historical leak record data and the length of undergroun...

  10. 8. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL FLOOR PLAN AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  11. 9. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAIL DRAWING OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINES AND LAUNCHER-LOADER ASSEMBLIES. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  12. Leakage Potential of Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments , Title 17. Underground Storage Tanks, Sabitle I...Regulations The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) 10 of 1984 require all UST owners to comply with all applicable Federal, State, interstate and...Recovery Act, 1976. Public Law 98-616, Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments , 1984. Public Law 98-616, Hazardous and Solid Waste

  13. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1983 annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-06-01

    The Underground Energy Storage Program approach, structure, history, and milestones are described. Technical activities and progress in the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage components of the program are then summarized, documenting the work performed and progress made toward resolving and eliminating technical and economic barriers associated with those technologies. (LEW)

  14. Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-02-16

    Most ground water used for drinking occurs near the earth's surface and is easily contaminated. Of major concern is the potential contamination of underground sources of drinking water by any of the hundreds of thousands of subsurface wastewater disposal injection wells nationwide.

  15. Animals Underground. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffault, Charlotte

    This book is written for children ages 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume explores the natural history of animals that live underground. Animals included are porcupine, insects, earthworm, mole, badger, rabbit, prairie dog, and beach animals. (YP)

  16. A Walk on the Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Describes one historian's search for information on the Underground Railroad, retracing on foot one of the routes formerly traveled by fugitives, seeking historical societies and libraries in each town, and interviewing descendants of slaves. He also had himself boxed up and smuggled onto a train to simulate the situation of one fugitive. A…

  17. Preventing suicide on the London Underground.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R V; Poyner, B

    1994-02-01

    A field study was carried out to investigate the possibility of preventing suicide on the London Underground. Four groups of potentially valuable measures were identified with the objectives of: (i) reducing public access to the tracks; (ii) improving surveillance by station staff; (iii) facilitating emergency stops; and (iv) reducing injury. These strategies are discussed.

  18. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  19. Reference electrodes for underground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Ansuini, F.J.; Dimond, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses several factors affecting the reference potential established by copper/copper sulfate and silver/silver chloride reference electrodes. Guidelines for using permanent references in underground storage tank applications are presented and some causes of misleading readings with portable references are discussed.

  20. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS..., Buried Cable. (d) The cost of cables leading from the main distributing frame or equivalent to...