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Sample records for level-1 di-muon trigger

  1. The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinthuprasith, Tutanon

    2017-01-01

    The phase-1 upgrades of the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger have been completed. The Level-1 trigger has been fully commissioned and it will be used by CMS to collect data starting from the 2016 data run. The new trigger has been designed to improve the performance at high luminosity and large number of simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing (pile-up). For this purpose it uses a novel design, the Time Multiplexed Design, which enables the data from an event to be processed by a single trigger processor at full granularity over several bunch crossings. The TMT design is a modular design based on the uTCA standard. The architecture is flexible and the number of trigger processors can be expanded according to the physics needs of CMS. Intelligent, more complex, and innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of CMS: the upgraded trigger system implements pattern recognition and MVA (Boosted Decision Tree) regression techniques in the trigger processors for pT assignment, pile up subtraction, and isolation requirements for electrons, and taus. The performance of the TMT design and the latency measurements and the algorithm performance which has been measured using data is also presented here.

  2. Operation of the Upgraded ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzer, Julian

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger (L1CT) system is a central part of ATLAS data-taking and has undergone a major upgrade for Run 2 of the LHC, in order to cope with the expected increase of instantaneous luminosity of a factor of two with respect to Run 1. The upgraded hardware offers more flexibility in the trigger decisions due to the factor of two increase in the number of trigger inputs and usable trigger channels. It also provides an interface to the new topological trigger system. Operationally - particularly useful for commissioning, calibration and test runs - it allows concurrent running of up to three different subdetector combinations. An overview of the operational software framework of the L1CT system with particular emphasis on the configuration, controls and monitoring aspects is given. The software framework allows a consistent configuration with respect to the ATLAS experiment and the LHC machine, upstream and downstream trigger processors, and the data acquisition system. Trigger and dead-time rates are monitored coherently at all stages of processing and are logged by the online computing system for physics analysis, data quality assurance and operational debugging. In addition, the synchronisation of trigger inputs is watched based on bunch-by-bunch trigger information. Several software tools allow for efficient display of the relevant information in the control room in a way useful for shifters and experts. The design of the framework aims at reliability, flexibility, and robustness of the system and takes into account the operational experience gained during Run 1. The Level-1 Central Trigger was successfully operated with high efficiency during the cosmic-ray, beam-splash and first Run 2 data taking with the full ATLAS detector.

  3. The CMS Level-1 trigger system for LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadamuro, L.

    2017-03-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. During Run II, the LHC has increased the centre-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions up to 13 TeV and may progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2×1034 cm‑2 s‑1 or higher. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics programme under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition system has been upgraded. The upgraded CMS Level-1 (L1) trigger benefits from the recent μTCA technology and is designed to maintain the performance under high instantaneous luminosity conditions. More sophisticated, innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of CMS: this drastically reduces the trigger rate and improves the trigger efficiency for a wide variety of physics processes. In this document, we present the overall architecture of the upgraded Level-1 trigger system. The performance of single object triggers, measured on collision data recorded during the 2016 running period, are also summarised.

  4. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ero, J.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Guiducci, L.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.; Wulz, C.

    2016-03-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016.

  5. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Monitoring and data reprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimond, David; Hong, Tae; Carlson, Benjamin; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the monitoring and data reprocessing for the calorimeter-based hardware level-1 trigger system (L1Calo) for the ATLAS experiment. This trigger system was upgraded after the Run-1 data taking period (2009-2012) to prepare for Run-2 (2015-current), which allowed better control the event rates for algorithms based on jets and/or missing energy. Monitoring tools for the upgraded system is described. We also present a new offline tool to reprocess previous data samples with altered L1Calo settings, such as calibration constants and noise cuts. The samples are used to study the dependence of the event rates and signal efficiencies on the settings. The studies can help plan the appropriate L1Calo settings for upcoming data taking periods as well as for future runs.

  6. The Level-1 Tile-Muon Trigger in the Tile Calorimeter upgrade program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal provides highly-segmented energy measurements for incident particles. Information from TileCal's outermost radial layer can assist in muon tagging in the Level-1 Muon Trigger by rejecting fake muon triggers due to slow charged particles (typically protons) without degrading the efficiency of the trigger. The main activity of the Tile-Muon Trigger in the ATLAS Phase-0 upgrade program was to install and to activate the TileCal signal processor module for providing trigger inputs to the Level-1 Muon Trigger. This report describes the Tile-Muon Trigger, focusing on the new detector electronics such as the Tile Muon Digitizer Board (TMDB) that receives, digitizes and then provides the signal from eight TileCal modules to three Level-1 muon endcap Sector-Logic Boards.

  7. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed.

  8. Using Neural Networks to Detect Di-muon Tracks for Fermilab E906/SeaQuest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, Paul; SeaQuest Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The experiment E906/SeaQuest aims to gain further insight into the nucleon quark sea by gathering information about the anti-down/anti-up ratio produced by Drell-Yan events. SeaQuest collides a 120 GeV proton beam with one of several targets, liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, carbon, tungsten, iron, and two calibration targets, empty target and no target. The di-muon pairs created by the Drell-Yan events are monitored by four detector stations. Each has a set of hodoscopes, stations one, two, and three have wire chambers, and station four, which has a lower resolution, has a set of prop tubes. In order to separate the useful Drell-Yan events from dump events and background noise we employ the use of the hodoscopes to trigger potentially useful events to keep. This neural network would learn to properly discern Drell-Yan events by associating hodoscope readings from real data with results from existing trigger systems. By doing this, we could efficiently replicate existing results while alleviating the processing needed. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  9. Data flow analysis of a highly parallel processor for a level 1 pixel trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Cancelo, G.; Gottschalk, Erik Edward; Pavlicek, V.; Wang, M.; Wu, J.

    2003-01-01

    The present work describes the architecture and data flow analysis of a highly parallel processor for the Level 1 Pixel Trigger for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. First the Level 1 Trigger system is described. Then the major components are analyzed by resorting to mathematical modeling. Also, behavioral simulations are used to confirm the models. Results from modeling and simulations are fed back into the system in order to improve the architecture, eliminate bottlenecks, allocate sufficient buffering between processes and obtain other important design parameters. An interesting feature of the current analysis is that the models can be extended to a large class of architectures and parallel systems.

  10. The BaBar Level 1 Drift-Chamber Trigger Upgrade With 3D Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, X.D.; /Iowa U.

    2005-11-29

    At BABAR, the Level 1 Drift Chamber trigger is being upgraded to reduce increasing background rates while the PEP-II luminosity keeps improving. This upgrade uses the drift time information and stereo wires in the drift chamber to perform a 3D track reconstruction that effectively rejects background events spread out along the beam line.

  11. Design and Implementation of the New D0 Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Anderson, J.; Bagby, L.; Ban, J.; Barberis, E.; Beale, S.; Benitez, J.; Biehl, J.; /Columbia U. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Delhi U. /Fermilab /Florida State U. /Indiana U. /Michigan State U. /Northeastern U. /Rice U. /Southern Methodist U. /University Coll., Dublin

    2007-09-01

    Increasing luminosity at the Fermilab Tevatron collider has led the D0 collaboration to make improvements to its detector beyond those already in place for Run IIa, which began in March 2001. One of the cornerstones of this Run IIb upgrade is a completely redesigned level-1 calorimeter trigger system. The new system employs novel architecture and algorithms to retain high efficiency for interesting events while substantially increasing rejection of background. We describe the design and implementation of the new level-1 calorimeter trigger hardware and discuss its performance during Run IIb data taking. In addition to strengthening the physics capabilities of D0, this trigger system will provide valuable insight into the operation of analogous devices to be used at LHC experiments.

  12. A 250 MHz Level 1 Trigger and Distribution System for the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, David J.; Cuevas, R. Christopher; Doughty, David Charles; Jastrzembski, Edward A.; Barbosa, Fernando J.; Raydo, Benjamin J.; Dong, Hai T.; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Abishek; Taylor, Mark; Somov, S.

    2009-11-01

    The GlueX detector now under construction at Jefferson Lab will search for exotic mesons though photoproduction (10^8 tagged photons per second) on a liquid hydrogen target. A Level 1 hardware trigger design is being developed to reduce total electromagnetic (>200 MHz) and hadronic (>350 kHz) rates to less than 200 kHz. This trigger is dead timeless and operates on a global synchronized 250 MHz clock. The core of the trigger design is based on a custom pipelined flash ADC board that uses a VXS backplane to collect samples from all ADCs in a VME crate. A custom switch-slot board called a Crate Trigger Processor (CTP) processes this data and passes the crate level data via a multi-lane fiber optic link to the Global Trigger Processing Crate (also VXS). Within this crate detector sub-system processor (SSP) boards can accept all individual crate links. The subsystem data are processed and finally passed to global trigger boards (GTP) where the final L1 decision is made. We present details of the trigger design and report some performance results on current prototype systems.

  13. ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger: Run-2 performance and Phase-1 upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Ben; Hong, Tae Min; Atlas Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Run-2 performance and Phase-1 upgrade are presented for the hardware-based level-1 calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) for the ATLAS Experiment. This trigger has a latency of about 2.2 microseconds to make a decision to help ATLAS select about 100 kHz of the most interesting collisions from the nominal LHC rate of 40 MHz. We summarize the upgrade after Run-1 (2009-2012) and discuss its performance in Run-2 (2015-current). We also outline the on-going Phase-1 upgrade for the next run (2021-2024) and its expected performance.

  14. The CMS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger for the LHC Run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabi, A.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Davignon, O.; Romanteau, T.; Strebler, T.; Cepeda, M.; Sauvan, J. B.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Taylor, J.; Foudas, C.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Breeze, S.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Shtipliyski, A.; Tapper, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Forbes, R.; Gorski, T.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W.; Svetek, A.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.

    2017-01-01

    Results from the completed Phase 1 Upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger are presented. The upgrade was performed in two stages, with the first running in 2015 for proton and heavy ion collisions and the final stage for 2016 data taking. The Level-1 trigger has been fully commissioned and has been used by CMS to collect over 43 fb‑1 of data since the start of the Run II of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The new trigger has been designed to improve the performance at high luminosity and large number of simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing (pile-up). For this purpose it uses a novel design, the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT), which enables the data from an event to be processed by a single trigger processor at full granularity over several bunch crossings. The TMT design is a modular design based on the μTCA standard. The trigger processors are instrumented with Xilinx Virtex-7 690 FPGAs and 10 Gbps optical links. The TMT architecture is flexible and the number of trigger processors can be expanded according to the physics needs of CMS. Sophisticated and innovative algorithms are now the core of the first decision layer of the experiment. The system has been able to adapt to the outstanding performance of the LHC, which ran with an instantaneous luminosity well above design. The performance of the system for single physics objects are presented along with the optimizations foreseen to maintain the thresholds for the harsher conditions expected during the LHC Run II and Run III periods.

  15. The architecture of the CMS Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring System using UML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrans de Abril, Marc; Da Rocha Melo, Jose L.; Ghabrous Larrea, Carlos; Hammer, Josef; Hartl, Christian; Lazaridis, Christos

    2011-12-01

    The architecture of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Level-1 Trigger Control and Monitoring software system is presented. This system has been installed and commissioned on the trigger online computers and is currently used for data taking. It has been designed to handle the trigger configuration and monitoring during data taking as well as all communications with the main run control of CMS. Furthermore its design has foreseen the provision of the software infrastructure for detailed testing of the trigger system during beam down time. This is a medium-size distributed system that runs over 40 PCs and 200 processes that control about 4000 electronic boards. The architecture of this system is described using the industry-standard Universal Modeling Language (UML). This way the relationships between the different subcomponents of the system become clear and all software upgrades and modifications are simplified. The described architecture has allowed for frequent upgrades that were necessary during the commissioning phase of CMS when the trigger system evolved constantly. As a secondary objective, the paper provides a UML usage example and tries to encourage the standardization of the software documentation of large projects across the LHC and High Energy Physics community.

  16. The upgrade of the PreProcessor system of the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, V.; Hanke, P.; Jongmanns, J.; Khomich, A.; Meier, K.; Schmitt, K.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Stamen, R.; Stock, P.; Wessels, M.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a pipelined system to identify high-pT objects and to build energy sums within a fixed latency of ~ 2 μs. It consists of a PreProcessor, which conditions and digitises analogue calorimeter signals, and two object-finding processors. The PreProcessor's tasks are implemented on a Multi-Chip Module, holding ADCs, time-adjustment and digital processing ASICs, and LVDS serialisers. A pin-compatible substitute, based on today's technology, like dual-channel ADCs and FPGAs, has been built to improve the BCID and pedestal subtraction algorithms. Test results with the first prototype are presented.

  17. Upgrade of the PreProcessor system for the ATLAS level-1 calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, A.

    2010-12-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardware-based pipelined system designed to identify high-PT objects in the ATLAS calorimeters within a fixed latency of 2.5 us. It consists of three subsystems: the PreProcessor which conditions and digitises analogue signals and two digital processors. The majority of the PreProcessor's tasks are performed on a dense Multi-Chip Module(MCM) consisting of FADCs, a time-adjustment and digital processing ASICs, and LVDS serialisers designed and implemented in ten year old technologies. An MCM substitute, based on today's components (dual channel FADCs and FPGA), is being developed to enhance the flexibility of the digital processing and to profit from state-of-the-art electronics. The development and first test results are presented.

  18. An FPGA based Topological Processor prototype for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauss, B.; Büscher, V.; Degele, R.; Ji, W.; Moritz, S.; Reiss, A.; Schäfer, U.; Simioni, E.; Tapprogge, S.; Wenzel, V.

    2012-12-01

    Starting in 2014, the LHC will collide bunches of protons at up to 14 TeV with an instantaneous luminosity increasing above the design value of 1 × 1034 cm-2s-1. Even though the resulting higher event rate will challenge the existing ATLAS data acquisition system, the trigger rate can be reduced by selecting channels based on their expected decay topology and thus reducing background. This will be achieved by introducing a new FPGA based module in the Level-1 Trigger: the Topological Processor (L1Topo). With L1Topo it will be possible to concentrate detailed information from the entire calorimeters and the muon detector into a single module. L1Topo will receive a total aggregate bandwidth of ≈ 1 Tb/s. High density optical I/O and state of the art FPGAs with embedded multi-Gb/s transceivers will be required. For a typical algorithm, the topology data will be processed in less than 100 ns. This paper focuses on the design of the first L1Topo prototype and results from a full-size, full-function demonstrator module. Implementation details of a topological algorithm and latency figures are presented.

  19. Hash sorter - firmware implementation and an application for the Fermilab BTeV level 1 trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Jinyuan Wu et al.

    2003-11-05

    A hardware hash sorter for the Fermilab BTeV Level 1 trigger system will be presented. The has sorter examines track-segment data before the data are sent to a system comprised of 2500 Level 1 processors, and rearranges the data into bins based on the slope of track segments. They have found that by using the rearranged data, processing time is significantly reduced allowing the total number of processors required for the Level 1 trigger system to be reduced. The hash sorter can be implemented in an FPGA that is already included as part of the design of the trigger system. Hash sorting has potential applications in a broad area in trigger and DAQ systems. It is a simple O(n) process and is suitable for FPGA implementation. Several implementation strategies will also be discussed in this document.

  20. The CMS Level-1 electron and photon trigger: for Run II of LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, N.; Jessop, C.; Meng, F.; Marinelli, N.; Taroni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Davignon, O.; Romanteau, T.; Strebler, T.; Zabi, A.; Sauvan, J. B.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Taylor, J.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Shtipliyski, A.; Tapper, A.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Xia, F.

    2017-02-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) employs a sophisticated two-level online triggering system that has a rejection factor of up to 105. Since the beginning of Run II of LHC, the conditions that CMS operates in have become increasingly challenging. The centre-of-mass energy is now 13 TeV and the instantaneous luminosity currently peaks at 1.5 ×1034 cm‑2s‑1. In order to keep low physics thresholds and to trigger efficiently in such conditions, the CMS trigger system has been upgraded. A new trigger architecture, the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT) has been introduced which allows the full granularity of the calorimeters to be exploited at the first level of the online trigger. The new trigger has also benefited immensely from technological improvements in hardware. Sophisticated algorithms, developed to fully exploit the advantages provided by the new hardware architecture, have been implemented. The new trigger system started taking physics data in 2016 following a commissioning period in 2015, and since then has performed extremely well. The hardware and firmware developments, electron and photon algorithms together with their performance in challenging 2016 conditions is presented.

  1. Measurements of the center-of-mass energies at BESIII via the di-muon process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablikim, M.; N. Achasov, M.; C. Ai, X.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; J. Ambrose, D.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, Ferroli R.; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Y. Deng, Z.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Q. Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kühn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Cheng, Li; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Fang, Liu; Feng, Liu; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. Y.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales Morales, C.; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A. A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, B. K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, A. Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; , S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; BESIII Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    From 2011 to 2014, the BESIII experiment collected about 5 fb-1 data at center-of-mass energies around 4 GeV for the studies of the charmonium-like and higher excited charmonium states. By analyzing the di-muon process e+e- → γISR/FSRμ+μ-, the center-of-mass energies of the data samples are measured with a precision of 0.8 MeV. The center-of-mass energy is found to be stable for most of the time during data taking. Supported by National Key Basic Research Program of China (2015CB856700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11125525, 11235011, 11322544, 11335008, 11425524, Y61137005C), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program, CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP), Collaborative Innovation Center for Particles and Interactions (CICPI), Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of NSFC and CAS (11179007, U1232201, U1332201), CAS (KJCX2-YW-N29, KJCX2-YW-N45), 100 Talents Program of CAS, National 1000 Talents Program of China, INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, German Research Foundation DFG (Collaborative Research Center CRC-1044), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy, Ministry of Development of Turkey (DPT2006K-120470), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (14-07-91152), Swedish Research Council, U. S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-04ER41291, DE-FG02-05ER41374, DE-FG02-94ER40823, DESC0010118), U.S. National Science Foundation, University of Groningen (RuG) and Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt, WCU Program of National Research Foundation of Korea (R32-2008-000-10155-0).

  2. Using modern software tools to design, simulate and test a Level 1 trigger sub-system for the D Zero Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Angstadt, R.; Borcherding, F.; Johnson, M.E.; Moreira, L.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a system which uses a commercial spreadsheet program and commercial hardware on an IBM PC to develop and test a track finding system for the D Zero Level 1 scintillating Fiber Trigger. The trigger system resides in a VME crate. This system allows the user to generate test input, write the pattern to the hardware simulate the results in software, read the hardware result: compare the results and inform the user of any differences.

  3. J/ψ and ϒ measurements via the di-muon channel in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV with the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Rongrong

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of quarkonium production in heavy-ion collisions have played an essential role in understanding the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma created in such collisions. In early 2014, the Muon Telescope Detector, designed to trigger on and identify muons based on its precise timing information, was fully installed in STAR. It opens the door to measure quarkonia via the di-muon channel for the first time at the STAR experiment, with the potential to separate different ϒ states. In this talk, we present the measurements of J / ψ suppression and elliptic flow at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV down to low transverse momentum (pT). The suppression is found to decrease with increasing pT while the elliptic flow is consistent with 0 for pT above 2 GeV/c. Furthermore, the measurement of different ϒ states is explored within the precision of the available statistics.

  4. Search for Di-Muon Decays of a Light Scalar Higgs Boson in Radiative Upsilon(1S) Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Vindhyawasini

    2013-08-01

    We search for di-muon decays of a low-mass Higgs boson (A0) in the fully reconstructed decay chain of Υ(2S, 3S ) → π+π-Υ(1S ), Υ(1S ) → γA0, A0 → μ+μ+. The A0 is predicted by several extensions of the Standard Model (SM), including the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM). NMSSM introduces a CP-odd light Higgs boson whose mass could be less than 10 GeV/c2. The data samples used in this analysis contain 92.8 × 106 Υ(2S ) and 116.8 × 106 Υ(3S ) events collected by the BABAR detector. The Υ(1S ) sample is selected by tagging the pion pair in the Υ(2S, 3S ) → π+π-Υ(1S ) transitions. We find no evidence for A0 production and set 90% confidence level (C.L.) upper limits on the product branching fraction B(Υ(1S ) → γA0) × B(A0 → μ+μ-) in the range of (0.28 - 9.7) × 10-6 for 0.212 ≤ mA0 ≤ 9.20 GeV/c2. We also combine our results with previous BABAR results of Υ(2S, 3S ) → γA0, A0 → μ+μ- to set limits on the effective coupling ( fΥ) of the b-quark to the A0, f 2 Υ × B(A0 → μ+μ-), at the level of (0.29- 40) × 10-6 for 0.212 ≤ mA0 ≤ 9.2 GeV/c2.

  5. Quarkonium measurements via the di-muon decay channel in p+p and Au+Au collisions with the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoroki, Takahito; STAR collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present the rst J/ψ and measurements in the di-muon decay channel at mid-rapidity at RHIC using the newly installed Muon Telescope Detector. In p+p collisions at , inclusive J/ψ cross section can be described by CGC+NRQCD and NLO NRQCD model calculations for 0 < pT < 20 GeV/c. In Au+Au collisions at , we observe (i) clear J/ψ suppression indicating dissociation; (ii) J/ψ RAA can be qualitatively described by transport models including dissociation and regeneration with a tension at high pT ; and (iii) hint of less melting of ϒ(2S + 3S) relative to ϒ(1S) at RHIC compared to that at LHC.

  6. TES Level 1B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    TES Level 1B data files contain radiometric calibrated spectral radiances and their ... and some engineering data are also provided. A Level 1B data file contains data from a single TES orbit for one focal ... as the Aura orbit number at the time of the South Pole apex crossing. version id represents the version identification number, ...

  7. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... MISR Level 1A Products Level 1A Engineering Data File Type 1 and Level 1A Navigation Data Processing ... Product Specification Rev K  (PDF). Transparent software rebuild with Irix 6.5.2 OS. F01_0007 (FM_ENG), ...

  8. FPGA-based Trigger System for the Fermilab SeaQuest Experimentz

    SciTech Connect

    Shiu, Shiuan-Hal; Wu, Jinyuan; McClellan, Randall Evan; Chang, Ting-Hua; Chang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Yen-Chu; Gilman, Ron; Nakano, Kenichi; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Su-Yin

    2015-09-10

    The SeaQuest experiment (Fermilab E906) detects pairs of energetic μ+ and μ-produced in 120 GeV/c proton–nucleon interactions in a high rate environment. The trigger system we used consists of several arrays of scintillator hodoscopes and a set of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based VMEbus modules. Signals from up to 96 channels of hodoscope are digitized by each FPGA with a 1-ns resolution using the time-to-digital convertor (TDC) firmware. The delay of the TDC output can be adjusted channel-by-channel in 1-ns step and then re-aligned with the beam RF clock. The hit pattern on the hodoscope planes is then examined against pre-determined trigger matrices to identify candidate muon tracks. Finally, information on the candidate tracks is sent to the 2nd-level FPGA-based track correlator to find candidate di-muon events. The design and implementation of the FPGA-based trigger system for SeaQuest experiment are presented.

  9. FPGA-based Trigger System for the Fermilab SeaQuest Experimentz

    DOE PAGES

    Shiu, Shiuan-Hal; Wu, Jinyuan; McClellan, Randall Evan; ...

    2015-09-10

    The SeaQuest experiment (Fermilab E906) detects pairs of energetic μ+ and μ-produced in 120 GeV/c proton–nucleon interactions in a high rate environment. The trigger system we used consists of several arrays of scintillator hodoscopes and a set of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based VMEbus modules. Signals from up to 96 channels of hodoscope are digitized by each FPGA with a 1-ns resolution using the time-to-digital convertor (TDC) firmware. The delay of the TDC output can be adjusted channel-by-channel in 1-ns step and then re-aligned with the beam RF clock. The hit pattern on the hodoscope planes is then examined againstmore » pre-determined trigger matrices to identify candidate muon tracks. Finally, information on the candidate tracks is sent to the 2nd-level FPGA-based track correlator to find candidate di-muon events. The design and implementation of the FPGA-based trigger system for SeaQuest experiment are presented.« less

  10. Dynamic triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  11. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  12. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Redness in your cut or hand Swelling or warmth in your cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  13. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  14. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  15. Level 1 Daq System for Kloe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisio, A.; Cavaliere, S.; Cevenini, F.; Della Volpe, D.; Merola, L.; Anastasio, A.; Fiore, D. J.

    KLOE is a general purpose detector optimized to observe CP violation in K0 decays. This detector will be installed at the DAΦNE Φ-factory, in Frascati (Italy) and it is expected to run at the end of 1997. The KLOE DAQ system can be divided mainly into the front-end fast readout section (the Level 1 DAQ), the FDDI Switch and the processor farm. The total bandwidth requirement is estimated to be of the order of 50 Mbyte/s. In this paper, we describe the Level 1 DAQ section, which is based on custom protocols and hardware controllers, developed to achieve high data transfer rates and event building capabilities without software overhead.

  16. PLANCK LFI Level 1 Processing During Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.; Galeotta, S.

    2008-08-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is foreseen to be launched in August 2008 with Ariane 5. The Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy for LFI is responsible for processing the PLANCK LFI data. The ISDC data centre in Switzerland is responsible for developing/installing and maintaining the software for the LFI Level 1 data processing presented here. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available consolidated scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument from the Mission Operation Centre in Darmstadt (MOC); to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI). The TOI data generated by the level 1 pipeline are the input for the more scientific LFI level 2 processing. The TOI are first stored in FITS format and then ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) system, which is the interface to the LFI DPC database. In addition, the ISDC also developed software tools to display and perform a quick look analysis of the data.

  17. 3D-Flow processor for a programmable Level-1 trigger (feasibility study)

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, D.

    1992-10-01

    A feasibility study has been made to use the 3D-Flow processor in a pipelined programmable parallel processing architecture to identify particles such as electrons, jets, muons, etc., in high-energy physics experiments.

  18. GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Gazarik, Michael J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Johnson, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) SensorModule (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiances using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B algorithms involved in the calibration. The GIFTS Level 1B calibration procedures can be subdivided into four blocks. In the first block, the measured raw interferograms are first corrected for the detector nonlinearity distortion, followed by the complex filtering and decimation procedure. In the second block, a phase correction algorithm is applied to the filtered and decimated complex interferograms. The resulting imaginary part of the spectrum contains only the noise component of the uncorrected spectrum. Additional random noise reduction can be accomplished by applying a spectral smoothing routine to the phase-corrected spectrum. The phase correction and spectral smoothing operations are performed on a set of interferogram scans for both ambient and hot blackbody references. To continue with the calibration, we compute the spectral responsivity based on the previous results, from which, the calibrated ambient blackbody (ABB), hot blackbody (HBB), and scene spectra can be obtained. We now can estimate the noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) from the calibrated ABB and HBB spectra. The correction schemes that compensate for the fore-optics offsets and off-axis effects are also implemented. In the third block, we developed an efficient method of generating pixel performance assessments. In addition, a

  19. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, J.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Jeitler, M.; Matsushita, T.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2016-02-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  20. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  1. The D0 run II trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; /Michigan State U.

    2004-11-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II.

  2. High Level Trigger Configuration and Handling of Trigger Tables in the CMS Filter Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Perez, J L; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mlot, E G; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Racz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2009-11-22

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being commissioned and is scheduled to collect the first pp collision data in 2008. CMS features a two-level trigger system. The Level-1 trigger, based on custom hardware, is designed to reduce the collision rate of 40 MHz to approximately 100 kHz. Data for events accepted by the Level-1 trigger are read out and assembled by an Event Builder. The High Level Trigger (HLT) employs a set of sophisticated software algorithms, to analyze the complete event information, and further reduce the accepted event rate for permanent storage and analysis. This paper describes the design and implementation of the HLT Configuration Management system. First experiences with commissioning of the HLT system are also reported.

  3. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  4. Level 1 Radiance Scaling and Conditioning Algorithm Theoretical Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruegge, C.; Diner, D.; Korechoff, R.; Lee, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATB) document describes the algorithms used to produce the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) Level 1B1 Radiometric Product, and certain parameters of the Level 1A Reformatted Annotated Product.

  5. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  6. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  7. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  8. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  9. The Time-of-Flight trigger at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; Mulhearn, M.J.; Paus, Ch.; Schieferdecker, P.; Tether, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Shaw, T.; Acosta, D.; Konigsberg, J.; Madorsky, A.; /Florida U.

    2006-05-01

    The Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector measures the arrival time and deposited energy of charged particles reaching scintillator bars surrounding the central tracking region of the CDF detector. Requiring high ionization in the TOF system provides a unique trigger capability, which has been used for a magnetic monopole search. Other uses, with smaller pulse height thresholds, include a high-multiplicity charged-particle trigger useful for QCD studies and a much improved cosmic ray trigger for calibrating other detector components. Although not designed as input to CDF's global Level 1 trigger, the TOF system has been easily adapted to this role by the addition of 24 cables, new firmware, and four custom TOF trigger boards (TOTRIBs). This article describes the TOF trigger.

  10. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  11. Agriculture, Levels 1-4. Agriculture & Commercial Horticulture, Levels 1-4. Commercial Horticulture, Levels 1-3. Environmental Conservation, Levels 2-4. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  12. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; /UC, Irvine /AGH-UST, Cracow /Birmingham U. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Rutherford /Montreal U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Birmingham U. /Copenhagen U. /Copenhagen U. /Brookhaven /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Montreal U. /SLAC /CERN /Michigan State U. /Chile U., Catolica /City Coll., N.Y. /Oxford U. /La Plata U. /McGill U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /CERN /Rutherford /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Birmingham U. /Montreal U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Liverpool U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Geneva U. /Birmingham U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /AGH-UST, Cracow /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Michigan State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /CERN /Montreal U. /Stockholm U. /Arizona U. /Regina U. /Regina U. /Rutherford /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /City Coll., N.Y. /University Coll. London /Humboldt U., Berlin /Queen Mary, U. of London /Argonne /LPSC, Grenoble /Arizona U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Antonio Narino U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Chile U., Catolica /Indiana U. /Manchester U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Rutherford /City Coll., N.Y. /Stockholm U. /La Plata U. /Antonio Narino U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Antonio Narino U. /Pavia U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Pennsylvania U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Chile U., Catolica /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Rutherford /Barcelona, IFAE /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /McGill U. /Rutherford /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /Rutherford /Chile U., Catolica /Brookhaven /Oregon U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /McGill U. /Antonio Narino U. /Antonio Narino U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Sydney U. /Rutherford /McGill U. /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Moscow State U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Birmingham U. /Geneva U. /Oregon U. /Barcelona, IFAE /University Coll. London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Birmingham U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Oregon U. /La Plata U. /Geneva U. /Chile U., Catolica /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Regina U. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Oxford U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /UC, Irvine /UC, Irvine /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rutherford /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Geneva U. /Copenhagen U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Stockholm U. /University Coll. London

    2011-12-08

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  13. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  14. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions stuff in the air, like smoke and pollution colds or the flu weather conditions exercise continue ... given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ...

  15. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  16. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  17. Public Notification - RTCR Failure To Perform Level 1 Assessment Template

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When a PWS fails to perform a required Level 1 Assessment, it must issue a public notice to inform the consumers of its water of that failure. You can use this template as a guide to prepare that public notice.

  18. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Level 1A Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jester, Peggy L.; Hancock, David W., III

    2012-01-01

    The first process of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Science Algorithm Software converts the Level 0 data into the Level 1A Data Products. The Level 1A Data Products are the time ordered instrument data converted from counts to engineering units. This document defines the equations that convert the raw instrument data into engineering units. Required scale factors, bias values, and coefficients are defined in this document. Additionally, required quality assurance and browse products are defined in this document.

  19. Indiana Reading List. [Levels 1, 2, 3, and 4].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This reading list is designed as a companion piece to Indiana's Academic Standards in English/Language Arts and is organized on four levels: Level 1, Grades K-2; Level 2, Grades 3-5; Level 3, Grades 6-8; and Level 4, Grades 9-12. It contains titles and authors for approximately 800 works. The Level 1 Reading List contains these sections: fiction…

  20. Triggered Earthquakes Following Parkfield?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    When the M5.0 Arvin earthquake struck approximately 30 hours after the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, it seemed likely if not obvious that the latter had triggered the former. The odds of a M5.0 or greater event occurring by random chance in a given 2-day window is low, on the order of 2%. However, previously published results suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes are observed only following much larger mainshocks, typically M7 or above. Moreover, using a standard beta-statistic approach, one finds no pervasive regional increase of seismicity in the weeks following the Parkfield mainshock. (Neither were any moderate events observed at regional distances following the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes.) Was Arvin a remotely triggered earthquake? To address this issue further I compare the seismicity rate changes following the Parkfield mainshock with those following 14 previous M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in central and southern California. I show that, on average, seismicity increased to a distance of at least 120 km following these events. For all but the M7.1 Hector Mine mainshock, this is well beyond the radius of what would be considered a traditional aftershock zone. Average seismicity rates also increase, albeit more weakly, to a distance of about 220 km. These results suggest that even moderate mainshocks in central and southern California do trigger seismicity at distances up to 220 km, supporting the inference that Arvin was indeed a remotely triggered earthquake. In general, only weak triggering is expected following moderate (M5.5-6.5) mainshocks. However, as illustrated by Arvin and, in retrospect, the 1986 M5.5 Oceanside earthquake, which struck just 5 days after the M5.9 North Palm Springs earthquake, triggered events can sometimes be large enough to generate public interest, and anxiety.

  1. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  2. The CMS trigger system

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  3. The CMS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. 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S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. 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M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova PANEVA, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  4. The CMS electron and photon trigger for the LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezoort, Gage; Xia, Fan

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level triggering system composed of Level-1, instrumented by custom-design hardware boards, and a software High-Level-Trigger. A new Level-1 trigger architecture with improved performance is now being used to maintain the thresholds that were used in LHC Run I for the more challenging luminosity conditions experienced during Run II. The upgrades to the calorimetry trigger will be described along with performance data. The algorithms for the selection of final states with electrons and photons, both for precision measurements and for searches of new physics beyond the Standard Model, will be described in detail.

  5. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  6. Missing Transverse Momentum Trigger Performance Studies for the ATLAS Calorimeter Trigger Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamas, Brianna; Parrish, Elliot; Lisi, Luc; Dudley, Christopher; Majewski, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is one of two general purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. In anticipation of discovering new physics, the detector will undergo numerous hardware upgrades including improvements to the Liquid Argon Calorimeter trigger electronics. For the upgrade, one component of the Level-1 trigger system will be the global feature extractor, gFEX, which will house three field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Specifically, in order to improve the missing transverse energy (ETmiss)trigger, an adapted topological clustering algorithm is being investigated for implementation on the FPGAs for reconstruction of proton-proton interactions in the ATLAS detector. Using simulated data, this study analyzes the performance of the adapted algorithm in software.

  7. Triggered Nanoparticles as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Soo; Duncan, Bradley; Creran, Brian; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drug delivery systems (DDSs) face several challenges including site-specific delivery, stability, and the programmed release of drugs. Engineered nanoparticle (NP) surfaces with responsive moieties can enhance the efficacy of DDSs for in vitro and in vivo systems. This triggering process can be achieved through both endogenous (biologically controlled release) and exogenous (external stimuli controlled release) activation. In this review, we will highlight recent examples of the use of triggered release strategies of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:24159362

  8. Trigger Circuit for Marx Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-08

    A trigger circuit is provided for a trigger system for a Marx generator column. The column includes a plurality of metal electrode pairs wherein the...electrode (trigatron) spark gap switch forming the first spark gap of the Marx generator column. The triggering circuit includes a trigger

  9. Level 1 Processing of MODIS Direct Broadcast Data From Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Smith, Peter; Shotland, Larry; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; Zhu, Ming

    2000-01-01

    In February 2000, an effort was begun to adapt the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 1 production software to process direct broadcast data. Three Level 1 algorithms have been adapted and packaged for release: Level 1A converts raw (level 0) data into Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), unpacking packets into scans; Geolocation computes geographic information for the data points in the Level 1A; and the Level 1B computes geolocated, calibrated radiances from the Level 1A and Geolocation products. One useful aspect of adapting the production software is the ability to incorporate enhancements contributed by the MODIS Science Team. We have therefore tried to limit changes to the software. However, in order to process the data immediately on receipt, we have taken advantage of a branch in the geolocation software that reads orbit and altitude information from the packets themselves, rather than external ancillary files used in standard production. We have also verified that the algorithms can be run with smaller time increments (2.5 minutes) than the five-minute increments used in production. To make the code easier to build and run, we have simplified directories and build scripts. Also, dependencies on a commercial numerics library have been replaced by public domain software. A version of the adapted code has been released for Silicon Graphics machines running lrix. Perhaps owing to its origin in production, the software is rather CPU-intensive. Consequently, a port to Linux is underway, followed by a version to run on PC clusters, with an eventual goal of running in near-real-time (i.e., process a ten-minute pass in ten minutes).

  10. AIDS radio triggers.

    PubMed

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  11. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  12. Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Level 1 Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…

  13. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  14. Trigger developments for ARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ming-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA) is a planned large-scale neutrino detector at the South Pole aiming at observing ultra-high-energy cosmogenic neutrinos via detecting radio Cherenkov radiation from neutrinos' interaction with Antarctic ice. By the end of the austral summer of 2012/13 three detector stations have been deployed at depths of up to 200 m. A prototype detector station has been taking data for two years. The final array is planned to consist of 37 stations with a 200 km^2 coverage, and provide high sensitivity in the range of 10 PeV to 10 EeV. In order to increase the discover potential of the stations, advanced triggering schemes are in development which take into account the topology of signal events. Here a brief status and the triggering schemes in development will be presented, and based on simulations their improvements to ARA neutrino sensitivity will be discussed.

  15. Neural networks for triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  17. MOSFET level 1 and 2 models in APLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankkunen, A.; Andersson, M.; Valtonen, M.

    The Analysis Program for Linear Active Circuits (APLAC) implementations are documented of SPICE level 1 and 2 MOS models. First a set of mappings is derived for handling NMOS and PMOS transistors in all operating regions based on the equations of an NMOS transistor with V(ds) = or greater than 0. Then the model equations of the NMOS transistor are presented. Two drain current models are covered. These are SPICE level 1 and SPICE level 2. The documentation consists of all the equations required for the implementation including the substrate diode model, temperature dependencies, and noise equations. The intrinsic charge models presented are the simplified Yang-Chatterjee models and the Ward-Dutton model. Also the extrinsic capacitance model is documented.

  18. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, M. M.; McVitie, S.

    2009-09-01

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  19. Level-1C Product from AIRS: Principal Component Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Evan M.; Jiang, Yibo; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Elliott, Denis A.; Hannon, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), launched on the EOS Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002, is a grating spectrometer with 2378 channels in the range 3.7 to 15.4 microns. In a grating spectrometer each individual radiance measurement is largely independent of all others. Most measurements are extremely accurate and have very low noise levels. However, some channels exhibit high noise levels or other anomalous behavior, complicating applications needing radiances throughout a band, such as cross-calibration with other instruments and regression retrieval algorithms. The AIRS Level-1C product is similar to Level-1B but with instrument artifacts removed. This paper focuses on the "cleaning" portion of Level-1C, which identifies bad radiance values within spectra and produces substitute radiances using redundant information from other channels. The substitution is done in two passes, first with a simple combination of values from neighboring channels, then with principal components. After results of the substitution are shown, differences between principal component reconstructed values and observed radiances are used to investigate detailed noise characteristics and spatial misalignment in other channels.

  20. SENTINEL-2 Level 1 Products and Image Processing Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillarin, S. J.; Meygret, A.; Dechoz, C.; Petrucci, B.; Lacherade, S.; Tremas, T.; Isola, C.; Martimort, P.; Spoto, F.

    2012-07-01

    In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) program, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. While ensuring data continuity of former SPOT and LANDSAT multi-spectral missions, Sentinel-2 will also offer wide improvements such as a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290 km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high resolution (10 m, 20 m and 60 m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). In this context, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) supports ESA to define the system image products and to prototype the relevant image processing techniques. This paper offers, first, an overview of the Sentinel-2 system and then, introduces the image products delivered by the ground processing: the Level-0 and Level-1A are system products which correspond to respectively raw compressed and uncompressed data (limited to internal calibration purposes), the Level-1B is the first public product: it comprises radiometric corrections (dark signal, pixels response non uniformity, crosstalk, defective pixels, restoration, and binning for 60 m bands); and an enhanced physical geometric model appended to the product but not applied, the Level-1C provides ortho-rectified top of atmosphere reflectance with a sub-pixel multi-spectral and multi-date registration; a cloud and land/water mask is associated to the product. Note that the cloud mask also provides an indication about cirrus. The ground sampling distance of Level-1C product will be 10 m, 20 m or 60 m according to the band. The final Level-1C product is tiled following a pre-defined grid of 100x100 km2, based on UTM/WGS84 reference frame. The

  1. Critical Design Decisions of The Planck LFI Level 1 Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.

    2010-12-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been launched on May 14th with Ariane 5. The ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics in Versoix, Switzerland has developed and maintains the Planck LFI Level 1 software for the Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument, the Sorption Cooler and the 4k Cooler data from Mission Operation Centre (MOC) in Darmstadt; to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI), which will then be used to produce maps of the sky in different spectral bands. The output of the Level 1 software are the TOI files in FITS format, later ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) database. This software has been used during different phases of the LFI instrument development. We started to reuse some ISDC components for the LFI Qualification Model (QM) and we completely rework the software for the Flight Model (FM). This was motivated by critical design decisions taken jointly with the DPC. The main questions were: a) the choice of the data format: FITS or DMC? b) the design of the pipelines: use of the Planck Process Coordinator (ProC) or a simple Perl script? c) do we adapt the existing QM software or do we restart from scratch? The timeline and available manpower are also important issues to be taken into account. We present here the orientation of our choices and discuss their pertinence based on the experience of the final pre-launch tests and the start of real Planck LFI operations.

  2. Solution-focused group therapy for level 1 substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Smock, Sara A; Trepper, Terry S; Wetchler, Joseph L; McCollum, Eric E; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to determine therapeutic effectiveness. Clients in the solution-focused group significantly improved on both the Beck Depression Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire. The clients in the comparison group did not improve significantly on either measure. Therapist skill level and adherence to theoretical models were measured in each group to reduce confounding variables.

  3. Word Frequency Analysis MOS: 96B. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Level 1 PREPARED BY: OPERATIONS DIV, DPFO Coi - COPIES ATOP Oft ,, 109-1 ,.b S0 .ditims b. ,od ! lil I l liliU DISCLAIMER NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS BEST...FORT MOiROE, VIRGINIA 23651 DEC1 lie I .t,., , ..’ t-o" . _ . - ir \\ . " . ! .. * - ,,\\ . . . ’ . . . . . . ,, ,. ,. ~~4W. PREPARE - -.Y, OPERATIONSDIV...FURTHER -IGAPS 14 GARRISON 7 GENFRAL1 GEUC.RAPHIC 9 GIVE 1S GIVEN I GOVERNMENTI GRAVE GREASE I. GP 111 3 GROLP2 GROUPS 2 GliIIDANCE - I GUICE I GUIDES 2 Ho

  4. MODIS. Volume 1: MODIS level 1A software baseline requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, Edward; Fleig, Albert; Ardanuy, Philip; Goff, Thomas; Carpenter, Lloyd; Solomon, Carl; Storey, James

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the level 1A software requirements for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. This includes internal and external requirements. Internal requirements include functional, operational, and data processing as well as performance, quality, safety, and security engineering requirements. External requirements include those imposed by data archive and distribution systems (DADS); scheduling, control, monitoring, and accounting (SCMA); product management (PM) system; MODIS log; and product generation system (PGS). Implementation constraints and requirements for adapting the software to the physical environment are also included.

  5. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 12B. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Subtitle) ’ S. TYPE &F REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Word Frequency Analysis Final 1Si: /63 , 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Skill Level 7. AUTIiOR(,) 0...Word Frequency Analysis (WFA) reports were reproduced exactly as generated via computer printout. The prime users of this document were fully cognizant...AD-A117 203 ARMY TRAINING DEVELOPMENTS INST FORT MONROE VA F/B 5/9 WORD FREQUENCY ANALYSIS . MOSS 128. SKILL LEVELS 1 a 2.4U) MAY 81 A A LON O

  6. Subnanosecond trigger system for ETA

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-05-30

    A high-voltage trigger system capable of triggering 30, 250 kV spark gaps; each with less than +- 1 ns jitter has been constructed. In addition to low jitter rates, the trigger system must be capable of delivering the high voltage pulses to the spark gaps either simultaneously or sequentially as determined by other system requirements. The trigger system consists of several stages of pulse amplification culminating in 160 kV pulses having 30 ns risetime. The trigger system is described and test data provided.

  7. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  8. System design and performances of ASTER Level-1 data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Sumiyuki; Hachiya, Jun; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masatane

    1998-12-01

    ASTER is a multispectral imager which covers wide spectral region from visible to thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands, and will fly on EOS-AM1 in 1999. To meet this wide spectral coverage, ASTER has three optical sensing subsystems (multi-telescope system), VNIR, SWIR and TIR. This multi- telescope configuration requires highly refined ground processing for the generation of Level-1 data products that are radiometrically calibrated and geometrically corrected. A prototype Level-1 processing software system is developed to satisfy these requirements. System design concept adopted includes; (1) 'Automatic Processing,' (2)'ALL-IN-ONE-CONCEPT' in which the processing is carried out using information included in Level-0 data product only, (3) 'MODULE INDEPENDENCE' in which only process control module independently control other modules to change any operational conditions. (4) 'FLEXIBILITY' in which important operation parameters are set from an external component to make the processing condition change easier. The adaptability and the performance of the developed software system are evaluated using simulation data.

  9. Hardware Demonstrator of a Level-1 Track Finding Algorithm with FPGAs for the Phase II CMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieri, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches collide every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 pp interactions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a Level-1 (L1) hardware trigger, able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 μs. This novel L1 trigger will make use of data coming from the silicon tracker to constrain the trigger rate. Goal of this new track trigger will be to build L1 tracks from the tracker information. The architecture that will be implemented in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One possibility is to adopt a system entirely based on FPGA electronic. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp collision data and it is currently being demonstrated in hardware, using the “MP7”, which is a μTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s. Two different implementations of the Hough transform technique are currently under investigation: one utilizes a systolic array to represent the Hough space, while the other exploits a pipelined approach.

  10. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  11. Level1B Performance Evaluation On CryoSat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Tagliani, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    A performance assessment of the CryoSat products for SAR/SARin modes is here presented. The effective across-track IRF has been compared with the expected one, according to the system requirements, and exploiting the calibration products. Then, starting from the along-track processing for Delay/Doppler Radar altimeters, the theoretical model of the along-track IRF for CryoSat has been derived. Moreover the effects of the azimuth windowing on the along-track resolution and on the clutter suppression have been investigated. In particular, the clutter has been evaluated on the Level1b products for both sea ice and ocean scenario, revealing that the azimuth window allows to improve the signal to clutter ratio also in case of ocean waveforms.

  12. BOREAS AFM-5 Level-1 Upper Air Network Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Alan; Hrynkiw, Charmaine; Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-5 team collected and processed data from the numerous radiosonde flights during the project. The goals of the AFM-05 team were to provide large-scale definition of the atmosphere by supplementing the existing Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) aerological network, both temporally and spatially. This data set includes basic upper-air parameters collected from the network of upper-air stations during the 1993, 1994, and 1996 field campaigns over the entire study region. The data are contained in tabular ASCII files. The level-1 upper-air network data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files also are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  13. Word Frequency Analysis MOS: 11H. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    DOCTRINE C0181111 FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA 23851 x r AMA. io 𔃺, >~~* Iq AX ~ ~&v. oS 11H Skill Level 1 PREPARED BY: OPERATIONS DIV, DPFO COPY Of- COPIES ATOP...ANXIETY I AlyI IUID I A’ YrUjRE 5 ANyt , 4 APt ( ’ 2 ARCS 2 P 2 A., r 5 2 APH I APPAAE~iT 9 AlluE AR) 4 APPEA~RANCE 6~j, APPkARS 7 AIPr’JI X 2 APP’LF ’ a...AFLLTCfl 21 ExPiJltNT 7 EXPIFDIEFNTS 11 LL [ XPLkIkfCE 1 E PPI E CE D 2 X P I ; 4. E XPL tI .E1) 1 L1f14FIN I ~XPL A ItI PI I ’L I14 LL\\Tiŗ t ’PLLU f 1

  14. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  15. Design and performance of the phase I upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, J.; Aradi, G.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Jeitler, M.; Matsushita, T.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2017-01-01

    The Global Trigger is the final decision stage of the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS Experiment at the LHC. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. This allows implementing trigger algorithms close to the final analysis selection, combining different physical objects. The flexible and compact new system is presented, together with performance tests at a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Firmware and software developments for the operation and validation of the Global Trigger will also be discussed.

  16. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagliesi, M. G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-05-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5 μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  17. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  18. Validation of the ASTER instrument level 1A scene geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, H.H.; Mullins, K.F.; MacKinnon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument geometry was undertaken by the U.S. ASTER Team, to confirm the geometric correction parameters developed and applied to Level 1A (radiometrically and geometrically raw with correction parameters appended) ASTER data. The goal was to evaluate the geometric quality of the ASTER system and the stability of the Terra spacecraft. ASTER is a 15-band system containing optical instruments with resolutions from 15- to 90-meters; all geometrically registered products are ultimately tied to the 15-meter Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) sub-system. Our evaluation process first involved establishing a large database of Ground Control Points (GCP) in the mid-western United States; an area with features of an appropriate size for spacecraft instrument resolutions. We used standard U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Orthophoto Quads (DOQS) of areas in the mid-west to locate accurate GCPs by systematically identifying road intersections and recording their coordinates. Elevations for these points were derived from USGS Digital Elevation Models (DEMS). Road intersections in a swath of nine contiguous ASTER scenes were then matched to the GCPs, including terrain correction. We found no significant distortion in the images; after a simple image offset to absolute position, the RMS residual of about 200 points per scene was less than one-half a VNIR pixel. Absolute locations were within 80 meters, with a slow drift of about 10 meters over the entire 530-kilometer swath. Using strictly simultaneous observations of scenes 370 kilometers apart, we determined a stereo angle correction of 0.00134 degree with an accuracy of one microradian. The mid-west GCP field and the techniques used here should be widely applicable in assessing other spacecraft instruments having resolutions from 5 to 50-meters. ?? 2008 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  19. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  20. Advanced accident sequence precursor analysis level 1 models

    SciTech Connect

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K.; Schroeder, J.A.; Siu, N.O.

    1996-03-01

    INEL has been involved in the development of plant-specific Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) models for the past two years. These models were developed for use with the SAPHIRE suite of PRA computer codes. They contained event tree/linked fault tree Level 1 risk models for the following initiating events: general transient, loss-of-offsite-power, steam generator tube rupture, small loss-of-coolant-accident, and anticipated transient without scram. Early in 1995 the ASP models were revised based on review comments from the NRC and an independent peer review. These models were released as Revision 1. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research has sponsored several projects at the INEL this fiscal year to further enhance the capabilities of the ASP models. Revision 2 models incorporates more detailed plant information into the models concerning plant response to station blackout conditions, information on battery life, and other unique features gleaned from an Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation quick review of the Individual Plant Examination submittals. These models are currently being delivered to the NRC as they are completed. A related project is a feasibility study and model development of low power/shutdown (LP/SD) and external event extensions to the ASP models. This project will establish criteria for selection of LP/SD and external initiator operational events for analysis within the ASP program. Prototype models for each pertinent initiating event (loss of shutdown cooling, loss of inventory control, fire, flood, seismic, etc.) will be developed. A third project concerns development of enhancements to SAPHIRE. In relation to the ASP program, a new SAPHIRE module, GEM, was developed as a specific user interface for performing ASP evaluations. This module greatly simplifies the analysis process for determining the conditional core damage probability for a given combination of initiating events and equipment failures or degradations.

  1. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  2. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-06

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  3. Integration of the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; Bellomo, M.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    During 2006 and the first half of 2007, the installation, integration and commissioning of trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) equipment in the ATLAS experimental area have progressed. There have been a series of technical runs using the final components of the system already installed in the experimental area. Various tests have been run including ones where level 1 preselected simulated proton-proton events have been processed in a loop mode through the trigger and dataflow chains. The system included the readout buffers containing the events, event building, level 2 and event filter trigger algorithms. The scalability of the system with respect to the number of event building nodes used has been studied and quantities critical for the final system, such as trigger rates and event processing times, have been measured using different trigger algorithms as well as different TDAQ components. This paper presents the TDAQ architecture, the current status of the installation and commissioning and highlights the main test results that validate the system.

  4. The H1 Trigger with Emphasis on Tracking Triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedlberger, J.

    1995-11-01

    Since the commissioning of the electron proton collider HERA in 1992 at DESY the H1 experiment collected data with stable performance. The collision frequency of 10.4 MHz necessitates a pipelined design of the data acquisition and the trigger. A multilevel trigger is used to provide the required selectivity on physics processes and to allow for fast rejection of background events. Subdetector-based, deadtime-free triggers are combined to produce a first level trigger. The dcr φ trigger described herein, extracts its data from the central driftchamber. The drifttime of the signals is measured online and logical functions are applied on the digitized time measurements. To account for different performance parameters of the driftchamber the hardware demands a high flexibility, thus leading to a design with Programmable Gate Arrays (XILINX). Track-finding is achieved by means of ten thousand look-up tables, each with typically 20 inputs. Although the signals for one event will arrive within 1.1 μs, it is possible to determine the timing of the event online within one bunchcrossing (0.096 μs).

  5. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  6. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-26

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  7. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  8. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents.

  9. Detector array control and triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Bartolucci, M. |

    1998-08-01

    A commercial DSP-based board installed in a host-PC was employed for the fast, on-line and real-time computation of special algorithms, in order to perform event selection and operate as a 2nd level trigger. Moreover an ad hoc build interface, realized using PLDs with a view to connecting the DSP-board to the ADCs and to the data acquisition system, has been tested in order to evaluate the performances of these programmable devices used as a look-up-table and as a decisional part of a 1st level trigger.

  10. The performance of the jet trigger for the ATLAS detector during 2011 data taking.

    PubMed

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Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Son, H; Song, H Y; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Stärz, S; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Subramaniam, R; Suchek, S; Sugaya, Y; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Svatos, M; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tam, J Y C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tannenwald, B B; Araya, S Tapia; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Delgado, A Tavares; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, A C; Taylor, G N; Taylor, P T E; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Temple, D; Kate, H Ten; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Tibbetts, M J; Torres, R E Ticse; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Pastor, E Torró; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turgeman, D; Turra, R; Turvey, A J; Tuts, P M; Tyndel, M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usanova, A; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Santurio, E Valdes; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Vallecorsa, S; Ferrer, J A Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vazeille, F; Schroeder, T Vazquez; Veatch, J; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Perez, M Villaplana; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Milosavljevic, M Vranjes; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yakabe, R; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Wong, K H Yau; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zurzolo, G; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the jet trigger for the ATLAS detector at the LHC during the 2011 data taking period is described. During 2011 the LHC provided proton-proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and heavy ion collisions with a 2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision energy. The ATLAS trigger is a three level system designed to reduce the rate of events from the 40 MHz nominal maximum bunch crossing rate to the approximate 400 Hz which can be written to offline storage. The ATLAS jet trigger is the primary means for the online selection of events containing jets. Events are accepted by the trigger if they contain one or more jets above some transverse energy threshold. During 2011 data taking the jet trigger was fully efficient for jets with transverse energy above 25 GeV for triggers seeded randomly at Level 1. For triggers which require a jet to be identified at each of the three trigger levels, full efficiency is reached for offline jets with transverse energy above 60 GeV. Jets reconstructed in the final trigger level and corresponding to offline jets with transverse energy greater than 60 GeV, are reconstructed with a resolution in transverse energy with respect to offline jets, of better than 4 % in the central region and better than 2.5 % in the forward direction.

  11. The performance of the jet trigger for the ATLAS detector during 2011 data taking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Bella, L. Aperio; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Navarro, L. Barranco; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Noccioli, E. Benhar; Benitez, J.; Garcia, J. A. Benitez; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bylund, O. Bessidskaia; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Sola, J. D. Bossio; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Madden, W. D. Breaden; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; de Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.

    2016-10-01

    The performance of the jet trigger for the ATLAS detector at the LHC during the 2011 data taking period is described. During 2011 the LHC provided proton-proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and heavy ion collisions with a 2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision energy. The ATLAS trigger is a three level system designed to reduce the rate of events from the 40 MHz nominal maximum bunch crossing rate to the approximate 400 Hz which can be written to offline storage. The ATLAS jet trigger is the primary means for the online selection of events containing jets. Events are accepted by the trigger if they contain one or more jets above some transverse energy threshold. During 2011 data taking the jet trigger was fully efficient for jets with transverse energy above 25 GeV for triggers seeded randomly at Level 1. For triggers which require a jet to be identified at each of the three trigger levels, full efficiency is reached for offline jets with transverse energy above 60 GeV. Jets reconstructed in the final trigger level and corresponding to offline jets with transverse energy greater than 60 GeV, are reconstructed with a resolution in transverse energy with respect to offline jets, of better than 4 % in the central region and better than 2.5 % in the forward direction.

  12. The performance of the jet trigger for the ATLAS detector during 2011 data taking

    SciTech Connect

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Verzini, M. J. Alconada; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Piqueras, D. Álvarez; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y. Amaral; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Santos, S. P. Amor Dos; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Bella, L. Aperio; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Navarro, L. Barranco; Barreiro, F.; da Costa, J. Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Noccioli, E. Benhar; Benitez, J.; Garcia, J. A. Benitez; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Kuutmann, E. Bergeaas; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bylund, O. Bessidskaia; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; De Mendizabal, J. Bilbao; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Sola, J. D. Bossio; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Madden, W. D. Breaden; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; de Renstrom, P. A. Bruckman; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.

    2016-09-27

    The performance of the jet trigger for the ATLAS detector at the LHC during the 2011 data taking period is described. During 2011 the LHC provided proton–proton collisions with a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and heavy ion collisions with a 2.76 TeV per nucleon–nucleon collision energy. The ATLAS trigger is a three level system designed to reduce the rate of events from the 40 MHz nominal maximum bunch crossing rate to the approximate 400 Hz which can be written to offline storage. The ATLAS jet trigger is the primary means for the online selection of events containing jets. Events are accepted by the trigger if they contain one or more jets above some transverse energy threshold. During 2011 data taking the jet trigger was fully efficient for jets with transverse energy above 25 GeV for triggers seeded randomly at Level 1. For triggers which require a jet to be identified at each of the three trigger levels, full efficiency is reached for offline jets with transverse energy above 60 GeV. Jets reconstructed in the final trigger level and corresponding to offline jets with transverse energy greater than 60 GeV, are reconstructed with a resolution in transverse energy with respect to offline jets, of better than 4 % in the central region and better than 2.5 % in the forward direction.

  13. Upgrade of the Trigger Readout System of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, C. P.

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 1034cm-2s-1. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are employed for all electromagnetic calorimetry in the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, and for hadronic calorimetry in the region from |η| =1.5 to |η| =4.9. The ATLAS LAr calorimeters produce a total of 182,486 signals which are digitized and processed by the front-end and back-end electronics at every triggered event. In addition, the front-end electronics sums analog signals to provide coarsely grained energy sums to the Level-1 trigger system, which is optimized for nominal LHC luminosities. In 2018, an instantaneous luminosity of 2-3 ×1034cm-2s-1 is expected, far beyond the nominal one for which the detector was designed. In order to cope with this increased trigger rate, an improved spatial granularity of the trigger primitives is proposed to improve the identification performance for trigger signatures, like electrons, photons, tau leptons, jets, total and missing energy, at high background rejection rates. For these purposes, a new LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) is being designed to receive higher granularity signals, digitize them on detector and send them via fast optical links to a new LAr digital processing system (LDPS). The LDPS applies a digital filtering and identifies significant energy depositions in each trigger channel. The refined trigger primitives are then transmitted to the Level-1 trigger system to extract improved trigger signatures.

  14. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  15. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  16. A hardware fast tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2016-09-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  17. Using MaxCompiler for the high level synthesis of trigger algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, S.; Rose, A.; Sanders, P.

    2017-02-01

    Firmware for FPGA trigger applications at the CMS experiment is conventionally written using hardware description languages such as Verilog and VHDL. MaxCompiler is an alternative, Java based, tool for developing FPGA applications which uses a higher level of abstraction from the hardware than a hardware description language. An implementation of the jet and energy sum algorithms for the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger has been written using MaxCompiler to benchmark against the VHDL implementation in terms of accuracy, latency, resource usage, and code size. A Kalman Filter track fitting algorithm has been developed using MaxCompiler for a proposed CMS Level-1 track trigger for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The design achieves a low resource usage, and has a latency of 187.5 ns per iteration.

  18. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  19. The CDF silicon vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    B. Ashmanskas; A. Barchiesi; A. Bardi

    2003-06-23

    The CDF experiment's Silicon Vertex Trigger is a system of 150 custom 9U VME boards that reconstructs axial tracks in the CDF silicon strip detector in a 15 {mu}sec pipeline. SVT's 35 {mu}m impact parameter resolution enables CDF's Level 2 trigger to distinguish primary and secondary particles, and hence to collect large samples of hadronic bottom and charm decays. We review some of SVT's key design features. Speed is achieved with custom VLSI pattern recognition, linearized track fitting, pipelining, and parallel processing. Testing and reliability are aided by built-in logic state analysis and test-data sourcing at each board's input and output, a common inter-board data link, and a universal ''Merger'' board for data fan-in/fan-out. Speed and adaptability are enhanced by use of modern FPGAs.

  20. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  1. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  2. Development of autonomous triggering instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Steve E.; Swift, Theresa M.; Fonda, James W.

    2008-03-01

    Triggering instrumentation for autonomous monitoring of load-induced strain is described for economical, fast bridge inspection. The development addresses one aspect for the management of transportation infrastructure - bridge monitoring and inspection. The objectives are to provide quantitative performance information from a load test, to minimize the setup time at the bridge, and to minimize the closure time to traffic. Multiple or networked measurements can be made for a prescribed loading sequence. The proposed smart system consists of in-situ strain sensors, an embedded data acquisition module, and a measurement triggering system. A companion control unit is mounted on the truck serving as the load. As the truck moves to the proper position, the desired measurement is automatically relayed back to the control unit. In this work, the testing protocol is developed and the performance parameters for the triggering and data acquisition are measured. The test system uses a dedicated wireless sensor mote and an infrared positioning system. The electronic procedure offers improvements in available information and economics.

  3. Efficient Distribution of Triggered Synchronous Block Diagrams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-21

    called a trigger. At a given synchronous step, if the trigger is true , the block fires normally; otherwise, the block stutters , that is, keeps its...trigger is false, no updates are made and the values written at the outputs are the same as in the previous step (i.e., the process “ stutters ”). All

  4. Holin triggering in real time.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca; Chiba, Shinobu; Pang, Ting; Dewey, Jill S; Savva, Christos G; Holzenburg, Andreas; Pogliano, Kit; Young, Ry

    2011-01-11

    During λ infections, the holin S105 accumulates harmlessly in the membrane until, at an allele-specific time, suddenly triggering to form irregular holes of unprecedented size (>300 nm), releasing the endolysin from the cytoplasm, resulting in lysis within seconds. Here we used a functional S105-GFP chimera and real-time deconvolution fluorescence microscopy to show that the S105-GFP fusion accumulated in a uniformly distributed fashion, until suddenly, within 1 min, it formed aggregates, or rafts, at the time of lethal triggering. Moreover, the isogenic fusion to a nonlethal S105 mutant remained uniformly distributed, whereas a fusion to an early-lysing mutant showed early triggering and early raft formation. Protein accumulation rates of the WT, early, and nonlethal alleles were identical. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed that the nonlethal mutant and untriggered WT hybrids were highly mobile in the membrane, whereas the WT raft was essentially immobile. Finally, an antiholin allele, S105(ΔTMD1)-mcherryfp, in the product of which the S105 sequence deleted for the first transmembrane domain was fused to mCherryFP. This hybrid retained full antiholin activity, in that it blocked lethal hole formation by the S105-GFP fusion, accumulated uniformly throughout the host membrane and prevented the S105-GFP protein from forming rafts. These findings suggest that phage lysis occurs when the holin reaches a critical concentration and nucleates to form rafts, analogous to the initiation of purple membrane formation after the induction of bacteriorhodopsin in halobacteria. This model for holin function may be relevant for processes in mammalian cells, including the release of nonenveloped viruses and apoptosis.

  5. Infrasonic Observations from Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    We measured acoustic signals during both triggered and natural lightning. A comparative analysis of simultaneous data from the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), acoustic measurements and digital high-speed photography operating in the same area was made. Acoustic emissions, providing quantitative estimates of acoustic power and spectral content, will complement coincident investigations, such as X-ray emissions. Most cloud-to-ground lightning flashes lower negative charge to ground, but flashes that lower positive charge to ground are often unusually destructive and are less understood. The New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. However, positive breakdown is rarely detected by the LMA and positive leader channels are outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped (or partially mapped because they may have recoil events). Acoustic and electric field instruments are a good complement to the LMA, since they can detect both negative and positive leaders. An array of five stations was deployed during the Summer of 2009 (July 20 to August 13) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The stations were located at close (57 m), medium (303 and 537 m) and far (1403 and 2556 m) distances surrounding the triggering site. Each station consisted of five sensors, one infrasonic and one in the audio range at the center, and three infrasonic in a triangular configuration. This research will provide a more complete picture, and provide further insight into the nature of lightning.

  6. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  7. Coherence and Correlates of Level 1 Perspective Taking in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemchuk, Helen P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A total of 86 girls of 2 to 6 years completed Level 1 spatial and affective perspective-taking tasks. Results showed increasingly accurate performance with age. Task intercorrelations and factor analyses provided support for the coherence of the Level 1 perspective-taking construct. (Author/BB)

  8. Manual of Tape Scripts: Italian, Level 1. Curriculum Bulletin, 1968-69 Series, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Gladys; And Others

    This manual of tape scripts, together with a set of foreign language audio tapes for level 1 Italian, was prepared to support the curriculum bulletin, New York City Foreign Language Program for Schools: Italian, Levels 1-4. Vocabulary, repetition, transformation, and recombination drills on specific grammatical features allow further development…

  9. Manual of Tape Scripts: German, Level 1. Curriculum Bulletin, 1968-69 Series, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Gladys; And Others

    This manual of tape scripts, together with a set of foreign language audio tapes for level 1 German, was prepared to support the curriculum bulletin, New York City Foreign Language Program for Secondary Schools: German, Levels 1-4. Vocabulary, repetition, transformation, and recombination drills on specific grammatical features allow further…

  10. Information Technology, Level 1, Level 3, and Level 4. Information Technology for End Users, Levels 1-3. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  11. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Van der Baan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microseismic events are commonly recorded during hydraulic fracturing experiments. In microseismic interpretations, each event is often regarded as independent and uncorrelated to neighboring ones. In reality, both the rock deformation (static stresses) and transient wave motion (dynamic stresses) associated with microseismic events add to the stress field together with the external loading (fluid injection). We believe the resulting static and dynamic stress perturbations will influence both the timing and spatial evolution of the microseismic cloud. We study the dynamic triggering of microseismicity using numerical simulations of a biaxial deformation test by means of a bonded particle method (Potyondy and Cundall, 2004), where crack development can be tracked and analyzed independently. Our methodology is to compare the stress changes due to one specific event with the occurrence of the next few events in the numerical simulations. In addition, we compute the dynamic stress perturbations for recorded large events analytically given their (non-double couple) failure mechanisms. Our results show that cracks following a major event tend to form in zones affected by the dynamic stresses by promoting new failure in areas that are critically stressed. This confirms that dynamic triggering during hydraulic fracturing operations but also larger scale seismicity is likely. It also demonstrates the often complex interplay between the dynamic and static stress changes and their effect on the temporal and spatial evolution of rock deformation at all scales.

  12. The GLAS Standard Data Products Specification-Level 1, Version 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the primary instrument for the ICESat (Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite) laser altimetry mission. ICESat was the benchmark Earth Observing System (EOS) mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. From 2003 to 2009, the ICESat mission provided multi-year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance as well as cloud property information, especially for stratospheric clouds common over polar areas. It also provided topography and vegetation data around the globe, in addition to the polar-specific coverage over the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.This document defines the Level-1 GLAS standard data products. This document addresses the data flow, interfaces, record and data formats associated with the GLAS Level 1 standard data products. GLAS Level 1 standard data products are composed of Level 1A and Level 1B data products. The term standard data products refers to those EOS instrument data that are routinely generated for public distribution. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSDIC) distribute these products. Each data product has a unique Product Identification code assigned by the Senior Project Scientist. GLAS Level 1A and Level 1B Data Products are composed from those Level 0 data that have been reformatted or transformed to corrected and calibrated data in physical units at the full instrument rate and resolution.

  13. Workshop on data acquisition and trigger system simulations for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: DAQSIM: A data acquisition system simulation tool; Front end and DCC Simulations for the SDC Straw Tube System; Simulation of Non-Blocklng Data Acquisition Architectures; Simulation Studies of the SDC Data Collection Chip; Correlation Studies of the Data Collection Circuit & The Design of a Queue for this Circuit; Fast Data Compression & Transmission from a Silicon Strip Wafer; Simulation of SCI Protocols in Modsim; Visual Design with vVHDL; Stochastic Simulation of Asynchronous Buffers; SDC Trigger Simulations; Trigger Rates, DAQ & Online Processing at the SSC; Planned Enhancements to MODSEM II & SIMOBJECT -- an Overview -- R.; DAGAR -- A synthesis system; Proposed Silicon Compiler for Physics Applications; Timed -- LOTOS in a PROLOG Environment: an Algebraic language for Simulation; Modeling and Simulation of an Event Builder for High Energy Physics Data Acquisition Systems; A Verilog Simulation for the CDF DAQ; Simulation to Design with Verilog; The DZero Data Acquisition System: Model and Measurements; DZero Trigger Level 1.5 Modeling; Strategies Optimizing Data Load in the DZero Triggers; Simulation of the DZero Level 2 Data Acquisition System; A Fast Method for Calculating DZero Level 1 Jet Trigger Properties and Physics Input to DAQ Studies.

  14. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  15. Starburst Triggering and Environmental Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    Introduction Stability of a two-fluid medium Mechanisms to trigger starbursts Dynamical mechanisms: non-axisymmetry and torques Angular momentum transfer for the stellar component Angular momentum transfer for the gas component feedback and self-regulation Fueling activity by bars The inner Lindblad resonance Nuclear disks and nuclear bars Bar destruction through mass concentration Gas-dominated central disk Environmental effects Numerical codes and gas modelling Star-formation processes Formation of large complexes Lessons from mergers Gas morphology in mergers Tidal tails and dark matter Ring galaxies Groups and clusters Rich clusters Galaxy evolution Evolution along the hubble sequence Fragility of disks Evolution at high redshift Gas and dark matter Hot gas in rich clusters Self-gravity and fractal structure of the ISM Conclusion

  16. Documentation of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A A

    1988-04-01

    Two basic diagnostic features of myofascial trigger points (TPs), namely, local tenderness and alteration of tissue consistency (such as in taut bands, muscle spasm), can be documented quantitatively by simple hand-held instruments. A pressure threshold meter (algometer) assists in location of TPs and their relative sensitivity. A side-to-side difference exceeding 2kg in comparison with normal values indicates pathologic tenderness. The effect of treatment can be quantified. Pressure tolerance, measured over normal muscles and shin bones, expresses pain sensitivity. Myopathy is suspected if muscle tolerance drops below bone tolerance. Tissue compliance measurement documents objectively and quantitatively alteration in soft tissue consistency. Muscle spasm, tension, spasticity, taut bands, scar tissues, or fibrositic nodules can be documented. The universal clinical dynamometer is used as part of a physical examination to quantify weakness. Thermography (heat imaging) demonstrates discoid shaped hot spots over TPs. Muscle activity, spasm, or contraction is visualized as increased heat emission in the shape of the active muscle.

  17. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    ScienceCinema

    Johnson, Paul

    2016-07-12

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  18. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  19. The Calorimeter Trigger Processor Card: the next generation of high speed algorithmic data processing at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetek, A.; Blake, M.; Cepeda Hermida, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Fobes, R.; Gomber, B.; Gorski, T.; Guo, Z.; Klabbers, P.; Levine, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Ruggles, T.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Tikalsky, J.; Vicente, M.; Woods, N.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Level-1 upgraded calorimeter trigger requires a powerful, flexible and compact processing card. The Calorimeter Trigger Processor Card (CTP7) uses the Virtex-7 FPGA as its primary data processor and is the first FPGA based processing card in CMS to employ the ZYNQ System-on-Chip (SoC) running embedded Linux to provide TCP/IP communication and board support functions. The CTP7 was built from the ground up to support AXI infrastructure to provide flexible and modular designs with minimal time from project conception to final implementation.

  20. A TRD Trigger for the tevatron collider experiment at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Utes, M.; Johnson, M.; Martin, M.

    1991-11-01

    A VME-based module for use as an input to the D0 Detector Level 1.5 Trigger is described. Its main function will be the confirmation of electron candidates flagged by the First Level Calorimeter Trigger using digitized data from the Transition Radiation Detector. Features of the board include the use of fast FIFOs to store incoming track coordinates, dual ported SRAM lookup tables for addressing integrated charge data and forming scalars, multiplier/accumulators for speed of calculation, and a single synchronous finite state machine to control all board operations. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (66 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the

  2. 78 FR 26396 - Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: FBI National Academy Level 1 Evaluation: Student Course...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: FBI National Academy Level 1 Evaluation: Student Course Questionnaire and FBI National Academy: General Remarks Questionnaire ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Training Division's Curriculum Management...

  3. 78 FR 13085 - Proposed Collection, Comments Requested: FBI National Academy Level 1 Evaluation: Student Course...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Proposed Collection, Comments Requested: FBI National Academy Level 1 Evaluation: Student Course Questionnaire and FBI National Academy: General Remarks Questionnaire ACTION: 60-day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Training...

  4. MODIS technical report series. Volume 3: MODIS airborne simulator level 1B data user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumley, Liam E.; Hubanks, Paul A.; Masuoka, Edward J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the characteristics of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) airborne simulator level 1B data, the calibration and geolocation methods used in processing, the structure and format of the level 1B data files, and methods for accessing the data. The MODIS airborne simulator is a scanning spectrometer which flies on a NASA ER-2 and provides spectral information similar to that which will be provided by the MODIS.

  5. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-1a GOES-8 Visible, IR and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets that covered the BOREAS study region. The level-1a GOES-8 images were created by BORIS personnel from the level-1 images delivered by FSU personnel. The data cover 14-Jul-1995 to 21-Sep-1995 and 12-Feb-1996 to 03-Oct-1996. The data start out as three bands with 8-bit pixel values and end up as five bands with 10-bit pixel values. No major problems with the data have been identified. The differences between the level-1 and level-1a GOES-8 data are the formatting and packaging of the data. The images missing from the temporal series of level-1 GOES-8 images were zero-filled by BORIS staff to create files consistent in size and format. In addition, BORIS staff packaged all the images of a given type from a given day into a single file, removed the header information from the individual level-1 files, and placed it into a single descriptive ASCII header file. The data are contained in binary image format files. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-8 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-8 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  7. Internal Triggering Marx Generator Using Hydrogen Thyratrons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Operation of a Marx generator using hydrogen thyratrons as switches, with the switches in the upper stages of the Marx being triggered by a signal...derived from the lower stages (internal triggering) was investigated. The Marx was in a negative output configuration and utilized pulse forming...PFN’s. Timing requirements and erection diagnostics were determined using a two-stage Marx , with both stages triggered from separate external sources

  8. The BTeV trigger: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Penelope; /Fermilab

    2003-12-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The detector is a forward spectrometer with a pixel vertex detector inside a dipole magnet. A unique feature of BTeV is the trigger, which reconstructs tracks and vertices in every beam crossing. They present here an overview of the BTeV trigger and a description of recent improvements in trigger timing.

  9. Real-time data reorganizer for the D0 central fiber tracker trigger system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano Marco Rapisarda, Jamieson T Olsen and Neal George Wilcer

    2002-12-13

    A custom digital data Mixer system has been designed to reorganize, in real time, the data produced by the Fermilab D0 Scintillating Fiber Detector. The data is used for the Level 1 and Level 2 trigger generation. The Mixer System receives the data from the front-end digitization electronics over 320 Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) links running at 371 MHz. The input data is de-serialized down to 53 MHz by the LVDS receivers, clock/frame re-synchronized and multiplexed in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The data is then reserialized at 371 MHz by LVDS transmitters over 320 LVDS output links and sent to the electronics responsible for Level 1 and Level 2 trigger decisions. The Mixer System processes 311 Gigabits per second of data with an input to output delay of 200 nanoseconds.

  10. Prompt trigger primitives for a self-seeded track trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressanandt, N.; Halgeri, A.; Kamat, M.; Koppal, V.; Newcomer, M.

    2012-10-01

    A viable self-seeded track trigger for a high rate collider detector environment must have excellent angular precision, response times commensurate with beam crossing rate and low mass. We have designed a fast clustering block servicing 128 contiguous strips to be included in an LHC upgrade silicon strip front end ASIC (ABC130) with these objectives in mind. The block is based on the presence of an analog front end with binary (threshold determined) strip readout latched at each beam crossing. Combinatorial logic tests for the presence of one or two adjacent strips over threshold, a qualifying cluster, at each beam crossing and transmits up to two, eight bits clusters descriptors, specifying address and cluster width via a high speed LVDS output. It is envisioned that a correlator chip, presently in conception, receives this data and via look-up tables checks for coincident hits between silicon strip layers. Since the clustering output will report the presence of one or two hit strips, a half strip pitch ( ~ 40 um for the ATLAS detector) resolution may be possible for each cluster. Our timing results show that the combinatorial clustering logic will settle within 6 ns. Assuming a beam crossing rate of 40 MHz, 16 bits of serialized data can be shifted out at 640MHz each crossing. This will allow a beam synchronous update rate providing data for up to two clusters for each bank of 128 strips. The data latency into the correlator chip will be only two crossings. Present power estimates suggest that the fast cluster block with LVDS driver will consume less than 12 mW.

  11. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  12. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:25811029

  13. Ionization and Triggered Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritschneder, M.; Lin, D. N. C.; Murray, S. D.; Burkert, A.

    2011-12-01

    We perform a set of high resolution simulations on the impact of the UV-radiation of massive stars on the turbulent interstellar medium with the tree-SPH code iVINE. This parameter study includes different levels and driving scales of the turbulence, different ionizing flux as well as different temperatures and densities of the cold gas. We find a clear correlation between the initial state of the turbulent cloud and the final morphology and physical properties of the structures adjacent to the HII region. From the simulations we are able to derive a criterion for the formation of pillar-like structures and thus the formation of cores and stars. Gravitational collapse occurs regularly on the tips of the structures. We also derive column densities and velocity profiles of our simulations and find these to be in very good agreement with the observations of trunks and cores. In addition, we investigate the further evolution of the pillars once the massive star explodes. This leads to a supernova triggered scenario for the formation of our Solar System.

  14. Nonlinear Dynamical Triggering of Slow-Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. A.; Knuth, M. W.; Kaproth, B. M.; Carpenter, B. M.; Guyer, R. A.; Le Bas, P.; Daub, E. G.; Marone, C.

    2010-12-01

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads (~1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  15. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Knuth, Matthew W; Kaproth, Bryan M; Carpenter, Brett; Guyer, Robert A; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves; Daub, Eric G; Marone, Chris

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  16. A time-multiplexed track-trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G.

    2016-07-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2025. It includes an outer tracker based on special modules of two different types which will construct track stubs using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, to reject low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data outside the detector is under study, using several alternative approaches. One attractive possibility is to exploit a Time Multiplexed design similar to the one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The novel Time Multiplexed Trigger concept is explained, the potential benefits for processing future tracker data are described and a feasible design based on currently existing hardware is outlined.

  17. The Upgrade of the ATLAS Electron and Photon Triggers for LHC Run 2 and their Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Evelyn; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs particle. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based (Level 1) and a software based high level trigger (HLT), both of which were upgraded during the long shutdown of the LHC in preparation for data taking in 2015. The increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions as well as the planned higher center-of-mass energy demanded the optimisation of the trigger selections at each level, to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To improve the performance multivariate analysis techniques are introduced at the HLT. The evolution of the ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance will be presented, including new results from the 2015 LHC Run 2 operation. Submitted on behalf of ATLAS electron and photon combined performance group. Speaker is yet to be chosen.

  18. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  19. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  20. Dark matter triggers of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Varela, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to 1.25 M⊙ rules out primordial black holes with masses ˜1019- 1020 gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as 1024 gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar Collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range 1020- 1022 gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large spacetime volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  1. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  2. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Goals/Objectives and Level 1 Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briones, Janette C.; Johnson, Sandra K.; VanDerAar, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Requirements Document provides the basis for the development of an open architecture for NASA Software Defined Radios (SDRs) for space use. The main objective of this document is to evaluate the goals and objectives and high level (Level 1) requirements that have bearing on the design of the architecture. The goals and objectives will provide broad, fundamental direction and purpose. The high level requirements (Level 1) intend to guide the broader and longer term aspects aspects of the SDR Architecture and provide guidance for the development of level 2 requirements.

  3. Latest Results on Orbitally Excited Strange Bottom Mesons with the CDF II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelov, Igor V.; /New Mexico U.

    2006-10-01

    The authors present the latest results on the spectroscopy of orbitally excited strange bottom mesons from {approx} 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF data. The measurements are performed with fully reconstructed B decays collected by the CDF II detector at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV in both the di-muon and the fully hadronic trigger paths.

  4. Slow Earthquakes Triggered by Typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.

    2006-12-01

    possible to determine whether these slow events are accompanied by non-volcanic tremor, as has been reported for the Nankai subduction and Cascadia slow events. We hypothesize that the slow earthquakes are triggered by the typhoon activity due to the resultant low air pressure over land reducing the locking force on the fault zone. Such repeated slow events may explain why this area of high deformation does not experience very large earthquakes.

  5. Tremors Triggered along the Queen Charlotte Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, deep tectonic tremors have been observed in numerous tectonic environments surrounding the Pacific and Caribbean plates. In these regions, tremors triggered by both regional and distant earthquakes have also been observed. Despite the ubiquitous observations of triggered tremors, tremors triggered in differing strike-slip environments are less understood. Here, we conduct a preliminary search of tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes along the transpressive Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) located between the Cascadia subduction zone and Alaska. Tectonic tremors have not been previously reported along the QCF. We select teleseismic earthquakes during the 1990-2012 period as having magnitude M ≥ 6.5 and occurring at least 1,000 km away from the region. We reduce the number of mainshocks by selecting those that generate greater than 1 kPa dynamic stress estimated from surface-wave magnitude equations [e.g. van der Elst and Brodsky, 2010]. Our mainshock waveforms are retrieved from the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN), processed, and filtered for triggered tremor observations. We characterize triggered tremors as high-frequency signals visible among several stations and coincident with broadband surface wave peaks. So far, we have found tremors triggered along the QCF by surface waves of five great earthquakes - the 2002/11/03 Mw7.9 Denali Fault, 2004/12/26 Mw9.0 Sumatra, 2010/02/27 Mw8.8 Chile, 2011/03/11 Mw9.0 Japan, and 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquakes. We compare our results to tremors triggered by teleseismic earthquakes on strike-slip faults in central and southern California, as well as Cuba [Peng et al., 2012]. Among strike-slip faults in these regions, we also compare triggered tremor amplitudes to peak ground velocities from the mainshocks and compute dynamic stresses to determine a triggering threshold for the QCF. We find that in most cases tremors in the QCF are triggered primarily by the Love waves, and additional

  6. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  7. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  8. BOREAS RSS-14 Level 1a GOES-7 Visible, IR, and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed GOES-7 and -8 images of the BOREAS region as part of its effort to characterize the incoming, reflected, and emitted radiation at regional scales. The level-1a BOREAS GOES-7 image data were collected by RSS-14 personnel at FSU and processed to level-1a products by BORIS personnel. The data cover the period of 01-Jan-1994 through 08-Jul-1995 with partial to complete coverage on the majority of the days. The data include three bands with eightbit pixel values. No major problems with the data have been identified. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1a GOES-7 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1a GOES-7 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  9. Agricultural Production. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with agricultural production. SMAT materials…

  10. A Tracking Analysis of Compact Students within Level 1 of Their Higher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakely, Katrina; Saunders, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a tracking analysis of level 1 undergraduates who entered the University of Glamorgan through the Compact schools initiative. The Compact initiative aims to widen access to higher education by encouraging young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend a range of preparatory activities and by offering lower entry…

  11. Criterion Referenced Tests to Accompany "Artes Latinae," Level 1, Book 1. Tentative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    These tests are designed to measure the achievement of each pupil at the approximate midpoint of each unit in "Artes Latinae," Level 1, Book 1. They were produced in response to the need expressed by many teachers to provide a means of more frequent evaluation of pupil progress. Tests for 13 units are provided. They supplement the unit tests…

  12. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  13. 78 FR 54655 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health: Draft Standard Operating Procedure for Level 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health: Draft Standard Operating Procedure for Level 1, Immediately in Effect Guidance Documents on Premarket Data Issues; Availability and Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; request...

  14. Teaching Guide for Indian Literature. Volume I. Reading Level 1-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Diana; McCarty, T. L., Ed.

    The guide describes how to use a 9-point system to teach 11 high-interest, low-level novels about Indians and teenagers to students reading at levels 1-8. The nine steps are (1) determine student's instructional reading level, (2) determine level of novels to be read, (3) choose novel at student's instructional reading level, (4) introduce novel,…

  15. D.P.I. Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test, Levels 1, 2, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Education Center, Louisville, KY.

    The Diagnostic Prescriptive Individualized (D.P.I.) Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test Levels 1, 2 and 3 are diagnostic tests geared toward aiding the teacher of grade 1 and 2 children in identifying the academic strengths, weaknesses, and needs of each student. These tests are concerned with the overall screening of skills of…

  16. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  17. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  18. CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin: quality improvements towards BaselineC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouzinac, Catherine; Tagliani, Nicolas; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvement in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. Towards the release of the BaselineC of the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products, that is expected during 2014, several improvements have been identified: • a datation bias of about -0.5195 ms will be corrected • a range bias of about -0.6730 m will be corrected • the waveform length in the Level1b product will be doubled with respect to BaselineB • improved processing for 1Hz echoes to have sharper waveforms • surface sample stack weighting to filter out the single look echoes acquired at highest look angle, that results in a sharpening of the 20Hz waveforms This poster details the main improvements that are foreseen to be included in the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products in BaselineC.

  19. Cryosat Level1b SAR/Sarin: Improving the Quality of the Baseline C Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, M.; Fornari, M.; Tagliani, N.; Frommknecht, B.; Bouffard, J.; Parrinello, T.

    2014-12-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvement in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. Towards the release of the BaselineC of the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products, that is expected at the end of 2014, several improvements have been identified: a datation bias of about -0.5195 ms will be corrected a range bias of about 0.6730 m will be corrected The range window size will be doubled with respect to BaselineB, so that the in Level1b products the waveforms will be doubled too Improved processing for 1Hz echoes to have sharper waveforms Surface sample stack weighting to filter out the single look echoes acquired at highest look angle, that results in a sharpening of the 20Hz waveforms Additional auxiliary information related to the mispointing angles of the instrument as well as to the stacks of single look echoes will be added This poster details the main quality improvements that are foreseen to be included in the CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin products in BaselineC.

  20. FPGA-Based Approach to Level-1 Track Finding at CMS for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinnari, Louise

    2016-11-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC is expected to deliver luminosities of 7.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1, with an average of 140-200 overlapping proton-proton collisions in each bunch crossing at a frequency of 40 MHz. To maintain manageable trigger rates under these conditions track reconstruction will be incorporated in the all-hardware first level of the CMS trigger. A track-finding algorithm based on seed tracklets has been developed and implemented on commercially available FPGAs for this purpose. An overview of the algorithm is presented, results are shown of its expected performance from simulations, and an implementation of the algorithm in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA for a hardware demonstrator system is discussed.

  1. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  2. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  3. Global Search for Deep Triggered Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, K.; Peng, Z.; Enescu, B.; Wu, C.; Fry, B.

    2011-12-01

    Deep "non-volcanic" tremor has been observed at many major plate-boundary faults, which provides new information about fault slip behaviors below the seismogenic zone. Most 'regular' or 'ambient' tremor occurs spontaneously or accompanies slow-slip events, while some tremor can be 'triggered' by large distant earthquakes. Recent studies have shown that triggered tremor occurs on the same fault patches as ambient tremor and can be used as a proxy to estimate background tremor activity. However, it is still not clear why tremor can only be observed in certain tectonic regions, and what the necessary conditions are for tremor generation. Here we conduct a global search for tremor triggered by teleseismic earthquakes with Mw ≥ 7.5 between 2001 and 2011 following our previous studies. We focus on regions in southwest Japan and the North Island of New Zealand. In southwest Japan, we found a total of 16 teleseismic earthquakes associated with clear triggered tremor during the passing surface waves. Using standard envelope cross-correlation techniques, we found that the triggered tremor is located close to the regions where ambient tremor is identified previously. Thus far, in New Zealand, we have only identified 4 events associated with triggered tremor in the North Island. Next, we calculate the dynamic stress loading and compare the stress threshold of triggering with the following regions: the Parkfield-Cholame section of the San Andreas Fault in central California, the Calaveras Fault in northern California, the San Jacinto Fault in southern California, the southern and northern Central Range in Taiwan, and the Vancouver Island in Cascadia. The apparent triggering threshold in southwest Japan is around 3-4 KPa, close to the triggering threshold at Parkfield (2-3 KPa) and southern Central Range in Taiwan (7-8 KPa). Our next steps are to explore the triggering potentials at these regions with amplitude, frequency, incident angle and types of incoming waves, and

  4. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Peng, Z.; Hill, D.P.; Aiken, C.

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented.

  6. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

  7. New Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2017-02-01

    The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors and the introduction of the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the new trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will be built. FIT will be the main forward trigger, luminometer, and interaction-time detector. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane of heavy-ion collisions. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov quartz radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a plastic scintillator ring. By increasing the overall acceptance of FIT, the scintillator will improve centrality and event plane resolution. It will also add sensitivity for the detection of beam-gas events and provide some degree of redundancy. FIT is currently undergoing an intense R&D and prototyping period. It is scheduled for installation in ALICE during 2020.

  8. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  9. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  10. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  11. Comment on "Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset".

    PubMed

    Lui, A T Y

    2009-06-12

    Angelopoulos et al. (Research Articles, 15 August 2008, p. 931) reported that magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail triggered the onset of a magnetospheric substorm. We provide evidence that (i) near-Earth current disruption, occurring before the conventional tail reconnection signatures, triggered the onset; (ii) the observed auroral intensification and tail reconnection are not causally linked; and (iii) the onset they identified is a continuation of earlier substorm activities.

  12. Diclofenac: a new trigger of pemphigus vulgaris?

    PubMed

    Matz, H; Bialy-Golan, A; Brenner, S

    1997-01-01

    Many drugs have been shown to induce pemphigus, including thiol and nonthiol drugs. We present a case of pemphigus vulgaris where a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, diclofenac in suppositories and topical gel preparations, is suspected of having triggered the disease. The temporal relationship between drug and outbreak of disease together with the positive migration inhibition factor test to diclofenac point to the possible involvement of this drug in triggering pemphigus vulgaris.

  13. Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.

  14. A Gamma-Ray Burst Trigger Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The detection rate of a gamma-ray burst detector can be increased by using a count rate trigger with many accumulation times DELTAt and energy bands DELTAE Because a burst's peak flux varies when averaged over different DELTAt and DELTAE the nominal sensitivity (the numerical value of the peak flux) of a trigger system is less important than how much fainter a burst could be at the detection threshold as DELTAt and DELTAE are changed. The relative sensitivity of different triggers can be quantified by referencing the detection threshold back to the peak flux for a fiducial value of DELTAt and DELTA E. This mapping between peak flux values for different sets of DELTAt and DELTAE varies from burst to burst. Quantitative estimates of the burst detection rate for a given detector and trigger system can be based on the observed rate at a measured peak flux value in this fiducial trigger. Predictions of a proposed trigger's burst detection rate depend on the assumed burst population, and these predictions can be wildly in error for triggers that differ significantly from previous missions. I base the fiducial rate on the BATSE observations: 550 bursts per sky above a peak flux of 0.3 ph per square centimeter per second averaged over DELTAt=1.024 sec and DELTAE=50-300 keV. Using a sample of 100 burst lightcurves I find that triggering on any value of DELTAt that is a multiple of 0.064 sec decreases the average threshold peak flux on the 1.024 sec timescale by a factor of 0.6. Extending DELTAE to lower energies includes the large flux of the X-ray background, increasing the background count rate. Consequently a low energy DELTAE is advantageous only for very soft bursts. Whether a large fraction of the population of bright bursts is soft is disputed; the new population of X-ray Flashes is soft but relatively faint.

  15. Tremor, remote triggering and earthquake cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Deep tectonic tremor and episodic slow-slip events have been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. These events have much longer source durations than regular earthquakes, and are generally located near or below the seismogenic zone where regular earthquakes occur. Tremor and slow-slip events appear to be extremely stress sensitive, and could be instantaneously triggered by distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. However, many important questions remain open. For example, it is still not clear what are the necessary conditions for tremor generation, and how remote triggering could affect large earthquake cycle. Here I report a global search of tremor triggered by recent large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major subduction zones around the Pacific Rim. These include the southwest and northeast Japan subduction zones, the Hikurangi subduction zone in New Zealand, the Cascadia subduction zone, and the major subduction zones in Central and South America. In addition, we examine major strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte fault in northern Pacific Northwest Coast, and the San Andreas fault system in California. In each place, we first identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. We also calculate the dynamic stress and check the triggering relationship with the Love and Rayleigh waves. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. Our results suggest that tremor exists at many plate-boundary faults in different tectonic environments, and could be triggered by dynamic stress as low as a few kPas. In addition, we summarize recent observations of slow-slip events and earthquake swarms triggered by large distant earthquakes. Finally, we propose several mechanisms that could explain apparent clustering of large earthquakes around the world.

  16. Global Search of Triggered Tectonic Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.; Chao, K.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Wang, B.; Ojha, L.; Yang, H.

    2013-05-01

    Deep tectonic tremor has been observed at major plate-boundary faults around the Pacific Rim. While regular or ambient tremor occurs spontaneously or accompanies slow-slip events, tremor could be also triggered by large distant earthquakes and solid earth tides. Because triggered tremor occurs on the same fault patches as ambient tremor and is relatively easy to identify, a systematic global search of triggered tremor could help to identify the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions for tremor generation. Here we conduct a global search of tremor triggered by large teleseismic earthquakes. We mainly focus on major faults with significant strain accumulations where no tremor has been reported before. These includes subduction zones in Central and South America, strike-slip faults around the Caribbean plate, the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and the Denali fault in the western Canada and Alaska, the Sumatra-Java subduction zone, the Himalaya frontal thrust faults, as well as major strike-slip faults around Tibet. In each region, we first compute the predicted dynamic stresses σd from global earthquakes with magnitude>=5.0 in the past 20 years, and select events with σd > 1 kPa. Next, we download seismic data recorded by stations from local or global seismic networks, and identify triggered tremor as a high-frequency non-impulsive signal that is in phase with the large-amplitude teleseismic waves. In cases where station distributions are dense enough, we also locate tremor based on the standard envelope cross-correlation techniques. Finally, we calculate the triggering potential for the Love and Rayleigh waves with the local fault orientation and surface-wave incident angles. So far we have found several new places that are capable of generating triggered tremor. We will summarize these observations and discuss their implications on physical mechanisms of tremor and remote triggering.

  17. 10 Joule High Voltage Trigger Micro Marx

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    A low energy Marx generator makes a convenient trigger for various spark gaps. With an output around 200 kV and a rise time less than 2 ns, the micro... Marx can multichannel field distortion gaps or fire a number of gaps without much gap-to-gap isolation. This design features small size, low cost, and good triggering characteristics. The complete unit is shown in Fig. 1.

  18. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis.

  19. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  20. Level 1 Processing of MODIS Direct Broadcast Data at the GSFC DAAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Kempler, Steven J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The GSFC DAAC is working to test and package the MODIS Level 1 Processing software for Aqua Direct Broadcast data. This entails the same code base, but different lookup tables for Aqua and Terra. However, the most significant change is the use of ancillary attitude and ephemeris files instead of orbit/attitude information within the science data stream (as with Terra). In addition, we are working on Linux: ports of the algorithms, which could eventually enable processing on PC clusters. Finally, the GSFC DAAC is also working with the GSFC Direct Readout laboratory to ingest Level 0 data from the GSFC DB antenna into the main DAAC, enabling level 1 production in near real time in support of applications users, such as the Synergy project. The mechanism developed for this could conceivably be extended to other participating stations.

  1. Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Level 1 data product users' guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. P.; Szajna, E. F.; Hovis, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) is a scanning multispectral radiometer designed specifically for the remote sensing of Ocean Color parameters from an Earth orbiting space platform. A technical manual which is intended for users of NIMBUS 7 CZCS Level 1 data products is presented. It contains information needed by investigators and data processing personnel to operate on the data using digital computers and related equipment.

  2. BOREAS RSS-2 Level-1B ASAS Image Data: At-Sensor Radiance in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Dabney, P. W.; Kovalick, W.; Graham, D.; Bur, Michael; Irons, James R.; Tierney, M.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-2 team used the ASAS instrument, mounted on the NASA C-130 aircraft, to create at-sensor radiance images of various sites as a function of spectral wavelength, view geometry (combinations of view zenith angle, view azimuth angle, solar zenith angle, and solar azimuth angle), and altitude. The level-1b ASAS images of the BOREAS study areas were collected from April to September 1994 and March to July 1996.

  3. Gpm Level 1 Science Requirements: Science and Performance Viewed from the Ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W.; Kirstetter, P.; Wolff, D.; Kidd, C.; Tokay, A.; Chandrasekar, V.; Grecu, M.; Huffman, G.; Jackson, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    GPM meets Level 1 science requirements for rain estimation based on the strong performance of its radar algorithms. Changes in the V5 GPROF algorithm should correct errors in V4 and will likely resolve GPROF performance issues relative to L1 requirements. L1 FOV Snow detection largely verified but at unknown SWE rate threshold (likely < 0.5 –1 mm/hr/liquid equivalent). Ongoing work to improve SWE rate estimation for both satellite and GV remote sensing.

  4. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  5. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-1 GOES-7 Visible, IR and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed GOES-7 and -8 images of the BOREAS region as part of its effort to characterize the incoming, reflected, and emitted radiation at regional scales. The level-1 BOREAS GOES-7 image data were collected by RSS-14 personnel at FSU and delivered to BORIS. The data cover the period of 01-Jan-1994 through 08-Jul-1995, with partial to complete coverage on the majority of the days. The data include three bands with eight-bit pixel values. No major problems with the data have been identified. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1 GOES-7 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1 GOES-7 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  6. BOREAS RSS-14 Level-1 GOES-8 Visible, IR and Water Vapor Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Faysash, David; Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-14 team collected and processed several GOES-7 and GOES-8 image data sets that covered the BOREAS study region. The level-1 BOREAS GOES-8 images are raw data values collected by RSS-14 personnel at FSU and delivered to BORIS. The data cover 14-Jul-1995 to 21-Sep-1995 and 01-Jan-1996 to 03-Oct-1996. The data start out containing three 8-bit spectral bands and end up containing five 10-bit spectral bands. No major problems with the data have been identified. The data are contained in binary image format files. Due to the large size of the images, the level-1 GOES-8 data are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory listing file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of what data were collected. The level-1 GOES-8 image data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). See sections 15 and 16 for more information. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  7. Comparison of level-1 and level-2 buckling and postbuckling solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbocz, J.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy of the solutions obtained with the Level-1 computational modules of DISDECO (Delft Interactive Shell Design Code) are investigated by comparing them with solutions obtained with ANILISA, a Level-2 computational module. Whereas the Level-1 solutions are based on the use of trigonometric functions to represent the out-of-plane displacement W and involve Galerkin type approximations to reduce the governing partial differential equations to simple algebraic expressions, the Level-2 solutions employ a truncated Fourier expansion in the circumferential direction and solve the resulting ordinary differential equations forming a nonlinear eigenvalue problem by a Stodola like technique. This involves the numerical integration of the set of ordinary differential equations, which in turn makes it possible to satisfy the specified boundary conditions exactly. It is shown that in many applications the Level-1 predictions concerning the critical buckling load of the perfect structure and its imperfection sensitivity are quite accurate and reliable. For those cases where this is not true, it is shown how the pre and postprocessing facilities of DISDECO can be used efficiently to arrive at a reliable prediction. This involves always the use of the Level-2 computational module ANILISA with its rigorous prebuckling solution and its feature which makes it possible to satisfy the specified boundary conditions exactly.

  8. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  9. Transient triggering of near and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Blanpied, M.L.; Beeler, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate qualitatively that frictional instability theory provides a context for understanding how earthquakes may be triggered by transient loads associated with seismic waves from near and distance earthquakes. We assume that earthquake triggering is a stick-slip process and test two hypotheses about the effect of transients on the timing of instabilities using a simple spring-slider model and a rate- and state-dependent friction constitutive law. A critical triggering threshold is implicit in such a model formulation. Our first hypothesis is that transient loads lead to clock advances; i.e., transients hasten the time of earthquakes that would have happened eventually due to constant background loading alone. Modeling results demonstrate that transient loads do lead to clock advances and that the triggered instabilities may occur after the transient has ceased (i.e., triggering may be delayed). These simple "clock-advance" models predict complex relationships between the triggering delay, the clock advance, and the transient characteristics. The triggering delay and the degree of clock advance both depend nonlinearly on when in the earthquake cycle the transient load is applied. This implies that the stress required to bring about failure does not depend linearly on loading time, even when the fault is loaded at a constant rate. The timing of instability also depends nonlinearly on the transient loading rate, faster rates more rapidly hastening instability. This implies that higher-frequency and/or longer-duration seismic waves should increase the amount of clock advance. These modeling results and simple calculations suggest that near (tens of kilometers) small/moderate earthquakes and remote (thousands of kilometers) earthquakes with magnitudes 2 to 3 units larger may be equally effective at triggering seismicity. Our second hypothesis is that some triggered seismicity represents earthquakes that would not have happened without the transient load (i

  10. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-02-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  11. Tau Trigger at the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Benslama, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Belanger-Champange, C.; Brenner, R.; Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Vorwerk, V.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Xella, S.; Demers, S.; Farrington, S.; Igonkina, O.; Kanaya, N.; Tsuno, S.; Ptacek, E.; Reinsch, A.; Strom, David M.; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U. /Sydney U. /Lancaster U. /Birmingham U.

    2011-11-09

    Many theoretical models, like the Standard Model or SUSY at large tan({beta}), predict Higgs bosons or new particles which decay more abundantly to final states including tau leptons than to other leptons. At the energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons, in particular in the hadronic decay mode, will be a challenging task due to an overwhelming QCD background which gives rise to jets of particles that can be hard to distinguish from hadronic tau decays. Equipped with excellent tracking and calorimetry, the ATLAS experiment has developed tau identification tools capable of working at the trigger level. This contribution presents tau trigger algorithms which exploit the main features of hadronic tau decays and describes the current tau trigger commissioning activities. Many of the SM processes being investigated at ATLAS, as well as numerous BSM searches, contain tau leptons in their final states. Being able to trigger effectively on the tau leptons in these events will contribute to the success of the ATLAS experiment. The tau trigger algorithms and monitoring infrastructure are ready for the first data, and are being tested with the data collected with cosmic muons. The development of efficiency measurements methods using QCD and Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events is well advanced.

  12. Trigger points – ultrasound and thermal findings

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, MC; Cojocaru, IM; Voiculescu, VM; Cojan-Carlea, NA; Dumitru, VL; Berteanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Muscle pain can be elicited by any irritation of the nociceptors in the muscle or central sensitization in the central nervous system. The most frequently described muscle pain syndromes are myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome has a more localized manifestation, the trigger points. Objective: If there is a correlation between the clinical findings, the ultrasound examination and the thermal pattern of trigger points exist. Material and method: The presence of trigger points can be identified by using clinical criteria. An ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate the trigger point dimensions. The ultrasound showed an ellipsoidal hypoechogenic area in the muscle. A thermography of the low back region was performed in order to observe the thermal pattern of the area. Results: Trigger points are represented by a higher temperature area surrounded by a cooler area, probably caused by a deficit in the blood flow around those points. Discussion: Infrared thermography could be a great asset for the monitoring of neuromusculoskeletal disorders and their dynamics, as well as an important aid for the initial diagnosis of conditions associated with tissue temperature alterations. PMID:26351532

  13. A quantitative Kirkpatrick Level 1 and 2 study of equipment specialist apprentice operations training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Dirk D.

    The primary purpose of the quantitative experimental study is to compare employee-learning outcomes for a course of study that is offered in two formats: explicit and tacit instructor led and explicit e-learning operations training. A Kirkpatrick Level 2 course examination is used to establish a pretest knowledge baseline and to measure posttest learning outcomes for each instructional format. A secondary purpose is to compare responses of the two groups using a Kirkpatrick Level 1 customer satisfaction index survey. Several authors reported the United States electric utility industry would have an employee attrition issue during the 2010 through 2015 period. This is at the same time the industry will be experiencing an increased demand for electricity. There now is a demand for highly training powerplant operators. A review of literature yielded few studies comparing instructor led training and e-based training. Though the Electric Power Research Institute stated the two training modes would be acceptable instruction, the organization did not develop a quantifiable justified recommendation as to the training. Subjects participated in a basic operations course and decided to take either the instructor led or e-based training course. Results of the study concluded that both instructor led and e-based training provided significant learning to the participants. The Kirkpatrick Level 1 results indicated significantly better results for instructor led training. There was not a significant difference in the Kirkpatrick Level 2 results between the two training modalities. Recommendation for future research include conducting a quantitative studies including a Phillips Level 5 study and qualitative studies including a more detailed examination of the customer satisfaction survey (Kirkpatrick Level 1).

  14. Creating a Patient and Family Advisory Council at a level 1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Willis, Reda; Krichten, Amy; Eldredge, Kelli; Carney, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Partnering with patients and families through a Patient and Family Advisory Council (PFAC) provides the opportunities to improve health care quality and safety. PFAC is a well-defined group of patients, families, and staff members who meet on a regular basis to ensure that patient's experiences, points of view, and recommendations are identified and shared with the organization. In fall 2010, at our level 1 trauma center, Trauma Services collaborated with the trauma nursing staff to formulate our first trauma-related PFAC.

  15. Level 1 environmental assessment of cupola emissions at the Tioga Foundry

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, K.T.; Adams, J.W.; Thrun, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    Sampling and analysis was undertaken to characterize and quantify particulate, organic and inorganic chemical concentrations in gaseous effluents downstream of an afterburner (AFB) or stack air addition (SAA) system in a cupola at the Tioga Casting Company in Owego, New York. The US Environmental Protection Agency/Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (EPA/IERL) Level 1 environmental assessment procedures were used to determine if the level of pollutants present differed when using the AFB versus the SAA control device for reduction of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations.

  16. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  17. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  18. Earthquake triggering by transient and static deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.M.; Blanpied, M.L.; Bodin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence for both static and transient near-field and far-field triggered seismicity are explained in terms of a frictional instability model, based on a single degree of freedom spring-slider system and rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive equations. In this study a triggered earthquake is one whose failure time has been advanced by ??t (clock advance) due to a stress perturbation. Triggering stress perturbations considered include square-wave transients and step functions, analogous to seismic waves and coseismic static stress changes, respectively. Perturbations are superimposed on a constant background stressing rate which represents the tectonic stressing rate. The normal stress is assumed to be constant. Approximate, closed-form solutions of the rate-and-state equations are derived for these triggering and background loads, building on the work of Dieterich [1992, 1994]. These solutions can be used to simulate the effects of static and transient stresses as a function of amplitude, onset time t0, and in the case of square waves, duration. The accuracies of the approximate closed-form solutions are also evaluated with respect to the full numerical solution and t0. The approximate solutions underpredict the full solutions, although the difference decreases as t0, approaches the end of the earthquake cycle. The relationship between ??t and t0 differs for transient and static loads: a static stress step imposed late in the cycle causes less clock advance than an equal step imposed earlier, whereas a later applied transient causes greater clock advance than an equal one imposed earlier. For equal ??t, transient amplitudes must be greater than static loads by factors of several tens to hundreds depending on t0. We show that the rate-and-state model requires that the total slip at failure is a constant, regardless of the loading history. Thus a static load applied early in the cycle, or a transient applied at any time, reduces the stress

  19. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  20. Triggered star formation associated with HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Katsuo

    There are two known mechanisms of triggered star formation associated with HII regions. One is the collect-and-collapse process of the shell accumulated around an expanding HII region, and the other is radiation-driven implosion (RDI) of bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) originated from pre-existing cloud clumps. They are very briefly reviewed first. We then present the main results of our recent observations on the RDI star formation in BRCs. Finally, a third possible mechanism of triggering is suggested, which is attributed to the formation of elephant trunk-like structures due to hydrodynamical instability of ionization/shock fronts.

  1. More About The Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  2. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  3. The Uncanny Valley Does Not Interfere with Level 1 Visual Perspective Taking

    PubMed Central

    MacDorman, Karl F.; Srinivas, Preethi; Patel, Himalaya

    2014-01-01

    When a computer-animated human character looks eerily realistic, viewers report a loss of empathy; they have difficulty taking the character’s perspective. To explain this perspective-taking impairment, known as the uncanny valley, a novel theory is proposed: The more human or less eerie a character looks, the more it interferes with level 1 visual perspective taking when the character’s perspective differs from that of the human observer (e.g., because the character competitively activates shared circuits in the observer’s brain). The proposed theory is evaluated in three experiments involving a dot-counting task in which participants either assumed or ignored the perspective of characters varying in their human photorealism and eeriness. Although response times and error rates were lower when the number of dots faced by the observer and character were the same (congruent condition) than when they were different (incongruent condition), no consistent pattern emerged between the human photorealism or eeriness of the characters and participants’ response times and error rates. Thus, the proposed theory is unsupported for level 1 visual perspective taking. As the effects of the uncanny valley on empathy have not previously been investigated systematically, these results provide evidence to eliminate one possible explanation. PMID:25221383

  4. TES Level 1 Algorithms: Interferogram Processing, Geolocation, Radiometric, and Spectral Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Bowman, Kevin W.; Fisher, Brendan; Luo, Mingzhao; Rider, David; Sarkissian, Edwin; Tremblay, Denis; Zong, Jia

    2006-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite measures the infrared radiance emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere using Fourier transform spectrometry. The measured interferograms are converted into geolocated, calibrated radiance spectra by the L1 (Level 1) processing, and are the inputs to L2 (Level 2) retrievals of atmospheric parameters, such as vertical profiles of trace gas abundance. We describe the algorithmic components of TES Level 1 processing, giving examples of the intermediate results and diagnostics that are necessary for creating TES L1 products. An assessment of noise-equivalent spectral radiance levels and current systematic errors is provided. As an initial validation of our spectral radiances, TES data are compared to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) (on EOS Aqua), after accounting for spectral resolution differences by applying the AIRS spectral response function to the TES spectra. For the TES L1 nadir data products currently available, the agreement with AIRS is 1 K or better.

  5. The Uncanny Valley Does Not Interfere with Level 1 Visual Perspective Taking.

    PubMed

    MacDorman, Karl F; Srinivas, Preethi; Patel, Himalaya

    2013-07-01

    When a computer-animated human character looks eerily realistic, viewers report a loss of empathy; they have difficulty taking the character's perspective. To explain this perspective-taking impairment, known as the uncanny valley, a novel theory is proposed: The more human or less eerie a character looks, the more it interferes with level 1 visual perspective taking when the character's perspective differs from that of the human observer (e.g., because the character competitively activates shared circuits in the observer's brain). The proposed theory is evaluated in three experiments involving a dot-counting task in which participants either assumed or ignored the perspective of characters varying in their human photorealism and eeriness. Although response times and error rates were lower when the number of dots faced by the observer and character were the same (congruent condition) than when they were different (incongruent condition), no consistent pattern emerged between the human photorealism or eeriness of the characters and participants' response times and error rates. Thus, the proposed theory is unsupported for level 1 visual perspective taking. As the effects of the uncanny valley on empathy have not previously been investigated systematically, these results provide evidence to eliminate one possible explanation.

  6. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-09-04

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures.

  7. Upgrade of the CMS muon trigger system in the barrel region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabady, Dinyar; Ero, Janos; Flouris, Giannis; Fulcher, Jonathan; Loukas, Nikitas; Paradas, Evangelos; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    To maintain the excellent performance shown during the LHC's Run-1 the Level-1 Trigger of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment underwent a significant upgrade. One part of this upgrade is the re-organization of the muon trigger path from a subsystem-centric view in which hits in the drift tubes (DT), the cathode strip chambers (CSC), and the resistive plate chambers (RPC) were treated separately in dedicated track-finding systems to one in which complementary detector systems for a given region (barrel, overlap, and endcap) are merged at the track-finding level. This fundamental restructuring of the muon trigger system required the development of a system to receive track candidates from the track-finding layer, remove potential duplicate tracks, and forward the best candidates to the global decision layer. An overview will be given of the new track-finder system for the barrel region, the Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF), as well as the cancel-out and sorting layer: the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT). Both the BMTF and μGMT have been implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-7 card utilizing the microTCA architecture. While the BMTF improves on the proven and well-tested algorithms used in the Drift Tube Track Finder during Run-1, the μGMT is an almost complete re-development due to the re-organization of the underlying systems from track-finders for a specific detector to regional track finders covering a given area of the whole detector. Additionally the μGMT calculates a muon's isolation using energy information received from the calorimeter trigger. This information is added to the muon objects forwarded to the global decision layer, the so-called Global Trigger.

  8. The LHC Run 2 ATLAS trigger system: design, performance and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zur Nedden, M.

    2017-03-01

    In many high-energy physics experiments, online selection is vital to collect the most interesting collisions out of the large data volume. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) utilizes a trigger system that consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT), reducing the event rate from the LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of around 1000 Hz. In Run 2 of the LHC, started in spring 2015, the LHC is operating at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV providing an instantaneous luminosity up to 1.4 ṡ 1034 cm‑2s‑1 so far. The ATLAS trigger system has to cope with these challenges, while maintaining or improving upon the efficiency to select relevant physics processes. In this paper, the ATLAS trigger system for the LHC Run 2 is reviewed. Secondly, the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy is shown. Electron, muon and photon triggers covering transverse energies from a few GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model (SM) processes and to search for new phenomena. Finally, further developments planned for the rest of the LHC Run 2 are discussed. These include two new hardware subsystems for topological selections at L1 and full-scan tracking at the input to the HLT.

  9. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  10. California foreshock sequences suggest aseismic triggering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Shearer, Peter M.

    2013-06-01

    Foreshocks are one of the few well-documented precursors to large earthquakes; therefore, understanding their nature is very important for earthquake prediction and hazard mitigation. However, the triggering role of foreshocks is not yet clear. It is possible that foreshocks are a self-triggering cascade of events that simply happen to trigger an unusually large aftershock; alternatively, foreshocks might originate from an external aseismic process that ultimately triggers the mainshock. In the former case, the foreshocks will have limited utility for forecasting. The latter case has been observed for several individual large earthquakes; however, it remains unclear how common it is and how to distinguish foreshock sequences from other seismicity clusters that do not lead to large earthquakes. Here we analyze foreshocks of three M>7 mainshocks in southern California. These foreshock sequences appear similar to earthquake swarms, in that they do not start with their largest events and they exhibit spatial migration of seismicity. Analysis of source spectra shows that all three foreshock sequences feature lower average stress drops and depletion of high-frequency energy compared with the aftershocks of their corresponding mainshocks. Using a longer-term stress-drop catalog, we find that the average stress drop of the Landers and Hector Mine foreshock sequences is comparable to nearby swarms. Our observations suggest that these foreshock sequences are manifestations of aseismic transients occurring close to the mainshock hypocenters, possibly related to localized fault zone complexity, which have promoted the occurrence of both the foreshocks and the eventual mainshock.

  11. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the nearfield, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude MW = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby.

  12. Mathematical and physical scaling of triggered lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, R.W.; Grant, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    As the aircraft industry incorporates current technology in airborne systems, electromagnetic compatibility can decrease. Composite fuselages can be more transparent to EMP, whether nuclear or lightning generated, than metal ones. Solid-state circuitry is sensitive to intense EM fluctuations whereas mechanical controls generally are not. With this increased vulnerability comes increased concern for these dangers. Recently the anxiety over lightning has risen. Answers are sought to such questions as: how do the lightning EM effects couple into the aircraft's interior. Do aircraft trigger lightning, and if so, can the triggering be minimized. An understanding, at least to some extent, of lightning would provide a needed foundation to examine the interaction of aircraft with lightning. A review of the literature on lightning and lightning-aircraft investigations, including triggered lightning, was conducted and is briefly summarized in this paper. In addition to this brief literature review, scaling the lightning event to laboratory size is also discussed. The ability to scale would allow accurate investigation of lightning effects, as well as the triggering phenomena, in scaled experiments.

  13. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  14. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Joakim; Benouda, Leila; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Labombarda, Fabien

    2011-07-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible cardiomyopathy frequently precipitated by a sudden emotional or physical stress. The exact physiopathology is still debated and may involve catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning. Alcohol withdrawal is associated with an hyperadrenergic state and may be a period at risk of cardiac events. We report a 56-year-old man with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

  15. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  16. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  17. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  18. [Triggering of acute coronary syndromes. Pathophysiologic relationships].

    PubMed

    González Pliego, José Angel

    2006-01-01

    In this review, the relationship of external triggers with the development of acute coronary syndromes is described. Based on current evidence, the pathophysiological mechanisms that probably result in the rupture of vulnerable coronary plaques are revised and preventive measures to stop the functional and lethal consequences of its occurrence are proposed.

  19. An overview of the CATS level 1 processing algorithms and data products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Palm, S. P.; Hlavka, D. L.; Selmer, P. A.; Nowottnick, E. P.; Vaughan, M. A.; Rodier, S. D.; Hart, W. D.

    2016-05-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar that was launched on 10 January 2015 to the International Space Station (ISS). CATS provides both space-based technology demonstrations for future Earth Science missions and operational science measurements. This paper outlines the CATS Level 1 data products and processing algorithms. Initial results and validation data demonstrate the ability to accurately detect optically thin atmospheric layers with 1064 nm nighttime backscatter as low as 5.0E-5 km-1 sr-1. This sensitivity, along with the orbital characteristics of the ISS, enables the use of CATS data for cloud and aerosol climate studies. The near-real-time downlinking and processing of CATS data are unprecedented capabilities and provide data that have applications such as forecasting of volcanic plume transport for aviation safety and aerosol vertical structure that will improve air quality health alerts globally.

  20. Comparison of procedure coding systems for level 1 and 2 hospitals in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Montewa, Lebogang; Hanmer, Lyn; Reagon, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    The ability of three procedure coding systems to reflect the procedure concepts extracted from patient records from six hospitals was compared, in order to inform decision making about a procedure coding standard for South Africa. A convenience sample of 126 procedure concepts was extracted from patient records at three level 1 hospitals and three level 2 hospitals. Each procedure concept was coded using ICPC-2, ICD-9-CM, and CCSA-2001. The extent to which each code assigned actually reflected the procedure concept was evaluated (between 'no match' and 'complete match'). For the study sample, CCSA-2001 was found to reflect the procedure concepts most completely, followed by ICD-9-CM and then ICPC-2. In practice, decision making about procedure coding standards would depend on multiple factors in addition to coding accuracy.

  1. BOREAS Level-1B TIMS Imagery: At-sensor Radiance in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Chernobieff, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Aircraft Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed satellite data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. For BOREAS, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) imagery, along with other aircraft images, was collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. The Level-1b TIMS images cover the time periods of 16 to 20 Apr 1994 and 06 to 17 Sep 1994. The system calibrated images are stored in binary image format files. The TIMS images are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  2. BOREAS Level-1B MAS Imagery At-sensor Radiance, Relative X and Y Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Strub, Richard; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Ungar, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-1b MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C-130 INS data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON TENDON RUPTURES OF THE KNEE EXTENSOR MECHANISM AT A LEVEL 1 HOSPITAL

    PubMed Central

    Pires e Albuquerque, Rodrigo; Prado, Juliano; Hara, Rafael; Ferreira, Evaldo; Schiavo, Leonardo; Giordano, Vincenzo; Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro do; Barretto, João Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to review the epidemiological aspects of tendon ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus at a level 1 hospital. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 76 lesions of the knee extensor apparatus that were treated surgically at the Miguel Couto Municipal Hospital between March 2004 and March 2011. We took into consideration age, sex, trauma mechanism, anatomical classification of the lesion, affected side, comorbidities and associated lesions. Results: Among the patients studied, 68 were male and the mean age was 36 years. Regarding the trauma mechanism, 62 lesions occurred due to direct trauma; the right side was affected in 21 cases; eight presented comorbidities and four presented associated lesions. Conclusion: The majority of the patients were male, at an economically active age (young people), and were victims of direct trauma. Ruptures of the patellar ligament were the most frequent lesions. Associated lesions were rare and comorbidities were infrequent in our sample. PMID:27047890

  4. Anxiety impairs spontaneous perspective calculation: Evidence from a level-1 visual perspective-taking task.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Simpson, Austin J

    2016-11-01

    Reasoning about other people's mental states is central to social life. Yet, even neuro-typical adults sometimes have perspective-taking difficulties, particularly when another's perspective conflicts with their own. In two experiments, we examined the cognitive mechanisms underlying an affective factor known to hinder perspective taking in adults: anxiety. Using a level-1 visual perspective-taking task, we found that incidentally experiencing anxiety, relative to neutral feelings and anger, impaired the spontaneous calculation of what another social agent can see. Feeling anxious did not, however, impede perspective calculation with a non-social entity, suggesting that anxiety's disruptive effects may be particularly pronounced for social aspects of cognition. These findings help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of incidental emotions on perspective taking and inform debates about "implicit" forms of mentalizing.

  5. An "anomalous" triggered lightning flash in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C. T.

    2013-04-01

    An "anomalous" rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flash, a flash whose leaders do not follow the triggering wire remnants to ground, is characterized via high-speed video images at 10 and 300 kilo-frames per second, still camera images, 66-72 MHz source locations from a Lightning Mapping Array, channel-base current, and electric field and electric field derivative (dE/dt) measurements. This is the first anomalous flash of about 410 classically triggered flashes in north-central Florida. The flash began with an upward positively charged leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the upward-moving triggering wire about 280 m above ground level. All but the bottom 17 m of wire exploded (became luminous) 37.6 ms after UPL initiation. A stepped leader initiated, likely from the top of the wire remnants, 282 m above ground level about 1.3 ms after the wire explosion and propagated downward for 2.1 ms, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 117 m southwest of the launching facility. The line charge density on the stepped leader is estimated to be of the order of 10-3 C m-1. Contrary to previously reported "anomalous" flashes in France and New Mexico (roughly 16% and 31%, respectively, of their triggered flashes), in our event, there was not a tens of milliseconds current-zero period preceding the stepped leader, there was no observed downward dart leader in the UPL channel prior to the stepped leader to ground, and there was a failed attempt to reestablish current in the exploded-wire channel between the UPL and ground.

  6. On near-source earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Velasco, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    When one earthquake triggers others nearby, what connects them? Two processes are observed: static stress change from fault offset and dynamic stress changes from passing seismic waves. In the near-source region (r ??? 50 km for M ??? 5 sources) both processes may be operating, and since both mechanisms are expected to raise earthquake rates, it is difficult to isolate them. We thus compare explosions with earthquakes because only earthquakes cause significant static stress changes. We find that large explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not trigger earthquakes at rates comparable to similar magnitude earthquakes. Surface waves are associated with regional and long-range dynamic triggering, but we note that surface waves with low enough frequency to penetrate to depths where most aftershocks of the 1992 M = 5.7 Little Skull Mountain main shock occurred (???12 km) would not have developed significant amplitude within a 50-km radius. We therefore focus on the best candidate phases to cause local dynamic triggering, direct waves that pass through observed near-source aftershock clusters. We examine these phases, which arrived at the nearest (200-270 km) broadband station before the surface wave train and could thus be isolated for study. Direct comparison of spectral amplitudes of presurface wave arrivals shows that M ??? 5 explosions and earthquakes deliver the same peak dynamic stresses into the near-source crust. We conclude that a static stress change model can readily explain observed aftershock patterns, whereas it is difficult to attribute near-source triggering to a dynamic process because of the dearth of aftershocks near large explosions.

  7. The ground prototype processor: Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 in-orbit acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, B.; Dechoz, C.; Lachérade, S.; L'Helguen, C.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Trémas, T.; Picard, C.; Rolland, A.

    2015-10-01

    Jointly with the European Commission, the Sentinel-2 earth observation optical mission is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). Relying on a constellation of satellites put in orbit starting mid-2015, Sentinel-2 will be devoted to the monitoring of land and coastal areas worldwide thanks to an imagery at high revisit (5 days with two satellites), high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) with large swath (290km), and multi-spectral imagery (13 bands in visible and shortwave infra-red). In this framework, the French Space Agency (CNES: Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) supports ESA on the activities related to Image Quality, defining the image products and prototyping the processing techniques. Scope of this paper is to present the Ground Prototype Processor (GPP) that will be in charge of Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Acceptance phase. GPP has been developed by a European industrial consortium composed of Advanced Computer Systems (ACS), Magellium and DLR on the basis of CNES technical specification of Sentinel-2 data processing and under the joint management of ESA-ESTEC and CNES. It will assure the generation of the products used for Calibration and Validation activities and it will provide the reference data for Sentinel-2 Payload Data Ground Segment Validation. At first, Sentinel-2 end-users products definition is recalled with the associated radiometric and geometric performances; secondly the methods implemented will be presented with an overview of the Ground Image Processing Parameters that need to be tuned during the In Orbit Acceptance phase to assure the required performance of the products. Finally, the complexity of the processing having been showed, the challenges of the production in terms of data volume and processing time will be highlighted. The first Sentinel-2 Level-1 products are shown.

  8. Correlation of Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screens and golf swing faults.

    PubMed

    Gulgin, Heather R; Schulte, Brian C; Crawley, Amy A

    2014-02-01

    Although some research in the past has examined how physical limitations in strength or flexibility affect a golfer's performance, the performance outcome most measured was driving distance. Currently, there are no data that have examined the relationship between selected strength and flexibility variables and golf swing faults. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screen variables and 14 common golf swing faults. Thirty-six male and female golfers (mean age, 25.4 ± 9.9 years; height, 175.9 ± 16.2 cm; mass, 76.2 ± 14.6 kg; handicap, 14.2 ± 10.4) participated. Twelve physical tests of strength, flexibility, and balance were assessed using the TPI level 1 golf fitness screening tool. Golfers then hit 4 golf shots (with a 5-iron) while being videoed, and those were then analyzed for 14 different golf swing faults (using V1Pro software). Three significant associations between a physical limitation and a particular golf swing fault were found: toe touch and early hip extension (p = 0.015), bridge on right side with both early hip extension (p = 0.050), and loss of posture (p = 0.028). In addition, an odds ratio showed that when a golfer could not overhead deep squat or single leg balance on left side, they were 2-3 times more likely to exhibit a early hip extension, loss of posture, or slide during the golf swing, as compared with those who could perform a correct overhead deep squat. Based on our findings, it is important for the golf fitness professional to particularly address a golfer's core strength, balance, and hamstring flexibility to help avoid common golf swing faults, which affect a golfer's ball striking ability and ultimately their performance.

  9. Operational Monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI Level 1 Product Processing at EUMETSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livschitz, Yakov; Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Fiedler, Lars; Dyer, Richard; Eisinger, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The growing complexity of operational level 1 radiance products from Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) platforms like EUMETSATs Metop series makes near-real-time monitoring of product quality a challenging task. The main challenge is to provide a monitoring system which is flexible and robust enough to identify and to react to anomalies which may be previously unknown to the system, as well as to provide all means and parameters necessary in order to support efficient ad-hoc analysis of the incident. The operational monitoring system developed at EUMETSAT for monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI level 1 data allows to perform near-real-time monitoring of operational products and instrument's health in a robust and flexible fashion. For effective information management, the system is based on a relational database (Oracle). An Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process transforms products in EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) format into relational data structures. The identification of commonalities between products and instruments allows for a database structure design in such a way that different data can be analyzed using the same business intelligence functionality. An interactive analysis software implementing modern data mining techniques is also provided for a detailed look into the data. The system is effectively used for day-to-day monitoring, long-term reporting, instrument's degradation analysis as well as for ad-hoc queries in case of an unexpected instrument or processing behaviour. Having data from different sources on a single instrument and even from different instruments, platforms or numerical weather prediction within the same database allows effective cross-comparison and looking for correlated parameters. Automatic alarms raised by checking for deviation of certain parameters, for data losses and other events significantly reduce time, necessary to monitor the processing on a day-to-day basis.

  10. Operational Monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI Level 1 Product Processing at EUMETSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livschitz, Y.; Munro, R.; Lang, R.; Fiedler, L.; Dyer, R.; Eisinger, M.

    2009-12-01

    The growing complexity of operational level 1 radiance products from Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) platforms like EUMETSATs Metop series makes near-real-time monitoring of product quality a challenging task. The main challenge is to provide a monitoring system which is flexible and robust enough to identify and to react to anomalies which may be previously unknown to the system, as well as to provide all means and parameters necessary in order to support efficient ad-hoc analysis of the incident. The operational monitoring system developed at EUMETSAT for monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI level 1 data allows to perform near-real-time monitoring of operational products and instrument’s health in a robust and flexible fashion. For effective information management, the system is based on a relational database (Oracle). An Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process transforms products in EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) format into relational data structures. The identification of commonalities between products and instruments allows for a database structure design in such a way that different data can be analyzed using the same business intelligence functionality. An interactive analysis software implementing modern data mining techniques is also provided for a detailed look into the data. The system is effectively used for day-to-day monitoring, long-term reporting, instrument’s degradation analysis as well as for ad-hoc queries in case of an unexpected instrument or processing behaviour. Having data from different sources on a single instrument and even from different instruments, platforms or numerical weather prediction within the same database allows effective cross-comparison and looking for correlated parameters. Automatic alarms raised by checking for deviation of certain parameters, for data losses and other events significantly reduce time, necessary to monitor the processing on a day-to-day basis.

  11. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  12. Dynamic Triggering of Earthquakes and Tremors in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, T. C.; Chen, K. H.; Liang, W. T.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2015-12-01

    Distant earthquake matters. Its long period, long lasted surface waves could bring transient stresses, later the local stress state, and trigger earthquakes and tremors at remote distances. There exists mounting evidences for the role of dynamic stress in slow/fast earthquakes triggering. Yet, little is understood about the similar/different processes for triggered earthquakes and tremors. What is the response of tremors and earthquakes to a remote earthquake? Are the triggered tremor and earthquakes co-located? Are the triggering controlled by the characteristics of distant earthquakeor local physical condition? With generation potential of non-volcanic tremors and frequent earthquake activity, Taiwan serves as a natural laboratory to explore the similarity and difference in triggering response of tremor and earthquakes. Using a collection of Mw ≥ 7.0 events from Sumatra constraint by similar azimuth, we seek to understand the general characteristics of tremors and earthquakes triggered by Sumatra events, furthermore, discuss the predominant factors of triggering in Taiwan. By examining all recordings of the 24 Sumatra Mw ≥ 7.0 earthquakes from 2000 to 2014 , we identified four triggered tremors and 12 triggered earthquakes that occurred during the surface wave passage. The Sumatra earthquakes that triggered tremors are characterized by thrust-type focal mechanisms with right-lateral component and minimum dynamic stress of ~3 kPa. The minimum dynamic stress measured for triggered earthquakes, however, is ~0.4 kPa, smaller than that of triggered tremor. The different location and stress triggering threshold for triggered tremors and earthquakes indicates different triggering mechanisms. Triggered tremors are confined in southern Central Range characterized by high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration

  13. L1 track triggers for ATLAS in the HL-LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Lipeles, E.

    2012-01-01

    The HL-LHC, the planned high luminosity upgrade for the LHC, will increase the collision rate in the ATLAS detector approximately a factor of 5 beyond the luminosity for which the detectors were designed, while also increasing the number of pile-up collisions in each event by a similar factor. This means that the level-1 trigger must achieve a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment. This presentation discusses the challenges that arise in this environment and strategies being considered by ATLAS to include information from the tracking systems in the level-1 decision. The main challenges involve reducing the data volumemore » exported from the tracking system for which two options are under consideration: a region of interest based system and an intelligent sensor method which filters on hits likely to come from higher transverse momentum tracks.« less

  14. 78 FR 15746 - Compendium of Analyses To Investigate Select Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment End-State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Compendium of Analyses To Investigate Select Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment End-State... document entitled: Compendium of Analyses to Investigate Select Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment End..., select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems...

  15. Manual of Tape Scripts: Russian, Levels 1 and 2. Curriculum Bulletin, 1969-70 Series, Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Gladys; And Others

    This manual of tape scripts, together with a set of foreign language audio tapes for Levels 1 and 2 Russian, was prepared to support the curriculum bulletin, "New York City Foreign Language Program for Schools: Russian, Levels 1-4." Vocabulary, repetition, transformation, and recombination drills on specific grammatical features allow further…

  16. Level 1 Research: Where the Rubber Meets the Road in the Treatment of Serious Mental and Physical Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kevin J.

    1999-01-01

    Two case studies illustrate the use of Level 1 research to monitor and improve the delivery of psychological services. The cases are of a 14-year-old with escalating disruptive behavior, including assault, and a 12-year-old with escalating nocturnal enuresis. The article urges research evaluating Level 1 research techniques and development of…

  17. Perspective Taking: Knowledge of Level 1 and Level 2 Rules by Congenitally Blind, Low Vision, and Sighted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miletic, G.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the knowledge of Level 1 and Level 2 rules of perspective taking by 18 8-year-old children (either congenitally blind, congenitally low vision, or sighted). All children understood Level 1 rules; their knowledge of Level 2 rules (that a heterogeneously sided object will appear differently to viewers from different sides)…

  18. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  19. A light-triggered protein secretion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2013-05-13

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points.

  20. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  1. A self-triggered picoinjector in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yiming; Liu, Songsheng; Jia, Chunping; Mao, Hongju; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Zhou, Hongbo

    2016-12-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics has recently emerged as a potential platform for studies of single-cell, directed evolution, and genetic sequencing. In droplet-based microfluidics, adding reagents into drops is one of the most important functions. In this paper, we develop a new self-triggered picoinjector to add controlled volumes of reagent into droplets at kilohertz rates. In the picoinjector, the reagent injecting is triggered by the coming droplet itself, without needing a droplet detection module. Meanwhile, the dosing volume can be precisely controlled. These features make the system more practical and reliable. We expect the new picoinjector will find important applications of droplet-based microfluidics in automated biological assay, directed evolution, enzyme assay, and so on.

  2. Cell biology of Ca2+-triggered exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiping P; Südhof, Thomas C

    2010-08-01

    Ca(2+) triggers many forms of exocytosis in different types of eukaryotic cells, for example synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons, granule exocytosis in mast cells, and hormone exocytosis in endocrine cells. Work over the past two decades has shown that synaptotagmins function as the primary Ca(2+)-sensors for most of these forms of exocytosis, and that synaptotagmins act via Ca(2+)-dependent interactions with both the fusing phospholipid membranes and the membrane fusion machinery. However, some forms of Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis may utilize other, as yet unidentified Ca(2+)-sensors, for example, slow synaptic exocytosis mediating asynchronous neurotransmitter release. In the following overview, we will discuss the synaptotagmin-based mechanism of Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells, and its potential extension to other types of Ca(2+)-stimulated exocytosis for which no synaptotagmin Ca(2+)-sensor has been identified.

  3. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  4. Trigger electronics upgrade of PHENIX muon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, S.; Akiyama, T.; Aoki, K.; Asano, H.; Ebesu, S.; Fukao, Y.; Haki, Y.; Hata, M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Iinuma, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Karatsu, K.; Kasai, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kim, E.; Kurita, K.; Mibe, T.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamura, K. R.; Nakanishi, R.; Ninomiya, K.; Nitta, M.; Ogawa, N.; Onishi, J.; Park, S.; Sada, Y.; Saito, N.; Sameshima, R.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, A.; Seitaibashi, E.; Senzaka, K.; Shoji, K.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Toyoda, T.; Watanabe, K.

    2013-03-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) offers the unique capability to collide polarized protons at high energies. One of the highlights of the polarized proton program performed at √{s}=500 GeV is that it affords the direct measurement of sea quark contribution to the proton spin via W-boson production through the measurement of the parity violating single spin asymmetry. A new trigger electronics system for forward muons, which is especially capable of W-boson detection, was developed for the PHENIX experiment. The trigger was installed as an additional electronic circuit, and it was connected in parallel with the existing cathode readout electronics of the muon tracking chamber.

  5. Sequentially triggered star formation in OB associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preibisch, Thomas; Zinnecker, Hans

    We discuss observational evidence for sequential and triggered star formation in galactic and extragalactic OB associations. We will first review in detail the star formation process in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, the nearest OB association to the Sun, where several recent extensive studies have provided comprehensive information on the stellar content and the ages of the different OB subgroups. These data have allowed us to reconstruct the star formation history of the association in some detail and provided important insight into the activity in the rho Oph and Lupus dark clouds, and with the origin of several young stellar groups in the southern sky. After discussing evidence for triggered star formation in and around various other Galactic OB associations (e.g. Ori OB1, Per OB2) we will compare the observational results with recent models of rapid star formation in the turbulent interstellar medium (cf. Briceno et al. chapter in Protostars and Planets V, in press).

  6. The BTeV trigger architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2003-08-21

    BTeV is a high-statistics B-physics experiment that will achieve new levels of sensitivity in testing the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in the b and c quark systems by operating in the unique environment of a hadron collider. In order to achieve its goals, it will make use of a state-of-the-art Si-pixel vertex detector and a novel 3-level hierarchical trigger that will look at every single beam crossing to detect the presence of heavy quark decays. This talk will describe the trigger architecture focusing on key design aspects that allow the use of commercially available technology in a highly feasible and practical solution that meets the demanding physics requirements of the BTeV experiment.

  7. The DISTO first level trigger at SATURNE

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, F. |; Bedfer, Y.; Bertini, R. ||

    1998-06-01

    The DISTO collaboration has built a large-acceptance magnetic spectrometer designed to provide broad kinematic coverage of multi-particle final states produced in pp scattering. The spectrometer has been installed in the polarized proton beam of the Saturne accelerator in Saclay to study polarization observables in the {rvec p}p {yields} pK{sup +}{rvec Y} (Y = {Lambda}, {Sigma}{sup 0} or Y{sup *}) reaction and vector meson production ({psi}, {omega} and {rho}) in pp collisions. The common signature of such events is the multiplicity of four charged particles in the final state. A flexible 1st level trigger which uses topological information from fast detectors has been built. It is completely software programmable through a menu-driven user interface and allows switching between production and monitor triggers on successive beam spills.

  8. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    SciTech Connect

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  9. GLAST Burst Monitor Trigger Classification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, D. J.; Sidman, E. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), currently set for launch in the first quarter of 2007, will consist of two instruments, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT). One of the goals of the GBM is to identify and locate gamma-ray bursts using on-board software. The GLAST observatory can then be re-oriented to allow observations by the LAT. A Bayesian analysis will be used to distinguish gamma-ray bursts from other triggering events, such as solar flares, magnetospheric particle precipitation, soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and Cygnus X-1 flaring. The trigger parameters used in the analysis are the burst celestial coordinates, angle from the Earth's horizon, spectral hardness, and the spacecraft geomagnetic latitude. The algorithm will be described and the results of testing will be presented.

  10. Modeling seismic swarms triggered by aseismic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, Andrea L.; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2009-04-01

    The rate of earthquake occurrence varies by many orders of magnitude in a given region due to variations in the stress state of the crust. Our focus here is on variations in seismicity rate triggered by transient aseismic processes such as fluid flow, fault creep or magma intrusion. While these processes have been shown to trigger earthquakes, converting observed seismicity variations into estimates of stress rate variations has been challenging. Essentially aftershock sequences often obscure changes in the background seismicity rate resulting from aseismic processes. Two common approaches for estimating the time dependence of the underlying driving mechanisms are the stochastic Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model (ETAS) [Ogata, Y., (1988), Statistical models for earthquake occurrences and residual analysis for point processes, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 83, 9-27.] and a physical approach based on the rate- and state-model of fault friction [Dieterich, J., (1994), A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2601-2618.]. The models have different strengths that could be combined to allow more quantitative studies of earthquake triggering. To accomplish this, we identify the parameters that relate to one another in the two models and examine their dependence on stressing rate. A particular conflict arises because the rate-state model predicts that aftershock productivity scales with stressing rate while the ETAS model assumes that it is time independent. To resolve this issue, we estimate triggering parameters for 4 earthquake swarms contemporaneous with geodetically observed deformation transients in various tectonic environments. We find that stressing rate transients increase the background seismicity rate without affecting aftershock productivity. We then specify a combined model for seismicity rate variations that will allow future studies to invert seismicity catalogs for variations in

  11. Model year 2010 (Gen 3) Toyota Prius level 1 testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, E.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Bocci, D.; Energy Systems

    2010-06-24

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Toyota Prius (Generation 3) was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of 'Level 1' testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network connection, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D{sup 3}). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from the exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and minimal CAN bus data such as engine speed and pedal position. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Prius over standard regulatory cycles.

  12. Terra and Aqua moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer collection 6 level 1B algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toller, Gary; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian N.; Geng, Xu; Kuyper, James; Angal, Amit; Chen, Hongda; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wu, Aisheng

    2013-01-01

    The moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) was launched on the Terra spacecraft on Dec.18, 1999 and on Aquaon May 4, 2002. The data acquired by these instruments have contributed to the long-term climate data record for more than a decade and represent a key component of NASA's Earth observing system. Each MODIS instrument observes nearly the whole Earth each day, enabling the scientific characterization of the land, ocean, and atmosphere. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) algorithms input uncalibrated geo-located observations and convert instrument response into calibrated reflectance and radiance, which are used to generate science data products. The instrument characterization needed to run the L1B code is currently implemented using time-dependent lookup tables. The MODIS characterization support team, working closely with the MODIS Science Team, has improved the product quality with each data reprocessing. We provide an overview of the new L1B algorithm release, designated collection 6. Recent improvements made as a consequence of on-orbit calibration, on-orbit analyses, and operational considerations are described. Instrument performance and the expected impact of L1B changes on the collection 6 L1B products are discussed.

  13. Biochemical Responses to Level-1 Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test in Young Tunisian Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Miled, Abdelhedi; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this work was to investigate the metabolic and muscle damage responses after the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT) in young football players. Methods Fifteen male football players (17.42 ± 0.2 yrs, 69.91 ± 4.4 kg, 178.64 ± 3.8 cm; mean ± SD) participated in this study. Fasting blood samples for various biochemical parameters (i.e. lactate (Lac), glucose (GLC), triglycerides (Tri), creatine kinase (CK), uric acid (UA)) collected from a forearm vein after 5-min of seated rest and 3-min after the test. Moreover, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and maximal heart rate during and after the YYIRT were recorded. Results Mean levels of the selected biochemical markers were raised after the YYIRT exercise (P<0.001 for the other markers). Moreover, lipid parameters increased significantly after the test (P<0.01 for Tri and P<0.001 for HDL). Conclusion These findings confirm the higher metabolic demand of aerobic as well as anaerobic metabolism and reflect a significant mobilization of purine cycle during the YYIRT. The increase of muscle damage markers also reflects the higher anaerobic solicitation. From these findings, we can conclude the importance of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism during soccer-specific endurance performance (i.e. YYIRT, soccer match). PMID:23785572

  14. MODIS. Volume 2: MODIS level 1 geolocation, characterization and calibration algorithm theoretical basis document, version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, John L.; Harnden, Joann M. K.; Montgomery, Harry; Anuta, Paul; Kvaran, Geir; Knight, ED; Bryant, Tom; Mckay, AL; Smid, Jon; Knowles, Dan, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is being developed by NASA for flight on the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of satellites, the first of which (EOS-AM-1) is scheduled for launch in 1998. This document describes the algorithms and their theoretical basis for the MODIS Level 1B characterization, calibration, and geolocation algorithms which must produce radiometrically, spectrally, and spatially calibrated data with sufficient accuracy so that Global change research programs can detect minute changes in biogeophysical parameters. The document first describes the geolocation algorithm which determines geodetic latitude, longitude, and elevation of each MODIS pixel and the determination of geometric parameters for each observation (satellite zenith angle, satellite azimuth, range to the satellite, solar zenith angle, and solar azimuth). Next, the utilization of the MODIS onboard calibration sources, which consist of the Spectroradiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA), Solar Diffuser (SD), Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM), and the Blackbody (BB), is treated. Characterization of these sources and integration of measurements into the calibration process is described. Finally, the use of external sources, including the Moon, instrumented sites on the Earth (called vicarious calibration), and unsupervised normalization sites having invariant reflectance and emissive properties is treated. Finally, algorithms for generating utility masks needed for scene-based calibration are discussed. Eight appendices are provided, covering instrument design and additional algorithm details.

  15. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Level 1) to discriminate elite junior Australian football players.

    PubMed

    Veale, James P; Pearce, Alan J; Carlson, John S

    2010-05-01

    The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (IR) Test is currently used to assess endurance performance in team sport athletes. However, to date, no data has been presented on its application to an elite junior Australian football (AF) playing group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (IR1) ability to discriminate between junior AF players at two different playing standards and a group of non-athletic healthy males. Sixty age matched participants (16.6+/-0.5 years) spread over three groups (20 per group): elite junior footballers; sub-elite junior footballers; and non-athletic healthy males participated in this study. Participants undertook a single Yo-Yo test performance on an indoor basketball court for each group. A one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc analysis revealed the elite junior footballers covered a significantly greater total distance (p<0.001) and completed a significantly greater number of high-intensity efforts (p<0.001) in comparison to their sub-elite counterparts, whilst both AF groups performed significantly better (p<0.001) than the non-athletic healthy males. This study demonstrates the ability of the Yo-Yo IR1 to discriminate endurance performance between elite and sub-elite AF players, whilst further distinguishing AF players from a non-athletic healthy control group.

  16. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent; Jarnot, Robert; Pickett, Herbert; Cofield, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Wagner, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A computer program performs level- 1B processing (the term 1B is explained below) of data from observations of the limb of the Earth by the Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), which is an instrument aboard the Aura spacecraft. This software accepts, as input, the raw EOS MLS scientific and engineering data and the Aura spacecraft ephemeris and attitude data. Its output consists of calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. [This software is one of several computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing EOS MLS data. Starting from level 0 (representing the aforementioned raw data, the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (e.g., 1B and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing.] At the time of this reporting, this software is at version 2.2 and incorporates improvements over a prior version that make the code more robust, improve calibration, provide more diagnostic outputs, improve the interface with the Level 2 PGE, and effect a 15-percent reduction in file sizes by use of data compression.

  17. Status of the MODIS Level 1B Algorithms and Calibration Tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X; Salomonson, V V; Kuyper, J; Tan, L; Chiang, K; Sun, J; Barnes, W L

    2005-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) makes observations using 36 spectral bands with wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.4 m and nadir spatial resolutions of 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. It is currently operating onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) program converts the sensor's on-orbit responses in digital numbers to radiometrically calibrated and geo-located data products for the duration of each mission. Its primary data products are top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance factors for the sensor's reflective solar bands (RSB) and TOA spectral radiances for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). The L1B algorithms perform the TEB calibration on a scan-by-scan basis using the sensor's response to the on-board blackbody (BB) and other parameters which are stored in Lookup Tables (LUTs). The RSB calibration coefficients are processed offline and regularly updated through LUTs. In this paper we provide a brief description of the MODIS L1B calibration algorithms and associated LUTs with emphasis on their recent improvements and updates developed for the MODIS collection 5 processing. We will also discuss sensor on-orbit calibration and performance issues that are critical to maintaining L1B data product quality, such as changes in the sensor's response versus scan-angle.

  18. Determine Operating Reactor to Use for the 2016 PCI Level 1 Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin T.

    2016-01-30

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) (CASL) Level 1 milestone to “Assess the analysis capability for core-wide [pressurized water reactor] PWR Pellet- Clad Interaction (PCI) screening and demonstrate detailed 3-D analysis on selected sub-region” (L1:CASL.P13.03) requires a particular type of nuclear power plant for the assessment. This report documents the operating reactor and cycles chosen for this assessment in completion of the physics integration (PHI) milestone to “Determine Operating Reactor to use for PCI L1 Milestone” (L3:PHI.CMD.P12.02). Watts Bar Unit 1 experienced (at least) one fuel rod failure in each of cycles 6 and 7, and at least one was deemed to be duty related rather than being primarily related to a manufacturing defect or grid effects. This brief report documents that the data required to model cycles 1–12 of Watts Bar Unit 1 using VERA-CS contains sufficient data to model the PHI portion of the PCI challenge problem. A list of additional data needs is also provided that will be important for verification and validation of the BISON results.

  19. The Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Fisher, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during the summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site in Florida. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck or by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATLLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within {approximately}7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of {approximately}2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications. 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Transdermal anaesthesia for percutaneous trigger finger release.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transdermal anaesthesia using eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in patients undergoing percutaneous trigger finger release and to compare it with lidocaine infiltration. In this prospective, randomised study percutaneous release of the A1 annular pulley was performed to treat stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger syndrome) in 50 patients (50 fingers). The procedure was performed either under transdermal anaesthesia using EMLA applied transcutaneously 120 minutes prior to the operation (Group A, n = 25) or using local infiltration anaesthesia using lidocaine (Group B, n = 25). Pain experienced during administration of anaesthesia and during the operation was assessed using a 10-point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), while all patients rated the effectiveness of anaesthesia with a 5-point scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the VAPS during the operation (1.33 +/- 0.52 versus 1.59 +/- 0.87) and the satisfaction scores (4.6 +/- 0.2 versus 4.4 +/- 0.3). The VAPS score during the administration of anaesthesia was statistically significantly less in the EMLA group (0 versus 5.96 +/- 2.41). All patients were satisfied with the final result of the operation. Percutaneous trigger finger release can be performed as an office procedure with the use of EMLA avoiding the use of injectable local infiltration anaesthesia.

  1. Laser Trigger For High Speed Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Rong-Seng; Lin, Chin-Wu; Cheng, Tung

    1987-09-01

    High speed camera coorperated with laser trigger to catch high speed unpredictable events has many applications: such as scoring system for the end game of missile interception, war head explosive study etc. When the event happening in a very short duration, the repetition rate of the laser ranging must be as high as 5K herze and the pulse duration should be less than 10 nsec. In some environment, like inside the aircraft, the abailable space for high speed camera to set up is limited, large film capacity camera could not be used. In order to use the small capacity film, the exact trigger time for the camera are especially important. The target velocity, camera acceleration characteristics, speed regulation, camera size, weight and the ruggedness are all be considered before the laser trigger be designed. Electric temporal gate is used to measure the time of flight ranging datum. The triangular distance measurement principle are also used to get the ranging when the base line i.e. the distance between the laser transmitter and receiver are large enough.

  2. Aspartame as a dietary trigger of headache.

    PubMed

    Lipton, R B; Newman, L C; Cohen, J S; Solomon, S

    1989-02-01

    Many dietary factors have been implicated as possible precipitants of headache. There have been recent differences of opinion with regard to the effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame as a precipitant of headache. To assess the importance of aspartame as a dietary factor in headache, 190 consecutive patients of the Montefiore Medical Center Headache Unit were questioned about the effect of alcohol, carbohydrates and aspartame in triggering their headaches. Of the 171 patients who fully completed the survey, 49.7 percent reported alcohol as a precipitating factor, compared to 8.2 percent reporting aspartame and 2.3 percent reporting carbohydrates. Patients with migraine were significantly more likely to report alcohol as a triggering factor and also reported aspartame as a precipitant three times more often than those having other types of headache. The conflicting results of two recent placebo-control studies of aspartame and headache are discussed. We conclude that aspartame may be an important dietary trigger of headache in some people.

  3. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  4. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  5. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  6. Understanding red blood cell alloimmunization triggers.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Tormey, Christopher A

    2016-12-02

    Blood group alloimmunization is "triggered" when a person lacking a particular antigen is exposed to this antigen during transfusion or pregnancy. Although exposure to an antigen is necessary for alloimmunization to occur, it is not alone sufficient. Blood group antigens are diverse in structure, function, and immunogenicity. In addition to red blood cells (RBCs), a recipient of an RBC transfusion is exposed to donor plasma, white blood cells, and platelets; the potential contribution of these elements to RBC alloimmunization remains unclear. Much attention in recent years has been placed on recipient factors that influence RBC alloantibody responses. Danger signals, identified in murine and human studies alike as being risk factors for alloimmunization, may be quite diverse in nature. In addition to exogenous or condition-associated inflammation, autoimmunity is also a risk factor for alloantibody formation. Triggers for alloimmunization in pregnancy are not well-understood beyond the presence of a fetal/maternal bleed. Studies using animal models of pregnancy-induced RBC alloimmunization may provide insight in this regard. A better understanding of alloimmunization triggers and signatures of "responders" and "nonresponders" is needed for prevention strategies to be optimized. A common goal of such strategies is increased transfusion safety and improved pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Compact SCR trigger circuit for ignitron switch operates efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. E.

    1965-01-01

    Trigger circuit with two series-connected SCR triggers an ignitron switch used to discharge high-energy capacitor banks. It does not require a warmup period and operates at relatively high efficiency.

  8. Shock from heart device often triggers further health care needs

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Shock from heart device often triggers further health care needs American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report ... cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may trigger an increase in health care needs for many patients, regardless whether the shock ...

  9. Diverticulitis Outcomes are Equivalent Between Level 1 Trauma Centers and Community Hospitals in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Gale, Stephen C; Arumugam, Dena; Dombrovskiy, Viktor Y

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, general surgeons provide emergency general surgery (EGS) coverage by assigned call. The acute care surgery (ACS) model is new and remains confined mostly to academic centers. Some argue that in busy trauma centers, on-call trauma surgeons may be unable to also care for EGS patients. In New Jersey, all three Level 1 Trauma Centers (L1TC) have provided ACS services for many years. Analyzing NJ state inpatient data, we sought to determine whether outcomes in one common surgical illness, diverticulitis, have been different between L1TC and nontrauma centers (NTC) over a 10-year period. The NJ Medical Database was queried for patients aged 18 to 90 hospitalized from 2001 to 2010 for acute diverticulitis. Demographics, comorbidities, operative rates, and mortality were compiled and analyzed comparing L1TC to NTC. For additional comparison between L1TC and NTC, 1:1 propensity score matching with replacement was accomplished. χ(2), t test, and Cochran-Armitage trend test were used. From 2001 to 2010, 88794 patients were treated in NJ for diverticulitis. 2621 patients (2.95%) were treated at L1TCs. Operative rates were similar between hospital types. Patients treated at L1TCs were more often younger (63.1 ± 0.3 vs 64.7 ± 0.1; P < 0.001), nonwhite (43.1% vs 23.1%; P < 0.0001), and uninsured (11.0% vs 5.5%; P < 0.0001). After propensity matching, neither operative mortality (9.7% vs 7.9% P = 0.45), nor nonoperative mortality (1.2% vs 1.3% P = 0.60) were different between groups. Mortality and operative rates for patients with acute diverticulitis are equivalent between LT1C and NTC in NJ. Trauma centers in NJ more commonly provide care to minority and uninsured patients.

  10. Readout, first- and second-level triggers of the new Belle silicon vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, M.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Aihara, H.; Asano, Y.; Aso, T.; Bakich, A.; Browder, T.; Chang, M. C.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chidzik, S.; Dalseno, J.; Dowd, R.; Dragic, J.; Everton, C. W.; Fernholz, R.; Fujii, H.; Gao, Z. W.; Gordon, A.; Guo, Y. N.; Haba, J.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Harada, Y.; Haruyama, T.; Hasuko, K.; Hayashi, K.; Hazumi, M.; Heenan, E. M.; Higuchi, T.; Hirai, H.; Hitomi, N.; Igarashi, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, K.; Iwaida, S.; Kaneko, J.; Kapusta, P.; Karawatzki, R.; Kasami, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawasaki, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koike, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kurashiro, H.; Kusaka, A.; Lesiak, T.; Limosani, A.; Lin, W. C.; Marlow, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Mikami, Y.; Miyake, H.; Moloney, G. R.; Mori, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakano, Y.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nozaki, S.; Ohkubo, R.; Ohno, F.; Okuno, S.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Ozaki, H.; Peak, L.; Pernicka, M.; Rosen, M.; Rozanska, M.; Sato, N.; Schmid, S.; Shibata, T.; Stamen, R.; Stanič, S.; Steininger, H.; Sumisawa, K.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takasaki, F.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Terazaki, H.; Tomura, T.; Trabelsi, K.; Trischuk, W.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.; Ueno, K.; Ueno, K.; Uozaki, N.; Ushiroda, Y.; Vahsen, S.; Varner, G.; Varvell, K.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, M. Z.; Watanabe, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yanai, H.; Yang, R.; Yasu, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Ziegler, T.; Žontar, D.

    2004-12-01

    A major upgrade of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD 2.0) of the Belle experiment at the KEKB factory was installed along with new front-end and back-end electronics systems during the summer shutdown period in 2003 to cope with higher particle rates, improve the track resolution and meet the increasing requirements of radiation tolerance. The SVD 2.0 detector modules are read out by VA1TA chips which provide "fast or" (hit) signals that are combined by the back-end FADCTF modules to coarse, but immediate level 0 track trigger signals at rates of several tens of a kHz. Moreover, the digitized detector signals are compared to threshold lookup tables in the FADCTFs to pass on hit information on a single strip basis to the subsequent level 1.5 trigger system, which reduces the rate below the kHz range. Both FADCTF and level 1.5 electronics make use of parallel real-time processing in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), while further data acquisition and event building is done by PC farms running Linux. The new readout system hardware is described and the first results obtained with cosmics are shown.

  11. A possible level 0 trigger scheme for the STAR EMC

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.

    1994-05-01

    We propose a level 0 trigger for the STAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter, EMC, which provides a global energy sum and sums over cells appropriate for triggering on direct gammas and jets. It is implemented in analog at low level and digitally with FPGA`s at higher level. It will provide trigger information in less than 800 nanoseconds.

  12. Level 1 transient model for a molybdenum-99 producing aqueous homogeneous reactor and its applicability to the tracy reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nygaard, E. T.; Williams, M. M. R.; Angelo, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    Babcock and Wilcox Technical Services Group (B and W) has identified aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) as a technology well suited to produce the medical isotope molybdenum 99 (Mo-99). AHRs have never been specifically designed or built for this specialized purpose. However, AHRs have a proven history of being safe research reactors. In fact, in 1958, AHRs had 'a longer history of operation than any other type of research reactor using enriched fuel' and had 'experimentally demonstrated to be among the safest of all various type of research reactor now in use [1].' A 'Level 1' model representing B and W's proposed Medical Isotope Production System (MIPS) reactor has been developed. The Level 1 model couples a series of differential equations representing neutronics, temperature, and voiding. Neutronics are represented by point reactor kinetics while temperature and voiding terms are axially varying (one-dimensional). While this model was developed specifically for the MIPS reactor, its applicability to the Japanese TRACY reactor was assessed. The results from the Level 1 model were in good agreement with TRACY experimental data and found to be conservative over most of the time domains considered. The Level 1 model was used to study the MIPS reactor. An analysis showed the Level 1 model agreed well with a more complex computational model of the MIPS reactor (a FETCH model). Finally, a significant reactivity insertion was simulated with the Level 1 model to study the MIPS reactor's time-dependent response. (authors)

  13. Triggered Star Formation From Shock to Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Triggered star formation {TSF} occurs when supersonic flows generated by distant supernova blast waves, stellar winds {wind blown bubbles} or ionization fronts {D-type fronts in HII regions} sweep over a stable cloud. TSF may play a role in massive regions of star formation where winds, HII regions and, eventually, blast-waves sweep through dense, heterogeneous molecular material. In addition TSF has played an important role in discussions of the formation of our own solar system because it offers a natural way of injecting short lived radioactive isotopes {SLRI's} like 26^Al into material which will then form planetary bodies.The purpose of this proposal is to use advanced numerical tools to explore the physics of TSF in greater detail than has been attempted before. Previous studies have not been able to follow triggering past the early stages before a star forms. Our 3-D Adaptive Mesh Refinement {AMR} MHD code contains well tested physics modules which will allow us to track the influence of self-gravity, radiation-transport, cooling by molecules/neutrals/atoms and, finally, the collapse of gas into stars {i.e.condensed gravitating point-like objects or "sink-particles"}. With this tool we will follow triggering well past the formation of the star to explore the creation of accretion disks and their properties. In addition the microphysics routines in the code allow us to make detailed contact with HST observations such as the pillars in the Carina nebula via synthetic observations of line profiles, proper motions, Position-Velocity diagrams and statistics.

  14. Sub-monthly hydrological variability: In-orbit validation by GRACE level 1B observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, Anne; Eicker, Annette; Kusche, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Here, K-band range rate (KBRR) residuals are computed from GRACE level 1B observations and hydrological model output. The validation of hydrological models is usually performed by employing monthly gravity field solutions which have a very limited spatial and temporal resolution. The presented approach avoids the downward continuation and filtering process required for computing monthly solutions and, thus, enables to assess model-derived water storage variations with a high temporal resolution and at small spatial scales. In a first step, modeled water mass variations are converted into simulated KBRR observations. Secondly, those simulated observations and a number of geophysical corrections are reduced from the original GRACE K-band observations to obtain the residuals. Smaller residuals imply that the model is able to better explain the observations. Time series of daily and monthly RMS of KBRR residuals are computed globally and for selected regions. Additionally, the residuals are investigated in space domain by computing spatial RMS values for one year on a regular grid. In this study, three global hydrological models, the Land Surface Discharge Model (LSDM), the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and the GLDAS-Noah land surface model are evaluated exemplarily. Residuals from monthly model outputs are contrasted against daily model fields in order to quantify the information content on time scales shorter than one month. Furthermore, the high-frequent signal content is studied by comparing monthly solutions and the daily Kalman filter solutions from ITG-Grace2010 and ITSG-Grace2014. Globally, the residuals are reduced by 2.54% if the daily instead of the monthly ITSG solutions are used. As a reference: the application of AOD-RL05 leads to a reduction of 1.12% with respect to AOD-RL04. Daily information from LSDM reduce the residuals from the monthly model output further by 0.67% considering only the continents. WGHM is found to produce smaller residuals

  15. New methods for trigger electronics development

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1991-12-31

    The large and complex nature of RHIC experiments and the tight time schedule for their construction requires that new techniques for designing the electronics should be employed. This is particularly true of the trigger and data acquisition electronics which has to be ready for turn-on of the experiment. We describe the use of the Workview package from VIEWlogic Inc. for design, simulation, and verification of a flash ADC readout system. We also show how field-programmable gate arrays such as the Xilinx 4000 might be employed to construct or prototype circuits with a large number of gates while preserving flexibility.

  16. Transient involuntary mirror writing triggered by anxiety.

    PubMed

    Della Sala, Sergio; Calia, Clara; De Caro, Maria Fara; McIntosh, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Mirror writing (MW) has mainly been observed in left-hemisphere-damaged patients writing with the left hand. This study evaluated the presence of MW in 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We found that MW is not a typical feature of MCI. However, one woman (FC), mislabeled initially with MCI but in fact affected by anxiety, showed florid MW when writing with her left hand, which resolved as her anxiety receded. This case study supports anecdotal reports of MW triggered by anxiety, and the features of FC's performance indicate a motor rather than a perceptual basis for the phenomenon.

  17. Extremely Intense Magnetospheric Substorms : External Triggering? Preconditioning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Echer, Ezequiel; Hajra, Rajkumar

    2016-07-01

    We study particularly intense substorms using a variety of near-Earth spacecraft data and ground observations. We will relate the solar cycle dependences of events, determine whether the supersubstorms are externally or internally triggered, and their relationship to other factors such as magnetospheric preconditioning. If time permits, we will explore the details of the events and whether they are similar to regular (Akasofu, 1964) substorms or not. These intense substorms are an important feature of space weather since they may be responsible for power outages.

  18. Widespread Triggering of Nonvolcanic Tremor in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, Joan; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Peng, Zhigang; Creager, Kenneth C.; Vidale, John E.; Bodin, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We identified seven locations on or near the transform plate boundary in California where nonvolcanic tremor was triggered by the 2002 Denali earthquake. This result implies that the conditions essential for nonvolcanic tremor exist in a range of tectonic environments. Models explaining tremor typically require conditions endemic to subduction zones, that is, high temperatures and fluid pressures, because previously tremor was nearly exclusively documented in subduction zones. The absence of tremor in geothermal areas is inconsistent with such models. Additionally, we found no correlation between creeping or locked faults and tremor, contrary to predictions of frictional models of tremor.

  19. Fingerprint on trigger: A real case.

    PubMed

    Amata, B; Aprea, G M; Chiuri, A; Zampa, F

    2015-08-01

    The results obtained by employing a usual technique for latent prints development on firearms are presented. A fingermark on a trigger was enhanced and this print was used to identify the person who handled the firearm. Indeed, it is not usual to find a useful fingermark in that position and, more in general, on firearms because of many different factors described in the following sections. The uniqueness of the results reported in this paper allow to consider the present casework as very interesting for the forensic community.

  20. Metal-triggered collagen peptide disk formation.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, David E; Chmielewski, Jean

    2010-06-16

    A collagen peptide was designed for metal-triggered, hierarchical assembly through a radial growth mechanism. To achieve radial assembly, H-(byp)(2) containing Pro-Hyp-Gly repeating sequences and two staggered bipyridine ligands within the peptide was synthesized. Triple helix formation resulted in the placement of six bipyridine ligands along the triple helix, and the addition of metal ions resulted in the formation of nanometer-sized collagen peptide disks. These structures were found to disassemble upon the addition of EDTA, demonstrating that radial assembly of collagen peptide triple helices could be realized with the addition of metal ions.

  1. Red cell transfusion "trigger": a review.

    PubMed

    Petrides, Marian

    2003-07-01

    Despite the publication of several consensus guidelines that set forth recommendations for the transfusion of red cells, actual clinical practice continues to vary widely. Animal data and studies in human volunteers and patients support a red cell transfusion threshold of 7 to 8 g/dl in most patients. However, conflicting data, particularly in cardiac patients and in the elderly, suggest that it may be impossible to define a single red cell "trigger" for all patients. A well-designed, randomized, controlled trial is still needed to establish a safe threshold for red cell transfusion in adults with coronary artery disease.

  2. MASTER: OT detection during Fermi trigger inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kornilov, V.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Potter, S.; Gabovich, A.

    2016-11-01

    During inspection of Fermi trigger 501261070 ( (Ra,Dec)=47.190,-47.210; GRB_ERROR_radius=3.27deg, GRB_TIME=2016/11/19 15:11:06.40UT http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov/other/501261070.fermi ) MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 22m 52.70s -48d 29m 10.9s on 2016-11-19 21:17:17.878UT with unfiltered m_OT=17.8 (mlim=19.7).

  3. The VME-based D0 muon trigger electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, M; Green, J; Hedin, D; Morphis, R; Repond, S; Willis, S; Zazula, R; Johns, K; Bazizi, K; Fahland, T; Hall, R E; Jerger, S; Lietzke, C; Smith, D; Butler, J M; Diehl, H T; Eartly, D; Fitzpatrick, T; Green, D; Haggerty, H; Hansen, S; Hawkins, J; Igarashi, S; Joestlein, H

    1990-11-01

    The trigger electronics for the muon system of the Fermilab D0 detector is described. The hardware trigger consists of VME-based cards designed to find probable tracks in individual chambers and then match these track segments. The fast trigger is highly parallel and able to discern probable tracks from about 15,000 trigger cells in under 200 ns from receipt of all bits in the counting house. There is a parallel confirmation trigger with a response time of 1--5 microseconds that provides a crude calculation of the momentum and charge of the muon. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  5. Electron-triggered motions in technomimetic molecules.

    PubMed

    Carella, Alexandre; Coudret, Christophe; Guirado, Gonzalo; Rapenne, Gwénaël; Vives, Guillaume; Launay, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-14

    Technomimetic molecules are molecules designed to imitate macroscopic objects at the molecular level, also transposing the motions that these objects are able to undergo. This article focuses on technomimetic molecules with motions triggered by electrons. The first part is devoted to our work in the field of molecular switches: after having demonstrated the possibility of controlling an intramolecular electron transfer by photoisomerisation, we are now trying to control the isomerisation, either by electrochemistry, or by embedding the photochromic compound in a self-assembled monolayer and testing the electrical conduction with a STM tip. In a second part, we present our strategy on controlling the rotation in a molecular rotary motor and the family of ruthenium complexes designed to perform such a task. The molecules have a piano-stool structure with a "stator" meant to be grafted on an oxide surface, and a "rotor" bearing redox-active groups, so that addressing the molecule with nano-electrodes would trigger rotation. The electrical control of the charge state of a molecule by a STM tip is developed in a final part.

  6. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.; Crawford, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles.

  7. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.; Crawford, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufac-turing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles. PMID:26975332

  8. Triggering of dendritic cell apoptosis by xanthohumol.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Nguyen Thi; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Gulbins, Erich; Gu, Shuchen; Götz, Friedrich; Lang, Florian

    2010-07-01

    Xanthohumol, a flavonoid from beer with anticancer activity is known to trigger apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. Xanthohumol further has anti-inflammatory activity. However, little is known about the effect of xanthohumol on survival and function of immune cells. The present study thus addressed the effect of xanthohumol on dendritic cells (DCs), key players in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. To this end, mouse bone marrow-derived DCs were treated with xanthohumol with subsequent assessment of enzymatic activity of acid sphingomyelinase (Asm), ceramide formation determined with anti-ceramide antibodies in FACS and immunohistochemical analysis, caspase activity utilizing FITC conjugated anti-active caspase 8 or caspase 3 antibodies in FACS and by Western blotting, DNA fragmentation by determining the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and cell membrane scrambling by annexin V binding in FACS analysis. As a result, xanthohumol stimulated Asm, enhanced ceramide formation, activated caspases 8 and 3, triggered DNA fragmentation and led to cell membrane scrambling, all effects virtually absent in DCs from gene targeted mice lacking functional Asm or in wild-type cells treated with sphingomyelinase inhibitor amitriptyline. In conclusion, xanthohumol stimulated Asm leading to caspase activation and apoptosis of bone marrow-derived DCs.

  9. Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Liu, Zhen; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Zhengyang; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Zhou, Lihui; Shen, Fei; Kim, Myeongseob; Swafford, Laura; Sengupta, Louise; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-07-08

    Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes including V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional lithium-ion battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water completely within minutes due to triggered cascade reactions. With a simple cut-and-stack method, we designed a fully transient device with an area of 0.5 cm by 1 cm and total energy of 0.1 J. A shadow-mask technique was used to demonstrate the miniature device, which is compatible with transient electronics manufacturing. The materials, fabrication methods, and integration strategy discussed will be of interest for future developments in transient, self-powered electronics. The demonstration of a miniature Li battery shows the feasibility toward system integration for all transient electronics.

  10. Triggered self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ye, L; Pearson, T; Cordeau, Y; Mefford, O T; Crawford, T M

    2016-03-15

    Colloidal magnetic nanoparticles are candidates for application in biology, medicine and nanomanufacturing. Understanding how these particles interact collectively in fluids, especially how they assemble and aggregate under external magnetic fields, is critical for high quality, safe, and reliable deployment of these particles. Here, by applying magnetic forces that vary strongly over the same length scale as the colloidal stabilizing force and then varying this colloidal repulsion, we can trigger self-assembly of these nanoparticles into parallel line patterns on the surface of a disk drive medium. Localized within nanometers of the medium surface, this effect is strongly dependent on the ionic properties of the colloidal fluid but at a level too small to cause bulk colloidal aggregation. We use real-time optical diffraction to monitor the dynamics of self-assembly, detecting local colloidal changes with greatly enhanced sensitivity compared with conventional light scattering. Simulations predict the triggering but not the dynamics, especially at short measurement times. Beyond using spatially-varying magnetic forces to balance interactions and drive assembly in magnetic nanoparticles, future measurements leveraging the sensitivity of this approach could identify novel colloidal effects that impact real-world applications of these nanoparticles.

  11. Does the gut microbiota trigger Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

    PubMed

    Mori, Kouki; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Ozaki, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an organ-specific autoimmune disease in which both genetic predisposition and environmental factors serve as the trigger of the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests involvement of viral infection in the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, not only pathogenic microorganisms but also non-pathogenic commensal microorganisms induce proinflammatory or regulatory immune responses within the host. In accordance, series of studies indicate a critical role of intestinal commensal microbiota in the development of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. In contrast, the role of the gut and indigenous microorganisms in Hashimoto's thyroiditis has received little attention. Whereas activation of innate pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and disturbed intestinal epithelial barrier may contribute to thyroiditis development, only a few studies have addressed a link between the gut and Hashimoto's thyroiditis and provided just indirect and weak evidence for such a link. Despite this unsatisfactory situation, we here focus on the possible interaction between the gut and thyroid autoimmunity. Further studies are clearly needed to test the hypothesis that the gut commensal microflora represents an important environmental factor triggering Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  12. Ceramide triggers Weibel-Palade body exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rinky; Matsushita, Kenji; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Morrell, Craig N; Cao, Wangsen; Lowenstein, Charles J

    2004-08-06

    The sphingolipid ceramide mediates a variety of stress responses, including vascular inflammation and thrombosis. Activated endothelial cells release Weibel-Palade bodies, granules containing von Willebrand factor (vWF) and P-selectin, which induce leukocyte rolling and platelet adhesion and aggregation. We hypothesized that ceramide induces vascular inflammation and thrombosis in part by triggering Weibel-Palade body exocytosis. We added ceramide to human aortic endothelial cells and assayed Weibel-Palade body exocytosis by measuring the concentration of vWF released into the media. Exogenous ceramide induces vWF release from endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Activators of endogenous ceramide production, neutral sphingomyelinase, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha also induce Weibel-Palade body exocytosis. We next studied NO effects on ceramide-induced Weibel-Palade body exocytosis because NO can inhibit vascular inflammation. The NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine decreases ceramide-induced vWF release in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester increases ceramide-induced vWF release. In summary, our findings show that endogenous ceramide triggers Weibel-Palade body exocytosis, and that endogenous NO inhibits ceramide-induced exocytosis. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which ceramide induces vascular inflammation and thrombosis.

  13. Engineering Challenges in Antiproton Triggered Fusion Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cassenti, Brice; Kammash, Terry

    2008-01-21

    During the last decade antiproton triggered fusion propulsion has been investigated as a method for achieving high specific impulse, high thrust in a nuclear pulse propulsion system. In general the antiprotons are injected into a pellet containing fusion fuel with a small amount of fissionable material (i.e., an amount less than the critical mass) where the products from the fission are then used to trigger a fusion reaction. Initial calculations and simulations indicate that if magnetically insulated inertial confinement fusion is used that the pellets should result in a specific impulse of between 100,000 and 300,000 seconds at high thrust. The engineering challenges associated with this propulsion system are significant. For example, the antiprotons must be precisely focused. The pellet must be designed to contain the fission and initial fusion products and this will require strong magnetic fields. The fusion fuel must be contained for a sufficiently long time to effectively release the fusion energy, and the payload must be shielded from the radiation, especially the excess neutrons emitted, in addition to many other particles. We will review the recent progress, possible engineering solutions and the potential performance of these systems.

  14. Operation and modeling of the FORTE trigger box

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.

    1996-06-01

    The fast on-orbit recording of transient events satellite (FORTE) will carry a multiple-narrow-band trigger designed to detect impulsive VHF signals embedded in a high-noise background. The FORTE trigger boxes consist of eight VHF channels spaced across twenty MHz of bandwidth. A trigger is generated when a sufficiently bright signal is seen in a user-defined number of these channels within a specified coincidence window. In addition, the trigger circuitry incorporates a feature to reject events caused by the actuation of narrow-band carriers. This report describes the trigger`s operating principles and their implementation in the satellite hardware. We then discuss a computer model which can be used to simulate the performance of the trigger circuit.

  15. Note: A novel trigger generator for a pseudospark switch.

    PubMed

    Chatzakis, J; Hassan, S M; Clark, E L; Lee, P; Tatarakis, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel trigger generator for operating a pseudospark switch has been developed based on a series connection of several insulated gate bipolar transistors. The trigger generator can be operated in single shot mode up to a repetition rate of 1 kHz. It is characterized by a fast rise time and low jitter between the output trigger pulses of less than 1 ns. It produces 3 kV, 1 μs pulses into a 50 Ω load that can trigger a pseudospark switch. By eliminating bulkier, slower high voltage components, the overall volume of the trigger generator is reduced. This allows for faster, high voltage switching to take place and thereby increasing the power density of the unit. Using this pseudospark trigger generator, it is possible to trigger single or multiple pseudospark gaps without the requirement to use a pulse shaping circuit.

  16. An investigation into the remote triggering of the Oita earthquake by the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto earthquake using full wavefield simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Masatoshi

    2016-12-01

    High-amplitude seismic waves from the Mw 7.0 Kumamoto earthquake of April 16, 2016, triggered another large earthquake 80 km to the NE roughly 30 s later. The source was located at shallow depths beneath the Yufuin geothermal field, Oita Prefecture, Japan, and the event magnitude was approximately 5.9. To date, this is one of the clearest known examples of a remotely triggered large earthquake. The triggered Oita event was followed by significant seismicity, which was distinct from the aftershocks of the Kumamoto earthquake. The Coulomb failure stress change around the hypocenter, calculated for the passing waves of the Kumamoto earthquake by full wavefield simulation, was about 0.7 MPa when the Oita earthquake was triggered, with the static stress change being an order of magnitude smaller. The dynamic stress changes likely played an important role in triggering. A return to low seismicity levels 1 month after the triggered earthquake may have important implications for seismic hazard due to dynamic triggering.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Numerical modeling of shallow fault creep triggered by nearby earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M.; Liu, Y.; McGuire, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapha Mw 7.2 earthquake is the largest earthquake that strikes southern California in the last 18 years. It has triggered shallow fault creep on many faults in Salton Trough, Southern California, making it at least the 8th time in the last 42 years that a local or regional earthquake has done so. However, the triggering mechanism of fault creep and its implications to seismic hazard and fault mechanics is still poorly understood. For example, what determines the relative importance of static triggering and dynamic triggering of fault creep? What can we learn about the local frictional properties and normal stress from the triggering of fault creep? To understand the triggering mechanism and constrain fault frictional properties, we simulate the triggered fault creep on the Superstition Hills Fault (SHF), Salton Trough, Southern California. We use realistic static and dynamic shaking due to nearby earthquakes as stress perturbations to a 2D (in a 3D medium) planar fault model with rate-and-state frictional property variations both in depth and along strike. Unlike many previous studies, we focus on the simulation of triggered shallow fault creep instead of earthquakes. Our fault model can reproduce the triggering process, by static, dynamic , and combined stress perturbation. Preliminary results show that the magnitude of perturbation relative to the original stress level is an important parameter. In the static case, perturbation of 1% of normal stress trigger delayed fault creep whereas 10% of normal stress generate instantaneous creep. In the dynamic case, a change of two times in magnitude of perturbation can result in difference of triggered creep in several orders of magnitude. We explore combined triggering with different ratio of static and dynamic perturbation. The timing of triggering in a earthquake cycle is also important. With measurements on triggered creep on the SHF, we constrain local stress level and frictional parameters, which

  18. Baseflow as the trigger of intraplate earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costain, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Intraplate earthquakes can be triggered by small changes in crustal loading, unloading, or pore-fluid pressure. A self-organized crust appears to be remarkably sensitive to extremely small changes in either pore-fluid pressure diffusion or stress loading, implying that these small changes in stress do not cause earthquakes, but only trigger them. Baseflow is commonly assumed to be equivalent to recharge. Groundwater recharge can trigger seismicity by reducing the effective normal stress on fractures. Intervals of higher groundwater recharge can be identified by determining when a stream is in baseflow recession, which is accccomplished by a hydrograph separation. Using the central Virginia seismic zone as an example, intraplate earthquakes tend to follow intervals of higher baseflow, i.e., recharge. A finite element model (FEM) of pore-fluid pressure diffusion for which the diffusion is within intersecting and hydraulically transmissive fracture zones allows comparisons to be made between 1) times of maxima in baseflow as determined for stream gaging station 02.0350.00 on the James River in the central Virginia seismic zone (CVSZ) and the time of occurrence of the Virginia 5.8 earthquake of August 23, 2010, and between 2) theoretical times of maxima in pore-fluid pressure diffusion from impulsive surface sources applied to exposed fracture zones as computed from the FEM simulation. The CVSZ, the New Madrid seismic zone, and the central Oklahoma seismic zone (COSZ) are all bisected by major river systems. Preliminary analysis of the stream gaging stations on rivers in and near the COSZ suggests that the earthquakes may be associated with the Canadian River system. The Meers fault does not seem to be involved. There is a slight correlation between the duration of baseflow and earthquake magnitude in the COSZ. The magnitude 5.6 earthquake of November 5, 2011 occurred about 200 days after a prolonged period of relatively high baseflow (recharge) as determined at stream

  19. Premonitory slip and tidal triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Beeler, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Earth tides. Triggered seismicity has been reported resulting from the passage of surface waves excited by the Landers earthquake. These transient waves had measured amplitudes in excess of 0.1 MPa at frequencies of 0.05 to 0.2 Hz in regions of notable seismicity increase. Similar stress oscillations in our laboratory experiments produced strongly correlated stick-slip events. We suggest that seemingly inconsistent natural observations of triggered seismicity and absence of tidal triggering indicate that failure is amplitude and frequency dependent. This is the expected result if, as in our laboratory experiments, the rheology of the Earth's crust permits delayed failure.

  20. Investigation of Remotely Triggered Tremor and Earthquakes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that non-volcanic tremor (NVT) as well as small to moderate size earthquakes can be triggered by the seismic waves from distant earthquakes; however, little is understood about the triggering mechanisms. Investigating cases of remote triggering offers the opportunity to improve our knowledge about the physical mechanisms of earthquake interaction and nucleation. Furthermore, the similarities observed between remotely triggered NVT and those related to slow slip events, suggest that investigating triggered NVT may give us important insights into the mechanisms involved in slow slip events and their potential role in the earthquake cycle. In this work we present new results and the techniques we employ in identifying, locating and modeling cases of triggered earthquakes and NVT in Latin America and the Caribbean. In particular, we use global and regional seismic networks to perform an intensive search for triggered seismicity in Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Our results suggest that seismicity can be triggered in a broad variety of tectonic environments, depending strongly on the triggering dynamic stress amplitude and orientation. This investigation will help to define the regions where remote triggering occurs and their susceptibility to undergo an important increase in seismicity after the occurrence of a distant large earthquake.

  1. Solanidine and tomatidine trigger scar pruritus.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Pedro E; Rioja, Luis F

    2016-05-01

    Scar pruritus is frequently encountered in clinical practice (particularly in burn patients) owing to its poorly known pathogenesis and difficult treatment. In previous work, we demonstrated the usefulness of a diet excluding edible solanaceae (viz., potatoes, tomatoes, peppers and aubergines) in patients with antihistamine-resistant scar pruritus. We hypothesized that alkaloids in solanaceae (particularly their secondary metabolites or aglycones) might be the actual pruritogens. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted a single-blind prospective study on patients responding favourably to a solanaceae-free diet whose scar pruritus could be ascribed to one of the four foods. The study involved applying the aglycones solanidine and tomatidine to each scar and checking whether, and which, had a pruritogenic effect. A total of 18 patients (90%) responded by developing pruritus; also, the triggering aglycone coincided with that prevailing in the pruritogenic food. We concluded that solanaceae aglycones are directly involved in the pathogenesis of scar pruritus.

  2. Synchronization trigger control system for flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cinematography or holographic interferometry for dynamic flow visualization in an internal combustion engine requires a control device that globally synchronizes camera and light source timing at a predefined shaft encoder angle. The device is capable of 0.35 deg resolution for rotational speeds of up to 73 240 rpm. This was achieved by implementing the shaft encoder signal addressed look-up table (LUT) and appropriate latches. The developed digital signal processing technique achieves 25 nsec of high speed triggering angle detection by using direct parallel bit comparison of the shaft encoder digital code with a simulated angle reference code, instead of using angle value comparison which involves more complicated computation steps. In order to establish synchronization to an AC reference signal whose magnitude is variant with the rotating speed, a dynamic peak followup synchronization technique has been devised. This method scrutinizes the reference signal and provides the right timing within 40 nsec. Two application examples are described.

  3. Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liu; Kang, Lei; Mayer, Theresa S.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the exotic material properties that have been demonstrated to date, practical examples of versatile metamaterials remain exceedingly rare. The concept of metadevices has been proposed in the context of hybrid metamaterial composites: systems in which active materials are introduced to advance tunability, switchability and nonlinearity. In contrast to the successful hybridizations seen at lower frequencies, there has been limited exploration into plasmonic and photonic nanostructures due to the lack of available optical materials with non-trivial activity, together with difficulties in regulating responses to external forces in an integrated manner. Here, by presenting a series of proof-of-concept studies on electrically triggered functionalities, we demonstrate a vanadium dioxide integrated photonic metamaterial as a transformative platform for multifunctional control. The proposed hybrid metamaterial integrated with transition materials represents a major step forward by providing a universal approach to creating self-sufficient and highly versatile nanophotonic systems. PMID:27807342

  4. Simulation of rockfalls triggered by earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kobayashi, Y.; Harp, E.L.; Kagawa, T.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program to simulate the downslope movement of boulders in rolling or bouncing modes has been developed and applied to actual rockfalls triggered by the Mammoth Lakes, California, earthquake sequence in 1980 and the Central Idaho earthquake in 1983. In order to reproduce a movement mode where bouncing predominated, we introduced an artificial unevenness to the slope surface by adding a small random number to the interpolated value of the mid-points between the adjacent surveyed points. Three hundred simulations were computed for each site by changing the random number series, which determined distances and bouncing intervals. The movement of the boulders was, in general, rather erratic depending on the random numbers employed, and the results could not be seen as deterministic but stochastic. The closest agreement between calculated and actual movements was obtained at the site with the most detailed and accurate topographic measurements. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Synthesising periodic triggering signals with genetic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Liang; Chen, Po-Kuei

    2014-02-01

    The potential of the clock lies in its role of triggering logic reaction for sequential biological circuits. This research introduces an idea of designing a genetic clock generator by Fourier series based on the genetic oscillators. The authors generalise the design idea using a combination of fundamental sinusoidal signals. Since biochemical reaction of the biological system is extremely slow, however, transition between minimal and maximal levels is instantaneous for an ideal clock signal; it is thus not directly realisable in biological systems. That means it would be hard to directly synthesize a square wave generator for use as a genetic clock. They apply Fourier series to represent a square wave as a finite summation of sinusoidal waves generated by some genetic oscillators with different harmonic oscillating frequencies, in which the amplitude alternates at a constant frequency between the fixed minimal and maximal levels with the same duration of time.

  6. Rheumatic mimics and selected triggers of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Katja F; Barkhuizen, Andre

    2002-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by diffuse pain and tender points, which have been present for more than 3 months. Many patients with systemic illnesses can have diffuse pain similar to that found in fibromyalgia, including rheumatic diseases such as polymyalgia rheumatica, rheumatoid arthritis, idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, and joint hypermobility. Osteomalacia and thyroid disease are also in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pain and are imminently treatable. In addition, there has been interest throughout the past 10 years in infectious diseases including hepatitis C, Lyme disease, coxsackie B, HIV, and parvovirus infection, which may cause or trigger fibromyalgia. This paper provides a framework to use when identifying these diseases as part of the evaluation of a patient with chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain.

  7. Peptides as triggers of plant defence.

    PubMed

    Albert, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Plants are confronted with several biotic stresses such as microbial pathogens and other herbivores. To defend against such attackers, plants possess an array of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense the danger and consequently initiate a defence programme that prevents further damage and spreading of the pest. Characteristic pathogenic structures, so-called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), serve as signals that allow the plant to sense invaders. Additionally, pathogens wound or damage the plant and the resulting release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) serves as a warning signal. This review focuses on peptides that serve as triggers or amplifiers of plant defence and thus follow the definition of a MAMP or a DAMP.

  8. Tidal triggering effect on earthquakes occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D.; Spatalas, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    In this review we present the investigation for the tidal triggering evidence on the earthquakes at various seismic areas of Greece. The result of our analysis using the HiCum method, indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly (Mm) variations. The same happens with the corresponding diurnal and semi-diurnal variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal (K1), (O1) and semi-diurnal solar (S2) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) tidal variations. The confidence level of the Tidal-Earthquake frequency period compliance is very sensitive to the seismicity of the area and we call it Tidal - Earthquake frequency compliance parameter. We suggest that this parameter may be used in earthquake risk evaluation.

  9. Triggering rogue waves in opposing currents.

    PubMed

    Onorato, Miguel; Proment, Davide; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2011-10-28

    We show that rogue waves can be triggered naturally when a stable wave train enters a region of an opposing current flow. We demonstrate that the maximum amplitude of the rogue wave depends on the ratio between the current velocity U(0) and the wave group velocity c(g). We also reveal that an opposing current can force the development of rogue waves in random wave fields, resulting in a substantial change of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. The present results can be directly adopted in any field of physics in which the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonconstant coefficient is applicable. In particular, nonlinear optics laboratory experiments are natural candidates for verifying experimentally our results.

  10. External triggering of plasmoid development at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, A.; Paty, C. S.; Winglee, R. M.; Harnett, E. M.

    2012-07-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has encountered multiple plasmoids in Saturn's magnetotail thought to be produced by tail reconnection. However, single spacecraft measurements make it difficult to determine plasmoid size, where they form, the composition, and the geometry of the plasma sheet when plasmoids are produced. This paper examines these issues using 3D multifluid simulations of the Kronian magnetosphere. Plasmoids may develop in multiple sectors, form at different distances from the planet, and grow to sizes large relative to the system (˜25 RS), with varying widths and lengths. These plasmoids are composed primarily of water group ions and move downtail with speeds of ˜250 km/s (the local Alfvén speed). The plasma sheet is hinged upward both prior to and following plasmoid formation. Plasmoids can be externally triggered by both flips in the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) as well as a pulse in the solar wind dynamic pressure.

  11. Hybrid metamaterials for electrically triggered multifunctional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liu; Kang, Lei; Mayer, Theresa S.; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-10-01

    Despite the exotic material properties that have been demonstrated to date, practical examples of versatile metamaterials remain exceedingly rare. The concept of metadevices has been proposed in the context of hybrid metamaterial composites: systems in which active materials are introduced to advance tunability, switchability and nonlinearity. In contrast to the successful hybridizations seen at lower frequencies, there has been limited exploration into plasmonic and photonic nanostructures due to the lack of available optical materials with non-trivial activity, together with difficulties in regulating responses to external forces in an integrated manner. Here, by presenting a series of proof-of-concept studies on electrically triggered functionalities, we demonstrate a vanadium dioxide integrated photonic metamaterial as a transformative platform for multifunctional control. The proposed hybrid metamaterial integrated with transition materials represents a major step forward by providing a universal approach to creating self-sufficient and highly versatile nanophotonic systems.

  12. Aftershock triggering by complete Coulomb stress changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the correlation between seismicity rate change following the 1992, M7.3, Landers, California, earthquake and characteristics of the complete Coulomb failure stress (CFS) changes (??CFS(t)) that this earthquake generated. At close distances the time-varying "dynamic" portion of the stress change depends on how the rupture develops temporally and spatially and arises from radiated seismic waves and from permanent coseismic fault displacement. The permanent "static" portion (??CFS) depends only on the final coseismic displacement. ??CFS diminishes much more rapidly with distance than the transient, dynamic stress changes. A common interpretation of the strong correlation between ??CFS and aftershocks is that load changes can advance or delay failure. Stress changes may also promote failure by physically altering properties of the fault or its environs. Because it is transient, ??CFS(t) can alter the failure rate only by the latter means. We calculate both ??CFS and the maximum positive value of ??CFS(t) (peak ??CFS(t)) using a reflectivity program. Input parameters are constrained by modeling Landers displacement seismograms. We quantify the correlation between maps of seismicity rate changes and maps of modeled ??CFS and peak ??CFS(t) and find agreement for both models. However, rupture directivity, which does not affect ??CFS, creates larger peak ??CFS(t) values northwest of the main shock. This asymmetry is also observed in seismicity rate changes but not in ??CFS. This result implies that dynamic stress changes are as effective as static stress changes in triggering aftershocks and may trigger earthquakes long after the waves have passed.

  13. Catering & Hospitality, Serving Food & Drink, Levels 1-3. 2nd Edition. Catering & Hospitality, Reception & Housekeeping, Levels 1-3. Catering & Hospitality, Supervisory Management, Level 3. Catering & Hospitality Management, Level 4. 2nd Edition. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  14. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) has been discovered in recent years due to advances in seismic instruments and increased density of seismic networks. The NVT is a special kind of seismic signal indicative of the physical conditions and the failure mechanism on the source on the fault where NVT occurs. The detection methods used and the sensitivity of them relies on the density, distance and instrumentation of the station network available. How accurately the tremor is identified in different regions varies greatly among different studies. Therefore, there has not been study that rigorously documents tectonic tremors in different regions under limited methods and data. Meanwhile, many incidences of NVTs are observed during or after small but significant strain change induced by teleseismic, regional or local earthquake. The understanding of the triggering mechanisms critical for tremor remains unclear. In addition, characteristics of the triggering of NVT in different regions are rarely compared because of the short time frame after the discovery of the triggered NVTs. We first explore tectonic tremor based on observations to learn about its triggering, frequency of occurrence, location and spectral characteristics. Then, we numerically model the triggering of instability on the estimated tremor-source, under assumptions fine-tuned according to previous studies (Thomas et al., 2009; Miyazawa et al., 2005; Hill, 2008; Ito, 2009; Rubinstein et al., 2007; Peng and Chao, 2008). The onset of the slip reveals that how and when the external loading triggers tremor. It also holds the information to the background stress conditions under which tremor source starts with. We observe and detect tremor in two regions: Anza and Cholame, along San Jacinto Fault (SJF) and San Andreas Fault (SAF) respectively. These two sections of the faults, relative to general fault zone on which general earthquakes occur, are considered transition zones where slip of slow rates occurs. Slip events

  15. Networked event-triggered control: an introduction and research trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Sabih, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    A physical system can be studied as either continuous time or discrete-time system depending upon the control objectives. Discrete-time control systems can be further classified into two categories based on the sampling: (1) time-triggered control systems and (2) event-triggered control systems. Time-triggered systems sample states and calculate controls at every sampling instant in a periodic fashion, even in cases when states and calculated control do not change much. This indicates unnecessary and useless data transmission and computation efforts of a time-triggered system, thus inefficiency. For networked systems, the transmission of measurement and control signals, thus, cause unnecessary network traffic. Event-triggered systems, on the other hand, have potential to reduce the communication burden in addition to reducing the computation of control signals. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the event-triggered methods for control systems and highlights the potential research directions.

  16. Note: Triggering behavior of a vacuum arc plasma source.

    PubMed

    Lan, C H; Long, J D; Zheng, L; Dong, P; Yang, Z; Li, J; Wang, T; He, J L

    2016-08-01

    Axial symmetry of discharge is very important for application of vacuum arc plasma. It is discovered that the triggering method is a significant factor that would influence the symmetry of arc discharge at the final stable stage. Using high-speed multiframe photography, the transition processes from cathode-trigger discharge to cathode-anode discharge were observed. It is shown that the performances of the two triggering methods investigated are quite different. Arc discharge triggered by independent electric source can be stabilized at the center of anode grid, but it is difficult to achieve such good symmetry through resistance triggering. It is also found that the triggering process is highly correlated to the behavior of emitted electrons.

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Trigger System in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. 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R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bolnet, N. M.; Bona, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C. N.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W. K.; Brown, G.; Brown, H.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R. M.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G. D.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A. M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Chapman, J. W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D. G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S. L.; Chevalier, L.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J. T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chislett, R. T.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciba, K.; Ciftci, A. K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P. J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R. W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J. G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N. J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M. C.; Consonni, M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crescioli, F.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuciuc, C.-M.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G. L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, A. R.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Taille, C.; De la Torre, H.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dean, S.; Dedovich, D. V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M. A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E. B.; Dieli, M. V.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T. A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T. K. O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O. B.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doxiadis, A. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen, M.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C. A.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A. C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C. U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S. T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Gemmell, A.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P. F.; Giugni, D.; Giunta, M.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Göpfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Golovnia, S. N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L. S.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouanère, M.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M. P.; Goussiou, A. G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafström, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H. M.; Gray, J. A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Greenfield, D.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A. A.; Grinstein, S.; Grishkevich, Y. V.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V. J.; Guest, D.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gushchin, V. N.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H. K.; Hadley, D. R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G. A.; Harenberg, T.; Harkusha, S.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R. D.; Harris, O. M.; Harrison, K.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hauff, D.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B. M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayden, D.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heine, K.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heldmann, M.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hensel, C.; Henß, T.; Hernandez, C. M.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg, R.; Hershenhorn, A. D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N. P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, N.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holder, M.; Holmes, A.; Holmgren, S. O.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Homma, Y.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Horazdovsky, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horton, K.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M. A.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Howell, D. F.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hruska, I.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huang, G. S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R. E.; Huhtinen, M.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibbotson, M.; Ibragimov, I.; Ichimiya, R.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Idzik, M.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Imbault, D.; Imhaeuser, M.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Inigo-Golfin, J.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Ionescu, G.; Irles Quiles, A.; Ishii, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A. V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J. N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D. K.; Jankowski, E.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jelen, K.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jeremie, A.; Jež, P.; Jézéquel, S.; Jha, M. K.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, L. 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R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, J. B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savu, D. O.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schamov, A. G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, M.; Schöning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J. W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s}=7 TeV and heavy ion collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV were produced by the LHC and recorded using the ATLAS experiment's trigger system in 2010. The LHC is designed with a maximum bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the ATLAS trigger system is designed to record approximately 200 of these per second. The trigger system selects events by rapidly identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. An overview of the ATLAS trigger system, the evolution of the system during 2010 and the performance of the trigger system components and selections based on the 2010 collision data are shown. A brief outline of plans for the trigger system in 2011 is presented.

  18. Whistler-triggered emissions observed by ISIS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Ondoh, T.

    1989-01-01

    A statistical examination has been conducted of the ducted and nonducted whistler-triggered emissions (WTEs) observed by the ISIS satellites in the 1979-1981 period. Most WTEs are observed with simultaneous lower hybrid resonance in the topside ionosphere. The VLF emissions triggered by ducted whistlers frequently occur at L of 2-3, while those triggered by nonducted whistlers occur in the wider latitudinal regions at L of 2.2-4.3.

  19. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  20. A VXIbus based trigger for the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Englert, J.; Hale, R.; Lemon, S. ); Leung, P. ); Cuevas, C.; Joyce, D. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper discusses a VXIbus based first level triggering system for the CLAS detector at CEBAF which has been designed and prototyped. It uses pipelining and a triple memory lookup to produce a dead-timeless trigger decision with an average latency of 110 ns and a jitter of 20 ns. The VXIbus Extended Start/Stop triggering protocols allow sub-nanosecond time synchronization.

  1. A VXIbus based trigger for the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Doughty, Jr.; J. Englert; R. Hale; S. Lemon; P. Leung; C. Cuevas; D. Joyce

    1992-04-01

    A VXIbus based first level triggering system for the CLAS detector at CEBAF has been designed and prototyped. It uses pipelining and a triple memory lookup to produce a dead-timeless trigger decision with an average latency of 110 nS and a jitter of 20 nS. The VXIbus Extended Start/Stop triggering protocols allow sub-nanosecond time synchronization.

  2. Travelling Hopefully: An Exploration of the Limited Possibilities for Level 1 Students in the English Further Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Liz

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a small-scale qualitative study exploring the aspirations and learning identities of three groups of Level 1 students in two English further education (FE) colleges. Emerging identities are explored in the context of classed and gendered dispositions and the educational positioning of the young people.…

  3. Administration, Levels 1-2. 2nd Edition. Customer Service, Level 3. Management, Levels 3-5. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  4. Let's Go Exploring. Nutrition Comes Alive. Level 1. Nutrition Educator's Guide and Work Sheets, Letters to Parents, Recipes. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Tracy J.

    This guide provides a nutrition education program for elementary school students that spans kindergarten through Grade 3 as well as providing activities for specific levels. Nutrition education objectives are stated for each grade level: (1) kindergarten--students will become familiar with and motivated to eat a variety of foods; (2) grade…

  5. ATLAS trigger operations: Monitoring with ``Xmon'' rate prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aukerman, Andrew; Hong, Tae Min

    2017-01-01

    We present the operations and online monitoring with the ``Xmon'' rate prediction system for the trigger system at the ATLAS Experiment. A two-level trigger system reduces the LHC's bunch-crossing rate, 40 MHz at design capacity, to an average recording rate of about 1 kHz, while maintaining a high efficiency of selecting events of interest. The Xmon system uses the luminosity value to predict trigger rates that are, in turn, compared with incoming rates. The predictions rely on past runs to parameterize the luminosity dependency of the event rate for a trigger algorithm. Some examples are given to illustrate the performance of the tool during recent operations.

  6. The digital trigger system for the RED-100 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, P. P. Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Kaplin, V. A.

    2015-12-15

    The system for forming a trigger for the liquid xenon detector RED-100 is developed. The trigger can be generated for all types of events that the detector needs for calibration and data acquisition, including the events with a single electron of ionization. In the system, a mechanism of event detection is implemented according to which the timestamp and event type are assigned to each event. The trigger system is required in the systems searching for rare events to select and keep only the necessary information from the ADC array. The specifications and implementation of the trigger unit which provides a high efficiency of response even to low-energy events are considered.

  7. The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shimpei

    2016-07-01

    The first-level calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) had operated successfully through the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Towards forthcoming LHC runs, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the beam energy and the luminosity. This paper reviews the ATLAS L1Calo trigger upgrade project that introduces new architectures for the liquid-argon calorimeter trigger readout and the L1Calo trigger processing system.

  8. Investigation of Triggered Non-Volcanic Tremor in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.; Ruiz, M.; Minaya, E.; Moreno Toiran, B.; Castro, R. R.; Peng, Z.; Talavera, E.; Escudero, C. R.; García, L. C.; Quiroz, W.

    2013-05-01

    Non-volcanic tremor (NVT) is an episodic, small amplitude, non impulsive and high-frequency seismic signal that occurs just beneath the seismogenic zones of large faults. Little is understood about the processes that generate NVT, and little can be assessed about its potential role in the earthquake cycle. The similarities observed between remotely triggered NVT and slow slip events suggest that investigating triggered NVT may give us important insights into the mechanism evolved in slow slip events. Furthermore, understanding the physics behind triggered NVT may also improve our understanding of the physics of earthquake triggering. Thus, investigating triggered NVT constitutes an important tool for studying these and other related phenomena. In this work we present some of the results and techniques we employ in identifying potential cases of triggered NVT in Latin America. We use global and regional seismic networks to perform an intensive search of triggered NVT in Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Our results suggest that NVT can be dynamically triggered in a broad variety of tectonic environments, depending strongly on the dynamic stress amplitude and orientation. Investigating remotely triggered tremor offers the opportunity to improve our knowledge about deformation mechanisms and the physics of rupture.

  9. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, G.; Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Graverini, E.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project for the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for HEP experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a pure software selection system (trigger-less). The very innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software both at low- and high-level trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming very attractive. We discuss in details the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level trigger with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the NA62 experiment at CERN. The use of GPUs in high-level triggers is also considered, the ATLAS experiment (and in particular the muon trigger) at CERN will be taken as a study case of possible applications.

  10. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Deri, L.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Sozzi, M.; Pantaleo, F.; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.; Gap Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identified in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system ("trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerators in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughputs, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming relevant. We discuss in detail the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low-level triggers with fixed latency. In particular we show preliminary results on a first test in the CERN NA62 experiment. The use of GPUs in high level triggers is also considered, the CERN ATLAS experiment being taken as a case study of possible applications.

  11. Upgrade of the ALICE muon trigger electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupieux, P.; Joly, B.; Jouve, F.; Manen, S.; Vandaële, R.

    2014-09-01

    The ALICE muon trigger is a large scale detector based on single gap bakelite RPCs. An upgrade of the electronics is needed in order to withstand the increase of luminosity after the LHC Long Shutdown-2 in 2018-2019. The detector will be read out at the minimum bias rate of 100 kHz in Pb-Pb collisions (including a safety factor of 2), two orders of magnitude above the present design. For the most exposed RPCs and in the present conditions of operation, the total integrated charge could be as high as 100 mC/cm2 with rates up to 100 Hz/cm2, which is above the present limit for safe operation. In order to overcome these limitations, upgrade projects of the Front-End (FE) and Readout Electronics are scheduled. The readout upgrade at high rate with low dead time requires changing most of the present electronics. It involves a new design for the 234 Local cards receiving the LVDS signals from the FE electronics and the 16 Regional concentrator cards. The readout chain is completed by a single Common Readout Unit developed for most ALICE sub-detectors. The new architecture of the muon trigger readout will be briefly presented. The present FE electronics, designed for the streamer mode, must be replaced to prevent ageing of the RPCs in the future operating conditions. The new FE called FEERIC (for Front-End Electronics Rapid Integrated Circuit) will have to perform amplification of the analog input signals. This will allow for RPC operation in a low-gain avalanche mode, with a much smaller charge deposit (factor 3-5) in the detector as compared to the present conditions. The purpose is to discriminate RPC signals with a charge threshold around 100 fC, in both polarities, and with a time jitter below 1 ns. We will describe the FE card and FEERIC ASIC features and first prototype performance, report on test results obtained on a cosmic test bench and discuss ongoing developments.

  12. LHC signatures of WIMP-triggered baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yanou; Okui, Takemichi; Yunesi, Arash

    2016-12-01

    A robust mechanism was recently proposed in which thermal freeze-out of WIMPs can provide a unified origin of dark matter and baryon abundances in our universe. We point out that this WIMP-triggered baryogenesis mechanism can exhibit a rich collider phenomenology and be tested at the current and near-future experiments at LHC, even in the case where the WIMPs are completely devoid of SM gauge and Higgs portal interactions, as may be motivated by the persistent null results of WIMP dark matter searches. We catalog a rich array of LHC signatures robustly present in such a scenario. In particular, the simplest such implementation can already offer a very clean signal of a TeV-scale resonance that decays to diphotons with a cross section that can easily be within the reach of the current and near-future LHC runs in the region of parameter space that leads to a successful baryogenesis. Other characteristic signatures include the production of multiple bottom and/or multiple top quarks, promptly or displaced. An even more exotic possibility is the production of two separate sets of isolated emerging jets connected by a charged track, which may require new dedicated studies. Finally, dinucleon decay can also provide a powerful probe of the mechanism.

  13. Environmental triggers of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Couper, J J

    2001-06-01

    High risk HLA class II alleles account for 40% of the genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in Caucasians, but the majority of the genetically predisposed do not develop the disease. This supports some environmental modification of the autoimmune destruction of beta cells that precedes type 1 diabetes. Identical twin studies and geographical variation in incidence also argue for a critical role of environmental factors. Attention has been directed to the possible harmful effect of cow's milk protein (or protective effect of breast-feeding) and enteric infections in early life. Natural history studies that follow children at increased risk of type 1 diabetes provide the best opportunity to study environmental triggers. The Australian Baby Diab Study has followed approximately 500 babies from birth who have a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes. No prospective association between duration of breast-feeding or introduction of cow's milk and the development of islet autoimmunity was found. The same Australian cohort demonstrated a relationship between rotavirus infection and the first appearance or increase in islet antibodies. Enteroviral infection is seen more frequently in prediabetic children and prior to the onset of islet autoimmunity in Finnish cohorts. Environmental factors may interact. Breast milk protects against enteric infections; enteric infections in turn could increase immunity to dietary antigens by increasing intestinal permeability. It is also possible that an alteration in gut mucosal immune function in genetically susceptible individuals underlies any effect of dietary or viral proteins on the development of islet autoimmunity in early life.

  14. An enhanced multiwavelength ultraviolet biological trigger lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achey, Alexander; Bufton, Jack; Dawson, Jeffrey; Huang, Wen; Lee, Sangmin; Mehta, Nikhil; Prasad, Coorg R.

    2004-12-01

    A compact Ultraviolet Biological Trigger Lidar (UBTL) instrument for detection and discrimination of bio-warfare-agent (BWA) simulant aerosol clouds was developed by us [Prasad, et al, 2004] using a 5mW, 375nm semiconductor UV optical source (SUVOS) laser diode. It underwent successful field tests at Dugway Proving Ground and demonstrated measurement ranges of over 300m for elastic scattering and >100m for fluorescence. The UBTL was modified during mid-2004 to enhance its detection and discrimination performance with increased range of operation and sensitivity. The major optical modifications were: 1. increase in telescope collection aperture to 200 mm diameter: 2. addition of 266nm and 977nm laser transmitters: 3. addition of three detection channels for 266nm and 977nm elastic backscatter and fluorescence centered at 330nm. Also the commercial electronics of the original UBTL were replaced with a multi-channel field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip for laser diode modulation and data acquisition that allowed simultaneous and continuous operation of the UBTL sensor on all of its transmitter and receiver wavelengths. A notebook computer was added for data display and storage. Field tests were performed during July 2004 at the Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center in Maryland to establish the enhanced performance of UBTL subsystems. Results of these tests are presented and discussed.

  15. Polar Solvents Trigger Formation of Reverse Micelles.

    PubMed

    Khoshnood, Atefeh; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2015-06-09

    We use molecular dynamics simulations and molecular thermodynamics to investigate the formation of reverse micelles in a system of surfactants and nonpolar solvents. Since the early observation of reverse micelles, the question has been whether the existence of polar solvent molecules such as water is the driving force for the formation of reverse micelles in nonpolar solvents. In this work, we use a simple coarse-grained model of surfactants and solvents to show that a small number of polar solvent molecules triggers the formation of large permanent aggregates. In the absence of polar molecules, both the thermodynamic model and molecular simulations show that small aggregates are more populated in the solution and larger ones are less frequent as the system evolves over time. The size and shape of reverse micelles depend on the size of the polar core: the shape is spherical for a large core and ellipsoidal for a smaller one. Using the coarse-grained model, we also investigate the effect of temperature and surfactant tail length. Our results reveal that the number of surfactant molecules in the micelle decreases as the temperature increases, but the average diameter does not change because the size of the polar core remains invariant. A reverse micelle with small polar core attracts fewer surfactants when the tail is long. The uptake of solvent particles by a micelle of longer surfactant tail is less than shorter ones when the polar solvent particles are initially distributed randomly.

  16. Can ice sheets trigger abrupt climatic change?

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, T.

    1996-11-01

    The discovery in recent years of abrupt climatic changes in climate proxy records from Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores, and from other sites around the world, has diverted attention from gradual insolation changes caused by Earth`s orbital variations to more rapid processes on Earth`s surface as forcing Quaternary climatic change. In particular, forcing by ice sheets has been quantified for a major ice stream that drained the Laurentide Ice Sheet along Hudson Strait. The history of these recent discoveries leading to an interest in ice sheets is reviewed, and a case is made that ice sheets may drive abrupt climatic change that is virtually synchronous worldwide. Attention is focused on abrupt inception and termination of a Quaternary glaciation cycle, abrupt changes recorded as stadials and interstadials within the cycle, abrupt changes in ice streams that trigger stadials and interstadials, and abrupt changes in the Laurentide Ice Sheet linked to effectively simultaneous abrupt changes in its ice streams. Remaining work needed to quantify further these changes is discussed. 90 refs., 14 figs.

  17. Early diabetic neuropathy: Triggers and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dobretsov, Maxim; Romanovsky, Dmitry; Stimers, Joseph R

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy, and specifically distal peripheral neuropathy (DPN), is one of the most frequent and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. It is the major reason for morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients. It is also frequently associated with debilitating pain. Unfortunately, our knowledge of the natural history and pathogenesis of this disease remains limited. For a long time hyperglycemia was viewed as a major, if not the sole factor, responsible for all symptomatic presentations of DPN. Multiple clinical observations and animal studies supported this view. The control of blood glucose as an obligatory step of therapy to delay or reverse DPN is no longer an arguable issue. However, while supporting evidence for the glycemic hypothesis has accumulated, multiple controversies accumulated as well. It is obvious now that DPN cannot be fully understood without considering factors besides hyperglycemia. Some symptoms of DPN may develop with little, if any, correlation with the glycemic status of a patient. It is also clear that identification of these putative non-glycemic mechanisms of DPN is of utmost importance for our understanding of failures with existing treatments and for the development of new approaches for diagnosis and therapy of DPN. In this work we will review the strengths and weaknesses of the glycemic hypothesis, focusing on clinical and animal data and on the pathogenesis of early stages and triggers of DPN other than hyperglycemia. PMID:17226897

  18. Persistent telomere cohesion triggers a prolonged anaphase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Smith, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres use distinct mechanisms (not used by arms or centromeres) to mediate cohesion between sister chromatids. However, the motivation for a specialized mechanism at telomeres is not well understood. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization and live-cell imaging, that persistent sister chromatid cohesion at telomeres triggers a prolonged anaphase in normal human cells and cancer cells. Excess cohesion at telomeres can be induced by inhibition of tankyrase 1, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase that is required for resolution of telomere cohesion, or by overexpression of proteins required to establish telomere cohesion, the shelterin subunit TIN2 and the cohesin subunit SA1. Regardless of the method of induction, excess cohesion at telomeres in mitosis prevents a robust and efficient anaphase. SA1- or TIN2-induced excess cohesion and anaphase delay can be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Moreover, we show that primary fibroblasts, which accumulate excess telomere cohesion at mitosis naturally during replicative aging, undergo a similar delay in anaphase progression that can also be rescued by overexpression of tankyrase 1. Our study demonstrates that there are opposing forces that regulate telomere cohesion. The observation that cells respond to unresolved telomere cohesion by delaying (but not completely disrupting) anaphase progression suggests a mechanism for tolerating excess cohesion and maintaining telomere integrity. This attempt to deal with telomere damage may be ultimately futile for aging fibroblasts but useful for cancer cells.

  19. Intramolecular electron arrangement with a rotative trigger.

    PubMed

    Kume, Shoko; Nomoto, Kuniharu; Kusamoto, Tetsuro; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2009-10-14

    We have constructed a single molecule system, consisting of a ferrocene-tethered copper complex, in which electron transfer between redox centers is triggered by molecular rotational motion. In the compound, an asymmetric methyl-substituted 2,2'-pyridylpyrimidine ligand, tethered to the ferrocene moiety, has two isomeric ring-inversion coordination conformations around the copper center. Both isomeric structures were characterized by X-ray crystallography. (1)H NMR and electrochemical measurements revealed that these isomers interconvert through rotation of the pyrimidine at room temperature, but the process is frozen below 233 K in the solution state. The two isomers undergo different redox processes, and the identity of the first oxidation center alternates between the copper center and ferrocene, as confirmed by chemical oxidation monitored by EPR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Oxidation of the compound causes spontaneous isomerization of the pyrimidine due to the different relative stabilities of the isomers in the monovalent and divalent states. Oxidation in the motionless state at low temperatures extracts the first electron from the ferrocene center. When molecular motion is released by warming, the electron moves from the copper center to the ferrocene, leading to an enhancement of the copper(II) signal in the EPR spectrum. The synchronized motion/electron migration process was observed as a one-step UV-vis absorption spectral conversion.

  20. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  1. Competition for Trophies Triggers Male Generosity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaofei Sophia; Houser, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies) out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. Principal Findings Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. Significance Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters — including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards. PMID:21494668

  2. Delay times and jitter in triggered vacuum spark gaps using metal vapor and surface flashover types of triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Voshall, R.E.; Bhasavanich, D.; Gorman, J.G.; Buttram, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Triggered vacuum spark gap experiments have been performed in a demountable arc chamber with a pressure of 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -4/ mtorr. Planar copper electrodes were used in which one electrode contained the trigger. Metal vapor spark triggers and surface flash-over types of triggers were explored. We have measured the delay time between the trigger breakdown and the conduction of the main gap, and the jitter in this time, as a function of main gap voltage ranging from 3 to 20 kV and main gap separations of 13 to 19 mm. Main gap current following breakdown ranged from 3 to 15 kA. Using the metal vapor trigger, delay times as long as 500 ns were observed for a gap field of 500 V/mm while using the surface flashover type of triggers, delay times of 300 ns were observed for a similar main gap field strength. When the trigger was in the cathode electrode and the trigger was pulsed negatively, the operation of the gap was more consistent and the delay times were observed to increase with main gap voltage. The experimental data have been interpreted on the basis of plasma expansion models.

  3. Output Consensus of Heterogeneous Linear Multi-Agent Systems by Distributed Event-Triggered/Self-Triggered Strategy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenfeng; Liu, Lu; Feng, Gang

    2016-09-02

    This paper addresses the output consensus problem of heterogeneous linear multi-agent systems. We first propose a novel distributed event-triggered control scheme. It is shown that, with the proposed control scheme, the output consensus problem can be solved if two matrix equations are satisfied. Then, we further propose a novel self-triggered control scheme, with which continuous monitoring is avoided. By introducing a fixed timer into both event- and self-triggered control schemes, Zeno behavior can be ruled out for each agent. The effectiveness of the event- and self-triggered control schemes is illustrated by an example.

  4. Evaluation of triggering functions in convective parameterization schemes using observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettammal, S.; Zhang, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Realistic simulation of different modes of atmospheric variability ranging from the diurnal cycle to inter-annual variability in global climate models (GCMs) depends crucially on the convection triggering criteria. In this study, using the data from constrained variational analysis by the Atmospheric System Research program for single column models (SCM), the performance of the commonly used convective triggering functions in GCMs is evaluated, based on the equitable threat score (ETS) value, a widely used forecast verification metric. From the ETS score, four consistently better performing triggering functions were identified. They are based on dilute dCAPE, parcel buoyancy at the lifting condensation level (Bechtold scheme), undilute dCAPE and dilute CAPE triggering functions. The key variables used to define these triggering functions were examined in detail. It was found that the skill score value of the dilute dCAPE triggering function does not show much variation among different data sets. Analysis of the composite fields and probability distributions of key variables of the triggering functions, based on the correct-prediction, over-prediction, under-prediction of convection and correct prediction of no convection cases for convection onset, brings to light some critical factors responsible for the performance of the trigger functions.

  5. Inconsistency with Prior Knowledge Triggers Children's Causal Explanatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2010-01-01

    What events trigger causal explanatory reasoning in young children? Children's explanations could be triggered by either consistent events (suggesting that explanations serve a confirmatory function) or inconsistent events (suggesting that they promote discovery of new information). In 2 studies with preschool children (N = 80), events that were…

  6. Triggering for Magnetic Field Measurements of the LCLS Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-12-13

    A triggering system for magnetic field measurements of the LCLS undulators has been built with a National Instruments PXI-1002 and a Xylinx FPGA board. The system generates single triggers at specified positions, regardless of encoder sensor jitter about a linear scale.

  7. Using Reflection Triggers while Learning in an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verpoorten, Dominique; Westera, Wim; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a controlled experiment on the effects of three types of reflection triggers in an online course. Fifty-four volunteers, distributed in five groups, used these structured opportunities for reflection during learning. Results show that reflection triggers were extensively employed by the test persons and were perceived as…

  8. Parent Trigger Policies, Representation, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Saultz, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Using theories of representation and democratic education, this article examines the impetus of parent trigger policies in the United States and their potential effects on public good goals for public education. The article also uses theories of representation and responsible democratic governance to assess the parent trigger policies, or what are…

  9. Watching Others 'Vape' May Trigger Urge to Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vape' May Trigger Urge to Smoke Newer e-cigarettes boost same impulses as real cigarettes, researcher says To use the sharing features on ... 13, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A type of e-cigarette called a vape pen can trigger the urge ...

  10. Could Stroke Trigger Be Prevented by Healthy Family Relationships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Annie; Gaulin, Philippe; Tellier, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Although major stroke risk factors are well documented, little is known about which life circumstances are perceived to be related to the actual triggering of a first stroke. The purpose was to explore self-perceived spontaneously related life circumstances surrounding the trigger of a first stroke. A qualitative design with a phenomenological…

  11. 47 CFR 27.1184 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a fixed base station at commercial power and the incumbent BRS system would have been within the... Policies Governing Broadband Radio Service Relocation from the 2150-2160/62 Mhz Band § 27.1184 Triggering a... has triggered a cost-sharing obligation and therefore must pay an AWS relocator of a BRS system...

  12. Trigger Laws: Does Signing a Petition Give Parents a Voice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2011-01-01

    Parent trigger laws, according to their proponents, give parents power. Gregory McGinity, managing director of policy for the Broad Education Foundation, calls them "a way for parents' voices to be heard." Sounds good. But is the parent trigger concept a way to put parents in charge of their kids' education, or is it part of a political agenda…

  13. Magnetically and optoelectronically isolated trigger for pulse-power applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Wen, Yi-Zhi; Yu, Chang-Xuan; Wan, Shu-De; Liu, Wan-Dong

    2008-08-01

    In this article the design of a magnetically and optically isolated trigger is discussed. Critical issues for trigger design are presented together with some experimental usages. In this trigger, an optical coupler is used to cut off the ground loop between the circuits of the preceding control system and the power supplies of the double functional device KT-5D (as a simple magnetic torus or a tokamak). A magnetic coupler is used to provide a pulse-power output for the silicon controlled rectifier. The output is a 230 mus transistor-transistor logic (TTL) with an amplitude of 3.0 V. The rising time and the trailing time are no more than 4.0 mus. The delay time between the input and the output of the trigger is 6.8+/-0.2 mus. A resistance-capacity branch is integrated into the trigger to provide an adjustable delay time of up to 72 ms. The zero quiescent dissipation character endows the trigger with a long lifetime of years dispensing with any charging or replacing batteries. It is observed that the trigger has a good stability even in a high electromagnetic circumstance (at the order of 1 T). Using it as a trigger for the silicon controlled rectifier, we realized the compatible operation of the steady state mode and the pulse mode in KT-5D.

  14. Studying Triggers for Interest and Engagement Using Observational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renninger, K. Ann; Bachrach, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the contribution of observational methods to understanding the processes involved in triggering interest and establishing engagement. We begin by reviewing the literatures on interest and engagement, noting their similarities, differences, and the utility to each of better understanding the triggering process. We then…

  15. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, R.; Lang, R.; Klaes, D.; Poli, G.; Retscher, C.; Lindstrot, R.; Huckle, R.; Lacan, A.; Grzegorski, M.; Holdak, A.; Kokhanovsky, A.; Livschitz, J.; Eisinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterisation activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The quality of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarises a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages (http://www.eumetsat.int) and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  16. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Klaes, Dieter; Poli, Gabriele; Retscher, Christian; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Lacan, Antoine; Grzegorski, Michael; Holdak, Andriy; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Livschitz, Jakob; Eisinger, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterization activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The current status of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarizes a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  17. Innovative Techniques for Teaching about Landslides and Triggered Landslide Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. E.; Malamud, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    When we think of a landslide (mass wasting), both the public and scientists often envisage an individual movement of earth material down a slope. Yet, landslides often occur not as individuals, but as parts of a triggered landslide event. This is where a trigger (e.g., an earthquake or heavy rainfall) results in up to tens of thousands of landslides in a region in the minutes to days after the trigger. In this paper, we will present ideas for innovative demonstrations, teaching practicals and projects, ranging from low-cost low-tech to more advanced digital methods, to communicate the ideas of landslides and triggered landslide events to the public and students. This paper is aimed at those in secondary school/university education and the public sector looking for examples to interest and inform their respective audiences about landslides, triggered landslide events, and the importance and implications of considering landslides not just as individuals, but as populations.

  18. Local near instantaneously dynamically triggered aftershocks of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M

    2016-09-09

    Aftershocks are often triggered by static- and/or dynamic-stress changes caused by mainshocks. The relative importance of the two triggering mechanisms is controversial at near-to-intermediate distances. We detected and located 48 previously unidentified large early aftershocks triggered by earthquakes with magnitudes between ≥7 and 8 within a few fault lengths (approximately 300 kilometers), during times that high-amplitude surface waves arrive from the mainshock (less than 200 seconds). The observations indicate that near-to-intermediate-field dynamic triggering commonly exists and fundamentally promotes aftershock occurrence. The mainshocks and their nearby early aftershocks are located at major subduction zones and continental boundaries, and mainshocks with all types of faulting-mechanisms (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) can trigger early aftershocks.

  19. Triggering on New Physics with the CMS Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Tulika

    2016-07-29

    The BU CMS group led by PI Tulika Bose has made several significant contributions to the CMS trigger and to the analysis of the data collected by the CMS experiment. Group members have played a leading role in the optimization of trigger algorithms, the development of trigger menus, and the online operation of the CMS High-Level Trigger. The group’s data analysis projects have concentrated on a broad spectrum of topics that take full advantage of their strengths in jets and calorimetry, trigger, lepton identification as well as their considerable experience in hadron collider physics. Their publications cover several searches for new heavy gauge bosons, vector-like quarks as well as diboson resonances.

  20. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The study carried out by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth and the Research Station in Bishkek of Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999-2008 showed a response of weak seismicity at field experiments with electric pulsed power systems, as well as acoustic emission of rock specimens under laboratory conditions on high-power electric current pulses applied to the rocks. It was suggested that the phenomenon discovered may be used in practice for partial release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be pore fluid pressure increase in the rocks under stressed conditions due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. It is known that increase of pore fluid pressure in the fault zone over a critical pressure of about 0.05 MPa is sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault is near the critical state due to accumulated tectonic deformations. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of the Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed electric high-power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (over 5 km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of two deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two

  1. Global search of triggered non-volcanic tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tzu-Kai Kevin

    Deep non-volcanic tremor is a newly discovered seismic phenomenon with low amplitude, long duration, and no clear P- and S-waves as compared with regular earthquake. Tremor has been observed at many major plate-boundary faults, providing new information about fault slip behaviors below the seismogenic zone. While tremor mostly occurs spontaneously (ambient tremor) or during episodic slow-slip events (SSEs), sometimes tremor can also be triggered during teleseismic waves of distance earthquakes, which is known as "triggered tremor". The primary focus of my Ph.D. work is to understand the physical mechanisms and necessary conditions of triggered tremor by systematic investigations in different tectonic regions. In the first chapter of my dissertation, I conduct a systematic survey of triggered tremor beneath the Central Range (CR) in Taiwan for 45 teleseismic earthquakes from 1998 to 2009 with Mw ≥ 7.5. Triggered tremors are visually identified as bursts of high-frequency (2-8 Hz), non-impulsive, and long-duration seismic energy that are coherent among many seismic stations and modulated by the teleseismic surface waves. A total of 9 teleseismic earthquakes has triggered clear tremor in Taiwan. The peak ground velocity (PGV) of teleseismic surface waves is the most important factor in determining tremor triggering potential, with an apparent threshold of ˜0.1 cm/s, or 7-8 kPa. However, such threshold is partially controlled by the background noise level, preventing triggered tremor with weaker amplitude from being observed. In addition, I find a positive correlation between the PGV and the triggered tremor amplitude, which is consistent with the prediction of the 'clock-advance' model. This suggests that triggered tremor can be considered as a sped-up occurrence of ambient tremor under fast loading from the passing surface waves. Finally, the incident angles of surface waves also play an important rule in controlling the tremor triggering potential. The next

  2. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao; Liu Yu

    2010-03-10

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10{sup 16} g with a momentum of 0.57x10{sup 22} g cm s{sup -1} by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  3. The ecdysis triggering hormone signaling in arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Roller, Ladislav; Žitňanová, Inka; Dai, Li; Šimo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong; Satake, Honoo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Adams, Michael E.; Žitňan, Dušan

    2010-01-01

    Ecdysis triggering hormones (ETH) from peripheral endocrine Inka cells initiate the ecdysis sequence through action on central neurons expressing ETH receptors (ETHR) in model moth and dipteran species. We used various biochemical, molecular and blast search techniques to detect these signaling molecules in representatives of diverse arthropods. Using peptide isolation from tracheal extracts, cDNA cloning or homology search, we identified ETHs in a variety of hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Most insects produce two related ETHs, but only a single active peptide was isolated from the cricket and one peptide is encoded by eth gene of the honeybee, parasitic wasp and aphid. Immunohistochemical staining with antiserum to Manduca PETH revealed Inka cells on tracheal surface of diverse insects. In spite of conserved ETH sequences, comparison of the natural and ETH-induced ecdysis sequence in the honeybee and beetle revealed considerable species-specific differences in pre-ecdysis and ecdysis behaviors. DNA sequences coding for putative ETHR were deduced from available genomes of several hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. In all examined insects the ethr gene encodes two subtypes of the receptor (ETHR-A and ETHR-B). Phylogenic analysis showed that these receptors fall into a family of closely related GPCRs. Here we report for the first time presence of putative ETHs and ETHRs in genomes of other arthropods, the tick (Arachnida) and water flea (Crustacea). Possible source of ETH in ticks was detected in paired cells located in all pedal segments. Our results provide further evidence of structural and functional conservancy of ETH-ETHR signaling. PMID:19951734

  4. Triggered Snap-Through of Bistable Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yijie; Huang, Shicheng; Trase, Ian; Hu, Nan; Chen, Zi

    Elastic bistable shells are common structures in nature and engineering, such as the lobes of the Venus flytrap or the surface of a toy jumping poppers. Despite their ubiquity, the parameters that control the bistability of such structures are not well understood. In this study, we explore how the geometrical features of radially symmetric elastic shells affect the shape and potential energy of a shell's stable states, and how to tune certain parameters in order to generate a snap-through transition from a convex semi-stable state to concave stable state. We fabricated a series of elastic shells with varying geometric parameters out of silicone rubber and measured the resulting potential energy in the semi-stable state. Finite element simulations were also conducted in order to determine the deformation and stress in the shells during snap-through. It was found that the energy of the semi-stable state is controlled by only two geometric parameters and a dimensionless ratio. We also noted two distinct transitions during snap-through, one between monostability and semi-bistability (the state a popper toy is in before it snaps-through and jumps), and a second transition between semi-bistability and true bistability. This work shows that it is possible to use a set of simple parameters to tailor the energy landscape of an elastic shell in order to generate complex trigger motions for their potential use in smart applications. Z.C. acknowledge support from Society in Science-Branco Weiss Fellowship, administered by ETH Zurich.

  5. Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Saenger, Erik H.; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Steve

    2016-04-01

    On the 27th of May 2006, a M6.3 strike slip earthquake struck beneath Yogyakarta, Java. Forty-seven hours later a mixture of mud, breccia, and gas reached the surface near Sidoarjo, 250 km far from the epicenter, creating several mud vents aligned along a NW-SE direction. The mud eruption reached a peak of 180.000 km3 of erupted material per day and it is still ongoing. The major eruption crater was named Lusi and represents the surface expression of a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system. Lusi flooded several villages causing a loss of approximately 4 billions to Indonesia. Previous geochemical and geological data suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake may have reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system, a strike slip structure upon which Lusi resides. The Watukosek fault systems connects the East Java basin to the volcanic arc, which may explain the presence of both biogenic and thermogenic fluids. To quantify the effects of incoming seismic energy at Lusi we conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model of Lusi's structure. A key feature of our model is a low velocity shear zone in the Kalibeng formation caused by elevated pore pressures, which is often neglected in other studies. Our analysis highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused the seismic energy causing elevated strain rates at depth. In particular, we show that body waves generated by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the Kalibeng formation. As consequence, the liquefied mud injected and reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Lusi was an unfortunate case of dynamic triggering promoted by the Yogyakarta earthquake.

  6. Hyperglycemia triggers HIPK2 protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Granato, Marisa; Cuomo, Laura; Pistritto, Giuseppa; Cirone, Mara; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Homeodomain interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) is an evolutionary conserved kinase that modulates several key molecular pathways to restrain tumor growth and induce p53-depending apoptotic cell-death in response to anticancer therapies. HIPK2 silencing in cancer cells leads to chemoresistance and cancer progression, in part due to p53 inhibition. Recently, hyperglycemia has been shown to reduce p53 phosphorylation at serine 46 (Ser46), the target residue of HIPK2, thus impairing p53 apoptotic function. Here we asked whether hyperglycemia could, upstream of p53, target HIPK2. We focused on the effect of high glucose (HG) on HIPK2 protein stability and the underlying mechanisms. We found that HG reduced HIPK2 protein levels, therefore impairing HIPK2-induced p53 apoptotic activity. HG-triggered HIPK2 protein downregulation was rescued by both proteasome inhibitor MG132 and by protein phosphatase inhibitors Calyculin A (CL-A) and Okadaic Acid (OA). Looking for the phosphatase involved, we found that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) induced HIPK2 degradation, as evidenced by directly activating PP2A with FTY720 or by silencing PP2A with siRNA in HG condition. The effect of PP2A on HIPK2 protein degradation could be in part due to hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activity which has been previously shown to induce HIPK2 proteasomal degradation through several ubiquitin ligases. Validation analysed performed with HIF-1α dominant negative or with silencing of Siah2 ubiquitin ligase clearly showed rescue of HG-induced HIPK2 degradation. These findings demonstrate how hyperglycemia, through a complex protein cascade, induced HIPK2 downregulation and consequently impaired p53 apoptotic activity, revealing a novel link between diabetes/obesity and tumor resistance to therapies. PMID:27901482

  7. Level-1 Miletone 350

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, T

    2006-06-29

    This milestone is the direct result of work that started seven years ago with the planning for a 100 Teraflop platform and will be satisfied when 100 Teraflops is placed in operation and readied for Stockpile Stewardship Program simulations. The end product of this milestone, code named Purple, will be a production high-performance computing system designed to be used to solve the most demanding stockpile stewardship problems, that is, the large-scale application problems at the edge of our understanding of weapon physics. This fully functional 100 TeraOP/s system must be able to serve a diverse scientific and engineering workload. It must also have a robust code development and production environment both of which facilitate the workload requirements. This multi-year effort includes major activities in contract management, facilities, infrastructure, system software, and user environment and support. Led by LLNL, the Tri-labs defined the statement of work for a 100 Teraflop system that resulted in a contract with IBM known as the Purple contract. LLNL worked with IBM throughout the contract period to resolve issues and collaborated with the Program to resolve contractual issues to ensure delivery of a platform that best serves the Program for a reasonable cost. The Purple system represents a substantial increase in the classified computer resources at LLNL for NNSA. The center computer environment must be designed to accept the Purple system and to scale with the increase of compute resources to achieve required end-to-end services. Networking, archival storage, visualization servers, global file systems, and system software will all be enhanced to support Purple's size and architecture. IBM and LLNL are sharing responsibility for Purple's system software. LLNL is responsible for the scheduler, resource manager, and some code development tools. Through the Purple contract IBM is responsible for the remainder of the system software including the operating system, parallel file system, and runtime environment. LLNL, LANL, and SNL share responsibility for the Purple user environment. Since LLNL is the host for Purple, LLNL has the greatest responsibility. LLNL will provide customer support for Purple to the Tri-labs and as such has the lead for user documentation, negotiating the Purple Usage Model, mapping of the ASC Computational Environment requirements to the Purple environment and demonstrating those requirements have been met. In addition LLNL will demonstrate important capabilities of the computing environment including full functionality of visualization tools, file transport between Purple and remote site file systems and the build environment for principle ASC codes. LANL and SNL are responsible for delivering unique capabilities in support of their users, port important applications and libraries, and demonstrating remote capabilities. The key capabilities that LANL and SNL will test are user authorization and authentication, data transfer, file system, data management, and visualization. SNL and LANL should port and run in production mode a few key applications on a substantial number of Purple nodes.

  8. Remote triggering of non-volcanic tremor around Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Kevin; Peng, Zhigang; Wu, Chunquan; Tang, Chi-Chia; Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2012-01-01

    We perform a systematic survey of triggered deep 'non-volcanic' tremor beneath the Central Range (CR) in Taiwan for 45 teleseismic earthquakes from 1998 to 2009 with Mw≥ 7.5 and epicentral distance ≥1000 km to the broad-band station TPUB. Triggered tremors are visually identified as bursts of high-frequency (2-8 Hz), non-impulsive and long-duration seismic energy that are coherent among many seismic stations and modulated by the teleseismic surface waves. Out of the 45 earthquakes, we identified nine teleseismic events associated with nine tremor sources in the southern and five in the northern CR. Most of the tremor sources are located within the depth range of 15-25 km in the lower crust above the Moho. We find that the amplitudes of the surface waves play an important role in determining the triggering potential, and the apparent triggering threshold is ˜0.1 cm s-1, or 7-8 KPa. However, such threshold is partially controlled by the background noise level, which could prevent weaker tremor triggered by surface waves with smaller amplitudes from being identified. The amplitudes of the triggered tremor show a positive correlation with the amplitudes of the triggering surface waves, consistent with the predictions by the 'clock-advance' model. In addition to amplitudes, other factors, such as frequency contents and incidence angles, also affect the triggering potential. We find that intermediate-period (30-10 s) surface waves could trigger/modulate tremors, suggesting that long-period (>30 s) surface waves are not always required in long-range triggering. Tremors appear to be triggered by both Love and Rayleigh waves. When the incidence angles are parallel to the strike of the CR, all six events triggered tremor primarily during the Rayleigh waves. For strike normal incidence, only the 2001 Mw7.8 Kunlun earthquake showed predominant Love-wave triggering. This observation can be qualitatively explained by a simple Coulomb failure for a left-lateral shear on the

  9. Minimum deltaV Burn Planning for the International Space Station Using a Hybrid Optimization Technique, Level 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) trajectory is coordinated and executed by the Trajectory Operations and Planning (TOPO) group at NASA's Johnson Space Center. TOPO group personnel routinely generate look-ahead trajectories for the ISS that incorporate translation burns needed to maintain its orbit over the next three to twelve months. The burns are modeled as in-plane, horizontal burns, and must meet operational trajectory constraints imposed by both NASA and the Russian Space Agency. In generating these trajectories, TOPO personnel must determine the number of burns to model, each burn's Time of Ignition (TIG), and magnitude (i.e. deltaV) that meet these constraints. The current process for targeting these burns is manually intensive, and does not take advantage of more modern techniques that can reduce the workload needed to find feasible burn solutions, i.e. solutions that simply meet the constraints, or provide optimal burn solutions that minimize the total DeltaV while simultaneously meeting the constraints. A two-level, hybrid optimization technique is proposed to find both feasible and globally optimal burn solutions for ISS trajectory planning. For optimal solutions, the technique breaks the optimization problem into two distinct sub-problems, one for choosing the optimal number of burns and each burn's optimal TIG, and the other for computing the minimum total deltaV burn solution that satisfies the trajectory constraints. Each of the two aforementioned levels uses a different optimization algorithm to solve one of the sub-problems, giving rise to a hybrid technique. Level 2, or the outer level, uses a genetic algorithm to select the number of burns and each burn's TIG. Level 1, or the inner level, uses the burn TIGs from Level 2 in a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm to compute a minimum total deltaV burn solution subject to the trajectory constraints. The total deltaV from Level 1 is then used as a fitness function by the genetic

  10. Construct development: The Suicide Trigger Scale (STS-2), a measure of a hypothesized suicide trigger state

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aims to develop the construct of a 'suicide trigger state' by exploring data gathered with a novel psychometric self-report instrument, the STS-2. Methods The STS-2, was administered to 141 adult psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation. Multiple statistical methods were used to explore construct validity and structure. Results Cronbach's alpha (0.949) demonstrated excellent internal consistency. Factor analyses yielded two-component solutions with good agreement. The first component described near-psychotic somatization and ruminative flooding, while the second described frantic hopelessness. ROC analysis determined an optimal cut score for a history of suicide attempt, with significance of p < 0.03. Logistic regression analysis found items sensitive to history of suicide attempt described ruminative flooding, doom, hopelessness, entrapment and dread. Conclusions The STS-2 appears to measure a distinct and novel clinical entity, which we speculatively term the 'suicide trigger state.' High scores on the STS-2 associate with reported history of past suicide attempt. PMID:21144063

  11. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    PubMed Central

    Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, “natural” pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored. PMID:25133168

  12. Damaging sediment density flows triggered by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Ed L.; Talling, Peter J.; Carter, Lionel; Clare, Michael A.; Hunt, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The global network of subsea fibre-optic cables plays a critical role in the world economy and is considered as strategic infrastructure for many nations. Sediment density flows have caused significant disruption to this network in the recent past. These cable breaks represent the only means to actively monitor such flows over large oceanic regions. Here, we use a global cable break database to analyse tropical cyclone triggering of sediment density flows worldwide over 25 yrs. Cable breaking sediment density flows are triggered in nearly all areas exposed to tropical cyclones but most occur in the NW Pacific. They are triggered by one of three sets of mechanisms. Tropical cyclones directly trigger flows, synchronous to their passage, as a consequence of storm waves, currents and surges. Cyclones also trigger flows indirectly, with near-synchronous timing to their passage, as a consequence of peak flood discharges. Last, cyclones trigger flows after a delay of days as a consequence of the failure of large volumes of rapidly deposited sediment. No clear relationship emerges between tropical cyclone activity (i.e. track, frequency and intensity) and the number of sediment density flows triggered. This is a consequence of the short period of observation. However, expansion of the cable network and predicted changes to cyclone activity in specific regions increases the likelihood of increasing numbers of damaging flows.

  13. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  14. Environmental triggers and avoidance in the management of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Clarisse; Charpin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Identifying asthma triggers forms the basis of environmental secondary prevention. These triggers may be allergenic or nonallergenic. Allergenic triggers include indoor allergens, such as house dust mites (HDMs), molds, pets, cockroaches, and rodents, and outdoor allergens, such as pollens and molds. Clinical observations provide support for the role of HDM exposure as a trigger, although avoidance studies provide conflicting results. Molds and their metabolic products are now considered to be triggers of asthma attacks. Pets, dogs, and especially cats can undoubtedly trigger asthmatic symptoms in sensitized subjects. Avoidance is difficult and rarely adhered to by families. Cockroach allergens contribute to asthma morbidity, and avoidance strategies can lead to clinical benefit. Mouse allergens are mostly found in inner-city dwellings, but their implication in asthma morbidity is debated. In the outdoors, pollens can induce seasonal asthma in sensitized individuals. Avoidance relies on preventing pollens from getting into the house and on minimizing seasonal outdoor exposure. Outdoor molds may lead to severe asthma exacerbations. Nonallergenic triggers include viral infections, active and passive smoking, meteorological changes, occupational exposures, and other triggers that are less commonly involved. Viral infection is the main asthma trigger in children. Active smoking is associated with higher asthma morbidity, and smoking cessation interventions should be personalized. Passive smoking is also a risk factor for asthma exacerbation. The implementation of public smoking bans has led to a reduction in the hospitalization of asthmatic children. Air pollution levels have been linked with asthmatic symptoms, a decrease in lung function, and increased emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Since avoidance is not easy to achieve, clean air policies remain the most effective strategy. Indoor air is also affected by air pollutants, such as cigarette smoke and

  15. Performance evaluation of trigger algorithm for the MACE telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Kuldeep; Yadav, K. K.; Bhatt, N.; Chouhan, N.; Sikder, S. S.; Behere, A.; Pithawa, C. K.; Tickoo, A. K.; Rannot, R. C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Mitra, A. K.; Koul, R.

    The MACE (Major Atmospheric Cherenkov Experiment) telescope with a light collector diameter of 21 m, is being set up at Hanle (32.80 N, 78.90 E, 4200m asl) India, to explore the gamma-ray sky in the tens of GeV energy range. The imaging camera of the telescope comprises 1088 pixels covering a total field-of-view of 4.30 × 4.00 with trigger field-of-view of 2.60 × 3.00 and an uniform pixel resolution of 0.120. In order to achieve low energy trigger threshold of less than 30 GeV, a two level trigger scheme is being designed for the telescope. The first level trigger is generated within 16 pixels of the Camera Integrated Module (CIM) based on 4 nearest neighbour (4NN) close cluster configuration within a coincidence gate window of 5 ns while the second level trigger is generated by combining the first level triggers from neighbouring CIMs. Each pixel of the telescope is expected to operate at a single pixel threshold between 8-10 photo-electrons where the single channel rate dominated by the after- pulsing is expected to be ˜500 kHz. The hardware implementation of the trigger logic is based on complex programmable logic devices (CPLD). The basic design concept, hardware implementation and performance evaluation of the trigger system in terms of threshold energy and trigger rate estimates based on Monte Carlo data for the MACE telescope will be presented in this meeting.

  16. Dynamic stresses, coulomb failure, and remote triggering: corrected

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15–30 s periods and peak amplitudes <1  MPa are capable of triggering seismicity at sites remote from the generating mainshock under appropriate conditions. Coulomb failure models based on a frictional strength threshold offer one explanation for instances of rapid‐onset triggered seismicity that develop during the surface‐wave peak dynamic stressing. Evaluation of the triggering potential of surface‐wave dynamic stresses acting on critically stressed faults using a Mohr’s circle representation together with the Coulomb failure criteria indicates that Love waves should have a higher triggering potential than Rayleigh waves for most fault orientations and wave incidence angles. That (1) the onset of triggered seismicity often appears to begin during the Rayleigh wave rather than the earlier arriving Love wave, and (2) Love‐wave amplitudes typically exceed those for Rayleigh waves suggests that the explanation for rapid‐onset dynamic triggering may not reside solely with a simple static‐threshold friction mode. The results also indicate that normal faults should be more susceptible to dynamic triggering by 20‐s Rayleigh‐wave stresses than thrust faults in the shallow seismogenic crust (<10  km) while the advantage tips in favor of reverse faults greater depths. This transition depth scales with wavelength and coincides roughly with the transition from retrograde‐to‐prograde particle motion. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems. The result is consistent with the apparent elevated susceptibility of extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes to remote triggering by Rayleigh‐wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes.

  17. Occurrence frequencies of IMF triggered and nontriggered substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Tung-Shin; McPherron, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of triggered and nontriggered substorm are examined in light of current interest in such issues as substorm identification, IMF By variations, and potentially undetected small-scale solar wind perturbation. Global substorms are identified using a sudden, persistent decrease in the AL index. The onset of this global expansion is taken to be the time of the Pi 2 burst nearest in time to the beginning of the AL, decrease. IMF triggers were identified both subjectively through visual scanning of the data and automatically with a computer algorithm. Both northward turnings of the IMF Bz and decreases in the amplitude of the By component were considered as possible triggers. Two different solar wind monitors were used in the investigation: IMP-8 in a circular orbit with a distance 12 to approx.35 Re to the Earth-Sun line and ISEE-2 in an elliptical orbit with a distance only 5 to approx.10 Re to the Earth-Sun line. The IMP-8 results show that the triggering probability does not depend on the distance of the monitor from the Earth-Sun line in the range 12-35 Re. The ISEE dataset shows that closer than 12 Re the triggering probability is the same as it is in the IMP-8 data set. Thus there appears to be no dependence of triggering on the location of the monitor provided it is within 35 Re of the Earth. We also demonstrate that including the By component does not significantly increase the probability of substorm triggering. Approximately 60% of all substorms appear to be triggered. Of the 40% for which we could not identify a trigger, 10% occurred while the IMF was northward. The data suggest that substorm onset is a consequence of an internal magnetospheric instability that is highly sensitive to changes in magnetospheric convection induced by a sudden change in the IMF, but that these changes are not always necessary.

  18. Dynamic earthquake triggering in the continental U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda, Ibrahim

    Seismological studies have classified the changes in field stress required to trigger remote earthquakes into two basic types: static and dynamic triggering. Static triggering mainly originates from geological faults already present in certain tectonic environments and they could be originated due to continental crust, subduction zones or even from a highly seismicity zone. Dynamic triggering occurs when an event (earthquake) has been induced by the passing of seismic waves from a large main shock located at least two or more fault lengths from the epicenter of the main shock. This study investigates details of dynamic triggering not seen in previous studies. This investigation focuses on gathering and analyzing data to detect and tabulate high-frequency detections (HFD) that might indicate locally triggered earthquakes on the United States continent. In particular, data in form of seismic waveforms was downloaded and collected from EarthScope's USArray, which has an active Transportable Array (TA) station program that emphasizes the broadband compilation of geophysical data across the continental U.S. All seismic waveforms were gathered using ˜400 different seismic stations primarily focusing on two types of data: local events with a magnitude M≥4.0, and teleseismic events with magnitude M≥6.5. Triggered events were identified inherent in the event's frequency spectra using an automated detector (Antelope software) and a series of filters by examining both the amplitude and frequency of the waves responsible for triggering. The results will help provide for a better understanding of the physical mechanisms involved in dynamic earthquake triggering and also will help identify zones in the U.S. continent which may be more susceptible to these kinds of events.

  19. On the proposed triggering of Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Calvert (1985) has proposed that a solar type III radio bursts can trigger the onset of certain Jovian hectometer wavelength emissions. It is shown, using the data obtained by the Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment, that this triggering hypothesis is not supported statistically. Furthermore, the causality of this proposed triggering is questioned because much of the Jovian hectometer emission is due to a quasi-continuous radio source rotating, in lighthouse fashion, with Jupiter. Thus, an observed 'onset' of emission is simply a function of the observer's position in local time around Jupiter.

  20. CO2-Triggered Switchable Solvents, Surfactants, and Other Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, Philip G.; Mercer, Sean; Heldebrant, David J.

    2012-06-14

    Waste CO2 at atmospheric pressure can be used to trigger dramatic changes in the properties of certain switchable materials. Compared to other triggers such as light, acids, oxidants, CO2 has the advantages that it is inexpensive, nonhazardous, non-accumulating in the system, easily removed, and it does not require the material to be transparent. Known CO2-triggered switchable materials 10 now include solvents, surfactants, solutes, catalysts, particles, polymers, and gels. The added flexibility of switchable materials represents a new strategy for minimizing energy and material consumption in process and product design.

  1. Transmission electron microscopic pathoanatomy of congenital trigger thumb.

    PubMed

    Buchman, M T; Gibson, T W; McCallum, D; Cuda, D D; Ramos, A G

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies of trigger digits in children have been limited to gross morphology and light-microscopic histology. Nine children with 11 trigger thumbs formed a preliminary study group for electron-microscopic evaluation of tendon nodules and A-1 pulleys. This pathoanatomic investigation was not previously reported. Comparison was made with light-microscopic sections. Large amounts of mature collagen was observed. Fibroblasts with prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum were present. No degenerative or inflammatory changes were noted in either tendon or sheath. We believe that although the etiology of trigger digits is still uncertain, an infectious, inflammatory, or degenerative process is unlikely.

  2. Method and apparatus to trigger superconductors in current limiting devices

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Hazelton, Drew Willard; Walker, Michael Stephen

    2004-10-26

    A method and apparatus for magnetically triggering a superconductor in a superconducting fault current limiter to transition from a superconducting state to a resistive state. The triggering is achieved by employing current-carrying trigger coil or foil on either or both the inner diameter and outer diameter of a superconductor. The current-carrying coil or foil generates a magnetic field with sufficient strength and the superconductor is disposed within essentially uniform magnetic field region. For superconductor in a tubular-configured form, an additional magnetic field can be generated by placing current-carrying wire or foil inside the tube and along the center axial line.

  3. Development of a Low-energy Trigger for VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kildea, J.

    2008-12-24

    During the 2007/2008 observing season a low-energy trigger configuration was developed and tested for VERITAS. The configuration makes uses of the small ({approx}35 m) baseline between two of the VERITAS telescopes and employs a much lower discriminator threshold and tighter coincidence window compared to the standard VERITAS trigger. Five hours of Crab Nebula ON/OFF observations were obtained in low-energy mode and were used to test new low-energy analysis algorithms. We present some details of the VERITAS low-energy trigger and the associated data analysis.

  4. Low-power triggered data acquisition system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champaigne, Kevin (Inventor); Sumners, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-power triggered data acquisition system and method utilizes low-powered circuitry, comparators, and digital logic incorporated into a miniaturized device interfaced with self-generating transducer sensor inputs to detect, identify and assess impact and damage to surfaces and structures wherein, upon the occurrence of a triggering event that produces a signal greater than a set threshold changes the comparator output and causes the system to acquire and store digital data representative of the incoming waveform on at least one triggered channel. The sensors may be disposed in an array to provide triangulation and location of the impact.

  5. External Responsiveness of the Yo-Yo IR Test Level 1 in High-level Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Fanchini, M; Schena, F; Castagna, C; Petruolo, A; Combi, F; McCall, A; Impellizzeri, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the external responsiveness, construct validity and internal responsiveness of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1 and its sub-maximal version in semi-professional players. Tests and friendly matches were performed during the preseason and regular season. The distance covered above 15 km·h(-1) was considered as an indicator of the physical match performance. Construct validity and external responsiveness were examined by correlations between test and physical match performance (preseason and regular season) and training-induced changes. Internal responsiveness was determined as Cohen's effect size, standardized response mean and signal-to-noise ratio. The physical match performance increased after training (34.8%). The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1 improved after training (40.2%), showed longitudinal (r=0.69) and construct validity (r=0.73 and 0.59, preseason and regular season) and had higher internal responsiveness compared to its sub-maximal version. The heart rate at the 6(th) minute in the sub-maximal version did not show longitudinal (r=-0.38) and construct validity (r=0.01 and -0.06, preseason and regular season) and did not significantly change after training (-0.3%). The rate of perceived exertion decreased in the sub-maximal version (- 29.8%). In conclusion, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 1 is valid and responsive, while the validity of its sub-maximal version is questionable.

  6. CryoSat Level1b SAR/SARin BaselineC: Product Format and Algorithm Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Di Giacinto, Andrea; Bouffard, Jerome; Féménias, Pierre; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvements in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. The current IPF, Baseline B, was released in operation in February 2012. A reprocessing campaign followed, in order to reprocess the data since July 2010. After more than 2 years of development, the release in operations of Baseline C is expected in the first half of 2015. BaselineC Level1b products will be distributed in an updated format, including for example the attitude information (roll, pitch and yaw) and, for SAR/SARIN, the waveform length doubled with respect to Baseline B. Moreveor, various algorithm improvements have been identified: • a datation bias of about -0.5195 ms will be corrected (SAR/SARIn) • a range bias of about 0.6730 m will be corrected (SAR/SARIn) • a roll bias of 0.1062 deg and a pitch bias of 0.0520 deg • Surface sample stack weighting to filter out the single look echoes acquired at highest look angle, that results in a sharpening of the 20Hz waveforms With the operational release of BaselineC, the second CryoSat reprocessing campaign will be initiated, taking benefit of the upgrade implemented in the IPF1 processing chain but also at IPF2 level. The reprocessing campaign will cover the full Cryosat mission starting on 16th July 2010

  7. Processing of high spatial resolution information obtained from satellites of Resource-P series according to the level 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremeev, V.; Kuznetcov, A.; Poshekhonov, V.; Presniakov, O.; Zenin, V.; Svetelkin, P.; Kochergin, A.

    2016-10-01

    The present paper has described main functioning principles of imagery instruments of high spatial resolution of Russian satellites "Resource-P". Processing of images obtained from these instruments according to the level 1 includes: relative radiometric correction, stitching of video data obtained from separate CCD-matrices, geometric matching of multitemporal multispectral images from optoelectronic converters (OEC), pansharpening, saving of results in distribution formats. Stages for acquisition of a high-precision model for the Earth surface imagery being a base of processing are considered. Descriptions of algorithms for realization of mentioned processing types, examples of their practical usage and also precise characteristics of outputs are described.

  8. Effector-triggered defence against apoplastic fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Henrik U.; Mitrousia, Georgia K.; de Wit, Pierre J.G.M.; Fitt, Bruce D.L.

    2014-01-01

    R gene-mediated host resistance against apoplastic fungal pathogens is not adequately explained by the terms pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Therefore, it is proposed that this type of resistance is termed ‘effector-triggered defence’ (ETD). Unlike PTI and ETI, ETD is mediated by R genes encoding cell surface-localised receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that engage the receptor-like kinase SOBIR1. In contrast to this extracellular recognition, ETI is initiated by intracellular detection of pathogen effectors. ETI is usually associated with fast, hypersensitive host cell death, whereas ETD often triggers host cell death only after an elapsed period of endophytic pathogen growth. In this opinion, we focus on ETD responses against foliar fungal pathogens of crops. PMID:24856287

  9. A view on some hydrological triggering systems in landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Asch, Th. W. J.; Buma, J.; Van Beek, L. P. H.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper different types of hydrological triggering systems for debris flows, shallow and deeper landslides are described. The generation of surface run-off and high peak discharges in first order alpine catchments is an important triggering mechanism for debris flows. Failure conditions in shallow landslides can occur when at a critical depth, which is determined by the cohesion of the soil and the slope angle, the moisture content in the soil becomes close to saturation, resulting in a considerable reduction of soil strength. Deeper landslides (5-20 m depth) are in most cases triggered by positive pore pressures on the slip plane induced by a rising ground water level. The assessment of meteorological threshold conditions for shallow landslides (1-2 m) needs more detailed meteorological information than for deeper landslides. In the analyses of the hydrological triggering systems of deeper landslides the presence of a permeable top layer and fissures has to be taken into consideration.

  10. Engineered biological nanofactories trigger quorum sensing response in targeted bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rohan; Roy, Varnika; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Bentley, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Biological nanofactories, which are engineered to contain modules that can target, sense and synthesize molecules, can trigger communication between different bacterial populations. These communications influence biofilm formation, virulence, bioluminescence and many other bacterial functions in a process called quorum sensing. Here, we show the assembly of a nanofactory that can trigger a bacterial quorum sensing response in the absence of native quorum molecules. The nanofactory comprises an antibody (for targeting) and a fusion protein that produces quorum molecules when bound to the targeted bacterium. Our nanofactory selectively targets the appropriate bacteria and triggers a quorum sensing response when added to two populations of bacteria. The nanofactories also trigger communication between two bacterial populations that are otherwise non-communicating. We envision the use of these nanofactories in generating new antimicrobial treatments that target the communication networks of bacteria rather than their viability.

  11. 71. 129 HILLSIDE AVENUE, SUBSTATION, VIEW OF MOTORWOUND SPRING TRIGGERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. 129 HILLSIDE AVENUE, SUBSTATION, VIEW OF MOTOR-WOUND SPRING- TRIGGERED A. C. OIL-CIRCUIT BREAKERS ON MAIN FLOOR UNDER GALLERY. MOTOR SITES ATOP THE BRICK COMPARTMENT. - Interborough Rapid Transit Subway (Original Line), New York County, NY

  12. Resident-to-Resident Violence Triggers in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Snellgrove, Susan; Beck, Cornelia; Green, Angela; McSweeney, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Certified nurses’ assistants (CNAs) employed by a rural nursing home in Northeast Arkansas described their perceptions of resident-to-resident violence in order to provide insight on factors, including unmet needs, that may trigger the phenomenon. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 CNAs. Data were analyzed using content analysis and constant comparison. Two categories of triggers emerged from the data—active and passive. Active triggers involved the actions of other residents that were intrusive in nature, such as wandering into a residents’ personal space, taking a resident’s belongings, and so forth. Passive triggers did not involve the actions of residents but related to the internal and external environment of the residents. Examples were factors such as boredom, competition for attention and communication difficulties. Results indicate that there are factors, including unmet needs within the nursing home environment that may be identified and altered to prevent violence between residents. PMID:23447361

  13. Triggered beam pulser and current integrator for PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, D. T.; Skofronick, G.; Nelson, J. W.

    1987-03-01

    Two auxiliary circuits to facilitate PIXE analyses are described: a triggerable beam pulser tor pile-up reduction and dead time correction; and a versatile voltage to frequency converter for use with a beam current integrator.

  14. Advanced integrated safeguards using front-end-triggering devices

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, J.A.; Whitty, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    This report addresses potential uses of front-end-triggering devices for enhanced safeguards. Such systems incorporate video surveillance as well as radiation and other sensors. Also covered in the report are integration issues and analysis techniques.

  15. Trigger circuit forces immediate synchronization of free-running oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S.

    1975-01-01

    Device provides positive triggering for inverter synchronization in uninterruptible power supplies. Integrated-circuit oscillator frequency may be higher, lower, or the same as that of the synch pulse and is always synchronized by first clock pulse.

  16. Skier triggering of backcountry avalanches with skilled route selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinickas, Alexandra; Haegeli, Pascal; Jamieson, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Jamieson (2009) provided numerical estimates for the baseline probabilities of triggering an avalanche by a backcountry skier making fresh tracks without skilled route selection as a function of the North American avalanche danger scale (i.e., hazard levels Low, Moderate, Considerable, High and Extreme). Using the results of an expert survey, he showed that triggering probabilities while skiing directly up, down or across a trigger zone without skilled route selection increase roughly by a factor of 10 with each step of the North American avalanche danger scale (i.e. hazard level). The objective of the present study is to examine the effect of skilled route selection on the relationship between triggering probability and hazard level. To assess the effect of skilled route selection on triggering probability by hazard level, we analysed avalanche hazard assessments as well as reports of skiing activity and triggering of avalanches from 11 Canadian helicopter and snowcat operations during two winters (2012-13 and 2013-14). These reports were submitted to the daily information exchange among Canadian avalanche safety operations, and reflect professional decision-making and route selection practices of guides leading groups of skiers. We selected all skier-controlled or accidentally triggered avalanches with a destructive size greater than size 1 according to the Canadian avalanche size classification, triggered by any member of a guided group (guide or guest). These operations forecast the avalanche hazard daily for each of three elevation bands: alpine, treeline and below treeline. In contrast to the 2009 study, an exposure was defined as a group skiing within any one of the three elevation bands, and consequently within a hazard rating, for the day (~4,300 ratings over two winters). For example, a group that skied below treeline (rated Moderate) and treeline (rated Considerable) in one day, would receive one count for exposure to Moderate hazard, and one count for

  17. Pathophysiology of Trigger Points in Myofascial Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Money, Sarah

    2017-04-05

    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. Trigger point pathophysiology in myofascial pain syndrome, which involves muscle stiffness, tenderness, and pain that radiates to other areas of the body, is considered. The causes of trigger points and several theories about how they develop are reviewed, and treatment approaches, including stretching, physical therapy, dry needling, and injections, are offered.

  18. Triggered Swarms and Induced Aftershock Sequences in Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Natural geothermal systems, which are used for energy generation, are usually associated with high seismic activity. This can be related to the large-scale injection and extraction of fluids to enhance geothermal recovery. This results in the changes of the pore pressure and pore-elastic stress field and can stimulate the occurrence of earthquakes. These systems are also prone to triggering of seismicity by the passage of seismic waves generated by large distant main shocks. In this study, we analyze clustering and triggering of seismicity at several geothermal fields in California. Particularly, we consider the seismicity at the Geysers, Coso, and Salton Sea geothermal fields. We analyze aftershock sequences generated by local large events with magnitudes greater than 4.0 and earthquake swarms generated by several significant long distant main shocks. We show that the rate of the aftershock sequences generated by the local large events in the two days before and two days after the reference event can be modelled reasonably well by the time dependent Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. On the other hand, the swarms of activity triggered by large distant earthquakes cannot be described by the ETAS model. To model the increase in the rate of seismicity associated with triggering by large distant main shocks we introduce an additional time-dependent triggering mechanism into the ETAS model. In almost all cases the frequency-magnitude statistics of triggered sequences follow Gutenberg-Richter scaling to a good approximation. The analysis indicates that the seismicity triggered by relatively large local events can initiate sequences similar to regular aftershock sequences. In contrast, the distant main shocks trigger swarm like activity with faster decaying rates.

  19. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    significant reductions in both perplexity and recognition errors. We also compare our cross-lingual adaptation scheme to monolingual language model adaptation...as an intermedi- ate step. In a monolingual setting, the mutual infor- mation between lexical pairs co-occurring anywhere within a long “window” of...inspiration to propose the follow- ing notion of cross-lingual lexical triggers. In a monolingual setting, a pair of words xyQz is considered a trigger

  20. Triggered transience of metastable poly(phthalaldehyde) for transient electronics.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Hector Lopez; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Lee, Olivia P; Hwang, Suk-Won; Kaitz, Joshua A; Inci, Bora; Park, Chan Woo; Chung, Sangjin; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rogers, John A; White, Scott R

    2014-12-03

    Triggerable transient electronics are demonstrated with the use of a metastable poly(phthalaldehyde) polymer substrate and encapsulant. The rate of degradation is controlled by the concentration of the photo-acid generator and UV irradiance. This work expands on the materials that can be used for transient electronics by demonstrating transience in response to a preselected trigger without the need for solution-based degradation.

  1. Studies of the Plasma Triggering Mechanism of Inverse Pinch Switch

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-10

    Studies of the Plasma Puff Triggering Mechanism 02 of Inverse Pinch Switch AD-A276 117 Final Report ElEC 0 A Principal Investigator Kwang S. Han Nov...based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for the azimuthally uniform surface flashover ...in the switch . In this study, the plasma-puff triggering mechanism based on a hypocycloidal pinch geometry was investigated to determine the optimal

  2. Review of trigger and on-line processors at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    The role of trigger and on-line processors in reducing data rates to manageable proportions in e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics experiments is defined not by high physics or background rates, but by the large event sizes of the general-purpose detectors employed. The rate of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation is low, and backgrounds are not high; yet the number of physics processes which can be studied is vast and varied. This paper begins by briefly describing the role of trigger processors in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ context. The usual flow of the trigger decision process is illustrated with selected examples of SLAC trigger processing. The features are mentioned of triggering at the SLC and the trigger processing plans of the two SLC detectors: The Mark II and the SLD. The most common on-line processors at SLAC, the BADC, the SLAC Scanner Processor, the SLAC FASTBUS Controller, and the VAX CAMAC Channel, are discussed. Uses of the 168/E, 3081/E, and FASTBUS VAX processors are mentioned. The manner in which these processors are interfaced and the function they serve on line is described. Finally, the accelerator control system for the SLC is outlined. This paper is a survey in nature, and hence, relies heavily upon references to previous publications for detailed description of work mentioned here. 27 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  3. The trigger system of the JEM-EUSO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, M.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Hamada, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kawasai, Y.; Sawabe, T.; Takahashi, Y.; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    The trigger system of JEM-EUSO should face different major challenging points: a) cope with the limited down-link transmission rate from the ISS to Earth, by operating a severe on-board and on-time data reduction; b) use very fast, low power consuming and radiation hard electronics; c) have a high signal-over-noise performance and flexibility in order to lower as much as possible the energy threshold of the detector, adjust the system to a variable nightglow background, and trigger on different categories of events (images insisting on the same pixels or crossing huge portions of the entire focal surface). Based on the above stringent requirements, the main ingredients for the trigger logic are: the Gate Time Unit (GTU); the minimum number Nthresh of photo-electrons piling up in a GTU in a pixel to be fired; the persistency level Npers, in which fired pixels are over threshold; the localization and correlation in space and time of the fired pixels, that distinguish a real EAS from an accidental background enhancement. The core of the trigger logic is the Track Trigger Algorithm that has been specifically developed for this purpose. Its characteristics, preliminary performance and its possible implementation on FPGA or DSP will be discussed together with a general overview of the architecture of the triggering system of JEM-EUSO.

  4. A neural network z-vertex trigger for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus, S.; Skambraks, S.; Abudinen, F.; Chen, Y.; Feindt, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Heck, M.; Kiesling, C.; Knoll, A.; Paul, S.; Schieck, J.

    2015-05-01

    We present the concept of a track trigger for the Belle II experiment, based on a neural network approach, that is able to reconstruct the z (longitudinal) position of the event vertex within the latency of the first level trigger. The trigger will thus be able to suppress a large fraction of the dominating background from events outside of the interaction region. The trigger uses the drift time information of the hits from the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of Belle II within narrow cones in polar and azimuthal angle as well as in transverse momentum (sectors), and estimates the z-vertex without explicit track reconstruction. The preprocessing for the track trigger is based on the track information provided by the standard CDC trigger. It takes input from the 2D (r — φ) track finder, adds information from the stereo wires of the CDC, and finds the appropriate sectors in the CDC for each track in a given event. Within each sector, the z-vertex of the associated track is estimated by a specialized neural network, with a continuous output corresponding to the scaled z-vertex. The input values for the neural network are calculated from the wire hits of the CDC.

  5. L1 track finding for a time multiplexed trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieri, D.; Brooke, J.; Grimes, M.; Newbold, D.; Harder, K.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Tomalin, I.; Vichoudis, P.; Reid, I.; Iles, G.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Pesaresi, M.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.

    2016-07-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches will cross each other every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 pp-collisions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a L1 hardware trigger able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 μs. The future L1 trigger will make use also of data coming from the silicon tracker to control the trigger rate. The architecture that will be used in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One interesting proposal makes use of the Time Multiplexed Trigger concept, already implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger for the Phase I trigger upgrade. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough Transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp-collision data. Results show a very good tracking efficiency. The algorithm will be demonstrated in hardware in the coming months using the MP7, which is a μTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s.

  6. The FORTE receiver and sub-band triggering unit

    SciTech Connect

    Enemark, D.C.; Shipley, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The FORTE payload receiver and trigger unit represent a significant advance over the currently flying BLACKBEARD payload aboard the ALEXIS satellite. Not only is the polarization sensitive antenna array massive compared to the BLACKBEARD monopole, but the event triggering scheme is completely different. Electromagnetic pulses (EWs) are dispersed when they pass through the ionosphere creating a chirped frequency signal which can be helpful in discriminating between natural and man-made signals. Payloads designed to digitize and store the RF signatures of these signals must include sophisticated triggering circuitry to select events of interest and prevent false alarms from wasting the available memory storage resources. The FORTE wideband receiver tunes from 20 to 320 MHz with eight sub-band trigger channels distributed across the 20 MHz IF bandwidth. The conditions which must be satisfied to generate an event trigger are processor controlled. Early testing of the prototype indicates an ability to reliably trigger on chirped RF signals several dB below the noise level. FORTE is scheduled to be launched with a Pegasus XL vehicle in late 1995.

  7. Mafic intrusions triggering eruptions in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmarsson, O.

    2012-04-01

    . Earlier gabbroic fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and rare olivine crystals led to more evolved compositions and saturation of iron-titanium oxides. Significant variations in glass compositions indicate several liquid-lines-of-descent, possibly at somewhat different pressure, with MgO and K2O concentrations ranging from 4.6-5.7% and 0.46 to 0.60%, respectively. These variable magma differentiation trends and the abundant microlites suggest degassing over a considerable depth range and remobilizing of magma pockets at different depths with somewhat variable compositions. This is coherent with the magma plumbing system beneath Grímsvötn being recently recharged with a deeper-derived and gas-rich basaltic melt. This basaltic intrusion resulted in mingled basaltic magma with higher gas content than before and the sub-plinian character of the last Grímsvötn eruption. The last two eruptions in Iceland therefore were both triggered by an injection of more mafic magma 1)rapidly into a solidifying silicic intrusion beneath Eyjafjallajökull and 2) more slowly disrupting a closed-system magma chamber behaviour beneath Grímsvötn volcano.

  8. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  9. Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA level 1 and level 2-cognitive evaluation preparation and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Maholtz, Danielle E; Erickson, Michael J; Cymet, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) assesses the competence of osteopathic physicians in training. It is designed to protect the public by setting minimum competence standards. All osteopathic medical students must pass COMLEX-USA Level 1, Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation, and Level 2-Performance Evaluation before being allowed to graduate from an osteopathic medical school. Residency training programs use COMLEX-USA scores as a major factor in deciding whom they will interview and admit into their programs. In addition, colleges of osteopathic medicine use student COMLEX-USA scores as an external assessment of their success in educating students. Because COMLEX-USA is a high-stakes examination series, it is important to understand predictive factors for performance. The authors review the literature on the relationship between COMLEX-USA scores and correlated student variables. Results from the Council on Osteopathic Student Government Presidents' survey on students' preparation methods and performance are also provided.

  10. Stochastic models for earthquake triggering of volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, M. S.; Marzocchi, W.

    2011-05-01

    Many accounts, anecdotal and statistical, have noted a causal effect on volcanic eruptions from large, not too distant, earthquakes. Physical mechanisms have been proposed that explain how small static stress changes, or larger transient dynamic stress changes, can have observable effects on a volcano. While only ˜0.4% of eruptions appear to be directly triggered within a few days of an earthquake, these physical mechanisms also imply the possibility of delayed triggering. In the few regional studies conducted, data issues (selection bias and scarcity, inhomogeneity, and cleaning of data) have tended to obscure any clear signal. Using a perturbation technique, we first show that the Indonesian volcanic region possesses no statistically significant coupling for the region as a whole. We then augment a number of point process models for eruption onsets by a time-, distance-, and earthquake magnitude-dependent triggering term and apply this to the individual volcanoes. This method weighs both positive and negative (i.e., absence of eruptions following an earthquake) evidence of triggering. Of 35 volcanoes with at least three eruptions in the study region, seven (Marapi, Talang, Krakatau, Slamet, Ebulobo, Lewotobi, and Ruang) show statistical evidence of triggering over varying temporal and spatial scales, but only after the internal state of the volcano is accounted for. This confirms that triggering is fundamentally a property of the internal magma plumbing of the volcano in question and that any earthquake can potentially "advance the clock" toward a future eruption. This is further supported by the absence of any dependence on triggering of the eruption size.

  11. Observing earthquakes triggered in the near field by dynamic deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Reasenberg, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that dynamic deformations associated with seismic waves trigger earthquakes in many tectonic environments. Our analysis focuses on seismicity at close range (within the aftershock zone), complementing published studies of long-range triggering. Our results suggest that dynamic triggering is not confined to remote distances or to geothermal and volcanic regions. Long unilaterally propagating ruptures may focus radiated dynamic deformations in the propagation direction. Therefore, we expect seismicity triggered dynamically by a directive rupture to occur asymmetrically, with a majority of triggered earthquakes in the direction of rupture propagation. Bilaterally propagating ruptures also may be directive, and we propose simple criteria for assessing their directivity. We compare the inferred rupture direction and observed seismicity rate change following 15 earthquakes (M 5.7 to M 8.1) that occured in California and Idaho in the United States, the Gulf of Aqaba, Syria, Guatemala, China, New Guinea, Turkey, Japan, Mexico, and Antarctica. Nine of these mainshocks had clearly directive, unilateral ruptures. Of these nine, seven apparently induced an asymmetric increase in seismicity rate that correlates with the rupture direction. The two exceptions include an earthquake preceded by a comparable-magnitude event on a conjugate fault and another for which data limitations prohibited conclusive results. Similar (but weaker) correlations were found for the bilaterally rupturing earthquakes we studied. Although the static stress change also may trigger seismicity, it and the seismicity it triggers are expected to be similarly asymmetric only if the final slip is skewed toward the rupture terminus. For several of the directive earthquakes, we suggest that the seismicity rate change correlates better with the dynamic stress field than the static stress change.

  12. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  13. Experimental determination of stress variation threshold resulted in earthquake triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Elena; Novikov, Victor; Okunev, Vladimir; Klyuchkin, Vadim

    2014-05-01

    There are many field observations of earthquake triggering by static and dynamic stress variations caused by impact of distant strong earthquakes, underground chemical and nuclear explosions, solar-lunar earth tides, strong variations of atmospheric pressure etc., as well as by electric current injection into the Earth crust. It is supposed that the external impacts on the earthquake source result in exceeding the threshold stress and earthquake triggering. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of the earthquake triggering phenomena is not clear, and the problem of determination of stress variation threshold resulted in initiation of seismic events is very important. At present, based on analysis of field observations of dynamic triggering of earthquakes (by wave train from distant strong earthquakes) performed for various regions, including the USA, Japan, China, Greece, etc. it is considered that the triggering threshold of stress variations is about of 500 kPa. An experimental study at the spring-slider system was carried out for detailed study of behavior of fault area under near-to-failure state and experimental triggering impacts, as well as for determination of the threshold variation of normal stress in the fault gauge resulted in earthquake (slip) triggering. The spring-slider system provides a spring loading rate of 0.001 to 0.02 mm/s. The travelling block of dimensions 250x120x65 mm is connected with electromechanical drive via the spring with 9.5 N/mm spring constant. The normal stress of the travelling block is up to 30 kPa. For determination of the triggering threshold of normal stress variations the electromagnetic system was activated by control system at the level of 0.98-0.99 critical (fault failure) shear stress, which provided reducing the normal stress (by 0.001% to 0.1%) in the form of rectangular pulses of 0.5 to 5.0 s duration generated in time interval of 20 to 40 s. The level of stress variation impact resulted in the slip of travelling block (with

  14. Absence of remotely triggered large earthquakes beyond the mainshock region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Velasco, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Large earthquakes are known to trigger earthquakes elsewhere. Damaging large aftershocks occur close to the mainshock and microearthquakes are triggered by passing seismic waves at significant distances from the mainshock. It is unclear, however, whether bigger, more damaging earthquakes are routinely triggered at distances far from the mainshock, heightening the global seismic hazard after every large earthquake. Here we assemble a catalogue of all possible earthquakes greater than M 5 that might have been triggered by every M 7 or larger mainshock during the past 30 years. We compare the timing of earthquakes greater than M 5 with the temporal and spatial passage of surface waves generated by large earthquakes using a complete worldwide catalogue. Whereas small earthquakes are triggered immediately during the passage of surface waves at all spatial ranges, we find no significant temporal association between surface-wave arrivals and larger earthquakes. We observe a significant increase in the rate of seismic activity at distances confined to within two to three rupture lengths of the mainshock. Thus, we conclude that the regional hazard of larger earthquakes is increased after a mainshock, but the global hazard is not.

  15. Basic understanding of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist triggering.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    A single bolus of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at midcycle has been the gold standard for triggering final oocyte maturation and ovulation in assisted reproductive technology cycles. More recently, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-agonist (GnRH-a) triggering has been introduced. The GnRH-a trigger may allow a more physiologic surge of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone, although whether the combined surge will result in improved oocyte and embryo quality remains to be seen. However, the short duration of the LH surge with the GnRH-a trigger (approximately 34 hours) has been shown to be beneficial for preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in GnRH antagonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles when compared with the prolonged elevation of hCG (≥6 days) after exposure to an hCG bolus. This review discusses the physiologic basis for the use of a GnRH-a trigger in IVF cycles.

  16. A Parameterization for the Triggering of Landscape Generated Moist Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Barry H.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Abramopoulos, Frank

    1998-01-01

    A set of relatively high resolution three-dimensional (3D) simulations were produced to investigate the triggering of moist convection by landscape generated mesoscale circulations. The local accumulated rainfall varied monotonically (linearly) with the size of individual landscape patches, demonstrating the need to develop a trigger function that is sensitive to the size of individual patches. A new triggering function that includes the effect of landscapes generated mesoscale circulations over patches of different sizes consists of a parcel's perturbation in vertical velocity (nu(sub 0)), temperature (theta(sub 0)), and moisture (q(sub 0)). Each variable in the triggering function was also sensitive to soil moisture gradients, atmospheric initial conditions, and moist processes. The parcel's vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture perturbation were partitioned into mesoscale and turbulent components. Budget equations were derived for theta(sub 0) and q(sub 0). Of the many terms in this set of budget equations, the turbulent, vertical flux of the mesoscale temperature and moisture contributed most to the triggering of moist convection through the impact of these fluxes on the parcel's temperature and moisture profile. These fluxes needed to be parameterized to obtain theta(sub 0) and q(sub 0). The mesoscale vertical velocity also affected the profile of nu(sub 0). We used similarity theory to parameterize these fluxes as well as the parcel's mesoscale vertical velocity.

  17. Interactive Teaching about Landslides and Triggered Landslide Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Malamud, Bruce D.

    2015-04-01

    When we think of a landslide (mass wasting), both the public and scientists often envisage an individual movement of earth material down a slope. Yet, landslides often occur not as individuals, but as parts of a triggered landslide event. This is where a trigger (e.g., an earthquake or heavy rainfall) results in up to tens of thousands of landslides in a region in the minutes to days after the trigger. The sum of the impacts of these landslides may be greater than individual parts. This interactive Prezi poster will present ideas for innovative demonstrations, teaching practicals and projects, ranging from low-cost low-tech to more advanced digital methods, to communicate the ideas of landslides and triggered landslide events to the public and students. We will give live hands-on demonstrations and welcome discussions with other scientists to share ideas and best practices. This paper is aimed at those in secondary school/university education and the public sector looking for examples to interest and inform their respective audiences about landslides, triggered landslide events, and the importance and implications of considering landslides not just as individuals, but as populations.

  18. Estimating return period of landslide triggering by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peres, D. J.; Cancelliere, A.

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of landslide hazard is a crucial step for landslide mitigation planning. Estimation of the return period of slope instability represents a quantitative method to map landslide triggering hazard on a catchment. The most common approach to estimate return periods consists in coupling a triggering threshold equation, derived from an hydrological and slope stability process-based model, with a rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve. Such a traditional approach generally neglects the effect of rainfall intensity variability within events, as well as the variability of initial conditions, which depend on antecedent rainfall. We propose a Monte Carlo approach for estimating the return period of shallow landslide triggering which enables to account for both variabilities. Synthetic hourly rainfall-landslide data generated by Monte Carlo simulations are analysed to compute return periods as the mean interarrival time of a factor of safety less than one. Applications are first conducted to map landslide triggering hazard in the Loco catchment, located in highly landslide-prone area of the Peloritani Mountains, Sicily, Italy. Then a set of additional simulations are performed in order to evaluate the traditional IDF-based method by comparison with the Monte Carlo one. Results show that return period is affected significantly by variability of both rainfall intensity within events and of initial conditions, and that the traditional IDF-based approach may lead to an overestimation of the return period of landslide triggering, or, in other words, a non-conservative assessment of landslide hazard.

  19. Triggering on B-jets at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Amerio, Silvia; Casarsa, Massimo; Cortiana, Giorgio; Donini, Julien; Lucchesi, Donatella; Pagan Griso, Simone; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a trigger algorithm able to select online events enriched of b-jets. This feature is of central interest in order to extend the physics reach for standard model and minimal super symmetric model Higgs decaying into a pair of b-quarks. The algorithm fully exploits the recently upgraded CDFII tracking system and Level 2 CALorimeter cluster finder. These upgrades are necessary to cope with Tevatron increasing luminosity and provide new and refined trigger primitives that are the key elements of our algorithm together with the already existing silicon vertex trigger. A b-hadron can travel some millimeters before decaying and the trigger algorithm exploits this characteristic by searching for tracks displaced with respect to the primary vertex and matched to energetic jets of particles. We discuss the study and the optimization of the algorithm, its technical implementation as well as its performance. The new trigger provides an efficient selection for Higgs decaying into a pair of b-quarks and runs up to high luminosity with an acceptable occupancy of the available bandwidth.

  20. The LUX experiment - trigger and data acquisition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druszkiewicz, Eryk

    2013-04-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector is a two-phase xenon time projection chamber designed to detect interactions of dark matter particles with the xenon nuclei. Signals from the detector PMTs are processed by custom-built analog electronics which provide properly shaped signals for the trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) systems. During calibrations, both systems must be able to handle high rates and have large dynamic ranges; during dark matter searches, maximum sensitivity requires low thresholds. The trigger system uses eight-channel 64-MHz digitizers (DDC-8) connected to a Trigger Builder (TB). The FPGA cores on the digitizers perform real-time pulse identification (discriminating between S1 and S2-like signals) and event localization. The TB uses hit patterns, hit maps, and maximum response detection to make trigger decisions, which are reached within few microseconds after the occurrence of an event of interest. The DAQ system is comprised of commercial digitizers with customized firmware. Its real-time baseline suppression allows for a maximum event acquisition rate in excess of 1.5 kHz, which results in virtually no deadtime. The performance of the trigger and DAQ systems during the commissioning runs of LUX will be discussed.

  1. Graphics Processors in HEP Low-Level Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cretaro, Paolo; Di Lorenzo, Stefano; Fantechi, Riccardo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Lo Cicero, Francesca; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Neri, Ilaria; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Vicini, Piero

    2016-11-01

    Usage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in the so called general-purpose computing is emerging as an effective approach in several fields of science, although so far applications have been employing GPUs typically for offline computations. Taking into account the steady performance increase of GPU architectures in terms of computing power and I/O capacity, the real-time applications of these devices can thrive in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will examine the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for the synchronous low-level trigger, focusing on tests performed on the trigger system of the CERN NA62 experiment. To successfully integrate GPUs in such an online environment, latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Furthermore, it is assessed how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelized and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be essential to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  2. Dynamic triggering of small local earthquakes in the central Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Manuel M.; Ghosh, Abhijit; Rai, Shyam S.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first observation of remote dynamic triggering of local microearthquakes in central Himalaya caused by the teleseismic waves from the 2007 Mw 8.5 Sumatra earthquake that occurs ~4500 km away. We find small local earthquakes in the Kumaon-Garhwal Himalaya triggered by teleseismic long-period surface waves. Interestingly, an elevated level of seismicity persists for a week or so after the arrival of the teleseismic waves. The teleseismic waves impart ~9 kPa of peak dynamic stresses, suggesting that the Himalayan faults in this area are sensitive to small stress changes. This heightened and protracted seismicity indicates that the transient dynamic stresses may have triggered secondary processes, such as slow slip, that may be responsible for the persistence of this earthquake sequence. The region is thought to be close to a large damaging earthquake in the near future. This study provides improved constraints on the factors controlling the earthquake cycle.

  3. Development and Applications of Photo-triggered Theranostic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prakash; Mallidi, Srivallesha; Zheng, Xiang; Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin; Mir, Youssef; Elrington, Stefan; Khurshid, Ahmat; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2010-01-01

    Theranostics, the fusion of therapy and diagnostics for optimizing efficacy and safety of therapeutic regimes, is a growing field that is paving the way towards the goal of personalized medicine for the benefit of patients. The use of light as a remote-activation mechanism for drug delivery has received increased attention due to its advantages in highly specific spatial and temporal control of compound release. Photo-triggered theranostic constructs could facilitate an entirely new category of clinical solutions which permit early recognition of the disease by enhancing contrast in various imaging modalities followed by the tailored guidance of therapy. Finally, such theranostic agents could aid imaging modalities in monitoring response to therapy. This article reviews recent developments in the use of light-triggered theranostic agents for simultaneous imaging and photoactivation of therapeutic agents. Specifically, we discuss recent developments in the use of theranostic agents for photodynamic-, photothermal- or photo-triggered chemo-therapy for several diseases. PMID:20858520

  4. Evaluating Prodrug Strategies for Esterase-Triggered Release of Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Christian; Daniel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Prodrugs are effective tools in overcoming drawbacks typically associated with drug formulation and delivery. Those employing esterase-triggered functional groups are frequently utilized to mask polar carboxylic acids and phenols, increasing drug-like properties such as lipophilicity. Herein we detail a comprehensive assessment for strategies that effectively release hydroxyl and phenolic moieties in the presence of an esterase. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) serve as our proof-of-concept target. Three distinct ester-responsive protecting groups are incorporated into MMP proinhibitors containing hydroxyl moieties. Analytical evaluation of the proinhibitors demonstrates that the use of a benzyl ether group appended to the esterase trigger leads to considerably faster kinetics of conversion and enhanced aqueous stability when compared to more conventional approaches where the trigger is directly attached to the inhibitor. Biological assays confirm that all protecting groups effectively cleave in the presence of esterase to generate the active inhibitor. PMID:23929690

  5. Analysis of PAMP-Triggered ROS Burst in Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yuying; Macho, Alberto P

    2017-01-01

    The plant perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns triggers a plethora of cellular immune responses. One of these responses is a rapid and transient burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH oxidases. The ROS burst requires a functional receptor complex and the contribution of several additional regulatory components. In laboratory conditions, the ROS burst can be detected a few minutes after the treatment with an immunogenic microbial elicitor. For these reasons, the elicitor-triggered ROS burst has been often exploited as readout to probe the contribution of plant components to early immune responses. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the measurement of elicitor-triggered ROS burst in a simple, fast, and easy manner.

  6. Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephanie E; Ho, Louis; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E; Nodwell, Justin R; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-01-01

    It has long been thought that the life cycle of Streptomyces bacteria encompasses three developmental stages: vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae and spores. Here, we show interactions between Streptomyces and fungi trigger a previously unobserved mode of Streptomyces development. We term these Streptomyces cells ‘explorers’, for their ability to adopt a non-branching vegetative hyphal conformation and rapidly transverse solid surfaces. Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). These results reveal that interkingdom interactions can trigger novel developmental behaviours in bacteria, here, causing Streptomyces to deviate from its classically-defined life cycle. Furthermore, this work provides evidence that VOCs can act as long-range communication signals capable of propagating microbial morphological switches. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21738.001 PMID:28044982

  7. Streptomyces exploration is triggered by fungal interactions and volatile signals.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie E; Ho, Louis; Rees, Christiaan A; Hill, Jane E; Nodwell, Justin R; Elliot, Marie A

    2017-01-03

    It has long been thought that the life cycle of Streptomyces bacteria encompasses three developmental stages: vegetative hyphae, aerial hyphae and spores. Here, we show interactions between Streptomyces and fungi trigger a previously unobserved mode of Streptomyces development. We term these Streptomyces cells 'explorers', for their ability to adopt a non-branching vegetative hyphal conformation and rapidly transverse solid surfaces. Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). These results reveal that interkingdom interactions can trigger novel developmental behaviours in bacteria, here, causing Streptomyces to deviate from its classically-defined life cycle. Furthermore, this work provides evidence that VOCs can act as long-range communication signals capable of propagating microbial morphological switches.

  8. A Summary of Biases in the BATSE Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meegan, Charles A; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    The BATSE threshold for triggering on a gamma-ray burst is generally expressed in units of peak flux between 50 and 300 keV averaged over 1024 milliseconds. The completeness of the sample is affected by several systematic and statistical affects. A study is currently underway to characterize two of these that have not yet been Included Abstract: in the BATSE trigger efficiency calculation. They are: 1) the effects of statistical fluctuations on the measurement of peak flux and, 2) the effect on the trigger threshold of "slow risers", In which some of the burst flux is Identified as background. Some other biases that have been identified are in fact Malmquist-type biases which relate to a volume limited, rather than peak flux limited, burst source distribution and which cannot be determined without knowledge of the burst luminosity distribution.

  9. Accelerative propagation and explosion triggering by expanding turbulent premixed flames.

    PubMed

    Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K

    2013-02-01

    The dynamics and morphology of outwardly propagating, accelerating turbulent premixed flames and the effect of flame acceleration on explosion triggering are analyzed. Guided by recent theoretical results and substantiated by experiments, we find that an expanding flame front in an externally forced, near-isotropic turbulent environment exhibits accelerative propagation given by a well-defined power law based on the average global flame radius. In this context the limits of the power-law exponent and the effective turbulence intensity experienced by the flame are derived. The power-law exponent is found to be substantially larger than that for the hydrodynamically unstable cellular laminar flames, hence facilitating the possibility of detonation triggering in turbulent environments. For large length scales, hydrodynamic instability is expected to provide additional acceleration, thus further favoring the attainment of detonation triggering.

  10. VLSI-based Video Event Triggering for Image Data Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.

  11. Development of High Level Trigger Software for Belle II at SuperKEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Itoh, R.; Katayama, N.; Mineo, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Belle collaboration has been trying for 10 years to reveal the mystery of the current matter-dominated universe. However, much more statistics is required to search for New Physics through quantum loops in decays of B mesons. In order to increase the experimental sensitivity, the next generation B-factory, SuperKEKB, is planned. The design luminosity of SuperKEKB is 8 x 1035cm-2s-1 a factor 40 above KEKB's peak luminosity. At this high luminosity, the level 1 trigger of the Belle II experiment will stream events of 300 kB size at a 30 kHz rate. To reduce the data flow to a manageable level, a high-level trigger (HLT) is needed, which will be implemented using the full offline reconstruction on a large scale PC farm. There, physics level event selection is performed, reducing the event rate by ~ 10 to a few kHz. To execute the reconstruction the HLT uses the offline event processing framework basf2, which has parallel processing capabilities used for multi-core processing and PC clusters. The event data handling in the HLT is totally object oriented utilizing ROOT I/O with a new method of object passing over the UNIX socket connection. Also under consideration is the use of the HLT output as well to reduce the pixel detector event size by only saving hits associated with a track, resulting in an additional data reduction of ~ 100 for the pixel detector. In this contribution, the design and implementation of the Belle II HLT are presented together with a report of preliminary testing results.

  12. ATLAS jet trigger update for the LHC run II

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider is the biggest and most powerful particle collider ever built. It produces up to 40 million proton-proton collisions per second at unprecedented energies to explore the fundamental laws and properties of Nature. The ATLAS experiment is one of the detectors that analyses and records these collisions. It generates dozens of GB/s of data that has to be reduced before it can be permanently stored, the event selection is made by the ATLAS trigger system, which reduces the data volume by a factor of 105. The trigger system has to be highly configurable in order to adapt to changing running conditions and maximize the physics output whilst keeping the output rate under control. A particularly interesting pattern generated during collisions consists of a collimated spray of particles, known as a hadronic jet. To retain the interesting jets and efficiently reject the overwhelming background, optimal jet energy resolution is needed. Therefore the Jet trigger software requires CPU-intensive reconstruction algorithms. In order to reduce the resources needed for the reconstruction step, a partial detector readout scheme was developed, which effectively suppresses the low activity regions of the calorimeter. In this paper we describe the overall ATLAS trigger software, and the jet trigger in particular, along with the improvements made on the system. We then focus on detailed studies of the algorithm timing and the performance impact of the full and partial calorimeter readout schemes. We conclude with an outlook of the jet trigger plans for the next LHC data-taking period. (authors)

  13. Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.

  14. A study of structure and temperature-triggered breakdown of particle gels prepared by pH-triggered heteroaggregation.

    PubMed

    Hui, Dave; Morris, Daniel; Edwards, Martin; Saunders, Brian R

    2010-02-15

    Synthetic heteroaggregate particle gels are a relatively unexplored area of colloidal science. In our previous work pH-triggered formation of heteroaggregate gels prepared from mixed pigment/polystyrene (PS) dispersions were investigated [Hui et al., J. Colloid Interface Sci. 324 (2008) 110]. The pigment was beta-copper phthalocyanine (beta-CuPc). In this study that work is extended by investigating the structure of the heteroaggregates formed at room temperature in greater detail and also studying the temperature-triggered gel breakdown that occurs upon moderate heating for the first time. In this work the heteroaggregate structures were studied using TEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and also SEM. AFM showed the mesoscale structure to consist of highly branched space-filling heteroaggregates. They are proposed to be the building blocks of the heteroaggregate gels. TEM data supported our previous suggestion that the pigment particles act as a crosslink centre within the heteroaggregate gels. SEM images showed evidence for softening and partial coalescence of the aggregates at elevated temperatures which helped to explain the temperature-triggered gel breakdown that occurred upon heating. The temperature-triggered gel breakdown was directly correlated with the glass transition temperature of the PS particles. A study of the maximum storage modulus, G', achieved just prior to gel breakdown, revealed a maximum at a volume fraction of pigment of 0.033. The data from the study are used to propose a conceptual model for the temperature-triggered breakdown of the pigment/PS heteroaggregate gels.

  15. Acoustically induced slip in sheared granular layers: Application to dynamic earthquake triggering: TRIGGERED SLIP IN SHEARED GRANULAR GOUGE

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Griffa, Michele; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Paul A.; Marone, Chris; Carmeliet, Jan

    2015-11-19

    A fundamental mystery in earthquake physics is “how can an earthquake be triggered by distant seismic sources?” We use discrete element method simulations of a granular layer, during stick slip, that is subject to transient vibrational excitation to gain further insight into the physics of dynamic earthquake triggering. We also observe delayed triggering of slip in the granular gouge, using Coulomb friction law for grains interaction. We find that at a critical vibrational amplitude (strain) there is an abrupt transition from negligible time-advanced slip (clock advance) to full clock advance; i.e., transient vibration and triggered slip are simultaneous. Moreover, the critical strain is of order 10-6, similar to observations in the laboratory and in Earth. The transition is related to frictional weakening of the granular layer due to a dramatic decrease in coordination number and the weakening of the contact force network. Associated with this frictional weakening is a pronounced decrease in the elastic modulus of the layer. The study has important implications for mechanisms of triggered earthquakes and induced seismic events and points out the underlying processes in response of the fault gouge to dynamic transient stresses.

  16. Acoustically induced slip in sheared granular layers: Application to dynamic earthquake triggering: TRIGGERED SLIP IN SHEARED GRANULAR GOUGE

    DOE PAGES

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Griffa, Michele; Guyer, Robert A.; ...

    2015-11-19

    A fundamental mystery in earthquake physics is “how can an earthquake be triggered by distant seismic sources?” We use discrete element method simulations of a granular layer, during stick slip, that is subject to transient vibrational excitation to gain further insight into the physics of dynamic earthquake triggering. We also observe delayed triggering of slip in the granular gouge, using Coulomb friction law for grains interaction. We find that at a critical vibrational amplitude (strain) there is an abrupt transition from negligible time-advanced slip (clock advance) to full clock advance; i.e., transient vibration and triggered slip are simultaneous. Moreover, themore » critical strain is of order 10-6, similar to observations in the laboratory and in Earth. The transition is related to frictional weakening of the granular layer due to a dramatic decrease in coordination number and the weakening of the contact force network. Associated with this frictional weakening is a pronounced decrease in the elastic modulus of the layer. The study has important implications for mechanisms of triggered earthquakes and induced seismic events and points out the underlying processes in response of the fault gouge to dynamic transient stresses.« less

  17. Spatial trigger waves: positive feedback gets you a long way

    PubMed Central

    Gelens, Lendert; Anderson, Graham A.; Ferrell, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Trigger waves are a recurring biological phenomenon involved in transmitting information quickly and reliably over large distances. Well-characterized examples include action potentials propagating along the axon of a neuron, calcium waves in various tissues, and mitotic waves in Xenopus eggs. Here we use the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, a simple model inspired by the action potential that is widely used in physics and theoretical biology, to examine different types of trigger waves—spatial switches, pulses, and oscillations—and to show how they arise. PMID:25368427

  18. GPU real-time processing in NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cretaro, P.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Piccini, M.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2017-01-01

    A commercial Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to build a fast Level 0 (L0) trigger system tested parasitically with the TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition systems) of the NA62 experiment at CERN. In particular, the parallel computing power of the GPU is exploited to perform real-time fitting in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector. Direct GPU communication using a FPGA-based board has been used to reduce the data transmission latency. The performance of the system for multi-ring reconstrunction obtained during the NA62 physics run will be presented.

  19. Observations and modeling of dynamically triggered high frequency burst events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Adam David

    2008-10-01

    A series of high-frequency (>20Hz) bursts of energy are observed on strong motion records during the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake Mw7.6. We hypothesized that these bursts originated near the individual stations as small, shallow events that were dynamically triggered by the P- and S-waves generated by the Chi-Chi mainshock. These bursts were originally interpreted as a mainshock source signal by Chen et al., [2006] but our observations of events on strong motion records recorded at stations up to 170 km from the mainshock epicenter is consistent with the local triggering hypothesis. If the bursts originated on the Chi-Chi fault plane, as hypothesized by Chen et al. [2006] based on their analysis of recordings within 20Km from the Chelungpu fault, then they should not be observable at this distance assuming any reasonable value of crustal attenuation. The bursts on all strong motion stations in the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau network (TWCB) were identified using a numerical algorithm approach. This data set was analyzed in the context of local dynamic triggering which resulted in a stress threshold for triggering in the range 0.03 to 0.05 MPa for S-wave triggering and 0.0013 to 0.0033 MPa for P-wave triggering, consistent with prior observations of surface wave triggering. In an attempt to better characterize the nature of high frequency bursts, similar analysis of strong motion records was performed on the records of the 2004 Parkfield, CA earthquake (Mw6) at the USGS UPSAR array. The average array spacing was relatively small compared to the instruments in Taiwan so that further constraint of the location of bursts was possible. Bursts were found to be incoherent even for stations spaced 40m apart, suggesting that they occur in a region approximately 20m from the stations. The triggering threshold was found to be ~0.02Mpa, consistent with the observations from Taiwan. To test the possibility of nucleating unstable slip events in the very shallow crust we

  20. Inflammatory triggers of acute rejection of organ allografts

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Daniel N.; Kreisel, Daniel; Fullerton, James N.; Gilroy, Derek W.; Goldstein, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Solid organ transplantation is a vital therapy for end stage diseases. Decades of research has established that the components of the adaptive immune system are critical for transplant rejection, but the role of the innate immune system in organ transplantation is just emerging. Accumulating evidence indicates that the innate immune system is activated at the time of organ implantation by the release of endogenous inflammatory triggers. This review discusses the nature of these triggers in organ transplantation and also potential mediators that may enhance inflammation resolution after organ implantation. PMID:24517430

  1. Reflex Seizures Triggered by Diaper Change in Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Subki, Ahmed H; Alasmari, Aishah S; Jan, Fadi M; Moria, Feras A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2016-07-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by early onset of multiple types of seizures. We report the first case of reflex seizures triggered by diaper change in a girl at 9 months old and 2 years old with a mutation in the SCN1A gene causing DS. Reflex seizures have been reported in patients with DS provoked by increased body temperature or visual stimulation. The case we report widens the spectrum of triggers causing reflex seizures in children with DS. Cortical hyperexcitability resulting from the genetic defect explains the tendency to experience such reflex seizures.

  2. Multicolor microwave-triggered metal-enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kadir; Malyn, Stuart N; Geddes, Chris D

    2006-10-18

    We describe a novel platform technology for both significantly enhancing and obtaining chemiluminescence signatures "on-demand", subsequently named Microwave-Triggered Metal-Enhanced Chemiluminescence. By combining the use of silver nanoparticles to plasmon enhance chemiluminescence with the use of low power microwaves to localize heating around the nanostructures, we can both optically amplify and trigger chemiluminescence reactions. This approach is a significant advantage over traditional chemiluminescence techniques and methodologies, such as those used for Western Blots, which typically require long periods of time to collect chemiluminescence and offer few possibilities of optically amplifying the signatures.

  3. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  4. Unconsciously Triggered Emotional Conflict by Emotional Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antao; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether emotional conflict and emotional conflict adaptation could be triggered by unconscious emotional information as assessed in a backward-masked affective priming task. Participants were instructed to identify the valence of a face (e.g., happy or sad) preceded by a masked happy or sad face. The results of two experiments revealed the emotional conflict effect but no emotional conflict adaptation effect. This demonstrates that emotional conflict can be triggered by unconsciously presented emotional information, but participants may not adjust their subsequent performance trial-by trial to reduce this conflict. PMID:23409084

  5. Landslides triggered by the 2004 Niigata Ken Chuetsu, Japan, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, D.S.; Jibson, R.; Rathje, E.M.; Kelson, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Niigata Ken Chuetsu earthquake triggered a vast number of lanslides in the epicentral region. Landslide concentrations were among the highest ever measured after an earthquake, and most of the triggered landslides were relatively shallow failures parallel to the steep slope faces. The dense concentration of landslides can be attributed to steep local topography in relatively weak geologic units, adverse hydrologic conditions caused by significant antecedent rainfall, and very strong shaking. Many of the landslides could be discerned from high-resolution satellite imagery acquired immediately after the earthquake. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  6. Event-triggered output feedback control for distributed networked systems.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Magdi S; Sabih, Muhammad; Elshafei, Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of output-feedback communication and control with event-triggered framework in the context of distributed networked control systems. The design problem of the event-triggered output-feedback control is proposed as a linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility problem. The scheme is developed for the distributed system where only partial states are available. In this scheme, a subsystem uses local observers and share its information to its neighbors only when the subsystem's local error exceeds a specified threshold. The developed method is illustrated by using a coupled cart example from the literature.

  7. Multiple trigger fingers in a musician: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Masoud; Hassanpour, Seyed Esmail; Mosavizadeh, Seyed Mehdi

    2010-05-01

    Trigger finger is a common disease which particularly occurs in middle-aged women. We present a rare case of a male musician with six trigger fingers (five in the left hand and one in the right hand). Mostly these fingers had been used for playing the guitar. The patient had previously been treated with local steroid injections in his fingers, however no response was seen. Therefore, we performed a surgical procedure. Four weeks after surgery, the patient could play the guitar without discomfort in his hands.

  8. Investigation of UV Laser Triggered, Nanosecond, Surface Flashover Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W C; Neurath, R; Holmes, C; Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G

    2003-06-03

    Triggered, multi-channel, surface discharges or surface flashover switching have been investigated as a low inductance, low pulse rate switch for conducting large currents. This paper discusses the investigation of UV (355 nm) laser triggered, single channel, low inductance, ns closure and sub-ns jitter switches for applications in switching high dielectric constant, compact pulse forming lines into accelerator loads. The experimental arrangement for evaluating the switch performance and for measuring the high field dielectric constant of the pulse forming lines is presented. Experimental results of delay and jitter measurements versus optical energy on the flashover surface and dc electric field charge.

  9. Design and performance of TOPAZ TPC-trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Enomoto, R.; Tsukada, K.; Ujiie, N.; Shirahashi, A.

    1988-02-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is widely used in the high energy physics experiment. The authors developed the new track finding algorithm by using the TOPAZ-TPC. The logic not only finds the number of tracks, but also calculates their vertex positions. It also takes care of the sector boundary crossing tracks. The proto-type TPC-Trigger has been tested at the in-beam experiment and has shown good performance. The authors achieved the vertex resolution of less than 10cm (r.m.s.) in the beam direction. The improved TPC-Trigger system is being used in October 1987 beam run.

  10. Event triggering in the IceCube data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J. L.; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    In order to detect cosmic ray air showers and neutrinos, the software data acquisition (DAQ) system of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory forms triggers on patterns of Cherenkov light deposition in the detector based on temporal and/or spatial coincidences. Here we describe the algorithms used for triggering, as well as the fast merging algorithm used to combine the time-ordered hit streams from the optical modules. We also present recently implemented and planned modifications of the DAQ that take advantage of our newly upgraded multi-core computer systems at the South Pole.

  11. Using triggered operations to offload collective communication operations.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Brian W.; Hemmert, K. Scott; Underwood, Keith Douglas

    2010-04-01

    Efficient collective operations are a major component of application scalability. Offload of collective operations onto the network interface reduces many of the latencies that are inherent in network communications and, consequently, reduces the time to perform the collective operation. To support offload, it is desirable to expose semantic building blocks that are simple to offload and yet powerful enough to implement a variety of collective algorithms. This paper presents the implementation of barrier and broadcast leveraging triggered operations - a semantic building block for collective offload. Triggered operations are shown to be both semantically powerful and capable of improving performance.

  12. Evaluation of a partnership between primary and secondary care providing an accessible Level 1 sexual health service in the community.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Carmel; Johnston, Jillian; Carey, Fiona

    2014-09-01

    Summary Comprehensive testing for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections in Northern Ireland has traditionally been provided by genitourinary medicine clinics. As patient demand for services has increased while budgets have remained limited, there has been increasing difficulty in accommodating this demand. In May 2013, the newly commissioned specialist Sexual Health service in the South Eastern Trust sought to pilot a new model of care working alongside a GP partnership of 12 practices. A training programme to enable GPs and practice nurses to deliver Level 1 sexual health care to heterosexual patients aged >16 years, in accordance with the standards of BASHH, was developed. A comprehensive care pathway and dedicated community health advisor supported this new model with close liaison between primary and secondary care. Testing for Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, HIV and syphilis was offered. The aims of the pilot were achieved, namely to provide accessible, cost-effective sexual health care within a framework of robust clinical governance. Furthermore, it uncovered a high positivity rate for Chlamydia, especially in young men attending their general practice, and demonstrated a high level of patient satisfaction. Moreover the capacity of secondary care to deliver Levels 2 and 3 services was increased.

  13. Peer review of the Barselina Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.L.; Coles, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Barselina Project is a Swedish-funded, cooperative effort among Lithuania, Russia and Sweden to transfer Western probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to the designers/operators of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The overall goal is to use the PSA as a tool for assessing plant operational safety. The INPP is a two-unit, Former Soviet Union-designed nuclear facility located in Lithuania. The results of this PSA will ultimately be used to identify plant-specific improvements in system design and the conduct of facility operations, allowing improved operational safety. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to perform an independent expert peer review of the Barselina PSA. This report documents the findings of this review. This review, financed with nuclear safety assistance funds through the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), satisfies Task II of the PNL peer review of the Barselina project. The objective is to provide an independent, in-proce ss examination of the Barselina Level 1 PSA of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2. The review consisted of an investigation of the project documentation, interviews, and extensive discussions with the PSA staff during critical stages of the project. PNL assessed the readability, completeness, consistency, validity, and applicability of the PSA. The major aspects explored were its purpose, major assumptions, analysis/modeling, results, and interpretation. It was not within the scope of this review to perform plant walkdowns or to review material other than the PSA documentation.

  14. Epidemiology of traumatic cardiac arrest in patients presenting to emergency department at a level 1 trauma center

    PubMed Central

    Bhoi, Sanjeev; Mishra, Prakash Ranjan; Soni, Kapil Dev; Baitha, Upendra; Sinha, Tej Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is a paucity of literature on prehospital care and epidemiology of traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) in India. This study highlights the profile and characteristics of TCA. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to study epidemiological profile of TCA patients ≥1 year presenting to a level 1 trauma center of India. Results: One thousand sixty-one patients were recruited in the study. The median age (interquartile range) was 32 (23–45) years (male:female ratio of 5.9:1). Asystole (253), pulseless electrical activity (11), ventricular fibrillation (six), and ventricular tachycardia (five) were initial arrest rhythm. Road traffic crash (RTC) (57.16%), fall from height (18.52%), and assault (10.51%) were modes of injury. Prehospital care was provided by police (36.59%), ambulance (10.54%), relatives (45.40%), and bystanders (7.47% cases). Return of spontaneous circulation was seen in 69 patients, of which only three survived to hospital discharge. Conclusion: RTC in young males was a major cause of TCA. Asystole was the most common arrest rhythm. Police personnel were major prehospital service provider. Prehospital care needs improvement including the development of robust TCA registry. PMID:27630459

  15. Triggered tremor in inland region in Japan (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, K.; Chao, K.

    2013-12-01

    Episodic activity of nonvolcanic ambient tremor accompanied by short-term slow slip event observed in Nankai and Cascadia subduction zones reflects stick slip at the transition zone along the plate interface as one of the subduction process. On the other hand, tremor is sometimes activated temporally by surface wave from teleseismic large event. The triggered tremor has the same properties in frequency content and source location as those of ambient tremor. Therefore the detection of triggered tremor suggests the existence of ambient tremor, which might reflect slow slip event. Ambient tremor activity has been detected not only in the subduction zone but also along the strike slip fault system like as San Andreas Fault. Therefore, even in Japan, there is a possibility to detect tremor associated with the active fault system in inland region. Here we tried to search the triggered tremor during propagation of large amplitude surface wave from M8 class teleseismic large events. All Hi-net stations operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention were used in this analysis. We compared the envelope trace for the bandpass filtered seismogram (2-8 Hz) with the long-period surface wave with the passband between 0.02 and 0.05 Hz. The envelope pattern characterized by a periodic enhancement at an interval of about a few 10 s correlating to the surface wave is recognized as triggered tremor. So far, we newly detected triggered tremor in some inland regions in Japan in addition to subduction tremor. In central Hokkaido, the tremor at a depth of around 10-20 km coincides with active seismicity linked to previously known, deep low-frequency microearthquakes related to volcanic activity. In northernmost Hokkaido, where there are no known active faults, volcanoes, or microearthquake seismicity, the triggered tremor is located near the ground surface. It would be possible that the tremor is related to fluid pressure change within a limestone

  16. Final report on LDRD project : advanced optical trigger systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Roose, Lars D.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Mar, Alan; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas M.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Montano, Victoria A.

    2008-09-01

    Advanced optically-activated solid-state electrical switch development at Sandia has demonstrated multi-kA/kV switching and the path for scalability to even higher current/power. Realization of this potential requires development of new optical sources/switches based on key Sandia photonic device technologies: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices. The key to increasing the switching capacity of PCSS devices to 5kV/5kA and higher is to distribute the current in multiple parallel line filaments triggered by an array of high-brightness line-shaped illuminators. Commercial mechanically-stacked edge-emitting lasers have been used to trigger multiple filaments, but they are difficult to scale and manufacture with the required uniformity. In VCSEL arrays, adjacent lasers utilize identical semiconductor material and are lithographically patterned to the required dimensions. We have demonstrated multiple-line filament triggering using VCSEL arrays to approximate line generation. These arrays of uncoupled circular-aperture VCSELs have fill factors ranging from 2% to 30%. Using these arrays, we have developed a better understanding of the illumination requirements for stable triggering of multiple-filament PCSS devices. Photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices offer advantages of high voltage operation (multi-kV), optical isolation, triggering with laser pulses that cannot occur accidentally in nature, low cost, high speed, small size, and radiation hardness. PCSS devices are candidates for an assortment of potential applications that require multi-kA switching of current. The key to increasing the switching capacity of PCSS devices to 5kV/5kA and higher is to distribute the current in multiple parallel line filaments triggered by an array of high-brightness line-shaped illuminators. Commercial mechanically-stacked edge-emitting lasers have been demonstrated to trigger multiple filaments, but they

  17. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California, home of…

  18. The peptide growth factor, phytosulfokine, attenuates pattern-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Daisuke; Tsuda, Kenichi; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2012-07-01

    Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Although immune responses may provide good protection of plants from pathogen attack, excessive immune responses have negative impacts on plant growth and development. Thus, a good balance between positive and negative effects on the immune signaling network is important for plant fitness. However, little information is known about the molecular mechanisms that are involved in attenuation of PTI. Here, we describe a growth-promoting peptide hormone, phytosulfokine (PSK), as attenuating PTI signaling in Arabidopsis. This research was motivated by the observation that expression of the PSK Receptor 1 (PSKR1) gene was induced by MAMP treatment. Plants homozygous for pskr1 T-DNA insertions showed enhanced defense gene expression and seedling growth inhibition triggered by MAMPs. The pskr1 plants also showed enhanced PTI against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These results indicate that the PSKR-mediated signaling attenuates immune responses. Tyrosyl protein sulfotransferase (TPST) is an enzyme required for production of the mature sulfated PSK. Like pskr1 mutants, a tpst T-DNA insertion line exhibited enhanced MAMP-triggered seedling growth inhibition, which was suppressed by exogenous application of PSK. Thus, PSK signaling mediated by PSKR1 attenuates PTI but stimulates growth.

  19. Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian; Stock, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    Exfoliation of rock deteriorates cliffs through the formation and subsequent opening of fractures, which in turn can lead to potentially hazardous rockfalls. Although a number of mechanisms are known to trigger rockfalls, many rockfalls occur during periods when likely triggers such as precipitation, seismic activity and freezing conditions are absent. It has been suggested that these enigmatic rockfalls may occur due to solar heating of rock surfaces, which can cause outward expansion. Here we use data from 3.5 years of field monitoring of an exfoliating granite cliff in Yosemite National Park in California, USA, to assess the magnitude and temporal pattern of thermally induced rock deformation. From a thermodynamic analysis, we find that daily, seasonal and annual temperature variations are sufficient to drive cyclic and cumulative opening of fractures. Application of fracture theory suggests that these changes can lead to further fracture propagation and the consequent detachment of rock. Our data indicate that the warmest times of the day and year are particularly conducive to triggering rockfalls, and that cyclic thermal forcing may enhance the efficacy of other, more typical rockfall triggers.

  20. Rockfall triggering by cyclic thermal stressing of exfoliation fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.

    2016-05-01

    Exfoliation of rock deteriorates cliffs through the formation and subsequent opening of fractures, which in turn can lead to potentially hazardous rockfalls. Although a number of mechanisms are known to trigger rockfalls, many rockfalls occur during periods when likely triggers such as precipitation, seismic activity and freezing conditions are absent. It has been suggested that these enigmatic rockfalls may occur due to solar heating of rock surfaces, which can cause outward expansion. Here we use data from 3.5 years of field monitoring of an exfoliating granite cliff in Yosemite National Park in California, USA, to assess the magnitude and temporal pattern of thermally induced rock deformation. From a thermodynamic analysis, we find that daily, seasonal and annual temperature variations are sufficient to drive cyclic and cumulative opening of fractures. Application of fracture theory suggests that these changes can lead to further fracture propagation and the consequent detachment of rock. Our data indicate that the warmest times of the day and year are particularly conducive to triggering rockfalls, and that cyclic thermal forcing may enhance the efficacy of other, more typical rockfall triggers.