Science.gov

Sample records for levelized life-cycle costs

  1. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    B. C. Rogers; P. L. Walter; R. D. Baird

    1999-08-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation.

  2. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  3. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case.

  4. Equipment life cycle costs minimised.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Sharon

    2004-11-01

    With the cost of energy now a major component of building operating costs, NHS Trust managers increasingly focus on estimating total life cycle costs of equipment such as boiler room and heat, steam and incineration plant. "Life cycle costing" is a broad term and encompasses a wide range of techniques that take into account both initial and future costs as well as the savings of an investment over a period of time.

  5. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal.

  6. Life cycle cost report of VHLW cask

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This document, the Life Cycle Cost Report (LCCR) for the VHLW Cask, presents the life cycle costs for acquiring, using, and disposing of the VHLW casks. The VHLW cask consists of a ductile iron cask body, called the shielding insert, which is used for storage and transportation, and ultimately for disposal of Defense High Level Waste which has been vitrified and placed into VHLW canisters. Each ductile iron VHLW shielding insert holds one VHLW canister. For transportation, the shielding insert is placed into a containment overpack. The VHLW cask as configured for transportation is a legal weight truck cask which will be licensed by NRC. The purpose of this LCCR is to present the development of the life cycle costs for using the VHLW cask to transport VHLW canisters from the generating sites to a disposal site. Life cycle costs include the cost of acquiring, operating, maintaining, and ultimately dispositioning the VHLW cask and its associated hardware. This report summarizes costs associated with transportation of the VHLW casks. Costs are developed on the basis of expected usage, anticipated source and destination locations, and expected quantities of VHLW which must be transported. DOE overhead costs, such as the costs associated with source and destination facility handling of the VHLW, are not included. Also not included are costs exclusive to storage or disposal of the VHLW waste.

  7. Comparison of Life Cycle Costs for LLRW Management in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, R. D.; Rogers, B. C.; Chau, N.; Kerr, Thomas A

    1999-08-01

    This report documents a comparison of life-cycle costs of an assured isolation facility in Texas versus the life-cycle costs for a traditional belowground low-level radioactive waste disposal facility designed for the proposed site near Sierra Blanca, Texas.

  8. Life cycle cost based program decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, James S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: background (space propulsion facility assessment team final report); changes (Advanced Launch System, National Aerospace Plane, and space exploration initiative); life cycle cost analysis rationale; and recommendation to panel.

  9. Life-cycle cost analysis task summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1980-01-01

    The DSN life cycle cost (LCC) analysis methodology was completed. The LCC analysis methodology goals and objectives are summarized, as well as the issues covered by the methodology, its expected use, and its long range implications.

  10. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions, consumptive water use and levelized costs of unconventional oil in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan

    Conventional petroleum production in many countries that supply U.S. crude oil as well as domestic production has declined in recent years. Along with instability in the world oil market, this has stimulated the discussion of developing unconventional oil production, e.g., oil sands and oil shale. Expanding the U.S. energy mix to include oil sands and oil shale may be an important component in diversifying and securing the U.S. energy supply. At the same time, life cycle GHG emissions of these energy sources and consumptive water use are a concern. In this study, consumptive water use includes not only fresh water use but entire consumptive use including brackish water and seawater. The goal of this study is to determine the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and consumptive water use of synthetic crude oil (SCO) derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale to be compared with U.S. domestic crude oil, U.S. imported crude oil, and coal-to-liquid (CTL). Levelized costs of SCO derived from Canadian oil sands and U.S. oil shale were also estimated. The results of this study suggest that CTL with no carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and current electricity grid mix is the worst while crude oil imported from United Kingdom is the best in GHG emissions. The life cycle GHG emissions of oil shale surface mining, oil shale in-situ process, oil sands surface mining, and oil sands in-situ process are 43% to 62%, 13% to 32%, 5% to 22%, and 11% to 13% higher than those of U.S. domestic crude oil. Oil shale in-situ process has the largest consumptive water use among alternative fuels, evaluated due to consumptive water use in electricity generation. Life cycle consumptive water use of oil sands in-situ process is the lowest. Specifically, fresh water consumption in the production processes is the most concern given its scarcity. However, disaggregated data on fresh water consumption in the total water consumption of each fuel production process is not available

  11. Levelized life-cycle costs for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Rood, P.L.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Rollett, H.

    1983-01-01

    Technology characterizations and life-cycle costs were obtained for four residue-collection systems and four gas-production systems. All costs are in constant 1981 dollars. The residue-collection systems were cornstover collection, wheat-straw collection, soybean-residue collection, and wood chips from forest residue. The life-cycle costs ranged from $19/ton for cornstover collection to $56/ton for wood chips from forest residues. The gas-production systems were low-Btu gas from a farm-size gasifier, solar flash pyrolysis of biomass, methane from seaweed farms, and hydrogen production from bacteria. Life-cycle costs ranged from $3.3/10/sup 6/ Btu for solar flash pyrolysis of biomass to $9.6/10/sup 6/ Btu for hydrogen from bacteria. Sensitivity studies were also performed for each system. The sensitivity studies indicated that fertilizer replacement costs were the dominate costs for the farm-residue collection, while residue yield was most important for the wood residue. Feedstock costs were most important for the flash pyrolysis. Yields and capital costs are most important for the seaweed farm and the hydrogen from bacteria system.

  12. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  13. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  14. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  15. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  16. 10 CFR 436.19 - Life cycle costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle costs. 436.19 Section 436.19 Energy DEPARTMENT... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.19 Life cycle costs. Life cycle costs are the sum of the... (d) Energy and/or water costs....

  17. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  18. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  19. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  20. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  1. 10 CFR 436.12 - Life cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle cost methodology. 436.12 Section 436.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.12 Life cycle cost methodology. The life cycle cost...

  2. Life Cycle Costing in Government Procurement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    majority of this work, treatment is also given to state procurement policies . Primary Sources: Decisions of the Comptroller General Federal...decisions has become clear to a number of procurement policy makers.2 While still quite limited, the consideration of post-acquisition costs is...make no mention of life cycle Ii costing. However, the concepts and policies dictated by 29 _ Comp. Gen. Report B-178214, May 21, 1973, where the

  3. Optimization of life cycle management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1994-12-31

    As can be seen from the case studies, a LCM program needs to address and integrate, in the decision process, technical, political, licensing, remaining plant life, component replacement cycles, and financial issues. As part of the LCM evaluations, existing plant programs, ongoing replacement projects, short and long-term operation and maintenance issues, and life extension strategies must be considered. The development of the LCM evaluations and the cost benefit analysis identifies critical technical and life cycle cost parameters. These {open_quotes}discoveries{close_quotes} result from the detailed and effective use of a consistent, quantifiable, and well documented methodology. The systematic development and implementation of a plant-wide LCM program provides for an integrated and structured process that leads to the most practical and effective recommendations. Through the implementation of these recommendations and cost effective decisions, the overall power production costs can be controlled and ultimately lowered.

  4. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  5. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  6. Automation life-cycle cost model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gathmann, Thomas P.; Reeves, Arlinda J.; Cline, Rick; Henrion, Max; Ruokangas, Corinne

    1992-01-01

    The problem domain being addressed by this contractual effort can be summarized by the following list: Automation and Robotics (A&R) technologies appear to be viable alternatives to current, manual operations; Life-cycle cost models are typically judged with suspicion due to implicit assumptions and little associated documentation; and Uncertainty is a reality for increasingly complex problems and few models explicitly account for its affect on the solution space. The objectives for this effort range from the near-term (1-2 years) to far-term (3-5 years). In the near-term, the envisioned capabilities of the modeling tool are annotated. In addition, a framework is defined and developed in the Decision Modelling System (DEMOS) environment. Our approach is summarized as follows: Assess desirable capabilities (structure into near- and far-term); Identify useful existing models/data; Identify parameters for utility analysis; Define tool framework; Encode scenario thread for model validation; and Provide transition path for tool development. This report contains all relevant, technical progress made on this contractual effort.

  7. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  8. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  9. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing....

  10. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing....

  11. 10 CFR 433.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 433.8 Section 433.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.8 Life-cycle costing. Each Federal agency shall determine...

  12. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  13. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  14. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  15. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  16. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle...

  17. Research requirements to reduce civil helicopter life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewitt, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of the high cost of helicopter development, production, operation, and maintenance is defined and the cost drivers are identified. Helicopter life cycle costs would decrease by about 17 percent if currently available technology were applied. With advanced technology, a reduction of about 30 percent in helicopter life cycle costs is projected. Technological and managerial deficiencies which contribute to high costs are examined, basic research and development projects which can reduce costs include methods for reduced fuel consumption; improved turbine engines; airframe and engine production methods; safety; rotor systems; and advanced transmission systems.

  18. The life cycle cost of integrated logistic support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florio, U. G.

    Scheduling of preventive maintenance within the general context of the life cycle cost of integrated logistic support is discussed. The principal categories of support cost are considered and a procedure of optimizing the total cost for the evaluation of a fundamental logistic parameters is developed using Markov models. The Markov approach allows the examination of the functional relationships between system reliability, maintenance policies and the costs of integrated logistic support. The life cycle cost of the logistic support is optimized, and the results permit a correct cost/efficiency scaling of the support.

  19. Early Life Cycle Cost Trade Study By Parametric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehm, Roy; Patrakis, Stan

    1982-06-01

    Unit production cost and life cycle cost tradestudy considerations are basic to the affordability of a new product. A major portion of the life cycle cost of a product, including production cost, are found to result from decisions made early in the planning phases of a program. Computerized parametric cost modeling generates cost estimates using the information that is available before the developing of engineering detail. The RCA PRICE program, available to all potential users, is used to illustrate the input requirements and steps necessary for parametric estimating of costs for development, production and support in the life cycle of a product. A laser rangefinder equipment is used as a product example to show the utility of this analysis.

  20. Life cycle costs for chemical process pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Urwin, B.; Blong, R.; Jamieson, C.; Erickson, B.

    1998-01-01

    Though construction and startup costs are always a concern, proper investment in equipment and installation will save money down the line. This is particularly important for heavily used items, such as centrifugal pumps, one of the workhouses of the chemical process industries (CPI). By properly sizing and installing a centrifugal pump, the life and efficiency of the pump can be increased. At the same time, maintenance costs can be reduced. When considering a new pump, there are several areas that require attention. The first is the baseplate design. The impeller is another area of concern. The seal chamber, the third area of importance, must be designed for proper heat dissipation and lubrication of seal faces. Lastly, the power end must be considered. Optimum bearing life, effective oil cooling and minimum shaft deflection are all vital. The paper discusses installation costs, operating cost, maintenance cost, seal environment, and extended bearing life.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation by computer for life-cycle costing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gralow, F. H.; Larson, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Prediction of behavior and support requirements during the entire life cycle of a system enables accurate cost estimates by using the Monte Carlo simulation by computer. The system reduces the ultimate cost to the procuring agency because it takes into consideration the costs of initial procurement, operation, and maintenance.

  2. Electric-bus life-cycle cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A detailed study of the Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District (MTD) electric-bus program was conducted and resulted in a comprehensive set of cost data. These costs are compared with the life cycle costs of diesel buses. Direct comparisons of the life cycle costs of battery-electric buses and of diesel-fueled buses were not found to be meaningful without considering the environmental costs and benefits associated with both vehicle types; some of these factors are discussed in the study. The duty cycles most appropriate to the two bus types are not generally comparable. Electric shuttle-bus life cycle costs with flooded-cell lead-acid battery are 108% of the costs attributable to a diesel shuttle. Costs with the maintenance-free lead-acid and flooded-cell nickel-cadmium batteries are 113% and 117% relative to diesel, respectively. The monetary value attributed to emissions avoided by the use of electric buses depends on the local air quality situation. Labor costs are the major component of electric-bus life cycle costs, incremental advances in the enabling technologies will bring electric-bus costs close to those of diesel-fueled buses. Advances in battery technology will widen the range of duty cycles appropriate to electric buses.

  3. Constellation Program Life-cycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andy; Rose, Heidi; Wood, James

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Program (CxP) is NASA's effort to replace the Space Shuttle, return humans to the moon, and prepare for a human mission to Mars. The major elements of the Constellation Lunar sortie design reference mission architecture are shown. Unlike the Apollo Program of the 1960's, affordability is a major concern of United States policy makers and NASA management. To measure Constellation affordability, a total ownership cost life-cycle parametric cost estimating capability is required. This capability is being developed by the Constellation Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Directorate, and is called the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM). The requirements for LCAM are based on the need to have a parametric estimating capability in order to do top-level program analysis, evaluate design alternatives, and explore options for future systems. By estimating the total cost of ownership within the context of the planned Constellation budget, LCAM can provide Program and NASA management with the cost data necessary to identify the most affordable alternatives. LCAM is also a key component of the Integrated Program Model (IPM), an SE&I developed capability that combines parametric sizing tools with cost, schedule, and risk models to perform program analysis. LCAM is used in the generation of cost estimates for system level trades and analyses. It draws upon the legacy of previous architecture level cost models, such as the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Architecture Cost Model (ARCOM) developed for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), and ATLAS. LCAM is used to support requirements and design trade studies by calculating changes in cost relative to a baseline option cost. Estimated costs are generally low fidelity to accommodate available input data and available cost estimating relationships (CERs). LCAM is capable of interfacing with the Integrated Program Model to provide the cost estimating capability for that suite of tools.

  4. Life Cycle Costing in a Dynamic Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    of the probability density functions of the component random variables (97:67]. 3 Springer (97] uses the Fourier transform or multivariate...Alabama: Cost" AnalIsis Division, Comtroller and Director of Programs* US Army Missile Command, February 1970 (AD-718862). 80. Naylor, Thomas H., Joseph

  5. Optimizing conceptual aircraft designs for minimum life cycle cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Vicki S.

    1989-01-01

    A life cycle cost (LCC) module has been added to the FLight Optimization System (FLOPS), allowing the additional optimization variables of life cycle cost, direct operating cost, and acquisition cost. Extensive use of the methodology on short-, medium-, and medium-to-long range aircraft has demonstrated that the system works well. Results from the study show that optimization parameter has a definite effect on the aircraft, and that optimizing an aircraft for minimum LCC results in a different airplane than when optimizing for minimum take-off gross weight (TOGW), fuel burned, direct operation cost (DOC), or acquisition cost. Additionally, the economic assumptions can have a strong impact on the configurations optimized for minimum LCC or DOC. Also, results show that advanced technology can be worthwhile, even if it results in higher manufacturing and operating costs. Examining the number of engines a configuration should have demonstrated a real payoff of including life cycle cost in the conceptual design process: the minimum TOGW of fuel aircraft did not always have the lowest life cycle cost when considering the number of engines.

  6. An Interactive Life Cycle Cost Forecasting Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    false.) then 0526 if (jaycd .gt. ((m-l)*n) .and. jaycd .1t. (m*n+l)) then 0527 got = .true. 0528 else 0529 m= m + 1 0530 11 11 + 1 0531 endif 0532 go...relationship. 0718 0719 print* 87 0720 print*,’Enter the number of of cost drivers in the CER.’ 0721 print*,’(ie, the number of SLOPE parameters

  7. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... present value. The format for displaying life-cycle costs shall be a savings-to-investment ratio. (b) An...-investment ratio is the ratio of the present value of net cost savings attributable to an energy conservation measure to the present value of the net increase in investment, maintenance and operating, and...

  8. New Approaches in Reuseable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  9. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  10. Improving Life-Cycle Cost Management of Spacecraft Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    This presentation will explore the results of a recent NASA Life-Cycle Cost study and how project managers can use the findings and recommendations to improve planning and coordination early in the formulation cycle and avoid common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns. The typical NASA space science mission will exceed both the initial estimated and the confirmed life-cycle costs by the end of the mission. In a fixed-budget environment, these overruns translate to delays in starting or launching future missions, or in the worst case can lead to cancelled missions. Some of these overruns are due to issues outside the control of the project; others are due to the unpredictable problems (unknown unknowns) that can affect any development project. However, a recent study of life-cycle cost growth by the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office identified a number of areas that are within the scope of project management to address. The study also found that the majority of the underlying causes for cost overruns are embedded in the project approach during the formulation and early design phases, but the actual impacts typically are not experienced until late in the project life cycle. Thus, project management focus in key areas such as integrated schedule development, management structure and contractor communications processes, heritage and technology assumptions, and operations planning, can be used to validate initial cost assumptions and set in place management processes to avoid the common pitfalls resulting in cost overruns.

  11. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  12. Quantifying Cost Risk Early in the Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mar

    2004-11-04

    A new method for analyzing life cycle cost risk on large programs is presented that responds to an increased emphasis on improving sustainability for long-term programs. This method provides better long-term risk assessment and risk management techniques. It combines standard Monte Carlo analysis of risk drivers and a new data-driven method developed by the BMDO. The approach permits quantification of risks throughout the entire life cycle without resorting to difficult to support subjective methods. The BMDO methodology is shown to be relatively straightforward to apply to a specific component or process within a project using standard technical risk assessment methods. The total impact on system is obtained using the program WBS, which allows for the capture of correlated risks shared by multiple WBS items. Once the correlations and individual component risks are captured, a Monte Carlo simulation can be run using a modeling tool such as ANALYTICA to produce the overall life cycle cost risk.

  13. Life-cycle costs of high-performance cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R.; Burger, D.; Reiter, L.

    1985-01-01

    A life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells was presented. Although high efficiency cells produce more power, they also cost more to make and are more susceptible to array hot-spot heating. Three different computer analysis programs were used: SAMICS (solar array manufacturing industry costing standards), PVARRAY (an array failure mode/degradation simulator), and LCP (lifetime cost and performance). The high efficiency cell modules were found to be more economical in this study, but parallel redundancy is recommended.

  14. Life cycle cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents progress to date by the University of Dayton on the development of a life cycle cost model for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of a life cycle cost model. Cost categories are initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. The focus will be on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the life cycle costing model include continual support and upgrade of the R&M model. The primary result of the completed research will be a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely cost analysis in support of the conceptual design activities. The major objectives of this research are: to obtain and to develop improved methods for estimating manpower, spares, software and hardware costs, facilities costs, and other cost categories as identified by NASA personnel; to construct a life cycle cost model of a space transportation system for budget exercises and performance-cost trade-off analysis during the conceptual and development stages; to continue to support modifications and enhancements to the R&M model; and to continue to assist in the development of a simulation model to provide an integrated view of the operations and support of the proposed system.

  15. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8...

  16. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8...

  17. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8...

  18. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8...

  19. 10 CFR 435.8 - Life-cycle costing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle costing. 435.8 Section 435.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.8...

  20. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for energy conservation measures to shift demand or to use renewable energy resources, the numerator... respect to energy conservation measures to shift demand or to use renewable energy resources, the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64...

  1. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for energy conservation measures to shift demand or to use renewable energy resources, the numerator... respect to energy conservation measures to shift demand or to use renewable energy resources, the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64...

  2. Army Manpower Cost System (AMCOS): Concept and Design for a Life Cycle Cost Model for Active Army Manpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Our view of life cycle cost analysis means that a life cycle cost model for manpower must not be, simply, an exercise in historical cost accounting...authorized levels of organization (ALO). Often, one of the more difficult problems in cost estimation exercises during the POM process is obtaining a rapid...certain types of models that have been suggested in the past. For example, the "Minimum Flow Model" of Mannle and Risser (1982), which provides the

  3. Life-Cycle-Cost Evaluation on Degradation Diagnosis for Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakage, Toyonari; Wu, Kai; Kato, Takeyoshi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Degradation diagnosis is aimed at preventing unexpected failure and extending the service life of electric power apparatuses. It is, however, necessary to investigate the economic feasibility of degradation diagnosis, because the life-cycle cost of cable maintenance changes with the diagnostic parameters such as diagnosis cost, diagnosis interval and replacement criterion. In this paper, based on the actual data of water-tree degradation, we proposed a method of life-cycle-cost evaluation and evaluated the economic effect of degradation diagnosis. We also discussed the economic feasibility of practical nondestructive diagnosis of 6.6 kV XLPE cable, i. e. DC leakage current measurement and residual charge measurement, and compared the economic effects of these methods. As a result, the residual charge measurement is economically feasible and has higher effectiveness than the DC leakage current measurement.

  4. Error Cost Escalation Through the Project Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.; Dabney, Jim; Dick, Brandon; Haskins, Bill; Lovell, Randy; Moroney, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the costs to fix errors increase as the project matures, but how fast do those costs build? A study was performed to determine the relative cost of fixing errors discovered during various phases of a project life cycle. This study used three approaches to determine the relative costs: the bottom-up cost method, the total cost breakdown method, and the top-down hypothetical project method. The approaches and results described in this paper presume development of a hardware/software system having project characteristics similar to those used in the development of a large, complex spacecraft, a military aircraft, or a small communications satellite. The results show the degree to which costs escalate, as errors are discovered and fixed at later and later phases in the project life cycle. If the cost of fixing a requirements error discovered during the requirements phase is defined to be 1 unit, the cost to fix that error if found during the design phase increases to 3 - 8 units; at the manufacturing/build phase, the cost to fix the error is 7 - 16 units; at the integration and test phase, the cost to fix the error becomes 21 - 78 units; and at the operations phase, the cost to fix the requirements error ranged from 29 units to more than 1500 units

  5. Full cost accounting for the life cycle of coal.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Paul R; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Eckerle, Kevin; Hendryx, Michael; Stout Iii, Benjamin M; Heinberg, Richard; Clapp, Richard W; May, Beverly; Reinhart, Nancy L; Ahern, Melissa M; Doshi, Samir K; Glustrom, Leslie

    2011-02-01

    Each stage in the life cycle of coal-extraction, transport, processing, and combustion-generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered "externalities." We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh generated, making wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive. We focus on Appalachia, though coal is mined in other regions of the United States and is burned throughout the world.

  6. A Monte Carlo Risk Analysis of Life Cycle Cost Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    pre- sented of the prior research which has been conducted in this area by the RAND Corporation and APNC Research Corporation. Chapter 3 discusses in...prior research in this area is presented. The purpose of the discussion is to compare the assumptions of the differ- ent approaches and demonstrate...Uncertainty in Life Cycle Cost The primary source of prior research in this area of study is a working paper by the Rand Corporation (62). The Rand

  7. Life Cycle Costs of Library Collections: Creation of Effective Performance and Cost Metrics for Library Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Stephen R.; Connaway, Lynn Silipigni; Brigham, Keith H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the life cycle costs of acquiring and maintaining an academic research library and develops a methodology to determine the life cycle costs of collections based on statistical data collected by the Association of Research Libraries. Results indicate the cost structure of a research library is largely driven by its monograph collection.…

  8. Estimating the Life Cycle Cost of Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    A space system's Life Cycle Cost (LCC) includes design and development, launch and emplacement, and operations and maintenance. Each of these cost factors is usually estimated separately. NASA uses three different parametric models for the design and development cost of crewed space systems; the commercial PRICE-H space hardware cost model, the NASA-Air Force Cost Model (NAFCOM), and the Advanced Missions Cost Model (AMCM). System mass is an important parameter in all three models. System mass also determines the launch and emplacement cost, which directly depends on the cost per kilogram to launch mass to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The launch and emplacement cost is the cost to launch to LEO the system itself and also the rockets, propellant, and lander needed to emplace it. The ratio of the total launch mass to payload mass depends on the mission scenario and destination. The operations and maintenance costs include any material and spares provided, the ground control crew, and sustaining engineering. The Mission Operations Cost Model (MOCM) estimates these costs as a percentage of the system development cost per year.

  9. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  10. Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

  11. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  12. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  13. Maritime vessel obsolescence, life cycle cost and design service life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, O.; Ilie, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    Maritime vessels have long service life and great costs of building, manning, operating, maintaining and repairing throughout their life. Major actions are needed to repair, renovate, sometime built or even replace those scrapped when technology or demand changes determine obsolescence. It is regarded as a concern throughout vessel's entire life cycle and reflects changes in expectation regarding performances in functioning, safety and environmental effects. While service live may differ from physical lives, expectations about physical lives is the main factors that determines design service life. Performance and failure are illustrated conceptually and represented in a simplified form considering the evolution of vessels parameters during its service life. In the proposed methodology an accumulated vessel lifecycle cost is analyzed and obsolescence is characterized from ship's design, performances, maintenance and management parameters point of view. Romanian ports feeding Black Sea are investigated in order to provide comprehensive information on: number and types of vessels, transport capacity and life cycle length. Recommendations are to be made in order to insure a best practice in lifecycle management in order to reduce costs.

  14. Going with the flow: Life cycle costing for industrial pumpingsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Tutterow, Vestal; Hovstadius, Gunnar; McKane, Aimee

    2002-07-08

    Industries worldwide depend upon pumping systems for theirdaily operation. These systems account for nearly 20 percent of theworld's industrial electrical energy demand and range from 25-50 percentof the energy usage in certain industrial plant operations. Purchasedecisions for a pump and its related system components are typicallybased upon a low bid, rather than the cost to operate the system over itslifetime. Additionally, plant facilities personnel are typically focussedon maintaining existing pumping system reliability rather than optimizingthe systems for best energy efficiency. To ensure the lowest energy andmaintenance costs, equipment life, and other benefits, the systemcomponents must be carefully matched to each other, and remain sothroughout their working lives. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis is a toolthat can help companies minimize costs and maximize energy efficiency formany types of systems, including pumping systems. Increasing industryawareness of the total cost of pumping system ownership through lifecycle cost analysis is a goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Thispaper will discuss what DOE and its industry partners are doing to createthis awareness. A guide book, Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCCAnalysis for Pumping Systems, developed by the Hydraulic Institute (HI)and Europump (two pump manufacturer trade associations) with DOEinvolvement, will be overviewed. This guide book is the result of thediligent efforts of many members of both associations, and has beenreviewed by a group of industrial end-users. The HI/Europump Guideprovides detailed guidance on the design and maintenance of pumpingsystems to minimize the cost of ownership, as well as LCC analysis. DOE,Hydraulic Institute, and other organizations' efforts to promote LCCanalysis, such as pump manufacturers adopting LCC analysis as a marketingstrategy, will be highlighted and a relevant case studyprovided.

  15. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  16. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42... PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.42 Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b)...

  17. Method for Controlling Space Transportation System Life Cycle Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.; Bartine, David E.

    2006-01-01

    A structured, disciplined methodology is required to control major cost-influencing metrics of space transportation systems during design and continuing through the test and operations phases. This paper proposes controlling key space system design metrics that specifically influence life cycle costs. These are inclusive of flight and ground operations, test, and manufacturing and infrastructure. The proposed technique builds on today's configuration and mass properties control techniques and takes on all the characteristics of a classical control system. While the paper does not lay out a complete math model, key elements of the proposed methodology are explored and explained with both historical and contemporary examples. Finally, the paper encourages modular design approaches and technology investments compatible with the proposed method.

  18. Life cycle cost assessment of future low heat rejection engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Adiabatic Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) represents a project which has the objective to accelerate the development of highway truck engines with advanced technology aimed at reduced fuel consumption. The project comprises three steps, including the synthesis of a number of engine candidate designs, the coupling of each with a number of systems for utilizing exhaust gas energy, and the evaluation of each combination in terms of desirability. Particular attention is given to the employed evaluation method and the development of this method. The objective of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) evaluation in the ADECD program was to select the best from among 42 different low heat rejection engine (LHRE)/exhaust energy recovery system configurations. The LCC model is discussed along with a maintenance cost model, the evaluation strategy, the selection of parameter ranges, and a full factorial analysis.

  19. Influencing Factors on Life-Cycle Cost of Mooring Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Wataru; Yokota, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Katsufumi; Furuya, Koichi; Kato, Hirotoshi

    It is required that infrastructure should satisfy performance requirement through their service life based on an appropriate life cycle management strategy. Now adays, to determine the maintenance strategy and to consider the appropriate timing and method of intervention, the life-cycle cost (LCC) has been widely used as one of the decision-making indices. However, many factors influence on the estimation of LCC and they have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, the authors have made analytical investigation to quantify the influence of important factors on the results of LCC estimation. Four kinds of mooring facilities are focused; two of them are open-type wharves and the other two are sheet pile type quay walls having different design water depths. Prediction of deterioration progress and performance degradation is made by using the Markov models. The influences of structural sizes, transition probability in the Markov model, design service life, periodic inspection and methods of intervention on LCC were investigated. The influence of those factors has been discussed based on the calculated results of LCC by creating the maintenance scenarios for model mooring facilities.

  20. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicles, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The design, performance, and programmatic definition of shuttle derived launch vehicles (SDLV) established by two different contractors were assessed and the relative life cycle costs of space transportation systems using the shuttle alone were compared with costs for a mix of shuttles and SDLV's. The ground rules and assumptions used in the evaluation are summarized and the work breakdown structure is included. Approaches used in deriving SDLV costs, including calibration factors and historical data are described. Both SDLV cost estimates and SDLV/STS cost comparisons are summarized. Standard formats are used to report comprehensive SDLV life cycle estimates. Hardware cost estimates (below subsystem level) obtained using the RCA PRICE 84 cost model are included along with other supporting data.

  1. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  2. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  3. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  4. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42 Section 436.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND...

  5. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42 Section 436.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND...

  6. 10 CFR 436.42 - Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ENERGY STAR qualified and FEMP designated products may be assumed to be life-cycle cost-effective. (b) In... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaluation of Life-Cycle Cost Effectiveness. 436.42 Section 436.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND...

  7. Comparison of algae cultivation methods for bioenergy production using a combined life cycle assessment and life cycle costing approach.

    PubMed

    Resurreccion, Eleazer P; Colosi, Lisa M; White, Mark A; Clarens, Andres F

    2012-12-01

    Algae are an attractive energy source, but important questions still exist about the sustainability of this technology on a large scale. Two particularly important questions concern the method of cultivation and the type of algae to be used. This present study combines elements of life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) to evaluate open pond (OP) systems and horizontal tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) for the cultivation of freshwater (FW) or brackish-to-saline water (BSW) algae. Based on the LCA, OPs have lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than PBRs; e.g., 32% less energy use for construction and operation. According to the LCC, all four systems are currently financially unattractive investments, though OPs are less so than PBRs. BSW species deliver better energy and GHG performance and higher profitability than FW species in both OPs and PBRs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that improvements in critical cultivation parameters (e.g., CO(2) utilization efficiency or algae lipid content), conversion parameters (e.g., anaerobic digestion efficiency), and market factors (e.g., costs of CO(2) and electricity, or sale prices for algae biodiesel) could alter these results.

  8. Using Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Life Cycle Cost (LCC), and Other Metrics to Supplement Equivalent System Mass (ESM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The ALS project plan goals are reducing cost, improving performance, and achieving flight readiness. ALS selects projects to advance the mission readiness of low cost, high performance technologies. The role of metrics is to help select good projects and report progress. The Equivalent Mass (EM) of a system is the sum of the estimated mass of the hardware, of its required materials and spares, and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system needed to support the hardware in space. EM is the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support a system. EM is directly proportional to the launch cost.

  9. Life Cycle Navy Enlisted Billet Costs--FY1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    personnel by ratings and pay grades for 1-, 5-, 10 -, 15-, and 20-year periods. The figures in the multiple-year (5, 10 , 15, and 20) computations are...based on the current discount rate of 10 percent. This information will enable manpower and hardware managers and engineers to predict the life cycle...illustrate, if the user decides that he needed one OS E- 4 and that the system will be operational for 10 years, he would locate that pay grade in the

  10. Uncertainty quantification metrics for whole product life cycle cost estimates in aerospace innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwabe, O.; Shehab, E.; Erkoyuncu, J.

    2015-08-01

    The lack of defensible methods for quantifying cost estimate uncertainty over the whole product life cycle of aerospace innovations such as propulsion systems or airframes poses a significant challenge to the creation of accurate and defensible cost estimates. Based on the axiomatic definition of uncertainty as the actual prediction error of the cost estimate, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of metrics used for the uncertainty quantification of cost estimates based on a literature review, an evaluation of publicly funded projects such as part of the CORDIS or Horizon 2020 programs, and an analysis of established approaches used by organizations such NASA, the U.S. Department of Defence, the ESA, and various commercial companies. The metrics are categorized based on their foundational character (foundations), their use in practice (state-of-practice), their availability for practice (state-of-art) and those suggested for future exploration (state-of-future). Insights gained were that a variety of uncertainty quantification metrics exist whose suitability depends on the volatility of available relevant information, as defined by technical and cost readiness level, and the number of whole product life cycle phases the estimate is intended to be valid for. Information volatility and number of whole product life cycle phases can hereby be considered as defining multi-dimensional probability fields admitting various uncertainty quantification metric families with identifiable thresholds for transitioning between them. The key research gaps identified were the lacking guidance grounded in theory for the selection of uncertainty quantification metrics and lacking practical alternatives to metrics based on the Central Limit Theorem. An innovative uncertainty quantification framework consisting of; a set-theory based typology, a data library, a classification system, and a corresponding input-output model are put forward to address this research gap as the basis

  11. The role of interest and inflation rates in life-cycle cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberger, I.; Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of projected interest and inflation rates on life cycle cost calculations is discussed and a method is proposed for making such calculations which replaces these rates by a single parameter. Besides simplifying the analysis, the method clarifies the roles of these rates. An analysis of historical interest and inflation rates from 1950 to 1976 shows that the proposed method can be expected to yield very good projections of life cycle cost even if the rates themselves fluctuate considerably.

  12. Life Cycle Cost Estimate of LSD(X)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    for 100 SWBS Materiel Cost ............................44  Figure 11.  Details of Regression Model for 200 SWBS Materiel Cost...45  Figure 12.  Details of Regression Model for 300 SWBS Materiel Cost ............................46  Figure 13.  Details of Regression Model for...400 SWBS Materiel Cost ............................47  Figure 14.  Details of Regression Model for 500 SWBS Materiel Cost

  13. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick

    2013-07-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  14. New Approaches in Usable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model and use genetic algorithms to explore results. A strong...and Demonstrators White = Not Included Non-recurring Costs Design, Development, Test & Engineering (DDT&E) thru 1st unit; establish production... genetic algorithms) where some output of up-front cost is plotted against some output of far term cost (or ~ benefit). (Note that inputs are

  15. Incorporating Externalities and Uncertainty into Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    production of too much pollution, a lack of incentive to search for ways to yield less pollution per unit of output, and discouragement of reuse or...that basic water efficiency measures (high-efficiency water fixtures) were cost effective even under subsidized pricing of water, but that greywater ...to say how these results would have changed had the full-cost pricing been used as Rogers et al. (1998) define it. It is possible that greywater

  16. Advanced Composite Air Frame Life Cycle Cost Estimating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-19

    achievements. And, also, I dedicate this page to the soul of my father and lovely mother who taught me many life lessons and to my beautiful wife and four...Test Panel [ 17] .......................................................... 18 Figure 2 : Boeing 787 Dreamliner External Skin Makeup [ 7...exist a relationship between variables and empty wieght (EW) to build better cost estimation relationships (CERs). This research will help the

  17. Use of Life Cycle Costing in the Development of Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Bringhurst, Mountain Fuel Supply 6. T. Joseph Cardenas, McGraw Hill 7. Sally A. Hooks, EEI 8. Merle F. McBride, Owens - Corning Fiberglas 9. Kenneth D...Stanonik, GAMA 23. Clifford D. Smith, Owens - Corning Fiberglas 24. Chris Thomaidis, Department of Housing & Urban Development 25. Adrian Tuluca, Steven...Professionals, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981. 8. Stewart, Rodney D., Cost EstimatinQ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1982. 9. Owens Corning , Telephone

  18. Study of installed and life-cycle costs for batteries in photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-10-01

    The overall objective was to estimate the installed and life-cycle costs of 9 battery technologies in a range of photovoltaic application types and sizes. For each battery type is given is a description of the battery technology, the battery factory price analysis, and the installed and life-cycle cost estimates for the battery in each of the applications evaluated. Battery types include: conventional lead-acid; sealed lead-acid; redox; zinc-bromine batteries of two types; zinc chloride; iron redox; lithium-metal sulfide; and sodium-sulfur. Applications include: shopping center; high school; multiple residence; hotel-motel; remote residence; and single residence.

  19. Analysis of the seismic performance of isolated buildings according to life-cycle cost.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yu; Han, Jian-Ping; Li, Yong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator of seismic performance based on life-cycle cost of a building. It is expressed as a ratio of lifetime damage loss to life-cycle cost and determines the seismic performance of isolated buildings. Major factors are considered, including uncertainty in hazard demand and structural capacity, initial costs, and expected loss during earthquakes. Thus, a high indicator value indicates poor building seismic performance. Moreover, random vibration analysis is conducted to measure structural reliability and evaluate the expected loss and life-cycle cost of isolated buildings. The expected loss of an actual, seven-story isolated hospital building is only 37% of that of a fixed-base building. Furthermore, the indicator of the structural seismic performance of the isolated building is much lower in value than that of the structural seismic performance of the fixed-base building. Therefore, isolated buildings are safer and less risky than fixed-base buildings. The indicator based on life-cycle cost assists owners and engineers in making investment decisions in consideration of structural design, construction, and expected loss. It also helps optimize the balance between building reliability and building investment.

  20. Analysis of the Seismic Performance of Isolated Buildings according to Life-Cycle Cost

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yu; Han, Jian-ping; Li, Yong-tao

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator of seismic performance based on life-cycle cost of a building. It is expressed as a ratio of lifetime damage loss to life-cycle cost and determines the seismic performance of isolated buildings. Major factors are considered, including uncertainty in hazard demand and structural capacity, initial costs, and expected loss during earthquakes. Thus, a high indicator value indicates poor building seismic performance. Moreover, random vibration analysis is conducted to measure structural reliability and evaluate the expected loss and life-cycle cost of isolated buildings. The expected loss of an actual, seven-story isolated hospital building is only 37% of that of a fixed-base building. Furthermore, the indicator of the structural seismic performance of the isolated building is much lower in value than that of the structural seismic performance of the fixed-base building. Therefore, isolated buildings are safer and less risky than fixed-base buildings. The indicator based on life-cycle cost assists owners and engineers in making investment decisions in consideration of structural design, construction, and expected loss. It also helps optimize the balance between building reliability and building investment. PMID:25653677

  1. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 3: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This volume contains information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the six options described in Volume 1, Section 2: Option 1 -- Total removal clean closure; No subsequent use; Option 2 -- Risk-based clean closure; LLW fill; Option 3 -- Risk-based clean closure; CERCLA fill; Option 4 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; LLW fill; Option 5 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; CERCLA fill; and Option 6 -- Close to RCRA landfill standards; Clean fill. This volume is divided into two portions. The first portion contains the cost and planning schedule estimates while the second portion contains life-cycle costs and yearly cash flow information for each option.

  2. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael; Halkyard, John

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  3. Research on the Application of Life Cycle Cost Management in the Civil Aircraft Assembly Line Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawei, Lian; Xuefeng, Zhao

    Based on the investigation of airplane enterprises, the paper defines the life cycle of the airplane's assembly line in a reasonable way. It takes the model of project list in the stage of bidding to make it more actual. Regarding the airplane's assembly line, it also applies the equipments life cycle management theory into the using stage so that we can control the using cost more effectively. The paper uses the Crystal Ball to analyze the risk factors of the airplane's assembly line and improves the investment budget's accuracy.

  4. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-04-19

    Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household expenses, and the land-use-changes effect, associated with food production. The results highlighted that prevention, while providing the highest welfare gains as more services/goods could be consumed with the same income, could also incur the highest environmental impacts if the monetary savings from unpurchased food commodities were spent on goods/services with a more environmentally damaging production than that of the (prevented) food. This was not the case when savings were used, e.g., for health care, education, and insurances. This study demonstrates that income effects, although uncertain, should be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated.

  5. Model for Estimating Life-Cycle Costs Associated with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-10

    decisions. Currently, the cash outlays by the government for noise-induced hearing loss ( NIHL ) caused to service personnel by loud systems and spaces are...un-accounted for in estimates of life-cycle costs. A companion report demonstrated that a NIHL prediction algorithm from the American National...compensation costs of the predicted NIHL in this population. A numerical example of the algorithm operation was included. Using cost values applicable to

  6. Development of Advanced Life Cycle Costing Methods for Technology Benefit/Cost/Risk Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this three-year grant is to provide NASA Langley's System Analysis Branch with improved affordability tools and methods based on probabilistic cost assessment techniques. In order to accomplish this objective, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) needs to pursue more detailed affordability, technology impact, and risk prediction methods and to demonstrate them on variety of advanced commercial transports. The affordability assessment, which is a cornerstone of ASDL methods, relies on the Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) program originally developed by NASA Ames Research Center and enhanced by ASDL. This grant proposed to improve ALCCA in support of the project objective by updating the research, design, test, and evaluation cost module, as well as the engine development cost module. Investigations into enhancements to ALCCA include improved engine development cost, process based costing, supportability cost, and system reliability with airline loss of revenue for system downtime. A probabilistic, stand-alone version of ALCCA/FLOPS will also be developed under this grant in order to capture the uncertainty involved in technology assessments. FLOPS (FLight Optimization System program) is an aircraft synthesis and sizing code developed by NASA Langley Research Center. This probabilistic version of the coupled program will be used within a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method to determine what types of technologies would have to be infused in a system in order to meet customer requirements. A probabilistic analysis of the CER's (cost estimating relationships) within ALCCA will also be carried out under this contract in order to gain some insight as to the most influential costs and the impact that code fidelity could have on future RDS (Robust Design Simulation) studies.

  7. Life-Cycle Cost/Benefit Assessment of Expedite Departure Path (EDP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Chang, Paul; Datta, Koushik

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a life-cycle cost/benefit assessment (LCCBA) of Expedite Departure Path (EDP), an air traffic control Decision Support Tool (DST) currently under development at NASA. This assessment is an update of a previous study performed by bd Systems, Inc. (bd) during FY01, with the following revisions: The life-cycle cost assessment methodology developed by bd for the previous study was refined and calibrated using Free Flight Phase 1 (FFP1) cost information for Traffic Management Advisor (TMA, or TMA-SC in the FAA's terminology). Adjustments were also made to the site selection and deployment scheduling methodology to include airspace complexity as a factor. This technique was also applied to the benefit extrapolation methodology to better estimate potential benefits for other years, and at other sites. This study employed a new benefit estimating methodology because bd s previous single year potential benefit assessment of EDP used unrealistic assumptions that resulted in optimistic estimates. This methodology uses an air traffic simulation approach to reasonably predict the impacts from the implementation of EDP. The results of the costs and benefits analyses were then integrated into a life-cycle cost/benefit assessment.

  8. Life cycle cost-based risk model for energy performance contracting retrofits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghorn, George H.

    Buildings account for 41% of the primary energy consumption in the United States, nearly half of which is accounted for by commercial buildings. Among the greatest energy users are those in the municipalities, universities, schools, and hospitals (MUSH) market. Correctional facilities are in the upper half of all commercial building types for energy intensity. Public agencies have experienced reduced capital budgets to fund retrofits; this has led to the increased use of energy performance contracts (EPC), which are implemented by energy services companies (ESCOs). These companies guarantee a minimum amount of energy savings resulting from the retrofit activities, which in essence transfers performance risk from the owner to the contractor. Building retrofits in the MUSH market, especially correctional facilities, are well-suited to EPC, yet despite this potential and their high energy intensities, efficiency improvements lag behind that of other public building types. Complexities in project execution, lack of support for data requests and sub-metering, and conflicting project objectives have been cited as reasons for this lag effect. As a result, project-level risks must be understood in order to support wider adoption of retrofits in the public market, in particular the correctional facility sub-market. The goal of this research is to understand risks related to the execution of energy efficiency retrofits delivered via EPC in the MUSH market. To achieve this goal, in-depth analysis and improved understanding was sought with regard to ESCO risks that are unique to EPC in this market. The proposed work contributes to this understanding by developing a life cycle cost-based risk model to improve project decision making with regard to risk control and reduction. The specific objectives of the research are: (1) to perform an exploratory analysis of the EPC retrofit process and identify key areas of performance risk requiring in-depth analysis; (2) to construct a

  9. The multi-disciplinary design study. A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Duran, J. M.; Kauffman, R. R.

    1987-01-01

    Life-cycle cost (LCC) is investigated as a comprehensive design criterion for two major interrelated spacecraft subsystems, Controls and Structures. A Multi-Disciplinary Design Tool (MDDT) is developed to evaluate the sensitivity of LCC to subsystem design parameters. Major costs addressed are: non-recurring; launch; ground support; maintenance; expendables; and software. Examples and results from the MDDT are described, including a structural optimization study between different truss designs; a solar array feathering trade for a minimal drag configuration during umbra; and the cost of active control of a flexible structure is compared against the cost of passive damping using visco-elastic material.

  10. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  11. A Life Cycle Cost Management Primer for Use within the Aeronautical Systems Division.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Operational Support Practices. McDonnel Douglas Corporation Technical Report AFFDL-TR- 75-147, Long Beach CA, April 1976. Coppola, Anthony, and Alan...Improvement Warranty (RIW). Washington: Government Printing Office, July 1974. S- Vorhis , Ronald L. Life Cycle Cost Focal Point, Propulsion Program... Douglas Corporation Technical Report AFFDL-TR- * 75-147, Long Beach CA, April 1976. Coppola, Anthony, and Alan N. Sukert. Reliability-and- Maintainability

  12. The Utility of Handheld Programmable Calculators in Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Estimation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    The benefits of AFIT research can often be expressed by the equivalent value that your agency received by virtue of AFIT performing the research. Can...DOWNGRADING. SCM E[IJLE. If. OISTRIDUTION STATEMENT (of lis ResPwt." Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 17. OISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of tihe...CLASPICATION OF THIS PAG(WMhen Doe Sesere Life cycle cost estimation is a high priority issue in systems acquisition and maintenance. Interest begins with the

  13. Evaluation of Externality Costs in Life-Cycle Optimization of Municipal Solid Waste Management Systems.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Levis, James W; Damgaard, Anders; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A; Astrup, Thomas F

    2017-03-21

    The development of sustainable solid waste management (SWM) systems requires consideration of both economic and environmental impacts. Societal life-cycle costing (S-LCC) provides a quantitative framework to estimate both economic and environmental impacts, by including "budget costs" and "externality costs". Budget costs include market goods and services (economic impact), whereas externality costs include effects outside the economic system (e.g., environmental impact). This study demonstrates the applicability of S-LCC to SWM life-cycle optimization through a case study based on an average suburban U.S. county of 500 000 people generating 320 000 Mg of waste annually. Estimated externality costs are based on emissions of CO2, CH4, N2O, PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, VOC, CO, NH3, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI), Ni, As, and dioxins. The results indicate that incorporating S-LCC into optimized SWM strategy development encourages the use of a mixed waste material recovery facility with residues going to incineration, and separated organics to anaerobic digestion. Results are sensitive to waste composition, energy mix and recycling rates. Most of the externality costs stem from SO2, NOx, PM2.5, CH4, fossil CO2, and NH3 emissions. S-LCC proved to be a valuable tool for policy analysis, but additional data on key externality costs such as organic compounds emissions to water would improve future analyses.

  14. Prospects for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of emissions and life cycle costs for natural gas vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Terenchenko, A. S.; Luksho, V. A.; Karpukhin, K. E.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the experimental investigation of the possibilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase energy efficiency of engines that use natural gas as the main fuel and the analysis of economic efficiency of use of dual fuel engines in vehicles compared to conventional diesel. The results of experimental investigation of a 190 kW dual-fuel engine are presented; it is shown that quantitative and qualitative working process control may ensure thermal efficiency at the same level as that of the diesel engine and in certain conditions 5...8% higher. The prospects for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been assessed. The technical and economic evaluation of use of dual fuel engines in heavy-duty vehicles has been performed, taking into account the total life cycle. It is shown that it is possible to reduce life cycle costs by two times.

  15. Life-cycle cost analysis for radioactive waste remediation alternatives. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.P.; Toland, R.J.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    This research has two primary objectives. The first is to develop a generic, interactive, spreadsheet-based life-cycle cost model that uses net present value and risk analysis techniques for cost comparison. The second is to apply the model specifically to the vitrification and cementation methods of waste remediation. By using spreadsheet analysis and graphics capabilities, the model will provide direct and objective comparisons of remediation alternatives. Since vitrification is a new technology, the plant design and operations are conceptual. Therefore, computer simulation and engineering judgement are integral to the vitrification LCC estimate. (AN) (Abstract from report page 2, scope and objectives).

  16. A program-level management system for the life cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chan-Joong; Kim, Jimin; Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-09-15

    Climate change has become one of the most significant environmental issues, of which about 40% come from the building sector. In particular, complex building projects with various functions have increased, which should be managed from a program-level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a program-level management system for the life-cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects. The developed system consists of three parts: (i) input part: database server and input data; (ii) analysis part: life cycle assessment and life cycle cost; and (iii) result part: microscopic analysis and macroscopic analysis. To analyze the applicability of the developed system, this study selected ‘U’ University, a complex building project consisting of research facility and residential facility. Through value engineering with experts, a total of 137 design alternatives were established. Based on these alternatives, the macroscopic analysis results were as follows: (i) at the program-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in ‘U’ University were reduced by 6.22% and 2.11%, respectively; (ii) at the project-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in research facility were reduced 6.01% and 1.87%, respectively; and those in residential facility, 12.01% and 3.83%, respective; and (iii) for the mechanical work at the work-type-level, the initial cost was increased 2.9%; but the operation and maintenance phase was reduced by 20.0%. As a result, the developed system can allow the facility managers to establish the operation and maintenance strategies for the environmental and economic aspects from a program-level perspective. - Highlights: • A program-level management system for complex building projects was developed. • Life-cycle environmental and economic assessment can be conducted using the system. • The design alternatives can be analyzed from the microscopic perspective. • The system can be used to

  17. An examination of silver nanoparticles in socks using screening-level life cycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, David E.; Curran, Mary Ann; Gonzalez, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Screening-level life cycle assessment (LCA) can provide a quick tool to identify the life cycle hot spots and focus research efforts to help to minimize the burdens of a technology while maximizing its benefits. The use of nanoscale silver in consumer products has exploded in popularity. Although its use is considered beneficial because of antimicrobial effects, some attention must be given to the potential environmental impacts it could impart on the life cycle of these nanoproducts as production demands escalate. This work examines the environmental impact of including silver nanoparticles in commercially available socks using screening-level LCA. Initial results suggest washing during the use phase contributes substantially more than the manufacturing phase to the product life cycle impacts. Comparison of nanoparticles prepared by either chemical reduction, liquid flame spray (LFS), or plasma arc demonstrate how the type of manufacturing process used for the nanoscale silver can change the resulting life cycle impact of the sock product. The magnitude of this impact will depend on the type of process used to manufacture the nanoscale silver, with LFS having the most impact because of the need for large quantities of hydrogen and oxygen. Although the increased impacts for a single nanoproduct may be relatively small, the added environmental load can actually be a significant quantity when considered at the regional or global production level.

  18. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: Overview, calculation principles and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose a comprehensive model for cost assessment of waste management systems. • The model includes three types of LCC: Conventional, Environmental and Societal LCCs. • The applicability of the proposed model is tested with two case studies. - Abstract: This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental

  19. Life cycle costing of waste management systems: overview, calculation principles and case studies.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Kromann, Mikkel A; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides a detailed and comprehensive cost model for the economic assessment of solid waste management systems. The model was based on the principles of Life Cycle Costing (LCC) and followed a bottom-up calculation approach providing detailed cost items for all key technologies within modern waste systems. All technologies were defined per tonne of waste input, and each cost item within a technology was characterised by both a technical and an economic parameter (for example amount and cost of fuel related to waste collection), to ensure transparency, applicability and reproducibility. Cost items were classified as: (1) budget costs, (2) transfers (for example taxes, subsidies and fees) and (3) externality costs (for example damage or abatement costs related to emissions and disamenities). Technology costs were obtained as the sum of all cost items (of the same type) within a specific technology, while scenario costs were the sum of all technologies involved in a scenario. The cost model allows for the completion of three types of LCC: a Conventional LCC, for the assessment of financial costs, an Environmental LCC, for the assessment of financial costs whose results are complemented by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the same system, and a Societal LCC, for socio-economic assessments. Conventional and Environmental LCCs includes budget costs and transfers, while Societal LCCs includes budget and externality costs. Critical aspects were found in the existing literature regarding the cost assessment of waste management, namely system boundary equivalency, accounting for temporally distributed emissions and impacts, inclusions of transfers, the internalisation of environmental impacts and the coverage of shadow prices, and there was also significant confusion regarding terminology. The presented cost model was implemented in two case study scenarios assessing the costs involved in the source segregation of organic waste from 100,000 Danish households and

  20. MRS/IS facility co-located with a repository: preconceptual design and life-cycle cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.I.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    A program is described to examine the various alternatives for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and interim storage (IS) of spent nuclear fuel, solidified high-level waste (HLW), and transuranic (TRU) waste until appropriate geologic repository/repositories are available. The objectives of this study are: (1) to develop a preconceptual design for an MRS/IS facility that would become the principal surface facility for a deep geologic repository when the repository is opened, (2) to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facility, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such a facility, and (3) to estimate the life cycle costs of the facility when operated in response to a set of scenarios which define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, which generally span the years from 1990 until 2016. The life cycle costs estimated in this study include: the capital expenditures for structures, casks and/or drywells, storage areas and pads, and transfer equipment; the cost of staff labor, supplies, and services; and the incremental cost of transporting the waste materials from the site of origin to the MRS/IS facility. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life cycle costs of the MRS/IS facility. In the first scenario, HLW canisters are stored, starting in 1990, until the co-located repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at various intervals. In the second scenario, spent fuel is stored, starting in 1990, because the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but no HLW is stored because the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, HLW is stored, starting in 1990, because the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  1. Life-cycle cost and impacts: alternatives for managing KE basin sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Alderman, C.J.

    1997-06-27

    This document presents the results of a life-cycle cost and impacts evaluation of alternatives for managing sludge that will be removed from the K Basins. The two basins are located in the 100-K Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation was conducted by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and its subcontractors to support decisions regarding the ultimate disposition of the sludge. The long-range plan for the Hanford Site calls for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), sludge, debris, and water to be removed from the K East (KE) and K West (KW) Basins. This activity will be conducted as a removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The scope of the CERCLA action will be limited to removing the SNF, sludge, debris, and water from the basins and transferring them to authorized facilities for interim storage and/or treatment and disposal. The scope includes treating the sludge and water in the 100-K Area prior to the transfer. Alternatives for the removal action are evaluated in a CERCLA engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) and include different methods for managing sludge from the KE Basins. The scope of the removal action does not include storing, treating, or disposing of the sludge once it is transferred to the receiving facility and the EE/CA does not evaluate those downstream activities. This life-cycle evaluation goes beyond the EE/CA and considers the full life-cycle costs and impacts of dispositioning sludge.

  2. Concepts for Life Cycle Cost Control Required to Achieve Space Transportation Affordability and Sustainability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Robinson, John W.; Donahue, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    Cost control must be implemented through the establishment of requirements and controlled continually by managing to these requirements. Cost control of the non-recurring side of life cycle cost has traditionally been implemented in both commercial and government programs. The government uses the budget process to implement this control. The commercial approach is to use a similar process of allocating the non-recurring cost to major elements of the program. This type of control generally manages through a work breakdown structure (WBS) by defining the major elements of the program. If the cost control is to be applied across the entire program life cycle cost (LCC), the approach must be addressed very differently. A functional breakdown structure (FBS) is defined and recommended. Use of a FBS provides the visibifity to allow the choice of an integrated solution reducing the cost of providing many different elements of like function. The different functional solutions that drive the hardware logistics, quantity of documentation, operational labor, reliability and maintainability balance, and total integration of the entire system from DDT&E through the life of the program must be fully defined, compared, and final decisions made among these competing solutions. The major drivers of recurring cost have been identified and are presented and discussed. The LCC requirements must be established and flowed down to provide control of LCC. This LCC control will require a structured rigid process similar to the one traditionally used to control weight/performance for space transportation systems throughout the entire program. It has been demonstrated over the last 30 years that without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that affordable and sustainable space transportation system LCC will be achieved.

  3. Life Cycle Cost Analyses of U.S. Air Force Heating Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    1989. 31 ORNL/TM- 11146 internal Distribution 1. D. W. Burton 17. V. K. Wilkinson 2. E. C. Fox 18-20. J. M. Young 3 -7. F. P. Griffin 21. Central Research...required for the heating plant operation are assumed to follow the standard "bathtub" reliability curve as shown in Fig. 3 . The first three years of...ORNL/TM- 11146 NOAK RIDGE ~NATIONAL N LABORATORY Life-Cycle Cost Analyses of U.S.Air Force Heating Plants V. K. Wilkinson DTI * ~DI LECT A’roreve-3f

  4. Development and Use of the Life Cycle Cost in Design Computer Program (LCCID).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    34..... ........ .... .-. * . -. . . ..-. .%- ’ . Signing Off the Computer ~Once the program is complete: U: $OFF CR Iwill log you off the Harris system.] --. 2 .9.... o . 17...Values for this Alternative by Title 52 7 7xi SPCF ANUA VALUE S = Define / Change Annual Values D = Delete an Annual Value . ’ ’."<cr> = exit SPECIFY...causes printer to begin logging all text coming to screen. .4 64-’. . ~~64 2. I. . .••.. ,... . . . . o. * *, . *% - - . . * -, . LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS

  5. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties.

  6. The Need for Technology Maturity of Any Advanced Capability to Achieve Better Life Cycle Cost (LCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, John W.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Programs such as space transportation systems are developed and deployed only rarely, and they have long development schedules and large development and life cycle costs (LCC). They have not historically had their LCC predicted well and have only had an effort to control the DDT&E phase of the programs. One of the factors driving the predictability, and thus control, of the LCC of a program is the maturity of the technologies incorporated in the program. If the technologies incorporated are less mature (as measured by their Technology Readiness Level - TRL), then the LCC not only increases but the degree of increase is difficult to predict. Consequently, new programs avoid incorporating technologies unless they are quite mature, generally TRL greater than or equal to 7 (system prototype demonstrated in a space environment) to allow better predictability of the DDT&E phase costs unless there is no alternative. On the other hand, technology development programs rarely develop technologies beyond TRL 6 (system/subsystem model or prototype demonstrated in a relevant environment). Currently the lack of development funds beyond TRL 6 and the major funding required for full scale development leave little or no funding available to prototype TRL 6 concepts so that hardware would be in the ready mode for safe, reliable and cost effective incorporation. The net effect is that each new program either incorporates little new technology or has longer development schedules and costs, and higher LCC, than planned. This paper presents methods to ensure that advanced technologies are incorporated into future programs while providing a greater accuracy of predicting their LCC. One method is having a dedicated organization to develop X-series vehicles or separate prototypes carried on other vehicles. The question of whether such an organization should be independent of NASA and/or have an independent funding source is discussed. Other methods are also discussed. How to make the

  7. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers,Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-20

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered.

  8. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  9. A simplified life-cycle cost comparison of various engines for small helicopter use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Civinskas, K. C.; Fishbach, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    A ten-year, life-cycle cost comparison is made of the following engines for small helicopter use: (1) simple turboshaft; (2) regenerative turboshaft; (3) compression-ignition reciprocator; (4) spark-ignited rotary; and (5) spark-ignited reciprocator. Based on a simplified analysis and somewhat approximate data, the simple turboshaft engine apparently has the lowest costs for mission times up to just under 2 hours. At 2 hours and above, the regenerative turboshaft appears promising. The reciprocating and rotary engines are less attractive, requiring from 10 percent to 80 percent more aircraft to have the same total payload capability as a given number of turbine powered craft. A nomogram was developed for estimating total costs of engines not covered in this study.

  10. The multi-disciplinary design study: A life cycle cost algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, R. R.; Pichi, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The approach and results of a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Subsystem (SDPS) including gimbal pointing and power output performance are documented. The Multi-Discipline Design Tool (MDDT) computer program developed during the 1986 study has been modified to include the design, performance, and cost algorithms for the SDPS as described. As with the Space Station structural and control subsystems, the LCC of the SDPS can be computed within the MDDT program as a function of the engineering design variables. Two simple examples of MDDT's capability to evaluate cost sensitivity and design based on LCC are included. MDDT was designed to accept NASA's IMAT computer program data as input so that IMAT's detailed structural and controls design capability can be assessed with expected system LCC as computed by MDDT. No changes to IMAT were required. Detailed knowledge of IMAT is not required to perform the LCC analyses as the interface with IMAT is noninteractive.

  11. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  12. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria - performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and risk - are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost accounts for most of the cost of planetary missions, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated masses of the hardware and of the pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in Advanced Life Support. A crew time mass-equivalent and sometimes other non-mass factors are added to equivalent mass to create ESM. Equivalent mass is an estimate of the launch cost only. For earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is usually exceeded by the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDT&E). Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. Since LCC includes launch cost, it is always a more accurate cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission design, destination, and duration. Since DDT&E or operations may cost more than launch, LCC may give a more accurate cost ranking than equivalent mass. To be sure of identifying the lowest cost technology for a particular mission, we should use LCC rather than equivalent mass.

  13. Industry-Cost-Curve Approach for Modeling the Environmental Impact of Introducing New Technologies in Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kätelhön, Arne; von der Assen, Niklas; Suh, Sangwon; Jung, Johannes; Bardow, André

    2015-07-07

    The environmental costs and benefits of introducing a new technology depend not only on the technology itself, but also on the responses of the market where substitution or displacement of competing technologies may occur. An internationally accepted method taking both technological and market-mediated effects into account, however, is still lacking in life cycle assessment (LCA). For the introduction of a new technology, we here present a new approach for modeling the environmental impacts within the framework of LCA. Our approach is motivated by consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) and aims to contribute to the discussion on how to operationalize consequential thinking in LCA practice. In our approach, we focus on new technologies producing homogeneous products such as chemicals or raw materials. We employ the industry cost-curve (ICC) for modeling market-mediated effects. Thereby, we can determine substitution effects at a level of granularity sufficient to distinguish between competing technologies. In our approach, a new technology alters the ICC potentially replacing the highest-cost producer(s). The technologies that remain competitive after the new technology's introduction determine the new environmental impact profile of the product. We apply our approach in a case study on a new technology for chlor-alkali electrolysis to be introduced in Germany.

  14. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, Sebastiao Roberto; Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; Prudencio da Silva, Vamilson; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A.F.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three Health Care Waste (HCW) scenarios were assessed through environmental and cost analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCW treatment using microwave oven had the lowest environmental impacts and costs in comparison with autoclave and lime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lime had the worst environmental and economic results for HCW treatment, in comparison with autoclave and microwave. - Abstract: The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$ 0.12 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with microwaves, US$ 1.10 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$ 1.53 kg{sup -1} for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible

  15. Accounting for the drug life cycle and future drug prices in cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Economic evaluations of health technologies typically assume constant real drug prices and model only the cohort of patients currently eligible for treatment. It has recently been suggested that, in the UK, we should assume that real drug prices decrease at 4% per annum and, in New Zealand, that real drug prices decrease at 2% per annum and at patent expiry the drug price falls. It has also recently been suggested that we should model multiple future incident cohorts. In this article, the cost effectiveness of drugs is modelled based on these ideas. Algebraic expressions are developed to capture all costs and benefits over the entire life cycle of a new drug. The lifetime of a new drug in the UK, a key model parameter, is estimated as 33 years, based on the historical lifetime of drugs in England over the last 27 years. Under the proposed methodology, cost effectiveness is calculated for seven new drugs recently appraised in the UK. Cost effectiveness as assessed in the future is also estimated. Whilst the article is framed in mathematics, the findings and recommendations are also explained in non-mathematical language. The 'life-cycle correction factor' is introduced, which is used to convert estimates of cost effectiveness as traditionally calculated into estimates under the proposed methodology. Under the proposed methodology, all seven drugs appear far more cost effective in the UK than published. For example, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio decreases by 46%, from £61, 900 to £33, 500 per QALY, for cinacalcet versus best supportive care for end-stage renal disease, and by 45%, from £31,100 to £17,000 per QALY, for imatinib versus interferon-α for chronic myeloid leukaemia. Assuming real drug prices decrease over time, the chance that a drug is publicly funded increases over time, and is greater when modelling multiple cohorts than with a single cohort. Using the methodology (compared with traditional methodology) all drugs in the UK and New

  16. The Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Its Relationship to Life Cycle Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeHoff, Bryan; Levack, Danie J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    The Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) is a structured, modular breakdown of every function that must be addressed to perform a generic mission. It is also usable for any subset of the mission. Unlike a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), the FBS is a function-oriented tree, not a product-oriented tree. The FBS details not products, but operations or activities that should be performed. The FBS is not tied to any particular architectural implementation because it is a listing of the needed functions, not the elements, of the architecture. The FBS for Space Transportation Systems provides a universal hierarchy of required functions, which include ground and space operations as well as infrastructure - it provides total visibility of the entire mission. By approaching the systems engineering problem from the functional view, instead of the element or hardware view, the SPST has created an exhaustive list of potential requirements which the architecture designers can use to evaluate the completeness of their designs. This is a new approach that will provide full accountability of all functions required to perform the planned mission. It serves as a giant check list to be sure that no functions are omitted, especially in the early architectural design phase. A significant characteristic of a FBS is that if architecture options are compared using this approach, then any missing or redundant elements of each option will be ' identified. Consequently, valid Life Cycle Costs (LCC) comparisons can be made. For example, one architecture option might not need a particular function while another option does. One option may have individual elements to perform each of three functions while another option needs only one element to perform the three functions. Once an architecture has been selected, the FBS will serve as a guide in development of the work breakdown structure, provide visibility of those technologies that need to be further developed to perform required functions

  17. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Flame Deflector Protection System Life Cycle Cost Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Trejo, David; Reinschmidt, Ken; Kim, Hyung-Jin

    2009-01-01

    A 20-year life cycle cost analysis was performed to compare the operational life cycle cost, processing/turnaround timelines, and operations manpower inspection/repair/refurbishment requirements for corrosion protection of the Kennedy Space Center launch pad flame deflector associated with the existing cast-in-place materials and a newer advanced refractory ceramic material. The analysis compared the estimated costs of(1) continuing to use of the current refractory material without any changes; (2) completely reconstructing the flame trench using the current refractory material; and (3) completely reconstructing the flame trench with a new high-performance refractory material. Cost estimates were based on an analysis of the amount of damage that occurs after each launch and an estimate of the average repair cost. Alternative 3 was found to save $32M compared to alternative 1 and $17M compared to alternative 2 over a 20-year life cycle.

  18. Condition monitoring and life-cycle cost design of stay cable by embedded OFBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, C. M.; Ju, Y.; Li, H.

    2011-04-01

    Stay cables are one of the most critical structural components of a cable-stayed bridge. However, stay cables readily suffer from fatigue damage, corrosion damage and their coupled effect. Thus, condition monitoring of stay cables is important to ensure the integrity and safety of a bridge. Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Optical Fibre Bragg Grating (GFRP-OFBG) cable, a kind of fibre Bragg grating optical sensing technology-based smart stay cables is used in this study. The application of the smart stay cables on the Tianjin Yonghe Bridge was demonstrated and the vehicle live load effect and fatigue effect of smart stay cables were evaluated based on field monitoring data. Furthermore, the life-cycle cost analysis method of the stay cables is established. Finally, based on the nonlinear reliability index deterioration model, the optimal design of stay cable with different reference period is evaluated.

  19. Applications of life cycle assessment and cost analysis in health care waste management.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Finotti, Alexandra Rodrigues; da Silva, Vamilson Prudêncio; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of rules to manage Health Care Waste (HCW) is a challenge for the public sector. Regulatory agencies must ensure the safety of waste management alternatives for two very different profiles of generators: (1) hospitals, which concentrate the production of HCW and (2) small establishments, such as clinics, pharmacies and other sources, that generate dispersed quantities of HCW and are scattered throughout the city. To assist in developing sector regulations for the small generators, we evaluated three management scenarios using decision-making tools. They consisted of a disinfection technique (microwave, autoclave and lime) followed by landfilling, where transportation was also included. The microwave, autoclave and lime techniques were tested at the laboratory to establish the operating parameters to ensure their efficiency in disinfection. Using a life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis, the decision-making tools aimed to determine the technique with the best environmental performance. This consisted of evaluating the eco-efficiency of each scenario. Based on the life cycle assessment, microwaving had the lowest environmental impact (12.64 Pt) followed by autoclaving (48.46 Pt). The cost analyses indicated values of US$0.12 kg(-1) for the waste treated with microwaves, US$1.10 kg(-1) for the waste treated by the autoclave and US$1.53 kg(-1) for the waste treated with lime. The microwave disinfection presented the best eco-efficiency performance among those studied and provided a feasible alternative to subsidize the formulation of the policy for small generators of HCW.

  20. Equivalent Mass versus Life Cycle Cost for Life Support Technology Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop a particular life support technology or to select it for flight usually depends on the cost to develop and fly it. Other criteria such as performance, safety, reliability, crew time, and technical and schedule risk are considered, but cost is always an important factor. Because launch cost would account for much of the cost of a future planetary mission, and because launch cost is directly proportional to the mass launched, equivalent mass has been used instead of cost to select advanced life support technology. The equivalent mass of a life support system includes the estimated mass of the hardware and of the spacecraft pressurized volume, power supply, and cooling system that the hardware requires. The equivalent mass of a system is defined as the total payload launch mass needed to provide and support the system. An extension of equivalent mass, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), has been established for use in the Advanced Life Support project. ESM adds a mass-equivalent of crew time and possibly other cost factors to equivalent mass. Traditional equivalent mass is strictly based on flown mass and reflects only the launch cost. ESM includes other important cost factors, but it complicates the simple flown mass definition of equivalent mass by adding a non-physical mass penalty for crew time that may exceed the actual flown mass. Equivalent mass is used only in life support analysis. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) is much more commonly used. LCC includes DDT&E, launch, and operations costs. For Earth orbit rather than planetary missions, the launch cost is less than the cost of Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation (DDTBE). LCC is a more inclusive cost estimator than equivalent mass. The relative costs of development, launch, and operations vary depending on the mission destination and duration. Since DDTBE or operations may cost more than launch, LCC gives a more accurate relative cost ranking than equivalent mass. To select the lowest cost

  1. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    PubMed

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly.

  2. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption.

  3. Comparative life cycle cost assessment of painted and hot-dip galvanized bridges.

    PubMed

    Rossi, B; Marquart, S; Rossi, G

    2017-03-17

    The study addresses the life cycle cost assessment (LCCA) of steel bridges, focusing on the maintenance activities and the maintenance scenario. Firstly, the unit costs of maintenance activities and their durability (i.e. the time between two activities) are evaluated. Pragmatic data are provided for the environment category C4 and for three activities: Patch Up, Overcoating and Remove & Replace. A comparative LCCA for a typical hypothetic steel girder bridge is carried out, either painted or hot-dip galvanized (HDG), in the environmental class C4. The LCC versus the cumulated life is provided for both options. The initial cost of the steel unpainted option is only 50.3% of the HDG option. It is shown that after 'Overcoating' occurring at 18.5 years, the total Net Present Value (NPV) of the painted option surpasses that of the HDG option. A sensitivity analysis of the NPV to the cost and service life parameters, the escalation and discount rates is then performed. The discount and escalation rates, considerably influences the total LCC, following a non-linear trend. The total LCC decreases with the discount rate increasing and, conversely, increases with the escalation rate increasing. Secondly, the influence of the maintenance scenario on the total LCC is assessed based on a probabilistic approach. A permutation of the three independent maintenance activities assumed to occur six times over the life of the bridge is considered and a probability of occurrence is associated to each unique scenario. The most probable scenarios are then classified according to their NPV or achieved service life. This approach leads to the definition of a cost-effective maintenance scenario i.e. the scenario, within all the considered permutations, that has the minimum LCC in a range of lifespan. Besides, the probabilistic analysis also shows that, whatever the scenario, the return on investment period ranges between 18.5 years and 24.2 years. After that period, the HDG option becomes

  4. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  5. Life Cycle Cost Growth Study for the Discovery and New Frontiers Program Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Gilbert, Paul; Newhouse, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    The D&NF Program Office LCC Management Study provides a detailed look at the drivers underlying cost overruns and schedule delays for five D&NF missions. While none of the findings are new, the study underlines the importance of continued emphasis on sound project management techniques: a clean project management structure with a clear definition of roles and responsibilities across the various partners in a project, an understanding of institutional standards and procedures and any differences among the partners, and the critical need for a comprehensive IMS that can be used easily and routinely to identify potential threats to the critical path. The study also highlights the continuing need for realistic estimates of the total LCC. Sufficient time and resources must be allocated early in a project to ensure that the appropriate trade studies and analyses are performed across all aspects of a mission: spacecraft, ground system, operations concept, and fault management, to ensure that proposed and confirmed costs truly reflect the resource requirements over the entire mission life cycle. These studies need to include a realistic review of the assumptions underlying the use of new technologies, the integration of heritage and new hardware and software into the total mission environment, and any development and test savings based on heritage technology and lessons learned. Finally, the LCC Management Study stresses the need to listen to, carefully consider, and take positive action regarding the issues raised during reviews by the expert review teams.

  6. A Life Cycle Cost Analysis Framework for Geologic Storage of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, Anna S.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Borns, David James

    2009-09-01

    Large scale geostorage options for fuels including natural gas and petroleum offer substantial buffer capacity to meet or hedge against supply disruptions. This same notion may be applied to large scale hydrogen storage to meet industrial or transportation sector needs. This study develops an assessment tool to calculate the potential ‘gate-to-gate’ life cycle costs for large scale hydrogen geostorage options in salt caverns, and continues to develop modules for depleted oil/gas reservoirs and aquifers. The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in these types of storage to assess the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for this type of hydrogen storage. Understanding, and looking to quantify, the value of large-scale storage in a larger hydrogen supply and demand infrastructure may prove extremely beneficial for larger infrastructure modeling efforts when looking to identify the most efficient means to fuel a hydrogen demand (e.g., industrial or transportation-centric demand). Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale storage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S., the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO2 in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  7. Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended.

  8. Life cycle assessment of mobility options using wood based fuels--comparison of selected environmental effects and costs.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Jana; Kaltschmitt, Martin

    2013-12-01

    An environmental assessment and a cost analysis were conducted for mobility options using electricity, hydrogen, ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and methane derived from wood. Therefore, the overall life cycle with regard to greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying emissions and fossil energy demand as well as costs is analysed. The investigation is carried out for mobility options in 2010 and gives an outlook to the year 2030. Results show that methane utilization in the car is beneficial with regard to environmental impacts (e.g. 58.5 g CO2-eq./km) and costs (23.1 €-ct./km) in 2010, especially in comparison to hydrogen usage (132.4 g CO2-eq./km and 63.9 €-ct./km). The electric vehicle construction has high environmental impacts and costs compared to conventional vehicles today, but with technical improvements and further market penetration, battery electric vehicles can reach the level of concepts with combustion engines in future applications (e.g. cost decrease from 38.7 to 23.4 €-ct./km).

  9. Comparing Green and Grey Infrastructure Using Life Cycle Cost and Environmental Impact: A Rain Garden Case Study in Cincinnati, OH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure is quickly gaining ground as a less costly, greener alternative to traditional methods of stormwater management. One popular form of green infrastructure is the use of rain gardens to capture and infiltrate stormwater in to the ground. We used life cycle asse...

  10. The effect of life-cycle cost disclosure on consumer behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Matthias

    For more than 20 years, analysts have reported on the so-called "energy paradox" or the "energy efficiency gap", referring to the fact that economic agents could in principle lower their total cost at current prices by using more energy-efficient technology but, nevertheless, often decide not to do so. Theory suggests that providing information in a simplified way could potentially reduce this "efficiency gap". Such simplification may be achieved by providing the estimated monetary operating cost and life-cycle cost (LCC) of a given appliance---which has been a recurring theme within the energy policy and efficiency labeling community. Yet, little is known so far about the causal effects of LCC disclosure on consumer action because of the gap between the acquisition of efficiency information and consumer purchasing behavior in the real marketplace. This dissertation bridges the gap by experimentally integrating LCC disclosure into two major German commercial websites---a price comparison engine for cooling appliances, and an online shop for washing machines. Internet users arriving on these websites were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, and the groups were exposed to different visual stimuli. The control group received regular product price information, whereas the treatment group was, in addition, offered information about operating cost and total LCC. Click-stream data of consumers' shopping behavior was evaluated with multiple regression analysis by controlling for several product characteristics. This dissertation finds that LCC disclosure reduces the mean energy use of chosen cooling appliances by 2.5% (p<0.01), and the energy use of chosen washing machines by 0.8% (p<0.001). For the latter, it also reduces the mean water use by 0.7% (p<0.05). These effects suggest a potential role for public policy in promoting LCC disclosure. While I do not attempt to estimate the costs of such a policy, a simple quantification shows that the benefits amount to

  11. Life cycle costing of a milk producing farm – cost assessment of environmental impact mitigation strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHG). A study by the University of Arkansas showed that 70% of the carbon footprint of milk occurs before the farm gate. The goal of this study was to add costs to the GHG study to determine the impact of the farm milk production system o...

  12. Medium voltage breaker rehabilitation: A life-cycle cost analysis of replacement, retrofit and interrupter technology options

    SciTech Connect

    Rinck, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Upgrading of obsolete, medium voltage, air-magnetic, metal-clad switchgear to vacuum or SF{sub 6} circuit breakers may be accomplished by replacement or retrofit. This paper represents a case study for upgrading the Station Service switchgear at The Dalles Lock & Dam. The life-cycle costs associated with the options of breaker replacement and retrofit, as well as costs resulting from the choice of interrupter, will be examined and compared.

  13. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  14. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  15. Investigation of chloride induced corrosion of bridge pier and life-cycle repair cost analysis using fiber reinforced polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Dinesh

    Bridges are the long term investment of the highway agencies. To maintain the required service level throughout the life of a bridge, a series of maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MRℝ) works can be performed. To investigate the corrosion deterioration and maintenance and repair practices in the bridge pier columns constructed in chloride-laden environment, a questionnaire survey was conducted within the 50 state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). Based on the survey data, two corrosion deterioration phases were identified. They were corrosion crack initiation phase and corrosion propagation phase. The data showed that the mean corrosion crack initiation phase for bridge pier column having cover of 50 mm, 75 mm, and 100 mm was 18.9 years, 20.3 years, and 22.5 years, respectively. The corrosion propagation phase starts after the corrosion crack initiation. The corrosion propagation is defined in a single term, corrosion damage rate, measured as percentage of area damaged due to corrosion cracking, spalling, and delamination. From the survey, the corrosion damage rate was found 2.23% and 2.10% in the bridge pier columns exposed to deicing salt water and exposed to tidal splash/spray, respectively. For this study, two different corrosion damage rates were proposed before and after the repair criteria for minor damage repair as practiced by DOTs. This study also presents the collected data regarding the corrosion effectiveness of using sealers and coatings, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibitors, carbon fiber/epoxy composites, and glass fiber/epoxy composites as maintenance and repair technique. In this study, the cost-effectiveness of wrapping carbon fiber/epoxy composites and glass fiber/epoxy composites in bridge pier columns constructed in a chloride-laden environment was investigated by conducting life-cycle cost analysis. As a repair work, externally bonded two layer of carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy composites were installed by wet

  16. Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.

    PubMed

    Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ∼ 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants.

  17. To have or not to have another child: life cycle, health and cost considerations of Ghanaian women.

    PubMed

    Kodzi, Ivy A; Johnson, David R; Casterline, John B

    2012-04-01

    Given that fertility rates are high in most sub-Saharan countries, it is critically important to understand the drivers of the demand for children to inform population reduction policies. Yet little is known about the individual-level factors that drive the desire for fertility limitation. The desire to limit births may be driven by the achievement of family size targets. However, since children are born at different stages of the life course, fertility desires may also be influenced by past reproductive, socio-economic experiences, and perceptions about future welfare. In this study, the determinants of the desire to stop childbearing were analyzed at the individual-level using prospective longitudinal data (1998-2003) on the reproductive lives of women in six communities in southern Ghana. Using variation within-woman, we modeled the impact of changes in reproductive life cycle events, health status, perceptions of future household economic conditions, perceptions of the cost of additional children, and spousal interactions on a woman's fertility preferences. We found that the desire to stop childbearing is influenced by reproductive life stage (such as age, parity); events (marital transitions, child death); perceptions of personal health (particularly anticipated demands of the next pregnancy on the woman's health); the household's economic welfare; and the overall subjective cost of children. The economic utility models which emphasize cost/benefit considerations, as well as the anthropological and sociological theories which emphasize norms, appear to be validated in this empirical analysis in that both subjective elements and normative considerations are incorporated into fertility decisions.

  18. A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the Proposed Replacement of Pope Air Force Base’s C-130E Fleet Using a Fleet Replacement Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED REPLACEMENT OF POPE AIR FORCE BASE’S C-130E FLEET USING A...Date 11 Mar 02 Report Type Final Dates Covered (from... to) Oct 2000 - Mar 2002 Title and Subtitle A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the Proposed...a lack of spare parts, and structural problems, maintenance costs are rising at an exponential rate. Because of this, there may be a more cost

  19. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: a life-cycle costing approach.

    PubMed

    Massarutto, Antonio; de Carli, Alessandro; Graffi, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  20. Cost structures and life cycle impacts of algal biomass and biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Katrina Lea

    2011-12-01

    Development and extraction of energy sources, energy production and energy use have huge economic, environmental and geopolitical impacts. Increasing energy demands in tandem with reductions in fossil fuel production has led to significant investments in research into alternative forms of energy. One that is promising but yet not commercially established is the production of biofuel from algae. This research quantitatively assessed the potential of algae biofuel production by examining its cost and environmental impacts. First, two models developed by the RAND corporation were employed to assess Cost Growth defined as the ratio of actual costs to estimated costs, and Plant Performance defined as the ratio of actual production levels to design performance, of three algal biofuel production technologies. The three algal biofuel production technologies examined to open raceway ponds (ORPs), photobioreactors (PBRs), and a system that couples PBRs to ORPs (PBR-ORPs). Though these analyses lack precision due to uncertainty, the results highlight the risks associated with implementing algal biofuel systems, as all scenarios examined were predicted to have Cost Growth, ranging from 1.2 to 1.8, and Plant Performance was projected as less than 50% of design performance for all cases. Second, the Framework the Evaluation of Biomass Energy Feedstocks (FEBEF) was used to assess the cost and environmental impacts of biodiesel produced from three algal production technologies. When these results were compared with ethanol from corn and biodiesel from soybeans, biodiesel from algae produced from the different technologies were estimated to be more expensive, suffered from low energy gains, and did not result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. To identify likely routes to making algal biofuels more competitive, a third study was undertaken. In this case, FEBEF was employed to examine pinch-points (defined as the most costly, energy consuming, greenhouse gas producing processes), in

  1. A Further Examination of Operational Availability in Life Cycle Cost Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    Training Ordnance INSTALLATION SUPPORT PERSI+t$44EL Base Operating Support DEPOl LEVEL HAINTTEW4CE Military Airframe Rework Civilian Engine Rework Real...34), parametrics, and engineering (a precisE•? approach that requires a deta;led data base). Models using parametrics are characterized by the ,,se of cost...delays (hangar space, engine run facilities, specialized fuel system repair bays, ect) and support / test equipment delays (work stands, fuel bowsers

  2. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V.

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  3. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  4. Using screening level environmental life cycle assessment to aid decision making: A case study of a college annual report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose – In this study we compare the life cycle environmental impacts of the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences’ current printed annual report to a version distributed via the Internet. This case study demonstrates how a screening level life cy...

  5. The Costs of Not Using Green Design in the USAF: Would Using Green Building Design Have Resulted in Life Cycle Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    lowest life cycle cost trump any higher cost premiums? This will be discussed later. Lance Davis, a GSA LEED Accredited Professional and architect...Architecture Design.” London: James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd; 1999. 47 EPA . 2005\\. “ENERGY STAR Overview of 2005 Achievements.” Document...available on EPAs website at http://www.energystar.gov/ia/news/downloads/2005_achievements.pdf. EPA . 2003. “ENERGY STAR—The Power to Protect the

  6. Web-LCCA: a life-cycle cost model for evaluation of COTS and custom display designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Alberto B.; Danish, Alexander J.; Marcus, David

    2002-04-01

    This paper demonstrates Web-LCCA, a life cycle cost model developed by Northrop Grumman Information Technology, formerly Litton-TASC. The model was developed under contract to the United States Display Consortium (USDC) for use in a collaborative fashion by industry and government during the military Display acquisition cycle. Version 1 was released in March 2001 to USDC members and government program offices. Version 2 of the model is under development and features modeling of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom display designs. Other features include hardware commonality across system designs, operational availability versus LCC tradeoffs, cost risk analysis of alternative design options, and enhanced model usability. The model will be available via the Internet for use by both military Government Program Offices and the display industry.

  7. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    al., 2008; Panfilov et al., 2006). These existing H{sub 2} facilities are quite small by natural gas storage standards. The second stage of the analysis involved providing ANL with estimated geostorage costs of hydrogen within salt caverns for various market penetrations for four representative cities (Houston, Detroit, Pittsburgh and Los Angeles). Using these demand levels, the scale and cost of hydrogen storage necessary to meet 10%, 25% and 100% of vehicle summer demands was calculated.

  8. Repair of Composites: Design Choices Leading to Lower Life-Cycle Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassapoglou, Christos; Rangelov, Konstantin; Rangelov, Svilen

    2016-11-01

    The fabrication cost of composite aircraft structures is revisited and the effect of part size on cost is examined with emphasis on design decisions which affect the ease of (bonded) repair and the total cost of the part and subsequent repairs. The case of moderately loaded stiffened fuselage or wing panels under compression is analysed in detail and the fabrication cost of the panel made as a single piece or as an assembly of smaller identical components or modules is determined. The cost of special purpose repairs for two different damage sizes is compared to removing and replacing damaged modules. Hand layup and automated processing are compared. It is found that for certain repair sizes removing and replacing modules leads to lower overall cost as compared to applying a special purpose repair.

  9. The Budding SV3: Estimating the Cost of Architectural Growth Early in the Life Cycle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-30

    Systems Engineering Cost Model ) and the SV3. Based on its stochastic nature, this procedure is further implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation ...ABSTRACT As the systems engineering community continues to mature model -based approaches exciting opportunities for sophisticated, computational analysis...we estimate the marginal increase in systems engineering effort via an explicit connection between the open academic cost model COSYSMO (Constructive

  10. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    PubMed

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  11. The costs and consequences of obesity in Germany: a new approach from a prevalence and life-cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Effertz, Tobias; Engel, Susanne; Verheyen, Frank; Linder, Roland

    2016-12-01

    With the steadily growing health burden of obesity in Germany, the measuring and quantification of its costs and relevant economic consequences have become increasingly important. The usual quantifications via previous cost-of-illness approaches mostly have several weaknesses, e.g., applying "indirect methods" by using "population-attributable fractions" to identify parts of costs that can be accrued to obesity, second using highly aggregated data and third often only displaying part of the costs. This article presents a new approach and a new estimation of the cost and consequences of obesity in Germany using claims data from a German health insurance company. A sample of 146,000 individuals was analyzed with both a prevalence and a life-cycle focus on the cost and consequences of obesity. With additional data sets, we calculate the deaths per year due to obesity, the excess costs per year and several intangible consequences usually referred to as "pain and suffering". Our results show that the cost estimations of obesity in Germany so far have been largely underestimated. The annual direct costs of obesity in Germany amount to approximately €29.39 billion and the indirect costs to an additional €33.65 billion. A total of 102,000 subjects die prematurely each year because of obesity, and there is a significant excess of unemployment, long-term nursing care, and pain and suffering due to obesity. From a lifetime perspective, every obese man is equal to an additional burden of €166,911 and each woman of €206,526 for the social security system in Germany. Obesity due to unhealthy eating is thus about to replace tobacco consumption in terms of costs and consequences as the main hazardous lifestyle factor and thus should be more intensively focussed by public health policy.

  12. Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-09-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  13. An Integrated Approach to Life Cycle Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chytka, T. M.; Brown, R. W.; Shih, A. T.; Reeves, J. D.; Dempsey, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is the evaluation of the impacts that design decisions have on a system and provides a framework for identifying and evaluating design benefits and burdens associated with the life cycles of space transportation systems from a "cradle-to-grave" approach. Sometimes called life cycle assessment, life cycle approach, or "cradle to grave analysis", it represents a rapidly emerging family of tools and techniques designed to be a decision support methodology and aid in the development of sustainable systems. The implementation of a Life Cycle Analysis can vary and may take many forms; from global system-level uncertainty-centered analysis to the assessment of individualized discriminatory metrics. This paper will focus on a proven LCA methodology developed by the Systems Analysis and Concepts Directorate (SACD) at NASA Langley Research Center to quantify and assess key LCA discriminatory metrics, in particular affordability, reliability, maintainability, and operability. This paper will address issues inherent in Life Cycle Analysis including direct impacts, such as system development cost and crew safety, as well as indirect impacts, which often take the form of coupled metrics (i.e., the cost of system unreliability). Since LCA deals with the analysis of space vehicle system conceptual designs, it is imperative to stress that the goal of LCA is not to arrive at the answer but, rather, to provide important inputs to a broader strategic planning process, allowing the managers to make risk-informed decisions, and increase the likelihood of meeting mission success criteria.

  14. A Life-Cycle Cost Estimating Methodology for NASA-Developed Air Traffic Control Decision Support Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jianzhong Jay; Datta, Koushik; Landis, Michael R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a life-cycle cost (LCC) estimating methodology for air traffic control Decision Support Tools (DSTs) under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), using a combination of parametric, analogy, and expert opinion methods. There is no one standard methodology and technique that is used by NASA or by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for LCC estimation of prospective Decision Support Tools. Some of the frequently used methodologies include bottom-up, analogy, top-down, parametric, expert judgement, and Parkinson's Law. The developed LCC estimating methodology can be visualized as a three-dimensional matrix where the three axes represent coverage, estimation, and timing. This paper focuses on the three characteristics of this methodology that correspond to the three axes.

  15. Life-Cycle-Cost Analysis of the Microwave Landing System Ground and Airborne Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    relative costs and reliability of the system have been programmed into the cost model. 5.3 RESULTS OF APPLYING THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS MODEL The ARINC ...Young, K. Peter 1326-01-16-2547 9. Porferintg Ogeni etiet Noise and Address 10. WoA Unit No. (TRAIS) ARINC Reseaarch Corporation 2551 Riva Road 11...Throughout this study, ARINC Research Corporation received enthusiastic and invaluable support from the engineering and management staffs of the Federal

  16. Military Compensation in the Armenian Armed Forces: Life Cycle Cost Model for the Armenian Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    RETIREMENT TOTAL: 4,441,480,235 ( AMD ) ( AMD ) TOTAL  LIFE  CYCLE COST FOR BRIGADE: 40,066,514,120 46 model for staffing the PKB. The second scenario...Armenians a savings of almost 10.6 billion AMD over the 40-year life of the PKB, about a 25% reduction in total costs. All costs are above are in constant...Staffing Enlisted Staffing Initial Staffing OVERALL ACTIVE DUTY TOTAL: 27,822,240,026 OVERALL RETIREMENT TOTAL: 1,640,781,108 ( AMD ) ( AMD ) TOTAL  LIFE

  17. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  18. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kelly T.; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students. PMID:27355962

  19. The Life-Cycle Costs of School Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Access in Kenyan Primary Schools.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kelly T; Mwaki, Alex; Adhiambo, Dorothy; Cheney-Coker, Malaika; Muga, Richard; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-06-27

    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) programs in schools can increase the health, dignity and comfort of students and teachers. Understanding the costs of WASH facilities and services in schools is one essential piece for policy makers to utilize when budgeting for schools and helping to make WASH programs more sustainable. In this study we collected data from NGO and government offices, local hardware shops and 89 rural primary schools across three Kenyan counties. Current expenditures on WASH, from school and external (NGO, government, parent) sources, averaged 1.83 USD per student per year. After reviewing current expenditures, estimated costs of operations and maintenance for bringing schools up to basic WASH standards, were calculated to be 3.03 USD per student per year. This includes recurrent costs, but not the cost of installing or setting up WASH infrastructure, which was 18,916 USD per school, for a school of 400 students (4.92 USD per student, per year). These findings demonstrate the need for increases in allocations to schools in Kenya, and stricter guidance on how money should be spent on WASH inputs to enable all schools to provide basic WASH for all students.

  20. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the

  1. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Yangali-Quintanilla, V; Ghaffour, N; Amy, G; Leiknes, T; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis - low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis - advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m(3) d(-1) of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m(3) produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  2. User’s Manual for the AFSATCOM Terminal Upgrades Life Cycle Cost Model. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    prime mission operator costs These two quantities are given by the equation below OLCT = 365*PIUP*TNLR ZENPLT(NP,NS)*TNB(NS)* MMPD (NP,LONS))/60 NS NP and...month for platform type NP at location LO(NS) MMPD (NP,LO(NS) = operator activation labor per day for platform type NP deployed at a base with location... MMPD (NP,LO(NS)), MMPM(NP) (AF) Thrust/Fuel Consumption: FGH(NP), THRS(NP) 132 A .. . I l . .. .. . . . . Table 6-2 (continued) Data File 4: Platform

  3. A Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the European Vehicle Buy Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    data from the European Buy History Report and converts it into European acquisition costs that are usable in the LCC algorythymn (LCC * Delivered...THE EUROPEAN VEHICLE BUY PROGRAM THESIS Mi chit* 1 G. Harris Captain, USAF AFIT/GLM/LSM/84S-28 v«_ DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Appra^d tat...ANALYSIS OF THE EUROPEAN VEHICLE BUY PROGRAM K\\ THESIS Michael 6. Harris Captain, USAF AFIT/GLM/LSM/84S-28 DTIC EI^ECTE DE(Sl 2 1984 D

  4. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the computational techniques employed in determining the optimal propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. The computer programs used to perform calculations for all the factors that enter into the selection process of determining the optimum combinations of airplanes and engines are examined. Attention is given to the description of the computer codes including NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. A process is illustrated by which turbine engines can be evaluated as to fuel consumption, engine weight, cost and installation effects. Examples are shown as to the benefits of variable geometry and of the tradeoff between fuel burned and engine weights. Future plans for further improvements in the analytical modeling of engine systems are also described.

  5. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a scenario analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which would offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply. Geostorage options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and potentially hard rock cavrns. DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an ecocomic analysis methodology to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) a version that is fully arrayed such that all four types of geologic storage options can be assessed at the same time, (2) incorporate specific scenarios illustrating the model's capability, and (3) incorporate more accurate model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules. Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale geostorage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and from the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO{sub 2} in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  6. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  7. Life cycle emissions and cost of producing electricity from coal, natural gas, and wood pellets in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; McKechnie, Jon; Cormier, Denis; Lyng, Robert; Mabee, Warren; Ogino, Akifumi; Maclean, Heather L

    2010-01-01

    The use of coal is responsible for (1)/(5) of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Substitution of coal with biomass fuels is one of a limited set of near-term options to significantly reduce these emissions. We investigate, on a life cycle basis, 100% wood pellet firing and cofiring with coal in two coal generating stations (GS) in Ontario, Canada. GHG and criteria air pollutant emissions are compared with current coal and hypothetical natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) facilities. 100% pellet utilization provides the greatest GHG benefit on a kilowatt-hour basis, reducing emissions by 91% and 78% relative to coal and NGCC systems, respectively. Compared to coal, using 100% pellets reduces NO(x) emissions by 40-47% and SO(x) emissions by 76-81%. At $160/metric ton of pellets and $7/GJ natural gas, either cofiring or NGCC provides the most cost-effective GHG mitigation ($70 and $47/metric ton of CO2 equivalent, respectively). The differences in coal price, electricity generation cost, and emissions at the two GS are responsible for the different options being preferred. A sensitivity analysis on fuel costs reveals considerable overlap in results for all options. A lower pellet price ($100/metric ton) results in a mitigation cost of $34/metric ton of CO2 equivalent for 10% cofiring at one of the GS. The study results suggest that biomass utilization in coal GS should be considered for its potential to cost-effectively mitigate GHGs from coal-based electricity in the near term.

  8. Advanced steam power plant concepts with optimized life-cycle costs: A new approach for maximum customer benefit

    SciTech Connect

    Seiter, C.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal power generation applications is currently enjoying a renaissance. New highly efficient and cost-effective plant concepts together with environmental protection technologies are the main factors in this development. In addition, coal is available on the world market at attractive prices and in many places it is more readily available than gas. At the economical leading edge, standard power plant concepts have been developed to meet the requirements of emerging power markets. These concepts incorporate the high technological state-of-the-art and are designed to achieve lowest life-cycle costs. Low capital cost, fuel costs and operating costs in combination with shortest lead times are the main assets that make these plants attractive especially for IPPs and Developers. Other aspects of these comprehensive concepts include turnkey construction and the willingness to participate in BOO/BOT projects. One of the various examples of such a concept, the 2 x 610-MW Paiton Private Power Project Phase II in Indonesia, is described in this paper. At the technological leading edge, Siemens has always made a major contribution and was pacemaker for new developments in steam power plant technology. Modern coal-fired steam power plants use computer-optimized process and plant design as well as advanced materials, and achieve efficiencies exceeding 45%. One excellent example of this high technology is the world's largest lignite-fired steam power plant Schwarze Pumpe in Germany, which is equipped with two 800 MW Siemens steam turbine generators with supercritical steam parameters. The world's largest 50-Hz single-shaft turbine generator with supercritical steam parameters rated at 1025 MW for the Niederaussem lignite-fired steam power plant in Germany is a further example of the sophisticated Siemens steam turbine technology and sets a new benchmark in this field.

  9. Application of Life Cycle Cost Concept in Weapon Systems Acquisition for the Korea Military.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    level at which many of Korea’s weaponry needs were being met, and new markets were sought to allow produc- tion lines to continue operating. [Ref. 4...1114OLIIEPUCT I’L-PINTSPA FROGNAMN I_______ STA1_F.T( T~zvt A- SLETEDSY- YSTMSANDELMETSA ENIERD PIL PRDCT URCL PRODUCTO INIT DaflR DRIERUD TES... Market Intelliaene Reprs ot oe Greenwich CT: efense marketing 5ystems (DMS), 1984. 9 . TsFar EatAn984.ls 18-8, Sxtet edition. London:europPons m d

  10. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) - Description, Users Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    27 2.2.2.2 Cost of Support (CS) 27 2.2.3 Disposal Costs ( CDP ) 28 2.3 Time Value of Money 282.4 General Assumptions of the RMCM 31 III. DATA FILE...NRC + RC + 2CDP + + 4 NRC Nonrecurring cost total using a baseline year value. RC Recurring cost total using a baseline year value. CDP Cost of system...application, the availability of data, and assurance that costs are not duplicated between cost elements. 27 2.2.3 Disposal Costs ( CDP ) The disposal costs

  11. Screening and life-cycle cost models for new pulverized-coal heating plants: An integrated computer-based module for the central heating plant economic evaluation program (CHPECON). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, R.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.; Blazek, C.F.; Lin, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    Public Law 99-190 requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal for steam generation, but DOD also has an obligation to use the most economical fuel. In support of the coal conversion effort, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has been tasked to develop a series of screening and life-cycle cost models to determine when and where specific coal-combustion technologies can economically be implemented in Army central heating plants. This report documents a pulverized coal-fired boiler analysis model, part of the USACERL-developed Central Heating Plant Economics model (CHPECON). The model is divided into two parts. A preliminary screening model contains options for evaluating new heating plants and cogeneration facilities fueled with pulverized coal, as well as the previous options. A cost model uses the entries provided by the screening model to provide a conceptual facility design, capital (installed) costs of the facility, operation and maintenance costs over the life of the facility, and life-cycle costs. Using these numbers the model produces a summary value for the total life-cycle cost of the plant, and a levelized cost of service.

  12. Translation of the LCC-2 Life Cycle Cost Model to Comply with the CAIG Approved Cost Element Structure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Group (OSD/CAIG) guidance concerning standardization of aircraft systems cost elements. The LCC-2 model was used prior to the CAIG’s standardization...S cost systems at each service [33:2]. Until the formation of the Cost Analysis Improvement Group (CAIG) in 1973, there was no universally accepted...new -’eapons systems that would be needed to counter unknown future threats. This was caused by the pressure for increased performance and schedule

  13. Analysis of environmental factors impacting the life cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery-powered passenger vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-31

    This report presents the results of the further developments and testing of the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Model previously developed by Engineering Systems Management, Inc. (ESM) on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under contract No. DE-AC02-91CH10491. The Model incorporates specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles, battery powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and fuel cell/battery-powered electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  14. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  15. Using Screening Level Environmental Life Cycle Assessment to Aid Decision Making: A Case Study of a College Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwersen, Wesley W.; Curran, Mary Ann; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Hawkins, Troy R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the life cycle environmental impacts of the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering and Applied Sciences' current printed annual report to a version distributed via the internet. Design/methodology/approach: Life cycle environmental impacts of both versions of the report are modeled using…

  16. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy`s Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program`s life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. STATE-OF-THE-ART AND EMERGING TRUCK ENGINE TECHNOLOGIES FOR OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE, EMISSIONS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schittler, M

    2003-08-24

    The challenge for truck engine product engineering is not only to fulfill increasingly stringent emission requirements, but also to improve the engine's economical viability in its role as the backbone of our global economy. While societal impact and therefore emission limit values are to be reduced in big steps, continuous improvement is not enough but technological quantum leaps are necessary. The introduction and refinement of electronic control of all major engine systems has already been a quantum leap forward. Maximizing the benefits of these technologies to customers and society requires full use of parameter optimization and other enabling technologies. The next big step forward will be widespread use of exhaust aftertreatment on all transportation related diesel engines. While exhaust gas aftertreatment has been successfully established on gasoline (Otto cycle) engines, the introduction of exhaust aftertreatment especially for heavy-duty diesel engines will be much mo re demanding. Implementing exhaust gas aftertreatment into commercial vehicle applications is a challenging task but the emission requirements to be met starting in Europe, the USA and Japan in the 2005-2007 timeframe require this step. The engine industry will be able to implement the new technology if all stakeholders support the necessary decisions. One decision has already been taken: the reduction of sulfur in diesel fuel being comparable with the elimination of lead in gasoline as a prerequisite for the three-way catalyst. Now we have the chance to optimize ecology and economy of the Diesel engine simultaneously by taking the decision to provide an additional infrastructure for a NOx reduction agent needed for the introduction of the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology that is already implemented in the electric power generation industry. This requires some effort, but the resulting societal benefits, fuel economy and vehicle life cycle costs are significantly better when

  18. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  19. On the life cycle cost and return on investment of a 500 GW global space solar power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    1987-10-01

    Past studies have produced considerable evidence that Glaser's (1968 and 1973) proposal to establish solar powerplants in the geostationary orbit (to contribute to the supply of our planet with electrical energy) is technically feasible. However, the economical viability and the risks involved were hurdles to be taken. A new reference system using chemical propellants only and lunar resources seem to provide satisfactory answers with respect to economy and risk. Detailed simulations of this new reference concept through a full life cycle provide new insights which are reason enough to encourage further analysis. Data on a 500 GW SSPS system and its technical and financial properties over a 14 year development and 100 year operational life cycle are presented on 24 diagrams.

  20. Using Market Forces to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Product-Level Life Cycle Analysis and Eco-Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. F.; Davis, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Established protocols allow entity-level accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The information contained within GHG inventories is used by entities to manage their carbon footprint and to anticipate future exposure to compulsory GHG markets or taxes. The efficacy of such inventories, as experienced by the consumer, can be improved upon by product-level GHG inventories applying the methods of traditional life cycle analysis (LCA). A voluntary product-level assessment of this type, coupled with an eco-label, would 1) empower consumers with information about the total embodied GHG content of a product, 2) allow companies to understand and manage GHG emissions outside the narrow scope of their entities, and 3) drive reduction of GHG emissions throughout product value chains. The Climate Conservancy (TCC) is a non-profit organization founded to help companies calculate their GHG emissions at the level of individual product units, and to inform consumers about the GHG intensity of the products they choose to purchase. With the assistance of economists, policy experts and scientists, TCC has developed a useful metric for reporting product-level GHG emissions that allows for a normalized comparison of a product's GHG intensity irrespective of industry sector or competitors, where GHG data are often unavailable or incomplete. Using this metric, we envision our Climate Conscious label becoming an important arbiter of choice for consumers seeking ways to mitigate their climate impacts without the need for governmental regulation.

  1. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  2. Effect of various features on the life cycle cost of the timing/synchronization subsystem of the DCS digital communications network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimsey, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect on the life cycle cost of the timing subsystem was examined, when these optional features were included in various combinations. The features included mutual control, directed control, double-ended reference links, independence of clock error measurement and correction, phase reference combining, self-organization, smoothing for link and nodal dropouts, unequal reference weightings, and a master in a mutual control network. An overall design of a microprocessor-based timing subsystem was formulated. The microprocessor (8080) implements the digital filter portion of a digital phase locked loop, as well as other control functions such as organization of the network through communication with processors at neighboring nodes.

  3. Hybrid life-cycle environmental and cost inventory of sewage sludge treatment and end-use scenarios: a case study from China.

    PubMed

    Murray, Ashley; Horvath, Arpad; Nelson, Kara L

    2008-05-01

    Sewage sludge management poses environmental, economic, and political challenges for wastewater treatment plants and municipalities around the globe. To facilitate more informed and sustainable decision making, this study used life-cycle inventory (LCI) to expand upon previous process-based LCIs of sewage sludge treatmenttechnologies. Additionally, the study evaluated an array of productive end-use options for treated sewage sludge, such as fertilizer and as an input into construction materials, to determine how the sustainability of traditional manufacturing processes changes with sludge as a replacement for other raw inputs. The inclusion of the life-cycle of necessary inputs (such as lime) used in sludge treatment significantly impacts the sustainability profiles of different treatment and end-use schemes. Overall, anaerobic digestion is generally the optimal treatment technology whereas incineration, particularly if coal-fired, is the most environmentally and economically costly. With respect to sludge end use, offsets are greatest for the use of sludge as fertilizer, but all of the productive uses of sludge can improve the sustainability of conventional manufacturing practices. The results are intended to help inform and guide decisions about sludge handling for existing wastewater treatment plants and those that are still in the planning phase in cities around the world. Although additional factors must be considered when selecting a sludge treatment and end-use scheme, this study highlights how a systems approach to planning can contribute significantly to improving overall environmental sustainability.

  4. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  5. Multiple stressors and complex life cycles: insights from a population-level assessment of breeding site contamination and terrestrial habitat loss in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Salice, Christopher J; Rowe, Christopher L; Pechmann, Joseph H K; Hopkins, William A

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the effects of chemical contaminants on natural populations is challenging, as multiple anthropogenic and natural stressors may individually and interactively influence responses. Population models can be used to evaluate the impacts of multiple stressors and to provide insight into population-level effects and/or data gaps. For amphibians with complex life cycles, population models may be useful in understanding impacts of stressors that are unique to the habitat type (aquatic, terrestrial) and that operate at different times in the life cycle. We investigated the population-level effects of aquatic contaminants (coal combustion residues, CCR) and terrestrial habitat loss on the eastern narrowmouth toad, Gastrophryne carolinensis, using existing empirical data that demonstrated negative reproductive and developmental effects of CCR and a series of population models that incorporated density dependence and environmental stochasticity. Results of deterministic models indicated that when terrestrial habitat was abundant, CCR-exposed toads had a larger population size compared to the reference population as a result of reduced density-dependent effects on larval survival. However, when stochasticity in the form of catastrophic reproductive failure was included, CCR-exposed toads were more susceptible to decline and extinction compared to toads from the reference populations. The results highlight the complexities involved in assessing the effects of anthropogenic factors on natural populations, especially for species that are exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stressors during different periods in the life cycle.

  6. Technical Review and Analysis of Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics Life Cycle Cost Analysis Model (CNVEO LCCAM),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    this a valid input, spell it correctly. MAREF, APTFUC, MEPRO, MEREF, These variables were omitted from the CAIDES source coding. PEMA NUMPY Is spelled...Production Cost A-4 W WI: ECW WW WV.L .. . :iw~5’ v -uu’. ni.m7. : . * - ws. - i.-. u .-v PCOST = [SP(I)*NMS(IS)*AUCY(I,IS)*COMP(I)] +[ (SAL4* NUMPY (I) )+SCC...cost of each module for each year. SAL4 = Yearly salary of a contractor. NUMPY (I) = Number of man-years of PEMA recurring engineering by year. COMP(I

  7. An Approach to the Application of Life Cycle Cost Concept in Weapon Systems Acquisition for the Venezuelan Navy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    resources such as buildings or land, or such intangible costs as departure from a strong precedent), especially where they differ between alternatives...1010 Venezuela S.A. 9. Jefatura de Logistics 4 * Comandancia Gereral de la 1arina Caracas 1010 Venezuela S.A. 10. Jefatura de Educacion 2 * Comandancia

  8. Toward a life cycle-based, diet-level framework for food environmental impact and nutritional quality assessment: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A; Willett, Walter C

    2013-11-19

    Supplying adequate human nutrition within ecosystem carrying capacities is a key element in the global environmental sustainability challenge. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used effectively to evaluate the environmental impacts of food production value chains and to identify opportunities for targeted improvement strategies. Dietary choices and resulting consumption patterns are the drivers of production, however, and a consumption-oriented life cycle perspective is useful in understanding the environmental implications of diet choices. This review identifies 32 studies that use an LCA framework to evaluate the environmental impact of diets or meals. It highlights the state of the art, emerging methodological trends and current challenges and limitations to such diet-level LCA studies. A wide range of bases for analysis and comparison (i.e., functional units) have been employed in LCAs of foods and diet; we conceptually map appropriate functional unit choices to research aims and scope and argue for a need to move in the direction of a more sophisticated and comprehensive nutritional basis in order to link nutritional health and environmental objectives. Nutritional quality indices are reviewed as potential approaches, but refinement through ongoing collaborative research between environmental and nutritional sciences is necessary. Additional research needs include development of regionally specific life cycle inventory databases for food and agriculture and expansion of the scope of assessments beyond the current focus on greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier.

  10. Reliability, Maintainability, and Life Cycle Cost Effects of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Equipment. Volume I. Technical Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    DEIECOMt4ERCIAL DETERMINE/ PREDICT CONDUCT 4ORMALIZE FF-THE-SHELF RELIABILITY AND LCC LCC VALUES LFiTE4TIV ANALYSI--,jMAINTAINABILITY SV LUES D ASSIGN...NUMSER RADC-TR-83-29 Vol I (of two) ,b -A/9 Y!2 _5- 4. TITLE (and Subelft.) S. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED RELIABILITY , MAINTAINABILITY, AND LIFE...environment. The guidelines were to define for a Program Manager the advantages/disadvantages of each class in terms of reliability , maintainability, cost

  11. Improvement to the Standardization Life-Cycle-Cost Model for Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical Components and Equipments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    application of this model in the ship design process has been con- sidered by NAVSEA for use as an aid in selecting standard or nonstandard HM&E...the latter type of C/E is designated as "nonstandard," while the C/E already in the Navy inventory is designated as "standard." 2.1.2 Enhancement In the...specific technical data directly related to the designated C/E. 0 Standard data - general input and cost data normally obtained from the Government

  12. The Cost of Information Systems Modernization: A Comparison of Options for Life-Cycle Project Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    PC, minicomputer, or mainframe computer), off-the-shelf project management/scheduling software (e.g., Open Plan, Primavera , etc.); and database for...linked to * CETAL * Screens, reports division 0 CWS 0 Open Plan e Open Plan functions Mobile * Sperry 0 Primavera 0 INFORMIX- e COEMIS F&A 0 INFORMIX...cost 5000/95 SQL o CETAL, PMRS query system * Harris * CWS 0 Data interfaces * Primavera o COBOL Sacramento 0 PC network 0 Custom C 0 COEMIS F&A

  13. Waste Management Facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing mixed low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  14. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  15. A Logistic Life Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis of Power Quality Management in the Avionics Repair Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The objective of this research is to investigate the impact that...of this research is to investigate the impact that power quality management can have on the intermediate level of maintenance. Power quality...MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 7 A.NAVAL AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PHILOSOPHY 7 B. MAINTENANCE CONCEPTS AND LEVELS 8 1. Organizational Maintenance 9 2.1ntermediate

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sujit

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites is gaining momentum with the pressure to lightweight vehicles, however energy-intensity and cost remain some of the major barriers before this material could be used in large-scale automotive applications. A representative automotive part, i.e., a 30.8 kg steel floor pan having a 17% weight reduction potential with stringent cash performance requirements has been considered for the life cycle energy and emissions analysis based on the latest developments occurring in the precursor type (conventional textile-based PAN vs. renewable-based lignin), part manufacturing (conventional SMC vs. P4) and fiber recycling technologies. Carbon fiber production is estimated to be about 14 times more energy-intensive than conventional steel production, however life cycle primary energy use is estimated to be quite similar to the conventional part, i.e., 18,500 MJ/part, especially when considering the uncertainty in LCI data that exists from using numerous sources in the literature. Lignin P4 technology offers the most life cycle energy and CO2 emissions benefits compared to a conventional stamped steel technology. With a 20% reduction in energy use in the lignin conversion to carbon fiber and free availability of lignin as a by-product of ethanol and wood production, a 30% reduction in life cycle energy use could be obtained. A similar level of life cycle energy savings could also be obtained with a higher part weight reduction potential of 43%.

  17. Nuclear DNA level and life cycle of kelps: Evidence for sex-specific polyteny in Macrocystis (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Müller, Dieter G; Maier, Ingo; Marie, Dominique; Westermeier, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus) C. Agardh, is the subject of intense breeding studies for marine biomass production and conservation of natural resources. In this context, six gametophyte pairs and a sporophyte offspring of Macrocystis from South America were analyzed by flow cytometry. Minimum relative DNA content per cell (1C) was found in five males. Unexpectedly, nuclei of all female gametophytes contained approximately double the DNA content (2C) of males; the male gametophyte from one locality also contained 2C, likely a spontaneous natural diploid variant. The results illustrate a sex-specific difference in nuclear DNA content among Macrocystis gametophytes, with the chromosomes of the females in a polytenic condition. This correlates with significantly larger cell sizes in female gametophytes compared to males and resource allocation in oogamous reproduction. The results provide key information for the interpretation of DNA measurements in kelp life cycle stages and prompt further research on the regulation of the cell cycle, metabolic activity, sex determination, and sporophyte development.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  19. Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2008-10-15

    Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could helpthe United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTLfuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow.

  20. Interim report: Waste management facilities cost information for mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for treating alpha and nonalpha mixed low-level radioactive waste. This report contains information on twenty-seven treatment, storage, and disposal modules that can be integrated to develop total life cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also summarized in this report.

  1. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  2. Technology development life cycle processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  3. Daylighting Strategies for U. S. Air Force Office Facilities: Economic Analysis of Building Energy Performance and Life-Cycle Cost Modeling with Monte Carlo Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-26

    approximately $15-23 billion annually in energy consumption. Our research findings show that electrochromic windows have the lowest energy consumption...make emerging daylighitng technology, such as electrochromic windows, viable. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of probabilistic life-cycle... Electrochromic Windows ...........................................................................................35 Windows and Daylighting

  4. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian; Kümmerer, Beate Mareike

    2017-01-01

    The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence. Here we isolated a novel flavivirus, termed Niénokoué virus (NIEV), from mosquitoes sampled in Côte d'Ivoire. NIEV groups with insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in phylogeny and grows in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. We generated an infectious NIEV cDNA clone and a NIEV reporter replicon to study growth restrictions of NIEV in comparison to yellow fever virus (YFV), for which the same tools are available. Efficient RNA replication of the NIEV reporter replicon was observed in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. Initial translation of the input replicon RNA in vertebrate cells was functional, but RNA replication did not occur. Chimeric YFV carrying the envelope proteins of NIEV was recovered via electroporation in C6/36 insect cells but did not infect vertebrate cells, indicating a block at the level of entry. Since the YF/NIEV chimera readily produced infectious particles in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells despite efficient RNA replication, restriction is also determined at the level of assembly/release. Taking the results together, the ability of ISF to infect vertebrates is blocked at several levels, including attachment/entry and RNA replication as well as assembly/release. IMPORTANCE Most viruses of the genus Flavivirus, e.g., YFV and dengue virus, are mosquito borne and transmitted to vertebrates during blood feeding of mosquitoes. Within the last decade, an increasing number

  5. Host Range Restriction of Insect-Specific Flaviviruses Occurs at Several Levels of the Viral Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Junglen, Sandra; Korries, Marvin; Grasse, Wolfgang; Wieseler, Janett; Kopp, Anne; Hermanns, Kyra; León-Juárez, Moises; Drosten, Christian

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Flavivirus contains emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) infecting vertebrates, as well as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) (i.e., viruses whose host range is restricted to insects). ISVs are evolutionary precursors to arboviruses. Knowledge of the nature of the ISV infection block in vertebrates could identify functions necessary for the expansion of the host range toward vertebrates. Mapping of host restrictions by complementation of ISV and arbovirus genome functions could generate knowledge critical to predicting arbovirus emergence. Here we isolated a novel flavivirus, termed Niénokoué virus (NIEV), from mosquitoes sampled in Côte d’Ivoire. NIEV groups with insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in phylogeny and grows in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. We generated an infectious NIEV cDNA clone and a NIEV reporter replicon to study growth restrictions of NIEV in comparison to yellow fever virus (YFV), for which the same tools are available. Efficient RNA replication of the NIEV reporter replicon was observed in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells. Initial translation of the input replicon RNA in vertebrate cells was functional, but RNA replication did not occur. Chimeric YFV carrying the envelope proteins of NIEV was recovered via electroporation in C6/36 insect cells but did not infect vertebrate cells, indicating a block at the level of entry. Since the YF/NIEV chimera readily produced infectious particles in insect cells but not in vertebrate cells despite efficient RNA replication, restriction is also determined at the level of assembly/release. Taking the results together, the ability of ISF to infect vertebrates is blocked at several levels, including attachment/entry and RNA replication as well as assembly/release. IMPORTANCE Most viruses of the genus Flavivirus, e.g., YFV and dengue virus, are mosquito borne and transmitted to vertebrates during blood feeding of mosquitoes. Within the last decade, an

  6. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment for Biofuels

    EPA Science Inventory

    A presentation based on life cycle assessment (LCA) for biofuels is given. The presentation focuses on energy and biofuels, interesting environmental aspects of biofuels, and how to do a life cycle assessment with some examples related to biofuel systems. The stages of a (biofuel...

  8. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  9. [Life cycle assessment on oxygen biofuels].

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong-hong; Zhu, Yong-qing; Wang, Jian-xin; Hao, Ji-ming

    2005-11-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to compare energy consumption and pollutant emissions of two oxygen biofuels, ethanol and methyl ester, which were mixed with gasoline and diesel oil at levels of 10% and 30% of the biofuel. The future of oxygen-containing biofuels was analyzed and forecasted. The results show that the mixture of biofuels and petroleum products can reduce crude oil consumption, but only methyl ester alternative fuel can reduce fossil fuel consumption. Use of methyl ester mixtures would reduce NOx by 50% compared to gasoline or diesel on a life cycle basis; however, NOx would increase using ethanol. Each alternative fuel mixture reduced PM10 emissions from the vehicle and methyl ester decreased VOCs. The SO2 emissions from the fuel production processes, which account for about 80% of SO2 life cycle emissions, must be strictly controlled.

  10. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  11. Life cycle assessment of a rock crusher

    SciTech Connect

    Landfield, A.H.; Karra, V.

    1999-07-01

    Nordberg, Inc., a capital equipment manufacturer, performed a Life Cycle Assessment study on its rock crusher to aid in making decisions on product design and energy improvements. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a relatively new cutting edge environmental tool recently standardized by ISO that provides quantitative environmental and energy data on products or processes. This paper commences with a brief introduction to LCA and presents the system boundaries, modeling and assumptions for the rock crusher study. System boundaries include all life major cycle stages except manufacturing and assembly of the crusher. Results of the LCA show that over 99% of most of the flows into and out of the system may be attributed to the use phase of the rock crusher. Within the use phase itself, over 95% of each environmental inflow and outflow (with some exceptions) are attributed to electricity consumption, and not the replacement of spares/wears or lubricating oil over the lifetime of the crusher. Results tables and charts present selected environmental flows, including CO{sub 2} NOx, SOx, particulate matter, and energy consumption, for each of the rock crusher life cycle stages and the use phase. This paper aims to demonstrate the benefits of adopting a rigorous scientific approach to assess energy and environmental impacts over the life cycle of capital equipment. Nordberg has used these results to enhance its engineering efforts toward developing an even more energy efficient machine to further progress its vision of providing economic solutions to its customers by reducing the crusher operating (mainly electricity) costs.

  12. Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

    2009-10-02

    Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

  13. Life-Cycle Analysis of Aircraft Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    8217total dej’ot wind batse) costs , Theii other budget. ctcourbta, providted by vi’giite flintily (not, by application). include BPI&5)0, Suppor’t...acquire early visibility of cost magnitudes, proportions, and trends associated with a new engine’s life cycle, and to identify "drivers" that increase... cost and can have the effect of lowering capability. Later in the life cycle, logistics managers can use the methodology and the feedback it produces

  14. Design to Cost and Life Cycle Cost.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    f ixed 1)ri t- i at te bi- iegi i iIitg i thte c ont rac t, tie manufac tur er agrees t o repa Ir all faut ty parts arnd fuirthier t o mno d if v it...meilleor rendemeit par loeffet du facteur d’amrplification. -Encoe faut -il avoir choisi parmi les technologies en cours de d ~veloppement, cello -jul a le...6ventuels, etc. * Choix du meilleur compromia. Le jugement est A porter en foniction des objectifs principaux citds plus haut et il faut d ~finir des crit~res

  15. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Enviromental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  16. Effect of latitudinal variations in low-level baroclinicity on eddy life cycles and upper-tropospheric wave-breaking processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, G.

    2009-09-01

    Storm tracks play a crucial role in the dynamics of the general circulation of the atmosphere and particularly of the teleconnections such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Baroclinic waves may displace the large-scale jets during their breaking with anticyclonic and cyclonic wave breaking leading generally to a northward and southward displacement of the jets respectively. For example, it has been recently shown by different authors that the positive and the negative phases of the NAO are closely related to anticyclonic and cyclonic wave breaking respectively. The purpose of our study is to look at the reverse side: the impact of the jet latitude onto wave-breaking processes by performing idealized numerical simulations using a primitive-equation model on the sphere (the PUMA model). We first focus on normal mode analysis. By prescribing different types of jets, we study the effects of their latitude on normal mode structures and their breaking using nonlinear simulations. A second stage consists in forcing the model by relaxing the temperature field toward a given restoration temperature. Sensitivity runs are performed by using different restoration temperature fields to look at the effect of the latitude of the low-level baroclinicity on eddy life cycles. Implication for the eddy feedback onto the large-scale circulation is more precisely investigated. Our results reveal that eddies exert a positive feedback onto the latitudinal variations of the large-scale jets. Finally, these results are used to interpret some wave-breaking processes found in the observations of the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Optimization of data life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  18. Life-Cycle Data Management at NOAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates over a hundred observing systems which span the environment from the bottom of the ocean to the surface of the Sun. The resulting data are essential for immediate priorities such as weather forecasting, and the data also constitute an irreplaceable resource collected at great cost. It is therefore necessary to carefully preserve this information for ongoing scientific use, for new research and applications, and to ensure reproducibility of scientific conclusions. The NOAA data life-cycle includes activities in three major phases: planning and production, management of the resulting data, and usage activities. This paper will describe current work by the NOAA Environmental Data Management Committee (EDMC), Data Management Integration Team (DMIT), and the NOAA National Data Centers in areas including DM planning, documentation, cataloging, data access, and preservation and stewardship to improve and standardize policies and practices for life-cycle data management.

  19. Menopause: A Life Cycle Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evarts, Barbara Kess; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Family therapists need to address the issue of menopause proactively to be of benefit to couples and families during this transitional period in the family life cycle. Physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors affecting the menopausal woman and her family, and ways to address these issues in counseling are discussed. (Author/EMK)

  20. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  1. Sourcing Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The collection and validation of quality lifecycle inventory (LCI) data can be the most difficult and time-consuming aspect of developing a life cycle assessment (LCA). Large amounts of process and production data are needed to complete the LCI. For many studies, the LCA analyst ...

  2. Optimizing product life cycle processes in design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faneye, Ola. B.; Anderl, Reiner

    2002-02-01

    Life cycle concepts do not only serve as basis in assisting product developers understand the dependencies between products and their life cycles, they also help in identifying potential opportunities for improvement in products. Common traditional concepts focus mainly on energy and material flow across life phases, necessitating the availability of metrics derived from a reference product. Knowledge of life cycle processes won from an existing product is directly reused in its redesign. Depending on sales volume nevertheless, the environmental impact before product optimization can be substantial. With modern information technologies today, computer-aided life cycle methodologies can be applied well before product use. On the basis of a virtual prototype, life cycle processes are analyzed and optimized, using simulation techniques. This preventive approach does not only help in minimizing (or even eliminating) environmental burdens caused by product, costs incurred due to changes in real product can also be avoided. The paper highlights the relationship between product and life cycle and presents a computer-based methodology for optimizing the product life cycle during design, as presented by SFB 392: Design for Environment - Methods and Tools at Technical University, Darmstadt.

  3. Fuel Cell Power Model Elucidates Life-Cycle Costs for Fuel Cell-Based Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power (CHHP) Production Systems (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in accurately modeling costs for fuel cell-based combined heat, hydrogen, and power systems. Work was performed by NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  4. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools

  5. The Model Life-cycle: Training Module

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Model Life-Cycle includes identification of problems & the subsequent development, evaluation, & application of the model. Objectives: define ‘model life-cycle’, explore stages of model life-cycle, & strategies for development, evaluation, & applications.

  6. Using Life-Cycle Human Factors Engineering to Avoid $2.4 Million in Costs: Lessons Learned from NASA's Requirements Verification Process for Space Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Daniel; Ellenberger, Rich

    2008-01-01

    The Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) process has been used to verify human factors requirements for NASA International Space Station (ISS) payloads since 2003, resulting in $2.4 million in avoided costs. This cost benefit has been realized by greatly reducing the need to process time-consuming formal waivers (exceptions) for individual requirements violations. The HFIT team, which includes astronauts and their technical staff, acts as the single source for human factors requirements integration of payloads. HFIT has the authority to provide inputs during early design phases, thus eliminating many potential requirements violations in a cost-effective manner. In those instances where it is not economically or technically feasible to meet the precise metric of a given requirement, HFIT can work with the payload engineers to develop common sense solutions and formally document that the resulting payload design does not materially affect the astronaut s ability to operate and interact with the payload. The HFIT process is fully ISO 9000 compliant and works concurrently with NASA s formal systems engineering work flow. Due to its success with payloads, the HFIT process is being adapted and extended to ISS systems hardware. Key aspects of this process are also being considered for NASA's Space Shuttle replacement, the Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  7. Proceedings of OSD Aircraft Engine Design & Life Cycle Cost Seminar Held at Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania, May 17, 18 & 19, 1978,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    for Acquisition Management, NAVAIR GOOD MORNING, I AM VERY GLAD TO BE HERE TO SPEAK TO YOU ON ONE OF THE MOST CRUCIAL CHALLENGES FACING THE DEFENSE...Generally speaking , the highest TBO with- out sacrificing safety is the most economical maintenance plan. 12 ,. 0 0- ,,-- 3E3 -LU 2c o %a aJ 0 2c...161 UNCLASSFI ROLLS-ROYCE M =~T Ao DIVSION - BRITOL LOW COST DESIGN TZCMTIL7UM ANV THIR. LP=CAT:ON TO ME DEION OF ROM1tLLS-RQ’tCE F3.401 AUTHORS R.J

  8. Does It Have a Life Cycle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2010-01-01

    If life continues from generation to generation, then all plants and animals must go through a life cycle, even though it may be different from organism to organism. Is this what students have "learned," or do they have their own private conceptions about life cycles? The formative assessment probe "Does It Have a Life Cycle?" reveals some…

  9. Cost Reduction Through the Use of Additive Manufacturing (3d Printing) and Collaborative Product Life Cycle Management Technologies to Enhance the Navy’s Maintenance Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Level Military and Civilian Medium Medium Depot Level Civilian High High D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AM, more commonly known as 3D printing, is a...Thermoplastics (e.g., PLA, ABS), HDPE, eutectic metals, edible materials Granular Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Most metal alloys ...Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys Selective laser melting (SLM) Titanium alloys , cobalt chrome alloys , stainless steel, aluminum Selective heat

  10. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Yong X. Tao; Yimin Zhu

    2012-04-26

    It has been widely recognized that the energy saving benefits of GSHP systems are best realized in the northern and central regions where heating needs are dominant or both heating and cooling loads are comparable. For hot and humid climate such as in the states of FL, LA, TX, southern AL, MS, GA, NC and SC, buildings have much larger cooling needs than heating needs. The Hybrid GSHP (HGSHP) systems therefore have been developed and installed in some locations of those states, which use additional heat sinks (such as cooling tower, domestic water heating systems) to reject excess heat. Despite the development of HGSHP the comprehensive analysis of their benefits and barriers for wide application has been limited and often yields non-conclusive results. In general, GSHP/HGSHP systems often have higher initial costs than conventional systems making short-term economics unattractive. Addressing these technical and financial barriers call for additional evaluation of innovative utility programs, incentives and delivery approaches. From scientific and technical point of view, the potential for wide applications of GSHP especially HGSHP in hot and humid climate is significant, especially towards building zero energy homes where the combined energy efficient GSHP and abundant solar energy production in hot climate can be an optimal solution. To address these challenges, this report presents gathering and analyzing data on the costs and benefits of GSHP/HGSHP systems utilized in southern states using a representative sample of building applications. The report outlines the detailed analysis to conclude that the application of GSHP in Florida (and hot and humid climate in general) shows a good potential.

  11. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  12. A Cost Analysis for Life-Cycle Preventive Maintenance, Administrative Storage, and Condition-Based Maintenance for the U.S. Marine Corps Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-04

    cover , troop seats, bows, staves, and brackets 0.2 Inspect windshield washer fluid bottle 0.1 Inspect coolant over flow tank and coolant level 0.1...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 04 DEC 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00...Inspect windshield wiper arms and blades 0.1 Inspect lights and reflectors 0.8 Inspect windshield and glass 0.8 Check engine oil 0.2 Inspect ether

  13. Life cycle of cytosolic prions.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions.

  14. Life cycle of cytosolic prions

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions. PMID:24021964

  15. Composite Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Estimating Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner , the 15 company has become a leader in composite...aircraft manufacturing. Boeing reports that the new 787 Dreamliner will be composed of 80% of composite material by structure and 50% of composites...for Boeing to incorporate composites into a significant percentage of the structure of the 787 Dreamliner . Looking at Figure 1 it is evident

  16. An Interactive Life Cycle Cost Forecasting Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    rmnkControl C.ich,go,go2, temp); GD: ’UPCASE (GO); CASE DO OF ’S’: montecarlo ; ’U:uRANDDOM; ’N’:nrandon; ’M’ :mu. ti randorr; END; (* END OF CASE ’ end; (* end

  17. Life Cycle Cost for Drainage Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    structures ftetler Johm C. final rosomt rpan-meiL -- " abir l8 Avoilacolditioms mateios i trea-iIngth rmatrian durabilit, c25 ort, Roald tyeoad cinlfitbein...Gno•es on Structural Component Due to Failure Events, Journal of Civil Iwlneering for Practicing and Design Engineers. Readpriono, F. C., and Wang , H. K

  18. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  19. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  20. NATO Independent Cost Estimating and the Role of Life Cycle Cost Analysis in Managing the Defence Enterprise (Estimation independante des couts de l’OTAN et role de l’analyse des couts globaux de possesssion au sen de l’OTAN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Acknowledgements xviii SAS-076 Membership List xix Executive Summary and Synthèse ES-1 1.0 Introduction 2 1.1 Background 2 1.2 Provenance and...Methodology C-10 4.3.1 Assessing Capability – System Architecture C-10 4.3.2 Assessing Capability – Execution Details C-11 4.3.3 Estimating...NATO Independent Cost Estimating and the Role of Life Cycle Cost Analysis in Managing the Defence Enterprise (RTO-TR-SAS-076) Executive Summary At

  1. Role of nondestructive evaluation in life cycle management

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.

    1997-12-18

    This paper provides an overview of some common NDE methods and several examples for the use of different NDE techniques throughout the life cycle of a product. NDE techniques are being used to help determine material properties, design new implants, extend the service life of aircraft, and help dispose of radioactive waste in a safe manner. It is the opinion of this author and others that the NDE community needs to work more closely with end users in the life cycle of a product to better incorporate NDE techniques. The NDE community needs to highlight the importance of NDE in the entire life-cycle process of a product by showing real costs savings to the manufacturing community.

  2. Application of Life Cycle Assessment on Electronic Waste Management: A Review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-01

    Electronic waste is a rich source of both valuable materials and toxic substances. Management of electronic waste is one of the biggest challenges of current worldwide concern. As an effective and prevailing environmental management tool, life cycle assessment can evaluate the environmental performance of electronic waste management activities. Quite a few scientific literatures reporting life cycle assessment of electronic waste management with significant outcomes have been recently published. This paper reviewed the trends, characteristics, research gaps, and challenges of these studies providing detailed information for practitioners involved in electronic waste management. The results showed that life cycle assessment studies were most carried out in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The research subject of the studies mainly includes monitors, waste printed circuit boards, mobile phones, computers, printers, batteries, toys, dishwashers, and light-emitting diodes. CML was the most widely used life cycle impact assessment method in life cycle assessment studies on electronic waste management, followed by EI99. Furthermore, 40% of the reviewed studies combined with other environmental tools, including life cycle cost, material flow analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, emergy analysis, and hazard assessment which came to more comprehensive conclusions from different aspects. The research gaps and challenges including uneven distribution of life cycle assessment studies, life cycle impact assessment methods selection, comparison of the results, and uncertainty of the life cycle assessment studies were examined. Although life cycle assessment of electronic waste management facing challenges, their results will play more and more important role in electronic waste management practices.

  3. Application of Life Cycle Assessment on Electronic Waste Management: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-01

    Electronic waste is a rich source of both valuable materials and toxic substances. Management of electronic waste is one of the biggest challenges of current worldwide concern. As an effective and prevailing environmental management tool, life cycle assessment can evaluate the environmental performance of electronic waste management activities. Quite a few scientific literatures reporting life cycle assessment of electronic waste management with significant outcomes have been recently published. This paper reviewed the trends, characteristics, research gaps, and challenges of these studies providing detailed information for practitioners involved in electronic waste management. The results showed that life cycle assessment studies were most carried out in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The research subject of the studies mainly includes monitors, waste printed circuit boards, mobile phones, computers, printers, batteries, toys, dishwashers, and light-emitting diodes. CML was the most widely used life cycle impact assessment method in life cycle assessment studies on electronic waste management, followed by EI99. Furthermore, 40% of the reviewed studies combined with other environmental tools, including life cycle cost, material flow analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis, emergy analysis, and hazard assessment which came to more comprehensive conclusions from different aspects. The research gaps and challenges including uneven distribution of life cycle assessment studies, life cycle impact assessment methods selection, comparison of the results, and uncertainty of the life cycle assessment studies were examined. Although life cycle assessment of electronic waste management facing challenges, their results will play more and more important role in electronic waste management practices.

  4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following document provides an introductory overview of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and describes the general uses and major components of LCA. This document is an update and merger of two previous EPA documents on LCA ("Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Princip...

  5. The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

  6. From life cycle talking to taking action

    EPA Science Inventory

    The series of Life Cycle Management (LCM) conferences has aimed to create a platform for users and developers of life cycle assessment tools to share their experiences as they challenge traditional environmental management practices, which are narrowly confined (“gate-to-gate”) a...

  7. The priming of periodical cicada life cycles.

    PubMed

    Grant, Peter R

    2005-04-01

    Periodical cicadas in the genus Magicicada have unusually long life cycles for insects, with periodicities of either 13 or 17 years. Biologists have explained the evolution of these prime number period lengths in terms of resource limitation, enemy avoidance, hybridization and climate change. Here, I question two aspects of these explanations: that the origin of the life cycles was associated with Pleistocene ice age events, and that they evolved from shorter life cycles through the lengthening of nymphal stages in annual increments. Instead, I suggest that these life cycles evolved earlier than the Pleistocene and involved an abrupt transition from a nine-year to a 13-year life cycle, driven, in part, by interspecific competition.

  8. A Life-Cycle Comparison of Alternative Automobile Fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B; Lankey, Rebecca; Joshi, Satish

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  9. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    PubMed

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  10. An IMS Station life cycle from a sustainment point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brely, Natalie; Gautier, Jean-Pierre; Foster, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) is to consist of 321 monitoring facilities, composed of four different technologies with a variety of designs and equipment types, deployed in a range of environments around the globe. The International Monitoring System is conceived to operate in perpetuity through maintenance, replacement and recapitalization of IMS facilities' infrastructure and equipment when the end of service life is reached [CTBT/PTS/INF.1163]. Life Cycle techniques and modellization are being used by the PTS to plan and forecast life cycle sustainment requirements of IMS facilities. Through historical data analysis, Engineering inputs and Feedback from experienced Station Operators, the PTS currently works towards increasing the level of confidence on these forecasts and sustainment requirements planning. Continued validation, feedback and improvement of source data from scientific community and experienced users is sought and essential in order to ensure limited effect on data availability and optimal costs (human and financial).

  11. Transpiration during life cycle in controlled wheat growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1989-01-01

    A previously-developed model of wheat growth, designed for convenient incorporation into system-level models of advanced space life support systems is described. The model is applied to data from an experiment that grew wheat under controlled conditions and measured fresh biomass and cumulated transpiration as a function of time. The adequacy of modeling the transpiration as proportional to the inedible biomass, and an age factor which varies during the life cycle, are examined. Results indicate that during the main phase of vegetative growth in the first half of the life cycle, the rate of transpiration per unit mass of inedible biomass is more than double the rate during the phase of grain development and maturation during latter half of the life cycle.

  12. Multigenerational Exposure of the Estuarine Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) to 17β-estradiol. II. Population-Level Effects Through Two Life Cycles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of multi-generation, population-level impacts is particularly important in the risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) because adverse effects may not be evident during the first generation of exposure. Population models were developed for the shee...

  13. Carbon nanofiber polymer composites: evaluation of life cycle energy use.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vikas; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2009-03-15

    Holistic evaluation of emerging nanotechnologies using systems analysis is pivotal for guiding their safe and sustainable development. While toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials are essential, understanding of the potential large scale impacts of nanotechnology is also critical for developing sustainable nanoproducts. This work evaluates the life cycle energetic impact associated with the production and use of carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced polymer nanocomposites (PNC). Specifically, both simple CNF and carbon nanofiber-glass fiber (CNF-GF) hybrid PNCs are evaluated and compared with steel for equal stiffness design. Life cycle inventory is developed based on published literature and best available engineering information. A cradle-to-gate comparison suggests that for equal stiffness design, CNF reinforced PNCs are 1.6-12 times more energy intensive than steel. It is anticipated that the product use phase may strongly influence whether any net savings in life cycle energy consumption can be realized. A case study involving the use of CNF and CNF-GF reinforced PNCs in the body panels of automobiles highlights that the use of PNCs with lower CNF loading ratios has the potential for net life cycle energy savings relative to steel owing to improved fuel economy benefits. Other factors such as cost, toxicity impact of CNF, and end-of-life issues specific to CNFs need to be considered to evaluate the final economic and environmental performance of CNF reinforced PNC materials.

  14. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  15. Managing the Life Cycle Risks of Nanomaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    is available. 117 Eurekalert (2009) 35 Final Managing the Life Cycle Risks of...nanotechnologies, MEPs say," http://www.euractiv.com/en/science/data-market-nanotechnologies-meps/article-180893, April, 2 2009. Eurekalert . "Southwest Nano

  16. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT: AN INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components ...

  17. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapour pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline and reformate have different octane and vapour pressure...

  19. Developmental Milestones Across the Programmatic Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Glover-Kudon, Rebecca; DeGroff, Amy; Rohan, Elizabeth A.; Preissle, Judith; Boehm, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2005 through 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 sites to implement a colorectal cancer screening program for uninsured, low-income populations. These 5 sites composed a demonstration project intended to explore the feasibility of establishing a national colorectal cancer screening program through various service delivery models. METHODS A longitudinal, multiple case study was conducted to understand and document program implementation processes. Using metaphor as a qualitative analytic technique, evaluators identified stages of maturation across the programmatic life cycle. RESULTS Analysis rendered a working theory of program development during screening implementation. In early stages, program staff built relationships with CDC and local partners around screening readiness, faced real-world challenges putting program policies into practice, revised initial program designs, and developed new professional skills. Midterm implementation was defined by establishing program cohesiveness and expanding programmatic reach. In later stages of implementation, staff focused on sustainability and formal program closeout, which prompted reflection about personal and programmatic accomplishments. CONCLUSIONS Demonstration sites evolved through common developmental stages during screening implementation. Findings elucidate ways to target technical assistance to more efficiently move programs along their maturation trajectory. In practical terms, the time and cost associated with guiding a program to maturity may be potentially shortened to maximize return on investment for both organizations and clients receiving service benefits. PMID:23868487

  20. Life-Cycle-Management of CV Cables based on Degradation Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takeyoshi; Niwa, Mamoru; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    Life-cycle management combined with degradation diagnosis is useful for preventing an unexpected failure and extending service life of electric power apparatuses, minimizing life-cycle cost. We examined a method of life-cycle management based on TBM (Time-Based Maintenance) and CBM (Condition Based Maintenance), and evaluated the economic effect of degradation diagnosis. To carry out reliable life cycle management, however, accurate data on the relation between extent of degradation and failure probability or remaining life as well as a well-established diagnostic method are necessary. In this paper, we examine the influence of accuracy of the data used to determine the optimum diagnostic parameters and evaluate how the life-cycle cost is affected by the employment of inaccurate data. As more condition-oriented life-cycle management, we discuss the effects of a method of life-cycle management based on two diagnosis intervals in terms of reliable life-cycle management. We also discuss the measurement sensitivity necessary for an effective asset management based on diagnosis.

  1. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  2. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2005-11-18

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, but how and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidate the life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichia coli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed and destroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operons form, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findings suggest that operon evolution is driven by selection on gene expression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destruction lead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, the removal of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essential genes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNA damage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone accelerated evolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period. Third, although most operons are closely spaced because of a neutral bias towards deletion and because of selection against large overlaps, highly expressed operons tend to be widely spaced because of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Although operon evolution seems to be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operons often comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already in proximity before the operon formed.

  3. The Life-cycle of Operons

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, Eric J.

    2007-03-15

    Operons are a major feature of all prokaryotic genomes, buthow and why operon structures vary is not well understood. To elucidatethe life-cycle of operons, we compared gene order between Escherichiacoli K12 and its relatives and identified the recently formed anddestroyed operons in E. coli. This allowed us to determine how operonsform, how they become closely spaced, and how they die. Our findingssuggest that operon evolution may be driven by selection on geneexpression patterns. First, both operon creation and operon destructionlead to large changes in gene expression patterns. For example, theremoval of lysA and ruvA from ancestral operons that contained essentialgenes allowed their expression to respond to lysine levels and DNAdamage, respectively. Second, some operons have undergone acceleratedevolution, with multiple new genes being added during a brief period.Third, although genes within operons are usually closely spaced becauseof a neutral bias toward deletion and because of selection against largeoverlaps, genes in highly expressed operons tend to be widely spacedbecause of regulatory fine-tuning by intervening sequences. Althoughoperon evolution may be adaptive, it need not be optimal: new operonsoften comprise functionally unrelated genes that were already inproximity before the operon formed.

  4. Educated Parents, Educated Children: Toward a Multiple Life Cycles Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sticht, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the important intergenerational effects of parents' education level on the achievement of their children, education policies should shift from a focus on one life cycle to a focus on "multiple life cycles". Such a policy would explicitly recognize that adults transfer their educational achievements to the achievement of their…

  5. Life cycle analyses and resource assessments.

    PubMed

    Fredga, Karl; Mäler, Karl-Göran

    2010-01-01

    Prof. Ulgiati stresses that we should always use an ecosystem view when transforming energy from one form to another. Sustainable growth and development of both environmental and human-dominated systems require optimum use of available resources for maximum power output. We have to adapt to the laws of nature because nature has to take care of all the waste products we produce. The presentation addresses a much needed shift away from linear production and consumption pattern, toward reorganization of economies and lifestyle that takes complexity--of resources, of the environment and of the economy--into proper account. The best way to reach maximum yield from the different kinds of biomass is to use biorefineries. Biorefinery is defined as the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products like heat, power, fuels, chemicals, food, feed, and materials. However, biomass from agricultural land must be used for the production of food and not fuel. Prof. Voss focuses on the sustainability of energy supply chains and energy systems. Life cycle analyses (LCA) provides the conceptual framework for a comprehensive comparative evaluation of energy supply options with regard to their resource requirements as well as the health and environmental impact. Full scope LCA considers not only the emissions from plant operation, construction, and decommissioning but also the environmental burdens and resource requirements associated with the entire lifetime of all relevant upstream and downstream processes within the energy chain. This article describes the results of LCA analyses for state-of-the-art heating and electricity systems as well as of advanced future systems. Total costs are used as a measure for the overall resource consumption.

  6. The Life Cycle of Engineered Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    González-Gálvez, David; Janer, Gemma; Vilar, Gemma; Vílchez, Alejandro; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The first years in the twenty-first century have meant the inclusion of nanotechnology in most industrial sectors, from very specific sensors to construction materials. The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential risks for workers, consumers and the environment. In a comprehensive risk assessment or life cycle assessment, a life cycle schema is the starting point necessary to build up the exposure scenarios and study the processes and mechanisms driving to safety concerns. This book chapter describes the processes that usually occur at all the stages of the life cycle of the nano-enabled product, from the nanomaterial synthesis to the end-of-life of the products. Furthermore, release studies reported in literature related to these processes are briefly discussed.

  7. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2013-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate energy, economic, and environmental performances of seven categories of biodiesel feedstocks by using the mixed-unit input-output life cycle assessment method. Various feedstocks have different environmental performances, indicating potential environmental problem-shift. Jatropha seed, castor seed, waste cooking oil, and waste extraction oil are preferred feedstocks for biodiesel production in the short term. Positive net energy yields and positive net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, respectively. Algae are preferred in the long term mainly due to their less arable land demands. Special attention should be paid to potential environmental problems accompanying feedstock choice: freshwater use, ecotoxicity potentials, photochemical oxidation potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Moreover, key processes are identified by sensitivity analysis to direct future technology improvements. Finally, supporting measures are proposed to optimize China's biodiesel development.

  8. Planning Evaluation through the Program Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheirer, Mary Ann; Mark, Melvin M.; Brooks, Ariana; Grob, George F.; Chapel, Thomas J.; Geisz, Mary; McKaughan, Molly; Leviton, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Linking evaluation methods to the several phases of a program's life cycle can provide evaluation planners and funders with guidance about what types of evaluation are most appropriate over the trajectory of social and educational programs and other interventions. If methods are matched to the needs of program phases, evaluation can and should…

  9. Farinon microwave end of life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, R.C.

    1996-06-24

    This engineering report evaluates alternatives for the replacement of the Farinon microwave radio system. The system is beyond its expected life cycle and has decreasing maintainability. Principal applications supported by the Farinon system are two electrical utility monitor and control systems, the Integrated Transfer Trip System (ITTS), and the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system.

  10. MAKING LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY DATA AVAILABLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Making Life Cycle Inventory Data Available

    Mary Ann Curran
    US EPA, National Risk Management Research Laboratory
    Address: 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive (MS-466)
    Cincinnati, OH 45268 USA
    Phone: 513-569-7782
    Fax: 513-569-7111
    E-Mail: curran.maryann@...

  11. The Life Cycle of the Japanese Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumagai, Fumie

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the existing Japanese population data, focusing on changes in the timing of events in a family life cycle of Japanese women. Analysis revealed that the overall pattern of the family career of Japanese women today closely resembles that of their American and Canadian counterparts. (LLL)

  12. The Professional Life Cycle of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses trends in the literature related to phases or stages in the professional life of teachers. It then presents the results of a study involving 160 secondary teachers in Switzerland. Findings suggest that four modal sequences are applicable to the professional life cycle of teachers. (IAH)

  13. A Life Cycle Model for Career Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.; Wolfe, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    As teachers progress through their careers, they must grow and transform to remain effective. The Life Cycle of the Career Teacher model, which is an application of Mezirow's transformation theory, provides the framework to ensure that all students have competent, caring, and qualified teachers, addressing six stages and transitions teachers face…

  14. BROAD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a departure from evaluating waste management options that look mainly at single issues such as recyclability or reduced toxicity. An LCA is a snapshot in time of inputs and outputs. It can be used as an objective technic...

  15. Life Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Life Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) past life (focusing on dinosaurs and fossil formation, types, and importance); (2) animal life (examining groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, cells, reproduction, and classification systems); (3) plant life…

  16. Life Cycle of the Career Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E., Ed.; Wolfe, Michael P, Ed.; Pasch, Suzanne H., Ed.; Enz, Billie J., Ed.

    This book demonstrates how teachers and administrators can work collaboratively on maintaining continual growth, focusing on the Life Cycle of the Career Teacher Model, which crosses the continuum of practice from preservice preparation through professional development. Case studies illustrate the Reflection-Renewal-Growth Cycle Model in action.…

  17. A model for life cycle records management

    SciTech Connect

    Tayfun, A.C.; Gibson, S.

    1996-10-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to update an old Records Management concept; the management of records according to the records life cycle. Accordingly, the authors are presenting a new version of the Records Management life cycle model and its associated elements. The basic concept is that every record progresses through three phases; a record is created, is used and maintained, and dispositioned. In this presentation, the authors update the very old straight line model and the more current circular model with a new model that essentially combines the two. The model portrays Records Management as having a distinct straight-line beginning, a circular use and maintenance phase, and a distinct straight-line end. The presentation maps Records Management Program elements and activities against the phases depicted in the model. The authors believe that this new records life cycle model is an enhanced physical representation of the process. This presentation is designed to help put all of the specialized Records Management topics that participants have heard about during the conference in the perspective of the records life cycle.

  18. Comparing the Life Cycle Energy Consumption, Global ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Managing the water-energy-nutrient nexus for the built environment requires, in part, a full system analysis of energy consumption, global warming and eutrophication potentials of municipal water services. As an example, we evaluated the life cycle energy use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and aqueous nutrient releases of the whole anthropogenic municipal water cycle starting from raw water extraction to wastewater treatment and reuse/discharge for five municipal water and wastewater systems. The assessed options included conventional centralized services and four alternative options following the principles of source-separation and water fit-for-purpose. The comparative life cycle assessment identified that centralized drinking water supply coupled with blackwater energy recovery and on-site greywater treatment and reuse was the most energyand carbon-efficient water service system evaluated, while the conventional (drinking water and sewerage) centralized system ranked as the most energy- and carbon-intensive system. The electricity generated from blackwater and food residuals co-digestion was estimated to offset at least 40% of life cycle energy consumption for water/waste services. The dry composting toilet option demonstrated the lowest life cycle eutrophication potential. The nutrients in wastewater effluent are the dominating contributors for the eutrophication potential for the assessed system configurations. Among the parameters for which variability

  19. "ATLAS" Advanced Technology Life-cycle Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.; Mankins, John C.; ONeil, Daniel A.

    2004-01-01

    Making good decisions concerning research and development portfolios-and concerning the best systems concepts to pursue - as early as possible in the life cycle of advanced technologies is a key goal of R&D management This goal depends upon the effective integration of information from a wide variety of sources as well as focused, high-level analyses intended to inform such decisions Life-cycle Analysis System (ATLAS) methodology and tool kit. ATLAS encompasses a wide range of methods and tools. A key foundation for ATLAS is the NASA-created Technology Readiness. The toolkit is largely spreadsheet based (as of August 2003). This product is being funded by the Human and Robotics The presentation provides a summary of the Advanced Technology Level (TRL) systems Technology Program Office, Office of Exploration Systems, NASA Headquarters, Washington D.C. and is being integrated by Dan O Neil of the Advanced Projects Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL

  20. Externalities in a life cycle model with endogenous survival☆

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Wrzaczek, Stefan; Prskawetz, Alexia; Feichtinger, Gustav

    2011-01-01

    We study socially vs individually optimal life cycle allocations of consumption and health, when individual health care curbs own mortality but also has a spillover effect on other persons’ survival. Such spillovers arise, for instance, when health care activity at aggregate level triggers improvements in treatment through learning-by-doing (positive externality) or a deterioration in the quality of care through congestion (negative externality). We combine an age-structured optimal control model at population level with a conventional life cycle model to derive the social and private value of life. We then examine how individual incentives deviate from social incentives and how they can be aligned by way of a transfer scheme. The age-patterns of socially and individually optimal health expenditures and the transfer rate are derived. Numerical analysis illustrates the working of our model. PMID:28298810

  1. Life cycle assessment-driven selection of industrial ecology strategies.

    PubMed

    Ardente, Fulvio; Cellura, Maurizio; Lo Brano, Valerio; Mistretta, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents an application of the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the planning and environmental management of an “eco-industrial cluster.” A feasibility study of industrial symbiosis in southern Italy is carried out, where interlinked companies share subproducts and scraps, services, structures, and plants to reduce the related environmental impact. In particular, the research focuses on new recycling solutions to create open recycling loops in which plastic subproducts and scraps are transferred to external production systems. The main environmental benefits are the reduction of resource depletion, air emissions, and landfilled wastes. The proposed strategies are also economically viable and they suggest cost abatement for the involved companies. This research shows the need for a multidisciplinary approach to data processing and to complexity managing of the investigated systems. In this context, life-cycle thinking is required to be promoted throughout the economy, as well to be as a part of all decisions on products and other criteria such as functionality, health, and safety. The Life-Cycle Assessment approach can be assumed as a methodology for influencing decision makers to make sustainable choices.

  2. Transpiration during life cycle in controlled wheat growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A previously developed model of wheat growth, designed for convenient incorporation into system level models of advanced space life support systems is described. The model is applied to data from an experiment that grew wheat under controlled conditions and measured fresh biomass and cumulated transpiration as a function of time. The adequacy of modeling the transpiration as proportional to the inedible biomass and an age factor that varies during the life cycle are discussed.

  3. Sensor-embedded computers for better life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadde, Srikanth; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.; Zeid, Ibrahim

    2004-12-01

    This research investigates the advantages offered by embedded sensors for cost-effective and environmentally benign product life cycle management for desktop computers. During their use by customers as well as at the end of their lives, Sensor Embedded Computers (SECs) by virtue of sensors embedded in them generate data and information pertaining to the conditions and remaining lives of important components such as hard-drive, motherboard, and power supply unit. A computer monitoring framework is proposed to provide more customer comfort, reduce repair costs and increase the effectiveness of current disassembly practices. The framework consists of SECs, remote monitoring center (RMC), repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers. The RMC collects dynamic data/information generated by sensors during computer usage as well as static data/information from the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The RMC forwards this data/information to the repair/service, disassembly, and disposal centers on need-basis. The knowledge about the condition and remaining life of computer components can be advantageously used for planning repair/service and disassembly operations as well as for building refurbished computers with known expected lives. Simulation model of the framework is built and is evaluated in terms of the following performance measures: average downtime of a computer, average repair/service cost of a computer, average disassembly cost of a computer, and average life cycle cost of a computer. Test results show that embedding sensors in computers provides a definite advantage over conventional computers in terms of the performance measures.

  4. Multidisciplinary life cycle metrics and tools for green buildings.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Jennifer F; Lippiatt, Barbara C

    2009-07-01

    Building sector stakeholders need compelling metrics, tools, data, and case studies to support major investments in sustainable technologies. Proponents of green building widely claim that buildings integrating sustainable technologies are cost effective, but often these claims are based on incomplete, anecdotal evidence that is difficult to reproduce and defend. The claims suffer from 2 main weaknesses: 1) buildings on which claims are based are not necessarily "green" in a science-based, life cycle assessment (LCA) sense and 2) measures of cost effectiveness often are not based on standard methods for measuring economic worth. Yet, the building industry demands compelling metrics to justify sustainable building designs. The problem is hard to solve because, until now, neither methods nor robust data supporting defensible business cases were available. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Building and Fire Research Laboratory is beginning to address these needs by developing metrics and tools for assessing the life cycle economic and environmental performance of buildings. Economic performance is measured with the use of standard life cycle costing methods. Environmental performance is measured by LCA methods that assess the "carbon footprint" of buildings, as well as 11 other sustainability metrics, including fossil fuel depletion, smog formation, water use, habitat alteration, indoor air quality, and effects on human health. Carbon efficiency ratios and other eco-efficiency metrics are established to yield science-based measures of the relative worth, or "business cases," for green buildings. Here, the approach is illustrated through a realistic building case study focused on different heating, ventilation, air conditioning technology energy efficiency. Additionally, the evolution of the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability multidisciplinary team and future plans in this area are described.

  5. Life cycle assessment of mobile phone housing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-xin; Wang, Ru-song; Fu, Hao; Liu, Jing-ru

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle assessment of the mobile phone housing in Motorola(China) Electronics Ltd. was carried out, in which materials flows and environmental emissions based on a basic production scheme were analyzed and assessed. In the manufacturing stage, such primary processes as polycarbonate molding and surface painting are included, whereas different surface finishing technologies like normal painting, electroplate, IMD and VDM etc. were assessed. The results showed that housing decoration plays a significant role within the housing life cycle. The most significant environmental impact from housing production is the photochemical ozone formation potential. Environmental impacts of different decoration techniques varied widely, for example, the electroplating technique is more environmentally friendly than VDM. VDM consumes much more energy and raw material. In addition, the results of two alternative scenarios of dematerialization showed that material flow analysis and assessment is very important and valuable in selecting an environmentally friendly process.

  6. Life cycle planning: An evolving concept

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.J.R.; Gorman, I.G.

    1994-12-31

    Life-cycle planning is an evolving concept in the management of oil and gas projects. BHP Petroleum now interprets this idea to include all development planning from discovery and field appraisal to final abandonment and includes safety, environmental, technical, plant, regulatory, and staffing issues. This article describes in the context of the Timor Sea, how despite initial successes and continuing facilities upgrades, BHPP came to perceive that current operations could be the victim of early development successes, particularly in the areas of corrosion and maintenance. The search for analogies elsewhere lead to the UK North Sea, including the experiences of Britoil and BP, both of which performed detailed Life of Field studies in the later eighties. These materials have been used to construct a format and content for total Life-cycle plans in general and the social changes required to ensure their successful application in Timor Sea operations and deployment throughout Australia.

  7. Trusted Computing Exemplar: Life Cycle Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-12

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Machinery control systems, MCS, life cycle security, high assurance, system security, trustworthy systems 16. SECURITY... manufacturing process, and how the product is built and packaged for a customer. The Delivery procedures describe how the product is built so that it...customer must take to securely install and configure the product. It is acceptable to split the Delivery procedures into its manufacturing and customer

  8. A geospatial data life cycle services framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jörg; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Kindermann, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    We present an OGC standards based framework enabling the stepwise development and integration of data life cycle management services. We concentrate on data life cycle steps after the data generation: data identification, replication, publication and distribution. The framework exposes various data transport, data checking and metadata generation functionalities as individual services. These services can be chained to support users in cross institutional data management activities. The framework is currently being deployed as part of a distributed climate and environmental data life cycle lab initially supporting the following data management activities: - data transport and replication between home institute and a data center - data quality control at a remote compute site or remote data center - assignment of persistent identifiers to data entities - publication of quality results as well as data at a data portal A concrete application scenario is shown, where climate model data is transported to a data center and checked and published as part of a worldwide data federation. From a technology perspective the following basic services are integrated in the application scenario: - iRods middleware based data transport - Handle based persistent identifier assignment - domain specific quality control software - data publication services provided by the worldwide earth system grid data federation (ESGF). All these basic services are wrapped as OGC web processing services and integrated in the presented framework. Next steps include the integration of data services provided by the European EUDAT data infrastructure as well as supporting specific observational data application scenarios.

  9. Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, T. P.; Linkov, I.

    Despite concerns regarding environmental fate and toxicology, engineered nanostructured material manufacturing is expanding at an increasingly rapid pace. In particular, the unique properties of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have made them attractive in many areas, including high-tech power applications such as experimental batteries, fuel cells or electrical wiring. The intensity of research interest in SWCNT has raised questions regarding the life cycle environmental impact of nanotechnologies, including assessment of: worker and consumer safety, greenhouse gas emissions, toxicological risks associated with production or product emissions and the disposition of nanoproducts at end of life. However, development of appropriate nanotechnology assessment tools has lagged progress in the nanotechnologies themselves. In particular, current approaches to life cycle assessment (LCA) — originally developed for application in mature manufacturing industries such as automobiles and chemicals — suffer from several shortcomings that make applicability to nanotechnologies problematic. Among these are uncertainties related to the variability of material properties, toxicity and risk, technology performance in the use phase, nanomaterial degradation and change during the product life cycle and the impact assessment stage of LCA. This chapter expounds upon the unique challenges presented by nanomaterials in general, specifies sources of uncertainty and variability in LCA of SWCNT for use in electric and hybrid vehicle batteries and makes recommendations for modeling and decision-making using LCA in a multi-criteria decision analysis framework under conditions of high uncertainty.1

  10. Integrating service-life modeling and life-cycle assessment for recycled-aggregate concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Todd Lee

    The development and implementation of one-dimensional (a) analytical and (b) numerical service-life models for chloride-induced corrosion of reinforced concrete containing both recycled-aggregates and supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are presented in this work. Both the analytical and numerical models account for initial chloride contamination levels due to previous applications. The effects of aggregate type (e.g., virgin, recycled aggregate, recycled mortar), aggregate replacement ratio, severity of chloride contamination levels, severity of in-service chloride exposure, reinforcement cover depth, SCM type (e.g., fly ash, slag, slice fume, metakaolin), and SCM replacement ratio on the expected service life of recycled-aggregate reinforced concrete were investigated. Results illustrated trends between concrete mixes and life cycle costs, which were employed to make conclusions on the trade-offs presented by cost, sustainability, and service life.

  11. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres.

  12. A Life-Cycle Assessment of Biofuels: Tracing Energy and Carbon through a Fuel-Production System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauskopf, Sara

    2010-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used by engineers to make measurements of net energy, greenhouse gas production, water consumption, and other items of concern. This article describes an activity designed to walk students through the qualitative part of an LCA. It asks them to consider the life-cycle costs of ethanol production, in terms of…

  13. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  14. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  15. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  16. U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-08-01

    Life cycle inventory data are the primary inputs for conducting life cycle assessment studies. Studies based on high-quality data that are consistent, accurate, and relevant allow for robust, defensible, and meaningful results.

  17. Software Development Life Cycle Security Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Daljit; Kaur, Parminder

    2011-12-01

    Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. Security is now-a-days one of the major problems because of many reasons. The main cause is that software can't withstand security attacks because of vulnerabilities in it which are caused by defective specifications design and implementation. We have conducted a survey asking software developers, project managers and other people in software development about their security awareness and implementation in Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The survey was open to participation for three weeks and this paper explains the survey results.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Wall Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Sriranjani

    Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned

  19. Overall life cycle comprehensive assessment of pneumatic and electric actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yeming; Cai, Maolin

    2014-05-01

    Pneumatic actuators and electric actuators have almost been applied to all manufacturing industries. The two kinds of actuators can replace each other in most fields, such as the point to point transmission occasion and some rotating occasions. However, there are very few research results about the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of actuators under the same working conditions so far. In this paper, a novel comprehensive assessment method, named as overall life cycle comprehensive assessment (OLCCA), is proposed for comparison and assessment of pneumatic and electric actuators. OLCCA contains mechanical properties evaluation (MPE), life cycle cost analysis based on users (LCCABOU) and life cycle environmental impact analysis (LCEIA) algorithm in order to solve three difficult problems: mechanical properties assessment, cost analysis and environmental impact assessment about actuators. The mechanical properties evaluation of actuators is a multi-objective optimization problem. The fuzzy data quantification and information entropy methods are combined to establish MPE algorithm of actuators. Two kinds of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators with similar bearing capacity and similar work stroke were taken for example to verify the correctness of MPE algorithm. The case study of MPE algorithm for actuators verified its correctness. LCCABOU for actuators is also set up. Considering cost complex structure of pneumatic actuators, public device cost even method (PDCEM) is firstly presented to solve cost division of public devices such as compressors, aftercooler, receivers, etc. LCCABOU method is also effective and verified by the three groups of pneumatic actuators and electric actuators. Finally, LCEIA model of actuators is established for the environmental impact assessment of actuators. LCEIA data collection method and model establishment procedure for actuators are also put forward. With Simapro 7, LCEIA comparison results of six actuators can be

  20. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  1. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27... SUBSIDIZED EXPORTS TO THE UNITED STATES Final Determinations, Short Life Cycle Products § 207.27 Short life... short life cycle merchandise which has been the subject of two or more affirmative...

  2. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

  3. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  4. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey; Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Hernani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs. As a result, these launch opportunities await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options.With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  5. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey (Editor); Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Ternani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs - small satellites awaiting the launch of a larger satellite, and then riding along on the same launcher. As a result, these small satellite customers await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options. With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  6. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  7. Report on GeoData 2011 Workshop - Data Life Cycle, Integration and Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signell, R.; Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    recognition that human factors dominate, and often limit progress and effectiveness. Organizational and resource factors that would lead to a solid understanding of the business case behind, for example, making data preservable and integratable, come at a cost that is not well documented or supported when resource (funds and people) decisions are made. This presentation will report on the data life cycle findings and recommendations from the workshop. Recommendations: - Create an interagency working group to foster data life cycle management practices, support coordination and informatics science initiatives, and to develop a high level shared vision and strategy for data life cycle management - Create and fund a coordination office that works with the "working" level of agencies and academic institutions to facilitate working groups and workshops, adoption of standards and tools, and creation of sustainable archives - Support and actively participate in existing coordination groups, and create where needed, new communities of practice in data life cycle management across agencies, academic institutions, and the private sector - Establish an NSF working group to address the issue of incentives and cultural change needed to facilitate implementation of data life-cycle management http://tw.rpi.edu/web/Workshop/Community/GeoData2011, #geodata2011

  8. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from microalgae in ponds.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Peter K; Beer, Tom; Batten, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential environmental impacts and economic viability of producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in ponds. A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of a notional production system designed for Australian conditions was conducted to compare biodiesel production from algae (with three different scenarios for carbon dioxide supplementation and two different production rates) with canola and ULS (ultra-low sulfur) diesel. Comparisons of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions (g CO(2)-e/tkm) and costs (¢/tkm) are given. Algae GHG emissions (-27.6 to 18.2) compare very favourably with canola (35.9) and ULS diesel (81.2). Costs are not so favourable, with algae ranging from 2.2 to 4.8, compared with canola (4.2) and ULS diesel (3.8). This highlights the need for a high production rate to make algal biodiesel economically attractive.

  9. Performance improvement: an active life cycle product management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    The management of the supply chain has gained importance in many manufacturing firms. Operational flexibility can be considered a crucial weapon to increase competitiveness in a turbulent marketplace. It reflects the ability of a firm to properly and rapidly respond to a variable and dynamic environment. For the firm operating in a fashion sector, the management of the supply chain is even more complex because the product life cycle is shorter than that of the firm operating in a non-fashion sector. The increase of firm flexibility level can be reached through the application of the real option theory inside the firm network. In fact, real option may increase the project value by allowing managers to more efficiently direct the production. The real option application usually analysed in literature does not take into account that the demands of products are well-defined by the product life cycle. Working on a fashion sector, the life cycle pattern is even more relevant because of an expected demand that grows according to a constant rate that does not capture the demand dynamics of the underlying fashion goods. Thus, the primary research objective of this article is to develop a model useful for the management of investments in a supply chain operating in a fashion sector where the system complexity is increased by the low level of unpredictability and stability that is proper of the mood phenomenon. Moreover, unlike the traditional model, a real option framework is presented here that considers fashion product characterised by uncertain stages of the production cycle.

  10. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Murray, M.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead with a composite of tungsten and tin in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the United States, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Life cycle analysis clearly shows that advantages outweigh risks in replacing lead with tungsten-tin in small-caliber projectiles at DOE training facilities. Concerns about the availability of raw tungsten are mitigated by the ease of converting back to lead (if necessary) and the recyclability of tungsten-tin rounds.

  11. Phenotypic Heterogeneity and the Evolution of Bacterial Life Cycles.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Jordi; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-02-01

    Most bacteria live in colonies, where they often express different cell types. The ecological significance of these cell types and their evolutionary origin are often unknown. Here, we study the evolution of cell differentiation in the context of surface colonization. We particularly focus on the evolution of a 'sticky' cell type that is required for surface attachment, but is costly to express. The sticky cells not only facilitate their own attachment, but also that of non-sticky cells. Using individual-based simulations, we show that surface colonization rapidly evolves and in most cases leads to phenotypic heterogeneity, in which sticky and non-sticky cells occur side by side on the surface. In the presence of regulation, cell differentiation leads to a remarkable set of bacterial life cycles, in which cells alternate between living in the liquid and living on the surface. The dominant life stage is formed by the surface-attached colony that shows many complex features: colonies reproduce via fission and by producing migratory propagules; cells inside the colony divide labour; and colonies can produce filaments to facilitate expansion. Overall, our model illustrates how the evolution of an adhesive cell type goes hand in hand with the evolution of complex bacterial life cycles.

  12. Phenotypic Heterogeneity and the Evolution of Bacterial Life Cycles

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Jordi; Nowak, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Most bacteria live in colonies, where they often express different cell types. The ecological significance of these cell types and their evolutionary origin are often unknown. Here, we study the evolution of cell differentiation in the context of surface colonization. We particularly focus on the evolution of a ‘sticky’ cell type that is required for surface attachment, but is costly to express. The sticky cells not only facilitate their own attachment, but also that of non-sticky cells. Using individual-based simulations, we show that surface colonization rapidly evolves and in most cases leads to phenotypic heterogeneity, in which sticky and non-sticky cells occur side by side on the surface. In the presence of regulation, cell differentiation leads to a remarkable set of bacterial life cycles, in which cells alternate between living in the liquid and living on the surface. The dominant life stage is formed by the surface-attached colony that shows many complex features: colonies reproduce via fission and by producing migratory propagules; cells inside the colony divide labour; and colonies can produce filaments to facilitate expansion. Overall, our model illustrates how the evolution of an adhesive cell type goes hand in hand with the evolution of complex bacterial life cycles. PMID:26894881

  13. Comprehensive life cycle inventories of alternative wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jeffrey; de Haas, David; Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Over recent decades, the environmental regulations on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have trended towards increasingly stringent nutrient removal requirements for the protection of local waterways. However, such regulations typically ignore other environmental impacts that might accompany apparent improvements to the WWTP. This paper quantitatively defines the life cycle inventory of resources consumed and emissions produced in ten different wastewater treatment scenarios (covering six process configurations and nine treatment standards). The inventory results indicate that infrastructure resources, operational energy, direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and chemical consumption generally increase with increasing nitrogen removal, especially at discharge standards of total nitrogen <5 mgN L(-1). Similarly, infrastructure resources and chemical consumption increase sharply with increasing phosphorus removal, but operational energy and direct GHG emissions are largely unaffected. These trends represent a trade-off of negative environmental impacts against improved local receiving water quality. However, increased phosphorus removal in WWTPs also represents an opportunity for increased resource recovery and reuse via biosolids applied to agricultural land. This study highlights that where biosolids displace synthetic fertilisers, a negative environmental trade-off may also occur by increasing the heavy metals discharged to soil. Proper analysis of these positive and negative environmental trade-offs requires further life cycle impact assessment and an inherently subjective weighting of competing environmental costs and benefits.

  14. Life cycle assessment of overhead and underground primary power distribution.

    PubMed

    Bumby, Sarah; Druzhinina, Ekaterina; Feraldi, Rebe; Werthmann, Danae; Geyer, Roland; Sahl, Jack

    2010-07-15

    Electrical power can be distributed in overhead or underground systems, both of which generate a variety of environmental impacts at all stages of their life cycles. While there is considerable literature discussing the trade-offs between both systems in terms of aesthetics, safety, cost, and reliability, environmental assessments are relatively rare and limited to power cable production and end-of-life management. This paper assesses environmental impacts from overhead and underground medium voltage power distribution systems as they are currently built and managed by Southern California Edison (SCE). It uses process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14044 (2006) and SCE-specific primary data to the extent possible. Potential environmental impacts have been calculated using a wide range of midpoint indicators, and robustness of the results has been investigated through sensitivity analysis of the most uncertain and potentially significant parameters. The studied underground system has higher environmental impacts in all indicators and for all parameter values, mostly due to its higher material intensity. For both systems and all indicators the majority of impact occurs during cable production. Promising strategies for impact reduction are thus cable failure rate reduction for overhead and cable lifetime extension for underground systems.

  15. Debris-flow risk analysis in a managed torrent based on a stochastic life-cycle performance.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros Cánovas, J A; Stoffel, M; Corona, C; Schraml, K; Gobiet, A; Tani, S; Sinabell, F; Fuchs, S; Kaitna, R

    2016-07-01

    Two key factors can affect the functional ability of protection structures in mountains torrents, namely (i) infrastructure maintenance of existing infrastructures (as a majority of existing works is in the second half of their life cycle), and (ii) changes in debris-flow activity as a result of ongoing and expected future climatic changes. Here, we explore the applicability of a stochastic life-cycle performance to assess debris-flow risk in the heavily managed Wartschenbach torrent (Lienz region, Austria) and to quantify associated, expected economic losses. We do so by considering maintenance costs to restore infrastructure in the aftermath of debris-flow events as well as by assessing the probability of check dam failure (e.g., as a result of overload). Our analysis comprises two different management strategies as well as three scenarios defining future changes in debris-flow activity resulting from climatic changes. At the study site, an average debris-flow frequency of 21 events per decade was observed for the period 1950-2000; activity at the site is projected to change by +38% to -33%, according to the climate scenario used. Comparison of the different management alternatives suggests that the current mitigation strategy will allow to reduce expected damage to infrastructure and population almost fully (89%). However, to guarantee a comparable level of safety, maintenance costs is expected to increase by 57-63%, with an increase of maintenance costs by ca. 50% for each intervention. Our analysis therefore also highlights the importance of taking maintenance costs into account for risk assessments realized in managed torrent systems, as they result both from progressive and event-related deteriorations. We conclude that the stochastic life-cycle performance adopted in this study represents indeed an integrated approach to assess the long-term effects and costs of prevention structures in managed torrents.

  16. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). The 'proplyds' in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times larger in size and correspondingly also more massive. This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the end of the life cycle. The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar outflow and the diffuse

  17. Impact of activation process on fog life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Marie; Burnet, Frédéric; Lac, Christine; Roberts, Greg; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Elias, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Fogs are complex meteorological system dealing with fine scale processes. Subtle interaction between radiative, dynamic, turbulent and microphysic processes can lead to different fog life cycle, which make prediction difficult. The droplets that composed fogs are formed trough the activation of aerosol particles called CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) described by the Köhler theory (Köhler, 1936). The number and distribution of the droplets activated during fog formation is determined by the aerosols particles properties and number and the ambient vapor supersaturation of the atmosphere. In the frame of the PreViBOSS project, an in-situ measurement platform of fog properties at ground level was deployed at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research) during winter 2010 to 2013. Microphysics data supply a detailed characterization of number size spectrum from dry to wet aerosols particles and inform on the abilities of the aerosols particles to act as a CCN. 48 fog events have been studied. Supersaturation critical values and concentrations of CCN have been determined and linked to aerosols properties. The main impact of aerosols size distribution on activation have been pointed out. The study of droplets spectra evolution reveals the major physical processes into fogs and suggests that even if thermodynamic dominates the fog life cycle, activation process seems to have a significant effect. Large eddy simulation of fog run with Meso-NH model allow to explore precisely the interaction between fog physical processes and to quantify activation impact. Supersaturation modelling is a key point, a new pseudo-prognostic scheme (Thouron et al., 2012) is used. Confrontation between a detailed experimental study and three-dimensional fine scale simulation in LES provides an accurate investigation of the impact of activation process on fog life cycle.

  18. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui

    2009-02-15

    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  19. FRAMEWORK FOR RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING (FRED): USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TO EVALUATE PREFERABILITY OF PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-Making (FRED) demonstrates how the life-cycle concept can be used to quantify competing products' environmental performance so that this information may be integrated with considerations of total ownership cost and technical perfor...

  20. A data management life-cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferderer, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Documented, reliable, and accessible data and information are essential building blocks supporting scientific research and applications that enhance society's knowledge base (fig. 1). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a leading provider of science data, information, and knowledge, is uniquely positioned to integrate science and natural resource information to address societal needs. The USGS Central Energy Resources Team (USGS-CERT) provides critical information and knowledge on the quantity, quality, and distribution of the Nation's and the world's oil, gas, and coal resources. By using a life-cycle model, the USGS-CERT Data Management Project is developing an integrated data management system to (1) promote access to energy data and information, (2) increase data documentation, and (3) streamline product delivery to the public, scientists, and decision makers. The project incorporates web-based technology, data cataloging systems, data processing routines, and metadata documentation tools to improve data access, enhance data consistency, and increase office efficiency

  1. STUDIES ON THE LIFE CYCLE OF SPIROCHETES

    PubMed Central

    DeLamater, Edward D.; Wiggall, Richter H.; Haanes, Merle

    1950-01-01

    A series of observations with the phase contrast microscope on the occurrence of a complex life cycle in the pathogenic Treponema pallidum as it occurs in the syphilitic rabbit testis has been presented and it seems likely from these observations that there are two means of vegetative reproduction, consisting of (1) transverse division (the most important under usual conditions); and (2) the production of gemmae or buds which eventuate into unispirochetal cysts comparable to those described for saprophytic forms, within each of which single spirochetes develop and differentiate, and from which they subsequently emerge. In addition preliminary evidence is presented which suggests that a more complex process is involved in which multispirochetal cysts develop following aggregation of two or more organisms. Within each of these larger cysts numerous organisms develop and subsequently emerge as tangled ropes. Following emergence, they subsequently undergo transverse division and gemmae formation, and so reproduce vegetatively. Subsequent papers will elaborate upon these processes. PMID:15436933

  2. The Life Cycle of Stratospheric Aerosol Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Patrick; Jensen, Eric J.; Russell, P. B.; Bauman, Jill J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the life cycle of the background (nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosol. The authors assume the particles are formed by homogeneous nucleation near the tropical tropopause and are carried aloft into the stratosphere. The particles remain in the Tropics for most of their life, and during this period of time a size distribution is developed by a combination of coagulation, growth by heteromolecular condensation, and mixing with air parcels containing preexisting sulfate particles. The aerosol eventually migrates to higher latitudes and descends across isentropic surfaces to the lower stratosphere. The aerosol is removed from the stratosphere primarily at mid- and high latitudes through various processes, mainly by isentropic transport across the tropopause from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  3. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers).

  4. CPL Materials Life Cycle Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchko, Matthew T.

    1992-07-01

    The Capillary Pumped Loop (CPL) Materials Life Cycle Test Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will identify the operational parameters controlling the performance of a CPL over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of the facility is to investigate the long-term chemical compatibility between the anhydrous ammonia working fluid and the CPL materials of construction. Chemical reactions occurring within the system may produce non-condensable gases or particulate debris that can lead to a degradation in system performance. Small liquid samples will be drawn from the system at specific time intervals and analyzed to check for the presence of non-condensable gases. Periodic maximum and minimum heat load tests will be performed on the CPL to monitor trends in the overall system performance.

  5. A Methodology for Integrated, Multiregional Life Cycle Assessment Scenarios under Large-Scale Technological Change.

    PubMed

    Gibon, Thomas; Wood, Richard; Arvesen, Anders; Bergesen, Joseph D; Suh, Sangwon; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2015-09-15

    Climate change mitigation demands large-scale technological change on a global level and, if successfully implemented, will significantly affect how products and services are produced and consumed. In order to anticipate the life cycle environmental impacts of products under climate mitigation scenarios, we present the modeling framework of an integrated hybrid life cycle assessment model covering nine world regions. Life cycle assessment databases and multiregional input-output tables are adapted using forecasted changes in technology and resources up to 2050 under a 2 °C scenario. We call the result of this modeling "technology hybridized environmental-economic model with integrated scenarios" (THEMIS). As a case study, we apply THEMIS in an integrated environmental assessment of concentrating solar power. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions for this plant range from 33 to 95 g CO2 eq./kWh across different world regions in 2010, falling to 30-87 g CO2 eq./kWh in 2050. Using regional life cycle data yields insightful results. More generally, these results also highlight the need for systematic life cycle frameworks that capture the actual consequences and feedback effects of large-scale policies in the long term.

  6. A Darwinian approach to the origin of life cycles with group properties.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Armin; Shelton, Deborah E; Michod, Richard E

    2015-06-01

    A selective explanation for the evolution of multicellular organisms from unicellular ones requires knowledge of both selective pressures and factors affecting the response to selection. Understanding the response to selection is particularly challenging in the case of evolutionary transitions in individuality, because these transitions involve a shift in the very units of selection. We develop a conceptual framework in which three fundamental processes (growth, division, and splitting) are the scaffold for unicellular and multicellular life cycles alike. We (i) enumerate the possible ways in which these processes can be linked to create more complex life cycles, (ii) introduce three genes based on growth, division and splitting that, acting in concert, determine the architecture of the life cycles, and finally, (iii) study the evolution of the simplest five life cycles using a heuristic model of coupled ordinary differential equations in which mutations are allowed in the three genes. We demonstrate how changes in the regulation of three fundamental aspects of colonial form (cell size, colony size, and colony cell number) could lead unicellular life cycles to evolve into primitive multicellular life cycles with group properties. One interesting prediction of the model is that selection generally favors cycles with group level properties when intermediate body size is associated with lowest mortality. That is, a universal requirement for the evolution of group cycles in the model is that the size-mortality curve be U-shaped. Furthermore, growth must decelerate with size.

  7. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Forest Frontiers: The Role of Household Life Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Tropical deforestation remains a critical issue given its present rate and a widespread consensus regarding its implications for the global carbon cycle and biodiversity. Nowhere is the problem more pronounced than in the Amazon basin, home to the world's largest intact, tropical forest. This article addresses land cover change processes at household level in the Amazon basin, and to this end adapts a concept of domestic life cycle to the current institutional environment of tropical frontiers. In particular, it poses a risk minimization model that integrates demography with market-based factors such as transportation costs and accessibility. In essence, the article merges the theory of Chayanov with the household economy framework, in which markets exist for inputs (including labor), outputs, and capital. The risk model is specified and estimated, using survey data for 261 small producers along the Transamazon Highway in the eastern sector of the Brazilian Amazon.

  8. Concepts and Tools for the Software Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The tools, techniques, and aids needed to engineer, manage, and administer a large software-intensive task are themselves parts of a large softwaare base, and are incurred only at great expense. The needs of the software life cycle in terms of such supporting tools and methodologies are highlighted. The concept of a distributed network for engineering, management, and administrative functions is outlined, and the key characteristics of localized subnets in high-communications-traffic areas of software activity are discussed. A formal, deliberate, structured, systems-engineering approach for the construction of a uniform, coordinated tool set is proposed as a means to reduce development and maintenance costs, foster adaptability, enhance reliability, and promote standardization.

  9. Concepts and tools for the software life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The tools, techniques, and aids needed to engineer, manage, and administer a large software-intensive task are themselves parts of a large software base, and are incurred only at great expense. The needs of the software life cycle in terms of such supporting tools and methodologies are highlighted. The concept of a distributed network for engineering, management, and administrative functions is outlined, and the key characteristics of localized subnets in high-communications-traffic areas of software actively are discussed. A formal, deliberate, structured, systems-engineering approach for the construction of a uniform, coordinated tool set is proposed as a means to reduce development and maintenance costs, foster adaptability, enhance reliability, and promote standardization.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Life-Cycle Assessment Tools for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We identified and evaluated five life-cycle assessment tools that community decision makers can use to assess the environmental and economic impacts of end-of-life (EOL) materials management options. The tools evaluated in this report are waste reduction mode (WARM), municipal solid waste-decision support tool (MSW-DST), solid waste optimization life-cycle framework (SWOLF), environmental assessment system for environmental technologies (EASETECH), and waste and resources assessment for the environment (WRATE). WARM, MSW-DST, and SWOLF were developed for US-specific materials management strategies, while WRATE and EASETECH were developed for European-specific conditions. All of the tools (with the exception of WARM) allow specification of a wide variety of parameters (e.g., materials composition and energy mix) to a varying degree, thus allowing users to model specific EOL materials management methods even outside the geographical domain they are originally intended for. The flexibility to accept user-specified input for a large number of parameters increases the level of complexity and the skill set needed for using these tools. The tools were evaluated and compared based on a series of criteria, including general tool features, the scope of the analysis (e.g., materials and processes included), and the impact categories analyzed (e.g., climate change, acidification). A series of scenarios representing materials management problems currently relevant to c

  11. Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX and life cycle GHG emissions.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Aranya; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2012-09-18

    Regulations monitoring SO(2), NO(X), mercury, and other metal emissions in the U.S. will likely result in coal plant retirement in the near-term. Life cycle assessment studies have previously estimated the environmental benefits of displacing coal with natural gas for electricity generation, by comparing systems that consist of individual natural gas and coal power plants. However, such system comparisons may not be appropriate to analyze impacts of coal plant retirement in existing power fleets. To meet this limitation, simplified economic dispatch models for PJM, MISO, and ERCOT regions are developed in this study to examine changes in regional power plant dispatch that occur when coal power plants are retired. These models estimate the order in which existing power plants are dispatched to meet electricity demand based on short-run marginal costs, with cheaper plants being dispatched first. Five scenarios of coal plant retirement are considered: retiring top CO(2) emitters, top NO(X) emitters, top SO(2) emitters, small and inefficient plants, and old and inefficient plants. Changes in fuel use, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions (including uncertainty), and SO(2) and NO(X) emissions are estimated. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to decrease by less than 4% in almost all scenarios modeled. In addition, changes in marginal damage costs due to SO(2), and NO(X) emissions are estimated using the county level marginal damage costs reported in the Air Pollution Emissions Experiments and Policy (APEEP) model, which are a proxy for measuring regional impacts of SO(2) and NO(X) emissions. Results suggest that location specific parameters should be considered within environmental policy frameworks targeting coal plant retirement, to account for regional variability in the benefits of reducing the impact of SO(2) and NO(X) emissions.

  12. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  13. A Gap Analysis of Life Cycle Management Commands and Best Purchasing and Supply Management Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    103   C. DATA TABLES FOR TIME SERIES ANALYSES ......................... 117   D. EXAMPLE OF LCMC...Supplier Involvement FOB freight on board FSC Federal Supply Class FY fiscal year LCMC Life Cycle Management Command LMP Logistics Modernization...the AMC cost inflation rate of 4 Because CECOM uses the Logistics Modernization Program ( LMP ), we were unable to include its

  14. The changing nature of life cycle assessment

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Marcelle C.; Taylor, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    LCA has evolved from its origins in energy analysis in the 1960s and 70s into a wide ranging tool used to determine impacts of products or systems over several environmental and resource issues. The approach has become more prevalent in research, industry and policy. Its use continues to expand as it seeks to encompass impacts as diverse as resource accounting and social well being. Carbon policy for bioenergy has driven many of these changes. Enabling assessment of complex issues over a life cycle basis is beneficial, but the process is sometimes difficult. LCA's use in framing is increasingly complex and more uncertain, and in some cases, irreconcilable. The charged environment surrounding biofuels and bioenergy exacerbates all of these. Reaching its full potential to help guide difficult policy discussions and emerging research involves successfully managing LCA's transition from attributional to consequential and from retrospective to prospective. This paper examines LCA's on-going evolution and its use within bioenergy deployment. The management of methodological growth in the context of the unique challenges associated with bioenergy and biofuels is explored. Changes seen in bioenergy LCA will bleed into other LCA arenas, especially where it is important that a sustainable solution is chosen. PMID:26664146

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, M.; Woods, J.

    2012-04-01

    One of the most significant challenges faced by modern-day society is that of global warming. An exclusive focus on reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not suffice and therefore technologies capable of removing CO2 directly from the atmosphere at low or minimal cost are gaining increased attention. The production and use of biochar is an example of such an emerging mitigation strategy. However, as with any novel product, process and technology it is vital to conduct an assessment of the entire life cycle in order to determine the environmental impacts of the new concept in addition to analysing the other sustainability criteria. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), standardized by ISO (2006a), is an example of a tool used to calculate the environmental impacts of a product or process. Imperial College London will follow the guidelines and recommendations of the ISO 14040 series (ISO 2002, ISO 2006a-b) and the International Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook (EC JRC IES, 2010a-e), and will use the SimaPro software to conduct a LCA of the biochar supply chains for the EuroChar project. EuroChar ('biochar for Carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere') is a project funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). EuroChar aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar and, in particular, explore a possible introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe, thereby moving closer to the determination of the true potential of biochar. EuroChar will use various feedstocks, ranging from wheat straw to olive residues and poplar, as feedstocks for biochar production and will focus on two conversion technologies, Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) and Thermochemical Carbonization (TC), followed by the application of the biochar in crop-growth field trials in England, France and Italy. In April 2012, the EuroChar project will be at its halfway mark and

  16. Advanced Launch Technology Life Cycle Analysis Using the Architectural Comparison Tool (ACT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle technology impact comparisons for nanolauncher technology concepts were performed using an Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) prototype. Examined are cost drivers and whether technology investments can dramatically affect the life cycle characteristics. Primary among the selected applications was the prospect of improving nanolauncher systems. As a result, findings and conclusions are documented for ways of creating more productive and affordable nanolauncher systems; e.g., an Express Lane-Flex Lane concept is forwarded, and the beneficial effect of incorporating advanced integrated avionics is explored. Also, a Functional Systems Breakdown Structure (F-SBS) was developed to derive consistent definitions of the flight and ground systems for both system performance and life cycle analysis. Further, a comprehensive catalog of ground segment functions was created.

  17. Proceedings of the Life Cycle Cost Task Group of the Joint Services Data Exchange for Inertial Systems Quarterly Meeting (6th) Held at St. Petersburg, Florida, on 25-27 February 1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-27

    result of roJ~ rn technology which is still extremely dy f l uTi i e in nature. In spite of the dirf~cu~ ty the economic envi ronm ent to ~~ech today ’s...Ident it ie~ cos ts assoc ia ted wi th conceptual studies un u previo us sys :m ofsimilar desigl: and inc ludes a technology index to com pensate fra...ccm p 55ted r S a functien of the costs for v ; magement of a previous system of sim ilar design and a tech nology index to ccrnpensate for improvements

  18. Waste management facilities cost information for hazardous waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biagi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing hazardous waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  19. Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Twomey, Janet M.

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has

  20. Development and weighting of a life cycle assessment screening model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Wayne E.; O'Shaughnessy, James; Johnson, Sharon A.; Sisson, Richard

    2004-02-01

    Nearly all life cycle assessment tools available today are high priced, comprehensive and quantitative models requiring a significant amount of data collection and data input. In addition, most of the available software packages require a great deal of training time to learn how to operate the model software. Even after this time investment, results are not guaranteed because of the number of estimations and assumptions often necessary to run the model. As a result, product development, design teams and environmental specialists need a simplified tool that will allow for the qualitative evaluation and "screening" of various design options. This paper presents the development and design of a generic, qualitative life cycle screening model and demonstrates its applicability and ease of use. The model uses qualitative environmental, health and safety factors, based on site or product-specific issues, to sensitize the overall results for a given set of conditions. The paper also evaluates the impact of different population input ranking values on model output. The final analysis is based on site or product-specific variables. The user can then evaluate various design changes and the apparent impact or improvement on the environment, health and safety, compliance cost and overall corporate liability. Major input parameters can be varied, and factors such as materials use, pollution prevention, waste minimization, worker safety, product life, environmental impacts, return of investment, and recycle are evaluated. The flexibility of the model format will be discussed in order to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness within nearly any industry sector. Finally, an example using audience input value scores will be compared to other population input results.

  1. Break free from the product life cycle.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngme

    2005-05-01

    Most firms build their marketing strategies around the concept of the product life cycle--the idea that after introduction, products inevitably follow a course of growth, maturity, and decline. It doesn't have to be that way, says HBS marketing professor Youngme Moon. By positioning their products in unexpected ways, companies can change how customers mentally categorize them. In doing so, they can shift products lodged in the maturity phase back--and catapult new products forward--into the growth phase. The author describes three positioning strategies that marketers use to shift consumers' thinking. Reverse positioning strips away"sacred" product attributes while adding new ones (JetBlue, for example, withheld the expected first-class seating and in-flight meals on its planes while offering surprising perks like leather seats and extra legroom). Breakaway positioning associates the product with a radically different category (Swatch chose not to associate itself with fine jewelry and instead entered the fashion accessory category). And stealth positioning acclimates leery consumers to a new offering by cloaking the product's true nature (Sony positioned its less-than-perfect household robot as a quirky pet). Clayton Christensen described how new, simple technologies can upend a market. In an analogous way, these positioning strategies can exploit the vulnerability of established categories to new positioning. A company can use these techniques to go on the offensive and transform a category by demolishing its traditional boundaries. Companies that disrupt a category through positioning create a lucrative place to ply their wares--and can leave category incumbents scrambling.

  2. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  3. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications.

  4. Life Cycle Thinking, Measurement and Management for Food System Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Nathan

    2015-07-07

    Food systems critically contribute to our collective sustainability outcomes. Improving food system sustainability requires life cycle thinking, measurement and management strategies. This article reviews the status quo and future prospects for bringing life cycle approaches to food system sustainability to the fore.

  5. THE EPA'S EMERGING FOCUS ON LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has been actively engaged in LCA research since 1990 to help advance the methodology and application of life cycle thinking in decision making. Across the Agency consideration of the life cycle concept is increasing in the development of policies and programs. A major force i...

  6. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  7. The lesbian family life cycle: a contextual approach.

    PubMed

    Slater, S; Mencher, J

    1991-07-01

    A recent broadening of family life cycle theory to include the various family norms deriving from ethnic differences, single parenting, divorce, and remarriage has not extended to the lesbian family experience. The need to articulate a lesbian family life cycle is underscored here with particular attention to the specific challenges and coping mechanisms of this particular family experience.

  8. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European Union's new Integrated Product Policy directs governments and companies to consider the entire product life cycle, from cradle to grave, in their environmental decision-making process. A life-cycle based approach is intended to lead toward true environmental improvem...

  9. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR PC BLEND 2 AIRCRAFT RADOME DEPAINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the life cycle assessment on a potential replacement solvent blend for aircraft radome depainting at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. The life cycle assessment is composed of three separate but interrelated components: life cy...

  10. Addressing software security risk mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) has funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a Center Initiative, 'Reducing Software Security Risk through an Integrated Approach' (RSSR), to address this need. The Initiative is a formal approach to addressing software security in the life cycle through the instantiation of a Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) for the development and maintenance life cycles.

  11. LCACCESS: A GLOBAL DIRECTORY OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT RESOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    LCAccess is an EPA-sponsored website intended to promote the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in business decision-making by faciliatating access to data sources that are useful in developing a life cycle inventory (LCI). While LCAccess does not itself contain data, it is a sea...

  12. PRODUCT LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT: INVENTORY GUIDELINES AND PRINCIPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can be used as an objective technical tool to evaluate the environmental consequences of a product, process, or activity holistically, across its entire life cycle. omplete LCA can be viewed as consisting of three complementary components (1) the i...

  13. A Game to Teach the Life Cycles of Fungi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a biological game utilized to teach fungi life cycles to secondary biology students. The game is designed to overcome difficulties of correlating schematic drawings with images seen through the microscope, correlating life cycles of fungi and host, and understanding cyclic development of fungi. (SL)

  14. Test of US Federal Life Cycle Inventory Data Interoperability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life cycle assessment practitioners must gather data from a variety of sources. For modeling activities in the US, practitioners may wish to use life cycle inventory data from public databases and libraries provided by US government entities. An exercise was conducted to test if ...

  15. Dealing with Emergy Algebra in the Life Cycle Assessment Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) represents one of the four steps of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which is a standardized procedure (ISO 14040:2006) to estimate the environmental impacts generated by the production, use and disposal of goods and services. In this co...

  16. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  17. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  18. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF AMORPHOUS SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design framework was applied to photovoltaic module design. The primary objective of this project was to develop and evaluate design metrics for assessing and guiding the Improvement of PV product systems. Two metrics were used to assess life cycle energy perform...

  19. Software security checklist for the software life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, D. P.; Wolfe, T. L.; Sherif, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    A formal approach to security in the software life cycle is essential to protect corporate resources. However, little thought has been given to this aspect of software development. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle.

  20. Family Development and the Family Life Cycle: An Empirical Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham; And Others

    The concept of family life cycle has become increasingly prominent in the study of family development--the formation, maintenance, change, and dissolution of marriage and family relations. An evaluation of this concept is accomplished by examining the relationships between three possible stratification schemes: stage of the family life cycle,…

  1. THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ELECTRICITY DATA FOR LIFE CYCLE INVENTORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A three day workshop was held in October 2001 to discuss life cycle inventory data for electricity production. Electricity was selected as the topic for discussion since it features very prominently in the LCA results for most product life cycles, yet there is no consistency in h...

  2. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF IONIC LIQUIDS VIA LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionic Liquids have been suggested as "greener" replacements to traditional solvents. However, the environmental impacts of the life cycle phases have not been studied. Such a "cradle to gate" Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for comparing the environmental impact of various solvents...

  3. Life cycle assessment of ethanol derived from sawdust.

    PubMed

    Roy, Poritosh; Dutta, Animesh

    2013-12-01

    The life cycle of ethanol derived from sawdust by enzymatic hydrolysis process is evaluated to determine if environmentally preferable and economically viable ethanol can be produced. Two scenarios are considered to estimate net energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and production costs. The estimated net energy consumption, GHG emission and production costs are 12.29-13.37 MJ/L, 0.75-0.92 kg CO2 e/L and about $0.98-$1.04/L, respectively depending on the scenarios of this study. The result confirmed that environmental benefit can be gained with present technologies; however, economic viability remains doubtful unless Feed-in Tariff (FiT) is considered. The production cost of ethanol reduces to $0.5/L, if FiT is considered to be $0.025/MJ. This study indicates that the implementation of FiT program for ethanol industry not only helps Ontario mitigate GHG emissions, but may also attract more investment and create rural employment opportunities.

  4. Software life cycle dynamic simulation model: The organizational performance submodel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    The submodel structure of a software life cycle dynamic simulation model is described. The software process is divided into seven phases, each with product, staff, and funding flows. The model is subdivided into an organizational response submodel, a management submodel, a management influence interface, and a model analyst interface. The concentration here is on the organizational response model, which simulates the performance characteristics of a software development subject to external and internal influences. These influences emanate from two sources: the model analyst interface, which configures the model to simulate the response of an implementing organization subject to its own internal influences, and the management submodel that exerts external dynamic control over the production process. A complete characterization is given of the organizational response submodel in the form of parameterized differential equations governing product, staffing, and funding levels. The parameter values and functions are allocated to the two interfaces.

  5. Life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology applied to energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, P.T.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of the Clean Agile Manufacturing of Propellants, Explosives, and pyrotechnics (CAMPEP) program is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of using modeling, alternate materials and processing technology to reduce PEO life-cycle pollution by up to 90%. Traditional analyses of factory pollution treat the manufacturing facility as the singular pollution source. The life cycle of a product really begins with raw material acquisition and includes all activities through ultimate disposal. The life cycle thus includes other facilities besides the principal manufacturing facility. The pollution generated during the product life cycle is then integrated over the total product lifetime, or represents a ``cradle to grave`` accounting philosophy. This paper addresses a methodology for producing a life-cycle inventory assessment.

  6. Optimization of monitoring and inspections in the life-cycle of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanish Nithin, Anu; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    The past decade has witnessed a surge in the offshore wind farm developments across the world. Although this form of cleaner and greener energy is beneficial and eco-friendly, the production of wind energy entails high life-cycle costs. The costs associated with inspections, monitoring and repairs of wind turbines are primary contributors to the high costs of electricity produced in this way and are disadvantageous in today's competitive economic environment. There is limited research being done in the probabilistic optimization of life-cycle costs of offshore wind turbines structures and their components. This paper proposes a framework for assessing the life cycle cost of wind turbine structures subject to damage and deterioration. The objective of the paper is to develop a mathematical probabilistic cost assessment framework which considers deterioration, inspection, monitoring, repair and maintenance models and their uncertainties. The uncertainties are etched in the accuracy and precision of the monitoring and inspection methods and can be considered through the probability of damage detection of each method. Schedules for inspection, monitoring and repair actions are demonstrated using a decision tree. Examples of a generalised deterioration process integrated with the cost analysis using a decision tree are shown for a wind turbine foundation structure.

  7. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and freshwater consumption associated with Bakken tight oil.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, Ian J; Bergerson, Joule A; Motazedi, Kavan

    2016-11-29

    In recent years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have been applied to extract crude oil from tight reservoirs, including the Bakken formation. There is growing interest in understanding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the development of tight oil. We conducted a life cycle assessment of Bakken crude using data from operations throughout the supply chain, including drilling and completion, refining, and use of refined products. If associated gas is gathered throughout the Bakken well life cycle, then the well to wheel GHG emissions are estimated to be 89 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 87-94) of Bakken-derived gasoline and 90 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 88-94) of diesel. If associated gas is flared for the first 12 mo of production, then life cycle GHG emissions increase by 5% on average. Regardless of the level of flaring, the Bakken life cycle GHG emissions are comparable to those of other crudes refined in the United States because flaring GHG emissions are largely offset at the refinery due to the physical properties of this tight oil. We also assessed the life cycle freshwater consumptions of Bakken-derived gasoline and diesel to be 1.14 (80% CI, 0.67-2.15) and 1.22 barrel/barrel (80% CI, 0.71-2.29), respectively, 13% of which is associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  8. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and freshwater consumption associated with Bakken tight oil

    PubMed Central

    Laurenzi, Ian J.; Bergerson, Joule A.; Motazedi, Kavan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have been applied to extract crude oil from tight reservoirs, including the Bakken formation. There is growing interest in understanding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the development of tight oil. We conducted a life cycle assessment of Bakken crude using data from operations throughout the supply chain, including drilling and completion, refining, and use of refined products. If associated gas is gathered throughout the Bakken well life cycle, then the well to wheel GHG emissions are estimated to be 89 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 87–94) of Bakken-derived gasoline and 90 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 88–94) of diesel. If associated gas is flared for the first 12 mo of production, then life cycle GHG emissions increase by 5% on average. Regardless of the level of flaring, the Bakken life cycle GHG emissions are comparable to those of other crudes refined in the United States because flaring GHG emissions are largely offset at the refinery due to the physical properties of this tight oil. We also assessed the life cycle freshwater consumptions of Bakken-derived gasoline and diesel to be 1.14 (80% CI, 0.67–2.15) and 1.22 barrel/barrel (80% CI, 0.71–2.29), respectively, 13% of which is associated with hydraulic fracturing. PMID:27849573

  9. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  10. Nano-Launcher Technologies, Approaches, and Life Cycle Assessment. Phase II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Assist in understanding NASA technology and investment approaches, and other driving factors, necessary for enabling dedicated nano-launchers by industry at a cost and flight rate that (1) could support and be supported by an emerging nano-satellite market and (2) would benefit NASAs needs. Develop life-cycle cost, performance and other NASA analysis tools or models required to understand issues, drivers and challenges.

  11. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Lowden, R.A.; Murray, M.E.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-11-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the US, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Stakeholders would prefer tungsten-tin on the basis of total cost, performance, reduced environmental impact and lower human toxicity. Lead is preferable on the basis of material availability.

  12. Sustainable Life Cycles of Natural-Precursor-Derived Nanocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bazaka, Kateryna; Jacob, Mohan V; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2016-01-13

    Sustainable societal and economic development relies on novel nanotechnologies that offer maximum efficiency at minimal environmental cost. Yet, it is very challenging to apply green chemistry approaches across the entire life cycle of nanotech products, from design and nanomaterial synthesis to utilization and disposal. Recently, novel, efficient methods based on nonequilibrium reactive plasma chemistries that minimize the process steps and dramatically reduce the use of expensive and hazardous reagents have been applied to low-cost natural and waste sources to produce value-added nanomaterials with a wide range of applications. This review discusses the distinctive effects of nonequilibrium reactive chemistries and how these effects can aid and advance the integration of sustainable chemistry into each stage of nanotech product life. Examples of the use of enabling plasma-based technologies in sustainable production and degradation of nanotech products are discussed-from selection of precursors derived from natural resources and their conversion into functional building units, to methods for green synthesis of useful naturally degradable carbon-based nanomaterials, to device operation and eventual disintegration into naturally degradable yet potentially reusable byproducts.

  13. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    . While average results are valuable in comparing transport modes generally, they are less representative of local planning decisions, where the focus is on understanding the consequences of new infrastructure and how it might affect traffic, community impacts, and environmental aspects going forward. Chester et al (2013) also present their results using consequential LCA, which provides more detailed insights about the marginal effects of the specific rapid bus and light rail lines under study. The trade-offs between the additional resources required to install the public transit infrastructure (the 'resource debt') and the environmental advantages during the operation of these modes can be considered explicitly in terms of environmental impact payback periods, which vary with the type of environmental impact being considered. For example, bus rapid transit incurs a relatively small carbon debt associated with the GHG emissions of manufacturing new buses and installing transit infrastructure and pays this debt off almost immediately, while it takes half a century for the light rail line to pay off the 'smog debt' of its required infrastructure. This payback period approach, ubiquitous in life cycle costing, has been useful for communicating the magnitude of unintended environmental consequences from other resource and land management decisions, e.g., the release of soil carbon from land conversion to bioenergy crops (Fargione et al 2008), and will likely grow in prevalence as consequential LCA is used for decision support. The locations of projected emissions is just as important to decision-making as their magnitudes, as policy-making bodies seek to understand effects in their jurisdictions; however, life cycle impact assessment methods typically aggregate results by impact category rather than by source or sink location. Chester et al (2013) address this issue by providing both local (within Los Angeles) and total emissions results, with accompanying local-only payback

  14. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes.

    PubMed

    Benesh, Daniel P; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand

    2017-03-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 yr, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8,510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2,313 development time measurements and 7,660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  15. Geographic variation in life cycle strategies of a progenetic trematode.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Kristin K; Poulin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Numerous parasite species have evolved complex life cycles with multiple, subsequent hosts. In trematodes, each transmission event in multi-host life cycles selects for various adaptations, one of which is facultative life cycle abbreviation. This typically occurs through progenesis, i.e., precocious maturity and reproduction via self-fertilization within the second intermediate host. Progenesis eliminates the need for the definitive host and facilitates life cycle completion. Adopting a progenetic cycle may be a conditional strategy in response to environmental cues related to low probability of transmission to the definitive host. Here, the effects of environmental factors on the reproductive strategy of the progenetic trematode Stegodexamene anguillae were investigated using comparisons among populations. In the 3-host life cycle, S. anguillae sexually reproduces within eel definitive hosts, whereas in the progenetic life cycle, S. anguillae reproduces by selfing within the metacercaria cyst in tissues of small fish intermediate hosts. Geographic variation was found in the frequency of progenesis, independent of eel abundance. Progenesis was affected by abundance and length of the second intermediate fish host as well as encystment site within the host. The present study is the first to compare life cycle strategies among parasite populations, providing insight into the often unrecognized plasticity in parasite developmental strategies and transmission.

  16. A life cycle database for parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benesh, Daniel P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand

    2017-01-01

    Parasitologists have worked out many complex life cycles over the last ~150 years, yet there have been few efforts to synthesize this information to facilitate comparisons among taxa. Most existing host-parasite databases focus on particular host taxa, do not distinguish final from intermediate hosts, and lack parasite life-history information. We summarized the known life cycles of trophically transmitted parasitic acanthocephalans, cestodes, and nematodes. For 973 parasite species, we gathered information from the literature on the hosts infected at each stage of the parasite life cycle (8510 host-parasite species associations), what parasite stage is in each host, and whether parasites need to infect certain hosts to complete the life cycle. We also collected life-history data for these parasites at each life cycle stage, including 2313 development time measurements and 7660 body size measurements. The result is the most comprehensive data summary available for these parasite taxa. In addition to identifying gaps in our knowledge of parasite life cycles, these data can be used to test hypotheses about life cycle evolution, host specificity, parasite life-history strategies, and the roles of parasites in food webs.

  17. Cost optimization of spacecraft test levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    Common to all nondestructive type testing of hardware that provides the necessary confidence in the design is the question regarding the proper magnitude of the test level. The objective of this investigation was to study the possibility of establishing cost optimized test levels of a rather general nature. This investigation was based on studying the influence of test level on a cost of error cost model that reflects the adverse effects of 'undertesting' and 'overtesting'. For the assumed conditions of normal distribution for the random variables and a protoflight spacecraft case, the results indicated that the limits for an optimum test factor can range between slightly less than 1.0 to slightly more than 1.5.

  18. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: a comment on Bleichrodt and Quiggin.

    PubMed

    Klose, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In a recent issue of the Journal of Health Economics, Bleichrodt and Quiggin (1999) developed a model of life-cycle preferences over consumption and health to analyze QALY-based decision making. This analysis is critically appraised concerning issues of QALY-maximization on an individual and on an aggregate level as well as of the role of death in QALY-models. It is concluded that a more general approach might be useful for the analysis of QALYs and life-cycle preferences over consumption and health.

  19. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Life Cycle Cost Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will review lessons learned for space transportation systems from the viewpoint of the NASA, Industry and academia Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST). The paper provides the basic idea and history of "lessons learned". Recommendations that are extremely relevant to NASA's future investments in research, program development and operations are"'provided. Lastly, a novel and useful approach to documenting lessons learned is recommended, so as to most effectively guide future NASA investments. Applying lessons learned can significantly improve access to space for cargo or people by focusing limited funds on the right areas and needs for improvement. Many NASA human space flight initiatives have faltered, been re-directed or been outright canceled since the birth of the Space Shuttle program. The reasons given at the time have been seemingly unique. It will be shown that there are common threads as lessons learned in many a past initiative.

  20. Manpower/Hardware Life Cycle Cost Analysis Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-06

    the WSWP itself, iterative in nature . At each stage of the planned project, the work of earlier stages is reexazmied, prcbles uncovered earlier are...the nature of its subelements. The slide-rule aggregation model system builds up the system as the aggregation of lower indenture, building block...Such models exist, but as we have seen, they aren’t easily accessible to the designer. The natural solution to the feedback loop problem is to give the

  1. Quantifying Uncertainty for Early Life Cycle Cost Estimates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University,Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ),Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8...the technical staff at the Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ). During his 15 years at the SEI , his areas of expertise have included data analysis...sei.cmu.edu] Robert Ferguson—Ferguson is a senior member of the technical staff at the Software Engineering Institute ( SEI ). He works primarily on

  2. Life Cycle Cost Model for Very High Speed Integrated Circuits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    gates (5:36). Range Processor The range processor is a 1-D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) which compresses each range line. Approximately 10,000 logic... ANALISIS -10%) 179360. 28. 634. 180021. 209 i. , . . - TITL EN~WURfG P1U1’V E PRM CNa TOAL 00g SIGAL P- M ’ASIC C2UP-BIKAR LMLI =MI~D MT2MSIS-10

  3. Recent Combat Aircraft Life Cycle Costing Developments within DERA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    pitch. It has a single centreline aircraft. Oversized tyres operating at low pressure give weapons bay with two doors, as well as the provision to...carry increased tyre life, and two wheels per main undercarriage external stores. The LSV-F configuration is illustrated in strut reduce the kinetic...energy per wheel, allowing simpler Figure 13, and by a computer generated image in Figure 14. brakes. The nosewheel uses the same type of tyre as the 5-9

  4. Life-Cycle Cost Database Design and Sample Data Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    z S1CUItr CLASNOWIATION OP THIS PAGE (febate 0 nteredO~ UNLLA 1- ILU SEcumITY...rmo LN: q Ln r 0 ODco N 󈧰 rs C) L CJ C> L *SjU~* OD m CY N I- - ~ ~-.0 0 UJ 𔃾.. z o1 C. C’, Ch La’ T L r-S n s z54 D 15 L-e N LP oa z 04 .- j 0: z 8...8 C> -C LW*0w cx 8a 8 z ie 0- Z = I- iC C. Co 04. L8 9L9 3 -0 caW (𔃾 N 17 19I Al4l Vol 0 C. . a ; . a * In a at P, 0 00.-. 0, a I a AlN a 0 N a a =

  5. Planning for Cost Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaebitz, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A heat pump life-cycle cost analysis is used to explain the technique. Items suggested for the life-cycle analysis approach include lighting, longer-life batteries, site maintenance, and retaining experts to inspect specific building components. (MLF)

  6. Life cycle thinking in impact assessment—Current practice and LCA gains

    SciTech Connect

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2015-09-15

    It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in impact assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant impacts throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA practice so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which were analysed for analytical appropriateness and application of LCT. Through a focus on the non-technical summary, the conclusion and the use of specific search words, passages containing LCT were searched for in each IA report. These passages were then analysed with a generic framework. The results reveal that LCT is appropriate for most of the IAs, but that LCA is rarely applied to provide such a perspective. Without LCA, the IAs show mixed performance in regard to LCT. Most IAs do consider the product provision of development proposals, but they rarely relate impacts to this function explicitly. Many IAs do consider downstream impacts, but assessments of upstream, distant impacts are generally absent. It is concluded that multiple analytical gains can be attributed to greater application of LCA in IA practice, though some level of LCT already exists. - Highlights: • Life cycle thinking is appropriate across the types and topics of impact assessment. • Yet, life cycle assessment is rarely used for adding such perspective. • Impact assessment practice does apply some degree of life cycle thinking. • However, application of life cycle assessment could bring analytical gains.

  7. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  8. Towards a Sustainable Approach to Nanotechnology by Integrating Life Cycle Assessment into the Undergraduate Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopelevich, Dmitry I.; Ziegler, Kirk J.; Lindner, Angela S.; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2012-01-01

    Because rapid growth of nanotechnology is expected to lead to intentional and non-intentional releases, future engineers will need to minimize negative environmental and health impacts of nanomaterials. We developed two upper-level undergraduate courses centered on life-cycle assessment of nanomaterials. The first part of the course sequence…

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Domestic and Agricultural Rainwater Harvesting Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To further understanding of the environmental implications of rainwater harvesting and its water savings potential relative to conventional U.S. water delivery infrastructure, we present a method to perform life cycle assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) and agricul...

  10. Information system life-cycle and documentation standards, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callender, E. David; Steinbacher, Jody

    1989-01-01

    The Software Management and Assurance Program (SMAP) Information System Life-Cycle and Documentation Standards Document describes the Version 4 standard information system life-cycle in terms of processes, products, and reviews. The description of the products includes detailed documentation standards. The standards in this document set can be applied to the life-cycle, i.e., to each phase in the system's development, and to the documentation of all NASA information systems. This provides consistency across the agency as well as visibility into the completeness of the information recorded. An information system is software-intensive, but consists of any combination of software, hardware, and operational procedures required to process, store, or transmit data. This document defines a standard life-cycle model and content for associated documentation.

  11. A new data architecture for advancing life cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    IntroductionLife cycle assessment (LCA) has a technical architecture that limits data interoperability, transparency, and automated integration of external data. More advanced information technologies offer promise for increasing the ease with which information can be synthesized...

  12. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF MILK AND JUICE PACKAGING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle design demonstration project was initiated between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Dow Chemical Company, and the University of Michigan to investigate milk and juice packagie design. The primary objective of ...

  13. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...

  14. Match your sales force structure to your business life cycle.

    PubMed

    Zoltners, Andris A; Sinha, Prabhakant; Lorimer, Sally E

    2006-01-01

    Although companies devote considerable time and money to managing their sales forces, few focus much thought on how the structure of the sales force needs to change over the life cycle of a product or a business. However, the organization and goals of a sales operation have to evolve as businesses start up, grow, mature, and decline if a company wants to keep winning the race for customers. Specifically, firms must consider and alter four factors over time: the differing roles that internal salespeople and external selling partners should play, the size of the sales force, its degree of specialization, and how salespeople apportion their efforts among different customers, products, and activities. These variables are critical because they determine how quickly sales forces respond to market opportunities, they influence sales reps' performance, and they affect companies' revenues, costs, and profitability. In this article, the authors use timeseries data and cases to explain how, at each stage, firms can best tackle the relevant issues and get the most out of their sales forces. During start-up, smart companies focus on how big their sales staff should be and on whether they can depend upon selling partners. In the growth phase, they concentrate on getting the sales force's degree of specialization and size right. When businesses hit maturity, companies should better allocate existing resources and hire more general-purpose salespeople. Finally, as organizations go into decline, wise sales leaders reduce sales force size and use partners to keep the business afloat for as long as possible.

  15. LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a large, complex project in which a number of different research activities are taking place concurrently to collect data, develop cost and LCI methodologies, construct a database and decision support tool, and conduct case studies with communities to support the life cyc...

  16. Dynamic Changes in the Transcriptome and Methylome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii throughout Its Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Lopez, David; Hamaji, Takashi; Kropat, Janette; De Hoff, Peter; Morselli, Marco; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel; Gallaher, Sean D; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Umen, James; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2015-12-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii undergoes gametogenesis and mating upon nitrogen starvation. While the steps involved in its sexual reproductive cycle have been extensively characterized, the genome-wide transcriptional and epigenetic changes underlying different life cycle stages have yet to be fully described. Here, we performed transcriptome and methylome sequencing to quantify expression and DNA methylation from vegetative and gametic cells of each mating type and from zygotes. We identified 361 gametic genes with mating type-specific expression patterns and 627 genes that are specifically induced in zygotes; furthermore, these sex-related gene sets were enriched for secretory pathway and alga-specific genes. We also examined the C. reinhardtii nuclear methylation map with base-level resolution at different life cycle stages. Despite having low global levels of nuclear methylation, we detected 23 hypermethylated loci in gene-poor, repeat-rich regions. We observed mating type-specific differences in chloroplast DNA methylation levels in plus versus minus mating type gametes followed by chloroplast DNA hypermethylation in zygotes. Lastly, we examined the expression of candidate DNA methyltransferases and found three, DMT1a, DMT1b, and DMT4, that are differentially expressed during the life cycle and are candidate DNA methylases. The expression and methylation data we present provide insight into cell type-specific transcriptional and epigenetic programs during key stages of the C. reinhardtii life cycle.

  17. Comparative evaluation of life cycle assessment models for solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Joerg; Bilitewski, Bernd

    2007-07-01

    This publication compares a selection of six different models developed in Europe and America by research organisations, industry associations and governmental institutions. The comparison of the models reveals the variations in the results and the differences in the conclusions of an LCA study done with these models. The models are compared by modelling a specific case - the waste management system of Dresden, Germany - with each model and an in-detail comparison of the life cycle inventory results. Moreover, a life cycle impact assessment shows if the LCA results of each model allows for comparable and consecutive conclusions, which do not contradict the conclusions derived from the other models' results. Furthermore, the influence of different level of detail in the life cycle inventory of the life cycle assessment is demonstrated. The model comparison revealed that the variations in the LCA results calculated by the models for the case show high variations and are not negligible. In some cases the high variations in results lead to contradictory conclusions concerning the environmental performance of the waste management processes. The static, linear modelling approach chosen by all models analysed is inappropriate for reflecting actual conditions. Moreover, it was found that although the models' approach to LCA is comparable on a general level, the level of detail implemented in the software tools is very different.

  18. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  19. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders; Barlaz, Morton A.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Life-cycle assessment of solid waste management relies on accurate process models. • Material recovery facility (MRF) processes were modeled with new primary data. • Single stream, dual stream, pre-sorted, and mixed waste MRFs were considered. • MRF electricity consumption ranges from 4.7 to 7.8 kW h per Mg input. • Total cost ranges from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg input. - Abstract: Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different process flow, for separation of single-stream, dual-stream, pre-sorted recyclables, and mixed-waste. Each MRF type has a distinct combination of equipment and default input waste composition. Model results for total amortized costs from each MRF type ranged from $19.8 to $24.9 per Mg (1 Mg = 1 metric ton) of waste input. Electricity use ranged from 4.7 to 7.8 kW h per Mg of waste input. In a single-stream MRF, equipment required for glass separation consumes 28% of total facility electricity consumption, while all other pieces of material recovery equipment consume less than 10% of total electricity. The dual-stream and mixed-waste MRFs have similar electricity consumption to a single-stream MRF. Glass separation contributes a much larger fraction of electricity consumption in a pre-sorted MRF, due to lower overall facility electricity consumption. Parametric analysis revealed that reducing separation efficiency for each piece of equipment by 25% altered total facility electricity consumption by less than 4% in each case. When model results were compared with actual data for an

  20. Long-term shifts in life-cycle energy efficiency and carbon intensity.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Morrison, Geoff; Teter, Jacob; Quiceno, Raul; Gillingham, Kenneth; Riera-Palou, Xavier

    2013-03-19

    The quantity of primary energy needed to support global human activity is in large part determined by how efficiently that energy is converted to a useful form. We estimate the system-level life-cycle energy efficiency (EF) and carbon intensity (CI) across primary resources for 2005-2100. Our results underscore that although technological improvements at each energy conversion process will improve technology efficiency and lead to important reductions in primary energy use, market mediated effects and structural shifts toward less efficient pathways and pathways with multiple stages of conversion will dampen these efficiency gains. System-level life-cycle efficiency may decrease as mitigation efforts intensify, since low-efficiency renewable systems with high output have much lower GHG emissions than some high-efficiency fossil fuel systems. Climate policies accelerate both improvements in EF and the adoption of renewable technologies, resulting in considerably lower primary energy demand and GHG emissions. Life-cycle EF and CI of useful energy provide a useful metric for understanding dynamics of implementing climate policies. The approaches developed here reiterate the necessity of a combination of policies that target efficiency and decarbonized energy technologies. We also examine life-cycle exergy efficiency (ExF) and find that nearly all of the qualitative results hold regardless of whether we use ExF or EF.

  1. Life cycle assessment of potential biojet fuel production in the United States.

    PubMed

    Agusdinata, Datu B; Zhao, Fu; Ileleji, Klein; DeLaurentis, Dan

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to reveal to what degree biobased jet fuels (biojet) can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. aviation sector. A model of the supply and demand chain of biojet involving farmers, biorefineries, airlines, and policymakers is developed by considering factors that drive the decisions of actors (i.e., decision-makers and stakeholders) in the life cycle stages. Two kinds of feedstock are considered: oil-producing feedstock (i.e., camelina and algae) and lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., corn stover, switchgrass, and short rotation woody crops). By factoring in farmer/feedstock producer and biorefinery profitability requirements and risk attitudes, land availability and suitability, as well as a time delay and technological learning factor, a more realistic estimate of the level of biojet supply and emissions reduction can be developed under different oil price assumptions. Factors that drive biojet GHG emissions and unit production costs from each feedstock are identified and quantified. Overall, this study finds that at likely adoption rates biojet alone would not be sufficient to achieve the aviation emissions reduction target. In 2050, under high oil price scenario assumption, GHG emissions can be reduced to a level ranging from 55 to 92%, with a median value of 74%, compared to the 2005 baseline level.

  2. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston,...

  3. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-07

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison.

  4. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation Impacts of a Marcellus Shale Gas Well

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input–output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20 000 m3 (with a range from 6700 to 33 000 m3) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300–3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900–23 000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0–370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800–71 000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well

  5. Life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mohan; Hendrickson, Chris T; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the life cycle water consumption and wastewater generation impacts of a Marcellus shale gas well from its construction to end of life. Direct water consumption at the well site was assessed by analysis of data from approximately 500 individual well completion reports collected in 2010 by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Indirect water consumption for supply chain production at each life cycle stage of the well was estimated using the economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) method. Life cycle direct and indirect water quality pollution impacts were assessed and compared using the tool for the reduction and assessment of chemical and other environmental impacts (TRACI). Wastewater treatment cost was proposed as an additional indicator for water quality pollution impacts from shale gas well wastewater. Four water management scenarios for Marcellus shale well wastewater were assessed: current conditions in Pennsylvania; complete discharge; direct reuse and desalination; and complete desalination. The results show that under the current conditions, an average Marcellus shale gas well consumes 20,000 m(3) (with a range from 6700 to 33,000 m(3)) of freshwater per well over its life cycle excluding final gas utilization, with 65% direct water consumption at the well site and 35% indirect water consumption across the supply chain production. If all flowback and produced water is released into the environment without treatment, direct wastewater from a Marcellus shale gas well is estimated to have 300-3000 kg N-eq eutrophication potential, 900-23,000 kg 2,4D-eq freshwater ecotoxicity potential, 0-370 kg benzene-eq carcinogenic potential, and 2800-71,000 MT toluene-eq noncarcinogenic potential. The potential toxicity of the chemicals in the wastewater from the well site exceeds those associated with supply chain production, except for carcinogenic effects. If all the Marcellus shale well wastewater is

  6. Estimating costs of low-level radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, National Low-Level Waste Management Program. It presents planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for four sizes of in-state low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities. These PLCC estimates include preoperational and operational expenditures, all support facilities, materials, labor, closure costs, and long-term institutional care and monitoring costs. It is intended that this report bc used as a broad decision making tool for evaluating one of the several complex factors that must be examined when deciding between various LLRW management options -- relative costs. Because the underlying assumptions of these analyses will change as the Board decides how it will manage Massachusett`s waste and the specific characteristics any disposal facility will have, the results of this study are not absolute and should only be used to compare the relative costs of the options presented. The disposal technology selected for this analysis is aboveground earth-mounded vaults. These vaults are reinforced concrete structures where low-level waste is emplaced and later covered with a multi-layered earthen cap. The ``base case`` PLCC estimate was derived from a preliminary feasibility design developed for the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. This PLCC report describes facility operations and details the procedure used to develop the base case PLCC estimate for each facility component and size. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the base case PLCC estimate by varying several factors to determine their influences upon the unit disposal costs. The report presents the results of the sensitivity analyses for the five most significant cost factors.

  7. Life-cycle analysis of depot versus rehabilitation manual wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Robertson, R N; Lawrence, B; Heil, T; Albright, S J; VanSickle, D P; Gonzalez, J

    1996-02-01

    The proper selection of a wheelchair requires making several critical decisions, not the least of which is what type of wheelchair is appropriate. The International Organization for Standards (ISO) continues to develop and refine wheelchair standards. Standards allow the objective comparison of products from various sources, permitting consumers or clinicians to assess wheelchairs with which they are not familiar by comparing test results. This study consisted of three components: 1) the comparison of fatigue test results with a planar ANSI/RESNA test dummy to a HERL contoured test dummy; 2) the comparison of fatigue test results for common depot versus common rehabilitation manual wheelchairs; and 3) the comparison of fatigue test results for manual rehabilitation wheelchairs with solid 8-inch casters versus those with pneumatic 8-inch casters. Rehabilitation wheelchairs lasted on average 13.2 times longer than the depot wheelchairs. Both types, tested with the standard ISO-ANSI/RESNA dummy, lasted on average 2.1 times longer than those wheelchairs tested using the contoured dummy. The three rehabilitation wheelchairs equipped with 8-inch pneumatic casters lasted on average 3.2 times longer than the 6 rehabilitation wheelchairs equipped with solid 8-inch casters. The depot wheelchairs cost about 3.4 times as much to operate per cycle or per meter than the rehabilitation wheelchairs. The rehabilitation wheelchairs tended to experience component failures, while the depot wheelchairs tended to experience frame failures. Our testing indicates that the tests in the ISO-ANSI/RESNA standards can relate design features to fatigue test results and durability. Rehabilitation wheelchairs tend to use higher quality materials and better manufacturing practices, and they provide greater mobility for wheelchair users. Purchasers and prescribers of wheelchairs should consider the life-cycle cost and not just the purchase price for wheelchairs.

  8. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings.

  9. Life cycle assessment for sustainable metropolitan water systems planning.

    PubMed

    Lundie, Sven; Peters, Gregory M; Beavis, Paul C

    2004-07-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is useful as an information tool for the examination of alternative future scenarios for strategic planning. Developing a life cycle assessment for a large water and wastewater system involves making methodological decisions about the level of detail which is retained through different stages of the process. In this article we discuss a methodology tailored to strategic planning needs which retains a high degree of model segmentation in order to enhance modeling of a large, complex system. This is illustrated by a case study of Sydney Water, which is Australia's largest water service provider. A prospective LCA was carried out to examine the potential environmental impacts of Sydney Water's total operations in the year 2021. To our knowledge this is the first study to create an LCA model of an integrated water and wastewater system with this degree of complexity. A "base case" system model was constructed to represent current operating assets as augmented and upgraded to 2021. The base case results provided a basis for the comparison of alternative future scenarios and for conclusions to be drawn regarding potential environmental improvements. The scenarios can be roughly classified in two categories: (1) options which improve the environmental performance across all impact categories and (2) options which improve one indicator and worsen others. Overall environmental improvements are achieved in all categories by the scenarios examining increased demand management, energy efficiency, energy generation, and additional energy recovery from biosolids. The scenarios which examined desalination of seawater and the upgrades of major coastal sewage treatment plants to secondary and tertiary treatment produced an improvement in one environmental indicator but deteriorations in all the other impact categories, indicating the environmental tradeoffs within the system. The desalination scenario produced a significant increase in greenhouse gas

  10. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60-95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared with the overall life cycle of building and construction materials, leaching emissions were shown to be potentially significant for toxicity impacts, compared with contributions from production of the same materials, showing that end-of-life impacts and leaching should not be disregarded when assessing environmental impacts from construction products and materials. CO2 uptake in the C

  11. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Butera, Stefania Christensen, Thomas H.; Astrup, Thomas F.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA of C&DW utilisation in road vs. C&DW landfilling. • C&DW utilisation in road better than landfilling for most categories. • Transportation is the most important process in non-toxic impact categories. • Leaching of oxyanions is the critical process in toxic impact categories. • Modelling of Cr fate in the subsoil is highly influential to the results. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) modelling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management was carried out. The functional unit was management of 1 Mg mineral, source separated C&DW, which is either utilised in road construction as a substitute for natural aggregates, or landfilled. The assessed environmental impacts included both non-toxic and toxic impact categories. The scenarios comprised all stages of the end-of-life management of C&DW, until final disposal of all residues. Leaching of inorganic contaminants was included, as was the production of natural aggregates, which was avoided because of the use of C&DW. Typical uncertainties related to contaminant leaching were addressed. For most impact categories, utilisation of C&DW in road construction was preferable to landfilling; however, for most categories, utilisation resulted in net environmental burdens. Transportation represented the most important contribution for most nontoxic impacts, accounting for 60–95 per cent of these impacts. Capital goods contributed with negligible impacts. Leaching played a critical role for the toxic categories, where landfilling had lower impacts than utilisation because of the lower levels of leachate per ton of C&DW reaching the groundwater over a 100-year perspective. Leaching of oxyanions (As, V and Sb) was critical with respect to leaching. Typical experimental uncertainties in leaching data did not have a pivotal influence on the results; however, accounting for Cr immobilisation in soils as part of the impact assessment was critical for modelling the leaching impacts. Compared

  12. Optimal life-cycle profiles of fertility and labor supply.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, R

    1984-01-01

    A model of life cycle fertility is developed using the language and framework of optimal control theory. The chief characteristic of children that distinguishes them from other consumer durables is, in the language of the optimal growth theory, the "irreversibility of investment." As the good does not depreciate in the ordinary sense, the stock must be monotonically nondecreasing over time. The optimal profile of fertility is, for this reason, characterized by the same type of "bang-bang" behavior found in many optimal growth problems. Yet, the fertility decision is complicated considerably by several other factors. Chief among these is the intrinsic relation to the labor-supply decision, for having children implies inevitable constraints on the mother's or father's time. Thus, optimal labor-supply decisions also must be considered. The model is developed in stages, proceeding from very simple to the more complex models. 1 section introduces the impact of fertility on the future demands for home time. It is shown that optimal fertility profiles follow turnpike paths similar to those in the growth-theory literature. A subsequent section introduces labor-supply and human-captial considerations. As the models become more complex, solutions become harder to derive and are often only outlined. The analysis provides some theoretical basis for expecting certain shapes of the life-cycle profiles of fertility, labor supply, and wages. Fertility profiles may be of 2 shapes--one beginning at a high rate, falling to a lower rate, then to zero; and one beginning at zero, rising to a moderate rate, then falling back down to zero. Labor supply profiles can be of a number of different shapes, but the impact of childbearing is to lower hours worked during the early childrearing period. As the children mature, hours worked rise (or at least fall more slowly) as home time responsibilities lessen, although the level to which they rise will probably be lower than before the 1st birth

  13. User's manual for levelized power generation cost using a microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, L.C.

    1984-08-01

    Microcomputer programs for the estimation of levelized electrical power generation costs are described. Procedures for light-water reactor plants and coal-fired plants include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, nuclear decommissioning cost, and levelized total generation cost. Programs are written in Pascal and are run on an Apple II Plus microcomputer.

  14. Life-cycle assessment of computational logic produced from 1995 through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, S. B.; Horvath, A.; Dornfeld, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of the life-cycle environmental and human health impacts of semiconductor logic is essential to a better understanding of the role information technology can play in achieving energy efficiency or global warming potential reduction goals. This study provides a life-cycle assessment for digital logic chips over seven technology generations, spanning from 1995 through 2010. Environmental indicators include global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, ground-level ozone (smog) formation, potential human cancer and non-cancer health effects, ecotoxicity and water use. While impacts per device area related to fabrication infrastructure and use-phase electricity have increased steadily, those due to transportation and fabrication direct emissions have fallen as a result of changes in process technology, device and wafer sizes and yields over the generations. Electricity, particularly in the use phase, and direct emissions from fabrication are the most important contributors to life-cycle impacts. Despite the large quantities of water used in fabrication, across the life cycle, the largest fraction of water is consumed in generation of electricity for use-phase power. Reducing power consumption in the use phase is the most effective way to limit impacts, particularly for the more recent generations of logic.

  15. Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment, Part I: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2010-04-01

    If life cycle oriented methods are to encourage sustainable development, they must account for the role of ecosystem goods and services, since these form the basis of planetary activities and human well-being. This article reviews methods that are relevant to accounting for the role of nature and that could be integrated into life cycle oriented approaches. These include methods developed by ecologists for quantifying ecosystem services, by ecological economists for monetary valuation, and life cycle methods such as conventional life cycle assessment, thermodynamic methods for resource accounting such as exergy and emergy analysis, variations of the ecological footprint approach, and human appropriation of net primary productivity. Each approach has its strengths: economic methods are able to quantify the value of cultural services; LCA considers emissions and assesses their impact; emergy accounts for supporting services in terms of cumulative exergy; and ecological footprint is intuitively appealing and considers biocapacity. However, no method is able to consider all the ecosystem services, often due to the desire to aggregate all resources in terms of a single unit. This review shows that comprehensive accounting for ecosystem services in LCA requires greater integration among existing methods, hierarchical schemes for interpreting results via multiple levels of aggregation, and greater understanding of the role of ecosystems in supporting human activities. These present many research opportunities that must be addressed to meet the challenges of sustainability.

  16. Characterizing model uncertainties in the life cycle of lignocellulose-based ethanol fuels.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; MacLean, Heather L

    2010-11-15

    Renewable and low carbon fuel standards being developed at federal and state levels require an estimation of the life cycle carbon intensity (LCCI) of candidate fuels that can substitute for gasoline, such as second generation bioethanol. Estimating the LCCI of such fuels with a high degree of confidence requires the use of probabilistic methods to account for known sources of uncertainty. We construct life cycle models for the bioconversion of agricultural residue (corn stover) and energy crops (switchgrass) and explicitly examine uncertainty using Monte Carlo simulation. Using statistical methods to identify significant model variables from public data sets and Aspen Plus chemical process models,we estimate stochastic life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the two feedstocks combined with two promising fuel conversion technologies. The approach can be generalized to other biofuel systems. Our results show potentially high and uncertain GHG emissions for switchgrass-ethanol due to uncertain CO₂ flux from land use change and N₂O flux from N fertilizer. However, corn stover-ethanol,with its low-in-magnitude, tight-in-spread LCCI distribution, shows considerable promise for reducing life cycle GHG emissions relative to gasoline and corn-ethanol. Coproducts are important for reducing the LCCI of all ethanol fuels we examine.

  17. Top Level Space Cost Methodology (TLSCM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Work Breakdown Structure CEIT Cost Engineering Integrated Tool CER Cost Estimating Relationship CY$ Constant Year Dollar DCA Defense Communication...ATTACHMENT 6 Cost Models A. Hardware Models ACEIT PRICE SEER CEIT B. Ground Models Fixed and Transportable Earth Stations Model(FATES) Ground Station...Cost Model Cost Engineering Integrated Tool( CEIT ) C. Launch Models Aerospace Launch Cost Model Launch Vehicle Cost Model Cost Engineering Integrated

  18. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents average values of levelized costs for generating technologies entering service in 2018, 2022, and 2040 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Reference case.

  19. Life-cycle nitrogen trifluoride emissions from photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Fthenakis, Vasilis; Clark, Daniel O; Moalem, Mehran; Chandler, Phil; Ridgeway, Robert G; Hulbert, Forrest E; Cooper, David B; Maroulis, Peter J

    2010-11-15

    Amorphous- and nanocrystalline-silicon thin-film photovoltaic modules are made in high-throughput manufacturing lines that necessitate quickly cleaning the reactor. Using NF₃, a potent greenhouse gas, as the cleaning agent triggered concerns as recent reports reveal that the atmospheric concentrations of this gas have increased significantly. We quantified the life-cycle emissions of NF₃ in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, on the basis of actual measurements at the facilities of a major producer of NF₃ and of a manufacturer of PV end-use equipment. From these, we defined the best practices and technologies that are the most likely to keep worldwide atmospheric concentrations of NF₃ at very low radiative forcing levels. For the average U.S. insolation and electricity-grid conditions, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manufacturing and using NF₃ in current PV a-Si and tandem a-Si/nc-Si facilities add 2 and 7 g CO₂(eq)/kWh, which can be displaced within the first 1-4 months of the PV system life.

  20. Toward meaningful end points of biodiversity in life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Curran, Michael; de Baan, Laura; De Schryver, An M; Van Zelm, Rosalie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Koellner, Thomas; Sonnemann, Guido; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-01-01

    Halting current rates of biodiversity loss will be a defining challenge of the 21st century. To assess the effectiveness of strategies to achieve this goal, indicators and tools are required that monitor the driving forces of biodiversity loss, the changing state of biodiversity, and evaluate the effectiveness of policy responses. Here, we review the use of indicators and approaches to model biodiversity loss in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a methodology used to evaluate the cradle-to-grave environmental impacts of products. We find serious conceptual shortcomings in the way models are constructed, with scale considerations largely absent. Further, there is a disproportionate focus on indicators that reflect changes in compositional aspects of biodiversity, mainly changes in species richness. Functional and structural attributes of biodiversity are largely neglected. Taxonomic and geographic coverage remains problematic, with the majority of models restricted to one or a few taxonomic groups and geographic regions. On a more general level, three of the five drivers of biodiversity loss as identified by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment are represented in current impact categories (habitat change, climate change and pollution), while two are missing (invasive species and overexploitation). However, methods across all drivers can be greatly improved. We discuss these issues and make recommendations for future research to better reflect biodiversity loss in LCA.

  1. Life cycle water footprints of nonfood biomass fuels in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Xie, Xiaomin; Huang, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    This study presented life cycle water footprints (WFs) of biofuels from biomass in China based on the resource distribution, climate conditions, soil conditions and crop growing characteristics. Life cycle WFs including blue, green and gray water were evaluated for the selected fuel pathways. Geographical differences of water requirements were revealed to be different by locations. The results indicated that water irrigation requirements were significantly different from crop to crop, ranging from 2-293, 78-137, and 17-621 m(3)/ha, for sweet sorghum, cassava, and Jatropha curcas L., respectively. Four biofuel pathways were selected on this basis to analyze the life cycle WF: cassava based bioethanol in Guangxi, sweet sorghum based bioethanol in Northeast China, Jatropha curcal L. based biodiesel in Yunnan and microalgae based biodiesel in Hainan. The life cycle WFs of bioethanol from cassava and sweet sorghum were 3708, and 17 156 m(3) per ton of bioethanol, respectively, whereas for biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas L. and microalgae, they were 5787, and 31 361 m(3) per ton of biodiesel, respectively. The crop growing stage was the main contributor to the whole life cycle of each pathway. Compared to blue and green water, gray water was significant due to the use of fertilizer during the growing of biomass. From the perspective of the WF, cassava based bioethanol in Guangxi and Jatropha based biodiesel in Yunnan were suitable for promotion, whereas the promotion for microalage based biodiesel in Hainan required improvement on technology.

  2. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA).

  3. Life cycle risk assessment of bottom ash reuse.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsiu-ching; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2011-06-15

    The life cycle thinking was integrated with risk assessment to develop the life cycle risk assessment (LCRA) methodology in this study. Because LCRA assessed risks from a life cycle perspective of the concerned policies, it was helpful to identify important sources, contaminants, receptors and exposure pathways along the life cycle of reuse activities. The case study showed that different reuse scenarios resulted in risk shift between different life stages and receptors, and using duration of pavement was an essential factor for risk management. When ash reuse strategies were made based on a focus on the stage of reuse, the rank of strategies were shown to be different from the one based on the total population risks over the entire life cycle. This demonstrated the importance of decision criteria used in selecting reuse strategies. The results also showed that when bottom ash was reused, the health risk was shifted to the laborers; the individual risks of laborers were higher than residents through exposure to Cr and Cd via inhalation and dermal contact. Although the population risk at the treatment stage was the highest, the smaller size of exposed population would make it quite effective to reduce the risk of the laborers.

  4. Work Commitment through the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitin, Teresa E.; Quinn, Robert P.

    Data obtained from a national, cross-sectional survey of the American work force were used to examine the relationship between age and an interview measure of psychological involvement with work (i.e., paid employment). For men, this relationship was curvilinear. Commitment began at a low level among the 16-20 year old men, rose to its highest…

  5. 10 CFR 436.15 - Formatting cost data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.15 Formatting cost data. In establishing cost data under §§ 436... software referenced in the Life Cycle Cost Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program....

  6. 10 CFR 436.15 - Formatting cost data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.15 Formatting cost data. In establishing cost data under §§ 436... software referenced in the Life Cycle Cost Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program....

  7. Developmental plasticity and the evolution of animal complex life cycles

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Metazoan life cycles can be complex in different ways. A number of diverse phenotypes and reproductive events can sequentially occur along the cycle, and at certain stages a variety of developmental and reproductive options can be available to the animal, the choice among which depends on a combination of organismal and environmental conditions. We hypothesize that a diversity of phenotypes arranged in developmental sequence throughout an animal's life cycle may have evolved by genetic assimilation of alternative phenotypes originally triggered by environmental cues. This is supported by similarities between the developmental mechanisms mediating phenotype change and alternative phenotype determination during ontogeny and the common ecological condition that favour both forms of phenotypic variation. The comparison of transcription profiles from different developmental stages throughout a complex life cycle with those from alternative phenotypes in closely related polyphenic animals is expected to offer critical evidence upon which to evaluate our hypothesis. PMID:20083638

  8. Security Risks: Management and Mitigation in the Software Life Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David P.

    2004-01-01

    A formal approach to managing and mitigating security risks in the software life cycle is requisite to developing software that has a higher degree of assurance that it is free of security defects which pose risk to the computing environment and the organization. Due to its criticality, security should be integrated as a formal approach in the software life cycle. Both a software security checklist and assessment tools should be incorporated into this life cycle process and integrated with a security risk assessment and mitigation tool. The current research at JPL addresses these areas through the development of a Sotfware Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) and integrating it with a Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) risk management tool.

  9. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies. PMID:26690755

  10. Life Cycle Reversal in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    PubMed

    He, Jinru; Zheng, Lianming; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae. This is the first evidence for back-transformation of sexually mature medusae into polyps in Aurelia sp.1. The resulting reconstruction of the schematic life cycle of Aurelia reveals the underestimated potential of life cycle reversal in scyphozoan medusae, with possible implications for biological and ecological studies.

  11. [Carbon balance analysis of corn fuel ethanol life cycle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-shan; Yuan, Xi-gang

    2006-04-01

    The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions (net carbon emissions) of corn-based fuel ethanol, which is known as an alternative for fossil fuel is an important criteria for evaluating its sustainability. The methodology of carbon balance analysis for fuel ethanol from corn was developed based on principles of life cycle analysis. For the production state of fuel ethanol from summer corn in China, carbon budgets in overall life cycle of the ethanol were evaluated and its main influence factors were identified. It presents that corn-based fuel ethanol has no obvious reduction of carbon emissions than gasoline, and potential improvement in carbon emission of the life cycle of corn ethanol could be achieved by reducing the nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation electricity used in the corn farming and energy consumption in the ethanol conversion process.

  12. Estimating net changes in life-cycle emissions from adoption of emerging civil infrastructure technologies.

    PubMed

    Amponsah, Isaac; Harrison, Kenneth W; Rizos, Dimitris C; Ziehl, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    There is a net emissions change when adopting new materials for use in civil infrastructure design. To evaluate the total net emissions change, one must consider changes in manufacture and associated life-cycle emissions, as well as changes in the quantity of material required. In addition, in principle one should also consider any differences in costs of the two designs because cost savings can be applied to other economic activities with associated environmental impacts. In this paper, a method is presented that combines these considerations to permit an evaluation of the net change in emissions when considering the adoption of emerging technologies/materials for civil infrastructure. The method factors in data on differences between a standard and new material for civil infrastructure, material requirements as specified in designs using both materials, and price information. The life-cycle assessment approach known as economic input-output life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) is utilized. A brief background on EIO-LCA is provided because its use is central to the method. The methodology is demonstrated with analysis of a switch from carbon steel to high-performance steel in military bridge design. The results are compared with a simplistic analysis that accounts for the weight reduction afforded by use of the high-performance steel but assuming no differences in manufacture.

  13. Assessing the performance of life-cycle portfolio allocation strategies for retirement saving: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Benjamin; Gesumaria, Robert; Leonesio, Michael V

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the performance of four life-cycle portfolio allocation strategies through stochastic simulation based on observed U.S. asset returns during 1926-2008. Annual worker contributions to retirement savings accounts are based on the actual lifetime earnings histories maintained by the Social Security Administration for 12,871 workers born during 1915-1942. Each strategy's performance is evaluated primarily on the basis of the distributions of internal rates of return on investments calculated at the time of retirement. Comparisons are made with the performance of four other investment strategies that vary in terms of their exposure to stock and bond market risk. Life-cycle plans with larger portfolio weights assigned to equities have higher average returns, but those gains come at the cost of increased risk of infrequent bad outcomes.

  14. Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norwood, Zack; Kammen, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of 0.25 kWh-1 electricity and 0.03 kWh-1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ˜80 gCO2eq kWh-1 of electricity and ˜10 gCO2eq kWh-1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of 1.40 m-3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that 0.40-1.90 m-3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

  15. Transport of Passive Tracers in Baroclinic Wave Life Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Elizabeth M.; Randel, William J.; Stanford, John L.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of passive tracers in idealized baroclinic wave life cycles is studied using output from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). Two life cycles, LCn and LCs, are simulated, starting with baroclinically unstable initial conditions similar to those used by Thorncroft et al. in their study of two life cycle paradigms. The two life cycles LCn and LCs have different initial horizontal wind shear structures that result in distinctive nonlinear development. In terms of potential vorticity-potential temperature (PV-theta) diagnostics, the LCn case is characterized by thinning troughs that are advected anti-cyclonically and equatorward, while the LCs case has broadening troughs that wrap up cyclonically and poleward. Four idealized passive tracers are included in the model to be advected by the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the CCM2, and their evolutions are investigated throughout the life cycles. Tracer budgets are analyzed in terms of the transformed Eulerian mean constituent transport formalism in pressure coordinates and also in isentropic coordinates. Results for both LCn and LCs show transport that is downgradient with respect to the background structure of the tracer field, but with a characteristic spatial structure that maximizes in the middle to high latitudes. For the idealized tropospheric tracers in this study, this represents a net upward and poleward transport that enhances concentrations at high latitudes. These results vary little with the initial distribution of the constituent field. The time tendency of the tracer is influenced most strongly by the eddy flux term. with the largest transport occurring during the nonlinear growth stage of the life cycle. The authors also study the transport of a lower-stratospheric tracer, to examine stratosphere-troposphere exchange for baroclinic waves.

  16. An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, John; Camobreco, Vince; Duffield, James; Graboski, Michael; Shapouri, Housein

    1998-05-01

    This overview is extracted from a detailed, comprehensive report entitled Life Cycle Inventories of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus. This report presents the findings from a study of the life cycle inventories (LCIs) for petroleum diesel and biodiesel. An LCI comprehensively quantifies all the energy and environmental flows associated with a product from “cradle to grave.” It provides information on raw materials extracted from the environment; energy resources consumed; and air, water, and solid waste emissions generated.

  17. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IT) systems function comprising of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  18. Addressing software security and mitigations in the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, David; Powell, John; Haugh, Eric; Bishop, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, security is viewed as an organizational and Information Technology (IIJ systems function comprising of Firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), system security settings and patches to the operating system (OS) and applications running on it. Until recently, little thought has been given to the importance of security as a formal approach in the software life cycle. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has approached the problem through the development of an integrated formal Software Security Assessment Instrument (SSAI) with six foci for the software life cycle.

  19. Structural considerations for a software life cycle dynamic simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.; Mckenzie, M.; Lin, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study into the prospects for simulating the software implementation and maintenance life cycle process, with the aim of producing a computerized tool for use by management and software engineering personnel in project planning, tradeoff studies involving product, environmental, situational, and technological factors, and training. The approach taken is the modular application of a 'flow of resource' concept to the systems dynamics simulation modeling technique. The software life cycle process is represented as a number of stochastic, time-varying, interacting work tasks that each achieves one of the project milestones. Each task is characterized by the item produced, the personnel applied, and the budgetary profile.

  20. The TMIS life-cycle process document, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Technical and Management Information System (TMIS) Life-Cycle Process Document describes the processes that shall be followed in the definition, design, development, test, deployment, and operation of all TMIS products and data base applications. This document is a roll out of TMIS Standards Document (SSP 30546). The purpose of this document is to define the life cycle methodology that the developers of all products and data base applications and any subsequent modifications shall follow. Included in this methodology are descriptions of the tasks, deliverables, reviews, and approvals that are required before a product or data base application is accepted in the TMIS environment.

  1. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-01-01

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  2. Research on conceptual/innovative design for the life cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagan, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research is developing and integrating qualitative and quantitative methods for life cycle design. The definition of the problem includes formal computer-based methods limited to final detailing stages of design; CAD data bases do not capture design intent or design history; and life cycle issues were ignored during early stages of design. Viewgraphs outline research in conceptual design; the SYMON (SYmbolic MONotonicity analyzer) algorithm; multistart vector quantization optimization algorithm; intelligent manufacturing: IDES - Influence Diagram Architecture; and 1st PRINCE (FIRST PRINciple Computational Evaluator).

  3. Life-cycle environmental inventory of passenger transportation modes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, Mikhail Vin

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with each mode. A life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas, and criteria air pollutant emissions inventory is created for the passenger transportation modes of automobiles, urban buses, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, and aircraft in the U.S. Each mode's inventory includes an assessment of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuel components. For each component, analysis is performed for material extraction through use and maintenance in both direct and indirect (supply chain) processes. For each mode's life-cycle components, energy inputs and emission outputs are determined. Energy inputs include electricity and petroleum-based fuels. Emission outputs include greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NOx , VOCs, and PM). The inputs and outputs are normalized by vehicle lifetime, vehicle mile traveled, and passenger mile traveled. A consistent system boundary is applied to all modal inventories which captures the entire life-cycle, except for end-of-life. For each modal life-cycle component, both direct and indirect processes are included if possible. A hybrid life-cycle assessment approach is used to estimate the components in the inventories. We find that life-cycle energy inputs and emission outputs increase significantly compared to the vehicle operational phase. Life-cycle energy consumption is 39-56% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 38% for buses, 93-160% for rail, and 19-24% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions are 47-65% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 43% for buses, 39-150% for rail, and 24-31% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. The energy and greenhouse gas increases are primarily due to vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. For criteria

  4. Techno-economic and life-cycle assessment of an attached growth algal biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jay; Sims, Ronald C; Quinn, Jason C

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the sustainability of generating renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass from a rotating algal biofilm reactor. Pilot-scale growth studies and laboratory-scale HTL experiments were used to validate an engineering system model. The engineering system model served as the foundation to evaluate the economic feasibility and environmental impact of the system at full scale. Techno-economic results indicate that biomass feedstock costs dominated the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), with a base case of $104.31per gallon. Life-cycle assessment results show a base-case global warming potential (GWP) of 80gCO2-eMJ(-1) and net energy ratio (NER) of 1.65 based on a well-to-product system boundary. Optimization of the system reduces MFSP, GWP and NER to $11.90Gal(-1), -44gCO2-eMJ(-1), and 0.33, respectively. The systems-level impacts of integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment were found to significantly reduce environmental impact. Sensitivity analysis showed that algal productivity most significantly affected fuel selling price, emphasizing the importance of optimizing biomass productivity.

  5. Expanded life-cycle analysis to optimize spacecraft life support system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James F.

    The life-cycle of a human space mission begins with the conceptual design and ends with the return or disposal of the spacecraft. A major component of the spacecraft is the environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) that supports the crew. Historically, conceptual designs of ECLSS focused on launch costs; however, current missions with longer timelines have meaningful life cycle costs beyond launch costs. To reduce these costs, the author proposed an expanded life cycle analysis to optimize designs while meeting the somewhat contradictory goals for success and safety. Expanding the life cycle analysis of ECLSS, is particularly important, because space-habitat-maintenance has been anecdotally reported as taking time away from science activities on the International Space Station (ISS). To understand this potential issue, the author examined ISS crew time use and different approaches to ECLSS design. An analysis of ISS crew time use determined that each crew member spent at least 1.8 hours per day performing ISS maintenance tasks. Regardless of the confounding causal mechanisms, crew time spent on habitat maintenance on Skylab and ISS exceeded that estimated by design, thus reducing crew time allotted to perform other tasks, although not necessarily science. Upon further examination, analysis of ECLSS maintenance revealed that operational crew time estimates for the ISS mission design were low by an order of magnitude. A review of the literature indicates this work is the first time that design estimates were compared quantitatively to operational time and shown to be less for ECLSS. Based on these findings, Skylab and ISS missions were oversubscribed due to a mismatch between maintenance and operational time requirements. This mismatch most likely occurred, because only part of operational crew time was considered. Even with the inclusion of operational crew time, the ECLSS design for ISS may not have changed, but the ISS-equivalent case study indicated

  6. HCV and Oxidative Stress: Implications for HCV Life Cycle and HCV-Associated Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Medvedev, Regina; Ploen, Daniela; Hildt, Eberhard

    2016-01-01

    HCV (hepatitis C virus) is a member of the Flaviviridae family that contains a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 9600 bases. HCV is a major causative agent for chronic liver diseases such as steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma which are caused by multifactorial processes. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered as a major factor contributing to HCV-associated pathogenesis. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in formation of ROS in HCV replicating cells and describes the interference of HCV with ROS detoxifying systems. The relevance of ROS for HCV-associated pathogenesis is reviewed with a focus on the interference of elevated ROS levels with processes controlling liver regeneration. The overview about the impact of ROS for the viral life cycle is focused on the relevance of autophagy for the HCV life cycle and the crosstalk between HCV, elevated ROS levels, and the induction of autophagy. PMID:26955431

  7. Global life cycle releases of engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Arturo A.; McFerran, Suzanne; Lazareva, Anastasiya; Suh, Sangwon

    2013-06-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now becoming a significant fraction of the material flows in the global economy. We are already reaping the benefits of improved energy efficiency, material use reduction, and better performance in many existing and new applications that have been enabled by these technological advances. As ENMs pervade the global economy, however, it becomes important to understand their environmental implications. As a first step, we combined ENM market information and material flow modeling to produce the first global assessment of the likely ENM emissions to the environment and landfills. The top ten most produced ENMs by mass were analyzed in a dozen major applications. Emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages were estimated, including intermediate steps through wastewater treatment plants and waste incineration plants. In 2010, silica, titania, alumina, and iron and zinc oxides dominate the ENM market in terms of mass flow through the global economy, used mostly in coatings/paints/pigments, electronics and optics, cosmetics, energy and environmental applications, and as catalysts. We estimate that 63-91 % of over 260,000-309,000 metric tons of global ENM production in 2010 ended up in landfills, with the balance released into soils (8-28 %), water bodies (0.4-7 %), and atmosphere (0.1-1.5 %). While there are considerable uncertainties in the estimates, the framework for estimating emissions can be easily improved as better data become available. The material flow estimates can be used to quantify emissions at the local level, as inputs for fate and transport models to estimate concentrations in different environmental compartments.

  8. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  9. Re-engineering the mission life cycle with ABC and IDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Daniel; Rackley, Michael; Karlin, Jay

    1994-01-01

    The theory behind re-engineering a business process is to remove the non-value added activities thereby lowering the process cost. In order to achieve this, one must be able to identify where the non-value added elements are located which is not a trivial task. This is because the non-value added elements are often hidden in the form of overhead and/or pooled resources. In order to be able to isolate these non-value added processes from among the other processes, one must first decompose the overall top level process into lower layers of sub-processes. In addition, costing data must be assigned to each sub-process along with the value the sub-process adds towards the final product. IDEF0 is a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) process-modeling tool that allows for this functional decomposition through structured analysis. In addition, it illustrates the relationship of the process and the value added to the product or service. The value added portion is further defined in IDEF1X which is an entity relationship diagramming tool. The entity relationship model is the blueprint of the product as it moves along the 'assembly line' and therefore relates all of the parts to each other and the final product. It also relates the parts to the tools that produce the product and all of the paper work that is used in their acquisition. The use of IDEF therefore facilitates the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is an essential method in a high variety, product-customizing environment, to facilitate rapid response to externally caused change. This paper describes the work being done in the Mission Operations Division to re-engineer the development and operation life cycle of Mission Operations Centers using these tools.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment Software for Product and Process Sustainability Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervaeke, Marina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessment of environmental impacts of products and services, has become increasingly important. This methodology is applied by decision makers in industry and policy, product developers, environmental managers, and other non-LCA specialists working on environmental issues in a wide…

  11. A comparison of major petroleum life cycle models | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate well-to-pump life cycle model of petroleum products in order to inform decision makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their predictions and attempting to evaluate their data quality. Carbon dioxide well-to-pump emissions for gasoline showed a variation of 35 %, and other pollutants such as ammonia and particulate matter varied up to 100 %. Differences in allocation do not appear to explain differences in predictions. Effects of these deviations on well-to-wheels passenger vehicle and truck transportation life cycle models may be minimal for effects such as global warming potential (6 % spread), but for respiratory effects of criteria pollutants (41 % spread) and other impact categories, they can be significant. A data quality assessment of the models’ documentation revealed real differences between models in temporal and geographic representativeness, completeness, as well as transparency. Stakeholders may need to consider carefully the tradeoffs inherent when selecting a model to conduct life cycle assessments for systems that make heavy use of petroleum products. This is a qualitative and quantitative comparison of petroleum LCA models intended for an expert audience interested in better understanding the data quality of existing petroleum life cycle models and the quantitative differences between these models.

  12. A Review of "Life Cycle: How We Grow and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digioia, Melissa Keyes

    2010-01-01

    Sexuality education curricula designed for youths with special needs are sparse. "Life Cycle: How We Grow and Change" (Vavricheck & Tolle, 2008) is a new curriculum by clinical social workers Sherrie Mansfield Vavricheck and R. Kay Tolle. Each chapter addresses a particular developmental stage between birth and death. Lessons within each chapter…

  13. Ecology and Life Cycle Patterns of Echinococcus Species.

    PubMed

    Romig, T; Deplazes, P; Jenkins, D; Giraudoux, P; Massolo, A; Craig, P S; Wassermann, M; Takahashi, K; de la Rue, M

    2017-01-01

    The genus Echinococcus is composed of eight generally recognized species and one genotypic cluster (Echinococcus canadensis cluster) that may in future be resolved into one to three species. For each species, we review existing information on transmission routes and life cycles in different geographical contexts and - where available - include basic biological information of parasites and hosts (e.g., susceptibility of host species). While some Echinococcus spp. are transmitted in life cycles that involve predominantly domestic animals (e.g., dog - livestock cycles), others are wildlife parasites that do or do not interact with domestic transmission. In many cases, life cycle patterns of the same parasite species differ according to geography. Simple life cycles contrast with transmission patterns that are highly complex, involving multihost systems that may include both domestic and wild mammals. Wildlife transmission may be primary or secondary, i.e., resulting from spillovers from domestic animals. For most of the species and regions, existing information does not yet permit a conclusive description of transmission systems. Such data, however, would be highly relevant, e.g., for anticipation of geographical changes of the presence and frequency of these parasites in a warming world, or for initiating evidence-based control strategies.

  14. A comparison of major petroleum life cycle models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many organizations have attempted to develop an accurate well-to-pump life cycle model of petroleum products in order to inform decision makers of the consequences of its use. Our paper studies five of these models, demonstrating the differences in their predictions and attemptin...

  15. Guidance on Data Quality Assessment for Life Cycle Inventory Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data quality within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a significant issue for the future support and development of LCA as a decision support tool and its wider adoption within industry. In response to current data quality standards such as the ISO 14000 series, various entities wit...

  16. Title IV Cash Management Life Cycle Training. Participant's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This participant's guide includes: "Introduction: Welcome to Cash Management Life Cycle Training"; "Module 1: Review of Cash Management Principles" (cash management overview and activity); "Module 2: Common Origination and Disbursement (COD) System Overview" (e.g., full participants and phase-in participants, COD…

  17. LCACCESS: PROMOTING THE USE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating environmental impacts holistically from raw material acquisition, through manufacture, to use and disposal using a life cycle perspective is gradually being viewed by environmental managers and decision-makers as an important element in the tools that are used to achie...

  18. Information System Life-Cycle And Documentation Standards (SMAP DIDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Although not computer program, SMAP DIDS written to provide systematic, NASA-wide structure for documenting information system development projects. Each DID (data item description) outlines document required for top-quality software development. When combined with management, assurance, and life cycle standards, Standards protect all parties who participate in design and operation of new information system.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Indoor Emissions of Synthetic Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a well-established method to evaluate impacts of chemicals on the environment and human health along the lifespan of products. However, the increasingly produced and applied nanomaterials (defined as one dimension <100 nm) show particular characteri...

  20. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-08-07

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G: (gobsmax ), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage.

  1. Sustainability metrics: life cycle assessment and green design in polymers.

    PubMed

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Cregg, James J; Beckman, Eric J; Landis, Amy E

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of green design principles such as the "12 Principles of Green Chemistry," and the "12 Principles of Green Engineering" with respect to environmental impacts found using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A case study of 12 polymers is presented, seven derived from petroleum, four derived from biological sources, and one derived from both. The environmental impacts of each polymer's production are assessed using LCA methodology standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Each polymer is also assessed for its adherence to green design principles using metrics generated specifically for this paper. Metrics include atom economy, mass from renewable sources, biodegradability, percent recycled, distance of furthest feedstock, price, life cycle health hazards and life cycle energy use. A decision matrix is used to generate single value metrics for each polymer evaluating either adherence to green design principles or life-cycle environmental impacts. Results from this study show a qualified positive correlation between adherence to green design principles and a reduction of the environmental impacts of production. The qualification results from a disparity between biopolymers and petroleum polymers. While biopolymers rank highly in terms of green design, they exhibit relatively large environmental impacts from production. Biopolymers rank 1, 2, 3, and 4 based on green design metrics; however they rank in the middle of the LCA rankings. Polyolefins rank 1, 2, and 3 in the LCA rankings, whereas complex polymers, such as PET, PVC, and PC place at the bottom of both ranking systems.

  2. Validation of a hybrid life-cycle inventory analysis method.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Robert H

    2008-08-01

    The life-cycle inventory analysis step of a life-cycle assessment (LCA) may currently suffer from several limitations, mainly concerned with the use of incomplete and unreliable data sources and methods of assessment. Many past LCA studies have used traditional inventory analysis methods, namely process analysis and input-output analysis. More recently, hybrid inventory analysis methods have been developed, combining these two traditional methods in an attempt to minimise their limitations. In light of recent improvements, these hybrid methods need to be compared and validated, as these too have been considered to have several limitations. This paper evaluates a recently developed hybrid inventory analysis method which aims to improve the limitations of previous methods. It was found that the truncation associated with process analysis can be up to 87%, reflecting the considerable shortcomings in the quantity of process data currently available. Capital inputs were found to account for up to 22% of the total inputs to a particular product. These findings suggest that current best-practice methods are sufficiently accurate for most typical applications, but this is heavily dependent upon data quality and availability. The use of input-output data assists in improving the system boundary completeness of life-cycle inventories. However, the use of input-output analysis alone does not always provide an accurate model for replacing process data. Further improvements in the quantity of process data currently available are needed to increase the reliability of life-cycle inventories.

  3. USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing awareness that a single issue approach to an environmental problem may not lead to an effective long-term strategy. Instead, governments and industries around the world are seeing the value and need to look at the entire life cycle of products and processes fro...

  4. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

  5. U.S. EPA'S RESEARCH ON LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) consists of looking at a product, process or activity from its inception through its completion. or consumer products, this includes the stages of raw material acquisition, manufacturing and fabrication, distribution, consumer use/reuse and final disposa...

  6. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF IN-MOLD SURFACING FILM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1990, the NRMRL has been at the forefront in the development of Life Cycle Assessment as a methodology for environmental assessment. In 1994, NRMRL established an LCA Team to organize individual efforts into a comprehensive research program. The LCA Team coordinates work in...

  7. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  8. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  9. 19 CFR 207.27 - Short life cycle products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short life cycle products. 207.27 Section 207.27 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  10. The Role of Companion Animals throughout the Family Life Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Wendy G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the roles that companion animals play in the lives of American families, and discusses how those roles change as families progress through the stages of the family life cycle. It highlights the importance of pets in the lives of children and the benefits they receive from such relationships. It also presents information…

  11. Environmental life cycle assessment of nanosilver-enabled bandages.

    PubMed

    Pourzahedi, Leila; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2015-01-06

    Over 400 tons of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are produced annually, 30% of which are used in medical applications due to their antibacterial properties. The widespread use of AgNPs has implications over the entire life cycle of medical products, from production to disposal, including but not limited to environmental releases of nanomaterials themselves. Here a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment from nanoparticle synthesis to end-of-life incineration was performed for a commercially available nanosilver-enabled medical bandage. Emissions were linked to multiple categories of environmental impacts, making primary use of the TRACI 2.1 impact assessment method, with specific consideration of nanosilver releases relative to all other (non-nanosilver) emissions. Modeling results suggest that (1) environmental impacts of AgNP synthesis are dominated by upstream electricity production, with the exception of life cycle ecotoxicity where the largest contributor is mining wastes, (2) AgNPs are the largest contributor to impacts of the bandage for all impact categories considered despite low AgNP loading, and (3) impacts of bandage production are several times those bandage incineration, including nanosilver releases to the environment. These results can be used to prioritize research and policy measures in order to improve the overall ecotoxicity burdens of nanoenabled products under a life cycle framework.

  12. Incorporating exposure science into life-cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to estimate the potential for environmental damage that may be caused by a product or process, ideally before the product or process begins. LCA includes all of the steps from extracting natural resources through manufacturing through product u...

  13. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR INCREASING INDUSTRIAL SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) can be a very useful decision support tool for assisting in environmental decision making to allow the pursuit of increasing sustainability. Increasing sustainability will be defined and presented as a more concrete and quantifiable goal when c...

  14. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN OF A FUEL TANK SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This life cycle design (LCD) project was a collaborative effort between the National Pollution Prevention Center at the University of Michigan, General Motors (GM), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary objective of this project was to apply life cyc...

  15. Self Concept Development through the Adult Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mervin D.; Lynch, Carol Lee

    1991-01-01

    The developmental model of self-concept proposed by M. Lynch and M. Levy (1982) is extended through the entire adult life cycle. Self-concept is seen as a set of cognitive rules that have affective or cognitive consequences and that operate like the ego functions proposed by Freud. (SLD)

  16. Life Cycle Assessment as an Environmental Management Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Listed by Time Magazine as the method behind calculating “Ecological Intelligence,” one of “10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now” (March 23, 2009), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the tool that is used to understand the environmental impacts of the products we make and sell. Jo...

  17. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON OF GASOLINE BLENDING OPTIONS USING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A life cycle assessment has been done on various gasoline blends, The purpose of this study is to compare several gasoline blends of 95 and 98 octaine, that meet the vapour pressure upper limit requirement of 60 kPa. This study accounts for the gasoline losses due to evaporation ...

  19. Pets, Attachment, and Well-Being across the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Pat

    1995-01-01

    Using an ethological framework, explores the ways in which family pets, in particular dogs and cats, provide certain components of attachment that contribute to emotional and social well-being throughout the life cycle. Implications are identified for social policies that will protect and maintain this bond for particular populations. (RJM)

  20. DDP - a tool for life-cycle risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, S. L.; Feather, M. S.; Hicks, K. A.

    2001-01-01

    At JPL we have developed, and implemented, a process for achieving life-cycle risk management. This process has been embodied in a software tool and is called Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP). The DDP process can be succinctly stated as: determine where we want to be, what could get in the way and how we will get there.