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Sample records for levels reflect seasonally

  1. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  2. Diurnal and seasonal dynamics of canopy-level solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral reflectance indices in a cornfield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A collaborative field campaign was undertaken to examine the temporal dynamics of canopy-level solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) in conjunction with photosynthetic light use efficiency (LUE) obtained from fluxes measured at an instrumented tower. We condu...

  3. Improving nurses' level of reflection.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2017-08-30

    Reflecting on practice is an important aspect of nursing. There is widespread acknowledgement of the value of reflective practice and it has a significant role in coursework assessment and revalidation requirements. However, less attention has been given to the various levels of reflection and what constitutes a higher or lower level of reflection. This article aims to assist nurses to understand how identifying the various levels of reflection can improve their practice. A case study example is used to demonstrate how mentors might support nurses in incorporating reflection into their practice.

  4. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum and soybean. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance characteristics of agronomic crops are of major importance in the energy exchanges of a surface. In addition, unique reflectance patterns may be an aid in crop identification by means of remote sensing. This study suggests that the ratio of the reflectances of the 545-nm to to the 655-nm wavebands provides information about the viewed surface, regardless of the crop. The reflectance ratio is less than unity early and late in the growing season. For all crops studied, the ratio closely followed crop growth and development and appeared to be more desirable than the near-infrared reflectance as an index of growth.

  5. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum and soybean. [Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Reflectance characteristics of agronomic crops are of major importance in the energy exchanges of a surface. In addition, unique reflectance patterns may be an aid in crop identification by means of remote sensing. This study suggests that the ratio of the reflectances of the 545-nm to to the 655-nm wavebands provides information about the viewed surface, regardless of the crop. The reflectance ratio is less than unity early and late in the growing season. For all crops studied, the ratio closely followed crop growth and development and appeared to be more desirable than the near-infrared reflectance as an index of growth.

  6. BOREAS RSS-19 1994 Seasonal Understory Reflectance Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, John R.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickerson, Jaime (Editor); White, H. Peter; Peddle, Derek; Freemantle, Jim; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-19 team collected airborne remotely sensed images and ground reflectance data for characterizing the radiometric properties of the boreal forest landscape. One objective of BOREAS is to further the understanding of the spectral bidirectional reflectance of typical boreal ecosystem stands in the visible/near-infrared regime. An essential input for any canopy BRDF model is an accurate estimate of the average understory reflectance, both for sunlit and shaded conditions. These variables can be expected to vary seasonally because of species-dependent differences in the phenological cycle of foliar display. In response to these requirements, the average understory reflectance for the flux tower sites of both the NSA (Thompson, Manitoba) and the SSA (Candle Lake, Saskatchewan) was observed throughout the year during five field campaigns. This was done by measuring the nadir reflectance (400 to 850 nm) of sunlit and shaded understory (vegetation and snow cover) along a surveyed LAI transect line (Chen, RSS-07) at each site near solar noon and documenting an average site reflectance. Comparisons between sites reveal differences in the green and infrared regions of the spectra, because of the differing species in the understory for each site. Temporal (seasonal) variation for each site was also observed (06-Feb-1994 to 16-Sep-1994), indicating the changing flora mixtures and changing spectral signatures as the understory matures during the growing season. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. Seasonal photosynthetic activity in evergreen conifer leaves monitored with spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. Y.; Gamon, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Boreal evergreen conifers must maintain photosynthetic systems in environments where temperatures vary greatly across seasons from high temperatures in the summer to freezing levels in the winter. This involves seasonal downregulation and photoprotection during periods of extreme temperatures. To better understand this downregulation, seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis of lodgepole (Pinus contorta D.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.) were monitored in Edmonton, Canada over two years. Spectral reflectance at the leaf and stand scales was measured weekly and the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), often used as a proxy for chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment levels and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), was used to track the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic activity. Additional physiological measurements included leaf pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange. All the metrics indicate large seasonal changes in photosynthetic activity, with a sharp transition from winter downregulation to active photosynthesis in the spring and a more gradual fall transition into winter. The PRI was a good indicator of several other variables including seasonally changing photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic LUE, and pigment pool sizes. Over the two-year cycle, PRI was primarily driven by changes in constitutive (chlorophyll:carotenoid) pigment levels correlated with seasonal photosynthetic activity, with a much smaller variation caused by diurnal changes in xanthophyll cycle activity (conversion between violaxanthin & zeaxanthin). Leaf and canopy scale PRI measurements exhibited parallel responses during the winter-spring transition. Together, our findings indicate that evergreen conifers photosynthetic system possesses a remarkable degree of resilience in response to large temperature changes across seasons, and that optical remote sensing can be used to observe the seasonal effects on photosynthesis and

  8. Monitoring Stand Level Photosynthesis from Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, T.; Coops, N. C.; Hall, F. G.; Black, A. T.; Krishnan, P.; Chen, B.; Wulder, M. A.; Nesic, Z.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E. M.; Margolis, H. A.; Drolet, G.; Cheng, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Global determination and monitoring of gross primary production (GPP) is a critical component of climate change research. On local scales, GPP can be assessed from measuring CO2 exchange above the plant canopy using tower-based eddy covariance (EC) systems. The limited footprint inherent to this method however, restricts observations to relatively few discrete areas making continuous predictions of global CO2 fluxes challenging. Recently, the advent of high resolution optical remote sensing devices has offered new possibilities to address some of the scaling issues related to GPP using approaches based on spectral reflectance. One key component for inferring GPP from remote sensing is the efficiency (e) with which plants can convert absorbed photosynthetically active radiation into biomass. Whilst recent years have seen progress determining e at the leaf level using the photochemical reflectance index PRI, little is known about the temporal and spatial requirements for upscaling PRI. For instance, satellite observations of canopy reflectance are subject to view and illumination geometry effects induced by the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of canopies that can confound the desired signal; however little is known about interactions between these effects and PRI. Further areas of research include dependencies of PRI on canopy structure, understorey and species composition. One potential way to investigate these requirements is using automated tower-based remote sensing platforms, facilitating spectral observations of the canopy with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. The experimental setup presented herein features an automated spectral radiometer (AMSPEC) with a motor-driven probe allowing observations in a nearly full circle around the tower. Year round data are sampled every 5 sec., a full rotation is completed within 15 min. The spatial similarity to the flux-footprint allows direct comparisons with EC and micro

  9. Oregon transect: Comparison of leaf-level reflectance with canopy-level and modelled reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Baret, Frederic; Peterson, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project involves the collection of a variety of remotely-sensed and in situ measurements for characterization of forest biophysical and biochemical parameters. The project includes nine study plots located along an environmental gradient in west-central Oregon, extending from the Pacific coast inland approximately 300km. These plots represent a broad range in ecosystem structure and function. Within the OTTER project, the sensitivity of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) signal to absorption by foliar biochemicals is being examined. AVIRIS data were acquired over all plots in conjunction with the four OTTER Multi-sensor Aircraft Campaigns spanning the growing season. Foilage samples were gathered during each campaign for biochemical determination (at Ames Research Center), to estimate stand-level constituency at each plot. Directional-hemispheric leaf reflectance throughout the 400-2400nm region was measured in the laboratory as an aid to interpreting concurrent AVIRIS data. Obtaining leaf spectra in this manner reduces or eliminates the confounding influences of atmosphere, canopy architecture, and reflectance by woody components, understory, and exposed soils which are present in airborne observations. These laboratory spectra were compared to simulated spectra derived by inverting the PROSPECT leaf-level canopy reflectance derived from AVIRIS data by use of the LOWTRAN-7 atmospheric radiative-transfer model.

  10. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  11. Normal and seasonally amplified indoor radon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; King, D.

    1995-01-01

    Winter and summer indoor radon measurements are reported for 121 houses in Freehold, New Jersey. When presented as winter:summer ratios of indoor radon, the data closely approximate a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean is 1.49. Freehold is located on the fairly flat coastal plain. The winter:summer ratios are believed to represent the norm for regions of the U.S. with cold winters and hot summers. The Freehold data set can be compared to corresponding data sets from other locations to suggest seasonal perturbations of indoor radon arising from unusual causes.

  12. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum, and soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of canopy-reflectance patterns as a basis for the determination of surface conditions. Two fields each of wheat, sorghum, and soybeans were selected in a bottom land area. One field contained a dark-colored, silty clay loam and the other a light-colored, silt loam. The study suggests that the reflectance ratio of the 545- to 655-nm-wavelengths may be used as an indicator of crop growth.

  13. Seasonal canopy reflectance patterns of wheat, sorghum, and soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of canopy-reflectance patterns as a basis for the determination of surface conditions. Two fields each of wheat, sorghum, and soybeans were selected in a bottom land area. One field contained a dark-colored, silty clay loam and the other a light-colored, silt loam. The study suggests that the reflectance ratio of the 545- to 655-nm-wavelengths may be used as an indicator of crop growth.

  14. Reflective Practice Interventions: Raising Levels of Reflective Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Audrey; Schoen, Lea

    2009-01-01

    Reflective practice is a major focus of teacher preparation programs (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1992; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Zeichner, 1986; Zeichner & Liston, 1987), yet Zeichner (1986) asserts that developing reflective practice in preservice teachers has focused primarily on short-term, less systematic interventions and that interventions must be…

  15. Reflectance and internal structure of leaves from several crops during a growing season.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, T. R.; Hoffer, R. M.; Schreiber, M. M.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of spectral reflectance characteristics during a growing season of leaves from six crops are reported. These crops include soybeans, wheat, oats, sorghum, corn, and sudangrass. The characteristics measured are related to changes in leaf structure and water content.

  16. Reflectance and internal structure of leaves from several crops during a growing season.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, T. R.; Hoffer, R. M.; Schreiber, M. M.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of spectral reflectance characteristics during a growing season of leaves from six crops are reported. These crops include soybeans, wheat, oats, sorghum, corn, and sudangrass. The characteristics measured are related to changes in leaf structure and water content.

  17. Seasonal changes in stress indicators in high level football.

    PubMed

    Faude, O; Kellmann, M; Ammann, T; Schnittker, R; Meyer, T

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed at describing changes in stress and performance indicators throughout a competitive season in high level football. 15 players (19.5±3.0 years, 181±5 cm, 75.7±9.0 kg) competing under professional circumstances were tested at baseline and 3 times during the season 2008/09 (in-season 1, 2, 3). Testing consisted of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Total Stress and Recovery score), vertical jump tests (counter movement and drop jump (DJ)), and a maximal ramp-like running test. Average match exposure was higher during a 3-weeks period prior to in-season 3 compared to in-season 1 and 2 (1.5 vs. 1 h/week, p=0.05). Total Stress score was elevated at in-season 1 and 2 compared to baseline (p<0.01) with a further increase at in-season 3 (p<0.03; generalized eta squared (η(2)(g))=0.37). Total Recovery score was decreased at in-season 1 and 3 compared to baseline (p<0.05; η(2)(g)=0.21). Maximal running velocity (V(max)) and jumping heights were not significantly affected (η(2)(g)≤0.04). Changes in DJ height and V (max) between baseline and in-season 3 were correlated with the corresponding changes in Total Stress score (r=-0.55 and r=-0.61, p<0.03). Usual match exposure during a professional football season does not induce relevant changes in performance indicators. Accumulated stress and a lack of recovery towards the end of a season might be indicated by psychometric deteriorations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Seasonal mercury levels in phytoplankton and their relationship with algal biomass in two dystrophic shield lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkwood, A.E.; Chow-Fraser, P.; Mierle, G.

    1999-03-01

    This study focused on the seasonal dynamics of total Hg in the phytoplankton (living and dead) of two dystrophic shield lakes (Mouse and Ranger). Phytoplankton samples were taken from metalimnetic and hypolimnetic depths in the euphotic zone and were collected and analyzed using ultraclean techniques. In both lakes, phytoplankton Hg (PHYTO-Hg) levels (pg/L) in the metalimnion did not significantly change among dates over the season, although Ranger Lake exhibited significant differences between Hg values measured at the beginning and end of the season. In contrast, PHYTO-Hg significantly increased in the hypolimnia of both lakes by the end of the season. Combined influences of external Hg inputs, remineralization, phytoplankton sedimentation, and increased methylmercury production in the hypolimnia over the season may have contributed to these trends. A highly significant positive relationship existed between PHYTO-Hg levels and whole-water Hg levels, and the mean bioconcentration factor for Hg between the water column and phytoplankton was significantly higher in the hypolimnion compared to the metalimnion for both lakes. In most cases, parameters associated with algal biomass had significant positive correlations with PHYTO-Hg levels. Weight-specific PHYTO-Hg (pg/mg dry weight) varied significantly over the season, and there were interlake differences with respect to season trends. On the basis of these results, the authors recommend that the future sampling regimes include collection of phytoplankton at different limnetic depths through the season to account for spatial and temporal variations. Weight specific Hg levels in phytoplankton could not be explained well by the parameters tested, and the only significant regressions were with parameters reflecting algal biomass. This study provides in situ evidence of Hg accumulation in lake phytoplankton as a function of algal biomass on a seasonal basis and stresses the need to confirm these trends in other lake

  19. [The changes of forest canopy spectral reflectance with seasons in Xiaoxing'anling].

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Cai; Pang, Yong; Li, Zeng-Yuan; Zhao, Kai-Rui; Liu, Lu-Xia

    2013-12-01

    The ASD FieldSpec portable spectrometer was adopted to collect canopy reflectance spectrum data of the 9 main tree species in study area by a long-term observation to get the data of the four seasons Then the smoothed reflectance curve and the first derivation curve from 350 to 1400 nm and several commonly used vegetation spectral characteristic parameters were generated to analyse seasonal change characteristics and variation of the 9 tree species in visible and near-infrared band and to explore the best band characteristics and period for species identification. The results showed that different trees had different and rather unique spectral features during the four seasons. The spectral characteristics of the deciduous trees have regular changes with the cycle of the seasons, whereas those of the evergreen tree species have no significant changes in one year. As well changes in the spectral characteristics could effectively reflect forest phenology changes, and it is proposed that the optimal strategy for tree species classification may be the integration and analysis of multi-seasonal spectral data. Evergreen trees and deciduous trees in the winter have obvious differences in the canopy spectral characteristics and the best single-season remote sensing data for tree species recognition is in summer.

  20. Thinking and writing at Masters level: a reflective passage.

    PubMed

    Fowler, John

    This article identifies key characteristics of Masters level writing and the underpinning relationship of these characteristics to reflective thought. Classical models of reflective writing are reviewed and their focus on reflection as a progressive process is debated. A linear model of reflection is proposed and its application to reflective writing for Masters level assessments is examined. The classical authors tend to present reflection as a process in which the outcomes of reflection becomes deeper at advanced levels. While this is an appropriate application of the concept of reflection for the traditional academic essay, it might not always be so appropriate for other more applied aspects of thinking and writing particularly in the development of advanced nursing practice. A linear model of reflective writing which offers a more pragmatic perspective on reflection is developed.

  1. Detection of Seasonal Changes in the Cryosphere Using Reflected GNSS Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, C. C.; Zuffada, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Lowe, S.; Oveisgharan, S.; Esterhuizen, S. X.

    2016-12-01

    Using ground-reflected GPS or GNSS signals in a bistatic radar approach is a new way of observing changes in the Earth's surface. Numerous studies using GNSS receivers flown on aircraft or mounted on towers have shown that these forward-scattered signals are sensitive to changes in sea state, soil moisture, vegetation cover, and sea ice. However, until last year, there was a paucity of observations from which to understand potential science applications from the vantage point of space. Two recent advancements have provided the largest amount of spaceborne reflection data ever recorded. The first, TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1), is an experimental platform launched in July 2014 that houses a GPS receiver and antenna capable of recording reflections. Although designed to record reflections over the ocean surface, TDS-1 has also recorded a large amount of reflection data over land, which show sensitivity to both soil moisture and sea ice. The second major advancement is GNSS reflections data recorded by the SMAP radar receiver. JPL retuned the receiver to the GPS frequency soon after July 2015 and began passively recording reflections data. As of August 2016, the receiver is still recording daily reflections. Together, these two new sources of data allow the investigation of seasonal changes in the Earth's surface at moderately high resolution ( 1 km). Here, we present seasonal changes in the cryosphere as observed by TDS-1 and in the SMAP reflections data. Although the sensitivity to sea ice has been previously shown, here we show for the first time a strong change in the reflected signal over land between winter and the spring thaw of up to 15 dB. This could be an indication that reflected GNSS signals are sensitive to freeze/thaw state of the soil. The confounding influence of the snowpack on the signal must be understood before definitive conclusions can be made, and we show the current status of this analysis.

  2. Regional and seasonal variations of surface reflectance from satellite observations at 0.6 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Elaine; Rossow, William B.

    1987-01-01

    A global series of seasonal visible surface reflectance maps derived from NOAA-5 Scanning Radiometer observations is presented. Methods for isolating clear-sky observations from satellite data are evaluated and the magnitude of atmospheric effects (Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption) are presented. A preliminary analysis of digital vegetation and soils data bases, which were analyzed in conjunction with the satellite observations, is discussed. Regional and global reflectance homogeneity of land-cover types, and snow brightening for types, are presented. Results demonstrate that the statistical approach for isolating clear-sky radiances used in this study obtains accurate enough values for each location to allow meaningful measurements of seasonal, spatial and ecosystem variations in surface reflectance.

  3. Seasonal variation in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of bats reflect environmental baselines.

    PubMed

    Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Quetglas, Juan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Kelm, Detlev H; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of animal tissues is commonly used to trace wildlife diets and analyze food chains. Changes in an animal's isotopic values over time are generally assumed to indicate diet shifts or, less frequently, physiological changes. Although plant isotopic values are known to correlate with climatic seasonality, only a few studies restricted to aquatic environments have investigated whether temporal isotopic variation in consumers may also reflect environmental baselines through trophic propagation. We modeled the monthly variation in carbon and nitrogen isotope values in whole blood of four insectivorous bat species occupying different foraging niches in southern Spain. We found a common pattern of isotopic variation independent of feeding habits, with an overall change as large as or larger than one trophic step. Physiological changes related to reproduction or to fat deposition prior to hibernation had no effect on isotopic variation, but juvenile bats had higher δ13C and δ15N values than adults. Aridity was the factor that best explained isotopic variation: bat blood became enriched in both 13C and 15N after hotter and/or drier periods. Our study is the first to show that consumers in terrestrial ecosystems reflect seasonal environmental dynamics in their isotope values. We highlight the danger of misinterpreting stable isotope data when not accounting for seasonal isotopic baselines in food web studies. Understanding how environmental seasonality is integrated in animals' isotope values will be crucial for developing reliable methods to use stable isotopes as dietary tracers.

  4. [Seasonal alterations in serum iron levels in elite football players].

    PubMed

    Malićević, Sead; Nesić, Dejan; Rosić, Ilija

    2008-01-01

    It is very important to monitor levels of serum iron and other factors of iron metabolism and oxygen transport system as they play a very important role in functional ability of football players. A decrease in serum iron level can be the very first sign of development of iron deficiency anaemia, which seriously influences health and functional ability of an athlete and is a common problem in competitive sports. The aim of this study was to observe and evaluate changes in serum iron values during the competition season in relation to the training process. During four years, serum iron level was measured in 28-34 players of one of the top football clubs in Serbia, four times a year: at the beginning and at peak-point of both half-seasons. Differences between basic and control findings, relative and absolute changes in serum iron levels and statistical significance of the findings were than calculated. There was a significant decrease in mean serum iron levels on each control test, compared to basic values. Mean value of control serum iron levels is significantly lower than mean of preseason values (20.64 +/- 6.58 vs. 16.38 +/- 5.51 micromol/l). A significant decrease in serum iron level among footballers during both half-seasons is most probably due to an increased loss and/or diminished absorption resulting from a high intensity training process. Because the decline in serum iron may be an early sign of iron store depletion and iron deficiency anaemia, it is very important to evaluate it regularly, along with other factors of iron metabolism and oxygen transport system.

  5. Reflective Writing of Mexican EFL Writers: Levels of Reflection, Difficulties and Perceived Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Ruth; Mora, Alberto; Tamez, Axel

    2012-01-01

    This case study examined the level of reflection in the essays written by 15 Mexican English language teachers taking a Master's Degree course in English as a foreign language (EFL). The essays were evaluated using the categorization scheme for assessing the level of reflection developed by Kember, et al. (2008). Semi-structured interviews were…

  6. Spectral albedo/reflectance of littered forest snow during the melt season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melloh, Rae A.; Hardy, Janet P.; Davis, Robert E.; Robinson, Peggy B.

    2001-12-01

    Despite the importance of litter on forest floor albedo and brightness, previous studies have not documented forest floor albedo or litter cover in any detail. Our objective was to describe the seasonal influence of litter on spectral albedos and nadir reflectances of a forest snowpack in a mixed-hardwood stand in the Sleepers River Research Watershed (SRRW) in Danville, Vermont (37°39 N, 119°2 W). Experimental measurements in a nearby open area at the Snow Research Station of the SRRW nearly duplicated the spectral trend observed in the forest. Spectral albedo and nadir reflectance measurements in the visible and near infrared (350-2500 nm) transitioned from a gently curved shape through the visible range (for finer-grained, lightly littered snow) to one having a peak in the red/near-infrared (near 760 nm) as the snowmelt season progressed (for coarser-grained, more heavily littered snow). The snowpack became optically thin as surface litter reached high percentages. A point-in-time digital photographic survey of the late-lying snowpacks of three forest stands and the open showed that median litter cover percentages in the coniferous, deciduous, mixed-forest, and an open area were 17·5, 6·1, 1·2, and 0·04 respectively. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on ranks and pairwise comparisons using Dunn's test indicated that the litter covers of the three forest stands were significantly different with >95% confidence. The snowpack was relatively shallow (<1 m), as is typical for this area of Vermont. From a remote-sensing standpoint, and since shallow snow and increased grain size also lower the visible albedo, we can expect that snowpack litter will cause decreased albedo earlier in the snowmelt season, at deeper snow depths, and will tend to shift the maximum albedo peak to the red/NIR range as the melt season progresses. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Seasonal variability in global sea level observed with Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Fu, L.-L.; Patzert, W.

    1989-01-01

    Time changes in global mesoscale sea level variances were observed with satellite altimetry between November 1986 and March 1988, showing significant, geographically coherent seasonal patterns. The NE Pacific and NE Atlantic variances show the most reliable patterns, higher than their yearly averages in both the fall and winter. The response to wind forcing appears as the major contributor to the NE Pacific and Atlantic signals; errors in the estimated inverse barometer response due to errors in atmospheric pressure, residual orbit errors, and errors in sea state bias are evaluated and found to be negligible contributors to this particular signal. The equatorial regions also show significant seasonal patterns, but the uncertainties in the wet tropospheric correction prevent definitive conclusions. The western boundary current changes are very large but not statistically significant. Estimates of the regression coefficient between sea level and significant wave height, an estimate of the sea state bias correction, range between 2.3 and 2.9 percent and vary with the type of orbit correction applied.

  8. Seasonal variability in global sea level observed with Geosat altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Fu, L.-L.; Patzert, W.

    1989-01-01

    Time changes in global mesoscale sea level variances were observed with satellite altimetry between November 1986 and March 1988, showing significant, geographically coherent seasonal patterns. The NE Pacific and NE Atlantic variances show the most reliable patterns, higher than their yearly averages in both the fall and winter. The response to wind forcing appears as the major contributor to the NE Pacific and Atlantic signals; errors in the estimated inverse barometer response due to errors in atmospheric pressure, residual orbit errors, and errors in sea state bias are evaluated and found to be negligible contributors to this particular signal. The equatorial regions also show significant seasonal patterns, but the uncertainties in the wet tropospheric correction prevent definitive conclusions. The western boundary current changes are very large but not statistically significant. Estimates of the regression coefficient between sea level and significant wave height, an estimate of the sea state bias correction, range between 2.3 and 2.9 percent and vary with the type of orbit correction applied.

  9. Seasonal patterns of photosynthetic gas-exchange and leaf reflectance characteristics in male and female riparian cottonwoods of southern Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letts, M. G.; Phelan, C. A.; Johnson, D. R.; Pearce, D. W.; Rood, S. B.

    2007-12-01

    Riparian, or streamside, cottonwood trees ( Populus spp.) are dioecious phreatophytes of hydrological and ecological importance in arid and semi-arid ecosystems throughout the northern hemisphere. In southern Alberta, groundwater and soil moisture levels typically decline during the May to September growth season. To understand how narrowleaf cottonwoods ( Populus angustifolia James) respond to this seasonal decrease in moisture availability, we repeatedly measured photosynthetic gas exchange, leaf reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence and stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in four male and four female trees of the Oldman River valley, throughout the 2006 growth season. Maximum light-saturated net photosynthesis rates (Amax), near 16 μmol m-2 s-1, occurred on day of year (DOY) 205, one month after peak soil moisture, but coincident with the maximum quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm), chlorophyll index (CI) and scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI). CI data suggest that the early-season rise in Amax and Fv/Fm was partly due to growth in the chlorophyll pool. Thereafter, Amax fell to near 10 μmol m-2 s-1, largely due to its positive logarithmic relationship with stomatal conductance (gs; r2=0.89), which decreased from 559 to 246 mmol m-2 s-1 from DOY 205 to 237. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), CI, sPRI and quantum yield of electron transfer at Photosystem II (ΦPSII) also declined in response to lower volumetric soil moisture content (θv) and increasing groundwater depth (Zgw). Little change in transpiration rate (E) was observed in response to changing environmental conditions, except on DOY 237, when a combination of unseasonably low vapour pressure deficit (D) and low θv above the deepening capillary fringe caused E to decrease. No significant difference was observed between the mean WUE (Amax/E) of males (2.1 ± 0.2 mmol mol-1) and females (2.5 ± 0.2 mmol mol-1; repeated measures ANOVA, df=6, F=2.39, p=0

  10. Seasonal differences in leaf-level physiology give lianas a competitive advantage over trees in a tropical seasonal forest.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhi-Quan; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Bongers, Frans

    2009-08-01

    Lianas are an important component of most tropical forests, where they vary in abundance from high in seasonal forests to low in seasonal forests. We tested the hypothesis that the physiological ability of lianas to fix carbon (and thus grow) during seasonal drought may confer a distinct advantage in seasonal tropical forests, which may explain pan-tropical liana distributions. We compared a range of leaf-level physiological attributes of 18 co-occurring liana and 16 tree species during the wet and dry seasons in a tropical seasonal forest in Xishuangbanna, China. We found that, during the wet season, lianas had significantly higher CO(2) assimilation per unit mass (A(mass)), nitrogen concentration (N(mass)), and delta(13)C values, and lower leaf mass per unit area (LMA) than trees, indicating that lianas have higher assimilation rates per unit leaf mass and higher integrated water-use efficiency (WUE), but lower leaf structural investments. Seasonal variation in CO(2) assimilation per unit area (A(area)), phosphorus concentration per unit mass (P(mass)), and photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE), however, was significantly lower in lianas than in trees. For instance, mean tree A(area) decreased by 30.1% from wet to dry season, compared with only 12.8% for lianas. In contrast, from the wet to dry season mean liana delta(13)C increased four times more than tree delta(13)C, with no reduction in PNUE, whereas trees had a significant reduction in PNUE. Lianas had higher A(mass) than trees throughout the year, regardless of season. Collectively, our findings indicate that lianas fix more carbon and use water and nitrogen more efficiently than trees, particularly during seasonal drought, which may confer a competitive advantage to lianas during the dry season, and thus may explain their high relative abundance in seasonal tropical forests.

  11. Interpretant Levels Presented by Higher Education Students about the Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, Daniel Trevisan; Laburú, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the initial interpretant levels of the seasons of the year presented by students in a physics discipline of undergraduate course of a biological sciences degree at a state university of the south of Brazil. This study is qualitative, it analyzes textual oral representations and images about that astronomical phenomenon. It found that all students showed similar interpretant levels than those without any instruction, focusing their explanation of this concept in the variation of the distance between Earth and the Sun and indeterminate/confused representations. Another important result was the absence of a scientifically correct conception of the subject. The data from this study are in agreement with several studies on the weak training of science teachers in astronomy, and emphasizes the importance of both a re-structuration of the initial training of these future teachers, as well as the continuous teacher training of the working professional ones.

  12. Seasonal and Non-seasonal Sea Level Variations by Exchange of Water with Land Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Au, A. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The global ocean exchanges a large amount of water, seasonally or non-seasonally, with land hydrology. Apart from the long-term melting of ice sheets and glaciers, the water is exchanged directly as land runoff R, and indirectly via atmosphere in the form of precipitation minus evapo-transpiration P-E. On land, the hydrological budget balance is soil moisture S = P-E-R. The runoff R has been difficult to monitor; but now by combining the following two data sets one can obtain a global estimate, subject to the spatial and temporal resolutions afforded by the data: (1) The space gravity mission GRACE yields monthly S estimate on a spatial scale larger than approx. 1000 km over the last 2.5 years; (2) The atmospheric circulation model output, such as from NCEP, provides proxy estimates for P-E at monthly and approx. 200 km resolutions. We will discuss these estimates and the effects on the global ocean water budget and hence sea level.

  13. Seasonal and Non-seasonal Sea Level Variations by Exchange of Water with Land Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Au, A. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The global ocean exchanges a large amount of water, seasonally or non-seasonally, with land hydrology. Apart from the long-term melting of ice sheets and glaciers, the water is exchanged directly as land runoff R, and indirectly via atmosphere in the form of precipitation minus evapo-transpiration P-E. On land, the hydrological budget balance is soil moisture S = P-E-R. The runoff R has been difficult to monitor; but now by combining the following two data sets one can obtain a global estimate, subject to the spatial and temporal resolutions afforded by the data: (1) The space gravity mission GRACE yields monthly S estimate on a spatial scale larger than approx. 1000 km over the last 2.5 years; (2) The atmospheric circulation model output, such as from NCEP, provides proxy estimates for P-E at monthly and approx. 200 km resolutions. We will discuss these estimates and the effects on the global ocean water budget and hence sea level.

  14. Strong Seasonal Variation of Martian Pick-up Ions and Reflected Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Hara, Takuya; Lundin, Rickard; Dubinin, Edik; Fedorov, Andrei; Frahm, Rudy; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Holmstrom, Mats; Barabash, Stas

    2015-04-01

    Mars Express (MEX) has operated for more than 10 years in the environment of Mars, providing solar wind ion observations by the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) experiment's ion mass analyzer (IMA). In the region just outside the bow shock of Mars, IMA frequently observes ring-like distributed ions that include both pick-up ions of exospheric origin and reflected solar wind by the bow shock (Yamauchi et al., 2012). Although there are some restrictions imposed when using the IMA measurements, the length and quality of the IMA data is sufficient to statistically diagnose the seasonal and solar cycle variation. According to this long-term observation, the observation probability of the ring-like distributed ions outside the bow shock with certain intensity strongly depends on the season, i.e., the flux of these ions varies by nearly one order of magnitude every two years. A careful examination reveals that the variation of pick-up ions is locked to the distance from the Sun rather than the tilt angle of the rotation axis. This indicates that the planetary scale variation of solar UV has a drastic effect on the formation of the pick-up ions. Solar cycle effects are not distinguishable partly because they are masked by the seasonal effects and partly because MEX and IMA are optimum for such observations due to the instrumental limitations (FOV and energy range) and the lack of the magnetometer experiment on the Mars Express spacecraft

  15. Investigation of the seasonal spatial variability of the Caspian Sea level by satellite altimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarov, Elnur; Mammadov, Ramiz; Cretaux, Jean-Francois; Arsen, Adalbert; Safarov, Said; Amrahov, Elvin

    2016-07-01

    Sea level fluctuations are among the most outstanding and debated issues of the Caspian Sea. Precipitation, underground water and river input are consistent parts of the inflow of the Caspian Sea water balance. The river input is also considered to be the main driver of the seasonal level changes of the Caspian Sea. Sufficiently large amount of this input is provided by the Volga. Although there is a good network of sea level stations covering the coastline of the sea, these facilities are not capable to reflect the sea level variations over the all surface. Meanwhile, the Caspian Sea is well observed by satellites Jason 1, Jason 2 and ENVISAT. Altimetric data taken from these satellites covers the surface of the sea much better than the data from the in-situ network stations. In this paper we investigate the spatial variability of the sea level that could provide more insight into the influence of river input (especially the Volga river), precipitation and other hydro-meteorological parameters on the Caspian Sea level.The altimetric data was averaged per every 10 square kilometers through all the tracks by means of the pre-prepared program made especially for this work. Also new maps of seasonal spatial variability of amplitude and phase of the annual signal of the Caspian Sea level for each investigated satellite were created by employing ARCGIS software. Moreover, these peaks of sea level amplitude and phase of annual signal results were comparatively analyzed with the corresponding river discharge of the Volga.

  16. Young Scientists Explore Seasons. Book 5 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on signs of the four seasons. Materials are included for assembling a season activity booklet and guidelines are given for…

  17. Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…

  18. Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…

  19. Seasonal skin colour changes in a sample teenage population measured by reflection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, M. R.; Cruse-Sawyer, J. E.

    2007-11-01

    As part of a classroom-based research project, reflectance spectra from the skin of a group of teenage school students were recorded over a four-month period, from early spring to mid-summer. The relative changes in skin colour during the course of the study were quantified by integrating over the full wavelength range of the normalized reflectance spectra. Measurements made upon the inner forearm and the back of the hand produce results which indicate a decrease in total reflectance (increase in absorption) corresponding to different levels of tanning for limited and extended exposure to ambient sunlight, respectively. The rate of change of skin colour qualitatively matches that of the solar illuminance.

  20. Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species. PMID:25229944

  1. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  2. EO-1 Hyperion Reflectance Time Series at Calibration and Validation Sites: Stability and Sensitivity to Seasonal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Thome, Kurt J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Lagomasino, David; Novick, Kimberly A.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion reflectance time series at established calibration sites to assess the instrument stability and suitability for monitoring vegetation functional parameters. Our analysis using three pseudo-invariant calibration sites in North America indicated that the reflectance time series are devoid of apparent spectral trends and their stability consistently is within 2.5-5 percent throughout most of the spectral range spanning the 12-plus year data record. Using three vegetated sites instrumented with eddy covariance towers, the Hyperion reflectance time series were evaluated for their ability to determine important variables of ecosystem function. A number of narrowband and derivative vegetation indices (VI) closely described the seasonal profiles in vegetation function and ecosystem carbon exchange (e.g., net and gross ecosystem productivity) in three very different ecosystems, including a hardwood forest and tallgrass prairie in North America, and a Miombo woodland in Africa. Our results demonstrate the potential for scaling the carbon flux tower measurements to local and regional landscape levels. The VIs with stronger relationships to the CO2 parameters were derived using continuous reflectance spectra and included wavelengths associated with chlorophyll content and/or chlorophyll fluorescence. Since these indices cannot be calculated from broadband multispectral instrument data, the opportunity to exploit these spectrometer-based VIs in the future will depend on the launch of satellites such as EnMAP and HyspIRI. This study highlights the practical utility of space-borne spectrometers for characterization of the spectral stability and uniformity of the calibration sites in support of sensor cross-comparisons, and demonstrates the potential of narrowband VIs to track and spatially extend ecosystem functional status as well as carbon processes measured at flux towers.

  3. EO-1 Hyperion reflectance time series at calibration and validation sites: stability and sensitivity to seasonal dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, P.K.E.; Middleton, E.M.; Thome, K.J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Huemmrich, K.F.; Novick, K.A.; Brunsell, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion reflectance time series at established calibration sites to assess the instrument stability and suitability for monitoring vegetation functional parameters. Our analysis using three pseudo-invariant calibration sites in North America indicated that the reflectance time series are devoid of apparent spectral trends and their stability consistently is within 2.5-5 percent throughout most of the spectral range spanning the 12+ year data record. Using three vegetated sites instrumented with eddy covariance towers, the Hyperion reflectance time series were evaluated for their ability to determine important variables of ecosystem function. A number of narrowband and derivative vegetation indices (VI) closely described the seasonal profiles in vegetation function and ecosystem carbon exchange (e.g., net and gross ecosystem productivity) in three very different ecosystems, including a hardwood forest and tallgrass prairie in North America, and a Miombo woodland in Africa. Our results demonstrate the potential for scaling the carbon flux tower measurements to local and regional landscape levels. The VIs with stronger relationships to the CO2 parameters were derived using continuous reflectance spectra and included wavelengths associated with chlorophyll content and/or chlorophyll fluorescence. Since these indices cannot be calculated from broadband multispectral instrument data, the opportunity to exploit these spectrometer-based VIs in the future will depend on the launch of satellites such as EnMAP and HyspIRI. This study highlights the practical utility of space-borne spectrometers for characterization of the spectral stability and uniformity of the calibration sites in support of sensor cross-comparisons, and demonstrates the potential of narrowband VIs to track and spatially extend ecosystem functional status as well as carbon processes measured at flux towers.

  4. Impact of seasonality and air pollutants on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and wave reflection in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Francesco; Massetti, Luciano; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2017-01-01

    Objective The effects of seasonality on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular (CV) events are well established, while the influence of seasonality and other environmental factors on arterial stiffness and wave reflection has never been analyzed. This study evaluated whether seasonality (daily number of hours of light) and acute variations in outdoor temperature and air pollutants may affect carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pressure augmentation. Design and method 731 hypertensive patients (30–88 years, 417 treated) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study during a 5-year period. PWV, central BP, Augmentation Index (AIx) and Augmentation Pressure (AP) were measured in a temperature-controlled (22–24°C) room. Data of the local office of the National Climatic Data Observatory were used to estimate meteorological conditions and air pollutants (PM10, O3, CO, N2O) exposure on the same day. Results PWV (mean value 8.5±1.8 m/s) was related to age (r = 0.467, p<0.001), body mass index (r = 0.132, p<0.001), central systolic (r = 0.414, p<0.001) and diastolic BP (r = 0.093, p = 0.013), daylight hours (r = -0.176, p<0.001), mean outdoor temperature (r = -0.082, p = 0.027), O3 (r = -0.135, p<0.001), CO (r = 0.096, p = 0.012), N2O (r = 0.087, p = 0.022). In multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, PWV remained independently associated only with daylight hours (β = -0.170; 95% CI: -0.273 to -0.067, p = 0.001). No significant correlation was found between pressure augmentation and daylight hours, mean temperature or air pollutants. The relationship was stronger in untreated patients and women. Furthermore, a positive, independent association between O3 levels and PWV emerged in untreated patients (β: 0.018; p = 0.029; CI: 0.002 to 0.034) and in women (β: 0.027; p = 0.004; CI: 0.009 to 0.045). Conclusions PWV showed a marked seasonality in hypertensive patients. Environmental O3 levels may acutely reduce arterial stiffness in

  5. Hyperspectral reflectance of leaves and flowers of an outbreak species discriminates season and successional stage of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Schlerf, Martin; van der Putten, Wim H.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2013-10-01

    Spectral reflectance can be used to assess large-scale performances of plants in the field based on plant nutrient balance as well as composition of defence compounds. However, plant chemical composition is known to vary with season - due to its phenology - and it may even depend on the succession stage of its habitat. Here we investigate (i) how spectral reflectance could be used to discriminate successional and phenological stages of Jacobaea vulgaris in both leaf and flower organs and (ii) if chemical content estimation by reflectance is flower or leaf dependent. We used J. vulgaris, which is a natural outbreak plant species on abandoned arable fields in north-western Europe and studied this species in a chronosequence representing successional development during time since abandonment. The chemical content and reflectance between 400 and 2500 nm wavelengths of flowers and leaves were measured throughout the season in fields of different successional ages. The data were analyzed with multivariate statistics for temporal discrimination and estimation of chemical contents in both leaf and flower organs. Two main effects were revealed by spectral reflectance measurements: (i) both flower and leaf spectra show successional and seasonal changes, but the pattern is complex and organ specific (ii) flower head pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are involved in plant defence against herbivores, can be detected through hyperspectral reflectance.We conclude that spectral reflectance of both leaves and flowers can provide information on plant performance during season and successional stages. As a result, remote sensing studies of plant performance in complex field situations will benefit from considering hyperspectral reflectance of different plant organs. This approach may enable more detailed studies on the link between spectral information and plant defence dynamics both aboveground and belowground.

  6. Performance of second-season grazing cattle following different levels of parasite control in their first grazing season.

    PubMed

    Larsson, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J; Höglund, J

    2011-01-10

    A 3-year grazing trial was performed during 2003-2005 on a commercial steer-producing farm in Sweden to study performance of second-season grazing (SSG) cattle following different levels of parasite exposure during their first grazing season. Initially, groups of 10 first-season grazing (FSG) cattle were each year assigned to four parasite control strategies: (1) turn-out onto pasture that during the previous year was grazed by SSG cattle, followed by a mid-July move to aftermath, (2) supplementation with concentrate and roughage for 4 weeks after turn-out, (3) no treatment, or (4) anthelmintic treatment (injectable doramectin) every fourth week. All animals were set stocked, except for those in group one. Next spring and following housing the cattle were turned out for their second grazing season onto approximately 25 ha communal pasturelands as a common mob. Weighing, faecal sampling and blood collection were performed at turn-out and then every 4 weeks for the 20-week grazing season. Faecal samples were also collected on day 10 after turn-out for detection of coccidian oocysts. Antibodies to Dictyocaulus viviparus were analysed at the time of their second housing period, and when elevated levels were recorded, stored serum samples from seropositive animals were analysed retrospectively. Results showed early-season weight losses of up to 47 kg in the SSG cattle. However, faecal egg counts were generally low and there was no correlation between SSG performance and treatment history as FSG cattle. Still, cumulative egg counts were significantly higher in animals that had been treated with anthelmintic as FSG cattle but serum pepsinogen concentrations showed no significant differences and the output of Eimeria alabamensis oocysts seldom exceeded 10,000 oocysts per gram faeces. Antibodies to D. viviparus were observed from July 2004 and from June 2005 but not in 2003. In 2004 and 2005, 64% and 83% of the animals, respectively, were seropositive for D. viviparus. It

  7. Level structure and reflection asymmetric shape in sup 223 Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P. )

    1990-07-20

    Mass separated sources of {sup 227}Pa (separated as PaF{sub 4}{sup +} ions) were used to study the level structure of {sup 223}Ac following alpha decay. The levels in {sup 223}Ac are interpreted as K = 5/2{sup {plus minus}} parity doublet bands which occur naturally in reflection asymmetric models and the multiphonon octupole model. The anomalous structure of the K = 3/2{sup {minus}} band is explained in terms of Coriolis coupling. The low lying parity doublet bands in {sup 223}Ac, {sup 225}Ac, and {sup 227}Ac are compared and contrasted.

  8. On the seasonal variability of raindrop size distribution and associated variations in reflectivity - Rainrate relations at Tirupati, a tropical station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulochana, Y.; Rao, T. N.; Sunilkumar, K.; Chandrika, P.; Raman, M. Roja; Rao, S. V. B.

    2016-09-01

    Three years of continuous OTT Parsivel disdrometer measurements made at Tirupati (13.6°N, 79.4°E), a tropical station near the foothills of Nallamala mountains, have been used to examine the climatological seasonal differences in bulk rainfall parameters, gamma parameters, raindrop size distributions (DSDs) and reflectivity - rainfall (Z-R) relationships. These relations are derived for both stratiform and convective rain during southwest and northeast monsoon (SWM and NEM) seasons, the two primary rainfall seasons for this region. The probability distribution functions for bulk rainfall and gamma parameters during the SWM and NEM suggest the dominance of evaporation and drop sorting during the SWM. The seasonal variations are also clearly apparent in DSD with fewer big drops and more small drops during the NEM than in SWM. These differences are seen more prominently at smaller R. As a result, the retrieved Z-R relations are found to be distinctly different during the monsoon seasons. The seasonal variations in Z-R relations are not only observed for the total data but also for the rain type-segregated data. The prefactor of the Z-R relation is found to be larger for SWM and also for stratiform rain, consistent with earlier reports from southeast India, indicating that these features are robust and representative of southeast India. The observed differences in Z-R relations are discussed in the light of microphysical differences between the seasons and rain types.

  9. Low-Cost Dielectric Reflective Surface for Low-Level Backscattered Diffuse Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Nuaimi, Mustafa K. Taher; Hong, Wei; Gao, Xiqi

    2017-02-01

    This article presents the design of non-subwavelength, non-resonant, and non-absorptive dielectric surface that creates a low-level backward diffuse reflections under illumination of a far-field plane wave at millimeter wave regime. Thus, radar cross section reduction of a solid metallic object can be achieved. The dielectric surface is consist of unit cells of only two different electric permittivity ( ɛ r1 = 6.14 and ɛ r2 = 3.49) distributed across the surface aperture to achieve low-level backscattered diffuse reflections. The unit cells used are having non-subwavelength size (0.53λ80GHz) which ensures an easier fabrication of the presented surface using low cost simple PCB technology, in particular at high frequencies. RCS reduction of more than 10 dBsm is achieved from 70 to 87 GHz (BW ≈ 21.65 %) using the presented dielectric surface of optimized permittivity distribution. The RCS reduction capabilities of the presented surface are studied theoretically under both normal and oblique incidences and then fabricated and verified experimentally by reflectivity measurements.

  10. Intra-seasonal sea level variability along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhage, Laxmikant; Strub, P. Ted

    2016-11-01

    The importance of local versus distant forcing is studied for the wind-driven intra-seasonal (30-120 day) sea level anomaly (SLA) variations along the west coast of India. Significant correlations of altimeter-derived SLA on the west coast are found with the mid-basin SLA east of Sri Lanka and SLA as far as Sumatra and the equator, with increased lags, connecting with the remote forcing from the equator in the form of reflected Rossby waves. The highest correlations between SLA on the west coast and winds are found with the winds at the southern tip of India. Coherence calculations help to identify the importance of a narrow band (40-60 day) for the interactions of winds with the intra-seasonal SLA variations. A multivariate regression model, along with the coherences within this narrower band, suggest the lags of SLA on the west coast with winds to range from 0 to 2 days with the local forcing to 11-13 days with the forcing along south east coast of India. Hovmöller diagrams illustrate the propagation of signals by estimating phase speed for Rossby waves (57 cm/s) across the Indian Ocean from Sumatra and Coastal Trapped Waves (CTWs) along the west coast of India (178 cm/s). Propagation from the south-east coast of India is not as robust as Rossby waves from Sumatra.

  11. Moving from technical to critical reflection in journalling: an investigation of students' ability to incorporate three levels of reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Usher, K; Tollefson, J; Francis, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a research project aimed at changing the levels of reflection of preregistration nursing students in a tertiary institution. Whilst reflection is widely espoused now in nursing, few studies have been found that identify whether the level of reflective writing can be identified or developed by students. Anecdotal and research evidence (Powell 1989; van Manen 1977) however indicates that most student reflective writing occurs at the technical level. A descriptive exploratory study using both qualitative and quantitative techniques was undertaken to apply van Manen's (1977) levels in a structured way in an attempt to facilitate the student's understanding and use of the levels in their reflective writing. The findings of the study indicate that student self evaluation and identification of the levels in their own writing can lead to change in the levels of critical reflective writing achieved by undergraduate students.

  12. Airborne Interferometry using GNSS Reflections for Surface Level Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Beyerle, Georg; Schön, Steffen; Stosius, Ralf; Gerber, Thomas; Beckheinrich, Jamila; Markgraf, Markus; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The interferometric use of GNSS reflections for ocean altimetry can fill the gap in coverage of ocean observations. Today radar altimeters are used for large scale ocean observations to monitor e.g. global sea level change or circulation processes like El Niño. Spacial and temporal resolution of a single radar altimeter, however, is insufficient to observe mesoscale ocean phenomena like large oceanic eddies that are important indicators of climate change. The high coverage expected for a spaceborne altimeter based on GNSS reflections stimulated investigations on according interferometric methods. Several airborne experiments have been conducted using code observations. Carrier observations have a better precision but are severely affected by noise and have mostly been used in ground-based experiments. A new interferometric approach is presented using carrier observations for airborne application. Implementing a spectral retrieval noise reduction is achieved. A flight experiment was conducted with a Zeppelin airship on 2010/10/12 over Lake Constance at the border between Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The lake surface with an area of 536km2 is suitable for altimetric study as its decimeter range Geoid undulations are well-known. Three GNSS receiver were installed on the airship. A Javad Delta receiver recording direct signals for navigation. The DLR G-REX receiver recording reflected signals for scatterometry and the GORS (GNSS Occultation Reflectometry Scatterometry) receiver recording direct and reflected signals for interferometry. The airship's trajectory is determined from navigation data with a precision better than 10cm using regional augmentation. This presentation focuses on the interferometric analysis of GORS observations. Ray tracing calculations are used to model the difference of direct and reflected signals' path. Spectral retrieval is applied to determine Doppler residuals of modelled path difference and interferometric observations. Lake level

  13. Deriving seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties of semi-arid savannas using in situ based hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagesson, T.; Fensholt, R.; Huber, S.; Horion, S.; Guiro, I.; Ehammer, A.; Ardö, J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates how seasonal hyperspectral reflectance data (between 350 and 1800 nm) can be used to infer ecosystem properties for a semi-arid savanna ecosystem in West Africa using a unique in situ based dataset. Relationships between seasonal dynamics in hyperspectral reflectance, and ecosystem properties (biomass, gross primary productivity (GPP), light use efficiency (LUE), and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FAPAR)) were analysed. Reflectance data (ρ) were used to study the relationship between normalised difference spectral indices (NDSI) and the measured ecosystem properties. Finally, also the effects of variable sun sensor viewing geometry on different NDSI wavelength combinations were analysed. The wavelengths with the strongest correlation to seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties were shortwave infrared (biomass), the peak absorption band for chlorophyll a and b (at 682 nm) (GPP), the oxygen A-band at 761 nm used for estimating chlorophyll fluorescence (GPP, and LUE), and blue wavelengths (FAPAR). The NDSI with the strongest correlation to: (i) biomass combined red edge reflectance (ρ705) with green reflectance (ρ587), (ii) GPP combined wavelengths at the peak of green reflection (ρ518, ρ556), (iii) the LUE combined red (ρ688) with blue reflectance (ρ436), and (iv) FAPAR combined blue (ρ399) and near infrared (ρ1295) wavelengths. NDSI combining near infrared and shortwave infrared were strongly affected by solar zenith angles and sensor viewing geometry, as were many combinations of visible wavelengths. This study provides analyses based upon novel multi-angular hyperspectral data for validation of Earth Observation based properties of semi-arid ecosystems, as well as insights for designing spectral characteristics of future sensors for ecosystem monitoring.

  14. Angular and Seasonal Variation of Spectral Surface Reflectance Ratios: Implications for the Remote Sensing of Aerosol over Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Wald, A. E.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1999-01-01

    We obtain valuable information on the angular and seasonal variability of surface reflectance using a hand-held spectrometer from a light aircraft. The data is used to test a procedure that allows us to estimate visible surface reflectance from the longer wavelength 2.1 micrometer channel (mid-IR). Estimating or avoiding surface reflectance in the visible is a vital first step in most algorithms that retrieve aerosol optical thickness over land targets. The data indicate that specular reflection found when viewing targets from the forward direction can severely corrupt the relationships between the visible and 2.1 micrometer reflectance that were derived from nadir data. There is a month by month variation in the ratios between the visible and the mid-IR, weakly correlated to the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). If specular reflection is not avoided, the errors resulting from estimating surface reflectance from the mid-IR exceed the acceptable limit of DELTA-rho approximately 0.01 in roughly 40% of the cases, using the current algorithm. This is reduced to 25% of the cases if specular reflection is avoided. An alternative method that uses path radiance rather than explicitly estimating visible surface reflectance results in similar errors. The two methods have different strengths and weaknesses that require further study.

  15. The effects of geology and the impact of seasonal correction factors on indoor radon levels: a case study approach.

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin K; Phillips, Paul S; Denman, Antony R

    2005-01-01

    Geology has been highlighted by a number of authors as a key factor in high indoor radon levels. In the light of this, this study examines the application of seasonal correction factors to indoor radon concentrations in the UK. This practice is based on an extensive database gathered by the National Radiological Protection Board over the years (small-scale surveys began in 1976 and continued with a larger scale survey in 1988) and reflects well known seasonal variations observed in indoor radon levels. However, due to the complexity of underlying geology (the UK arguably has the world's most complex solid and surficial geology over the shortest distances) and considerable variations in permeability of underlying materials it is clear that there are a significant number of occurrences where the application of a seasonal correction factor may give rise to over-estimated or under-estimated radon levels. Therefore, the practice of applying a seasonal correction should be one that is undertaken with caution, or not at all. This work is based on case studies taken from the Northamptonshire region and comparisons made to other permeable geologies in the UK.

  16. Activity in high-level brain regions reflects visibility of low-level stimuli.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, F; Heinzle, J; Imfeld, A; Haynes, J-D

    2014-11-15

    Stimulus visibility is associated with neural signals in multiple brain regions, ranging from visual cortex to prefrontal regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate to which extent the perceived visibility of a "low-level" grating stimulus is reflected in the brain activity in high-level brain regions. Oriented grating stimuli were presented under varying visibility conditions created by backward masking. Visibility was manipulated using four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), which created a continuum from invisible to highly visible target stimuli. Brain activity in early visual areas, high-level visual brain regions (fusiform gyrus), as well as parietal and prefrontal brain regions was significantly correlated with subjects' psychometric visibility functions. In addition, increased stimulus visibility was reflected in the functional coupling between low and high-level visual areas. Specifically, neuroimaging signals in the middle occipital gyrus were significantly more correlated with signals in the inferior temporal gyrus when subjects successfully perceived the target stimulus than when they did not. These results provide evidence that not only low-level visual but also high-level brain regions reflect visibility of low-level grating stimuli and that changes in functional connectivity reflect perceived stimulus visibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal variation in urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis).

    PubMed

    Amaral, Rodrigo S; Rosas, Fernando C W; da Silva, Vera M F; Graham, Laura H; Viau, Priscila; Nichi, Marcilio; Oliveira, Claudio A

    2015-09-01

    The Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) is a threatened aquatic mammal endemic to the Amazon basin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and salivary reproductive hormone levels of captive Amazonian manatees collected during two seasons of the year. Salivary samples from four males and urinary and salivary samples from three females were collected during two seasons (March-June and September-November) over two consecutive years. Salivary testosterone in males was measured by radioimmunoassay and reproductive hormones in females (salivary progesterone and oestradiol and urinary progestogens, oestrogens and luteinising hormone) were measured by enzyme immunoassay. The data were analysed in a 2×2 factorial design, where the factors were year and season. There was no effect of year or season for salivary testosterone. All female hormones showed a seasonal effect (higher hormone levels during March-June than September-November) or an interaction between year and season (P<0.05). These results strongly indicate the existence of reproductive seasonality in Amazonian manatees; however, apparently only females exhibit reproductive quiescence during the non-breeding season. Further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate which environmental parameters are related to reproductive seasonality in T. inunguis and how this species responds physiologically to those stimuli.

  18. On the seasonal variations of reflectivity and turbulence characteristics of low-latitude mesospheric echoes over Gadanki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, D.; Patra, A. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2016-06-01

    Gadanki radar observations of the low-latitude mesospheric echoes studied earlier have shown that while both occurrence rate and signal-to-noise ratio of the mesospheric echoes peak in the equinoxes turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate and eddy diffusivity, estimated using spectral width of these echoes, peak in the summer. This seasonal difference is apparently inconsistent with the understanding that the mesospheric echoes are generated by turbulence. In this paper, we analyze Gadanki radar observations of mesospheric echoes made during 2011 and 2012 and study seasonal variations in reflectivity and TKE dissipation rate in an attempt to address the aforementioned puzzle. We show that both reflectivity and TKE dissipation rate in the mesosphere show semiannual variations peaking in the equinoxes, which are vastly different from those reported earlier. We also show that seasonal variations in reflectivity and TKE dissipation rate have a close correspondence with gravity wave activity. These results are found to be consistent with the gravity wave breaking hypothesis generating turbulence and radar echoes in the low-latitude mesosphere.

  19. Introducing seasonal hydro-meteorological forecasts in local water management. First reflections from the Messara site, Crete, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal prediction is recently at the center of the forecasting research efforts, especially for regions that are projected to be severely affected by global warming. The value of skillful seasonal forecasts can be considerable for many sectors and especially for the agricultural in which water users and managers can benefit to better anticipate against drought conditions. Here we present the first reflections from the user/stakeholder interactions and the design of a tailored drought decision support system in an attempt to bring seasonal predictions into local practice for the Messara valley located in the central-south area of Crete, Greece. Findings from interactions with the users and stakeholders reveal that although long range and seasonal predictions are not used, there is a strong interest for this type of information. The increase in the skill of short range weather predictions is also of great interest. The drought monitoring and prediction tool under development that support local water and agricultural management will include (a) sources of skillful short to medium term forecast information, (b) tailored drought monitoring and forecasting indices for the local groundwater aquifer and rain-fed agriculture, and (c) seasonal inflow forecasts for the local dam through hydrologic simulation to support management of freshwater resources and drought impacts on irrigated agriculture.

  20. Movement planning reflects skill level and age changes in toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children’s reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18–21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were re-tested on the same tasks a year later. Longer deceleration as the hand approached the block for pickup was found in the tower task compared to the imprecise task, indicating planning for the second movement. More skillful toddlers who could build high towers had a longer deceleration phase when placing blocks on the tower than toddlers who built low towers. Kinematic differences between the groups remained a year later when all children could build high towers. PMID:21077868

  1. Do physiological changes at leaf level explain seasonal changes in remotely sensed canopy greenness?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, B.; Keenan, T. F.; Felts, E. S.; Hufkens, K.; Friedl, M. A.; Moore, D. J.; Sonnentag, O.; Richardson, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    The PhenoCam (http://phenocam.sr.unh.edu) network uses digital cameras to observe phenological events and track seasonal changes in forest canopy greenness. As a near surface remote sensing platform it acts as an intermediary between leaf level measurements, typically made by a human observer, and satellite based remote sensing products. The cameras typically document a rapid increase in canopy greenness after leaf out, which peaks in early summer and then gradually declines before a rapid decline corresponding to autumn senescence and abscission. Open questions remain, however, as to whether the observed changes in canopy greenness are directly related to changes in leaf physiology and pigmentation, changes in canopy structure (leaf size, shape, and orientation), or some combination thereof. The goal of this study was to investigate how leaf-level structure and function relate to canopy greenness as measured by the cameras in an oak-dominated temperate forest. Sampling was conducted at the Harvard Forest, in central Massachusetts USA. We sampled upper-canopy leaves of three dominant deciduous tree species red oak (Quercus rubra), red maple (Acer rubrum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) on a weekly basis for a full growing season, from leaf out to leaf drop. Leaf mass per area, nitrogen content, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured for each leaf, along with spectral reflectance and transmission at wavelengths from 350 to 2500 nm. Leaf gas exchange measurements were also made weekly and used to derive leaf photosynthetic parameters. Results show that changes in leaf mass per area and photosynthetic capability at leaf-level lag initial increases in greenness measured by the cameras. Spectral indices related to chlorophyll content such as the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and chlorophyll normalized difference index (Chl NDI), along with chlorophyll fluorescence indicate that chlorophyll content continues to increase after greenness measured by

  2. Local Sea Level Derived from Reflected GNSS Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Scherneck, H.; Bos, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The traditional way to observe sea level is to use tide gauges, resulting in measurements relative to the Earth's crust. However, in order to measure the sea-level change due to changes in ocean water volume and/or other oceanographic phenomena, all types of crustal motion at the measurement site need to be known. We present a remote sensing technique for measuring local sea level using standard geodetic-type Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. The installation consists of a zenith-looking Right Hand Circular Polarized (RHCP) antenna, receiving the direct signals, and a nadir-looking Left Hand Circular Polarized antenna, receiving the signals reflected of the sea surface. Each antenna is connected to a receiver and the antenna pair is deployed back-to-back at a coastal site. Estimating the vertical baseline between the two antennas, using standard geodetic analysis, the local sea level and its temporal variations can be determined. The advantage of this technique is that it allows to measure both sea surface height changes with relative positioning and land surface height changes, e.g., by precise point positioning of the RHCP antenna. Furthermore, the combined measurements of local sea level are automatically corrected for land motion, meaning that this installation could provide continuously reliable sea-level estimates in tectonic active regions. This GNSS-based tide gauge has been operating continuously at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) on the west coast of Sweden since September 2010. We present results from several months of operations and compare them to sea-level measurements from two stilling well gauges about 18 km south and 33 km north of OSO. We find a high degree of agreement between the time series with correlation coefficients of larger than 0.95. The root-mean-square differences between the GNSS-derived sea level and the stilling well gauge measurements are 5.9 cm and 5.5 cm, which is lower than between the two stilling well (6

  3. Effect of Season of the Year on Lead Levels in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Diane K.; Bomba, Anne K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined blood lead levels in 1,190 children residing in Mississippi. Found that boys had a higher level than girls, and black children had a higher level than white children. The percentage of children with lead toxicity was 8.5 percent. The winter season had a significantly lower lead level than autumn. (Author/KB)

  4. The influence of season and living environment on children's urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Huang, Yu-Kai; Luvsan, Munkh-Erdene; Gombojav, Enkhjargal; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bulgan, Jargal; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-02-01

    Heating indoor living environments elevates air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of season and living environment on children's urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Our study subjects were 320 children aged 11-15 years living in gers, brick houses and apartments, in ger and non-ger areas of Ulaanbaatar. Spot urine samples and questionnaires were collected three times from each subject in three seasons, September (warm) and December (cold) in 2011 and March (moderate) in 2012. Urinary 1-OHP was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HPLC/FLD). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were applied to estimate the seasonal and residential effects on 1-OHP levels, adjusting for demographic and environmental factors. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels showed significant seasonal differences with 0.30 ± 0.57 μmol/mol creatinine in cold season, 0.14 ± 0.12 μmol/mol creatinine in moderate season, and 0.14 ± 0.21 μmol/mol creatinine in warm season. After controlling confounding factors, the GEE model showed that season, living area, and housing type had significant influence on children's urinary 1-OHP levels. Urinary 1-OHP levels in the cold and moderate seasons were, respectively 2.13 and 1.37 times higher than the warm season. Urinary 1-OHP levels for children living in ger areas were 1.27 times higher than those living in non-ger areas. Children who lived in gers or brick houses had 1.58 and 1.34 times higher 1-OHP levels, respectively, compared with those living in apartments. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels were associated with either estimated NO2 or SO2 concentrations at their home addresses in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolian children's urinary 1-OHP levels were significantly elevated during the cold season, and for those living in ger areas, gers, or brick houses in Ulaanbaatar. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels were associated PAH co

  5. Thermotolerance of apple tree leaves probed by chlorophyll a fluorescence and modulated 820 nm reflection during seasonal shift.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ying; Zhang, Mengxia; Gao, Jin; Li, Pengmin; Goltsev, Vasilij; Ma, Fengwang

    2015-11-01

    During the seasonal shift from June to August, air temperatures increase. To explore how apple trees improve their thermotolerance during this shift, we examined the photochemical reaction capacity of apple tree leaves by simultaneous measurement of prompt chlorophyll fluorescence, delayed chlorophyll fluorescence, and modulated 820 nm reflection at varying temperatures. It was found that the reaction centers and antennae of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI), the donor side of PSII, the electron transfer capacity from QA to QB, and the reoxidation capacity of plastoquinol were all sensitive to heat stress, particularly in June. As the season shifted, apple tree leaves improved in thermotolerance. Interestingly, the acclimation to seasonal shift enhanced the thermotolerance of PSII and PSI reaction centers more than that of their antennae, and the activity of PSII more than that of PSI. This may be a strategy for plant adaptation to changes in environmental temperatures. In addition, results from prompt and delayed fluorescence, as well as modulated 820 nm reflection corroborate each other. We suggest that the simultaneous measurement of the three independent signals may provide more information on thermal acclimation mechanisms of photochemical reactions in plant leaves.

  6. [Reflectivity of broad-leaved Korean pine forest in growing season on Changbai Mountain].

    PubMed

    Guan, Dexin; Jin, Mingshu; Xu, Hao

    2002-12-01

    The hourly reflectivity of broad-leaved Korean pine forest on Changbai Mountain from 22 May to 14 October 2001 was calculated based on total solar radiation and reflect radiation. The results showed that: the reflectivity of the forest was related to solar altitude. It was generally high just after sunrise or before sunset, but was relatively stable as solar altitude was higher than 30 degrees. The diurnal curves of reflectivity took U shape. The reflectivity of the forest was also related to sky conditions. In clear days, the U shape was quite clear. In scattered days, the reflectivity just after sunrise and before sunset was not as high as in the clear days, and the U shaped curve was shallow. In overcast days, the reflectivity fluctuated. In terms of dynamic variation in the measured period, the reflectivity was relatively high in early June, decreased a little in late June, kept stable from July to September, and dropped gradually in the first half of October. The variation was related to the phenology of the forest canopy.

  7. Changing seasonality reflected in the chloroform breath of the Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhew, R. C.; Dutton, G. S.; Stone, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic tundra plays an active role in the biogeochemical cycling of ozone-depleting halocarbons. One of these compounds, chloroform (CHCl3), is emitted at high rates from the tundra but only during the thaw season. Thus atmospheric CHCl3 measurements can be used as an indicator of seasonal transitions on the tundra. We tested this idea through an analysis of long-term in situ trace gas measurements conducted by NOAA GMD at the baseline station near Barrow, Alaska. The Barrow Observatory (71.3230° N, 156.6114° W) is surrounded by the Arctic Ocean to the north and west and open tundra to the southeast to southwest. Atmospheric CHCl3 has been measured here hourly since 1998, with only a few breaks in the record. The onset of the thaw season is highlighted by a marked increase in chloroform concentrations in air masses originating from the tundra. The increased variance in concentrations coincides with declining albedo and increasing temperatures. Investigations on the biogeochemistry of chloroform in the Arctic tundra will clarify the mechanistic trigger of this seasonal shift and provide insight on how climate change in the Arctic can cause feedbacks in previously unexplored biogeochemical cycles.

  8. Regional and seasonal variation in airborne grass pollen levels between cities of Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Paul J.; Erbas, Bircan; Jaggard, Alison K.; Campbell, Bradley C.; Vicendese, Don; Johnston, Fay H.; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R.; Green, Brett J.; Burton, Pamela K.; Bowman, David M. J. S.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Katelaris, Constance H.; Haberle, Simon G.; Newbigin, Ed; Davies, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Although grass pollen is widely regarded as the major outdoor aeroallergen source in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), no assemblage of airborne pollen data for the region has been previously compiled. Grass pollen count data collected at 14 urban sites in Australia and NZ over periods ranging from 1 to 17 years were acquired, assembled and compared, revealing considerable spatiotemporal variability. Although direct comparison between these data is problematic due to methodological differences between monitoring sites, the following patterns are apparent. Grass pollen seasons tended to have more than one peak from tropics to latitudes of 37°S and single peaks at sites south of this latitude. A longer grass pollen season was therefore found at sites below 37°S, driven by later seasonal end dates for grass growth and flowering. Daily pollen counts increased with latitude; subtropical regions had seasons of both high intensity and long duration. At higher latitude sites, the single springtime grass pollen peak is potentially due to a cooler growing season and a predominance of pollen from C3 grasses. The multiple peaks at lower latitude sites may be due to a warmer season and the predominance of pollen from C4 grasses. Prevalence and duration of seasonal allergies may reflect the differing pollen seasons across Australia and NZ. It must be emphasized that these findings are tentative due to limitations in the available data, reinforcing the need to implement standardized pollen-monitoring methods across Australasia. Furthermore, spatiotemporal differences in grass pollen counts indicate that local, current, standardized pollen monitoring would assist with the management of pollen allergen exposure for patients at risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma. PMID:27069303

  9. Regional and seasonal variation in airborne grass pollen levels between cities of Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Medek, Danielle E; Beggs, Paul J; Erbas, Bircan; Jaggard, Alison K; Campbell, Bradley C; Vicendese, Don; Johnston, Fay H; Godwin, Ian; Huete, Alfredo R; Green, Brett J; Burton, Pamela K; Bowman, David M J S; Newnham, Rewi M; Katelaris, Constance H; Haberle, Simon G; Newbigin, Ed; Davies, Janet M

    Although grass pollen is widely regarded as the major outdoor aeroallergen source in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), no assemblage of airborne pollen data for the region has been previously compiled. Grass pollen count data collected at 14 urban sites in Australia and NZ over periods ranging from 1 to 17 years were acquired, assembled and compared, revealing considerable spatiotemporal variability. Although direct comparison between these data is problematic due to methodological differences between monitoring sites, the following patterns are apparent. Grass pollen seasons tended to have more than one peak from tropics to latitudes of 37°S and single peaks at sites south of this latitude. A longer grass pollen season was therefore found at sites below 37°S, driven by later seasonal end dates for grass growth and flowering. Daily pollen counts increased with latitude; subtropical regions had seasons of both high intensity and long duration. At higher latitude sites, the single springtime grass pollen peak is potentially due to a cooler growing season and a predominance of pollen from C3 grasses. The multiple peaks at lower latitude sites may be due to a warmer season and the predominance of pollen from C4 grasses. Prevalence and duration of seasonal allergies may reflect the differing pollen seasons across Australia and NZ. It must be emphasized that these findings are tentative due to limitations in the available data, reinforcing the need to implement standardized pollen-monitoring methods across Australasia. Furthermore, spatiotemporal differences in grass pollen counts indicate that local, current, standardized pollen monitoring would assist with the management of pollen allergen exposure for patients at risk of allergic rhinitis and asthma.

  10. Deconvolution of pigment and physiologically related photochemical reflectance index variability at the canopy scale over an entire growing season.

    PubMed

    Hmimina, G; Merlier, E; Dufrêne, E; Soudani, K

    2015-08-01

    The sensitivity of the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) to leaf pigmentation and its impacts on its potential as a proxy for light-use efficiency (LUE) have recently been shown to be problematic at the leaf scale. Most leaf-to-leaf and seasonal variability can be explained by such a confounding effect. This study relies on the analysis of PRI light curves that were generated at the canopy scale under natural conditions to derive a precise deconvolution of pigment-related and physiologically related variability in the PRI. These sources of variability were explained by measured or estimated physiologically relevant variables, such as soil water content, that can be used as indicators of water availability and canopy chlorophyll content. The PRI mainly reflected the variability in the pigment content of the canopy. However, the corrected PRI, which was obtained by subtracting the pigment-related seasonal variability from the PRI measurement, was highly correlated with the upscaled LUE measurements. Moreover, the sensitivity of the PRI to the leaf pigment content may mask the PRI versus LUE relationship or result in an artificial relationship that reflects the relationship of chlorophyll versus LUE, depending on the species phenology.

  11. Teachers' Professional Development from the Perspective of Teaching Reflection Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mingren

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a case study based on Habermas's theory of knowledge and human interest. We analyzed the written reflections of four teachers employed at a school and found that the teachers who had experienced advanced professional development tended to engage in practical and critical reflection, whereas those who had experienced average…

  12. Teachers' Professional Development from the Perspective of Teaching Reflection Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Mingren

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a case study based on Habermas's theory of knowledge and human interest. We analyzed the written reflections of four teachers employed at a school and found that the teachers who had experienced advanced professional development tended to engage in practical and critical reflection, whereas those who had experienced average…

  13. Retrieval of seasonal dynamics of forest understory reflectance from semi-arid to boreal forests using MODIS BRDF data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisek, Jan; Chen, Jing; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rautiainen, Miina; Schaepman, Michael; Karnieli, Arnon; Sprintsin, Michael; Ryu, Youngryel; Nikopensius, Maris; Raabe, Kairi

    2016-04-01

    Ground vegetation (understory) provides an essential contribution to the whole-stand reflectance signal in many boreal, sub-boreal, and temperate forests. Accurate knowledge about forest understory reflectance is urgently needed in various forest reflectance modelling efforts. However, systematic collections of understory reflectance data covering different sites and ecosystems are almost missing. Measurement of understory reflectance is a real challenge because of an extremely high variability of irradiance at the forest floor, weak signal in some parts of the spectrum, spectral separability issues of over- and understory and its variable nature. Understory can consist of several sub-layers (regenerated tree, shrub, grasses or dwarf shrub, mosses, lichens, litter, bare soil), it has spatially-temporally variable species composition and ground coverage. Additional challenges are introduced by patchiness of ground vegetation, ground surface roughness, and understory-overstory relations. Due to this variability, remote sensing might be the only means to provide consistent data at spatially relevant scales. In this presentation, we report on retrieving seasonal courses of understory Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from multi-angular MODIS BRDF/Albedo data. We compared satellite-based seasonal courses of understory NDVI against an extended collection of different types of forest sites with available in-situ understory reflectance measurements. These sites are distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient on the Northern hemisphere: a sparse and dense black spruce forests in Alaska and Canada, a northern European boreal forest in Finland, hemiboreal needleleaf and deciduous stands in Estonia, a mixed temperate forest in Switzerland, a cool temperate deciduous broadleaf forest in Korea, and a semi-arid pine plantation in Israel. Our results indicated the retrieval method performs well particularly over open forests of different types. We also demonstrated

  14. Transmission of influenza reflects seasonality of wild birds across the annual cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, Nichola J.; Ma, Eric J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Boyce, Walter M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in nature must overcome shifting transmission barriers caused by the mobility of their primary host, migratory wild birds, that change throughout the annual cycle. Using a phylogenetic network of viral sequences from North American wild birds (2008–2011) we demonstrate a shift from intraspecific to interspecific transmission that along with reassortment, allows IAV to achieve viral flow across successive seasons from summer to winter. Our study supports amplification of IAV during summer breeding seeded by overwintering virus persisting locally and virus introduced from a wide range of latitudes. As birds migrate from breeding sites to lower latitudes, they become involved in transmission networks with greater connectivity to other bird species, with interspecies transmission of reassortant viruses peaking during the winter. We propose that switching transmission dynamics may be a critical strategy for pathogens that infect mobile hosts inhabiting regions with strong seasonality.

  15. Seasonal Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Hormones in the Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a Complex Mating System

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Diego J.; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S.; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L.; Martella, Mónica B.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the “Challenge Hypothesis”. In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period. PMID:24837464

  16. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Diego J; Vera Cortez, Marilina; Della Costa, Natalia S; Lèche, Alvina; Hansen, Cristian; Navarro, Joaquín L; Martella, Mónica B

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana), a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July), whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes). Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period.

  17. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site

  18. Seasonal levels of the Vibrio predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coast Seawater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along t...

  19. Seasonal trends in separability of leaf reflectance spectra for Ailanthus altissima and four other tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, Aaron

    This project investigated the spectral separability of the invasive species Ailanthus altissima, commonly called tree of heaven, and four other native species. Leaves were collected from Ailanthus and four native tree species from May 13 through August 24, 2008, and spectral reflectance factor measurements were gathered for each tree using an ASD (Boulder, Colorado) FieldSpec Pro full-range spectroradiometer. The original data covered the range from 350-2500 nm, with one reflectance measurement collected per one nm wavelength. To reduce dimensionality, the measurements were resampled to the actual resolution of the spectrometer's sensors, and regions of atmospheric absorption were removed. Continuum removal was performed on the reflectance data, resulting in a second dataset. For both the reflectance and continuum removed datasets, least angle regression (LARS) and random forest classification were used to identify a single set of optimal wavelengths across all sampled dates, a set of optimal wavelengths for each date, and the dates for which Ailanthus is most separable from other species. It was found that classification accuracy varies both with dates and bands used. Contrary to expectations that early spring would provide the best separability, the lowest classification error was observed on July 22 for the reflectance data, and on May 13, July 11 and August 1 for the continuum removed data. This suggests that July and August are also potentially good months for species differentiation. Applying continuum removal in many cases reduced classification error, although not consistently. Band selection seems to be more important for reflectance data in that it results in greater improvement in classification accuracy, and LARS appears to be an effective band selection tool. The optimal spectral bands were selected from across the spectrum, often with bands from the blue (401-431 nm), NIR (1115 nm) and SWIR (1985-1995 nm), suggesting that hyperspectral sensors with

  20. Is the water level during dry season in Poyang Lake really lower than before?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Yu, Meixiu; Shi, Yong; Luan, Zhenyu; Fu, Dafang

    2017-04-01

    The Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, has attracted world widely attentions in recent years due to it being dammed or not at the Lake's outlet. It was reported that the Poyang Lake water levels have been declining significantly in dry seasons, which resulted in severe water supply, irrigation and ecological flow requirement problems. The purpose of the study was to answer the question that the water level of the Poyang Lake during dry season is really lower than before or not. Based on topographical data, and long-term hydrological and meteorological data from 1950 to 2016, the relationship between the Poyang Lake and the Yangtze River before and after the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, the relationship between the Poyang Lake and its Five major tributaries (Ganjiang River, Fuhe River, Xinjiang River, Raohe River and Xiushui River), and as well as sand mining contributions to the water level in dry seasons of the Poyang Lake were investigated respectively.

  1. Seasonal Skin Colour Changes in a Sample Teenage Population Measured by Reflection Spectrophotometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, M. R.; Cruse-Sawyer, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a classroom-based research project, reflectance spectra from the skin of a group of teenage school students were recorded over a four-month period, from early spring to mid-summer. The relative changes in skin colour during the course of the study were quantified by integrating over the full wavelength range of the normalized…

  2. Seasonal Skin Colour Changes in a Sample Teenage Population Measured by Reflection Spectrophotometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, M. R.; Cruse-Sawyer, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a classroom-based research project, reflectance spectra from the skin of a group of teenage school students were recorded over a four-month period, from early spring to mid-summer. The relative changes in skin colour during the course of the study were quantified by integrating over the full wavelength range of the normalized…

  3. Calibrating canopy reflectance sensors to predict optimal mid-season nitrogen rate for cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inadequate N supply can limit yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), while too much N can cause excessive vegetative growth and delayed maturity. Reflectance sensors offer the potential to diagnose N need, and to translate this diagnosis into a variable-rate application of N in real time. Our obj...

  4. Assessing spatial and seasonal variations in grasslands with spectral reflectances from a helicopter platform

    SciTech Connect

    Walthall, C.L. ); Middleton, E.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. The authors present radiometric measurements taken from a helicopter based platform. This base was chosen to serve as a platform at a height between the surface based instruments and the aircraft borne instruments. It is close enough to the ground to provide detailed spatial and spectral measurements comparable to the ground based systems, and can sample many sites in a two hour flight plan. The helicopter carried an eight channel modular multiband radiometer (MMR), video, and still camera. Data was analyzed for five separate sites on four seasonally different dates to get a measure of seasonal and spatial variation. Data from all eight channels was looked at, and compared with linear models which describe simple ratio (SR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in terms of different surface variables.

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Hypocretin-1 (Orexin-A) Level Fluctuates with Season and Correlates with Day Length

    PubMed Central

    Boddum, Kim; Hansen, Mathias Hvidtfelt; Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek

    2016-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin neuropeptides (hcrt) are key players in the control of sleep and wakefulness evidenced by the fact that lack of hcrt leads to the sleep disorder Narcolepsy Type 1. Sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, and hcrt has been suggested to be poorly regulated in depressed subjects. To study seasonal variation in hcrt levels, we obtained data on hcrt-1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 227 human individuals evaluated for central hypersomnias at a Danish sleep center. The samples were taken over a 4 year timespan, and obtained in the morning hours, thus avoiding impact of the diurnal hcrt variation. Hcrt-1 concentration was determined in a standardized radioimmunoassay. Using biometric data and sleep parameters, a multivariate regression analysis was performed. We found that the average monthly CSF hcrt-1 levels varied significantly across the seasons following a sine wave with its peak in the summer (June—July). The amplitude was 19.9 pg hcrt/mL [12.8–26.9] corresponding to a 10.6% increase in midsummer compared to winter. Factors found to significantly predict the hcrt-1 values were day length, presence of snow, and proximity to the Christmas holiday season. The hcrt-1 values from January were much higher than predicted from the model, suggestive of additional factors influencing the CSF hcrt-1 levels such as social interaction. This study provides evidence that human CSF hcrt-1 levels vary with season, correlating with day length. This finding could have implications for the understanding of winter tiredness, fatigue, and seasonal affective disorder. This is the first time a seasonal variation of hcrt-1 levels has been shown, demonstrating that the hcrt system is, like other neurotransmitter systems, subjected to long term modulation. PMID:27008404

  6. Increased clutter level in echocardiography due to specular reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, Ali; Torp, Hans; Aakhus, Svend; Rodriguez-Molares, Alfonso

    2017-03-01

    State-of-the-art echocardiography allows to correctly diagnose most of cardiovascular diseases. An unknown source of clutter, however, hinders the visualization of the heart in some cases. We believe this clutter is caused by the ultrasound beam being partially reflected by the ribs into the elevation direction, so that structures outside the imaging plane are displayed on top of the heart image as clutter noise. We conducted in vitro experiments in a water tank using a synthetic ventricle and pig ribs. By partially blocking the probe with the ribs in the elevation direction, objects outside the imaging plane were rendered in the B-mode image, which confirms that the ribs can behave as specular reflectors. In addition, we succeeded in reproducing clutter noise using a piece of polystyrene to simulate the reflections from the lungs. This indicates that the origin of the clutter noise in echocardiograms can be reverberation coming from the lungs via specular reflection at the ribs.

  7. A Four-Category Scheme for Coding and Assessing the Level of Reflection in Written Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; McKay, Jan; Sinclair, Kit; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet

    2008-01-01

    Where courses have as an aim the promotion of reflective practice, it will enhance the achievement of the goal if the level of reflective thinking is assessed. To do this in a satisfactory way requires a reliable protocol for assessing the level of reflection in written work. This article presents a protocol that can be used to guide the…

  8. Seasonal Variability in Vitamin D Levels No Longer Detectable in Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Cong, Elaine; Walker, Marcella D; Kepley, Anna; Zhang, Chiyuan; McMahon, Donald J; Silverberg, Shonni J

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal variability in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH levels in the general population has been associated with differences in bone turnover markers, bone density, and fracture risk. Seasonal variability in 25(OH)D and PTH levels has also been reported in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Given the widespread use of vitamin D supplements, we sought to determine whether patients with PHPT still demonstrated seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a university medical center at a Northeastern U.S. latitude (New York, NY). One hundred patients with PHPT participated in the study. We assessed vitamin D supplement use and seasonal variation in serum 25(OH)D. Patients had PHPT ([mean ± SD] calcium, 10.8 ± 1.0 mg/dL; PTH, 85 ± 48 pg/mL) with a mean 25(OH)D level of 29 ± 10 ng/mL. Although only one fifth of participants had vitamin D deficiency (19% < 20 ng/mL), more than half were either deficient or insufficient (54% < 30 ng/mL). Sun exposure varied by season, but there were no seasonal differences in levels of 25(OH)D, PTH, bone markers, or bone mineral density, or in the prevalence of 25(OH)D less than 20 or less than 30 ng/mL. Most of the participants (65%) took supplemental vitamin D (dose among users: mean, 1643 ± 1496 IU; median, 1000 IU daily), and supplement users had markedly better vitamin D status than nonusers (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL: 8 vs 40%; P < .0001; < 30 ng/mL: 40 vs 80%; P = .0001; ≥ 30 ng/mL: 60 vs 20%; P = .0001). We found no evidence of seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels or PHPT disease severity in the Northeastern United States. This change is likely due to widespread high vitamin D supplement intake, which has resulted in better vitamin D status among supplement users and can mask the effect of season on serum 25(OH)D levels.

  9. Seasonal Variability in Vitamin D Levels No Longer Detectable in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Elaine; Kepley, Anna; Zhang, Chiyuan; McMahon, Donald J.; Silverberg, Shonni J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Seasonal variability in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and PTH levels in the general population has been associated with differences in bone turnover markers, bone density, and fracture risk. Seasonal variability in 25(OH)D and PTH levels has also been reported in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Objective: Given the widespread use of vitamin D supplements, we sought to determine whether patients with PHPT still demonstrated seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels. Design and Setting: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a university medical center at a Northeastern U.S. latitude (New York, NY). Patients: One hundred patients with PHPT participated in the study. Outcome Measures: We assessed vitamin D supplement use and seasonal variation in serum 25(OH)D. Results: Patients had PHPT ([mean ± SD] calcium, 10.8 ± 1.0 mg/dL; PTH, 85 ± 48 pg/mL) with a mean 25(OH)D level of 29 ± 10 ng/mL. Although only one fifth of participants had vitamin D deficiency (19% < 20 ng/mL), more than half were either deficient or insufficient (54% < 30 ng/mL). Sun exposure varied by season, but there were no seasonal differences in levels of 25(OH)D, PTH, bone markers, or bone mineral density, or in the prevalence of 25(OH)D less than 20 or less than 30 ng/mL. Most of the participants (65%) took supplemental vitamin D (dose among users: mean, 1643 ± 1496 IU; median, 1000 IU daily), and supplement users had markedly better vitamin D status than nonusers (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL: 8 vs 40%; P < .0001; < 30 ng/mL: 40 vs 80%; P = .0001; ≥ 30 ng/mL: 60 vs 20%; P = .0001). Conclusions: We found no evidence of seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels or PHPT disease severity in the Northeastern United States. This change is likely due to widespread high vitamin D supplement intake, which has resulted in better vitamin D status among supplement users and can mask the effect of season on serum 25(OH)D levels. PMID:26120793

  10. Deriving seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties of semi-arid savanna grasslands from in situ-based hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagesson, T.; Fensholt, R.; Huber, S.; Horion, S.; Guiro, I.; Ehammer, A.; Ardo, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates how hyperspectral reflectance (between 350 and 1800 nm) can be used to infer ecosystem properties for a semi-arid savanna grassland in West Africa using a unique in situ-based multi-angular data set of hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements. Relationships between seasonal dynamics in hyperspectral HCRF and ecosystem properties (biomass, gross primary productivity (GPP), light use efficiency (LUE), and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (FAPAR)) were analysed. HCRF data (ρ) were used to study the relationship between normalised difference spectral indices (NDSIs) and the measured ecosystem properties. Finally, the effects of variable sun sensor viewing geometry on different NDSI wavelength combinations were analysed. The wavelengths with the strongest correlation to seasonal dynamics in ecosystem properties were shortwave infrared (biomass), the peak absorption band for chlorophyll a and b (at 682 nm) (GPP), the oxygen A band at 761 nm used for estimating chlorophyll fluorescence (GPP and LUE), and blue wavelengths (ρ412) (FAPAR). The NDSI with the strongest correlation to (i) biomass combined red-edge HCRF (ρ705) with green HCRF (ρ587), (ii) GPP combined wavelengths at the peak of green reflection (ρ518, ρ556), (iii) LUE combined red (ρ688) with blue HCRF (ρ436), and (iv) FAPAR combined blue (ρ399) and near-infrared (ρ1295) wavelengths. NDSIs combining near infrared and shortwave infrared were strongly affected by solar zenith angles and sensor viewing geometry, as were many combinations of visible wavelengths. This study provides analyses based upon novel multi-angular hyperspectral data for validation of Earth-observation-based properties of semi-arid ecosystems, as well as insights for designing spectral characteristics of future sensors for ecosystem monitoring.

  11. Timing of breeding and reproductive performance in murres and kittiwakes reflect mismatched seasonal prey dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shultz, M.T.; Piatt, J.F.; Harding, A.M.A.; Kettle, Arthur B.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    2009-01-01

    Seabirds are thought to time breeding to match the seasonal peak of food availability with peak chick energetic demands, but warming ocean temperatures have altered the timing of spring events, creating the potential for mismatches. The resilience of seabird populations to climate change depends on their ability to anticipate changes in the timing and magnitude of peak food availability and 'fine-tune' efforts to match ('Anticipation Hypothesis'). The degree that inter-annual variation in seabird timing of breeding and reproductive performance represents anticipated food availability versus energetic constraints ('Constraint Hypothesis') is poorly understood. We examined the relative merits of the Constraint and Anticipation Hypotheses by testing 2 predictions of the Constraint Hypothesis: (1) seabird timing of breeding is related to food availability prior to egg laying rather than the date of peak food availability, (2) initial reproductive output (e.g. laying success, clutch size) is related to pre-lay food availability rather than anticipated chick-rearing food availability. We analyzed breeding biology data of common murres Uria aalge and black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla and 2 proxies of the seasonal dynamics of their food availability (near-shore forage fish abundance and sea-surface temperature) at 2 colonies in Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from 1996 to 1999. Our results support the Constraint Hypothesis: (1) for both species, egg laying was later in years with warmer sea-surface temperature and lower food availability prior to egg laying, but was not related to the date of peak food availability, (2) pre-egg laying food availability explained variation in kittiwake laying success and clutch size. Murre reproductive success was best explained by food availability during chick rearing. ?? 2009 Inter-Research.

  12. A spatial and seasonal description of return-levels for the Berlin-Brandenburg region (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events have a strong impact on the environment, society and economy. Besides the direct effect, e.g. damage due to hail, extreme precipitation can cause flood events, mudslides and increased erosion, which in turn lead to serious damage. Typically, return levels derived from annual maxima of daily precipitation sums are used for the design of hydraulic structures or for risk assessment in insurance companies. Seasonally or monthly resolved return levels are rarely considered, although they provide additional information: the higher temporal resolution can be beneficial for risk management, e.g. for agriculture or tourism sector. In addition, annual return levels derived from monthly maxima offer lower uncertainties, since a larger data basis are used for estimation. Here, the generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) is used to calculate monthly resolved return levels for 323 stations in the region Berlin-Brandenburg (Germany). Instead of estimating the parameters of the GEV for each month separately, the seasonal variation is captured by harmonic functions. This natural approach is particularly suitable for an efficient characterization of the seasonal variation of extreme precipitation. In a first step, a statistical model is developed for each station separately to estimate the monthly return levels. Besides the seasonal smoothness, also smoothness in space is exploited here. We use functions of longitude, latitude and altitude to describe the spatial variation of GEV parameters in the second step. Thus, uncertainty is reduced at gauges with short time series and estimates for ungauged sites can be obtained in a meaningful way.

  13. Reticulocyte profile in top-level alpine skiers during four consecutive competitive seasons.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Tavana, Rodolfo; Freschi, Marco; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-06-01

    The role of reticulocytes (Ret) in sports medicine became clear when the count of immature erythrocytes was introduced in protocols used for anti-doping purposes. Because specific research regarding seasonal variations in Ret is lacking, we assessed Ret (and [Hb]) in top-level male and female skiers during four consecutive competitive seasons. A difference (P < 0.05) between males and females was found for [Hb] and Ret values: [Hb] was lower and Ret was higher in females. The difference was maintained across all four competitive seasons. Marked within-subject differences in [Hb], Ret and immature reticulocyte fraction values were noted; the within-subject variability was greater than the between-subject variability in both genders. For instance, a difference for Ret was consistently shown between first and second blood drawings, i.e. between basal value, before the start of training and competition, and the value at middle of season, when training workload was at highest level. Unlike Ret%, the analysis of variance showed significant changes in [Hb] values across competitive seasons for both genders. Comparison between consecutive seasons (e.g., 2005-2006 vs. 2006-2007) showed significant differences for both parameters. The behaviour of [Hb] and Ret during the various seasons was parallel in females, whereas a discrepancy existed in males. In general, inter-individual variability is quite high, thus, Ret and [Hb] modifications should be referred only to the single athlete. We confirm the validity of the use of Ret counts for anti-doping purposes.

  14. Reflection Spectrum of Two Level Atoms by an Evanescent Laser Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Weihan; Li, Qingning

    1996-01-01

    An exact solution and numerical calculation of the reflection of two level atoms by atomic mirror are presented. The curve of reflection coefficient against Rabi frequency calculated shows some new features, and the physical machanism underlying is analyzed.

  15. The seasonal cycle and variability of sea level in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiruddin, A. M.; Haigh, I. D.; Tsimplis, M. N.; Calafat, F. M.; Dangendorf, S.

    2015-08-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of the seasonal sea level cycle in the South China Sea (SCS) and its forcing mechanisms are investigated using tide gauge records and satellite altimetry observations along with steric and meteorological data. The coastal mean annual amplitude of the seasonal cycle varies between zero and 24 cm, reaching a maximum between July and January. The maximum mean semiannual amplitude is 7 cm, peaking between March and June. Along the coast, the seasonal cycle accounts for up to 92% of the mean monthly sea level variability. Atmospheric pressure explains a significant portion of the seasonal cycle with dominant annual signals in the northern SCS, the Gulf of Thailand and the north-western Philippines Sea. The wind forcing is dominant on the shelf areas of the SCS and the Gulf of Thailand where a simple barotropic model forced by the local wind shows annual amplitudes of up to 27 cm. In the deep basin of the SCS, the Philippines Sea and the shallow Malacca Strait, the steric component is the major contributor with the maximum annual amplitudes reaching 15 cm. Significant variability in the seasonal cycle is found on a year-to-year basis. The annual and semiannual amplitudes vary by up to 63% and 45% of the maximum values, 15 cm and 11 cm, respectively. On average, stepwise regression analysis of contribution of different forcing factors accounts for 66% of the temporal variability of the annual cycle. The zonal wind was found to exert considerable influence in the Malacca Strait.

  16. Assessing spatial and seasonal variations in grasslands with spectral reflectances from a helicopter platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walthall, Charles L.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The helicopter system data acquisition technique has shown to be a viable means of gathering surface data with spectral detail adequate for intersite, intrasite, and temporal characterizations and for assessing temporal and spatial variability throughout the FIFE 1987 IFCs. The successful employment of nadir measurements for grassland assessments is notable given the reflectance anisotropy (Middleton, 1992). Though only five sites were repetitively observed, the conclusions reached from this particular sample of sites agree well with assessments from other data sources (Sellars et al., 1990 and Kittel et al., 1990).

  17. Influence of aerosols and surface reflectance on satellite NO2 retrieval: seasonal and spatial characteristics and implications for NOx emission constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-T.; Liu, M.-Y.; Xin, J.-Y.; Boersma, K. F.; Spurr, R.; Martin, R.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite retrievals of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) normally do not explicitly account for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy that vary with space and time. Here, we conduct an improved retrieval of NO2 VCDs over China, called the POMINO algorithm, based on measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and we test the importance of a number of aerosol and surface reflectance treatments in this algorithm. POMINO uses a parallelized LIDORT-driven AMFv6 package to derive tropospheric air mass factors via pixel-specific radiative transfer calculations with no look-up tables, taking slant column densities from DOMINO v2. Prerequisite cloud optical properties are derived from a dedicated cloud retrieval process that is fully consistent with the main NO2 retrieval. Aerosol optical properties are taken from GEOS-Chem simulations constrained by MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. MODIS bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data are used for surface reflectance over land. For the present analysis, POMINO level-2 data for 2012 are aggregated into monthly means on a 0.25° long. × 0.25° lat. grid. POMINO-retrieved annual mean NO2 VCDs vary from 15-25 × 1015 cm-2 over the polluted North China Plain (NCP) to below 1015 cm-2 over much of western China. Using POMINO to infer Chinese emissions of nitrogen oxides leads to annual anthropogenic emissions of 9.05 TgN yr-1, an increase from 2006 (Lin, 2012) by about 19 %. Replacing the MODIS BRDF data with the OMLER v1 monthly climatological albedo data affects NO2 VCDs by up to 40 % for certain locations and seasons. The effect on constrained NOx emissions is small. Excluding aerosol information from the retrieval process (this is the traditional "implicit" treatment) enhances annual mean NO2 VCDs by 15-40 % over much of eastern China. Seasonally, NO2 VCDs are reduced by 10-20 % over parts of the NCP in spring and over northern China

  18. Influence of aerosols and surface reflectance on satellite NO2 retrieval: seasonal and spatial characteristics and implications for NOx emission constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-T.; Liu, M.-Y.; Xin, J.-Y.; Boersma, K. F.; Spurr, R.; Martin, R.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite retrievals of vertical column densities (VCDs) of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) normally do not explicitly account for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy that vary with space and time. Here, we conduct an improved retrieval of NO2 VCDs over China, called the POMINO algorithm, based on measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and we test the importance of a number of aerosol and surface reflectance treatments in this algorithm. POMINO uses a parallelized LIDORT-driven AMFv6 package to derive tropospheric air mass factors via pixel-specific radiative transfer calculations with no look-up tables, taking slant column densities from DOMINO v2. Prerequisite cloud optical properties are derived from a dedicated cloud retrieval process that is fully consistent with the main NO2 retrieval. Aerosol optical properties are taken from GEOS-Chem simulations constrained by MODIS AOD values. MODIS bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data are used for surface reflectance over land. For the present analysis, POMINO level-2 data for 2012 are aggregated into monthly means on a 0.25° long. × 0.25° lat. grid. POMINO-retrieved annual mean NO2 VCDs vary from 15-25 × 1015 cm-2 over the polluted North China Plain (NCP) to below 1015 cm-2 over much of west China. The subsequently-constrained Chinese annual anthropogenic emissions are 9.05 TgN yr-1, an increase from 2006 (Lin, 2012) by about 19%. Replacing the MODIS BRDF data with the OMLER v1 monthly climatological albedo data affects NO2 VCDs by up to 40% for certain locations and seasons. The effect on constrained NOx emissions is small. Excluding aerosol information from the retrieval process (this is the traditional "implicit" treatment) enhances annual mean NO2 VCDs by 15-40% over much of east China. Seasonally, NO2 VCDs are reduced by 10-20% over parts of the NCP in spring and over north China in winter, despite the general enhancements in summer and fall

  19. Contributions to the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiz, Irene; Tejedor, Begoña; Gómez-Enri, Jesús; Aboitiz, Alazne; Villares, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    The spatial distribution of the sea level seasonal cycle within the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) has been analysed using monthly maps of sea level anomalies from gridded multi-mission altimeter data, along with monthly means of sea level heights from three tide gauge stations. Moreover, the contribution to the sea level seasonal cycle of atmospheric pressure and wind and the steric effect were evaluated using maps of sea level residuals from the VANI2-ERA hindcast, and a combination of satellite Sea Surface Temperature maps with a very high resolution Temperature and Salinity climatology for the region. The atmospheric contribution accounted for 55-58% of the sea level variance offshore, with this percentage diminishing toward the coast, where the effect of wind stress might be underestimated, especially over regions of complex bathymetry. The steric contribution was addressed by considering local, open ocean, basin-wide and continental shelf steric effects. Results obtained highlighted the oceanographic complexity of the GoC at regional scales. In this sense, the open ocean steric contribution explained the largest percentage of atmospheric-corrected sea level variance at the offshore part of the basin (50-67%) and over the eastern shelf (42-48%), suggesting that the sea level seasonal cycle within the eastern shelf is connected to the large scale circulation system. West of Cape Santa Maria, both over the continental shelf and offshore, the best results were obtained with the local steric contribution, suggesting a decoupling of deep and shallow water sea level variations at the seasonal scale in that region.

  20. Precipitation and Air Temperature Impact on Seasonal Variations of Groundwater Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitola, Ilva; Vircavs, Valdis; Abramenko, Kaspars; Lauva, Didzis; Veinbergs, Arturs

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify seasonal effects of precipitation and temperature on groundwater level changes in monitoring stations of the Latvia University of Agriculture - Mellupīte, Bērze and Auce. Groundwater regime and level fluctuations depend on climatic conditions such as precipitation intensity, evapotranspiration, surface runoff and drainage, as well as other hydrological factors. The relationship between precipitation, air temperature and groundwater level fluctuations could also lead and give different perspective of possible changes in groundwater quality. Using mathematical statistics and graphic-analytic methods it is concluded that autumn and winter precipitation has the dominant impact on groundwater level fluctuations, whereas spring and summer season fluctuations are more dependent on the air temperature.

  1. Increased levels of exhaled nitric oxide during nasal and oral breathing in subjects with seasonal rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Martin, U; Bryden, K; Devoy, M; Howarth, P

    1996-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis is associated with nasal mucosal inflammation. Exhaled nitric oxide may be a useful marker of inflammation and has recently been shown to be increased in patients with asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exhaled levels of nitric oxide are increased with nasal breathing in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis compared with nonatopic individuals and whether there is an increase with oral breathing consistent with lower respiratory inflammation in the absence of clinical asthma. Nitric oxide levels in exhaled air were measured by chemiluminescence in 18 nonatopic volunteers and 32 patients with seasonal rhinitis. Measurements were made with both nasal and oral exhalation and orally after 10 seconds and 60 seconds of breath-holding. The detection limit was 1 part per billion (ppb). In control subjects nasal levels of nitric oxide in exhaled air (mean +/- SD, 24.7 +/- 9.2 ppb) were higher than those after oral exhalation (11.1 +/- 2.5 ppb, p less than 0.0001). Breath-holding significantly increased levels of nitric oxide in exhaled air in a time-dependent manner. Levels of exhaled nitric oxide were significantly higher for all measurements in patients with seasonal rhinitis, with levels without breath-holding of 35.4 +/- 11.3 ppb (p less than 0.001) in nasally exhaled air and 16.3 +/- 5.9 ppb (p less than 0.001) in orally exhaled air. Nasal levels were significantly higher than oral levels in subjects with rhinitis (p less than 0.0001). The results indicate that exhaled nitric oxide may be a useful marker for nasal inflammation in patients with seasonal rhinitis and suggest that generalized airway inflammation may be present, even without clinical asthma, in such patients.

  2. Influence of breeding season on fecal glucocorticoid levels in captive Greater Rhea (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Lèche, A; Hansen, C; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones and stress-related changes can be seasonally influenced. We investigate whether fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) levels can differ between male and female captive Greater Rheas during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Over a 3-year-period, fresh fecal samples from 10 individuals (five of each sex) were collected during the breeding months (October, November, and December) and non-breeding months (April and June). A total of 960 samples were assayed using a commercial radioimmunoassay. Results showed that FGM levels (mean ± SE) were affected by the breeding season in a sex-dependent way. Male Greater Rheas showed significantly higher FGM levels in the breeding months than in the non-breeding months (13.44 ± 0.37 vs. 7.92 ± 0.1 ng/g feces, respectively). By contrast, females did not show FGM seasonal changes throughout the same sampling periods (7.55 ± 0.14 vs. 7.26 ± 0.73 ng/g feces). Moreover, during the breeding season months, males showed higher average FGM levels than females (13.44 ± 0.37 vs. 7.55 ± 0.14 ng/g feces, respectively), and no differences were found between sexes during the non-breeding season (7.92 ± 0.1 vs. 7.26 ± 0.73 ng/g feces, respectively). Our findings suggest that male Greater Rheas have a higher adrenocortical activity during the breeding season, which is probably indirectly related to the increased testosterone levels and agonist interactions that are also observed during that phase. Studies aimed to determine the appropriate sex ratio for captive rearing should be developed to minimize male agonist encounters and therefore improve welfare of the captive group. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Middle Level Teachers' Handbook. Becoming a Reflective Practitioner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Gilbert; Wiseman, Dennis; Bowden, Sandra

    This textbook is designed to help beginning middle level teachers develop teaching philosophies, behaviors, and skills relevant to effective instruction. The eight chapters include the following: (1) Origins and Essential Elements of Middle Level Schools (junior high schools and middle schools); (2) Essential Characteristics of Middle Level…

  4. Quantification of tissue oxygenation levels using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. S., Suresh Anand; N., Sujatha

    2010-12-01

    Tumor growth is characterized by increased metabolic activity. The light absorption profile of hemoglobin in dysplastic tissue is different from a normal tissue. Neovascularization is a hallmark of many diseases and can serve as a predictive biomarker for the detection of cancers. Spectroscopic techniques can provide information about the metabolic and morphological changes related to the progression of neoplasia. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measures the absorption and scattering properties of a biological tissue and this method can provide clinically useful information for the early diagnosis of epithelial precancers. We used tissue simulating phantoms with absorbing and scattering molecules for the determination of total hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and intensity difference between the deoxy and oxy hemoglobin bands. The results show promising approach for the differentiating normal and malignant states of a tissue.

  5. Quantification of tissue oxygenation levels using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. S., Suresh Anand; N., Sujatha

    2011-08-01

    Tumor growth is characterized by increased metabolic activity. The light absorption profile of hemoglobin in dysplastic tissue is different from a normal tissue. Neovascularization is a hallmark of many diseases and can serve as a predictive biomarker for the detection of cancers. Spectroscopic techniques can provide information about the metabolic and morphological changes related to the progression of neoplasia. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) measures the absorption and scattering properties of a biological tissue and this method can provide clinically useful information for the early diagnosis of epithelial precancers. We used tissue simulating phantoms with absorbing and scattering molecules for the determination of total hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin oxygen saturation and intensity difference between the deoxy and oxy hemoglobin bands. The results show promising approach for the differentiating normal and malignant states of a tissue.

  6. Abandoned seasonal livestock migration reflected by plant functional traits: A case study in Kyrgyz rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Franziska; Zhusui Kyzy, Taalaigul; Usupbaev, Adilet; Schickoff, Udo

    2017-04-01

    At least 30% of Kyrgyz pasture areas are considered to be subject to vegetation and soil degradation. Since animal husbandry is the economic basis to sustain people's livelihoods, rangeland degradation presents a threat for the majority of the population. Recently, the usage of plant functional traits as a powerful tool for the characterization of vegetation dynamics in response to anthropogenic and natural disturbances has been put forward. Grazing is one of the most severe disturbances on vegetation, which concerns equally the loss of area and biomass. Because grazing is both depending on and affecting plant functional traits, important insights can be generated, based on this codependency. We hypothesized that the contrasting grazing intensity of summer and winter pastures is reflected by the chosen traits. We used traits such as plant height, flowering start, growth form as well as SLA (Specific Leaf Area) and LMA (Leaf Mass per Area). Based on former phytosociological classification of the main pasture types (summer and winter pastures), community structure and the traits of dominant plant species were analyzed. Our results showed that on winter pastures grazing decreased plant height and SLA and favored plants with an earlier flowering start as well as rosette plants and ascending plants. We conclude that the study of trait composition in relation to anthropogenic disturbances can provide important insights into the mechanism of plant response to grazing in high-altitude rangelands.

  7. Seasonal variations of the sea level in the central part of the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, S. A. R.; Ahmad, F.; El-Hassan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal sea-level changes at two coastal stations, Jeddah and Port Sudan, display higher levels in winter and lower levels in summer, showing a coherence over a distance of 300 km. The amplitude of these changes is slightly higher at Jeddah compared with that of Port Sudan. Analysis of wind stress indicates that the cross-shore component plays a dominant role in the sea-level changes at Port Sudan in contrast to Jeddah where a major part of the changes can be accounted for by the long-shore component.

  8. Taxonomic and trophic-level differences in the climate sensitivity of seasonal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, T. T.; Thackeray, S.; Henrys, P. A.; Hemming, D.; Bell, J. R.; Botham, M. S.; Burthe, S.; Helaouet, P.; Johns, D.; Jones, I. D.; Leech, D. I.; Mackay, E. B.; Massimino, D.; Atkinson, S.; Bacon, P. J.; Brereton, T. M.; Carvalho, L.; Clutton-Brock, T. H.; Duck, C.; Edwards, M.; Elliott, J. M.; Hall, S.; Harrington, R.; Pearce-Higgins, J. W.; Kruuk, L. E.; Pemberton, J. M.; Sparks, T. H.; Thompson, P. M.; White, I.; Winfield, I. J.; Wanless, S.

    2015-12-01

    Among-species differences in phenological responses to climate change are of sufficient magnitude to desynchronise key ecological interactions, threatening ecosystem function and services. To assess these threats, it is vital to quantify the relative impact of climate change on species at different trophic levels. Here we apply a novel Climate Sensitivity Profile approach to 10,003 terrestrial and aquatic phenological data sets, spatially matched to temperature and precipitation data, quantifying among-species variation in climate sensitivity. The direction, magnitude and timing of climate sensitivity varied markedly among organisms sharing taxonomic affinities or trophic position. Despite this, we detected a systematic difference in the direction and magnitude, but not seasonal timing, of phenological climate sensitivity among trophic levels. Secondary consumers showed consistently lower climate sensitivity than other groups and are projected to lag behind phenological changes at lower trophic levels, potentially making them at higher risk of disconnection with seasonal resources.

  9. Seasonal and intertidal impact on DNA adduct levels in gills of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.).

    PubMed

    Skarphédinsdóttir, Halldóra; Ericson, Gunilla; Halldórsson, Halldór P; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate possible seasonal variation in DNA adduct levels in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), and to investigate the impact of intertidal exposure on the DNA adduct levels, i.e. to explore if DNA adduct levels in mussels in the intertidal zone differ from those in the subtidal zone. Blue mussels were deployed separately in the intertidal and subtidal zone at a contaminated and a reference site in Iceland, and sampled regularly during one year. Gill DNA adduct levels were found to be higher in mussels in the intertidal zone compared to the subtidal zone at the contaminated site, the difference being largest in winter. Total PAH tissue levels were also higher in mussels in the intertidal zone. Seasonal variation was observed in both DNA adduct and PAH tissue levels in mussels at the contaminated site, with lower levels from the time of transplantation in summer to autumn, maximum levels in winter, which decreased to lower levels again in spring and summer the following year. DNA adducts and PAH levels were low or below the detection limits in mussels at the reference site at all times, both in the intertidal and subtidal zone.

  10. Postural ability reflects the athletic skill level of surfers.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Margnes, Eric; Portet, Mathieu; Breucq, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    This work analyses surfers' postural control and their use of visual information in static (stable) and dynamic (unstable) postures according to their level of competition. Two groups of healthy surfers were investigated: a group of local level surfers (LOC) (n = 8) and a group of national/international level surfers (NIN) (n = 9). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure with a force platform for 50 s with stable support and for 25 s with unstable support (sagittal or frontal plane). The tests were completed with the eyes open (the subjects looked at a fixed level target at a distance of 2 m) and closed (they kept their gaze in a straight-ahead direction). Results showed that the contribution of vision in postural maintenance, with unstable support was less important in the NIN surfers than in the LOC surfers and that the NIN surfers had better postural control than the LOC surfers. Firstly, the results suggest that expert surfers could shift the sensorimotor dominance from vision to proprioception for postural maintenance. Secondly, there is a relationship between the postural ability and the competition level of surfers. These observations are likely to induce new prospects of training for surfers.

  11. Seasonal lake surface water temperature trends reflected by heterocyst glycolipid-based molecular thermometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.

    2015-06-01

    preserved in the sediment record of Lake Schreventeich reflect summer surface water temperatures. As N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria are widespread in present-day freshwater and brackish environments, we conclude that the distribution of HGs in sediments may allow for the reconstruction of surface water temperatures of modern and potentially ancient lacustrine settings.

  12. Columbia River Basin Seasonal Volumes and Statistics, 1928-1989. 1990 Level Modified Streamflows Computed Seasonal Volumes 61-Year Statistics.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the A.G. Crook Company, under contract to Bonneville Power Administration, and provides statistics of seasonal volumes and streamflow for 28 selected sites in the Columbia River Basin.

  13. Seasonal plasticity of auditory hair cell frequency sensitivity correlates with plasma steroid levels in vocal fish

    PubMed Central

    Rohmann, Kevin N.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Vertebrates displaying seasonal shifts in reproductive behavior provide the opportunity to investigate bidirectional plasticity in sensory function. The midshipman teleost fish exhibits steroid-dependent plasticity in frequency encoding by eighth nerve auditory afferents. In this study, evoked potentials were recorded in vivo from the saccule, the main auditory division of the inner ear of most teleosts, to test the hypothesis that males and females exhibit seasonal changes in hair cell physiology in relation to seasonal changes in plasma levels of steroids. Thresholds across the predominant frequency range of natural vocalizations were significantly less in both sexes in reproductive compared with non-reproductive conditions, with differences greatest at frequencies corresponding to call upper harmonics. A subset of non-reproductive males exhibiting an intermediate saccular phenotype had elevated testosterone levels, supporting the hypothesis that rising steroid levels induce non-reproductive to reproductive transitions in saccular physiology. We propose that elevated levels of steroids act via long-term (days to weeks) signaling pathways to upregulate ion channel expression generating higher resonant frequencies characteristic of non-mammalian auditory hair cells, thereby lowering acoustic thresholds. PMID:21562181

  14. Growing season ecosystem and leaf-level gas exchange of an exotic and native semiarid bunchgrass.

    PubMed

    Hamerlynck, Erik P; Scott, Russell L; Moran, M Susan; Keefer, Timothy O; Huxman, Travis E

    2010-07-01

    The South African grass, Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana), may alter ecosystem processes across extensive semiarid grasslands and savannahs of western North America. We compared volumetric soil moisture (theta), total and green tissue leaf area index (LAI), ecosystem (i.e. whole-plant and soil), and leaf-level gas exchange of Lehmann lovegrass and the native bush muhly (Muhlenbergia porteri) over the 2008 monsoon season in a semiarid savanna in southern Arizona, USA, to see if these were consistent with high productivity associated with lovegrass invasive success. theta across 0-5 and 0-25 cm was higher while evapotranspiration (ET) was similar between lovegrass and bush muhly plots, except shortly after rainfall, when ET was 32-81% higher in lovegrass plots. Lehmann lovegrass had lower, quickly developing LAI with greater leaf proportions than bush muhly. When early season theta was high, net ecosystem CO(2) exchange (NEE) was similar, but as storm frequency and theta declined, NEE was more negative in lovegrass (-0.69 to -3.00 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than bush muhly (+1.75 to -1.55 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Ecosystem respiration (R (eco)) responded quickly to monsoon onset and late-season rains, and was lower in lovegrass (2.44-3.74 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than bush muhly (3.60-5.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) across the season. Gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP) was greater in Lehmann lovegrass, concurrent with higher leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. We conclude that canopy structure facilitates higher theta under Lehmann lovegrass, reducing phenological constraints and stomatal limitations to whole-plant carbon uptake through the short summer monsoon growing season.

  15. Seasonal changes in serum progesterone levels in Thoroughbred racehorses in training

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Yuji; AKAI, Makoto; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to verify the seasonal luteal activity of racehorses in training in Japan from March to August. We allocated 102 horses into a luteal activity group and non-luteal activity group. The luteal activity group included horses with serum progesterone levels that were consistently >1 ng/ml and changed by ± 1 ng/ml. In contrast, the progesterone levels of the non-luteal activity group were consistently <1 ng/ml. In late spring (from May 1 to June 30) and summer (from July 1 to August 31), the percentage of horses in the luteal activity group was significantly higher than in early spring (from March 1 to April 30, P<0.01). These findings demonstrate clear seasonal variations in ovarian activity. The present study also suggest that training for a race may not affect ovarian activity in female racehorses. PMID:26858579

  16. Considering Seasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Argues that the traditional way that the four seasons are taught is culturally biased and does not reflect the actual seasons in many parts of the United States and other nations. Suggests that early childhood programs should take into account the diversity of seasonal transitions. (MDM)

  17. Landform controls on low level moisture convergence and the diurnal cycle of warm season orographic rainfall in the Southern Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Anna M.; Barros, Ana P.

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to simulate two warm season events representative of reverse orographic enhancement of warm season precipitation in the Southern Appalachians under weak (9-12 July, 2012) and strong (12-16 May, 2014) synoptic forcing conditions. Reverse orographic enhancement refers to significant enhancement of rainfall intensity (up to one order of magnitude) at low elevations in the inner mountain valleys, but not in the ridges. This is manifest in significant increases of radar reflectivity observations and associated integral quantities (rain rate) at low levels (within 500 m of the surface), as well as changes in the observed microphysical properties of rainfall (raindrop size distribution). Analysis of high-resolution (1.25 km × 1.25 km) WRF simulations shows that the model captures the march of observed rainfall, though not the timing in the case of strong synoptic forcing. For each event, the results show that the space-time variability of rainfall in the inner region is strongly coupled to the development and persistence of organized within-valley low-level moisture convergence that is a necessary precursor to valley fog and low level cloud formation. Microphysical interactions among precipitation from propagating storm systems, and local low-level clouds and fog promote coalescence efficiency through the seeder-feeder mechanism leading to significant enhancement of rainfall intensity near the ground as shown by Wilson and Barros (2014). The simulations support the hypothesis that ridge-valley precipitation gradients, and in particular the reverse orographic enhancement effects in inner mountain valleys, are linked to horizontal heterogeneity in the vertical structure of low level clouds and precipitation promoted through landform controls on moisture convergence.

  18. Serum Procalcitonin Level Reflects the Severity of Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Soo Hyeon; Park, Seok Don

    2016-01-01

    Background Cellulitis is a common bacterial infection of the superficial skin. Procalcitonin is one of the precursor proteins of calcitonin, its levels are elevated in bacterial infection, and it has been established as a diagnostic marker for severe bacterial infections. Objective This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of procalcitonin for predicting disease severity and prognosis of cellulitis. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 160 patients diagnosed with cellulitis in the past 3 years. Body temperature, procalcitonin, white blood cell (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured on their first day of admission. The associations of procalcitonin, WBC, ESR, and CRP with the body temperature and the number of hospitalized days were assessed. Results Procalcitonin, WBC, and CRP showed a positive correlation with body temperature. In addition, procalcitonin, WBC, ESR, and CRP showed a positive correlation with number of hospitalized days (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients diagnosed with cellulitis, proclacitonin was a helpful parameter to indicate the severity of disease and also a useful predictor of prognosis. PMID:27904269

  19. Functional and biochemical adaptations of elite level futsal players from Brazil along a training season.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Tocchetto, Guilherme Lopes; Lima, Frederico Diniz; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Rodrigues, Harrison Fabricio Muzzy; Sangoi, Manuela Borges; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Bresciani, Guilherme

    2017-08-26

    Although hard training is mandatory in elite level futsal training, few studies have proposed a biochemical follow up in futsal players during a whole season. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare functional and biochemical markers in Brazilian elite level futsal players throughout a competition season. Eight players aged 25.5±5.4 years were evaluated at three time points: preseason (T1), immediately before the FIFA(®)-Intercontinental-Futsal-Cup (T2), and at the end of the season (T3), with a tapering period of 1 week before T2. Functional parameters (weight, height, body fat, VO2max, heart rate, and distance ran) and blood sampling for cell count and lipid profile (cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides) were assessed at each time point. After, a Yo-Yo R2 test was carried out in each time point (T1, T2 and T3) and blood samples to assess skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]), inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) and oxidative stress markers (ischemia modified albumin [IMA], and advanced oxidation protein products [AOPP]) were obtained before and after the tests. Although functional parameters did not change throughout the season, greater total number of erythrocytes (P≤0.05), and hemoglobin (P≤0.05) were found at T2 compared to T1. Similarly, lower LDH (P≤0.05) and CK (P≤0.05) levels were found at T2 compared to T1. CPR levels were also decreased at T2 in comparison to T1 both before and after Yo-Yo R2 test (P≤0.05), while IMA and AOPP levels showed only a season effect (P≤0.05). The tapering strategy was successful considering players presented lower levels of muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress makers before T2, which preceded the main championship of the year. These results are of great relevance, considering the team won the FIFA(®)-Intercontinental-Futsal-Cup, which happened at T2. Thus, it seems that routine-based biochemical markers may be useful as training control means in

  20. Wisconsin firearm deer hunting season: injuries at a level I trauma center, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    Halanski, Matthew A; Corden, Timothy E

    2008-02-01

    Hunting continues to be a passion and common pastime for many US citizens, especially in rural areas. Unfortunately, with the large volume of hunters entering the woods each season, hunting injuries continue to be common. Review the experience of a level I trauma center during each of Wisconsin's 9-day deer firearm hunting seasons over a 6-year period and identify potential prevention elements based on the findings. We retrospectively reviewed all hunting-related injury patient data entered into the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinic's (UWHC) level I trauma registry from 1999 to 2004, for each 9-day Wisconsin deer hunting firearm season. We compared injury occurrence with Wisconsin DNR statewide hunting-related firearm injury incidence data over the same time frame. The study was conducted at a level I university tertiary referral trauma center. The study included any patient admitted to the UWHC during the study period with a hunting-related injury entered into the trauma registry. Primary outcomes recorded included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, types of injuries, comorbidities, injury severity scores, and mortality. Twenty-four patients were treated for hunting-related injuries during the study period. The majority of hunters were male (95%), with an average age of 44.5 years. Treestand injuries accounted for 16 of the 24 injuries treated; the rest of the injuries were firearm-related. Most of the injuries (18) occurred during the first 3 days of the hunting season, with the remaining 6 injuries taking place around the Thanksgiving holiday period. Injury severity scores (ISS) ranged from 1 to 50. Orthopedic concerns accounted for 79% of the injuries, while general surgical was 50%, and neurosurgical was 12.5%. Two fatalities occurred due to complications from injuries caused by falling from a treestand. Falls from a tree-stand and firearm shootings represent 2 mechanisms for severe hunting-related injuries during the 9-day deer firearm

  1. A survey on levels and seasonal changes of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and its precursors in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Aoki, Yusuke; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, customers' concerns about chlorinous odour in drinking water have been increasing. One promising approach for reducing chlorinous odour is the minimization of residual chlorine in water distribution, which requires stricter control of organics to maintain biological stability in water supply systems. In this investigation, the levels and seasonal changes of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and its precursors in drinking water were surveyed to accumulate information on organics in terms of biological stability. In tap water samples purified through rapid sand filtration processes, the average AOC concentration was 174 microgC/L in winter and 60 microgC/L in summer. This difference seemed to reflect the seasonal changes of AOC in the natural aquatic environment. On the other hand, very little or no AOC could be removed after use of an ozonation-biological activated carbon (BAC) process. Especially in winter, waterworks should pay attention to BAC operating conditions to improve AOC removal. The storage of BAC effluent with residual chlorine at 0.05-0.15 mgCl2/L increased AOC drastically. This result indicated the possibility that abundant AOC precursors remaining in the finished water could contribute to newly AOC formation during water distribution with minimized residual chlorine. Combined amino acids, which remained at roughly equivalent to AOC in finished water, were identified as major AOC precursors. Prior to minimization of residual chlorine, enhancement of the removal abilities for both AOC and its precursors would be necessary.

  2. Tracking the performance, energetics and biomechanics of international versus national level swimmers during a competitive season.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mário J; Bragada, José A; Mejias, Jean E; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track and compare the changes of performance, energetic and biomechanical profiles of international (Int) and national (Nat) level swimmers during a season. Ten Portuguese male swimmers (four Int and six Nat level subjects) were evaluated on three different time periods (TP(1), TP(2), TP(3)) of the 2009-2010 season. Swimming performance was assessed based on official time's lists of the 200-m freestyle event. An incremental set of 7 × 200 m swims was applied to assess the energetic and biomechanical data. Measurements were made of: (1) velocity at the 4 mmol of lactate levels (V4), stroke index at V4 (SI@V4) and propelling efficiency at V4 (η (p)@V4), as energetic estimators; (2) stroke length at V4 (SL@V4) and stroke frequency at V4 (SF@V4), as biomechanical variables. The results demonstrated no significant variations in all variables throughout the season. The inter-group comparison pointed out higher values for Int swimmers, with statistical differences for the 200 m performance in all time periods. Near values of the statistical significance were demonstrated for the SI@V4 in TP(1) and TP(3). The tracking based on K values was high only for the SI@V4. It is concluded that a high stability can be observed for elite swimmers performance, energetic and biomechanical profiles throughout a single season. Int swimmers are able to maintain a higher energetic and biomechanical capacity than Nat ones at all times. The SI@V4 may be used as an indicator of performance variation.

  3. Seasonal variations in TSH serum levels in athyreotic patients under L-thyroxine replacement monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Damiano; Latina, Adele; Frasca, Francesco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Belfiore, Antonino; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    Whether serum TSH undergoes seasonal fluctuations in euthyroid and hypothyroid residents of temperate climates is controversial. Monthly TSH and thyroid hormone levels were cross-sectionally analysed in a large cohort of euthyroid subjects (n=11 806) and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated athyreotic patients (n=3 934). Moreover, in a small group (n=119) of athyreotic patients treated with an unchanged dosage of L-T4 monotherapy, hormones were measured both in the coldest and in the hottest seasons of the same year (longitudinal study). No seasonal hormone change was observed in the euthyroid subjects except for a small FT3 increase in winter (+2.9%, P<.001). In contrast, the L-T4-treated athyreotic patients had significantly higher serum TSH values in the cold season when the FT4 values were significantly lower. The differences were more notable in the longitudinal series (TSH, 0.80 vs. 0.20 mU/L and FT4, 16.3 vs. 17.8 pmol/L in December-March vs. June-September, respectively). In these patients also serum FT3 values significantly decreased in winter (in the longitudinal series, 3.80 in winter vs 4.07 pmol/L in summer). Regression analysis showed that in athyreotic subjects, a greater FT4 change is required to obtain a TSH change similar to that of euthyroid controls and that this effect is more pronounced in the summer. Athyreotic patients undergoing L-T4 monotherapy have abnormal seasonal variations in TSH. These changes are secondary to the FT4 and FT3 serum decreases in winter, which occur in spite of the constant treatment. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, but in some cases, these changes may be clinically relevant. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, Germán.; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the seasonal dynamics of the eastern Pacific (CHOCO) and Caribbean low-level jets (LLJ), and aerial rivers (AR) acting on tropical and subtropical South America. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2012), we show that the convergence of both LLJs over the eastern Pacific-western Colombia contributes to the explanation of the region's world-record rainfall. Diverse variables involved in the transport and storage of moisture permit the identification of an AR over northern South America involving a midtropospheric easterly jet that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Andes, with stronger activity in April to August. Other major seasonal AR pathways constitute part of a large gyre originating over the tropical North Atlantic, veering to the southeast over the eastern Andes and reaching regions of northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. We illustrate the distribution of average seasonal precipitation along the LLJs and AR pathways with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (1998-2011), combined with considerations of CAPE, topography, and land cover. In addition, the theory of the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) is tested at seasonal time scales, and found to hold in 8 out of 12 ARs, and 22 out of 32 forest-covered tracks (64% in distance) along the ARs. Deviations from BiPAM's predictions of rainfall distribution are explained by the effects of topography, orography, and land cover types different from forests. Our results lend a strong observational support to the BiPAM theory at seasonal time scales over South American forested flat lands.

  5. Seasonal Variations of Mercury Levels in Selected Medicinal Plants Originating from Poland.

    PubMed

    Ordak, M; Wesolowski, M; Radecka, I; Muszynska, E; Bujalska-Zazdrozny, M

    2016-10-01

    The presence of mercury in the living cells may be caused by environmental pollution with this element, which is referred to as a toxic xenobiotic. Many literature reports have provided evidence for toxic effects of low levels of mercury in the human body. Therefore, it seems essential to investigate mercury content in food and in natural environment, particularly its seasonal variations. The objective of this study was to determine trace amounts of mercury in 45 samples of 20 medicinal plant species collected in northern Poland, in various seasons of the year, i.e., in autumn 2012 and then spring 2013. The results obtained showed that the levels of mercury in the herbs were lower in spring (3.66-34.89 ng/g) than in autumn (4.55-81.54 ng/g). The statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the levels of mercury in herbs collected in spring and autumn indicates hazardous accumulation of the element in plants in autumn. The highest levels of mercury were found in leaves and plants growing in the vicinity of busy streets. Perennials plants have a significantly higher mercury levels as compared to those of monocarpic plants. Furthermore, commonly used herbal plants have a significantly higher mercury levels as compared to those less common.

  6. Influence of seasonal variations in sea level on the salinity regime of a coastal groundwater-fed wetland.

    PubMed

    Wood, Cameron; Harrington, Glenn A

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sea level are often neglected in studies of coastal aquifers; however, they may have important controls on processes such as submarine groundwater discharge, sea water intrusion, and groundwater discharge to coastal springs and wetlands. We investigated seasonal variations in salinity in a groundwater-fed coastal wetland (the RAMSAR listed Piccaninnie Ponds in South Australia) and found that salinity peaked during winter, coincident with seasonal sea level peaks. Closer examination of salinity variations revealed a relationship between changes in sea level and changes in salinity, indicating that sea level-driven movement of the fresh water-sea water interface influences the salinity of discharging groundwater in the wetland. Moreover, the seasonal control of sea level on wetland salinity seems to override the influence of seasonal recharge. A two-dimensional variable density model helped validate this conceptual model of coastal groundwater discharge by showing that fluctuations in groundwater salinity in a coastal aquifer can be driven by a seasonal coastal boundary condition in spite of seasonal recharge/discharge dynamics. Because seasonal variations in sea level and coastal wetlands are ubiquitous throughout the world, these findings have important implications for monitoring and management of coastal groundwater-dependent ecosystems.

  7. Correcting spaceborne reflectivity measurements for application in solar ultraviolet radiation levels calculations at ground level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Outer, P. N.; van Dijk, A.; Slaper, H.; Lindfors, A. V.; de Backer, H.; Bais, A. F.; Feister, U.; Koskela, T.; Josefsson, W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lambertian Equivalent Reflection (LER) produced by satellite-carried instruments is used to determine cloud effects on ground level UltraViolet (UV) radiation. The focus is on data use from consecutive operating instruments: the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS) flown on Nimbus 7 from 1979 to 1992, TOMS on Earth Probe from 1996 to 2005, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flown on Aura since 2004. The LER data produced by TOMS on Earth Probe is only included until 2002. The possibility to use the Radiative Cloud Fraction (RCF)-product of OMI is also investigated. A comparison is made with cloud effects inferred from ground-based pyranometer measurements at over 83 World Radiation Data Centre stations. Modelled UV irradiances utilizing LER data are compared with measurements of UV irradiances at eight European low elevation stations. The LER data set of the two TOMS instruments shows a consistent agreement, and the required corrections are of low percentage i.e. 2-3%. In contrast, the LER data of OMI requires correction of 7-10%, and a solar angle dependency therein is more pronounced. These corrections were inferred from a comparison with pyranometer data, and tested using the UV measurements. The RCF product of OMI requires a large correction but can then be implemented as a cloud effect proxy. However, a major drawback of RCF is the large number of clipped data, i.e. 18%, and results are not better than those obtained with the corrected LER product of OMI. The average reduction of UV radiation due to clouds for all sites together indicate a small trend: a diminishing cloudiness, in line with ground-based UV observations. Uncorrected implementation of LER would have indicated the opposite. An optimal field of view of 1.25° was established for LER data to calculate UV radiations levels. The corresponding area can be traversed within 5-7 h at the average wind speeds found for the West European continent.

  8. A parameterization of eddy transfer coefficients for two-level seasonal statistical dynamical zonally averaged models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a parameterization of a quasi-geostrophic eddy transport that takes into account the time variation of eddy transfer coefficients according to Green's (1970) theory. It was found that, in the original eddy transfer relationship of Green, connecting the integral of the northward eddy entropy flux through midlatitudes with the second power of the difference in 500-mb entropy across the region of baroclinic activity, a value of 4 for the exponent is obtained when the temperature gradients at 500 mb are used. When the gradients at 1000 mb are used, an exponent of 1.5 is obtained. The differences in the powers in the eddy transfer relation were explored in a two-level zonally averaged model. It was found that an appropriate choice of power may be of special importance if the model is devised to simulate the seasonal climate cycle or to test astronomical changes inducing different seasonalities.

  9. Effects of High Level Prompts and Peer Assessment on Online Learners' Reflection Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Wei, Chun-Wang; Wu, Kuen-Ting; Uden, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    Reflection plays a very important role in learning processes and is very helpful for promoting learning performance. Many higher education institutions today are actively promoting learners' reflection ability in order to help them cope with the fast changing world they will be entering when they graduate. Online learning provides potential for…

  10. Post-season detraining effects on physiological and performance parameters in top-level kayakers: comparison of two recovery strategies.

    PubMed

    García-Pallarés, Jesús; Carrasco, Luis; Díaz, Arturo; Sánchez-Medina, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed changes in physiological parameters, hormonal markers and kayaking performance following 5-wk of reduced training (RT) or complete training cessation (TC). Fourteen top-level male kayakers were randomly assigned to either a TC (n = 7) or RT group (n = 7) at the end of their competitive season (T1). Subjects undertook blood sampling and an incremental test to exhaustion on a kayak ergometer at T1 and again following 5 weeks of RT or TC (T2). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at second ventilatory threshold (VT2) significantly decreased following TC (-10.1% and -8.8%, respectively). Significant decreases were also observed in RT group but to a lesser extent (-4.8% and -5.7% respectively). Heart rate at VT2 showed significant increases following TC (3.5%). However, no changes, were detected in heart rate at VO2max in any group. Peak blood lactate remained unchanged in both groups at T2. Paddling speed at VO2max declined significantly at T2 in the TC group (-3.3%), while paddling speed at VT2 declined significantly in both groups (-5.0% and -4.2% for TC and RT, respectively). Stroke rate at VO2max and at VT2 increased significantly only following TC by 5.2% and 4.9%, respectively. Paddling power at VO2max and at VT2 decreased significantly in both groups although the values observed following RT were higher than those observed following TC. A significant decline in cortisol levels (-30%) was observed in both groups, while a higher increase in testosterone to cortisol ratio was detected in the RT group. These results indicate that a RT strategy may be more effective than complete TC in order to avoid excessive declines in cardiovascular function and kayaking performance in top-level paddlers. Key pointsShort-term (5-wk) training cessation in top-level athletes results in larger declines in physiological and performance parameters when compared to a reduced training approach.Following a competitive season in top-level athletes, both TC

  11. Seasonal statistics of highest sea levels along the northwestern Adriatic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, A.; Masina, M.

    2012-04-01

    Joint spatial analyses of marine flood drivers may provide important insights into the assessment of the related impacts on the low-lying coastal areas of the northwestern Adriatic coast. Identification of seasonality in the highest sea levels represents a first step in performing the analysis. Seasonal variability is investigated in the long term tidal gauge series of Punta della Salute (Venezia), Molo Sartorio (Trieste) and Porto Corsini (Ravenna) and in the short and fragmentary one of Rimini for which the available historical information, extracted from Hydrological Annals and provided by ISPRA and the Institute of Marine Science - CNR of Trieste , includes data collected with different criteria (monthly high water levels, daily high and low tides, hourly values and ten-minutes records). Following Carter and Challenor (1981) the variability of extreme high sea levels is initially studied modelling monthly maxima separately with the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, combining them to extrapolate the distribution of annual maxima and comparing the resulting curve with that derived from the canonical approach based on annual maxima series. Monthly and annual maxima have been first declustered selecting the maximum value in a 78 hrs window and, aiming to remove the effect of sea level rise and local subsidence, detrended subtracting the regularized mean sea level. After the removal of these effects, monthly and annual maxima do not exhibit a specific multi-decadal trend. The results, expressed in terms of monthly average values, show instead a uniform behaviour for the analyzed stations, characterized by a large variability of extreme sea levels throughout a year with a systematic concentration of potential dangerous events in late autumn and winter seasons. In spite of the limited extension of the Adriatic basin, the most significant historical storms responsible of disastrous impacts on coastal areas were recorded in different years from the two

  12. Seasonal UK hydrological forecasts using rainfall forecasts - what level of skill?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Victoria; Davies, Helen; Kay, Alison; Scaife, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Skilful winter seasonal predictions for the North Atlantic circulation and Northern Europe, including the UK have now been demonstrated and the potential for seasonal hydrological forecasting in the UK is now being explored. The Hydrological Outlook UK (HOUK: www.hydoutuk.net) is the first operational hydrological forecast system for the UK that delivers monthly outlooks of the water situation for both river flow and groundwater levels. The output from the HOUK are publicly available and used each month by government agencies, practitioners and academics alongside other sources of information such as flood warnings and meteorological forecasts. The HOUK brings together information on current and forecast weather conditions, and river flows, and uses several modelling approaches to explore possible future hydrological conditions. One of the techniques combines ensembles of monthly-resolution seasonal rainfall forecasts provided by the Met Office GloSea5 forecast system with hydrological modelling tools to provide estimates of river flows up to a few months ahead. The approach combines a high resolution, spatially distributed hydrological initial condition (HIC) provided by a hydrological model (Grid-to-Grid) driven by weather observations up to the forecast time origin. Considerable efforts have been made to accommodate the temporal and spatial resolution of the GloSea5 rainfall forecasts (monthly time-step and national-scale) in a spatially distributed forecasting system, leading to the development of a monthly resolution water balance model (WBM) to forecast regional mean river flows for the next 1 and 3 months ahead. The work presented here provides the first assessment of the skill in the HOUK national-scale flow forecasts using an ensemble of rainfall forecasts (hindcasts) from the GloSea5 model (1996 to 2009). The skill in the combined modelling system has been assessed for different seasons and regions of Britain, and compared to what might be achieved using

  13. Challenging the present definition of "normal" vitamin D levels obtained by a single blood test. Can we develop a formula to predict vitamin D levels in the 4 seasons from a single season's measure?

    PubMed

    Tandeter, Howard

    2014-08-01

    Publications on the health effects of vitamin D (25(OH) D) had almost triplicate in the last 10years, not only for its known "calcemic effects" (calcium, phosphor, PTH), but for the more recent findings on its "non-calcemic effects" (all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, and relation with certain types of cancer). Part of these publications deal with the definition of what is a "normal" circulating level of 25(OH) D that may distinguish between health and disease. The literature also deals with seasonal variations of vitamin D, showing levels that rise in summer and fall in winter and with DBP phenotypes and geographical location that affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements. Despite the knowledge of the existence of these phenomena many studies on vitamin D fail to acknowledge the time of the year the blood sample was extracted. Thus, when we compare results from different studies without defining the season that the samples were drawn, we compare incomparable figures. Furthermore, it is quite absurd to define "normal levels" as a static measure (over or under a certain value) using a single blood test when the value measured is known to change with seasons. Knowing that people have different vitamin D levels in different seasons of the year, we should ask ourselves which of these measurements should be used to define a "real" or "normal" level? Is it the lower one? Is there a "mean measure" that should be used for this matter? If yes, how do we obtain it? Do we have to make 4 seasonal measurements in each patient? Alternatively, might there be a possibility of developing a formula to help us obtain the mean from a single season's measure or one season's prediction from another season's measurement? And knowing that DBP phenotypes and geographical location affect seasonality of 25(OH) D measurements; shouldn't we include this in the equation? In this article I will discuss the hypothetical existence of an Individual Mean Annual vitamin D level that I will

  14. Seasonal changes in atmospheric noise levels and the annual variation in pigeon homing performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; McIsaac, Hugh P.; Drob, Douglas P.

    2016-01-01

    Repeated releases of experienced homing pigeons from single sites were conducted between 1972 and 1974 near Cornell University in upstate New York and between 1982 and 1983 near the University of Pittsburgh in western Pennsylvania, USA. No annual variation in homing performance was observed at these sites in eastern North America, in contrast to results from a number of similar experiments in Europe. Assuming pigeons home using low-frequency infrasonic signals (~0.1–0.3 Hz), as has been previously proposed, the annual and geographic variability in homing performance within the northern hemisphere might be explained, to a first order, by seasonal changes in low-frequency atmospheric background noise levels related to storm activity in the North Atlantic Ocean, and by acoustic waveguides formed between the surface and seasonally reversing stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion among departure bearings of test birds on some North American release days was possibly caused by infrasonic noise from severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons.

  15. Levels and seasonal variations of organochlorine pesticides in urban and rural background air of southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Kareš, Radovan; Literák, Jaromír; Borůvková, Jana; Yeboah, Philip O; Carboo, Derick; Akoto, Osei; Darko, Godfred; Osae, Shiloh; Klánová, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Urban, suburban and rural background air samples were collected in southern Ghana in 2008 employing polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS). PAS were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), namely hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ- and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane including metabolites (o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, DDE and DDD), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrins (endrin, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone), isodrin, heptachlors (heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide A and heptachlor epoxide B), chlordanes (α-, β-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), endosulfans (α- and β-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate), methoxychlor and mirex using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The levels of OCPs ranged for the individual pesticides from below limit of quantification to 750 pg m(-3) (for α-endosulfan), and current agricultural application seemed to be the main primary source of most abundant pesticides. Re-volatilization of previously used pesticides from contaminated soils could not be ruled out either as potential secondary source of contamination, especially in warm and dry seasons and periods of intensive agricultural activities. Higher atmospheric concentrations were observed in November and December during the dry season compared to lower concentrations observed in June, July and August when the country experiences heavy rains. The highest seasonal variation was observed for currently used pesticides as α-endosulfan. A p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratio suggested recent inputs of fresh technical DDT.

  16. Seasonal changes in atmospheric noise levels and the annual variation in pigeon homing performance.

    PubMed

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T; McIsaac, Hugh P; Drob, Douglas P

    2016-06-01

    Repeated releases of experienced homing pigeons from single sites were conducted between 1972 and 1974 near Cornell University in upstate New York and between 1982 and 1983 near the University of Pittsburgh in western Pennsylvania, USA. No annual variation in homing performance was observed at these sites in eastern North America, in contrast to results from a number of similar experiments in Europe. Assuming pigeons home using low-frequency infrasonic signals (~0.1-0.3 Hz), as has been previously proposed, the annual and geographic variability in homing performance within the northern hemisphere might be explained, to a first order, by seasonal changes in low-frequency atmospheric background noise levels related to storm activity in the North Atlantic Ocean, and by acoustic waveguides formed between the surface and seasonally reversing stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion among departure bearings of test birds on some North American release days was possibly caused by infrasonic noise from severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons.

  17. Seasonal forecasting of groundwater levels in natural aquifers in the United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Jonathan; Jackson, Christopher; Pachocka, Magdalena; Brookshaw, Anca; Scaife, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater aquifers comprise the world's largest freshwater resource and provide resilience to climate extremes which could become more frequent under future climate changes. Prolonged dry conditions can induce groundwater drought, often characterised by significantly low groundwater levels which may persist for months to years. In contrast, lasting wet conditions can result in anomalously high groundwater levels which result in flooding, potentially at large economic cost. Using computational models to produce groundwater level forecasts allows appropriate management strategies to be considered in advance of extreme events. The majority of groundwater level forecasting studies to date use data-based models, which exploit the long response time of groundwater levels to meteorological drivers and make forecasts based only on the current state of the system. Instead, seasonal meteorological forecasts can be used to drive hydrological models and simulate groundwater levels months into the future. Such approaches have not been used in the past due to a lack of skill in these long-range forecast products. However systems such as the latest version of the Met Office Global Seasonal Forecast System (GloSea5) are now showing increased skill up to a 3-month lead time. We demonstrate the first groundwater level ensemble forecasting system using a multi-member ensemble of hindcasts from GloSea5 between 1996 and 2009 to force 21 simple lumped conceptual groundwater models covering most of the UK's major aquifers. We present the results from this hindcasting study and demonstrate that the system can be used to forecast groundwater levels with some skill up to three months into the future.

  18. Pedagogical Reflections by Secondary Science Teachers at Different NOS Implementation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated what 13 secondary science teachers at various nature of science (NOS) instruction implementation levels talked about when they reflected on their teaching. We then determined if differences exist in the quality of those reflections between high, medium, and low NOS implementers. This study sought to answer the following…

  19. Pedagogical Reflections by Secondary Science Teachers at Different NOS Implementation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated what 13 secondary science teachers at various nature of science (NOS) instruction implementation levels talked about when they reflected on their teaching. We then determined if differences exist in the quality of those reflections between high, medium, and low NOS implementers. This study sought to answer the following…

  20. Seasonal changes in testosterone and corticosterone levels in four social classes of a desert dwelling sociable rodent.

    PubMed

    Schradin, Carsten

    2008-04-01

    Animals have to adjust their physiology to seasonal changes, in response to variation in food availability, social tactics and reproduction. I compared basal corticosterone and testosterone levels in free ranging striped mouse from a desert habitat, comparing between the sexes, breeding and philopatric non-breeding individuals, and between the breeding and the non-breeding season. I expected differences between breeders and non-breeders and between seasons with high and low food availability. Basal serum corticosterone was measured from 132 different individuals and serum testosterone from 176 different individuals of free living striped mice. Corticosterone and testosterone levels were independent of age, body weight and not influenced by carrying a transmitter. The levels of corticosterone and testosterone declined by approximately 50% from the breeding to the non-breeding season in breeding females as well as non-breeding males and females. In contrast, breeding males showed much lower corticosterone levels during the breeding season than all other classes, and were the only class that showed an increase of corticosterone from the breeding to the non-breeding season. As a result, breeding males had similar corticosterone levels as other social classes during the non-breeding season. During the breeding season, breeding males had much higher testosterone levels than other classes, which decreased significantly from the breeding to the non-breeding season. My results support the prediction that corticosterone decreases during periods of low food abundance. Variation in the pattern of hormonal secretion in striped mice might assist them to cope with seasonal changes in energy demand in a desert habitat.

  1. Seasonal deposition of Holocene banded sediments in the Severn Estuary Levels (southwest Britain): palynological and sedimentological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dark, Petra; Allen, J. R. L.

    2005-01-01

    Banded sediments outcrop widely in the intertidal zone of the Severn Estuary and have been suggested, on the basis of textural analysis, to have formed in response to seasonal variations in sea temperature and windiness (Holocene, 14 (2004) 536). Here palynological and sedimentological analyses of banded sediments of mid-Holocene date from Gold Cliff, on the Welsh side of the Severn Estuary, are combined to test and further develop the hypothesis of seasonal deposition. Pollen percentage and concentration data are presented from a short sequence of bands to establish whether textural variations in the bands coincide with variations in pollen content reflecting seasonal flowering patterns. It is shown that fine-grained band parts contain higher total pollen concentrations, and a higher proportion of pollen from late spring- to summer-flowering plants, than coarse-grained band parts. Pollen in the coarser deposits appears primarily to reflect deposition from the buffering 'reservoir' of suspended pollen in the estuarine water-body and from rivers, when there is little pollen in the air in winter, while the finer sediments contain pollen deposited from the atmosphere during the flowering season, superimposed on these 'background' sources. The potential of such deposits for refining chronologies and identifying seasonality of coastal processes is noted, and the results of charcoal particle analysis of the bands presented as an example of how they have the potential to shed light on seasonal and annual patterns of human activity.

  2. Levels, seasonal patterns, and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides in the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifei; Huang, Yeru; Dong, Liang; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Ting; Mi, Fangzhuo; Zeng, Liangzi; Shao, Dingding

    2011-08-01

    Air samples collected monthly on the roof of a building in Beijing were analyzed for the levels, seasonal patterns, and potential sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). A high-volume air sampler with polyurethane foam and quartz fiber filters was used to collect monthly samples from November 2005 to April 2009. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT isomers were the most abundant organochlorinated pesticides in the Beijing atmosphere. Higher OCP concentrations were generally found in summer, except for HCB. Coal combustion, waste incineration, and fuel combustion were assumed to be the potential HCB emission sources. Significant input of either of these OCPs during our study period was considered very unlikely.

  3. Water-level measurements in Dauphin Island, Alabama, from the 2013 Hurricane Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the instrumentation, field measurements, and processing methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to measure atmospheric pressure, water levels, and waves on Dauphin Island, Alabama, in 2013 at part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research project. Simple, inexpensive pressure sensors mounted in shallow wells were buried in the beach and left throughout the hurricane season. Additionally, an atmospheric pressure sensor was mounted on the porch of a private residence to provide a local atmospheric pressure measurement for correcting the submerged pressure records.

  4. Seasonal levels of the Vibrio predator bacteriovorax in atlantic, pacific, and gulf coast seawater.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Boyd, E Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = -0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII.

  5. Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = −0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. PMID:24454382

  6. Seasonal southern hemisphere multi-variable reflection of the southern annular mode in atmosphere and ocean reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoru; Uotila, Petteri; Stössel, Achim; Vihma, Timo; Liu, Hailong; Zhong, Yisen

    2017-04-01

    Variations of southern hemisphere (SH) climate variables are often linked to the southern annular mode (SAM) variability. We examined such linkage by seasons using state-of-the-art atmosphere and ocean/sea-ice reanalyses. The associated SAM related anomaly (SRA) fields of the climate variables, denoting anomalies corresponding to the same variation in SAM, are overall consistent across the reanalyses. Among the atmospheric products, 20CRV2 differs from ERA-interim and CFSR in the sea-level pressure SRAs over the Amundsen Sea, resulting in less warming over the Antarctic Peninsula. Among the ocean reanalyses, ORAP5 and C-GLORS exhibit the largest consistency. The major difference between them and the lower-resolution CFSR and SODA reanalyses is deeper penetration of anomalous meridional currents. Compared to the other ocean reanalyses, CFSR exhibits stronger and spatially more coherent surface-current SRAs, resulting in greater SRAs of sea-ice motion and ice thickness along the ice edges. The SRAs of sensible and total surface heat fluxes are reduced in CFSR due to ocean-atmosphere coupling. Significant sea-ice concentration SRAs are present on the west side of peninsulas along the east Antarctica coast in spring and winter, most notably in ORAP5 and C-GLORS, implying changes in new-ice production and shelf-water formation. Most atmosphere and ocean variables manifest an annular SRA pattern in summer and a non-annular pattern in the other seasons, with a wavenumber-3 structure strongest in autumn and weakest in summer. The wavenumber-3 structure should be related to the zonal wave three pattern of the SH circulation, the relation of which to SAM needs further exploration.

  7. Seasonal Sea-Level Variations in San Francisco Bay in Response to Atmospheric Forcing, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Jingyuan; Cheng, R.T.; Smith, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The seasonal response of sea level in San Francisco Bay (SFB) to atmospheric forcing during 1980 is investigated. The relations between sea-level data from the Northern Reach, Central Bay and South Bay, and forcing by local wind stresses, sea level pressure (SLP), runoff and the large scale sea level pressure field are examined in detail. The analyses show that the sea-level elevations and slopes respond to the along-shore wind stress T(V) at most times of the year, and to the cross-shore wind stress T(N) during two transition periods in spring and autumn. River runoff raises the sea-level elevation during winter. It is shown that winter precipitation in the SFB area is mainly attributed to the atmospheric circulation associated with the Alcutian Low, which transports the warm, moist air into the Bay area. A multiple linear regression model is employed to estimate the independent contributions of barometric pressure and wind stress to adjusted sea level. These calculations have a simple dynamical interpretation which confirms the importance of along-shore wind to both sea level and north-south slope within the Bay.

  8. [Indoor Deposition Flux, Seasonal Variations and Human Exposure Levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Xiamen, China].

    PubMed

    Han, Wen-liang; Liu, Yu; Chen, Hai-ming; Chen, Xing-tong; Fan, Tao

    2016-03-15

    Indoor dust was an important and even a major route of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). However, the vacuum dust concentrations were less correlated with indoor residents' serum concentrations of PBDEs, thus inadequat for either estimation of human exposure dose or research of deposition flux and its seasonal variations. Passive sampling of indoo dustfall could offset these shortages. A total of 49 indoor sampling sites including homes, offices, computer rooms and furniture factor were selected in Xiamen, China to collect the four season dustfall samples with glass plates (walled by clean aluminum foil). Deposition flux, concentrations, congener profiles, seasonal variations, and human exposure to PBDEs in the dustfall were studied The geometric means of the yearly round deposition flux of ∑ PBDEs (sum of 16 BDE congeners including BDE-209) in homes offices, computer rooms and furniture factory were 6.1, 3.0, 1.1 and 179.8 ng · (m² · d)⁻¹, respectively. The geometric mea deposition flux of ∑ PBDEs in homes was 2 times of that in offices, but the concentration of ∑ PBDEs in the dustfall from home (445.5 ng · g⁻¹) was only slightly higher than that of offices (384.0 ng · g⁻¹). The ∑ PBDEs deposition flux in homes, offices and computer rooms in Xiamen were at lower level compared with other cities around the world. The PBDEs deposition flux in furnitur factory was much higher than that in the ordinary indoor environment. Autumn was the season with highest deposition flux of ∑ PBDEs. Geometric means of BDE- 209's proportion of the ∑ PBDEs in dustfall in all seasons in the four types of indoo environment were above 80% . The deposition flux of PBDEs was correlated to the dustfall deposition flux in homes, offices and computer rooms, but not that in furniture factory. ∑₁₅ PBDEs in homes and offices were significantly correlated with the age of computers, but not quantities of electrical and electronic products

  9. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594

  10. A Categorization Scheme for Assessing Pharmacy Students' Levels of Reflection During Internships

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Asa Kettis; Hall, Stina; Lundmark, Annika; Ring, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test the reliability, feasibility, and responsiveness of a categorization scheme for assessing pharmacy students' levels of reflection during internships. Methods Pharmacy interns at Uppsala University were asked to write a reflective essay about patient counseling at the start and end of their internships. A modified version of Kember's categorization scheme for assessing the level of reflection was used to evaluate these essays. Results Based on their essay scores, the students' levels of reflection increased during the internship course (p < 0.001) The mean time for categorization was 3 minutes per essay. The interrater reliability of the 182 essays was κ = 0.63. Conclusions The evaluation of the categorization scheme showed that it has good interrater reliability, feasibility, and responsiveness. This scheme might be useful in pharmacy practice educational settings, but needs further validation. PMID:18322568

  11. Seasonal variation in the levels of organohalogen compounds in herring (Clupea harengus) from the Norwegian Sea.

    PubMed

    Frantzen, Sylvia; Måge, Amund; Iversen, Svein Arnholt; Julshamn, Kåre

    2011-09-01

    The Norwegian spring spawning (NSS) herring is an ecologically important fish stock in the Norwegian Sea, and with a catch volume exceeding one million tons a year it is also economically important and a valuable food source. In order to provide a baseline of the levels of contaminants in this fish stock, the levels of organohalogen compounds were determined in 800 individual herring sampled at 29 positions in the Norwegian Sea and off the coast of Norway. Due to seasonal migration, the herring were sampled where they were located during the different seasons. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs (PCB(7)) and PBDEs were determined in fillet samples of individual herring, and found to be relatively low, with means (min-max) of 0.77 (0.24-3.5) ng TEQ kg(-1) wet weight (ww), 5.0 (1.4-24) μg kg(-1) ww and 0.47 (0.091-3.1) μg kg(-1) ww, respectively. The concentrations varied throughout the year due to the feeding- and spawning cycle: Starved, pre-spawning herring caught off the Norwegian coast in January-February had the highest levels and those caught in the Norwegian Sea in April-June, after further starvation and spawning, had the lowest levels. These results show that the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in NSS herring are relatively low and closely tied to their physiological condition, and that in the future regular monitoring of NSS herring should be made in the spawning areas off the Norwegian coast in late winter.

  12. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  13. Seasonal Sea Level Cycle Change: Understanding the Possible Climate Feedbacks Over the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricko, M.; Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recent change in the seasonal sea level cycle has been observed in satellite radar altimetry record, especially over regions such as the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Stream region. Gridded satellite data is in a good agreement with ground tide gauge data that also confirm increased annual amplitude of sea level during most recent years. Data analysis is based on a set of tide gauges, satellite measurements and models. A consistent positive trend in the seasonal sea level cycle during recent years over different regions has been well confirmed (e.g., Wahl et al. 2014, Etcheverry et al. 2015). Over a longer timescale, historical tide gauge data give a neutral or slightly positive trend in the seasonal cycle of sea level along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. This observed signal of increased seasonal sea level cycle in tide gauges over the coastal areas is extended with satellite observations to open ocean regions. It is most evident during last several years (2007-2015) over most of the Gulf of Mexico, especially over north-eastern and central parts of the Gulf of Mexico, and over the Gulf Stream region, showing mean annual amplitude larger than 15 cm. One part of this increase appears to be due to change in mean sea level pressure. However, main causes of seasonal sea level cycle change on interannual to climate scale have not yet been understood. To determine possible climate feedbacks responsible for observed change in the seasonal sea level cycle, its relationship with parameters such as sea surface temperature, wind curl, circulation, mesoscale eddies, etc., is investigated. Model-based results (e.g., NASA's GMAO model) give similar trend and feedbacks, but with a consistent bias and underestimation of annual amplitude increase. Understanding climate mechanisms responsible for observed seasonal sea level cycle change would offer better prediction of sea level variability on interannual to interdecadal time scales.

  14. On the seasonality of the wavelength of the maximum of the reflectance spectrum in the Black Sea according to satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabashev, G. S.; Evdoshenko, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    A method for estimating the wavelength of the maximum of the reflectance spectrum of a water surface is proposed. It is based on spline interpolation of reflectances at 469, 488, 531, 547, 555 nm that were recorded with the MODIS-Aqua satellite sensor. The approach was tested using reflectance spectra that were measured with a floating spectral radiometer; it was applied to the set of MODIS images of the Black Sea from 2003 to 2011. We found that the wavelength of the reflectance spectrum peak of water surface shifts towards shorter wavelengths from April to September in the open Black Sea. This phenomenon is attributable to seasonal variations of the composition and contents of optically significant admixtures that are associated with the annual cycle of the vital activities of the phytoplankton.

  15. Reflective teaching of medical communication skills with DiViDU: assessing the level of student reflection on recorded consultations with simulated patients.

    PubMed

    Hulsman, R L; Harmsen, A B; Fabriek, M

    2009-02-01

    Acquisition of effective, goal-oriented communication skills requires both practicing skills and reflective thinking. Reflection is a cyclic process of perceiving and analysing communication behaviour in terms of goals and effects and designing improved actions. Based on Korthagen's ALACT reflection model, communication training on history taking was designed. Objectives were to develop rating criteria for assessment of the students' level of reflection and to collect student evaluations of the reflective cycle components in the communication training. All second year medical students recorded a consultation with a simulated patient. In DiViDU, a web-based ICT program, students reviewed the video, identified and marked three key events, attached written reflections and provided peer-feedback. Students' written reflections were rated on four reflection categories. A reflection-level score was based on a frequency count of the number of categories used over three reflections. Students filled out an evaluation questionnaire on components of the communication training. Data were analyzed of 304 (90.6%) students. The four reflection categories Observations, Motives, Effects and Goals of behaviour were used in 7-38%. Most students phrased undirected questions for improvement (93%). The average reflection score was 2.1 (S.D. 2.0). All training components were considered instructive. Acting was preferred most. Reviewing video was considered instructive. Self-reflection was considered more difficult than providing written feedback to the reflections of peers. Reflection on communication behaviour can be systematically implemented and measured in a structured way. Reflection levels were low, probably indicating a limited notion of goal-oriented attributes of communication skills. Early introduction of critical self-reflection facilitates acceptance of an important ability for physicians for continued life-long learning and becoming mindful practitioners.

  16. Seasonal Changes in Atmospheric Noise Levels and the Annual Variation in Pigeon Homing Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; McIsaac, H. P.; Drob, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable navigational ability of homing pigeons (Columba livia) is influenced by a number of factors, an unknown one of which causes the "Wintereffekt"1 or annual variation in homing performance. Minima in homeward orientation and return speeds have been observed in winter, with maxima in summer, during repetitive pigeon releases from single sites near experimental lofts in Wilhelmshaven, Göttingen, and Munich, Germany, and near Pisa, Italy1-4. Overall the annual variation is more pronounced in northern Germany than Italy4, and both mature and juvenile cohorts respond to this seasonal factor. Older, more experienced pigeons are better at compensating for its effects than naïve ones, but are still affected after numerous releases. The narrow low-frequency band of atmospheric background noise (microbaroms; 0.1-0.3 Hz) also varies with an annual cycle that generally has higher amplitudes in winter than in summer depending on location5. In addition, homing pigeons, and possibly other birds, apparently use infrasonic signals of similar frequency as navigational cues6, and a seasonal variation in background noise levels could cause corresponding changes in signal-to-noise ratios and thus in homing performance. The annual variation in homing performance, however, was not observed during long-term pigeon releases at two sites in eastern North America. The annual and geographic variability in homing performance in the northern hemisphere can be explained to a first order by seasonal changes in infrasonic noise sources related to ocean storm activity, and to the direction and intensity of stratospheric winds. In addition, increased dispersion in departure bearings of individual birds for some North American releases were likely caused by additional infrasonic noise associated with severe weather events during tornado and Atlantic hurricane seasons. 1Kramer, G. & von Saint Paul, U., J. Ornithol. 97, 353-370 (1956); 2Wallraff, H. G., Z. Tierpsychol. 17, 82-113 (1960

  17. Daytime light intensity affects seasonal timing via changes in the nocturnal melatonin levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Vinod; Rani, Sangeeta; Malik, Shalie; Trivedi, Amit K.; Schwabl, Ingrid; Helm, Barbara; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2007-08-01

    Daytime light intensity can affect the photoperiodic regulation of the reproductive cycle in birds. The actual way by which light intensity information is transduced is, however, unknown. We postulate that transduction of the light intensity information is mediated by changes in the pattern of melatonin secretion. This study, therefore, investigated the effects of high and low daytime light intensities on the daily melatonin rhythm of Afro-tropical stonechats ( Saxicola torquata axillaris) in which seasonal changes in daytime light intensity act as a zeitgeber of the circannual rhythms controlling annual reproduction and molt. Stonechats were subjected to light conditions simulated as closely as possible to native conditions near the equator. Photoperiod was held constant at 12.25 h of light and 11.75 h of darkness per day. At intervals of 2.5 to 3.5 weeks, daytime light intensity was changed from bright (12,000 lux at one and 2,000 lux at the other perch) to dim (1,600 lux at one and 250 lux at the other perch) and back to the original bright light. Daily plasma melatonin profiles showed that they were linked with changes in daytime light intensity: Nighttime peak and total nocturnal levels were altered when transitions between light conditions were made, and these changes were significant when light intensity was changed from dim to bright. We suggest that daytime light intensity could affect seasonal timing via changes in melatonin profiles.

  18. Data-driven behavioural characterization of dry-season groundwater-level variation in Maharashtra, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Rahul; Sohoni, Milind

    2015-06-01

    This paper looks at the crucial issue of dry-season groundwater-availability in the state of Maharashtra, India. We look at the two key hydro-climatological measurements which are used to implement groundwater policy in the state, viz., water levels in 5000 + observation wells across the state and aggregate rainfall data. We see that there is substantial variation in groundwater levels within and across the years in most wells. We argue that for a large number of these observation well locations, aggregate rainfall data is inadequate to model or to predict groundwater levels. For this, we use a novel random rainfall coefficient model for the purpose of modelling the effect of rainfall in a composite setting where extraction and changing land-use data is unknown. The observed high variance of this coefficient points to significant variations in groundwater levels, which may only be explained by unmeasured anthropogenic factors. Next, we see that the uncertainty in actual groundwater levels along with scarcity are two distinct features of groundwater availability and will elicit different behaviours from the typical user. Finally, we recommend that quantitative groundwater assessment protocols of the state should move to incorporating data from which extraction and land-use may be modelled. We believe this is one of the first studies where large spatio-temporal scale data gathered by state agencies have been analysed for scientific adequacy.

  19. Assessing Stress in Arctic Lemmings: Fecal Metabolite Levels Reflect Plasma Free Corticosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Fauteux, Dominique; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique; Bosson, Curtis; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    Interest in the ecology of stress in wild populations has triggered the development of noninvasive methods for quantifying stress hormones. Measurement of fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCMs) is one such method, but it is still unclear whether FCMs can be a reliable proxy of free plasma glucocorticoids. To assess the validity of this assumption, we carried out a robust assessment on brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, that were hand captured and anesthetized and related plasma glucocorticoid levels to fecal metabolite glucocorticoid levels. We examined endogenous factors that could explain interindividual variability. Blood corticosterone was measured from samples obtained on capture and 30 min later, and FCM levels were measured from animals kept in captivity for 72 h. Plasma free corticosterone increased 135-fold over baseline values 30 min after capture, which confirmed that initial handling was perceived as a stressor. We found that FCM levels were highly related with free (marginal [Formula: see text] = 0.53) but not with total ([Formula: see text] = 0.02) corticosterone levels, regardless of age, sex, and reproductive condition. FCM levels started increasing 2 h after capture and reached maximum levels 4 h after capture. No circadian rhythm in FCMs was found. Plasma total corticosterone levels were much higher in adult females compared with adult males, but this difference was much smaller when measuring free corticosterone levels and FCM levels. Our results suggest that FCM levels are good measures of stress by being closely related to plasma free corticosterone levels in brown lemmings.

  20. A Middle Mosaic: A Celebration of Reading, Writing, and Reflective Practice at the Middle Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ramsey, Katherine D., Ed.

    Offering 16 essays by presenters at the first Middle School Mosaic (held in Detroit, Michigan, in 1997), this book connects the themes of literacy, reflective practice, and the special characteristics of middle level teaching. In the first section, Literature and Literacy at the Middle Level, the authors examine questions of literacy by looking at…

  1. Northeast cool-season cyclones associated with significant upper-level easterly wind anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Adrian N.

    A subset of Northeast U.S. cool-season cyclones is associated with upper-level easterly flow and, occasionally, well-defined easterly jet streaks. These events occur approximately once per year and may be associated with retrograding surface cyclones and precipitation caused by northerly warm-air advection, leading to forecast challenges. The deepest extratropical cyclone that affected the Northeast U.S. during the 2009-2010 cool-season was associated with an upper-level easterly jet streak, and produced a record snowfall total of 85 cm in Burlington, Vermont. Orographic precipitation enhancement in this case resulted from an interaction of the low-level flow with the complex topography of northern Vermont. This thesis explores the multi-scale aspects of similar anomalous cyclone events (ACEs) in the Northeast U.S. through climatological, composite and case study analyses. The NCEP-NCAR dataset was used to develop an ACE climatology consisting of 78 events from 1948-2010. ACEs are defined as cyclones associated with a 300-hPa standardized zonal wind anomaly ≤ -3 SD and a sea level pressure < 1000 hPa for at least a 12-h period. ACEs are separated into three categories based on the most commonly observed upper-level structures: open wave, cutoff low and easterly jet streak (EJS). Results from a composite analysis reveal that all ACEs develop during periods of anomalous high-latitude blocking; however, distinct differences in the strength and location of blocking exist within each category and govern the configuration of key synoptic-scale forcing features. Case study analyses of two EJS events (2-3 January 2010; 25-27 February 2010) that were associated with historic snowfall totals and significant forecast challenges are presented. Both events displayed considerable alteration of the low-level flow by the orography of the northeastern U.S. and, as a result, were studied using high-resolution model simulations. Results indicate that upslope precipitation

  2. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  3. Pedagogical Reflections by Secondary Science Teachers at Different NOS Implementation Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated what 13 secondary science teachers at various nature of science (NOS) instruction implementation levels talked about when they reflected on their teaching. We then determined if differences exist in the quality of those reflections between high, medium, and low NOS implementers. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What do teachers talk about when asked general questions about their pedagogy and NOS pedagogy and (2) what qualitative differences, if any, exist within variables across teachers of varying NOS implementation levels? Evidence derived from these teachers' reflections indicated that self-efficacy and perceptions of general importance for NOS instruction were poor indicators of NOS implementation. However, several factors were associated with the extent that these teachers implemented NOS instruction, including the utility value they hold for NOS teaching, considerations of how people learn, understanding of NOS pedagogy, and their ability to accurately and deeply self-reflect about teaching. Notably, those teachers who effectively implemented the NOS at higher levels value NOS instruction for reasons that transcend immediate instructional objectives. That is, they value teaching NOS for achieving compelling ends realized long after formal schooling (e.g., lifelong socioscientific decision-making for civic reasons), and they deeply reflect about how to teach NOS by drawing from research about how people learn. Low NOS implementers' simplistic notions and reflections about teaching and learning appeared to be impeding factors to accurate and consistent NOS implementation. This study has implications for science teacher education efforts that promote NOS instruction.

  4. Pedagogical Reflections by Secondary Science Teachers at Different NOS Implementation Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated what 13 secondary science teachers at various nature of science (NOS) instruction implementation levels talked about when they reflected on their teaching. We then determined if differences exist in the quality of those reflections between high, medium, and low NOS implementers. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What do teachers talk about when asked general questions about their pedagogy and NOS pedagogy and (2) what qualitative differences, if any, exist within variables across teachers of varying NOS implementation levels? Evidence derived from these teachers' reflections indicated that self-efficacy and perceptions of general importance for NOS instruction were poor indicators of NOS implementation. However, several factors were associated with the extent that these teachers implemented NOS instruction, including the utility value they hold for NOS teaching, considerations of how people learn, understanding of NOS pedagogy, and their ability to accurately and deeply self-reflect about teaching. Notably, those teachers who effectively implemented the NOS at higher levels value NOS instruction for reasons that transcend immediate instructional objectives. That is, they value teaching NOS for achieving compelling ends realized long after formal schooling (e.g., lifelong socioscientific decision-making for civic reasons), and they deeply reflect about how to teach NOS by drawing from research about how people learn. Low NOS implementers' simplistic notions and reflections about teaching and learning appeared to be impeding factors to accurate and consistent NOS implementation. This study has implications for science teacher education efforts that promote NOS instruction.

  5. Changes in vegetation phenology are not reflected in atmospheric CO2 and (13) C/(12) C seasonality.

    PubMed

    Gonsamo, Alemu; D'Odorico, Petra; Chen, Jing M; Wu, Chaoyang; Buchmann, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Northern terrestrial ecosystems have shown global warming-induced advances in start, delays in end, and thus increased lengths of growing season and gross photosynthesis in recent decades. The tradeoffs between seasonal dynamics of two opposing fluxes, CO2 uptake through photosynthesis and release through respiration, determine the influence of the terrestrial ecosystem on the atmospheric CO2 and (13) C/(12) C seasonality. Here, we use four CO2 observation stations in the Northern Hemisphere, namely Alert, La Jolla, Point Barrow, and Mauna Loa Observatory, to determine how changes in vegetation productivity and phenology, respiration, and air temperature affect both the atmospheric CO2 and (13) C/(12) C seasonality. Since the 1960s, the only significant long-term trend of CO2 and (13) C/(12) C seasonality was observed at the northern most station, Alert, where the spring CO2 drawdown dates advanced by 0.65 ± 0.55 days yr(-1) , contributing to a nonsignificant increase in length of the CO2 uptake period (0.74 ± 0.67 days yr(-1) ). For Point Barrow station, vegetation phenology changes in well-watered ecosystems such as the Canadian and western Siberian wetlands contributed the most to (13) C/(12) C seasonality while the CO2 seasonality was primarily linked to nontree vegetation. Our results indicate significant increase in the Northern Hemisphere soil respiration. This means, increased respiration of (13) C depleted plant materials cancels out the (12) C gain from enhanced vegetation activities during the start and end of growing season. These findings suggest therefore that parallel warming-induced increases both in photosynthesis and respiration contribute to the long-term stability of CO2 and (13) C/(12) C seasonality under changing climate and vegetation activity. The summer photosynthesis and the soil respiration in the dormant seasons have become more vigorous which lead to increased peak-to-through CO2 amplitude. As the relative magnitude of the

  6. Reflective Decision-Making and Cognitive Development: A Descriptive Study Comparing the Reflective Levels of Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campoy, Renee W.; Radcliffe, Richard

    This paper presents descriptive research comparing levels of cognitive and reflective development among preservice and inservice teachers. A question about the effectiveness of the state educational reform law was used to collect data identifying student reflection levels. The question was presented as a written assignment to undergraduates in an…

  7. Seasonal changes in body mass, serum leptin levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression in male Eothenomys olitor.

    PubMed

    Wan-long, Zhu; Zheng-kun, Wang

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined seasonal changes in body mass and energy metabolism in the Chaotung vole (Eothenomys olitor) and the physiological mechanisms underpinning these changes. Seasonal changes in the following parameters were measured in male E. olitor, body mass, food intake, thermogenesis, enzyme activity, masses of tissues and organs, hormone concentrations and expression of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus energy balance genes including neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). Body mass was constant over the year, but the masses of tissues and organs differed significantly between seasons. There were significant changes in body fat mass and serum leptin levels over the four seasons. E. olitor showed significant seasonal changes in food intake and thermogenesis, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content, enzyme activity, and serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels. Moreover, mRNA expression in the hypothalamus showed significant seasonal changes. All of our results suggested that E. olitor had constant body mass over the year, which was inconsistent with the prediction of the 'set-point' hypothesis. However, body fat mass and serum leptin levels were significantly different among the four seasons, providing support for the 'set-point' hypothesis. The changes in leptin, NPY, AgRP, POMC, and CART mRNA levels may play a role in the regulation of energy intake in E. olitor. Furthermore, the role of leptin and hypothalamic neuropeptide gene in the regulation of energy metabolism and body mass may be different in animals that are acclimated to different seasons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in plasma testosterone levels and brain AVT cell number during the breeding season in the green treefrog.

    PubMed

    O'Bryant, Erin L; Wilczynski, Walter

    2010-01-01

    We exposed groups of adult male green treefrogs, Hyla cinerea, to acoustic stimuli (natural chorus or random tones) for seven consecutive nights at three time points during their natural breeding season (May, July, and September) and assessed seasonal changes in plasma androgen levels and number of arginine vasotocin (AVT) immunoreactive cells in the brain over this time period. We also tested whether social cues altered either androgens or AVT-ir cell number or size at each time point. Finally, we analyzed how these factors related to calling behavior. Data were collected over two breeding seasons. Call rate (calls/h) was assessed during the stimulus time (i.e. 'evoked calling') and during the remainder of the day ('spontaneous calling'). Plasma hormone levels were measured at the end of the acoustic treatment when brains were collected for immunocytochemistry. Circulating androgen levels declined over the breeding season. Males exposed to chorus sounds, however, had higher androgen levels than males exposed to tones. AVT-ir cell number increased across the breeding season in the nucleus accumbens but not the amygdala, anterior preoptic area, or magnocellular preoptic area, and soma size decreased in the nucleus accumbens as cell number increased. Social stimulation had no significant influence on either AVT-ir cell measure. Evoked call rate was higher in males exposed to natural chorus sounds compared to those exposed to random tones, but did not change during the season. In contrast, spontaneous call rate was higher at the beginning of the breeding season compared to the end, and unlike evoked calling was correlated with circulating androgen levels across all treatments and time points. AVT-ir soma size was positively correlated with both evoked and spontaneous calling. These results suggest that social exposure can prolong the elevation of gonadal hormones in the bloodstream, thus mitigating or slowing the seasonal decline of such hormones. In contrast, social

  9. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenawy, Ahmed; McCabe, Mattew; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Raj, Jerry

    2014-05-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed from the de-seasonalized daily SLP for spring months between 1960 and 2013. The analysis covered a window for the region (15-70°E and 2.5-50°N). This window coupled different oceanic-land influences (e.g. the Indian, Mediterranean and the Sahara configurations) that may impart an effect on rainfall variations in the study domain. A set of eight significant circulation spatial patterns were retained, which explained 84.8% of the total explained variance. The derived patterns explained a wide variety of flows over the peninsula, with a clear distinction between zonal and meridional advections. The extreme wet events (R95 and R99) were defined from a relatively dense network of 209 observatories covering the peninsula, using the 95th and 99th percentile of rainfall distribution respectively. The links between the dominant SLP patterns and significant wet events were established and the physical interpretations of these associations were examined. The results, as revealed by the location and intensity of high pressure centers, highlight the strength of eastern and southeastern advections corresponding to these extreme events. Other patterns have a local character, suggesting an orographic origin of some wet events in the region. The relationships described in this research can advance the understanding of the large-scale processes that contribute to the wet weather events in the Arabian Peninsula. These findings can therefore contribute to better management of water resources and agricultural practices in the region.

  10. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears.

  11. Seasonality of serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Salama, Gilles; Noirot, Olivier; Bataille, Vincent; Malavaud, Sandra; Rebillard, Xavier; Villers, Arnauld; Malavaud, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    The measurement of PSA serum levels is central to all early detection programs for prostate cancer. Although individual PSA values were known to fluctuate in the short and long term, the influence of insolation and seasons on PSA had not been addressed to date. To assert the relationship between total and free PSA and meteorological data in 8644 participants (55-70 years) in the French arm of the ERSPC study. Blood sample was taken at the local laboratory after informed consent and frozen sera were sent for central testing of total and free PSA. PSA measurement was performed within 7 days on the Access 1.0 automat with Hybritech reagents. Monthly meteorological data -- insolation, daily temperatures and rain precipitations -- were obtained from the local branches of the National Meteorology Agency. Total PSA -- but not free PSA -- was correlated with insolation, that is the monthly accrual in hours of sunshine during which the intensity was higher than 120 Watt x m(-2) (r = 0.05 (95%CI: 0.03-0.07; p < 0.0001)) while no relationships were shown between insolation and percent-free PSA (free PSA divided by the total PSA). Interdependence between total PSA and insolation was also apparent with respect to the 3 ng/mL ERSPC cutoff for recommending biopsies (213.1 vs. 206.2 hours, p = 0.004). Such relationship was even more evident in summer when the tested participants more often had a PSA > 3 ng/mL (17.1% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.0006) than in the rest of the year, resulting in 23% more chances of being referred for biopsies (Odds ratio 1.23, 95%CI: 1.10-1.40). Total PSA was shown to be strongly associated with insolation and seasons while the percent-free PSA was not influenced. European Association of Urology

  12. Seasonal effects on egg production and level of paternity in a natural population of a simultaneous hermaphrodite snail

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Ruben; Baur, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In a seasonal environment, the suitable time window for females to reproduce is restricted by both environmental conditions and the availability of males. In simultaneous hermaphrodites, which are female and male at the same time, selection on a trait that is solely beneficial for one sexual function cannot occur independently. Therefore, it is assumed that the optimal time window for reproduction is a compromise between the two sexual functions in simultaneous hermaphrodites, mediated by environmental conditions. We examined seasonal patterns of reproduction and the resulting paternity in a natural population of the simultaneously hermaphroditic land snail Arianta arbustorum. Adult and premature individuals (snails in a short protandric phase) were collected on four occasions over the entire active season. The snails were allowed to deposit eggs after which we assessed the level of paternity in their hatched offspring. Individuals mated throughout the reproductive season, whereas egg production – the major task of the female function – was restricted to the first half of the season. Snails collected in autumn were allowed to hibernate under laboratory conditions. As a result, we found that premature individuals began to mate late in the reproductive season, but did not start to produce eggs before emerging from hibernation. Our results demonstrate a temporal shift of reproductive activities; the egg production and oviposition occur mainly in the first half of the season, while sperm production and mating occur over the entire season. In subadult and adult snails, sperm obtained from several partners in the second part of the reproductive season are stored during hibernation for the fertilization of eggs in the successive years. These results extend our understanding of the influence of both natural and sexual selection on reproductive strategies in hermaphrodites. PMID:26306176

  13. Seasonal variations in the levels of PAH–DNA adducts in young adults living in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    García-Suástegui, W. A.; Huerta-Chagoya, A.; Carrasco-Colín, K. L.; Pratt, M. M.; John, K.; Petrosyan, P.; Rubio, J.; Poirier, M. C.; Gonsebatt, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous components of polluted air. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), one of the most densely populated areas in the world, is 2240 m above sea level. At this altitude, less oxygen is available, making combustion less efficient and therefore producing more PAH pollutants. According to the Automatic Monitoring Network in Mexico City (RAMA, for its Spanish initials; http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/simat2/informaciontecnica/index.php?opcion=5&opciondifusion_bd=90), which performs environmental monitoring, the critical air pollutants in Mexico City are ozone and particulate matter (PM). PM emissions increase during the dry season (winter to spring) and decrease during the rainy season (summer to autumn). The bioactivation of some PAHs produces reactive metabolites that bind to DNA, and the presence of elevated levels of PAH–DNA adducts in tissues such as blood lymphocytes represents an elevated risk for the development of cancer. We have compared the levels of PAH–DNA adducts and the percentage of cells with chromosomal aberrations (CWAs) using a matched set of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained on two separate occasions from young non-smoking inhabitants of the MCMA (n = 92) during the 2006 dry season and the following rainy season. PAH–DNA adducts were analysed using the r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)–DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). The percentages of CWA were determined in cultured lymphocytes from the same individuals. Both DNA adduct levels and chromosomal aberrations were tested for correlation with lifestyle and the polymorphisms of cytochromes P450 CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 as well as glutathione-S-transferases GSTM1 and GSTT1. The levels of PAH–DNA adducts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the dry season (10.66 ± 3.05 per 109 nt, n = 92) than during the rainy season (9.50 ± 2.85 per 109 nt, n = 92) and correlated with the seasonal levels of particulate

  14. EO-1 Hyperion reflectance time series at calibration and validation sites: stability and sensitivity to seasonal dynamics

    Treesearch

    Petya K. Entcheva Campbell; Elizabeth M. Middleton; Kurt J. Thome; Raymond F. Kokaly; Karl Fred Huemmrich; David Lagomasino; Kimberly A. Novick; Nathaniel A. Brunsell

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion reflectance time series at established calibration sites to assess the instrument stability and suitability for monitoring vegetation functional parameters. Our analysis using three pseudo-invariant calibration sites in North America indicated that the reflectance time series are devoid of apparent spectral trends...

  15. Comparison of volatile organic levels between sites and seasons for the total exposure assessment methodology (TEAM) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwell, T. D.; Pellizzari, E. D.; Perritt, R. L.; Whitmore, R. W.; Zelon, H. S.; Wallace, L.

    Comparisons were made between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath, personal air, fixed-site outdoor air and water samples from a probability (random) sample of individuals in Bayonne/Elizabeth, New Jersey; Los Angeles and Pittsburg/Antioch, California; Greensboro, North Carolina; and Devils Lake, North Dakota. In addition, comparisons were made between seasons in the Bayonne/Elizabeth and Los Angeles sites where the same individuals were sampled in two seasons. The most striking differences between sites and seasons were in outdoor air samples. For this medium the concentrations in Los Angeles in the winter season were much higher than in Bayonne/Elizabeth, New Jersey in the winter. However, in the summer season this difference was not evident due to a dramatic decrease in VOC levels in Los Angeles in the summer. Outdoor VOC levels in Greensboro and Devils Lake were usually dramatically lower than both Bayonne/Elizabeth and the California sites. Concentration levels for the breath and personal air samples were usually higher in the winter than the spring or summer. This was particularly true in Los Angeles for personal air samples. For the breath samples, this pattern was not clearcut and, in fact, Bayonne/Elizabeth tended to have higher concentrations in the summer. For water samples, Devils Lake had particularly low VOC levels. Bromoform, which was found in California samples, was almost never present in Bayonne/Elizabeth, Greensboro and Devils Lake samples.

  16. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  17. Comparing Student Reflectiveness in Online Discussion Forums across Modes of Instruction and Levels of Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadha, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Fostering reflective deliberation in the online classroom ensures that students reach a high level of achievement in virtual courses. Student peer exchanges were evaluated on a collaborative web site structured around interactive weekly discussions offered across an online, face-to-face, and upper- and lower-division political science courses.…

  18. An Authentic Assessment at the Graduate Level: A Reflective Capstone Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichting, Kathleen; Fox, Kathy R.

    2015-01-01

    It is often challenging for teacher educators to design an authentic Capstone Experience at the graduate level that aligns with what research tells us about the value of authentic assessment and the power of reflection in student's learning and professional growth. This article introduces an innovative form of assessment for graduate students that…

  19. Using Action Research in Middle Level Teacher Education to Evaluate and Deepen Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, Rita; Aydeniz, Mehmet; Rowell, C. Glennon

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of action research in promoting critical reflective thinking among twenty preservice teachers engaged in a year-long middle level program. Data from collaborative discussions, final written documents, presentations, and follow-up surveys revealed that conducting action research (a) engaged them in inquiry into their own…

  20. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  1. Effect of the Level of Inquiry of Lab Experiments on General Chemistry Students' Written Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Haozhi; Talanquer, Vincente

    2013-01-01

    The central goal of this exploratory study was to characterize the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the nature of college students' written reflections about laboratory work. Data were collected in the form of individual lab reports written using a science writing heuristic template by a subset of the students…

  2. The Instrument for Determining the Levels of Reflective Thinking among Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin Can, Bilge; Yildrim, Cennet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a reliable and valid instrument in order to determine the elementary school students' levels about reflective thinking. A total of 320 students of 6th, 7th and 8th grades from 6 different primary schools participated in the study. It was identified that the instrument was composed of totally 17 items with…

  3. Seasonal Changes in Broadband Spectral Reflectance Characteristics of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass Agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants (Solenopsis spp.) disrupt soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management in sod production, recreational, and residential settings. Ground-based implementation of hyperspectral techniques in the detection and seasonal monitoring of imported fire ant col...

  4. fusing regional and weather variability with site-specific canopy reflectance for improved in-season N fertilizer recommendation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn production across the U.S. Corn belt can be often limited by the loss of nitrogen (N) due to leaching, volatilization and denitrification. The use of canopy sensors for making in-season N fertilizer applications has been proven effective in matching plant N requirements with periods of rapid N ...

  5. How Reflective are Teachers? A Study of Kindergarten Teachers' and Special Teachers' Levels of Reflection in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihlaja, Paivi Marjo; Holst, Teija Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine teachers' reflections of their early childhood special education work in Finnish day care. Work contents and work roles have faced many challenges in Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE), and therefore general reflection and research need to be developed. Teachers ("n"?=?218) evaluated, via an…

  6. Arginine vasopressin plasma levels change seasonally in African striped mice but do not differ between alternative reproductive tactics.

    PubMed

    Schoepf, Ivana; Schradin, Carsten

    2014-08-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is an important hormone for osmoregulation, while as a neuropeptide in the brain it plays an important role in the regulation of social behaviors. Dry habitats are often the home of obligately sociable species such as meerkats and Damaraland mole-rats, leading to the hypothesis that high plasma AVP levels needed for osmoregulation might be associated with the regulation of social behavior. We tested this in a facultative sociable species, the African striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio). During the moist breeding season, both solitary- and group-living reproductive tactics occur in this species, which is obligatory sociable in the dry season. We collected 196 plasma samples from striped mice following different reproductive tactics both during the moist and the dry season. Solitary mice did not have lower AVP levels than sociable mice, rejecting the hypothesis that peripheral AVP is involved in the regulation of alternative reproductive tactics. However, we found significantly higher AVP levels during the dry season, with AVP levels correlated with the abundance of food plants, the main source of water for striped mice. Plasma AVP levels were not correlated with testosterone or corticosterone levels. Our study underlines the important role that AVP plays in osmoregulation, particularly for a free ranging mammal living under harsh arid conditions.

  7. Comparison of Seasonal Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from GRACE with Groundwater-level Measurements from the High Plains Aquifer (USA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strassberg, Gil; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rodell, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the first direct comparison of variations in seasonal GWS derived from GRACE TWS and simulated SM with GW-level measurements in a semiarid region. Results showed that variations in GWS and SM are the main sources controlling TWS changes over the High Plains, with negligible storage changes from surface water, snow, and biomass. Seasonal variations in GRACE TWS compare favorably with combined GWS from GW-level measurements (total 2,700 wells, average 1,050 GW-level measurements per season) and simulated SM from the Noah land surface model (R = 0.82, RMSD = 33 mm). Estimated uncertainty in seasonal GRACE-derived TWS is 8 mm, and estimated uncertainty in TWS changes is 11 mm. Estimated uncertainty in SM changes is 11 mm and combined uncertainty for TWS-SM changes is 15 mm. Seasonal TWS changes are detectable in 7 out of 9 monitored periods and maximum changes within a year (e.g. between winter and summer) are detectable in all 5 monitored periods. Grace-derived GWS calculated from TWS-SM generally agrees with estimates based on GW-level measurements (R = 0.58, RMSD = 33 mm). Seasonal TWS-SM changes are detectable in 5 out of the 9 monitored periods and maximum changes are detectable in all 5 monitored periods. Good correspondence between GRACE data and GW-level measurements from the intensively monitored High Plains aquifer validates the potential for using GRACE TWS and simulated SM to monitor GWS changes and aquifer depletion in semiarid regions subjected to intensive irrigation pumpage. This method can be used to monitor regions where large-scale aquifer depletion is ongoing, and in situ measurements are limited, such as the North China Plain or western India. This potential should be enhanced by future advances in GRACE processing, which will improve the spatial and temporal resolution of TWS changes, and will further increase applicability of GRACE data for monitoring GWS.

  8. Seasonal variation of water level, water and soil temperature, chemistry, and stable isotopes in hyporheic zone of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, W. H.; Lee, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of study was to evaluate interaction between groundwater and stream water in hyporheic zone using water level, water temperature, soil temperature, chemistry, and stable isotopes. We installed seven piezometers (IYHW1 to 7) in the streambed that across stream in every 10 m and in depth of 0.85 to 1.54 m, a device that measure stage level nearby IYHW1, and devices that measure soil temperature in every 10 cm down to 50 cm nearby each piezometer was installed. We monitored water level and water temperature every hour from automatic transducers at the piezometers and the stage level, and soil temperatures were monitored every two hours. We took samples from the hyporheic water, stream water, and nearby groundwater to analysis chemical and isotopic compositions. The water level difference between stream water and hyporheic waters indicated that groundwater was downwelling in wet season and upwelling in dry season. The groundwater temperature remained steady in different seasons, but the stream water represented a frequent fluctuation with large amplitude. The hyporheic waters and soil temperature represented intermediate variation characteristics. The chemical compositions were not able to indicate in interaction of groundwater and stream water because no distinctive difference in seasonal variation in waters. The quantity of isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen determined from using mixing ratio indicated that downwelling in wet season and upwelling in dry season. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2011-0007232).

  9. Comparison of Seasonal Terrestrial Water Storage Variations from GRACE with Groundwater-level Measurements from the High Plains Aquifer (USA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strassberg, Gil; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rodell, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the first direct comparison of variations in seasonal GWS derived from GRACE TWS and simulated SM with GW-level measurements in a semiarid region. Results showed that variations in GWS and SM are the main sources controlling TWS changes over the High Plains, with negligible storage changes from surface water, snow, and biomass. Seasonal variations in GRACE TWS compare favorably with combined GWS from GW-level measurements (total 2,700 wells, average 1,050 GW-level measurements per season) and simulated SM from the Noah land surface model (R = 0.82, RMSD = 33 mm). Estimated uncertainty in seasonal GRACE-derived TWS is 8 mm, and estimated uncertainty in TWS changes is 11 mm. Estimated uncertainty in SM changes is 11 mm and combined uncertainty for TWS-SM changes is 15 mm. Seasonal TWS changes are detectable in 7 out of 9 monitored periods and maximum changes within a year (e.g. between winter and summer) are detectable in all 5 monitored periods. Grace-derived GWS calculated from TWS-SM generally agrees with estimates based on GW-level measurements (R = 0.58, RMSD = 33 mm). Seasonal TWS-SM changes are detectable in 5 out of the 9 monitored periods and maximum changes are detectable in all 5 monitored periods. Good correspondence between GRACE data and GW-level measurements from the intensively monitored High Plains aquifer validates the potential for using GRACE TWS and simulated SM to monitor GWS changes and aquifer depletion in semiarid regions subjected to intensive irrigation pumpage. This method can be used to monitor regions where large-scale aquifer depletion is ongoing, and in situ measurements are limited, such as the North China Plain or western India. This potential should be enhanced by future advances in GRACE processing, which will improve the spatial and temporal resolution of TWS changes, and will further increase applicability of GRACE data for monitoring GWS.

  10. Exploratory studies into the prospects for seasonal forecasting of lake levels and outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sene, Kevin; Tych, Woldek; Beven, Keith

    2017-04-01

    Some of the largest lakes in the world are in Africa and seasonal forecasts of levels and outflows can potentially help with water supply, irrigation and hydropower operations; in particular regarding the risks from floods or droughts. Some factors which increase the prospects for real-time forecasting include the significant time delays between rainfall and outflows resulting from the huge volumes of water stored, and that many studies have shown possible links between regional rainfall and climate indices for the Indian Ocean and elsewhere. On the other hand, on account of the huge areas covered, catchments can span several climate zones and rainfall and flow monitoring networks are often sparse. Exploratory studies into some of these issues are described based on case studies for two large lakes, including some preliminary findings regarding data assimilation and the complexity of models required. The studies were performed using a range of stochastic signal identification tools and are compared with the findings from an ensemble streamflow prediction approach. Preliminary conclusions are then drawn regarding the relevance of these results to the development of operational forecasting models.

  11. Nutrition level and season of birth do not modify puberty of Payoya goat kids.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Guzmán, J L; Domínguez, C; Pérez, M C; Prieto, R; Sánchez, J

    2009-01-01

    This study analysed the effect of level of nutrition and date of birth (age) on the onset of puberty in Payoya she-kids born in autumn (November) or in winter (February). Two experiments were conducted to examine pubertal events at the onset of puberty. For each date of birth (age), two experimental groups were used, differing on the level of nutrition. Groups were balanced for live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). For the first experiment (goat kids born in autumn), 27 Payoya she-kids were used: high-nutrition group (H1, n = 13) and control group (C1, n = 14). For the second experiment (goat kids born in winter), 25 Payoya she-kids were used: high-nutrition group (H2, n = 13) and control group (C2, n = 12). In both experiments, the level of feeding was adjusted weekly according to LW so that the animals would gain about 50 and 100 g per day for C and H groups, respectively. Oestrus was tested daily using young aproned bucks. Ovulation rate was assessed by laparoscopy 7 days after identification of oestrus. Plasma samples were obtained weekly for progesterone assay. LW and BCS were recorded weekly. No effect of nutrition level or birth date (Experiment 1 v. 2) on the date of the first ovarian activity or the first detected oestrus was observed. No effect of nutrition on LW or BCS at the first detected oestrus was observed. Birth date influenced significantly the LW of the animals at the onset of ovarian activity or first oestrus (P < 0.001). Irregular sexual activity was frequently observed before the first oestrus (74.7% and 48.0% of the first reproductive activity was irregular for Experiments 1 and 2, respectively). No effect of nutrition level or birth date on ovulation rate was observed. Ovulation rate at first oestrus was influenced by LW in November-born goat kids (1.06 ± 0.06 v. 1.67 ± 0.21 corpora lutea for LW < 30 and 30 kg, respectively, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that the age at puberty was very dependent upon the season of birth

  12. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and androstenedione levels during the breeding season and anestrus in Siberian tigers.

    PubMed

    Seal, U S; Plotka, E D; Smith, J D; Wright, F H; Reindl, N J; Taylor, R S; Seal, M F

    1985-03-01

    Seasonal analysis of 1239 captive births of Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) indicated a peak in April to June (P less than 0.001). Studies on seven animals in Minnesota indicated that behavioral heat cycles and ovarian follicular phase cycles began in late January and ceased in early June. Behavioral observation of 12 heat cycles in four tigers yielded an estrous length of 5.3 +/- 0.2 days and an interestrous interval of 25.0 +/- 1.3 days. Hormone assays on weekly blood samples (N = 180) from three female tigers indicated 16 cycles in two breeding seasons. Peak estradiol-17 beta levels were 46.7 +/- 6.0 pg/ml (N = 17) and interestrous concentrations were 8.7 +/- 0.66 pg/ml (N = 28) during the breeding season. Anestrous estradiol levels were 4.2 +/- 0.5 pg/ml (N = 70). The interestrous interval between estradiol peaks was 24.9 +/- 1.3 days (N = 9) with two outliers of 42 days. Serum progesterone concentrations from February to June were 1.2 +/- 0.15 ng/ml (N = 32), providing no evidence for ovulation or corpus luteum formation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were 0.56 +/- 0.04 ng/ml (N = 180). Serum testosterone (r=0.71, P less than 0.001) and androstenedione levels (r=0.75, P less than 0.001) were correlated with estradiol during the breeding season. The duration of anestrus was 8 mo in two of these tigers. The interval was shortened in one tiger by exposure to a 16L:8D photoperiod. The Siberian tiger appears to be a polyestrous seasonal breeder and an induced ovulator whose breeding season may be synchronized by photoperiod.

  13. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  14. Leptin levels, seasonality and thermal acclimation in the Microbiotherid marsupial Dromiciops gliroides: Does photoperiod play a role?

    PubMed

    Franco, Marcela; Contreras, Carolina; Place, Ned J; Bozinovic, Francisco; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2017-01-01

    Mammals of the Neotropics are characterized by a marked annual cycle of activity, which is accompanied by several physiological changes at the levels of the whole organism, organs and tissues. The physiological characterization of these cycles is important, as it gives insight on the mechanisms by which animals adjust adaptively to seasonality. Here we studied the seasonal changes in blood biochemical parameters in the relict South American marsupial Dromiciops gliroides ("monito del monte" or "little mountain monkey"), under semi-natural conditions. We manipulated thermal conditions in order to characterize the effects of temperature and season on a battery of biochemical parameters, body mass and adiposity. Our results indicate that monitos experience an annual cycle in body mass and adiposity (measured as leptin levels), reaching a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. Blood biochemistry confirms that the nutritional condition of animals is reduced in summer instead of winter (as generally reported). This was coincident with a reduction of several biochemical parameters in summer, such as betahydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, total protein concentration and globulins. Monitos seem to initiate winter preparation during autumn and reach maximum body reserves in winter. Hibernation lasts until spring, at which time they use fat reserves and become reproductively active. Sexual maturation during summer would be the strongest energetic bottleneck, which explains the reductions in body mass and other parameters in this season. Overall, this study suggests that monitos anticipate the cold season by a complex interaction of photoperiodic and thermal cues.

  15. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  16. Proposed Unit Level Ozone Season NOx Allowance Allocations to Existing Units in Six States: Supplemental Proposed Rule TSD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) presents the proposed unit-level allocations based on the existing-unit portion of each state’s ozone season NOx emission budget to covered existing units in Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.

  17. Effect of mid season drought on phenolic compounds in peanut genotypes with different levels of resistance to drought

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought is a major constraint in peanut production. Drought not only reduces pod yield but also may affect phenolic compounds in peanut. This experiment was conducted for two years under field conditions. Soil moisture levels (field capacity and mid season drought stress) were assigned as main pl...

  18. Seasonal Sexual Segregation by Monomorphic Sooty Shearwaters Puffinus griseus Reflects Different Reproductive Roles during the Pre-Laying Period

    PubMed Central

    Hedd, April; Montevecchi, William A.; Phillips, Richard A.; Fifield, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Tracking technology has revolutionized knowledge of seabird movements; yet, few studies have examined sex differences in distribution and behavior of small to medium-sized, sexually-monomorphic seabirds. Application of bird-borne geolocation-immersion loggers revealed seasonal segregation in the sexually-monomorphic Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, mainly in the pre-laying period, when there were clear differences in reproductive roles. Shearwaters first returned to the Falkland Islands on 27 Sept±8 d; males, on average, 8 d earlier than females. Prior to egg-laying, distribution at sea, colony attendance and behaviour depended on sex. Males foraged locally over the southern Patagonian Shelf and Burdwood Bank, spending mainly single days at sea and intervening nights in the burrow. Females, who flew for more of the day during this time, foraged in more distant areas of the northern Patagonian Shelf and Argentine Basin that were deeper, warmer and relatively more productive. Attendance of females at the colony was also more variable than that of males and, overall, males were present for significantly more of the pre-laying period (38 vs. 19% of time). Sex differences were reduced following egg-laying, with males and females using similar foraging areas and making trips of similar mean duration in incubation (7.6±2.7 d) and chick-rearing (1.4±1.3 d). Congruence continued into the non-breeding period, with both sexes showing similar patterns of activity and areas of occupancy in the NW Atlantic. Thus, seasonal changes in reproductive roles influenced patterns of sexual segregation; this occurred only early in the season, when male Sooty Shearwaters foraged locally, returning regularly to the colony to defend (or maintain) the burrow or the mate, while females concentrated on building resources for egg development in distant and relatively more productive waters. PMID:24416429

  19. Wearing face masks in public during the influenza season may reflect other positive hygiene practices in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the wearing of face masks in public has not been recommended for preventing influenza, these devices are often worn in many Asian countries during the influenza season. In Japan, it is thought that such behavior may be an indicator of other positive hygiene practices. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine if wearing a face mask in public is associated with other positive hygiene practices and health behaviors among Japanese adults. Methods We initially recruited around 3,000 Japanese individuals ranging from 20 to 69 years of age who were registered with a web survey company. Participants were asked to recall their personal hygiene practices during the influenza season of the previous year. Logistic regression analysis was then used to examine the associations between wearing a face mask in public and personal hygiene practices and health behaviors. Results A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey, among whom 38% reported that they had worn a face mask in public during the previous influenza season. Wearing a face mask in public was associated with various self-reported hygiene practices including: frequent hand washing (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.67; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.34-1.96), occasional hand washing (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.10-1.75), frequently avoiding crowds (OR: 1.85; 95%CI: 1.70-1.98), occasionally avoiding crowds (OR: 1.65; 95%CI: 1.53-1.76), frequent gargling (OR: 1.68; 95%CI: 1.51-1.84), occasional gargling (OR: 1.46; 95%CI: 1.29-1.62), regularly avoiding close contact with an infected person (OR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.33-1.67), occasionally avoiding close contact with an infected person (OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.16-1.46), and being vaccinated of influenza in the last season (OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.17-1.45). Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that wearing a face mask in public may be associated with other personal hygiene practices and health behaviors among Japanese adults. Rather than preventing influenza

  20. Wearing face masks in public during the influenza season may reflect other positive hygiene practices in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Oka-Ezoe, Kuniko; Smith, Derek R

    2012-12-10

    Although the wearing of face masks in public has not been recommended for preventing influenza, these devices are often worn in many Asian countries during the influenza season. In Japan, it is thought that such behavior may be an indicator of other positive hygiene practices. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine if wearing a face mask in public is associated with other positive hygiene practices and health behaviors among Japanese adults. We initially recruited around 3,000 Japanese individuals ranging from 20 to 69 years of age who were registered with a web survey company. Participants were asked to recall their personal hygiene practices during the influenza season of the previous year. Logistic regression analysis was then used to examine the associations between wearing a face mask in public and personal hygiene practices and health behaviors. A total of 3,129 persons responded to the survey, among whom 38% reported that they had worn a face mask in public during the previous influenza season. Wearing a face mask in public was associated with various self-reported hygiene practices including: frequent hand washing (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.67; 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.34-1.96), occasional hand washing (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.10-1.75), frequently avoiding crowds (OR: 1.85; 95%CI: 1.70-1.98), occasionally avoiding crowds (OR: 1.65; 95%CI: 1.53-1.76), frequent gargling (OR: 1.68; 95%CI: 1.51-1.84), occasional gargling (OR: 1.46; 95%CI: 1.29-1.62), regularly avoiding close contact with an infected person (OR: 1.50; 95%CI: 1.33-1.67), occasionally avoiding close contact with an infected person (OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.16-1.46), and being vaccinated of influenza in the last season (OR: 1.31; 95%CI: 1.17-1.45). Overall, this study suggests that wearing a face mask in public may be associated with other personal hygiene practices and health behaviors among Japanese adults. Rather than preventing influenza itself, face mask use might instead be a

  1. Seasonal variation in photosystem II efficiency and photochemical reflectance index of evergreen trees and perennial grasses growing at low and high elevations in subtropical Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jen-Hsien; Liao, Tien-Szu; Hwang, Mon-Yuan; Chung, Chi-Ch; Lin, Chung-Ping; Chu, Chung-Hei

    2006-08-01

    Three pines species, three evergreen broadleaf trees, one C(3) and two C(4) perennial grasses of subtropical Taiwan were studied to elucidate the correlation between photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and photochemical reflectance index (PRI = (R(531) - R(570))/(R(531) + R(570))). Measurements were made at two sites differing in altitude (800 and 2600 m) over several growing seasons. At high elevation, potential PSII efficiency, measured by chlorophyll fluorescence (the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence; F(v)/F(m)) at predawn, decreased with decreasing air temperature and varied greatly among species. At the lowest air temperature (-3 degrees C) studied, variation in F(v)/F(m) among species ranged from 0.33 to 0.72. In contrast, at low elevation where air temperature was moderate, seasonal variation in F(v)/F(m) was small in all of the study species. When species, elevation and season data were pooled, despite the high variation in F(v)/F(m) among species, a good correlation between F(v)/F(m) and PRI was observed. When compared at the same value of PRI, F(v)/F(m) of evergreen trees was higher than that of perennial grasses; however, when the minimum temperature on the measurement day was below 0 degrees C, F(v)/F(m) was underestimated relative to PRI. We conclude that PRI could be used as a remote indicator of photosynthetic function when air temperature is above 0 degrees C.

  2. Study the effect of gray component replacement level on reflectance spectra and color reproduction accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is investigation of gray component replacement (GCR) levels on reflectance spectrum for different overprints of the inks and color reproduction accuracy. The most commonly implemented method in practice for generation of achromatic composition is gray component replacement (GCR). The experiments in this study, have been performed in real production conditions with special test form generated by specialized software. The measuring of reflection spectrum of printed colors, gives a complete conception for the effect of different gray component replacement levels on color reproduction accuracy. For better data analyses and modeling of processes, we have calculated (converted) the CIEL*a*b* color coordinates from the reflection spectra data. The assessment of color accuracy by using different GCR amount has been made by calculation of color difference ΔE* ab. In addition for the specific printing conditions we have created ICC profiles with different GCR amounts. A comparison of the color gamuts has been performed. For a first time a methodology is implemented for examination and estimation of effect of GCR levels on color reproduction accuracy by studying a big number of colors in entire visible spectrum. Implementation in practice of the results achieved in this experiment, will lead to improved gray balance and better color accuracy. Another important effect of this research is reduction of financial costs of printing production by decreasing of ink consumption, indirect reduction of emissions during the manufacture of inks and facilitates the process of deinking during the recycling paper.

  3. Definition of the rectum and level of the peritoneal reflection - still a matter of debate?

    PubMed

    Kenig, Jakub; Richter, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Pathological lesions of the rectum are common and their management requires detailed knowledge of pelvic anatomy. There has been considerable debate as to the definition of the rectum and the variability of the level of the peritoneal reflection. The lack of a clear consensus was proven in the research by McCullen et al. regarding the current pattern of practice for the investigation of primary rectal cancer by general surgeons. To carry out bibliographic research on the definition of the rectum and level of the peritoneal reflection. A web-based published literature search of PubMed, Ovid Medline, Science Direct and Springer was made. The paper presents the current definitions of proximal and distal margin of the rectum and level of peritoneal reflection based not only on the results of tests on cadavers but also on living humans. The results of tests on living humans allow more accurate qualification of patients for local excision, which is particularly important for patients with colorectal cancer.

  4. Seasonal variations in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in a Swedish cohort.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Eva; Oleröd, Göran; Konar, Jan; Petzold, Max; Hammarsten, Ola

    2015-08-01

    To study seasonal inter-individual and intra-individual variations in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and to explore parameters associated with 25(OH)D in a healthy Swedish adult population. 540 blood donors (60 % men; mean age 41 ± 13 years) and 75 thrombocyte donors (92 % men, aged 46 ± 11 years) were included. Serum was collected during 12 months and analyzed for 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone (S-iPTH). The blood donors answered questionnaires concerning vitamin D supplements, smoking, physical activity, sunbed use and sun holidays. Repeated serum samples were collected from the thrombocyte donors to study the intra-individual variations in S-25(OH)D. S-25(OH)D varied greatly over the year correlating with the intensity of the UV-B irradiation (r S = 0.326; p < 0.001). During January-March, a S-25(OH)D level below the thresholds of 50 and 75 nmol/L was observed in 58 and 88 %, respectively, and during July-September in 11 and 50 % (p < 0.001). S-25(OH)D was negatively correlated with body mass index and S-iPTH, but was significantly higher in holiday makers in sunny destinations, sunbed users, non-smokers, and in the physically active. The intra-individual analyses showed a mean increase in S-25(OH)D by 8 nmol/L/month between April and August. Approximately 75 % had serum 25(OH)D values <75 nmol/L during 75 % of the year and 50 % had serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L during 50 % of the year. Serum 25(OH)D was strongly associated with parameters related to sun exposure, but only weakly with intake of vitamin D supplements.

  5. Sperm quality evaluation in Solea senegalensis during the reproductive season at cellular level.

    PubMed

    Beirão, J; Soares, F; Herráez, M P; Dinis, M T; Cabrita, E

    2009-12-01

    Sperm quality seems to be one of the reasons for the reproduction constraints faced by Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) aquaculturists. Previous studies in this species indicated that the sperm quality of individuals kept in culture varies throughout the year and that different sperm subpopulations can be identified in ejaculates according to the motility pattern of spermatozoa. Aiming to better understand factors affecting sole sperm quality in captivity, sperm of 11 males was assessed during the reproductive season using different parameters: motility characteristics using CASA analysis; cell plasma membrane resistance to seawater hyperosmolarity; DNA fragmentation with single-cell gel electrophoresis; and early apoptosis, labeled with Annexin-V FITC. Computer-assisted sperm analyses motility data were treated using multivariate analysis to identify the presence of different spermatozoa subpopulations according to their motility pattern. Four distinct sperm subpopulations were obtained: Subpop1, which includes fast linear spermatozoa; Subpop2, made up of fast nonlinear spermatozoa; Subpop3, which includes slow linear spermatozoa; and Subpop4, which contains slow nonlinear spermatozoa. The sperm subpopulation structure varied with time after activation and with male. Low cell resistance to the seawater hyperosmotic conditions was noticed. The Annexin-V assay allowed the identification of an apoptotic population ranging from 6% to 20%. A high percentage of cells (64.1%) showed a DNA fragmentation level below 30%, but these values varied significantly between males. DNA fragmentation appears to be related to cell membrane resistance to hyperosmotic conditions faced by the cells when in contact with seawater. This condition seems to modulate the composition of the motile sperm population and performance after activation. This phenomenon could be related to the spermatozoa maturation process.

  6. Seasonal Dynamics of Hyperspectral Reflectance Patterns Influencing Detection of Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mound Features in Turfgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive mound-building imported fire ants impact soil quality and turfgrass nutrient management affecting an estimated 8.1 million hectares in sod production, recreational, and residential settings in the southeastern U.S. Reflectance characteristics of imported fire ant mound features (i.e., ant m...

  7. Fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins in ewe's milk predicted by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Determination of seasonality.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; Escuredo, O; González-Martín, M I; Palacios, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin composition and the season of ewe's milk production using NIR spectroscopy. 219 ewe's milk samples from different breeds and feeding regimes were taken each month over one year. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography, and retinol and α-, and γ-tocopherol by liquid chromatography. The results showed that the quantification was more accurate for the milk dried on paper, except for vitamins. Calibration statistical descriptors on milk dried on paper were good for capric, lauric, myristic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acids, and acceptable for caprilic, undecanoic, 9c, 11tCLA, ΣCLA, PUFA, ω3, ω6, retinol and α-tocopherol. The equations for the discrimination of seasonality was obtained using the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) algorithm. 93% of winter samples and 89% of summer samples were correctly classified using the NIR spectra of milk dried on paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal differences in the physiology of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) from estuaries with varying levels of anthropogenic contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Galloway, Tamara S.; Jones, Malcolm B.

    2011-07-01

    This study reports the seasonal variability in aspects of the physiology of the shore crab Carcinus maenas from three estuaries in South-west England, each with varying anthropogenic inputs: Avon Estuary ('relatively low' impact), Yealm Estuary ('intermediate' impact) and Plym Estuary ('relatively high' impact). Crabs collected over 12 months from the Avon had a significantly 'lower' physiological condition in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn; in particular, haemocyte phagocytic capability (a general indicator of immune function) was significantly higher in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn, and total haemolymph antioxidant status (an indicator of oxidative stress) was significantly lower in winter compared to the remainder of the year. Potentially, shore crabs may be more susceptible to the effects of contaminant exposure, such as increased immunotoxicity (thus, reduction of immune function) and/or oxyradicals (or reactive oxygen species) exposure) especially in seasons of increased susceptibility i.e. summer/autumn (lower phagocytic capability) and winter (lowest antioxidant function). As the Avon was taken to represent the 'reference' site, this pattern is considered to reflect the 'normal' seasonal variability in shore crab physiology. Shore crab physiological condition from the 'relatively high' impact estuary (Plym) revealed increased cellular viability and antioxidant status in autumn and winter compared with that of the 'standard' pattern (Avon) However, crabs from the intermediate impact estuary (Yealm) only demonstrated significant physiological differences in summer as shown by a lower cellular viability. All crabs had been exposed to PAHs (confirmed by the presence of PAH metabolites in their urine) which may account for the observed differences in shore crab physiology. In conclusion, to aid understanding of the potential contaminant impacts on biota it is imperative that the 'normal' seasonal variability of physiological

  9. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  10. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  11. Continuous liquid level sensor based on a reflective long period fiber grating interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Hao; Xu, Zuowei; Chen, Hao; Yang, Yunyun; You, Jianzhou; Yan, Jiarong; Fu, Hongyan; Zhang, Dan

    2015-03-01

    A continuous liquid level sensor (LLS) based on an in-fiber Michelson interferometer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The in-fiber Michelson interferometer is formed by a single long period grating (LPG) together with a reflective mirror at the end of the fiber. The portion between the mirror and LPG is immersed in the liquid to be measured as an LLS sensing probe, and the liquid level can be measured by monitoring the wavelength of interference fringes of the in-fiber Michelson interferometer. The experimental results show that the proposed LLS has a good sensing linearity and sensitivity.

  12. Spatial variations of sea level along the coast of Thailand: Impacts of extreme land subsidence, earthquakes and the seasonal monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saramul, Suriyan; Ezer, Tal

    2014-11-01

    The study addresses two important issues associated with sea level along the coasts of Thailand: first, the fast sea level rise and its spatial variation, and second, the monsoonal-driven seasonal variations in sea level. Tide gauge data that are more extensive than in past studies were obtained from several different local and global sources, and relative sea level rise (RSLR) rates were obtained from two different methods, linear regressions and non-linear Empirical Mode Decomposition/Hilbert-Huang Transform (EMD/HHT) analysis. The results show extremely large spatial variations in RSLR, with rates varying from ~ 1 mm y-1 to ~ 20 mm y-1; the maximum RSLR is found in the upper Gulf of Thailand (GOT) near Bangkok, where local land subsidence due to groundwater extraction dominates the trend. Furthermore, there are indications that RSLR rates increased significantly in all locations after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and the Indian Ocean tsunami that followed, so that recent RSLR rates seem to have less spatial differences than in the past, but with high rates of ~ 20-30 mm y-1 almost everywhere. The seasonal sea level cycle was found to be very different between stations in the GOT, which have minimum sea level in June-July, and stations in the Andaman Sea, which have minimum sea level in February. The seasonal sea-level variations in the GOT are driven mostly by large-scale wind-driven set-up/set-down processes associated with the seasonal monsoon and have amplitudes about ten times larger than either typical steric changes at those latitudes or astronomical annual tides.

  13. Blood serum retinol levels in Asinara white donkeys reflect albinism-induced metabolic adaptation to photoperiod at Mediterranean latitudes.

    PubMed

    Cappai, Maria Grazia; Lunesu, Maria Grazia Antonietta; Accioni, Francesca; Liscia, Massimo; Pusceddu, Mauro; Burrai, Lucia; Nieddu, Maria; Dimauro, Corrado; Boatto, Gianpiero; Pinna, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Previous works on albinism form of Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) identified the mutation leading to the peculiar phenotype spread to all specimens of the breed. Inbreeding naturally occurred under geographic isolation, on Asinara Island, in the Mediterranean Sea. Albino individuals can be more susceptible to develop health problems when exposed to natural sun radiation. Alternative metabolic pathways involved in photoprotection were explored in this trial. Nutrition-related metabolites are believed to contribute to the conservation of Asinara donkeys, in which melanin, guaranteeing photoprotection, is lacking. Biochemical profiles with particular focus on blood serum β-carotene and retinol levels were monitored. Identical natural grazing conditions for both Asinara (albino) and Sardo (pigmented) donkey breeds were assured on same natural pastures throughout the experimental period. A comparative metabolic screening, with emphasis on circulating retinol and nutrient-related metabolites between the two breeds, was carried out over one year. Potential intra- and interspecimen fluctuations of metabolites involved in photoprotection were monitored, both during negative and positive photoperiods. Differences (p = .064) between blood serum concentrations of retinol from Asinara versus Sardo breed donkeys (0.630 vs. 0.490 μg/ml, respectively) were found. Retinol levels of blood serum turned out to be similar in the two groups (0.523 vs. 0.493 μg/ml, respectively, p = .051) during the negative photoperiod, but markedly differed during the positive one (0.738 vs. 0.486, respectively, p = .016). Blood serum β-carotene levels displayed to be constantly around the limit of sensitivity in all animals of both breeds. Variations in blood serum concentrations of retinol in Asinara white donkeys can reflect the need to cope with seasonal exposure to daylight at Mediterranean latitudes, as an alternative to the lack of melanin. These results may suggest that a

  14. Modeling Shallow Core-Level Transitions in the Reflectance Spectra of Gallium-Containing Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoute, Nicholas; Aspnes, David

    2012-02-01

    The electronic structure of covalent materials is typically approached by band theory. However, shallow core level transitions may be better modeled by an atomic-scale approach. We investigate shallow d-core level reflectance spectra in terms of a local atomic-multiplet theory, a novel application of a theory typically used for higher-energy transitions on more ionic type material systems. We examine specifically structure in reflectance spectra of GaP, GaAs, GaSb, GaSe, and GaAs1-xPx due to transitions that originate from Ga3d core levels and occur in the 20 to 25 eV range. We model these spectra as a Ga^+3 closed-shell ion whose transitions are influenced by perturbations on 3d hole-4p electron final states. These are specifically spin-orbit effects on the hole and electron, and a crystal-field effect on the hole, attributed to surrounding bond charges and positive ligand anions. Empirical radial-strength parameters were obtained by least-squares fitting. General trends with respect to anion electronegativity are consistent with expectations. In addition to the spin-orbit interaction, crystal-field effects play a significant role in breaking the degeneracy of the d levels, and consequently are necessary to understand shallow 3d core level spectra.

  15. Rapid changes in the seasonal sea level cycle along the US Gulf coast in the early 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, T.; Calafat, F. M.; Luther, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The seasonal cycle is an energetic component in the sea level spectrum and dominates the intra-annual sea level variability outside the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal bands in most regions. Changes in the annual or semi-annual amplitudes or phase lags have an immediate impact on marine coastal systems. Increases in the amplitudes or phase shifts towards the storm surge season may for instance exacerbate the risk of coastal flooding and/or beach erosion, and the ecological health of estuarine systems is also coupled to the seasonal sea level cycle. Here, we investigate the temporal variability of the seasonal harmonics along the US Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastline using records from 13 tide gauges providing at least 30 years of data in total and at least 15 years for the period after 1990. The longest records go back to the early 20th century. Running Fourier analysis (with a window length of 5-years) is used to extract the seasonal harmonics from the observations. The resulting time series show a considerable decadal variability and no longer-term changes are found in the phase lags and the semi-annual amplitude. The amplitude of the dominating annual cycle in contrast shows a tendency towards higher values since the turn of the century at tide gauges in the eastern part of the GOM. This increase of up to more than 25% is found to be significant at the 90% confidence level for most tide gauges along the coastline of West Florida and at the 75% confidence level for virtually all stations in the eastern GOM (from Key West to Dauphin Island). Monthly mean sea level sub-series show that the changes are partly due to smaller values in the cold season but mostly a result of higher values in the warm season, i.e. sea levels tend to be higher during the hurricane season. We use information on the steric sea level component, sea surface and air temperature, wind forcing, precipitation, and sea level pressure to explain the mechanisms driving the decadal variability in the

  16. Systemic pentraxin-3 levels reflect vascular enhancement and progression in Takayasu arteritis.

    PubMed

    Tombetti, Enrico; Di Chio, Maria Chiara; Sartorelli, Silvia; Papa, Maurizio; Salerno, Annalaura; Bottazzi, Barbara; Bozzolo, Enrica Paola; Greco, Marta; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Baldissera, Elena; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Mantovani, Alberto; De Cobelli, Francesco; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2014-11-14

    Progression of arterial involvement is often observed in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA) thought to be in remission. This reflects the failure of currently used biomarkers and activity criteria to detect smouldering inflammation occurring within arterial wall. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor produced at sites of inflammation and could reveal systemic as well as localized inflammatory processes. We verified whether the blood concentrations of PTX3 and of C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA) might reflect vascular wall involvement, as assessed by signal enhancement after contrast media administration, and the progression of arterial involvement. A cross-sectional single-centre study was carried out on 42 patients with TA that comprised assessment of PTX3, of CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation velocity (ESR). In total, 20 healthy controls and 20 patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) served as controls. Vascular imaging was carried out by magnetic resonance angiography, doppler ultrasonography and computed tomography angiography. Patients with TA and SLE had higher plasmatic PTX3 and CRP concentrations than healthy controls (P = 0.009 and 0.017, respectively). PTX3 levels did not correlate with those of CRP. Patients with active systemic TA had significantly higher concentrations of CRP but similar levels of PTX3 than patients with quiescent disease. In contrast, patients with vascular inflammation detectable at imaging had higher PTX3 concentrations (P = 0.016) than those in which vessel inflammation was not evident, while CRP levels were similar. The concentration of PTX3 but not that of CRP was significantly higher in TA patients with worsening arterial lesions that were not receiving antagonists of tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6. Arterial inflammation and progression of vascular involvement influence plasma PTX3 levels in TA, while levels of CRP accurately reflect the burden of

  17. Assessing the influence of abiotic factors and leaf-level properties on the stability of growing-season canopy greenness in a deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Vanessa Marie L.

    Maps depicting spatial pattern in the stability of summer greenness could advance understanding of how forest ecosystems will respond to global changes such as a longer growing season. Declining summer greenness, or "greendown", is spectrally related to declining near-infrared reflectance and is observed in most remote sensing time series to begin shortly after peak greenness at the end of spring and extend until the beginning of leaf coloration in autumn,. Understanding spatial patterns in the strength of greendown has recently become possible with the advancement of Landsat phenology products, which show that greendown patterns vary at scales appropriate for linking these patterns to proposed environmental forcing factors. This study tested two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses for how leaf measurements and environmental factors correlate with greendown and decreasing NIR reflectance across sites. At the landscape scale, we used linear regression to test the effects of maximum greenness, elevation, slope, aspect, solar irradiance and canopy rugosity on greendown. Secondly, we used leaf chemical traits and reflectance observations to test the effect of nitrogen availability and intrinsic water use efficiency on leaf-level greendown, and landscape-level greendown measured from Landsat. The study was conducted using Quercus alba canopies across 21 sites of an eastern deciduous forest in North America between June and August 2014. Our linear model explained greendown variance with an R 2=0.47 with maximum greenness as the greatest model effect. Subsequent models excluding one model effect revealed elevation and aspect were the two topographic factors that explained the greatest amount of greendown variance. Regression results also demonstrated important interactions between all three variables, with the greatest interaction showing that aspect had greater influence on greendown at sites with steeper slopes. Leaf-level reflectance was correlated with foliar delta13C

  18. Cortisol levels in hair reflect behavioural reactivity of dogs to acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, M; McFarlane, J R; Kauter, K G; Quaranta, A; Rogers, L J

    2013-02-01

    Cortisol levels in hair samples were examined in fourteen domestic dogs and related to the dogs' responses to different acoustic stimuli. Stimuli were playbacks of species-typical vocalizations recorded during three different situations ("disturbance", "isolation" and "play" barks) and the sounds of a thunderstorm. Hair samples were collected at 9:00 h and 17:00 h two weeks after the behavioural tests. Results showed that behavioural reactivity to playback of the various stimuli correlates with cortisol levels in hair samples collected at 9:00 h, and the same was the case for the separate measures of behaviour (i.e. hiding, running away, seeking attention from the tester, panting and lowering of the body posture). Hence, levels of cortisol in hair appear to reflect the dog's chronic state of emotional reactivity, or temperament.

  19. Bacterial communities reflect the spatial variation in pollutant levels in Brazilian mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, R; Chaer, G M; Carmo, F L; Araújo, F V; Paes, J E; Volpon, A; Santiago, G A; Rosado, A S

    2011-02-01

    The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests. A major challenge to mangrove bioremediation is defining the mangrove's pollution levels and measuring its recuperation from pollution. Bioindicators can provide a welcome tool for defining such recovery. To determine if the microbial profiles reflected variation in the pollutants, samples from different locations within a single mangrove with a history of exposure to oil were chemically characterised, and the microbial populations were evaluated by a comprehensive range of conventional and molecular methods. Multivariate ordination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) microbial community fingerprints revealed a pronounced separation between the sediment and rhizosphere samples for all analysed bacterial communities (Bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Pseudomonas). A Mantel test revealed significant relationships between the sediment chemical fertility and oil-derived pollutants, most of the bacterial community fingerprints from sediment samples, and the counts by different cultivation strategies. The level of total petroleum hydrocarbons was significantly associated with the Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria fingerprints, whereas anthracene and the total level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were associated with the Actinobacteria. These results show that microbial communities from the studied mangrove reflect the spatial variation of the chemicals in the sediment, demonstrating the specific influences of oil-derived pollutants.

  20. Exploring students' interactions, arguments, and reflections in general chemistry laboratories with different levels of inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haozhi

    Students' learning in inquiry-based investigations has drawn considerable attention of the science education community. Inquiry activities can be viewed as knowledge construction processes in which students are expected to develop conceptual understanding and critical thinking abilities. Our study aimed to explore the effect of experiments with different levels of inquiry on students' interactions in the laboratory setting, as well as on students' written arguments and reflections. Our results are based on direct observations of group work in college general chemistry laboratories and analysis of associated written lab reports. The analysis of students' interactions in the laboratory was approached from three major analytic dimensions: Functional analysis, cognitive processing, and social processing. According to our results, higher levels of inquiry were associated with an increase in the relative frequency of episodes where students were engaged in proposing ideas versus asking and answering each others' questions. Higher levels of inquiry also favored episodes in which experimental work was approached in a more exploratory (versus procedural) manner. However, no major changes were observed in the extent to which students were engaged in either interpretive discussions of central scientific concepts and ideas. As part of our study we were also interested in characterizing the effects of experiments involving different levels of inquiry on the structure and adequacy of university general chemistry students' written arguments, as well as on the nature of their reflections about laboratory work. Our findings indicate that the level of inquiry of the observed experiments had no significant impact on the structure or adequacy of arguments generated by students. However, the level of inquiry of the experiments seemed to have a major impact on several areas of students' written reflections about laboratory work. In general, our results elicit trends and highlight issues

  1. Seasonal variations of 25-OH vitamin D serum levels are associated with clinical disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Christina; Obermeier, Viola; Gerdes, Lisa Ann; Brügel, Mathias; von Kries, Rüdiger; Kümpfel, Tania

    2017-04-15

    Low 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-[OH]-D) serum concentrations have been associated with higher disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In a large cross-sectional study we assessed the vitamin D status in MS patients in relation to seasonality and relapse rate. 415 MS-patients (355 relapsing-remitting MS and 60 secondary-progressive, 282 female, mean age 39.1years) of whom 25-(OH)-D serum concentrations were determined at visits between 2010 and 2013 were included in the study. All clinical data including relapse at visit and expanded disability status scale were recorded in a standardized manner by an experienced neurologist. Seasonal variations of 25-(OH)-D serum concentrations were modelled by sinusoidal regression and seasonal variability in the prevalence of relapse by cubic regression. The mean 25-(OH)-D serum concentration was 24.8ng/ml (range 8.3-140ng/ml) with peak levels of 32.2ng/ml in July/August and nadir in January/February (17.2ng/ml). The lowest modelled prevalence of relapse was in September/October (28%) and the highest modelled prevalence in March/April (47%). The nadir of 25-(OH)-D serum concentrations preceded the peak in prevalence of relapses by two months. In summary, seasonal variation of 25-(OH)-D serum levels were inversely associated with clinical disease activity in MS patients. Future studies should investigate whether vitamin D supplementation in MS patients may decrease the seasonal risk for MS relapses.

  2. Effects of snow-reflected light levels on human visual comfort.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Demircioglu Yildiz, Nalan; Yilmaz, Sevgi

    2008-09-01

    The intensity of the sunlight reflected by the snow-covered surfaces is so high that it may disturb humans many times. This study aims to determine the reflected sunlight intensities from snow covered areas at points near (at a distance of 2 m) and under an individual tree and among trees (in the forest area) by accepting the open area as control; the reducing effects of the plant materials on reflected sunlight in percentage by comparing with the values of the open (control) area; and critical reflected sunlight threshold values for human visual comfort. The study was carried out over 22 clear and calm, i.e. sky was cloudless and wind was calm, days between the 1st and 31st days of January 2004, at 8:30 in the morning, at 12:30 at noon and at 14:30 in the afternoon in Erzurum. In order to determine the discomforting light intensity levels, 25 females and 26 male (totally 51) student subjects whose mean age was 20 and who had no visual disorders were selected. Considering the open area as control, mean reflected sunlight reducing effects were found to be 19.0, 66.0 and 82.7% for the 2 m near a tree, under a tree, and forest area, respectively. According to the responses of 51 subjects in the study, visually "very comfortable" range is between 5,000 and 8,000 lx; "comfortable" range is between 11,000 and 75,000 lx (mostly at 12,000 lx); "uncomfortable" condition is above the light intensity value of 43,000 lx and "very uncomfortable" condition is above the intensity of 80,000 lx. Great majority of the subjects (91%) found the value of 103,000 lx to be "very uncomfortable." As it is not an applicable way to use the great and dense tree masses in the cities, at least individual trees should be used along the main pedestrian axels in the cities having the same features with Erzurum to prevent the natural light pollution and discomforting effects of the snow-reflected sunlight.

  3. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  4. Changing Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2011-01-01

    In some ways, there is a season of change at the national level in early childhood. Some things are wrapping up while some developments aim to prepare the "field" for improvements in the next year and beyond, just as a garden plot is readied for the next planting season. Change is in the air, and there's hope of renewal, but what changes and how…

  5. Maternal serum 25(OH)D levels in the third trimester of pregnancy during the winter season.

    PubMed

    Ustuner, Isik; Keskin, H Levent; Tas, Emre Erdem; Neselioglu, Salim; Sengul, Ozlem; Avsar, Ayse Filiz

    2011-12-01

    To measure serum 25(OH)D levels of pregnant women in the last trimester during the winter season and to determine the factors affecting their serum levels. In all, 79 pregnant women in the third trimester were examined between November 2008 and March 2009. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and 25(OH)D levels were measured. Maternal age, education, socioeconomic status (SES), nutrition, dressing habits, and level of sunlight exposure were determined and their correlation with serum 25(OH)D levels were statistically compared. The mean serum 25(OH)D level of the study group was 11.95 ± 7.20 ng/ml, and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 10 ng/ml] in pregnant women was 45.6%. No association was detected between severe vitamin D deficiency and maternal age, gravidity, skin phototype, benefiting from ultraviolet index, and educational status of the cases. Also in patients who used multivitamin supplements and good SES, 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher (p=0.046, p=0.025, respectively). This study showed a remarkable high rate of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women during the winter season and we have found high levels of vitamin D in patients supplemented with multivitamins and in ones with good SES.

  6. Off-Season Effects on Functional Performance, Body Composition, and Blood Parameters in Top-Level Professional Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Requena, Bernardo; García, Inmaculada; Suárez-Arrones, Luis; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Naranjo Orellana, José; Santalla, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    Requena, B, García, I, Suárez-Arrones, L, Sáez de Villarreal, E, Naranjo Orellana, J, and Santalla, A. Off-season effects on functional performance, body composition, and blood parameters in top-level professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 939-946, 2017-To examine the effects of a standard off-season period (OSP) on aerobic, sprint, and jumping performances, and body and blood composition in a top-level soccer team. Nineteen soccer players were measured. The OSP included to 2 weeks of no training (resting phase) and a 4-week period of moderate-training load (phase in which each player performed the vacation exercise plan). Player's functional performance (15- and 30-m sprint times [seconds], vertical jump [meter], and incremental field test Vam-Eval [kilometer per hour]), percentage of body fat (%) and blood composition (hematological and biochemical data) were measured at mid-season, end-season, and after the OSP. The percentage of body fat was nonaltered during the competitive season (10.8 ± 3.6 and 10.5 ± 3.5%) and increased significantly after the OSP (11.6 ± 3.6%, p ≤ 0.05). Similarly, the maximal aerobic speed (VVam-Eval) velocity (kilometer per hour) decreased (p ≤ 0.05) from 17.4 ± 1 and 17.3 ± 1.2 during the competitive season to 16.6 ± 0.9 after the OSP. The hematocrit and blood hemoglobin concentration increased (p ≤ 0.05) during the OSP, showing a blood hemoconcentration adaptation. However, sprint time (seconds) and jump height (meters) showed no significant changes after the OSP. Soccer players maintained their functional performance during high-intensity activities such as jumping or sprinting after the OSP proposed. By contrast, there was a decrease in aerobic performance (VVam-Eval) accompanied by a blood hemoconcentration, and an increase of body fat mass associated with a reduction of fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Our data suggest that an end-season evaluation is needed to design holiday training programs

  7. Seasonal variation in energy expenditure is not related to activity level or water temperature in a large diving bird.

    PubMed

    Guillemette, Magella; Butler, Patrick J

    2012-09-15

    There is considerable interest in understanding how the energy budget of an endotherm is modulated from a physiological and ecological point of view. In this paper, we used daily (24 h) heart rate (f(H24)), as a proxy of daily energy expenditure (DEE) across seasons, to test the effect of locomotion activity and water temperature on the energy budget of a large diving bird. f(H24) was monitored continuously in common eiders (Somateria mollissima) during 7 months together with measures of time spent flying and time spent feeding. f(H24) varied substantially during the recording period, with numerous increases and decreases that occurred across seasons, although we did not find any relationship between f(H24) and the time spent active (feeding and flying). However, inactive heart rate (f(H,inactive)) decreased as locomotion activity increased, suggesting that common eiders were using some form of compensation when under a high work load. We were also unable to detect a negative relationship between water temperature and resting heart rate, a proxy of resting metabolic rate. This was unexpected, based on the assumption that high thermoregulation costs would be associated with cold waters. We showed instead that a high level of energy expenditure coincided with feather moult and warm waters, which suggests that the observed variable pattern of seasonal DEE was driven by these two factors. Nevertheless, our results indicate that compensation and possibly the timing of moult may be used as mechanisms to reduce seasonal variation in energy expenditure.

  8. Enhanced Strength and Sprint Levels, and Changes in Blood Parameters during a Complete Athletics Season in 800 m High-Level Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; González-Badillo, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in sprint, strength, hematological, and hormonal parameters in high-level 800 m athletes during a complete athletics season. Thirteen male athletes of national and international level in 800 m (personal best ranging from 1:43 to 1:58 min:ss) participated in this study. A total of 5 tests were conducted during a complete athletics season. Athletes performed sprint tests (20 and 200 m), countermovement jump (CMJ), jump squat (JS), and full squat (SQ) tests. Blood samples (red and white blood profile) and hormones were collected in test 1 (T1), test 3 (T3), and test 5 (T5). A general increase in the performance of the strength and sprint parameters analyzed (CMJ, JS, SQ, 20 m, and 200 m) during the season was observed, with a significant time effect in CMJ (P < 0.01), SQ (P < 0.01), and 200 m (P < 0.05). This improvement was accompanied by a significant enhancement of the 800 m performance from T3 to T5 (P < 0.01). Significant changes in some hematological variables: hematocrit (Hct) (P < 0.01), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) (P < 0.001), mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (MCHC) (P < 0.001), white blood cells count (WBC) (P < 0.05), neutrophils (P < 0.05), monocytes (P < 0.05), and mean platelet volume (MPV) (P < 0.05) were observed throughout the season. The hormonal response and creatin kinase (CK) did not show significant variations during the season, except for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest the importance of strength levels in middle-distance athletes. On the other hand, variations in some hematological parameters and a depression of the immune system occurred during the season. Therefore, monitoring of the mechanical, hematological and hormonal response in athletes may help coaches and athletes to optimize the regulation of training contents and may be useful to diagnose states of overreaching or overtraining in athletes throughout the season. PMID:28912725

  9. Seasonal and cumulative loblolly pine development under two stand density and fertility levels

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood

    1992-01-01

    An 8 year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand was subjected to two cultural treatments for examination of seasonal and cumulative pine development. In the first treatment, pine density was either reduced by removal cutting to 2% trees per acre, at a 12- by 124 spacing, or left uncut with an original density of 1,210 trees per acre at a 6- by 6-...

  10. Seasonal determination of trace and ultra-trace content in Macrocystis pyrifera from San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia) by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomone, Vanesa N.; Riera, Marina; Cerchietti, Luciana; Custo, Graciela; Muniain, Claudia

    2017-05-01

    Seaweed have a great capacity to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues. The chemical characterization of seaweed is important due to their use in environmental monitoring and human or animal food. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the multi-elemental composition of seaweed from San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). The elements As, Br, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn were seasonally analyzed and quantified in blades of Macrocystis pyrifera. TXRF showed to be a suitable technique for simultaneous multi-element analysis in this kind of samples. The results revealed seasonal variations in the chemical content for some elements; arsenic content was maximum in summer and autumn, iron concentration increased to the winter and zinc concentration was maximum in autumn. The sum of principal micronutrients (Fe + Zn + Mn + Cu) varied between 114 and 171 mg k- 1 g dw. The total As concentration ranged between 36 and 66 mg kg- 1. Lead, nickel and copper were not detected.

  11. [Tri-Level Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Hot Melting Reflective Road Marking Paint].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-qin

    2015-12-01

    In order to detect the road marking paint from the trace evidence in traffic accident scene, and to differentiate their brands, we use Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification, which employs the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy(SD-IR), two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2D-IR) to identify three different domestic brands of hot melting reflective road marking paints and their raw materials in formula we Selected. The experimental results show that three labels coatings in ATR and FTIR spectrograms are very similar in shape, only have different absorption peak wave numbers, they have wide and strong absorption peaks near 1435 cm⁻¹, and strong absorption peak near 879, 2955, 2919, 2870 cm⁻¹. After enlarging the partial areas of spectrograms and comparing them with each kind of raw material of formula spectrograms, we can distinguish them. In the region 700-970 and 1370-1 660 cm⁻¹ the spectrograms mainly reflect the different relative content of heavy calcium carbonate of three brands of the paints, and that of polyethylene wax (PE wax), ethylene vinyl acetate resin (EVA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in the region 2800-2960 cm⁻¹. The SD-IR not only verify the result of the FTIR analysis, but also further expand the microcosmic differences and reflect the different relative content of quartz sand in the 512-799 cm-1 region. Within the scope of the 1351 to 1525 cm⁻¹, 2D-IR have more significant differences in positions and numbers of automatically peaks. Therefore, the Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification is a fast and effective method to distinguish the hot melting road marking paints with a gradually improvement in apparent resolution.

  12. Seasonal fluctuations in sea level on the South Carolina shelf and their relationship to the Gulf Stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.

    1992-01-01

    Near-bottom pressure measurements obtained over a 9-month period in 1978 on the outer continental shelf off South Carolina document that sea level rose 35 to 50 cm between July and October. Records of coastal sea level showed a similar rise. When the pressure and coastal sea level records were corrected for the effects of wind stress and temperature, the largest portion of the rise in the two variables remained. The amplitude of the change in residual sea level was largest at the shelf break, 28 cm, and decayed to 22 cm at the coast. The relatively small magnitude of the decay suggests that alongshelf pressure gradients imposed at the shelf break have minimum alongshelf wavelengths of 2000 km. The changes in residual sea level were seasonal and associated with seasonal changes in the transport of the Gulf Stream. The 3 years of residual sea level records examined here indicate that the amplitude of a typical decrease in transport of the Gulf Stream off South Carolina between July and October has a strong interannual variability. The change in transport can be 50% lower to over 100% higher than the historical average. The residual sea level records also suggest that a change in transport of the Gulf Stream is not strongly related to the onshore/offshore position of the Gulf Stream.

  13. Seasonal fluctuations in sea level on the South Carolina shelf and their relationship to the Gulf Stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.

    1992-01-01

    Near-bottom pressure measurements obtained over a 9-month period in 1978 on the outer continental shelf off South Carolina document that sea level rose 35 to 50 cm between July and October. Records of coastal sea level showed a similar rise. When the pressure and coastal sea level records were corrected for the effects of wind stress and temperature, the largest portion of the rise in the two variables remained. The amplitude of the change in residual sea level was largest at the shelf break, 28 cm, and decayed to 22 cm at the coast. The relatively small magnitude of the decay suggests that alongshelf pressure gradients imposed at the shelf break have minimum alongshelf wavelengths of 2000 km. The changes in residual sea level were seasonal and associated with seasonal changes in the transport of the Gulf Stream. The 3 years of residual sea level records examined here indicate that the amplitude of a typical decrease in transport of the Gulf Stream off South Carolina between July and October has a strong interannual variability. The change in transport can be 50% lower to over 100% higher than the historical average. The residual sea level records also suggest that a change in transport of the Gulf Stream is not strongly related to the onshore/offshore position of the Gulf Stream.

  14. Decomposing the seasonal fitness decline.

    PubMed

    Öberg, Meit; Pärt, Tomas; Arlt, Debora; Laugen, Ane T; Low, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal fitness declines are common, but the relative contribution of different reproductive components to the seasonal change in the production of reproductive young, and the component-specific drivers of this change is generally poorly known. We used long-term data (17 years) on breeding time (i.e. date of first egg laid) in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate seasonal reproductive patterns and estimate the relative contributions of reproductive components to the overall decline in reproduction, while accounting for factors potentially linked to seasonal declines, i.e. individual and habitat quality. All reproductive components-nest success (reflecting nest predation rate), clutch size, fledging success and recruitment success-showed a clear decline with breeding time whereas subsequent adult survival did not. A non-linear increase in nest predation rate caused nest success to decline rapidly early in the season and level off at ~80% success late in the breeding season. The combined seasonal decline in all reproductive components caused the mean production of recruits per nest to drop from around 0.7-0.2; with the relative contribution greatest for recruitment success which accounted for ~50% of the decline. Our data suggest that changing environmental conditions together with effects of nest predation have strong effects on the seasonal decline in fitness. Our demonstration of the combined effects of all reproductive components and their relative contribution shows that omitting data from later stages of breeding (recruitment) can greatly underestimate seasonal fitness declines.

  15. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, R. A.; Özsoy, E.; Schrum, C.; Sur, H. I.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December-January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February-July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August-November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. The model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  16. Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrayev, R. A.; Özsoy, E.; Schrum, C.; Sur, H. İ.

    2009-09-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model including sea ice thermodynamics and air-sea interaction is used to study seasonal circulation and water mass variability in the Caspian Sea under the influence of realistic mass, momentum and heat fluxes. River discharges, precipitation, radiation and wind stress are seasonally specified in the model, based on available data sets. The evaporation rate, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface are computed interactively through an atmospheric boundary layer sub-model, using the ECMWF-ERA15 re-analysis atmospheric data and model generated sea surface temperature. The model successfully simulates sea-level changes and baroclinic circulation/mixing features with forcing specified for a selected year. The results suggest that the seasonal cycle of wind stress is crucial in producing basin circulation. Seasonal cycle of sea surface currents presents three types: cyclonic gyres in December-January; Eckman south-, south-westward drift in February-July embedded by western and eastern southward coastal currents and transition type in August-November. Western and eastern northward sub-surface coastal currents being a result of coastal local dynamics at the same time play an important role in meridional redistribution of water masses. An important part of the work is the simulation of sea surface topography, yielding verifiable results in terms of sea level. Model successfully reproduces sea level variability for four coastal points, where the observed data are available. Analyses of heat and water budgets confirm climatologic estimates of heat and moisture fluxes at the sea surface. Experiments performed with variations in external forcing suggest a sensitive response of the circulation and the water budget to atmospheric and river forcing.

  17. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Sæther, Stig A.; Aspvik, Nils P.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level. Key points It is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth. With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ total physical activity (PA) load. These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. PMID:25435792

  18. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level.

    PubMed

    Sæther, Stig A; Aspvik, Nils P

    2014-12-01

    'Practise makes perfect' is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min(-1) (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min(-1), June: 854.9 counts·min(-1), October: 861.5 counts·min(-1)). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min(-1). A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players' PA-level. Key pointsIt is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth.With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' total physical activity (PA) load.These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout.

  19. Levels, seasonal variations and sources of organochlorine pesticides in ambient air of Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Li, Deliang; Mu, Dehai

    Air samples were collected at an urban site and a suburban site of Guangzhou city, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations and sources. The average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane and ∑DDTs in the air were 93, 287 and 351 pg m -3 at the urban site, and 94, 2258 and 399 pg m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. OCPs in the air were predominantly in gas phase in this study but their concentrations in particle phase were still not neglectable. The air concentrations and seasonal variations of ∑HCHs and ∑DDTs at the urban and suburban sites were similar without obvious difference. The seasonal variations of ∑chlordane concentrations were extremely different at the two sampling sites and the air concentrations were unusually high at suburban site, especially in April and May 2005. The potential sources of HCHs in the air of Guangzhou might come from lindane due to the relative low α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios. Technical chlordane was likely used, especially at or near the suburban site, because the t-chlordane/ c-chlordane ratios were >1.2 and the air concentrations of chlordane were extremely high. Present usage of dicofol at or near Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was implied by the much higher ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) and o, p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT. The air concentrations of aldrich were low, and dieldrin and endrin were detected in none of the samples.

  20. A Sport Education Fitness Season's Impact on Students' Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and In-Class Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jeffery Kurt; Hastie, Peter A; Wadsworth, Danielle D; Foote, Shelby; Brock, Sheri J; Hollett, Nikki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a sport education season of fitness could provide students with recommended levels of in-class moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while also increasing students' fitness knowledge and fitness achievement. One hundred and sixty-six 5th-grade students (76 boys, 90 girls) participated in a 20-lesson season called "CrossFit Challenge" during a 4-week period. The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, push-ups, and curl-ups tests of the FITNESSGRAM® were used to assess fitness at pretest and posttest, while fitness knowledge was assessed through a validated, grade-appropriate test of health-related fitness knowledge (HRF). Physical activity was measured with Actigraph GT3X triaxial accelerometers. Results indicated a significant time effect for all fitness tests and the knowledge test. Across the entire season, the students spent an average of 54.5% of lesson time engaged in MVPA, irrespective of the type of lesson (instruction, free practice, or competition). The results suggest that configuring the key principles of sport education within a unit of fitness is an efficient model for providing students with the opportunity to improve fitness skill and HRF knowledge while attaining recommended levels of MVPA.

  1. Seasonal variation and processing of vascular plant organic matter in tropical montane catchments as reflected by riverine DOC compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, P.; Dyda, R. Y.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical rivers are responsible for two thirds of global fluxes of terrigenous organic matter to the oceans, yet because of their remote locations relative to most industrialized countries, they are poorly studied compared to temperate and even Arctic rivers. This study measured lignin biomarkers on weekly samples from two Puerto Rican rivers, the Mameyes and the Rio Icacos, over the course of ~9 months in order to investigate watershed controls on organic matter export via rivers. In both rivers, carbon-normalized yields of lignin increased with discharge, indicating higher organic matter contributions from vascular plants and lower contributions from microbial sources. Lignin biomarkers can be used to distinguish between conifer and deciduous trees as well as woody and nonwoody tissues, and the source signatures of the two rivers were essentially the same, indicating similar vegetation and sources of organic materials to both rivers. Thus, differences in diagenetic lignin parameters can be attributed to differences in processing within the two watersheds. For example, the Rio Icacos is a much flashier system with much higher sediment loads during storm events, which can lead to significant exchange of organic matter between the dissolved and particulate phase. Acid to aldehyde ratios for vanillyl and syringyl lignin phenols, (Ad:Al)v and (Ad:Al)s, are commonly used indicators of degradation. Plots of (Ad:Al)s vs. (Ad:Al)v for the two rivers reveal a significantly steeper slope for the Mameyes, which could reflect differences in the mineralogy between the systems, as the Mameyes watershed is underlain by volcaniclastic materials while the Rio Icacos is underlain by granodiorite. It is a commonly held assumption that base materials and soils should exert a strong influence on riverine organic matter compositions, but paired watershed studies are comparatively rare even in temperate climates. Hence, measureable differences between the two systems studied here

  2. Urine Levels of Defensin α1 Reflect Kidney Injury in Leptospirosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Chen, Yue; Lacuesta, Talitha Lea; Leano, Prisca Susan A.; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Hanan, Firmanto; Taurustiati, Delsi; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Ashino, Yugo; Saitoh, Hiroki; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Telan, Freda O. Elizabeth; Hattori, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease whose severe forms are often accompanied by kidney dysfunction. In the present study, urinary markers were studied for potential prediction of disease severity. Urine samples from 135 patients with or without leptospirosis at San Lazaro Hospital, the Philippines, were analyzed. Urine levels of defensin α1 (uDA1) were compared with those of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosidase (uNAG). Serum creatinine (Cr) was used as a marker of kidney injury. The levels of uDA1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr, and uNAG/Cr were positive in 46%, 90%, and 80% of leptospirosis patients, and 69%, 70%, and 70% of non-leptospirosis patients, respectively. In leptospirosis patients, the correlation of uDA1/Cr, uNGAL/Cr and uNAG/Cr levels with serum Cr were r = 0.3 (p < 0.01), r = 0.29 (p < 0.01), and r = 0.02 (p = 0.81), respectively. uDA1/Cr levels were correlated with uNGAL/Cr levels (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and uNAG/Cr levels (r = 0.47, p < 0.0001) in leptospirosis patients. These findings suggest that uDA1, uNGAL, and uNAG were elevated in leptospirosis patients and reflected various types of kidney damage. uDA1 and uNGAL can be used to track kidney injury in leptospirosis patients because of their correlation with the serum Cr level. PMID:27689992

  3. Hematocrit Level could Reflect Inflammatory Response and Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Ma, Ning; Fu, Haitao; Wei, Tingting; Tang, Qingqin; Qin, Baodong; Yang, Zaixing; Zhong, Renqian

    2015-01-01

    The previous study has reported the association of hematocrit (HCT) with inflammation in several diseases. But the role of HCT in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remained unclear. We tried to evaluate the clinical significance of HCT levels in patients with SLE. A retrospective study including 127 adult SLE patients and 146 normal healthy controls was performed. HCT levels between SLE patients and normal healthy controls were compared, and correlations between HCT and clinical characteristics were evaluated. HCT levels in SLE patients were significantly decreased as compared with the normal healthy controls and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = -0.336, p < 0.01), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = -0.332, p < 0.01), and SLEDAI scores (r = -0.376, p < 0.01). HCT levels were also significantly lower in SLE patients with decreased C3 and C4 as compared with those in SLE patients with normal C3 and C4, indicating that HCT was positively correlated with C3 and C4 levels (r = 0.272, p < 0.01; r = 0.273, p < 0.01). HCT was decreased in SLE patients with the presence of anti-Sm and anti-RNP antibodies as compared with those without these auto-antibodies (p = 0.013, p < 0.01). After adjusting RBC count and hemoglobin level, multiple linear regression analysis showed that HCT was independently associated with disease activity in SLE patients. In addition, HCT levels were elevated after treatment. HCT is correlated with CRP, ESR, and SLEDAI, suggesting that HCT could reflect inflammatory response and disease activity in SLE patients.

  4. Diurnal and seasonal trends in carbonyl levels in a semi-urban coastal site in the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón, R. M.; Cerón, J. G.; Muriel, M.

    Concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde were measured in a semi-urban coastal site in the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico, during the winter, summer and autumn seasons. Measurements were carried out from 10 February 2004 to 16 November 2004. Carbonyl compound levels showed pronounced diurnal and seasonal variations. Maximum concentrations occurred between 13:00 h and 16:00 h, when vehicular traffic and photochemical activity were intense, and during the summer (when there was greater solar radiation). Only acetone during the first campaign (winter) did not correlate with temperature; it showed an inverse diurnal pattern, with higher concentrations during the night, probably due to a local and temporal source. The low concentrations of the main carbonyls found in this study, compared with the values reported for other urban areas, seem to indicate that air quality is still satisfactory in Carmen City.

  5. Evaluation of the Seasonal and Spatial Lake Level Change Using by Worldview-2 Satellite Images in the Egirdir Lake (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Erhan; Sener, Sehnaz; Uysal, Rahmi; Bulut, Cafer

    2016-08-01

    Eğirdir Lake is located in the Lake District, it is fourth largest lake and the second largest freshwater lake in Turkey. The lake is still drinking water sources in many residential areas. In this study two Worldview-2 satellite imagery which is high resolution 8-band has been used. The imagery covering the whole lake and belongs to date 10.05.2010 and 24.10.2010. Using Coastal Band (1.Band), Blue (2.Band), Green (3.Band), Yellow (4.Band) and Red (5.Band) on that satellite, seasonal water level in the rainy and dry periods in the selected pilot areas of the Eğirdir Lake has been aimed to determine. In this context, firstly Atmospheric Correction is applied to reduce their atmospheric effects. In order to mask of surface water The Normalized Water Different Index (NWDI) has been applied. Then seasonally varying fields has been identified with change analysis applied to two different image.

  6. Work engagement, moral distress, education level, and critical reflective practice in intensive care nurses.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how nurses' moral distress, education level, and critical reflective practice (CRP) related to their work engagement. The study is relevant to nursing, given registered nurse (RN) documented experiences of job-related distress and work dissatisfaction, and the nursing shortage crisis. A better understanding of factors that may enhance RN work engagement is needed. A non-experimental, descriptive, correlational design was used to examine the relationships among four variables: moral distress, education level, CRP, and work engagement. The sample included 28 intensive care unit RNs from three separate ICUs in a 355-bed Southwest magnet-designated hospital. There was a positive direct relationship between CRP and work engagement, a negative direct relationship between moral distress and work engagement, and CRP and moral distress, together, explained 47% of the variance in work engagement. Additionally, in the neonatal intensive care unit, a positive direct relationship between increased educational level and CRP was identified, with a suggested negative relationship between increased education level and moral distress. Strategies to promote CRP and reduce moral distress are recommended, to promote RN work engagement. Additionally, further study on the role of education in nurses' work engagement is recommended. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Plasma HVA levels following debrisoquine administration do not reflect cerebral dopamine loss in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rose, S; Hindmarsh, J G; Steiger, M J; Bhatt, M; Quinn, N P; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1994-06-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) following debrisoquine (DBQ) administration may be indicative of central dopaminergic activity. The effect of DBQ (10-20 mg) administration on pHVA in young healthy volunteers was studied to establish a protocol for use in de novo patients with Parkinson's disease. Subsequently, pHVA in de novo patients with Parkinson's disease were measured and compared to young healthy volunteers. Following DBQ (10 mg) administration to healthy volunteers, pHVA fell with time to a maximum of 62% of control values at 6 h. The decrease in pHVA was not affected by loading with DBQ (10 mg) 10 h previously (pHVA: 67.6 +/- 5.8% of preDBQ levels) or increasing the dose to 20 mg (56.1 +/- 11.8% of preDBQ levels) compared to a single 10 mg dose of debrisoquine (66.5 +/- 4.5% of preDBQ levels). pHVA was reduced in both de novo patients with Parkinson's disease and in healthy volunteers following DBQ (10 mg) administration. However, there was no difference in pHVA before or after DBQ administration when comparing the two groups. These results suggest that, following DBQ administration, pHVA does not reflect dopamine neuronal loss in de novo patients with Parkinson's disease, so it is unlikely to detect the disease before the clinical symptoms manifest themselves.

  8. Do High Blood Hepcidin Concentrations Contribute to Low Ferritin Levels in Young Tennis Players at the End of Tournament Season?

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Ewa; Kasprowicz, Katarzyna; Kasperska, Anna; Zembroń-Lacny, Agnieszka; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to verify whether impaired iron metabolism in young athletes is a consequence of an excessive workload during the tournament season. Low levels of ferritin (under 25 µg·L-1) have been frequently observed in young tennis players. We considered this finding to be related to the high-intensity workload or to insufficient rest, which both trigger a strong immune response. Groups of male, well-trained young tennis players (16 ± 0.9 years old, average of 10-year training experience) and a control peer group participated in this study. The research consisted of two examination sessions (March and September 2010). Blood samples were collected to determine haematological and immunological parameters. Additionally, body composition and physical capacity were assessed. In both periods of the study, the trained groups were characterised by low levels of ferritin, but also elevated levels of pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Moreover, an inverse correlation between IL-1β and blood ferritin was observed. Additionally, an increased concentration of the iron homeostasis regulator hepcidin was found in blood samples (mean 71 ng·ml-1; range from 48 to 100 ng·ml-1). We concluded that the pro- inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, most likely induced by an extensive workload during the tournament season, was responsible for the low level of ferritin in young, professional athletes. Key Points The first research demonstrating low grade inflammation-induced iron deficiency to be associated with elevated blood hepcidin levels in young tennis athletes. Evaluation of immunological response after the complete tournament season in young male tennis players. Conclusion to introduce the assessment of hepcidin to monitor trainings as well as symptoms of overreaching more effectively. Research providing practical information for coaches that changes in diet and modifications in workloads applied in physical training could be more effective than iron

  9. TSH levels are associated with vitamin D status and seasonality in an adult population of euthyroid adults.

    PubMed

    Barchetta, I; Baroni, M G; Leonetti, F; De Bernardinis, M; Bertoccini, L; Fontana, M; Mazzei, E; Fraioli, A; Cavallo, M G

    2015-08-01

    A circannual periodicity in thyrotropin (TSH) secretion has been reported but the causes of these phenomenon are still undefined. Vitamin D exerts a direct influence on pituitary axes including the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Aims of the present study were to investigate the presence of a seasonal variability of TSH secretion and to study the association between vitamin D status and TSH levels in a population of euthyroid adults. For this purpose, we recruited 294 euthyroid adults (M/F 133/161, 48.5 ± 12.4 years). Study participants underwent clinical examination and routine biochemistry assessment. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed for serum 25(OH) vitamin D <25 nmol/l. Significantly higher TSH levels were found in subjects who underwent blood sampling during the Autumn-Winter compared with individuals evaluated in Spring-Summer (2.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.8 ± 1.1 μIU/ml, p = 0.03). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with higher TSH levels (p = 0.01) after adjusting for sex, age, and sample's season. Although vitamin D deficiency was also associated with metabolic syndrome and its components, the association between TSH levels and vitamin D status persisted also considering these confounders. These data reveal the occurrence of seasonal variability of serum TSH concentration in euthyroid subjects and provide evidence for the first time that an association exists between vitamin D status and serum TSH levels.

  10. The spatial and temporal variability of the seasonal mean sea level cycle in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhaimin Amiruddin, Abd; Haigh, Ivan; Tsimplis, Mikis; Calafat, Francisco; Dangendorf, Soenke

    2015-04-01

    The seasonal cycle is the most energetic component of mean sea level variability and changes in either its amplitude or phase can seriously impact the risk of coastal flooding. Here, tide gauge records and satellite altimetry observations, along with steric and meteorological data are used to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the seasonal cycle in the South China Sea (SCS) and its forcing mechanisms. The coastal annual amplitude varies significantly from region to region with values ranging from 2 cm to 24 cm, and generally peaks between July and January. The coastal semi-annual amplitude has maximum values of 7 cm, and it peaks between March and June. Along the coast, the seasonal cycle accounts on average for 60% with maximum values of up to 92% of the mean monthly sea level variability. Atmospheric pressure fluctuations explain a significant portion of the seasonal cycle with dominant annual signals in the northern SCS, the Gulf of Thailand and the north-western Philippines Sea. The wind forcing is dominant on the shelf areas of the SCS and the Gulf of Thailand where a simple barotropic model forced by local wind shows amplitudes of up to 27 cm. In the deep basin of the SCS, the Philippines Sea and the shallow Malacca Strait, the steric component is the major contributor with maximum annual amplitudes of up to 15 cm. Significant variability in the annual and semi-annual cycle is found on a year-to-year basis. The annual and semi-annual amplitudes vary by up to 63% and 45% of the maximum values, 15 cm and 11 cm, respectively. On average, stepwise regression analysis of contribution of different forcing factors accounts for 69% of the temporal variability of the annual cycle. The zonal wind and the cross-shore wind were found to exert considerable influence in the Malacca Strait and the northern SCS respectively.

  11. Seasonal variation of indoor radon-222 levels in dwellings in Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Shehadeh, Ayah K

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the seasonal variations of indoor radon levels in dwellings located in the Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine. The measurements were performed during the summer and winter of the year 2006/2007 using CR-39 solid-state-nuclear-track detectors. The total number of investigated buildings is 75 in summer and 81 in winter. A total number of 142 dosemeters are installed in dwellings for each season for a period of almost 100 d. The radon concentration levels in summer varied from 43 to 192 Bq m(-3) for buildings in the Ramallah province and from 30 to 655 Bq m(-3) for East Jerusalem suburbs. In winter, the radon concentration levels are found to vary from 38 to 375 Bq m(-3) in the Ramallah buildings and from 35 to 984 Bq m(-3) in East Jerusalem suburbs. The obtained results for radon concentration levels in most places are found to be within the accepted international levels.

  12. Determining the Best Method for Estimating the Observed Level of Maximum Detrainment Based on Radar Reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Carletta, Nicholas D.; Mullendore, Gretchen L.; Starzec, Mariusz; Xi, Baike; Feng, Zhe; Dong, Xiquan

    2016-08-01

    Convective mass transport is the transport of mass from near the surface up to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) by a deep convective updraft. This transport can alter the chemical makeup and water vapor balance of the UTLS, which affects cloud formation and the radiative properties of the atmosphere. It is therefore important to understand the exact altitudes at which mass is detrained from convection. The purpose of this study was to improve upon previously published methodologies for estimating the level of maximum detrainment (LMD) within convection using data from a single ground-based radar. Four methods were used to identify the LMD and validated against dual-Doppler derived vertical mass divergence fields for six cases with a variety of storm types. The best method for locating the LMD was determined to be the method that used a reflectivity texture technique to determine convective cores and a multi-layer echo identification to determine anvil locations. Although an improvement over previously published methods, the new methodology still produced unreliable results in certain regimes. The methodology worked best when applied to mature updrafts, as the anvil needs time to grow to a detectable size. Thus, radar reflectivity is found to be valuable in estimating the LMD, but storm maturity must also be considered for best results.

  13. BOREAS Level-2 MAS Surface Reflectance and Temperature Images in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey (Editor); Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Strub, Richard; Lobitz, Brad

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Staff Science Aircraft Data Acquisition Program focused on providing the research teams with the remotely sensed aircraft data products they needed to compare and spatially extend point results. The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) images, along with other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes biophysical parameter maps such as surface reflectance and temperature. Collection of the MAS images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 MAS data cover the dates of 21-Jul-1994, 24-Jul-1994, 04-Aug-1994, and 08-Aug-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 navigation data in a MAS scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  14. Determination of in vivo skin moisture level by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saknite, Inga; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has a potential for noninvasive determination of skin moisture level due to high water absorption. In this study, diffuse reflectance spectra of in vivo skin were acquired in the spectral range of 900 nm to 1700 nm by using near-infrared spectrometer, optical fiber and halogen bulb light source. Absorption changes after applying skin moisturizers were analyzed over time at different body sites. Results show difference in absorption when comparing dry and normal skin. Comparison of absorption changes over time after applying moisturizer at different body sites is analyzed and discussed. Some patterns of how skin reacts to different skin moisturizers are shown, although no clear pattern can be seen due to signal noise.

  15. Spectral reflectance characteristics of soils in northeastern Brazil as influenced by salinity levels.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Luiz Guilherme Medeiros; Freire, Maria Betânia Galvão Dos Santos; Wilcox, Bradford Paul; Green, Colleen Heather Machado; De Araújo, Rômulo José Tolêdo; De Araújo Filho, José Coelho

    2016-11-01

    In northeastern Brazil, large swaths of once-productive soils have been severely degraded by soil salinization, but the true extent of the damage has not been assessed. Emerging remote sensing technology based on hyperspectral analysis offers one possibility for large-scale assessment, but it has been unclear to what extent the spectral properties of soils are related to salinity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spectral properties of degraded (saline) and non-degraded agricultural soils in northeastern Brazil and determine the extent to which these properties correspond to soil salinity. We took soil samples from 78 locations within a 45,000-km(2) site in Pernambuco State. We used cluster analysis to group the soil samples on the basis of similarities in salinity and sodicity levels, and then obtained spectral data for each group. The physical properties analysis indicated a predominance of the coarse sand fraction in almost all the soil groups, and total porosity was similar for all the groups. The chemical analysis revealed different levels of degradation among the groups, ranging from non-degraded to strongly degraded conditions, as defined by the degree of salinity and sodicity. The soil properties showing the highest correlation with spectral reflectance were the exchangeable sodium percentage followed by fine sand. Differences in the reflectance curves for the various soil groups were relatively small and were not significant. These results suggest that, where soil crusts are not present, significant challenges remain for using hyperspectral remote sensing to assess soil salinity in northeastern Brazil.

  16. Does the mid-Atlantic United States sea level acceleration hot spot reflect ocean dynamic variability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Robert E.

    2013-08-01

    To test a hypothesized faster-than-global sea level acceleration along the mid-Atlantic United States, I construct a Gaussian process model that decomposes tide gauge data into short-term variability and longer-term trends, and into globally coherent, regionally coherent, and local components. While tide gauge records indicate a faster-than-global increase in the rate of mid-Atlantic U.S. sea level rise beginning ˜1975, this acceleration could reflect either the start of a long-term trend or ocean dynamic variability. The acceleration will need to continue for ˜2 decades before the rate of increase of the sea level difference between the mid-Atlantic and southeastern U.S. can be judged as very likely unprecedented by 20th century standards. However, the difference is correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Gulf Stream North Wall indices, all of which are currently within the range of past variability.

  17. Habitat degradation increases stress-hormone levels during the breeding season, and decreases survival and reproduction in adult common lizards.

    PubMed

    Josserand, Rémy; Dupoué, Andréaz; Agostini, Simon; Haussy, Claudy; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Meylan, Sandrine

    2017-05-01

    The allostatic load model describes how individuals maintain homeostasis in challenging environment and posits that costs induced by a chronic perturbation (i.e., allostatic load) are correlated to the secretion of glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone. Habitat perturbations from anthropogenic activities are multiple and functional responses to those are still unclear. Here, we manipulated the habitat quality in 24 semi-natural populations of the common lizard during 1 year. We tested the predictions of the allostatic load model that habitat degradation should increase baseline corticosterone levels, and should induce concomitant physiological changes, such as lipid mobilization and lower immunocompetence, and demographic changes, such as lower body growth, survival and/or reproductive performances. Our results highlight stage-dependent effects of habitat degradation on physiological traits during the breeding season: adult lizards had higher baseline corticosterone levels and yearling lizards had a lower inflammatory response than adults, whereas juveniles had higher circulating lipid levels than yearlings and adults without concomitant change in corticosterone levels. In addition, habitat degradation reduced the performances of adults but not of juveniles: in low habitat quality populations, adult males had a lower survival and females had a smaller fecundity. These results are in accordance with the allostatic load model given that allostatic load was detected only during the season and in life stages of maximal energy expenditure. This underlines the importance to account for individual energy requirements to better understand demographic responses to habitat perturbation.

  18. Variations in the Levels of Mulberroside A, Oxyresveratrol, and Resveratrol in Mulberries in Different Seasons and during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jin; Li, Shun-xiang; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiao-yi; Lu, Xiang-yang; Yan, Xin-pei; Huang, Dan; Wei, Bao-yang; Cao, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the composition of three major stilbenes (mulberroside A, oxyresveratrol, and resveratrol) in different portions of mulberries collected in different seasons and their change molds during growth by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mulberroside A levels were the highest in the bark and roots of Morus atropurpurea Roxb, Morus alba Linn, and Morus latifolia Poir. Oxyresveratrol levels were the highest in roots and stem. Both of these high levels were in September. The amount of resveratrol was very low in all samples. In the stem, Morus latifolia Poir contained more mulberroside A than the other two mulberries. Mulberroside A was not detected in the leaves of the three mulberries. In Morus atropurpurea Roxb seedlings, the root tended to contain more of the three stilbenes than leaves. The temporal peaks of resveratrol were always ahead of those for oxyresveratrol. The levels of the stilbenes varied in different portions of the varieties of mulberries collected in different season and in the seedlings of Morus atropurpurea Roxb. PMID:24023529

  19. Twelve tips for teaching reflection at all levels of medical education.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals a diversity of pedagogical approaches and educational goals related to teaching reflection. The following tips outline an approach to the design, implementation, and evaluation of reflection in medical education. The method is based on the available literature and the author's experience. They are organized in the sequence that an educator might use in developing a reflective activity. The 12 tips provide guidance from conceptualization and structure of the reflective exercise to implementation and feedback and assessment. The final tip relates to the development of the faculty member's own reflective ability. With a better understanding of the conceptual frameworks underlying critical reflection and greater advance planning, medical educators will be able to create exercises and longitudinal curricula that not only enable greater learning from the experience being reflected upon but also develop reflective skills for life-long learning.

  20. Vertical jump assessment on volleyball: a follow-up of three seasons of a high-level volleyball team.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Xantal; Balius, Xavier; Drobnic, Franchek; Galilea, Piero

    2011-06-01

    This is a longitudinal descriptive study whose purpose is to assess the physical state of male volleyball players competing at the international level, comparing their jump heights during 3 different seasons. National team sample relies upon trainer decisions, and it was different every season. There were 23, 15, and 13 players in the first, second, and third years, respectively. Subjects underwent a vertical test protocol consisting of rocket jump, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), CMJ with arms (CMJa), and spike jump (DJb) at the preparation period of the national team season. In 2007, an extra evaluation was performed during the competitive period. A contact mat was used for the assessment. An increase of jump height was observed over the years, with SJ and DJb increasing significantly (FSJ = 5.4; FDJb = 4.7; p < 0.05). The elasticity index decreased significantly between 2007 and 2008 (FEI = 8.5; p < 0.05), whereas arm utilization index and approach index increased, but this increase was not statistically significant. A significant increase in SJ and DJb was also observed between the 2 tests performed in 2007, whereas a nonsignificant increase was observed for CMJ and CMJa. The results indicate a better performance of explosive strength, elastic-explosive strength, and reflex-elastic-explosive strength and a better use of arms during jumps.

  1. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  2. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  3. A Critical Evaluation of the Usefulness of a Coding Scheme to Categorise Levels of Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Amani; Kelton, Jill; McDonagh, Nadia; Mladenovic, Rosina; Morrison, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    The use of reflective learning journals to encourage higher order learning outcomes is a growing area in higher education research and practice. However, without a unified and clear definition of reflection, identifying and assessing reflection is problematic for educators. In an attempt to address this issue, in 1999 Kember and colleagues devised…

  4. A Critical Evaluation of the Usefulness of a Coding Scheme to Categorise Levels of Reflective Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Amani; Kelton, Jill; McDonagh, Nadia; Mladenovic, Rosina; Morrison, Kellie

    2011-01-01

    The use of reflective learning journals to encourage higher order learning outcomes is a growing area in higher education research and practice. However, without a unified and clear definition of reflection, identifying and assessing reflection is problematic for educators. In an attempt to address this issue, in 1999 Kember and colleagues devised…

  5. Seasonal differences in SO2 ground-level impacts from a power plant plume on complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Palau, J L; Meliá, J; Segarra, D; Pérez-Landa, G; Santa-Cruz, F; Millán, M M

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the seasonal differences in SO2 ground-level fumigations from a power plant situated on very complex terrain in the Iberian Peninsula within the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The study area extends more than 80 km around the power plant on very complex semi-arid terrain. Considering different plume-rise schemes, by experimentation and modelling this study attempts to characterise the seasonal differences in both the plume footprint 80 km around the power plant and the turbulent regime (diurnal or nocturnal) driving the main contribution to the accumulated plume footprints at different distances from the power plant within a complex terrain region. Two markedly different SO2 ground-level distributions around the power plant are presented for the typical summer and winter dispersive scenarios in the area. Simulations show that the SO2 footprint of a plume being advected more than 450 m above ground level in complex terrain is highly dependent on the prevailing meteorological conditions and on the mesoscale perturbations of the synoptic flows within the lower layers of the troposphere. The results obtained show how on complex terrain, despite seasonal meteorological differences and under stable dispersive conditions, the simulated mechanical turbulence leeward of the mountain ranges reproduces highly concentrated SO2 fumigations on the ground more than 50 km away from the power plant. Besides, under summer convective activity, plume fumigations have been successfully simulated less than 15 km from the power plant. In conclusion, this study shows how measurements from air quality networks together with information obtained from atmospheric transport and diffusion models are able to characterise different transport scenarios. This is a clear advantage for the end-users and decision-makers who manage and optimise the regional air quality networks.

  6. Biophysical relationship between leaf-level optical properties and phenology of canopy spectral reflectance in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest at Takayama, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H. M.; Nasahara, K. N.; Muraoka, H.

    2016-12-01

    Growing requirements to observe the spatial and temporal changes of forest canopy structure and functions under climate change expect advancement of ecophysiological interpretation of satellite remote sensing data. To achieve this we need mechanistic and quantitative understanding on the consequence between leaf-level traits and canopy-level spectral reflectance by coupling in-situ observation and analytical modeling. Deciduous forest is characterized by remarkable changes in canopy morphological and physiological structure through leaf expansion in spring to leaf fall in autumn. In addition, optical properties (spectral reflectance, absorption and transmittance of radiation) of leaves also change because they reflect leaf biochemical components such as pigments and water, and anatomical and surface structures. In this study we studied such consequence in a cool-temperate deciduous broadleaf forest, namely "Takayama site", on the northwestern slope of Mt. Norikura in central Japan. The forest canopy is dominated by Quercus crispula Blume and Betula ermanii Cham. In this forest, we measured the leaf optical properties of Q. crispula and B. ermanii during the growing season, from budburst in mid-May to senescence at beginning of November in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2010. The measurement was conducted for both adaxial and abaxial side of the leaves.In the near infrared band, the leaf reflectance increased and the transmittance decreased during development period. Those changed very little in senescence period. The leaf reflectance in visible region changes small during the development period, the transmittance dropped remarkably. The abaxial side reflectance was about twice higher than adaxial side in the visible region. Those changes in the growing period fitted well to the development model base on air temperature. To validate the model, we simulate the canopy reflectance by using radiative transfer model SAIL. As our leaf spectral data and canopy spectral model have

  7. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  8. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny S.

    2016-09-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  9. Seasonal variations in the levels of polyhydroxysteroids and related glycosides in the digestive tissues of the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera.

    PubMed

    Kicha, Alla A; Ivanchina, Natalia V; Stonik, Valentin A

    2003-12-01

    Seasonal variations in the levels of polar steroids including polyhydroxylated steroids and related glycosides in digestive organs of the starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera have been studied. The concentration of polar steroids is related to the annual reproductive cycle of the starfish and periods of active feeding. Two peaks in concentrations of polar steroids in pyloric caeca and stomach were found, the first in winter during reorganization and the second in summer during intensive gametogenesis before spawning. Probable biological functions of polyhydroxysteroids and related glycosides are discussed. The data support the hypothesis these compounds are involved in digestion in the starfish.

  10. Effect of Season and High Ambient Temperature on Activity Levels and Patterns of Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos)

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Michelle L.; McLellan, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4–27.3°C) and hot (27.9–40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory. PMID:25692979

  11. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    McLellan, Michelle L; McLellan, Bruce N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C) and hot (27.9-40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory.

  12. Seasonal fluctuations of surface water levels in the Mekong River basin from satellite altimetry and other remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominh, K.; Letoan, T.; Cazenave, A.; Mognard-Campbell, N.; Lhermitte, J.

    2004-05-01

    Ten years of satellite altimetry data from the Topex/Poseidon satellite have been analysed to construct water level time series and five years of satellite SPOT Vegetation imagery have been used to monitor the flood extent over the Mekong River basin. Areas overflown by T/P include the Tonle Sap Lake, seasonaly inundated areas and several branches of the hydrographic network of the Mekong delta. Very strong seasonal signal is reported over the Tonle Sap, amplitude reaching annually 5-8 meters peak to peak. Clear interannual signal is also visible. For example year 1999 corresponds to weak floods, contrasting with year 2000 during which strong flood is noticed. Southward, we also observe large seasonal fluctuations (2-3 m) over inundated floodplains, as identified using imagery data from the SPOT Vegetation instrument. Several water level time series have also been constructed at intersections of T/P tracks and waterways of the Mekong Delta. Depending on the location, quite different annual amplitudes are observed, the closer to the Mekong mouth, the smaller the signal. We interpret this observation as the effect of dams built over the Delta in the recent years/decades. We also analysed the interannual water level signal together with precipitations over the whole Mekong basin.

  13. Design and implementation of a control system reflecting the level of analgesia during general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Janda, Matthias; Schubert, Agnes; Bajorat, Jörn; Hofmockel, Rainer; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele F E; Lampe, Bernhard P; Simanski, Olaf

    2013-02-01

    Measuring and ensuring an adequate level of analgesia in patients are of increasing interest in the area of automated drug delivery during general anesthesia. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to develop a control system that may reflect the intraoperative analgesia value. Our hypothesis was that a feedback controller could be applied in clinical practice safely and at an adequate quality of analgesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practical feasibility of such a system in a clinical setting. The control system for the level of analgesia described in this paper relies on a parameter combination of heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (mean arterial pressure, MAP), which serve as input variables for an expert system. For this fuzzy system, the experience of the participating anesthesiologists was translated into a set of fuzzy rules. In a pilot trial, the control system for automated titration of remifentanil, a short-acting opioid, was tested combined with a closed-loop propofol infusion system for hypnosis. Ten adult patients (4 women, 6 men), aged 22-52 years (median, 45 years; range, 29-49 years), with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I or II and who were scheduled for elective trauma surgery in a supine position were enrolled in this prospective trial. The precision of the system was calculated using internationally defined performance parameters. There was no human intervention necessary during the computer-controlled administration of propofol and remifentanil, and operating conditions were satisfactory in all patients. All patients assessed the quality of anesthesia as "good" to "very good". Median performance error, median absolute performance error, and wobble for HR and MAP during maintenance of anesthesia were -8.98 (5.32), 10.08 (4.17), and 2.68 (1.29) and -4.51 (12.73), 13.63 (2.27), and 3.90 (2.08) [mean (SD)], respectively. The control system, reflecting the level

  14. Oscillatory activity in auditory cortex reflects the perceptual level of audio-tactile integration

    PubMed Central

    Plöchl, Michael; Gaston, Jeremy; Mermagen, Tim; König, Peter; Hairston, W. David

    2016-01-01

    Cross-modal interactions between sensory channels have been shown to depend on both the spatial disparity and the perceptual similarity between the presented stimuli. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural integration of auditory and tactile stimulus pairs at different levels of spatial disparity. Additionally, we modulated the amplitudes of both stimuli in either a coherent or non-coherent manner. We found that both auditory and tactile localization performance was biased towards the stimulus in the respective other modality. This bias linearly increases with stimulus disparity and is more pronounced for coherently modulated stimulus pairs. Analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity at temporal–cortical sources revealed enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs) as well as decreased alpha and beta power during bimodal as compared to unimodal stimulation. However, while the observed ERP differences are similar for all stimulus combinations, the extent of oscillatory desynchronization varies with stimulus disparity. Moreover, when both stimuli were subjectively perceived as originating from the same direction, the reduction in alpha and beta power was significantly stronger. These observations suggest that in the EEG the level of perceptual integration is mainly reflected by changes in ongoing oscillatory activity. PMID:27647158

  15. Underwater reflectance transformation imaging: a technology for in situ underwater cultural heritage object-level recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmo, David; Sturt, Fraser; Miles, James; Basford, Philip; Malzbender, Tom; Martinez, Kirk; Thompson, Charlie; Earl, Graeme; Bevan, George

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for high-resolution recording of in situ underwater cultural heritage. Reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) has a proven track record in terrestrial contexts for acquiring high-resolution diagnostic data at small scales. The research presented here documents the first adaptation of RTI protocols to the subaquatic environment, with a scuba-deployable method designed around affordable off-the-shelf technologies. Underwater RTI (URTI) was used to capture detail from historic shipwrecks in both the Solent and the western Mediterranean. Results show that URTI can capture submillimeter levels of qualitative diagnostic detail from in situ archaeological material. In addition, this paper presents the results of experiments to explore the impact of turbidity on URTI. For this purpose, a prototype fixed-lighting semisubmersible RTI photography dome was constructed to allow collection of data under controlled conditions. The signal-to-noise data generated reveals that the RGB channels of underwater digital images captured in progressive turbidity degraded faster than URTI object geometry calculated from them. URTI is shown to be capable of providing analytically useful object-level detail in conditions that would render ordinary underwater photography of limited use.

  16. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  17. Influence of the season on vitamin D levels and regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Schweintzger, N A; Gruber-Wackernagel, A; Shirsath, N; Quehenberger, F; Obermayer-Pietsch, B; Wolf, P

    2016-03-01

    The exact mechanisms of photohardening in polymorphic light eruption (PLE) are still unknown, but medical photohardening was shown to increase regulatory T cell (Treg) numbers in the blood of PLE patients, similar to natural hardening. Furthermore, oral vitamin D supplementation increased peripheral Tregs in healthy individuals. We herein report on a post hoc analysis of 26 screened PLE patients of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov No. NCT01595893), in which the influence of the progressing season was investigated on baseline CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127- Treg numbers by flow cytometry and Treg suppressive function by co-culture assays with T effector cells as a secondary endpoint, together with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) serum levels at the study's screening visit, taking place in the period from January to June. The mean 25(OH)D serum level of all patients was 33.2 ng ml(-1). Ten of those patients (38.5%) were identified with low 25(OH)D levels (<30 ng ml(-1)). Significantly higher baseline 25(OH)D serum levels (plus 34.4%; P = 0.0182) as well as higher relative Treg percentages in CD4+ population (plus 62.8%; P = 0.0157) and in total lymphocyte population (plus 59.6%; P = 0.0372) and higher absolute Treg numbers (plus 100.2%; P = 0.0042) were observed in the late spring/early summer period (April to June) compared to the winter period (January to February). No significant relationship was observed when Treg numbers and function were correlated with 25(OH)D levels. These data indicate that in PLE patients Treg numbers and their suppressive function are independent of vitamin D serum levels and suggest that UV light and/or other seasonal factors may affect these cells via the non-vitamin D related pathway(s).

  18. Switch between competition and facilitation within a seasonal scale at colony level in bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Spitale, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    The relative importance of positive and negative interaction in species assemblages is thought to be dependent on the harshness of the physical environment. I studied the consistency of this prediction in a field experiment using growth of the target species Warnstorfia exannulata as influenced by the presence or absence of two adjacent species, Sphagnum warnstorfii and Scapania undulata. In particular, I focused on the mechanism by which colony-colony interactions occur, elucidating how the balance of positive and negative interactions changes along a water gradient. Because the natural fluctuations of the environment modify the water gradient, it was expected that the competitive hierarchies of the species would not remain consistent over time. Results indicated that the different hydrological properties of the colonies, thought to be the necessary condition for the appearance of species interactions, were not sufficient to explain the outcome of the species interactions. The switch from competition to facilitation under more stressful conditions was not confirmed along a water stress gradient. In addition, natural climatic fluctuations, by affecting the length of the water gradient, changed the competitive hierarchies of the species on a seasonal scale.

  19. A comparative study of glycosylated haemoglobin level in the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) during different seasons.

    PubMed

    al-Ali, A K; Rehaimi, A; Saba, R; Power, D M

    1990-01-01

    1. The extent of haemoglobin glycosylation from 60 camels has been determined (4.39%) in blood samples drawn during winter. 2. Phosphate (9.45 mg/dl), DPG (2.9 mumol/ml) and glucose (138 mg/dl) levels were also recorded. 3. In addition the P50 at pH 7.4 was measured (22.8 Torrs). 4. The data obtained compared with human blood levels and with levels reported for camels during summer sampling. 5. Despite the fact that camels have higher blood glucose levels than humans, the extent of glycosylation is much less in camel blood than in human blood.

  20. Seasonal dependence of the predictable low-level circulation patterns over the tropical Indo-Pacific domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tuantuan; Huang, Bohua; Yang, Song; Laohalertchai, Charoon

    2017-09-01

    The seasonal dependence of the prediction skill of 850-hPa monthly zonal wind over the tropical Indo-Pacific domain is examined using the ensemble reforecasts for 1983-2010 from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis and Reforecast (CFSRR) project. According to a maximum signal-to-noise empirical orthogonal function analysis, the most predictable patterns of atmospheric low-level circulation are associated with the developing and maturing phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The CFSv2 is capable of predicting these ENSO-related patterns up to 9-months in advance for all months, except for May-June when the effect of the spring barrier is strong. The other predictable climate processes associated with the low-level atmospheric circulation are more seasonally dependent. For winter and spring, the second most predictable patterns are associated with the ENSO decaying phase. Within these seasons, the monthly evolution of the predictable patterns is characterized by a southward shift of westerly wind anomalies, generated by the interaction between the annual cycle and the ENSO signals (i.e., the combination-mode). In general, the CFSv2 hindcast well predicts these patterns at least 5 months in advance for spring, while shows much lower skills for winter months. In summer, the second predictable patterns are associated with the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon (i.e., the WNP anticyclone/cyclone) in short leads while associated with ENSO in longer leads (after 4-month lead). The second predictable patterns in fall are mainly associated with tropical Indian Ocean Dipole, which can be predicted 3 months in advance.

  1. Three months of local sea level derived from reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LöFgren, J. S.; Haas, R.; Scherneck, H.-G.; Bos, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    By receiving Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals that are reflected off the sea surface, together with directly received GNSS signals (using standard geodetic-type receivers), it is possible to monitor the sea level using regular single difference geodetic processing. We show results from our analysis of three months of data from the GNSS-based tide gauge at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) on the west coast of Sweden. The GNSS-derived time series of local sea level is compared with independent data from two stilling well gauges at Ringhals and Gothenburg about 18 km south and 33 km north of OSO, respectively. A high degree of agreement is found in the time domain, with correlation coefficients of up to 0.96. The root-mean-square differences between the GNSS-derived sea level and the stilling well gauge observations are 5.9 cm and 5.5 cm, which is lower than for the stilling well gauges together (6.1 cm). A frequency domain comparison reveals high coherence of the data sets up to 6 cycles per day, which corresponds well to the propagation of gravity waves in the shallow waters at the Kattegat coast. Amplitudes and phases of some major tides were determined by a tidal harmonic analysis and compared to model predictions. From the GNSS-based tide gauge results we find significant ocean tidal signals at fortnightly, diurnal, semi-diurnal, and quarter-diurnal periods. As an example, the amplitudes of the semi-diurnal M2 and the diurnal O1 tide are determined with 1σ uncertainties of 11 mm and 12 mm, respectively. The comparison to model calculations shows that global ocean tide models have limited accuracy in the Kattegat area.

  2. Effects of redecoration of a hospital isolation room with natural materials on stress levels of denizens in cold season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Hiromi; Maruyama, Megumi; Tanabe, Yoko; Hara, Toshiko; Nishino, Yoshihiko; Tsujino, Yoshio; Morita, Eishin; Kobayashi, Shotai; Shido, Osamu

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the effects of redecoration of a hospital isolation room with natural materials on thermoregulatory, cardiovascular and hormonal parameters of healthy subjects staying in the room. Two isolation rooms with almost bilaterally-symmetrical arrangements were used. One room (RD) was redecorated with wood paneling and Japanese paper, while the other (CN) was unchanged (with concrete walls). Seven healthy male subjects stayed in each room for over 24 h in the cold season. Their rectal temperature (Tre) and heart rate, and the room temperature (Ta) and relative humidity were continuously measured. Arterial blood pressures, arterial vascular compliance, thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured every 4 h except during sleeping. Blood was sampled after the stay in the rooms. In RD, Ta was significantly higher by about 0.4°C and relative humidity was lower by about 5% than in CN. Diurnal Tre levels of subjects in RD significantly differed from those in CN, i.e., Tres were significantly higher in RD than in CN especially in the evening. In RD, the subjects felt more thermally-comfortable than in CN. Redecoration had minimal effects on cardiovascular parameters. Plasma levels of catecholamines and antidiuretic hormone did not differ, while plasma cortisol level was significantly lower after staying in RD than in CN by nearly 20%. The results indicate that, in the cold season, redecoration with natural materials improves the thermal environment of the room and contributes to maintaining core temperature of denizens at preferable levels. It also seems that redecoration of room could attenuate stress levels of isolated subjects.

  3. Effects of redecoration of a hospital isolation room with natural materials on stress levels of denizens in cold season.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiromi; Maruyama, Megumi; Tanabe, Yoko; Hara, Toshiko; Nishino, Yoshihiko; Tsujino, Yoshio; Morita, Eishin; Kobayashi, Shotai; Shido, Osamu

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the effects of redecoration of a hospital isolation room with natural materials on thermoregulatory, cardiovascular and hormonal parameters of healthy subjects staying in the room. Two isolation rooms with almost bilaterally-symmetrical arrangements were used. One room (RD) was redecorated with wood paneling and Japanese paper, while the other (CN) was unchanged (with concrete walls). Seven healthy male subjects stayed in each room for over 24 h in the cold season. Their rectal temperature (T(re)) and heart rate, and the room temperature (T(a)) and relative humidity were continuously measured. Arterial blood pressures, arterial vascular compliance, thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured every 4 h except during sleeping. Blood was sampled after the stay in the rooms. In RD, T(a) was significantly higher by about 0.4 degrees C and relative humidity was lower by about 5% than in CN. Diurnal T(re) levels of subjects in RD significantly differed from those in CN, i.e., T(re)s were significantly higher in RD than in CN especially in the evening. In RD, the subjects felt more thermally-comfortable than in CN. Redecoration had minimal effects on cardiovascular parameters. Plasma levels of catecholamines and antidiuretic hormone did not differ, while plasma cortisol level was significantly lower after staying in RD than in CN by nearly 20%. The results indicate that, in the cold season, redecoration with natural materials improves the thermal environment of the room and contributes to maintaining core temperature of denizens at preferable levels. It also seems that redecoration of room could attenuate stress levels of isolated subjects.

  4. Daily, seasonal and monthly variations in ozone levels recorded at the Turia river basin in Valencia (Eastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Castell-Balaguer, Nuria; Téllez, Laura; Mantilla, Enrique

    2012-09-01

    The Turia river basin, located in the east of the Iberian Peninsula, drains into the Mediterranean Sea near the city of Valencia (population, 814,208). The predominance of sea-breeze fluxes favours the inland transport of pollutants from the city up the basin where ozone concentrations exceeding the threshold for protection of human health are systematically recorded during the summer months. This work analyses the variability in ozone levels by examining their spatial and temporal distribution in a Mediterranean river basin downwind from a city within the period 2005-2008. Orographic determinants and atmospheric fluxes induce strong variations in ozone measurements, even on relatively close locations. Results show a different behaviour of the monthly means and the daily cycles depending on the season of the year and the measuring environment, with summer/winter ratios ranging from 2.4 in cities to 1.6 inland, and mean values always higher in the interior of the basin. Daily cycles show significant summer/winter differences related to the predominant situations of anticyclonic stability in winter, which limit ventilation, and the predominant breeze circulations in summer. Results also show a "weekend effect" at urban and medium-distance stations. At the most inland station, the weekend/weekday behaviour differs according to the season of the year; weekend ozone levels are higher in spring, autumn and winter, and lower in summer, coinciding with the predominance of local wind cycles that favour air mass penetration inland from the coast.

  5. Combined strength and power training in high-level amateur football during the competitive season: a randomised-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Roth, Ralf; Di Giovine, Dario; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of combined strength and power training during the competitive season on physical fitness in high-level amateur football players. Sixteen male players (22.5 (SD 2.5) years, 1.79 (0.05) m, 76.8 (6.1) kg) from one team were randomly assigned to either a strength training (ST, N = 8) or a control (CON, N = 8) group. ST conducted lower extremity resistance exercises combined with plyometrics and/or sprints 2 × 30 min per week for 7 weeks. CON performed technical-tactical training during the same time period. Before and after training several physical fitness parameters were assessed: one-repetition maximum (1-RM, half squat), isometric peak strength and rate of force development (RFD, leg press), jump height (countermovement, CMJ, drop jump, DJ), sprint times, agility, and intermittent endurance. Large significant test × group interactions were found for 1-RM, CMJ, and DJ reactivity index with increases in CT relative to CON(+11 to 18%). Although not significant (P < 0.20), likely practically relevant effects were observed for isometric peak strength and RFD (+24 to 29%). We found no relevant interaction effects for agility, sprint times, and intermittent endurance. A 7-week in-season combined strength and power training program can improve relevant strength and jump parameters in high-level amateur football players.

  6. Landscape level variation in tick abundance relative to seasonal migration in red deer.

    PubMed

    Qviller, Lars; Risnes-Olsen, Nina; Bærum, Kim Magnus; Meisingset, Erling L; Loe, Leif Egil; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-01-01

    Partial migration is common among northern ungulates, typically involving an altitudinal movement for seasonally migratory individuals. The main driving force behind migration is the benefit of an extended period of access to newly emerged, high quality forage along the green up gradient with increasing altitude; termed the forage maturation hypothesis. Any other limiting factor spatially correlated with this gradient may provide extra benefits or costs to migration, without necessarily being the cause of it. A common ectoparasite on cervids in Europe is the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus), but it has not been tested whether migration may lead to the spatial separation from these parasites and thus potentially provide an additional benefit to migration. Further, if there is questing of ticks in winter ranges in May before spring migration, deer migration may also play a role for the distribution of ticks. We quantified the abundance of questing sheep tick within winter and summer home ranges of migratory (n=42) and resident red deer (Cervus elaphus) individuals (n=32) in two populations in May and August 2009-2012. Consistent with predictions, there was markedly lower abundance of questing ticks in the summer areas of migrating red deer (0.6/20 m(2)), both when compared to the annual home range of resident deer (4.9/20 m(2)) and the winter home ranges of migrants (5.8/20 m(2)). The reduced abundances within summer home ranges of migrants were explained by lower abundance of ticks with increasing altitude and distance from the coast. The lower abundance of ticks in summer home ranges of migratory deer does not imply that ticks are the main driver of migration (being most likely the benefits expected from forage maturation), but it suggests that ticks may add to the value of migration in some ecosystems and that it may act to spread ticks long distances in the landscape.

  7. Landscape Level Variation in Tick Abundance Relative to Seasonal Migration in Red Deer

    PubMed Central

    Qviller, Lars; Risnes-Olsen, Nina; Bærum, Kim Magnus; Meisingset, Erling L.; Loe, Leif Egil; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Mysterud, Atle

    2013-01-01

    Partial migration is common among northern ungulates, typically involving an altitudinal movement for seasonally migratory individuals. The main driving force behind migration is the benefit of an extended period of access to newly emerged, high quality forage along the green up gradient with increasing altitude; termed the forage maturation hypothesis. Any other limiting factor spatially correlated with this gradient may provide extra benefits or costs to migration, without necessarily being the cause of it. A common ectoparasite on cervids in Europe is the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus), but it has not been tested whether migration may lead to the spatial separation from these parasites and thus potentially provide an additional benefit to migration. Further, if there is questing of ticks in winter ranges in May before spring migration, deer migration may also play a role for the distribution of ticks. We quantified the abundance of questing sheep tick within winter and summer home ranges of migratory (n = 42) and resident red deer (Cervus elaphus) individuals (n = 32) in two populations in May and August 2009–2012. Consistent with predictions, there was markedly lower abundance of questing ticks in the summer areas of migrating red deer (0.6/20 m2), both when compared to the annual home range of resident deer (4.9/20 m2) and the winter home ranges of migrants (5.8/20 m2). The reduced abundances within summer home ranges of migrants were explained by lower abundance of ticks with increasing altitude and distance from the coast. The lower abundance of ticks in summer home ranges of migratory deer does not imply that ticks are the main driver of migration (being most likely the benefits expected from forage maturation), but it suggests that ticks may add to the value of migration in some ecosystems and that it may act to spread ticks long distances in the landscape. PMID:23951125

  8. The suprachiasmatic nuclei as a seasonal clock.

    PubMed

    Coomans, Claudia P; Ramkisoensing, Ashna; Meijer, Johanna H

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains a central clock that synchronizes daily (i.e., 24-h) rhythms in physiology and behavior. SCN neurons are cell-autonomous oscillators that act synchronously to produce a coherent circadian rhythm. In addition, the SCN helps regulate seasonal rhythmicity. Photic information is perceived by the SCN and transmitted to the pineal gland, where it regulates melatonin production. Within the SCN, adaptations to changing photoperiod are reflected in changes in neurotransmitters and clock gene expression, resulting in waveform changes in rhythmic electrical activity, a major output of the SCN. Efferent pathways regulate the seasonal timing of breeding and hibernation. In humans, seasonal physiology and behavioral rhythms are also present, and the human SCN has seasonally rhythmic neurotransmitter levels and morphology. In summary, the SCN perceives and encodes changes in day length and drives seasonal changes in downstream pathways and structures in order to adapt to the changing seasons.

  9. Simplified analytical model for sound level prediction at shielded urban locations involving multiple diffraction and reflections.

    PubMed

    Wei, Weigang; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2015-11-01

    Accurate and efficient prediction of the sound field in shadow zones behind obstacles is a challenging task but essential to produce urban noise maps. A simplified method is presented to predict sound levels at shielded urban locations, including multi-edge diffraction over successive buildings and multiple reflections between parallel façades. The model is essentially based on Pierce's diffraction theory, where the Fresnel Integral is approximated by trigonometric functions for efficient evaluation, and parameterized for urban environments. The model has been validated for idealized urban configurations by comparing to the results of Pierce's theory and a full-wave numerical method. In case of multi-edge diffraction over buildings in absence of a source or receiver canyon, deviations from the full-wave simulations are smaller than 2 dB for the octave bands with central frequencies ranging from 125 to 1000 Hz. However, larger errors are made when receivers are close to the extension line from the diffraction edge closest to the receiver. In case of combining the simplified multi-edge diffraction model with an efficient approach for including the series of mirror sources and mirror receivers, based on the Hurwitz-Lerch transcendent, this same accuracy is obtained.

  10. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy detects pigmentary changes in melasma at a cellular level resolution.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Young; Bahadoran, Philippe; Suzuki, Itaru; Zugaj, Didier; Khemis, Abdallah; Passeron, Thierry; Andres, Philippe; Ortonne, Jean-Paul

    2010-08-01

    Melasma is a frequent pigmentary disorder caused by abnormal melanin deposits in the skin. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a repetitive imaging tool that provides real-time images of the skin at nearly histological resolution. As melanin is the strongest endogenous contrast in human skin, pigmentary disorders are the most suitable candidates for RCM examination but RCM features of melasma have never been reported. This study investigates the pilot use of RCM in melasma to provide a set of well-described morphological criteria with histological correlations. RCM images were acquired from melasma skin and compared to adjacent control skin in 26 patients. Skin biopsies were obtained from eight patients. In the epidermis, RCM showed in all patients a significant increase in hyperrefractile cobblestoning cells. These cells corresponded to hyperpigmented basal keratinocytes in histology. In six patients, dendritic cells corresponding to activated melanocytes were also found in the epidermis. In the dermis, RCM identified in nine patients plump bright cells corresponding to melanophages. Interestingly, for a given patient, the topographic distribution of melanophages in melasma lesions was very heterogeneous. RCM also showed a significant increase in solar elastosis and blood vessels in the dermis. RCM is a non-invasive technique that detects pigmentary changes in melasma at a cellular level resolution. Therefore, RCM provides an innovative way to classify melasma by pigment changes.

  11. The relationship between facilitators' questions and the level of reflection in postsimulation debriefing.

    PubMed

    Husebø, Sissel Eikeland; Dieckmann, Peter; Rystedt, Hans; Søreide, Eldar; Friberg, Febe

    2013-06-01

    Simulation-based education is a learner-active method that may enhance teamwork skills such as leadership and communication. The importance of postsimulation debriefing to promote reflection is well accepted, but many questions concerning whether and how faculty promote reflection remain largely unanswered in the research literature. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the depth of reflection expressed in questions by facilitators and responses from nursing students during postsimulation debriefings. Eighty-one nursing students and 4 facilitators participated. The data were collected in February and March 2008, the analysis being conducted on 24 video-recorded debriefings from simulated resuscitation teamwork involving nursing students only. Using Gibbs' reflective cycle, we graded the facilitators' questions and nursing students' responses into stages of reflection and then correlated these. Facilitators asked most evaluative and fewest emotional questions, whereas nursing students answered most evaluative and analytic responses and fewest emotional responses. The greatest difference between facilitators and nursing students was in the analytic stage. Only 23 (20%) of 117 questions asked by the facilitators were analytic, whereas 45 (35%) of 130 students' responses were rated as analytic. Nevertheless, the facilitators' descriptive questions also elicited student responses in other stages such as evaluative and analytic responses. We found that postsimulation debriefings provide students with the opportunity to reflect on their simulation experience. Still, if the debriefing is going to pave the way for student reflection, it is necessary to work further on structuring the debriefing to facilitate deeper reflection. Furthermore, it is important that facilitators consider what kind of questions they ask to promote reflection. We think future research on debriefing should focus on developing an analytical framework for grading reflective questions. Such

  12. Seasonal changes in CRF-I and urotensin I transcript levels in masu salmon: correlation with cortisol secretion during spawning.

    PubMed

    Westring, Christian G; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M; Sher, Anna A; Danielson, Phillip B

    2008-01-01

    Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5- to 7-fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1-2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R(2)=0.21 male and 0.26 female, p<0.0001) with levels of plasma cortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon.

  13. Levels of Reflection in Action Research: An Overview and an Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Dib, Mervat Abou Baker

    2007-01-01

    This is a preliminary study that examines prospective teachers' reflective thinking as it is exhibited in their action research during the teaching practice experience. Different systems of analyzing reflective thinking are reviewed and criticized for their suitability for analyzing written journals rather than other forms of expressing and…

  14. Seasonal and cumulative loblolly pine development under two stand density and fertility levels through four growing seasons. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1994-06-01

    A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation was subjected to two cultural treatments to examine seasonal cumulative pine development in the 9th through 12th growing seasons: (1) pine stocking was either reduced by thinning to 303 trees per acre at a 12- by 12-ft spacing or the plots were left uncut with an original density of 1,210 trees per acre at a 6- by 6-ft spacing, and (2) either no fertilizer was applied or diammonium phosphate was broadcast at 134 lb of phosphorus and 120 lb of nitrogen per acre. Competing vegetation was controlled on all plots. Thinning resulted in less spring height growth in the 9th and 10th growing seasons that not cutting, but thinning increased diameter growth each year. Beginning in the 10th growing season, fertilization increased height, diameter, and basal area per acre growth, with the effect of fertilization on diameter growth being most pronounced on the thinned plots. Therefore, fertilization of thinned plots was more beneficial than thinning alone, and thinning alone resulted in less height and basal area per acre growth than the other treatment combinations for the 4-year period.

  15. Serum IgG levels demonstrate seasonal change in connective tissue diseases: a large-scale, 4-year analysis in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Yukawa, Naoichiro; Kawabata, Daisuke; Nojima, Takaki; Fujii, Takao; Mimori, Tsuneyo

    2012-06-01

    Hypergammaglobulinemia is often found in patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and its level may correlate with disease activity. However, it is unclear whether immunoglobulin G (IgG) displays seasonal changes. We analyzed the seasonal change in serum IgG by assessing 450 patients with connective tissue disease. The serum IgG levels in summer were compared with those in winter from 2006 to 2009. Independent samples from 355 patients were analyzed to confirm results in the first set. The differences in the IgG levels between the two seasons were analyzed in each disease and compared with disease activity. 488 patients without connective tissue disease were analyzed as reference instead of healthy people as control. We found that connective tissue disease patients tended to show higher levels of serum IgG in summer than in winter every year from 2006 to 2009, whereas patients without connective tissue disease did not demonstrate such a tendency. We observed this seasonal tendency in each disease. Seasonal changes weakly correlated with those of anti-DNA antibody in SLE patients and those of disease activity score in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Serum IgG levels of patients with connective tissue diseases display seasonal variations. Biological and clinical significance of these variations should be elucidated.

  16. Consequences of seasonal variation in reservoir water level for predatory fishes: linking visual foraging and prey densities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klobucar, Stephen L.; Budy, Phaedra

    2016-01-01

    In reservoirs, seasonal drawdown can alter the physical environment and may influence predatory fish performance. We investigated the performance of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in a western reservoir by coupling field measurements with visual foraging and bioenergetic models at four distinct states (early summer, mid-summer, late summer, and fall). The models suggested that lake trout prey, juvenile kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), are limited seasonally by suitable temperature and dissolved oxygen. Accordingly, prey densities were greatest in late summer when reservoir volume was lowest and fish were concentrated by stratification. Prey encounter rates (up to 68 fish·day−1) and predator consumption are also predicted to be greatest during late summer. However, our models suggested that turbidity negatively correlates with prey detection and consumption across reservoir states. Under the most turbid conditions, lake trout did not meet physiological demands; however, during less turbid periods, predator consumption reached maximum bioenergetic efficiency. Overall, our findings demonstrate that rapid reservoir fluctuations and associated abiotic conditions can influence predator–prey interactions, and our models describe the potential impacts of water level fluctuation on valuable sport fishes.

  17. Effect of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields on melatonin levels in calves is seasonally dependent

    PubMed Central

    Kolbabová, Tereza; Pascal Malkemper, E.; Bartoš, Luděk; Vanderstraeten, Jacques; Turčáni, Marek; Burda, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    The question of health effects of extremely low frequency (50/60 Hz) magnetic fields (ELFMF) has been widely discussed, but the mechanisms of interaction of these fields with biological systems for intensities relevant to human and animal exposure are still under question. The melatonin (MLT) hypothesis suggests that exposure to ELFMF might decrease MLT production thereby promoting cancerogenesis. So far, most studies of MLT secretion under exposure to ELFMF reported negative or inconsistent results. Here, we measured salivary MLT in 1–2 months old cattle calves exposed to 50 Hz-MF in the hundreds of nT-range. We found an inhibitory effect of the ELFMF upon MLT secretion in winter (in accordance with the MLT hypothesis). In contrast, in summer, MLT concentration was increased by ELFMF exposure (contrary to the MLT hypothesis). The inhibitory effect in winter was much stronger than the positive effect in summer. We hypothesize that this season-dependent effect upon MLT synthesis might by mediated by an effect of ELFMF upon the serotonin metabolism and conclude that future tests of ELFMF effects should also measure serotonin levels and consider association with the seasonal effects (photoperiod or temperature) during the exposure. PMID:26381579

  18. A review of evidence-based practice, nursing research and reflection: levelling the hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Mantzoukas, Stefanos

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence-based practice movement, the hierarchy of evidence and the relationship between evidence-based practice and reflective practice. Evidence-based practice is equated with effective decision making, with avoidance of habitual practice and with enhanced clinical performance. The hierarchy of evidence has promoted randomized control trials as the most valid source of evidence. However, this is problematic for practitioners as randomized control trials overlook certain types of knowledge that, through the process of reflection, provide useful information for individualized and effective practice. A literature search was undertaken using CINAHL, medline and Ovid electronic databases in early 2006. The search terms used were: evidence-based practice, research evidence, evidence for practice, qualitative research, reflective practice, reflection and evidence. Other sources included handpicking of books on evidence-based practice, reflection and research. Only material written in English was included. The hierarchy of evidence that has promoted randomized control trials as the most valid form of evidence may actually impede the use of most effective treatment because of practical, political/ideological and epistemological contradictions and limitations. Furthermore, evidence-based practice appears to share very similar definitions, aims and procedures with reflective practice. Hence, it appears that the evidence-based practice movement may benefit much more from the use of reflection on practice, rather than the use of the hierarchical structure of evidence. Evidence-based practice is necessary for nursing, but its' effective implementation may be hindered by the hierarchy of evidence. Furthermore, evidence-based practice and reflection are both processes that share very similar aims and procedures. Therefore, to enable the implementation of best evidence in practice, the hierarchy of evidence might need to be abandoned and reflection to

  19. Variation of levels and distribution of N-nitrosamines in different seasons in drinking waters of East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Yu, Dian; Xian, Qiming; Li, Aimin; Sun, Cheng

    2015-08-01

    We surveyed the occurrence of nine N-nitrosamine species in ten bottled drinking waters from supermarket and other water samples including raw waters, finished waters, and distribution system waters from nine municipal drinking water treatment plants in eight cities of Jiangsu Province, East China. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in one of ten bottled drinking water samples at concentration of 4.8 ng/L and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMor) was detected in four of the ten bottles with an average concentration and a standard deviation of 16 ± 15 ng/L. The levels of nitrosamines in the distribution system water samples collected during summer season ranged from below detection limit (BDL) to 5.4 ng/L for NDMA, BDL to 9.5 ng/L for N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA), BDL to 2.7 ng/L for N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and BDL to 8.5 ng/L for N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPyr). Samples of distribution system waters collected in winter season had levels of nitrosamines ranged from BDL to 45 ng/L for NDMA, BDL to 5.2 ng/L for NPyr, and BDL to 309 ng/L for N-nitrosopiperidine (NPip). A positive correlation of the concentration of NDMA as well as the total nine N-nitrosamines between finished waters and distribution system waters was observed. Both dissolved organic carbon and nitrite were found to correlate linearly with N-nitrosamine levels in raw waters.

  20. Circulating Immune Complex Levels are Associated with Disease Severity and Seasonality in Children with Malaria from Mali

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Bolaji N.; Diallo, Dapa A.; Noumsi, Ghislain T.; Moulds, Joann M.

    2012-01-01

    Complement receptor one (CR1) is essential for removing circulating immune complexes (CIC), with malaria infection contributing to the formation of large amounts of CIC. We investigated CIC levels in children with malaria, of varying severity and seasonality. Two hundred age and sex-matched severe and mild malaria cases were studied during and after active disease. Pediatric controls had increased CIC levels (mean = 32 μg mEq/mL) compared to adult controls (mean = 26.9 μg mEq/mL). The highest levels of CIC were reported in severe malaria (mean = 39 μg mEq/mL). Higher levels of CIC were recorded in younger children and those with low E-CR1 copy numbers. Our data suggest that low levels of E-CR1 copy numbers, found in children with severe malaria, may adversely affect the ability to remove IC. Furthermore, the high background for circulating immune complex imply that Malian children are under constant assault by other pathogens that evoke a strong immune response. PMID:22837639

  1. Effects of BC, Icelandic volcanic sand and glaciogenic silt on the spectral reflectance and melt of seasonal Arctic snow (SoS-2013 experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinander, O.; Virkkula, A.; Svensson, J.; Kivekäs, N.; Aarva, A.; Dagsson Waldhauserová, P.; Arnalds; Hannula, H.; Anttila, K.; Peltoniemi, J.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Lahtinen, P.; Järvinen, O.; Kaartinen, H.; Lihavainen, H.; Kontu, A.; Neitola, K.; Raaterova, A.; Bichell, R.; De Leeuw, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Soot on the Snow (SoS-2013) experiment was carried out in Sodankylä (67°22'N, 26°39'E, 179 m a.s.l.), north of the Arctic Circle, to study the effects of deposition of Black Carbon (BC), Icelandic volcanic sand and glaciogenic silt on the surface albedo and melt of seasonal snow. The BC was soot originating from chimneys above residential wood-burning fireplaces in Helsinki, except on one experimental spot the soot was from a chimney of an oil burner, and on one from the a peat-burning power plant. The volcanic sand was near black mixture of the volcanic ash of glaciofluvial nature, originating from under the Myrdalsjokull glacier, which may be mixed with the ash of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010 and the Grimsvotn eruption in 2011. The glaciogenic silt was lighter in colour, from light-brown to slightly yellowish, consisting mainly of silt and some coarse clay sized particles, capable of being transported and deposited on the local glaciers as well as several hundreds of kilometres towards the Europe. The SoS-2013 experiment was undertaken at the Sodankylä airport with a large, flat, open space and untouched snow. Thirteen spots of different concentrations of soot, volcanic sand, and silt were generated by blowing the impurities on natural snow. We also had an untouched reference measurement spot. The impurities were deposited only once to each spot, and thereafter the spots were monitored until the snow was melted. The sites were left to develop naturally, introducing as little disturbance as possible. Continuous broadband albedo was measured using pyranometers installed on seven spots. Snow samples were collected for their elemental carbon (EC) and organic (OC) concentration analysis with the Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC), following the NIOSH 5040 protocol. The spectral reflectance of the melting snow was measured using two ASD spectrometers, one measuring in the UV-B spectral range (325-1075 nm), and the other from UV-A up to IR

  2. Seasonal- and temperature-dependent variation in CNS ascorbate and glutathione levels in anoxia-tolerant turtles.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pinzón, M A; Rice, M E

    1995-12-24

    We determined the ascorbic acid (ascorbate) and glutathione (GSH) contents of eight regions of the CNS from anoxia-tolerant turtles collected in summer and in winter. Ascorbate was of special interest because it is found in exceptionally high levels in the turtle CNS. The temperature-dependence of CNS ascorbate content was established by comparing levels in animals collected from two geographic zones with different average winter temperatures and in animals re-acclimated to different temperatures in the laboratory. The analytical method was liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Turtle ascorbate levels were 30-40% lower in animals acclimatized to winter (2 degrees C) than to summer (23 degrees C) in all regions of the CNS. Similarly, GSH levels were 20-30% lower in winter than in summer. Winter ascorbate levels were higher in turtles from Louisiana (19 degrees C) than in turtles acclimatized to winter in Wisconsin (2 degrees C). Summer and winter levels of ascorbate could be reversed by re-acclimating animals to cold (1 degree C) or warm (23 degrees C) temperatures for at least one week. CNS water content did not differ between cold- and warm-acclimated turtles. Taken together, the data indicated that ascorbate and GSH undergo significant seasonal variation and that the catalyst for change is environmental temperature. Steady-state ascorbate content showed a linear dependence on temperature, with a slope of 1.5% per degree C that was independent of CNS region. Lower levels of cerebral antioxidants in turtles exposed to colder temperatures were consistent with the decreased rate of cerebral metabolism that accompanies winter hibernation. Cerebral ascorbate and GSH levels in the turtle remained similar to or higher than those in mammals, even during winter, however. These findings support the notion that unique mechanisms of antioxidant regulation in the turtle contribute to their tolerance of the hypoxia-reoxygenation that characterizes diving

  3. Numerical Boundary Conditions for Specular Reflection in a Level-Sets-Based Wavefront Propagation Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    then et∗ →0 as hl →0. This is essentially modifying the grid to include the point zb, and that modification could be different for each fixed x. But in...convergence rate, a rectangu- lar grid is used over the physical space. When the physical domain does not conform to the rectangular grid , appropriate...boundary conditions to represent reflection must be derived to apply at grid locations that are not coincident with the reflecting boundary. A related

  4. Seasonal changes in background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 proves water drinking by harp seals, which affects the use of the DLW method.

    PubMed

    Nordøy, Erling S; Lager, Anne R; Schots, Pauke C

    2017-10-05

    The aim of the study was to monitor seasonal changes in stable isotopes of pool freshwater, and harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) body water, and to study if these potential seasonal changes might bias results of using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method when measuring energy expenditure in animals with access to fresh water. Seasonal changes in the background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 in the body water of four captive harp seals and in the freshwater pool in which they were kept, were measured over a time period of one year. The seals were offered daily amounts of capelin and kept under a seasonal photoperiod of 69° N. Large seasonal variations of deuterium and oxygen-18 in the pool water was measured, and the isotope abundance in body water showed similar seasonal changes as the pool water. This shows that the seals were continuously equilibrating with surrounding water due to significant daily water drinking.Variations in background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 in freshwater sources may be due to seasonal changes in physical processes such as precipitation and evaporation that may cause fractionation of isotopes. Rapid and abrupt changes in the background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 may complicate calculation of energy expenditure by use of the DLW method. It is therefore strongly recommended to perform analysis of seasonal changes in background levels of isotopes before the DLW method is applied on (free-ranging) animals, and to use a control group in order to correct for changes in background levels. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Potential for savings in compliance costs for reducing ground-level ozone possible by instituting seasonal versus annual nitric oxide emission limits

    SciTech Connect

    Lookman, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Ground-level ozone is formed in the atmosphere from its precursor emissions, namely nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOC), with its rate of formation dependent on atmospheric conditions. Since ozone levels tend to be highest during the summer months, seasonal controls of precursors have been suggested as a means of reducing the costs of decreasing ozone concentrations to acceptable levels. This paper attempts to quantify what the potential savings if seasonal control were instituted for coal-fired power plants, assuming that only commercially available NO{sub x} control technologies are used. Cost savings through seasonal control is measured by calculating the total annualized cost of NO{sub x} removal at a given amount of seasonal control for different target levels of annual control. For this study, it is assumed that trading of NO{sub x} emissions will be allowed, as has been proposed by the Ozone Transportation Commission (OTC). The problem has been posed as a binary integer linear programming problem, with decision variables being which control to use at each power plant. The results indicate that requiring annual limits which are lower than seasonal limits can substantially reduce compliance costs. These savings occur because requiring stringent compliance only on a seasonal basis allows power plants to use control methods for which the variable costs are paid for only part of the year, and through the use of gas-based controls, which are much cheaper to operate in the summer months.

  6. The modulation of the seasonal cross-shelf sea level variation by the cold pool in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Jin; Jo, Young-Heon; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Liu, W. T.

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the influence of the cold pool in the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) to cross-shelf sea surface slope by fitting an annual harmonic to temperature and salinity profiles from 1993 to 2012 and compares to the 20 year averaged altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA). The consistency within the bottom temperature, thermal steric height, total steric height, and altimetry observation validates that the cold pool induces a depressed sea level in the middle shelf overlapping with the dominant surface seasonal cycles. Temporally, the cold pool pattern is most apparent in July and August as a result of magnitude competition between the thermal and haline steric height. In addition, Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is employed to reconstruct the altimetry SLA and reveals the middle-shelf depression pattern from single year's SLA data. The locations of the SLA depression from 1993 to 2012 agree with the cold pool locations identified from in situ measurements, suggesting a promising application of altimetry SLA in the cold pool study. Conclusively, this study reveals the modulation of the cross-shelf sea level variation by the cold pool, and contributes to the understanding of the sea level response to water masses on the continental shelf.

  7. Study of the Low- Level jet characteristics in winter season between 1959 and 1982 for Bucharest's airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmez, M.; Georgescu, F.

    2012-04-01

    The LLJ is one of the meteorological hazards that aircraft have to face on the takeoff/ landing path. The region affected by this very strong wind shear is Romanian Plain, where the two airports of Bucharest- "Henri Coanda" and "Aurel Vlaicu", are placed. This study is based on the re-analysis project ERA-40 from ECMWF which was used at the National Meteorological Administration in Bucharest, Romania, in order to obtain a re-analysis of the data valid for Romania, using the regional climate model RegCM3. Taking the data from this re-analysis, we studied the cases in winter season (December- February) between 1959 and 1982 in which low- level jets appeared. The low- level jet cases were extracted from the wind data using the software GRADS; after that, a separate treatment of cases was considered. The cases in which LLJs are associated with upper jets were considered one class of LLJs and the others, a second one. In the first class, the upper jet appeared simultaneously with or before the LLJ. A statistical analysis was made for these classes, regarding the time of manifestation of the LLJ, the number of cases of LLJ as function of the depth of the LLJ or the pressure level at which LLJ appeared. The synoptic patterns were analyzed for all the cases. The criteria concerning the manifestation of a low- level jet in the area of Bucharest's airports are extracted related to atmospheric condition to be used in forecasting the LLJ.

  8. Reflectance of litter accumulation levels at five wavelengths within the 0.5- to 2.5 micron waveband

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Gausman, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Reflectance was measured for 1-m2 range grass plots with two canopy treatments (standing and clipped) and four levels of litter accumulation and for grain sorghum with two canopy treatments. Reflectance was significantly higher at the 0.65- to 1.65-, and 2.20-micrometer. Wavelengths for both grass and grain sorghum canopies when the canopies were clipped and the resulting litter was removed. The natural accumulation of litter under the grass canopy did not significantly affect reflectance. The 1.65- and 2.20-micrometer wavelength reflectances of the live grass and the intact litter were 21.8% and 16.2%, respectively, and those of grain sorghum were 21.8% and 16.5%, respectively.

  9. Seasonal Variation in Exposure Level of Types A and B Ultraviolet Radiation: An Environmental Skin Carcinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rafieepour, A; Ghamari, F; Mohammadbeigi, A; Asghari, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the sun, affecting organs such as the skin, eyes, and immune system. According to American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) reports, the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface is increasing yearly and is responsible for an increase in solar radiation-related diseases. Aims: To investigate the amount of UVR reaching the Earth's surface and understand the risk of UVR on disease among outdoor laborers in one of the central provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: Arak city was divided into two geographic areas, and the weekly measurement of UVR was done in three locations) asphalt, grass and rooftop). To measure UVR, Hanger UV spectrometer, standard deviation (SD8-A), and SD8-B detectors were used. Amounts of UVR for a consecutive year and varying weather conditions were measured. Finally, values obtained were compared to ACGIH standards. Results: The minimum and maximum levels of UV type A radiation occurred in April 1.27 (0.724) W/m2 and September 7.147 (4.128) W/m2, these figures for UV type B were in March–April 0.005 (0.003) and September 0.083 (0.077). The maximum UVR is received between 11 and 15 o’clock. Conclusions: In the central cities of Iran, the minimum and maximum UV type A and B is received in March–April and in September, respectively. Based on the results, the angular position of the sun in the sky, cloud cover, and height from ground level affected the amount of UVR received, but the geographic locations studied did not. PMID:25861533

  10. Causes and implications of dry season control of tropical wet forest tree growth at very high water levels: direct vs. indirect limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierick, D.; Oberbauer, S. F.; O'Brien, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the importance of tropical rain forests in the global carbon cycle, uncertainty remains on how these ecosystems will be affected by climate change. Previous studies in a Costa Rican lowland tropical rain forest (La Selva Biological Station, Sarapiqui, Costa Rica) revealed a significant, positive relationship between tree diameter increment and January to April dry season precipitation that extended up to high rainfall totals (Clark et al. 2010). Proposed mechanisms include a direct limitation of water availability or closely linked indirect controls such as altered micrometeorological conditions (direct vs. diffuse light, atmospheric humidity) and changes in plant phenology or C-allocation. Using an experimental approach we aim to test the hypothesis that water availability in the dry season directly controls tree diameter growth despite the high precipitation levels normally encountered (long term average for Jan-Apr is 890 mm). At three sites within the La Selva Biological Station a paired experimental and control plot were established. Each plot was 900 m2 in size and had at least 20 trees with diameter at breast height (dbh) over 10 cm. In the experimental plots we used irrigation to simulate a minimum daily precipitation equivalent to 10 mm.d-1 during the dry seasons of 2011 and 2012. This simulated precipitation amount matches the highest dry season total recorded for the years 1998 to 2009. The main response variables measured in experimental and control plots were monthly dendrometer-band diameter growth of trees above 10 cm dbh, sap flux density of a subset of trees and bi-weekly leaf litter production. Belowground variables included soil moisture, fine root production and soil respiration. Soil moisture data confirmed that experimental plots experienced consistently high water availability in the top 30 cm of the soil profile during the dry season, while control plots experienced repeated drying and rewetting of the soil. This difference in water

  11. Applying spaceborne reflectivity measurements for calculation of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Outer, P. N.; van Dijk, A.; Slaper, H.; Lindfors, A. V.; De Backer, H.; Bais, A. F.; Feister, U.; Koskela, T.; Josefsson, W.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term analysis of cloud effects on ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the ground using spaceborne observations requires the use of instruments that have operated consecutively. The longest data record can be built from the reflectivity measurements produced by the instruments Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS) flown on Nimbus 7 from 1979 to 1992, TOMS on Earth Probe from 1996 to 2005, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flown on EOS Aura since 2004. The reflectivity data produced by TOMS on Earth Probe is only included until 2002. A comparison is made with cloud effects inferred from ground-based pyranometer measurements at over 83 World Radiation Data Centre stations. Modelled UV irradiances utilizing the standard reflectivity are compared with measurements of UV irradiances at eight European low-elevation stations. The reflectivity data of the two TOMS instruments shows a consistent agreement, and the required corrections are of low percentage, i.e. 2-3%. In contrast, the reflectivity product of OMI requires correction of 7-10%, and a solar angle dependency therein is more pronounced. These corrections were inferred from a comparison with pyranometer data, and tested using the UV measurements. The average reduction of UV radiation due to clouds for all sites together indicates a small trend: a diminishing cloudiness, in line with ground-based UV observations. Uncorrected implementation of the reflectivity data would have indicated the opposite. An optimal area was established for reflectivity data for the calculation of daily sums of UV radiation. It measures approximately 1.25° in latitudinal direction for square-shaped areas overhead the ground-based UV stations. Such an area can be traversed within 5 to 7 h at the average wind speeds found for the West European continent.

  12. Satellite-based climatology of low-level continental clouds in southern West Africa during the summer monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Roderick; Fink, Andreas H.; Redl, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Synoptic observations and various satellite products have been utilized for computing climatologies of low-level stratus over southern West Africa for the wet monsoon seasons July-September of 2006-2011. Previous studies found inconsistencies between satellite cloud products; climate models often fail to reproduce the extensive stratus decks. Therefore, a better observational reference and an understanding of its limitations are urgently needed to better validate models. Most detailed information of the spatiotemporal characteristics of low-level clouds was obtained from two Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite-based data sets. However, CALIPSO and CloudSat cross sections of cloud occurrence frequency suggest that both MSG products underestimate the low-level cloudiness over Nigeria due to shielding by abundant upper level and midlevel clouds and reveal that the stratus is lower over the continent than over the ocean. The Terra Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer product appears to overestimate the morning extent of low-level clouds. The climatology presented here shows that the zone of abundant low-level stratiform clouds is at its diurnal minimum south of 6-7°N around sunset (~1800 UTC). Thereafter, it starts to spread inland and reaches its maximum northward extent of 10-11°N between 0900 and 1000 UTC. The maximum affected area is approximately 800,000 km2. After about 1000 UTC, the northern boundary gets fragmented due to the breakup of stratus decks into fair-weather cumuli. The stratus is most frequent around Cape Palmas, over Ivory Coast, and at the windward sides of the Mampong Range (Ghana) and Oshogbo Hills (Nigeria).

  13. Satellite-based climatology of low-level continental clouds in southern West Africa during the summer monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linden, Roderick; Fink, Andreas H.; Redl, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Synoptic observations and various satellite products have been utilized for computing climatologies of low-level stratus over southern West Africa for the wet monsoon seasons July-September of 2006-2011. Previous studies found inconsistencies between satellite cloud products; climate models often fail to reproduce the extensive stratus decks. Therefore, a better observational reference and an understanding of its limitations are urgently needed to better validate models. Most detailed information of the spatiotemporal characteristics of low-level clouds was obtained from two Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite-based data sets. However, CALIPSO and CloudSat cross sections of cloud occurrence frequency suggest that both MSG products underestimate the low-level cloudiness over Nigeria due to shielding by abundant upper level and midlevel clouds and reveal that the stratus is lower over the continent than over the ocean. The Terra Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer product appears to overestimate the morning extent of low-level clouds. The climatology presented here shows that the zone of abundant low-level stratiform clouds is at its diurnal minimum south of 6-7°N around sunset ( 1800 UTC). Thereafter, it starts to spread inland and reaches its maximum northward extent of 10-11°N between 0900 and 1000 UTC. The maximum affected area is approximately 800,000 km2. After about 1000 UTC, the northern boundary gets fragmented due to the breakup of stratus decks into fair-weather cumuli. The stratus is most frequent around Cape Palmas, over Ivory Coast, and at the windward sides of the Mampong Range (Ghana) and Oshogbo Hills (Nigeria).

  14. Season changes of cadmium and copper levels in stem-boring larvae of Agapanthia villosoviridescens (coleoptera) on salt marshes of the Westerschelde estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminga, M.A.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Poley-Vos, C.H.; van Soelen, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Analyses of heavy metals in insects, including their developmental stages, have been widely used to monitor the penetration of these pollutants in various ecosystems. There are few reports dealing with seasonal changes in heavy metal content of insects. The seasonal pattern found in one herbivorous insect closely followed seasonal trends in metal contamination levels in the local vegetation. No data are available on season changes in insect larvae. To obtain more detailed information on seasonal changes of heavy metal levels in insects and their relation with the seasonally changing conditions in the habitat, the authors studied the time course of cadmium and copper concentrations in larvae of the longhorn beetle Agapanthia villosoviridescens. These live as stem-borers in the salt marsh halophyte Aster tripolium. The authors collected larvae from three salt marshes along the Westerschelde estuary. This estuary is severely polluted by heavy metals originating mainly from upstream sources; a large fraction of these metals is retained within the estuary. The fringing salt marsh soils, which are a sink for trace metals, show a gradient in pollution, with levels of heavy metals generally increasing in upstream direction. Salt marsh halophytes growing on these marshes show uptake of metals from the soil. Further transfers of heavy metals through the natural food chains on these salt marshes have not been investigated sofar.

  15. Low Background Levels of Mars Methane at Gale Crater Indicate Seasonal Cycle: Updated Results from TLS-SAM on Curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, C. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Atreya, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric methane have been made over a 3-year period at Gale Crater on Mars using the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS) instrument in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite on the Curiosity rover. We have reported two important observations: (i) a background level of 0.5 ppbv that is about five times lower than some model predictions based on generation from UV degradation of micro-meteorites or interplanetary dust delivered to the martian surface; (ii) a "spike" of elevated levels of 7 ppbv that were seen1 on four sequential observations over a 2-month period before dropping to background levels. This spike was attributed to an episodic release from a small local source, probably to the north of Gale crater. While the elevated levels of the spike did not return (repeat) one Mars year later, we have seen what appears to be a seasonal variation to the background levels that are all < 1ppbv. The variation ranges from a low of 0.2 ppbv in the northern hemisphere spring to 0.9 ppbv in the northern hemisphere late summer, a change in mixing ratio over a range larger than expected from our current understanding of methane sources and sinks. We will present recent atmospheric methane measurements, and their correlations with a variety of environmental conditions at the location of Curiosity, and discuss the mechanisms that are believed to be contributing to the low background methane signals and their variation. 1 "Mars Methane Detection and Variability at Gale Crater", C. R. Webster et al., Science, 347, 415-417 (2015) and references therein. The research described here was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  16. Pre-Service Teachers' Middle-Level Lessons on World Religions: Planning, Teaching, and Reflecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Derek L.; Cook, Tanya; Mathys, Holly

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how 22 elementary pre-service teachers (PSTs) planned and taught lessons on world religions to 7th-grade students. Pre- and post-lesson interview transcripts, lesson observations, as well as PST lesson plans and reflection journals served as data sources. Prior to teaching, the PSTs lacked adequate…

  17. Infection of Mouse Macrophages by Seasonal Influenza Viruses Can Be Restricted at the Level of Virus Entry and at a Late Stage in the Virus Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Londrigan, Sarah L; Short, Kirsty R; Ma, Joel; Gillespie, Leah; Rockman, Steven P; Brooks, Andrew G; Reading, Patrick C

    2015-12-01

    Airway epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV), resulting in productive virus replication and release. Macrophages (MΦ) are also permissive to IAV infection; however, virus replication is abortive. Currently, it is unclear how productive infection of MΦ is impaired or the extent to which seasonal IAV replicate in MΦ. Herein, we compared mouse MΦ and epithelial cells for their ability to support genomic replication and transcription, synthesis of viral proteins, assembly of virions, and release of infectious progeny following exposure to genetically defined IAV. We confirm that seasonal IAV differ in their ability to utilize cell surface receptors for infectious entry and that this represents one level of virus restriction. Following virus entry, we demonstrate synthesis of all eight segments of genomic viral RNA (vRNA) and mRNA, as well as seven distinct IAV proteins, in IAV-infected mouse MΦ. Although newly synthesized hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins are incorporated into the plasma membrane and expressed at the cell surface, electron microscopy confirmed that virus assembly was defective in IAV-infected MΦ, defining a second level of restriction late in the virus life cycle. Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV) and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) infect macrophages, but only HPAI replicate productively in these cells. Herein, we demonstrate that impaired virus uptake into macrophages represents one level of restriction limiting infection by seasonal IAV. Following uptake, seasonal IAV do not complete productive replication in macrophages, representing a second level of restriction. Using murine macrophages, we demonstrate that productive infection is blocked late in the virus life cycle, such that virus assembly is defective and newly synthesized virions are not released. These studies represent an important step toward identifying host-encoded factors that block

  18. A population-based dietary inflammatory index predicts levels of C-reactive protein in the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS).

    PubMed

    Shivappa, Nitin; Steck, Susan E; Hurley, Thomas G; Hussey, James R; Ma, Yunsheng; Ockene, Ira S; Tabung, Fred; Hébert, James R

    2014-08-01

    To perform construct validation of the population-based Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) using dietary data from two different dietary assessments and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as the construct validator. Using data derived from (i) three 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) at baseline and at the end of each subsequent quarter (i.e. up to fifteen over a year) and (ii) a 7 d dietary recall (7DDR) measured at baseline and then quarterly, regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of the DII score on serum hs-CRP as dichotomous (≤3 mg/l, >3 mg/l), while controlling for important potential confounders. Existing data from the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS), a longitudinal observational study of healthy participants recruited in Worcester, MA, USA and participants were followed for 1 year. Participants who had at least one hs-CRP measurement over her/his 1-year participation (n 495 for 24HR, n 559 for 7DDR). Higher DII scores were associated with values of hs-CRP >3 mg/l (OR = 1·08; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·16, P = 0·035 for the 24HR; and OR = 1·10; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·19, P = 0·015 for the 7DDR). The population-based DII was associated with interval changes in hs-CRP using both the 24HR and 7DDR. The success of this first-of-a-kind attempt at relating individuals' intakes of inflammation-modulating foods using this refined DII, and the finding that there is virtually no drop-off in predictive capability using a structured questionnaire in comparison to the 24HR standard, sets the stage for use of the DII in a wide variety of other epidemiological and clinical studies.

  19. A population-based dietary inflammatory index predicts levels of C-reactive protein in the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS)

    PubMed Central

    Shivappa, Nitin; Steck, Susan E; Hurley, Thomas G; Hussey, James R; Ma, Yunsheng; Ockene, Ira S; Tabung, Fred; Hébert, James R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform construct validation of the population-based Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) using dietary data from two different dietary assessments and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as the construct validator. Design Using data derived from (i) three 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) at baseline and at the end of each subsequent quarter (i.e. up to fifteen over a year) and (ii) a 7 d dietary recall (7DDR) measured at baseline and then quarterly, regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of the DII score on serum hs-CRP as dichotomous (≤3mg/l, >3mg/l), while controlling for important potential confounders. Setting Existing data from the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study (SEASONS), a longitudinal observational study of healthy participants recruited in Worcester, MA, USA and participants were followed for 1 year. Subjects Participants who had at least one hs-CRP measurement over her/his 1-year participation (n 495 for 24HR, n 559 for 7DDR). Results Higher DII scores were associated with values of hs-CRP >3 mg/l (OR = 1·08; 95% CI 1·01, 1·16, P = 0·035 for the 24HR; and OR = 1·10; 95% CI 1·02, 1·19, P = 0·015 for the 7DDR). Conclusions The population-based DII was associated with interval changes in hs-CRP using both the 24HR and 7DDR. The success of this first-of-a-kind attempt at relating individuals’ intakes of inflammation-modulating foods using this refined DII, and the finding that there is virtually no drop-off in predictive capability using a structured questionnaire in comparison to the 24HR standard, sets the stage for use of the DII in a wide variety of other epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:24107546

  20. Analysis of seminal plasma from brown bear (Ursus arctos) during the breeding season: Its relationship with testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Anel-López, L; Ortega-Ferrusola, C; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Álvarez, M; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C; Peña, F J; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2017-01-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) plays an important role in the motility, viability and maintenance of the fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. This study is the first on brown bear (Ursus arctos) SP components, and has two main objectives: 1) to define the SP composition in bear ejaculate and 2) to identify variations in SP composition in relation to high and low levels of testosterone in serum during the breeding season. Forty-eight sperm samples from 30 sexually mature male brown bears (Ursus arctos) were obtained by electroejaculation, and their serum testosterone levels were assessed to sort the animals into 2 groups (high and low testosterone levels, threshold 5 ng/dl). The biochemical and protein compositions of the SP samples were assessed, and sperm motility was analyzed. We found that lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the low-serum-testosterone samples, while concentrations of lipase and Mg+ values were significantly higher in the high-serum-testosterone samples. In contrast, sperm motility did not significantly differ (P>0.05) between the testosterone level groups (total motility: 74.42.8% in the high-level group vs. 77.1±4.7% in the low-level group). A reference digital model was constructed since there is no information for this wild species. To do this, all gel images were added in a binary multidimensional image and thirty-three spots were identified as the most-repeated spots. An analysis of these proteins was done by qualitative equivalency (isoelectric point and molecular weight) with published data for a bull. SP protein composition was compared between bears with high and low serum testosterone, and three proteins (binder of sperm and two enzymes not identified in the reference bull) showed significant (P<0.05) quantitative differences. We conclude that male bears with high or low serum testosterone levels differs only in some properties of their SP, differences in enzyme LDIP2, energy source LACT2, one protein (similar to BSP1

  1. The effects of season and sex in the metal levels of mature common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) in Mersin Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Deniz; Ozogul, Yesim

    2011-05-01

    The effects of sex and season on metal levels of the mantle of the common cuttlefish that was caught from Mersin Bay were evaluated. The annual range of mantle length (ML), total length (TL), and weight of common cuttlefish specimens were 110 to 183 mm, 380 to 581 mm, and 150.24 to 477.13 g, respectively. The annual range of metal levels in the mantle tissue of common cuttlefish were: 2.34 to 3.89 μg Cd g(-1), 0.30 to 0.63 μg Cr g(-1), 0.15 to 0.54 μg Pb g(-1), 2.35 to 14.90 μg Cu g(-1), 23.22 to 51.88 μg Zn g(-1), and 5.12 to 10.65 μg Fe g(-1). Cu levels of females were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those found in male throughout all the seasons while Pb levels were lower (P < 0.05) in males than females. Cr levels in the mantle tissue of cuttlefish did not change throughout the seasons. On the contrary, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe levels in the mantle tissue of cuttlefish changed throughout all the seasons. The highest Cd, Zn, and Fe levels were obtained in spring while the highest Cu levels were obtained in autumn. It was also found out that this species was rich in terms of metal levels, particularly, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe. It was found out that the mantle tissue of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, which was caught from Mersin Bay, was contaminated with Cd in all the seasons. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Diminished levels of nasal S100A7 (psoriasin) in seasonal allergic rhinitis: an effect mediated by Th2 cytokines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background S100A7 is an antimicrobial peptide involved in several inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression and regulation of S100A7 in seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR). Methods Nasal lavage (NAL) fluid was obtained from healthy controls before and after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provocation, from SAR patients before and after allergen challenge, and from SAR patients having completed allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Nasal biopsies, nasal epithelial cells and blood were acquired from healthy donors. The airway epithelial cell line FaDu was used for in vitro experiments. Real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine S100A7 expression in nasal tissue and cells. Release of S100A7 in NAL and culture supernatants was measured by ELISA. The function of recombinant S100A7 was explored in epithelial cells, neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Results Nasal administration of LPS induced S100A7 release in healthy non-allergic subjects. The level of S100A7 was lower in NAL from SAR patients than from healthy controls, and it was further reduced in the SAR group 6 h post allergen provocation. In contrast, ASIT patients displayed higher levels after completed treatment. S100A7 was expressed in the nasal epithelium and in glands, and it was secreted by cultured epithelial cells. Stimulation with IL-4 and histamine repressed the epithelial S100A7 release. Further, recombinant S100A7 induced activation of neutrophils and PBMC. Conclusions The present study shows an epithelial expression and excretion of S100A7 in the nose after microbial stimulation. The levels are diminished in rhinitis patients and in the presence of an allergic cytokine milieu, suggesting that the antimicrobial defense is compromised in patients with SAR. PMID:22230654

  3. Long-latency muscle activity reflects continuous, delayed sensorimotor feedback of task-level and not joint-level error

    PubMed Central

    Safavynia, Seyed A.

    2013-01-01

    In both the upper and lower limbs, evidence suggests that short-latency electromyographic (EMG) responses to mechanical perturbations are modulated based on muscle stretch or joint motion, whereas long-latency responses are modulated based on attainment of task-level goals, e.g., desired direction of limb movement. We hypothesized that long-latency responses are modulated continuously by task-level error feedback. Previously, we identified an error-based sensorimotor feedback transformation that describes the time course of EMG responses to ramp-and-hold perturbations during standing balance (Safavynia and Ting 2013; Welch and Ting 2008, 2009). Here, our goals were 1) to test the robustness of the sensorimotor transformation over a richer set of perturbation conditions and postural states; and 2) to explicitly test whether the sensorimotor transformation is based on task-level vs. joint-level error. We developed novel perturbation trains of acceleration pulses such that perturbations were applied when the body deviated from the desired, upright state while recovering from preceding perturbations. The entire time course of EMG responses (∼4 s) in an antagonistic muscle pair was reconstructed using a weighted sum of center of mass (CoM) kinematics preceding EMGs at long-latency delays (∼100 ms). Furthermore, CoM and joint kinematic trajectories became decorrelated during perturbation trains, allowing us to explicitly compare task-level vs. joint feedback in the same experimental condition. Reconstruction of EMGs was poorer using joint kinematics compared with CoM kinematics and required unphysiologically short (∼10 ms) delays. Thus continuous, long-latency feedback of task-level variables may be a common mechanism regulating long-latency responses in the upper and lower limbs. PMID:23803325

  4. Molecular-level analysis of the serum antibody repertoire in young adults before and after seasonal influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiwon; Boutz, Daniel R; Chromikova, Veronika; Joyce, M Gordon; Vollmers, Christopher; Leung, Kwanyee; Horton, Andrew P; DeKosky, Brandon J; Lee, Chang-Han; Lavinder, Jason J; Murrin, Ellen M; Chrysostomou, Constantine; Hoi, Kam Hon; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Thomas, Paul V; Druz, Aliaksandr; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lingshu; Kong, Wing-Pui; Park, Daechan; Popova, Lyubov I; Dekker, Cornelia L; Davis, Mark M; Carter, Chalise E; Ross, Ted M; Ellington, Andrew D; Wilson, Patrick C; Marcotte, Edward M; Mascola, John R; Ippolito, Gregory C; Krammer, Florian; Quake, Stephen R; Kwong, Peter D; Georgiou, George

    2017-01-01

    Molecular understanding of serological immunity to influenza has been confounded by the complexity of the polyclonal antibody response in humans. Here we used high-resolution proteomics analysis of immunoglobulin (referred to as Ig-seq) coupled with high-throughput sequencing of transcripts encoding B cell receptors (BCR-seq) to quantitatively determine the antibody repertoire at the individual clonotype level in the sera of young adults before and after vaccination with trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine. The serum repertoire comprised between 40 and 147 clonotypes that were specific to each of the three monovalent components of the trivalent influenza vaccine, with boosted pre-existing clonotypes accounting for ~60% of the response. An unexpectedly high fraction of serum antibodies recognized both the H1 and H3 monovalent vaccines. Recombinant versions of these H1 + H3 cross-reactive antibodies showed broad binding to hemagglutinins (HAs) from previously circulating virus strains; several of these antibodies, which were prevalent in the serum of multiple donors, recognized the same conserved epitope in the HA head domain. Although the HA-head-specific H1 + H3 antibodies did not show neutralization activity in vitro, they protected mice against infection with the H1N1 and H3N2 virus strains when administered before or after challenge. Collectively, our data reveal unanticipated insights regarding the serological response to influenza vaccination and raise questions about the added benefits of using a quadrivalent vaccine instead of a trivalent vaccine. PMID:27820605

  5. Effects of seasonal variation and maternal clothing style on vitamin D levels of mothers and their infants.

    PubMed

    Çuhacı-Çakır, Bahar; Demirel, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    In Turkey, vitamin D deficiency has been seen in children as well as in their mothers. We assessed the vitamin D status of 83 infants and their mothers, categorized into four groups according to season and mothers' clothing style. We measured serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in each mother-infant pair. In the summer, the rate of vitamin D deficiency was higher in mothers who wore clothing that covered nearly all of the body (55%) than in mothers whose clothing covered less of the body (13.6%) (p=0.016). In the winter, nearly half of both groups of mothers had vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, and there were no significant differences based on their clothing style (p>0.05). In all groups of infants, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency rates were found to be very low. It seems that 400 IU/daily vitamin D intake is adequate for infants in Turkey; for mothers, we propose vitamin D supplementation during the pregnancy and lactation period.

  6. Evidence of Boundary Reflection of Kelvin and First-Mode Rossby Waves from Topex/Poseidon Sea Level Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Jean-Philippe; Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1996-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level data lead to new opportunities to investigate some theoretical mechanisms suggested to be involved in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Pacific ocean. In particular, we are interested in studying the western boundary reflection, a process crucial for the delayed action oscillator theory, by using the TOPEX/POSEIDON data from November 1992 to May 1995. We first projected the sea level data onto Kelvin and first-mode Ross waves. Then we estimated the contribution of wind forcing to these waves by using a single baroclinic mode simple wave model forced by the ERS-1 wind data. Wave propagation was clearly observed with amplitudes well explained by the wind forcing in the ocean interior. Evidence of wave reflection was detected at both the western and eastern boundaries of the tropical Pacific ocean. At the eastern boundary, Kelvin waves were seen to reflect as first-mode Rossby waves during the entire period. The reflection efficiency (in terms of wave amplitude) of the South American coasts was estimated to be 80% of that of an infinite meridional wall. At the western boundary, reflection was observed in April-August 1993, in January-June 1994, and, later, in December 1994 to February 1995. Although the general roles of these reflection events in the variability observed in the equatorial Pacific ocean are not clear, the data suggest that the reflections in January-June 1994 have played a role in the onset of the warm conditions observed in late 1994 to early 1995. Indeed, during the January-June 1994 period, as strong downwelling first-mode Rossby waves reflected into downwelling Kelvin waves, easterly wind and cold sea surface temperature anomalies located near the date line weakened and eventually reversed in June-July 1994. The presence of the warm anomalies near the date line then favored convection and westerly wind anomalies that triggered strong downwelling Kelvin waves propagating throughout the basin

  7. Evidence of Boundary Reflection of Kelvin and First-Mode Rossby Waves from Topex/Poseidon Sea Level Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulanger, Jean-Philippe; Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1996-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level data lead to new opportunities to investigate some theoretical mechanisms suggested to be involved in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Pacific ocean. In particular, we are interested in studying the western boundary reflection, a process crucial for the delayed action oscillator theory, by using the TOPEX/POSEIDON data from November 1992 to May 1995. We first projected the sea level data onto Kelvin and first-mode Ross waves. Then we estimated the contribution of wind forcing to these waves by using a single baroclinic mode simple wave model forced by the ERS-1 wind data. Wave propagation was clearly observed with amplitudes well explained by the wind forcing in the ocean interior. Evidence of wave reflection was detected at both the western and eastern boundaries of the tropical Pacific ocean. At the eastern boundary, Kelvin waves were seen to reflect as first-mode Rossby waves during the entire period. The reflection efficiency (in terms of wave amplitude) of the South American coasts was estimated to be 80% of that of an infinite meridional wall. At the western boundary, reflection was observed in April-August 1993, in January-June 1994, and, later, in December 1994 to February 1995. Although the general roles of these reflection events in the variability observed in the equatorial Pacific ocean are not clear, the data suggest that the reflections in January-June 1994 have played a role in the onset of the warm conditions observed in late 1994 to early 1995. Indeed, during the January-June 1994 period, as strong downwelling first-mode Rossby waves reflected into downwelling Kelvin waves, easterly wind and cold sea surface temperature anomalies located near the date line weakened and eventually reversed in June-July 1994. The presence of the warm anomalies near the date line then favored convection and westerly wind anomalies that triggered strong downwelling Kelvin waves propagating throughout the basin

  8. Stocking rate and monensin supplemental level effects on growth performance of beef cattle consuming warm-season grasses.

    PubMed

    Vendramini, J M B; Sanchez, J M D; Cooke, R F; Aguiar, A D; Moriel, P; da Silva, W L; Cunha, O F R; Ferreira, P D S; Pereira, A C

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of monensin supplementation on animals receiving warm-season grass with limited supplementation. In Exp. 1, treatments were a factorial combination of 2 stocking rates (1.2 and 1.7 animal unit [AU] [500 kg BW]/ha) and supplementation with monensin (200 mg/d) or control (no monensin) distributed in a complete randomized design with 3 replicates. Thirty Angus × Brahman crossbred heifers (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) with initial BW of 343 ± 8 kg were randomly allocated into 12 bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures and supplemented with 0.4 kg DM of concentrate (14% CP and 78% TDN) daily for 86 d. Herbage mass (HM) and nutritive value evaluations were conducted every 14 d, and heifers were weighed every 28 d. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.97) of monensin on HM, herbage allowance (HA), and ADG; however, animals receiving monensin had greater (P = 0.03) plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) concentrations. The stocking rate treatments had similar HM in June (P = 0.20) and July (P = 0.18), but the higher stocking rate decreased (P < 0.01) HM and HA during August and September. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.01) for the pastures with the lower stocking rate in August but not different in July and September (P ≥ 0.15). Gain per hectare tended to be greater on pastures with the higher stocking rate (P ≤ 0.06). In Exp. 2, treatments were 3 levels of monensin (125, 250, and 375 mg/animal per day) and control (no monensin) tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 10-d adaptation period followed by 5 d of rumen fluid collection and total DMI evaluation. Blood samples were collected on d 4 and 5 of the collection period. Ground stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) hay (11.0% CP and 52% in vitro digestible organic matter) was offered daily. The steers received the same supplementation regimen as in Exp. 1. Total DMI was not different among treatments (P = 0.64). There was a linear increase (P ≤ 0.01) in propionate and a tendency

  9. Changes in interleukin-6 levels during electroconvulsive therapy may reflect the therapeutic response in major depression.

    PubMed

    Järventausta, K; Sorri, A; Kampman, O; Björkqvist, M; Tuohimaa, K; Hämäläinen, M; Moilanen, E; Leinonen, E; Peltola, J; Lehtimäki, K

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD) but decreased by antidepressive medication. IL-6 levels are markedly elevated both after epileptic seizures and single electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) session, but long-term changes in IL-6 levels after ECT have not been studied. The correlation between immediate and long-term changes in proinflammatory cytokines and outcome after ECT was investigated. Thirty patients suffering from MDD participated in the study. IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) levels were examined at baseline and at 2 and 4 h after the first, fifth and the last ECT sessions. The response to ECT was measured with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). ECT repeatedly caused an increase in IL-6 levels at the 4-h time point. However, the baseline IL-6 levels decreased among remitters, but not among non-remitters, towards the end of ECT. IL-1β levels were mostly below detectable level, and IL-1Ra levels did not change during and after ECT. ECT has distinct acute and long-term effects on IL-6 levels. Interestingly, the long-term effect of ECT on IL-6 seems to correlate with outcome, providing further evidence of the mechanism of action of ECT and supporting the inflammation theory in MDD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. SEASONAL AND ANNUAL MODELING OF REDUCED NITROGEN COMPOUNDS OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: EMISSIONS, AMBIENT LEVELS, AND DEPOSITION AMOUNTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed description of the distributions and seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen compounds is of considerable interest given their role in formation of acidic substances, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter and nutrient loading effects resulting from their deposition t...

  11. SEASONAL AND ANNUAL MODELING OF REDUCED NITROGEN COMPOUNDS OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES: EMISSIONS, AMBIENT LEVELS, AND DEPOSITION AMOUNTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed description of the distributions and seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen compounds is of considerable interest given their role in formation of acidic substances, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter and nutrient loading effects resulting from their deposition t...

  12. Protracted reproductive seasonality in the male giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) reflected by patterns in androgen profiles, ejaculate characteristics, and selected behaviors.

    PubMed

    Aitken-Palmer, Copper; Hou, Rong; Burrell, Caitlin; Zhang, Zhihe; Wang, Chengdong; Spindler, Rebecca; Wildt, David E; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Howard, JoGayle

    2012-06-01

    The female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) experiences a brief (24-72 h) seasonal estrus, occurring once annually in spring (February-May). Our aim was to determine the existence and temporal profile of reproductive seasonality in the male of this species. The study was facilitated by 3 yr of access to eight giant panda males living in a large breeding center in China. Seasonal periods for the male were defined on the basis of female reproductive activity as prebreeding, breeding (early, peak, late), and nonbreeding seasons. Testes size, fecal androgen excretion, ejaculated sperm density, and frequency of reproductive behaviors (i.e., locomotion, scent marking, vocalizations) increased (P < 0.05) from the prebreeding period (October 1-January 31) to the early breeding season (February 1-March 21). Testes volume and sperm concentration were maximal from March 22 through April 15, a period coinciding with maximal female breeding activity. The occurrence of male reproductive behaviors and fecal androgen concentrations began declining during peak breeding and continued from April 16 through May 31 (late breeding period), returning to nadir throughout the nonbreeding interval (June 1-September 30). Reproductive quiescence throughout the latter period was associated with basal testes size/volume and aspermic ejaculates. Our results reveal that testes morphometry, fecal androgen excretion, seminal quality, and certain behaviors integrated together clearly demonstrate reproductive seasonality in the male giant panda. The coordinated increases in testes size, androgen production, sperm density, and sexual behaviors occur over a protracted interval, likely to prepare for and then accommodate a brief, unpredictable female estrus.

  13. Urinary Angiogenin Reflects the Magnitude of Kidney Injury at the Infrahistologic Level.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Quentin; Mami, Iadh; Rabant, Marion; Karras, Alexandre; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Chevet, Eric; Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany; Pallet, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    The ribonuclease angiogenin is a component of the mammalian stress response that is secreted by renal epithelial cells on activation of the inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α)-active spliced X-box binding protein 1 (sXBP1) axis and instrumental to the adaptation to AKI associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress. To determine whether the amount of angiogenin in urine of individuals with a kidney injury reflects the magnitude of the lesions and provides information on the risk of organ failure, we examined individuals referred for a kidney injury and determined the biochemical characteristics of urinary angiogenin and its diagnostic and prognostic values. Urinary angiogenin did not correlate with the urinary concentrations of high molecular weight proteins and correlated only weakly with low molecular weight proteins, suggestive of tubular production. In a cohort of 242 kidney transplant recipients with acute allograft dysfunction, higher urinary angiogenin concentrations at the time of the biopsy associated with worse renal function and higher proteinuria but did not correlate with histologic lesions as defined in the Banff classification. Kidney transplant recipients with urinary angiogenin amounts in the highest 50% had a risk of graft failure 3.59 times as high (95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 15.94) as that of patients with amounts in the lowest 50%. Finally, the amount of urinary angiogenin reflected the activity of the IRE1α-XBP1 axis in allografts. Our approach identified urinary angiogenin as a noninvasive indicator of the extent of tissue damage, independent of the histologic lesions, and a risk predictor of kidney allograft failure. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Has This Begun to Change the Way They Think? Moving Undergraduate Learners' Level of Reflection from Where It Is to Where It Needs to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, John B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the ongoing development of a framework for reflection for undergraduate learners new to the reflective process. Motivated by the gap between students' abilities and experience of reflection and the expectations of them at undergraduate level, the author experimented with a variety of approaches over a number of years. After…

  15. Has This Begun to Change the Way They Think? Moving Undergraduate Learners' Level of Reflection from Where It Is to Where It Needs to Be

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, John B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents the ongoing development of a framework for reflection for undergraduate learners new to the reflective process. Motivated by the gap between students' abilities and experience of reflection and the expectations of them at undergraduate level, the author experimented with a variety of approaches over a number of years. After…

  16. Seasonal changes in courtship behavior, plasma androgen levels and in hypothalamic aromatase immunoreactivity in male free-living European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pintér, Ottó; Péczely, Péter; Zsebok, Sándor; Zelena, Dóra

    2011-05-15

    In songbirds from temperate latitudes, singing during spring has an essential role in mate attraction, while during the non-breeding season it is connected to territorial aggression and/or maintaining dominance hierarchies or flock cohesion. Courtship behavior is regulated by plasma testosterone (T) levels. Other androgens, like dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) could be responsible for aggression. The aromatization of androgens in the brain is an essential step in mediating their effects on behavior. Our goal was to determine whether the seasonal changes in male courtship behavior (measured by average song bout length and wing-waving/flicking) are related to seasonal changes in androgen activity (measured by plasma T, DHEA levels) and aromatase (ARO) immunoreactivity in the preoptic area/medial preoptic nucleus (POA/POM) of free-living male starlings. DHEA increased during pair formation, decreased at nesting and remained at low levels. The number of ARO cells - in line with the T levels - increased during the courtship and nesting periods, but outside the breeding season it was low. Song bout length showed a similar pattern, namely the peak was reached during the courtship period, and after that males stopped singing when chicks started to hatch. Short and fast wing-flicking and wing-waving behavior was observed only during the breading season. Summarizing, we have found that song bout length of male starlings changes parallel with plasma T levels and ARO immunoreactivity in the POA/POM. Furthermore, DHEA levels were low during the sexually inactive period which suggests that other mechanisms could be involved in the aggressive non-courtship behavior/vocalization in these birds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Sport Education Fitness Season's Impact on Students' Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and In-Class Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jeffery Kurt; Hastie, Peter A.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Foote, Shelby; Brock, Sheri J.; Hollett, Nikki

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a sport education season of fitness could provide students with recommended levels of in-class moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while also increasing students' fitness knowledge and fitness achievement. Method: One hundred and sixty-six 5th-grade students (76…

  18. Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on direct and indirect levels of tree mortality in Ponderosa and Jeffrey Pine Forests in California, USA.

    Treesearch

    Christopher Fettig; Stephen McKelvey; Daniel Cluck; Smith Sheri; William Otrosina

    2010-01-01

    Many forests that historically experienced frequent low-intensity wildfires have undergone extensive alterations during the past century. Prescribed fire is now commonly used to restore these fire-adapted forest ecosystems. In this study, we examined the influence of prescribed burn season on levels of tree mortality attributed to prescribed fire effects (direct...

  19. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals ( P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms ( P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale ( P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer ( P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different ( P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  20. Seasonal variation in coat characteristics, tick loads, cortisol levels, some physiological parameters and temperature humidity index on Nguni cows raised in low- and high-input farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-08-01

    Seasonal variations in hair length, tick loads, cortisol levels, haematological parameters (HP) and temperature humidity index (THI) in Nguni cows of different colours raised in two low-input farms, and a commercial stud was determined. The sites were chosen based on their production systems, climatic characteristics and geographical locations. Zazulwana and Komga are low-input, humid-coastal areas, while Honeydale is a high-input, dry-inland Nguni stud farm. A total of 103 cows, grouped according to parity, location and coat colour, were used in the study. The effects of location, coat colour, hair length and season were used to determine tick loads on different body parts, cortisol levels and HP in blood from Nguni cows. Highest tick loads were recorded under the tail and the lowest on the head of each of the animals (P < 0.05). Zazulwana cows recorded the highest tick loads under the tails of all the cows used in the study from the three farms (P < 0.05). High tick loads were recorded for cows with long hairs. Hair lengths were longest during the winter season in the coastal areas of Zazulwana and Honeydale (P < 0.05). White and brown-white patched cows had significantly longer (P < 0.05) hair strands than those having a combination of red, black and white colour. Cortisol and THI were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in summer season. Red blood cells, haematoglobin, haematocrit, mean cell volumes, white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were significantly different (P < 0.05) as some associated with age across all seasons and correlated to THI. It was concluded that the location, coat colour and season had effects on hair length, cortisol levels, THI, HP and tick loads on different body parts and heat stress in Nguni cows.

  1. Serum soluble Talin-1 levels are elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis, reflecting its disease activity.

    PubMed

    Muto, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiro; Liu, Jia; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Uchida, Tomohiko; Masuda, Hiroki; Ohtani, Ryohei; Sugimoto, Kazuo; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2017-04-15

    Previously, we identified anti-Talin-1 antibodies in the serum of MS. In this case, we measured the serum soluble Talin-1 (sTalin-1) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum sTalin-1 levels were significantly higher in 40 patients with MS than in 43 normal controls and in the acute phase of disease than in the remission phase. Interestingly, serum sTalin-1 levels were associated with a sustained increase in disability after MS attack but not with serum anti-Talin-1 antibody levels. sTalin-1 may be a biomarker for the acute phase of MS and may be used for the short-term prognosis of MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum progranulin irrelated with Breg cell levels, but elevated in RA patients, reflecting high disease activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaxi; Li, Shuang; Shi, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lili; Li, Jun; Chen, Shiyong; Wu, Chunlong; Shen, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Soluble progranulin (PGRN) is known to directly regulate regulatory T cells; however, whether PGRN levels are elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and affect the regulatory subsets of B cells remain unknown. In this study, a total of 80 RA patients and 60 healthy controls were studied. Serum progranulin levels were determined using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the feasibility of serum PGRN as a biomarker for distinguishing patients with RA. CD19(+)CD5(+)GrB(+) B cells were analyzed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Serum progranulin levels in RA patients (median, 59.4 ng/mL) and in RA patients DAS28 > 5.1 (median, 71.98 ng/mL) were much higher than those in normal controls (median, 46.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve for progranulin levels was 0.705 for RA versus normal controls and the area under the ROC curve for progranulin levels in RA patients DAS28 > 5.1 was 0.977 versus normal controls (P < 0.001). Interestingly, serum progranulin and DAS28, CRP, ESR were all positively correlated in RA patients (P < 0.001). The number of CD19(+)CD5(+)GrB(+) B cells was significantly higher in RA patients (P < 0.05); however, the level of Breg cells was not related to PGRN (P > 0.05). Our findings indicated that induction of PGRN expression may play a role in RA immune reaction and PGRN levels could be a useful biomarker in RA inflammatory response, but irrelated with Breg cell levels.

  3. Estimation of nitrogen concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility of herbage of warm-season grass pastures from canopy hyperspectral reflectance measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Real-time assessment of forage nitrogen (N) concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) during the growing season can help livestock managers make decisions for adjusting stocking rate and managing pastures. Traditional laboratory analysis of forage N and IVDMD are time consuming and...

  4. Contemporary Surface Seasonal Oscillation and Vertical Deformation in Tibetan Plateau and Nepal Derived from the GPS, Leveling and GRACE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Pan, Y.; Hwang, C.; Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    We use 168 Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations distributed in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Nepal from lengths of 2.5 to 14 years to estimate the present-day velocity field in this area, including the horizontal and vertical deformations under the frame ITRF2008. We estimate and remove common mode errors in regional GPS time series using the principal component analysis (PCA), obtaining a time series with high signal to noise ratio. Following the maximum estimation analysis, a power law plus white noise stochastic model are adopted to estimate the velocity field. The highlight of Tibetan region is the crust vertical deformation. GPS vertical time series present seasonal oscillations caused by temporal mass loads, hence GRACE data from CSR are used to study the mass loads change. After removing the mass load deformations from GPS vertical rates, the results are improved. Leveling data about 48 years in this region are also used to estimate the rates of vertical movements. Our study suggests that the boundary of south Nepal is still sinking due to the fact that the India plate is crashing into the Eurasian plate. The uplift rates from south to north of TP reduce gradually. Himalayas region and north Nepal uplift around 6 mm/yr in average. The uplift rate along East TP in Qinhai is around 2.7 mm/yr in average. In contrast, the southeast of Tibetan Plateau, south Yunnan and Tarim in Xinjiang sink with different magnitudes. Our observation results suggest complicated mechanism of the mass migration in TP. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant Nos. 2013CB733302 and 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061).

  5. Lipometer subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) reflects serum leptin levels varying in circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Reinhard; Tafeit, Erwin; Sudi, Karl; Vrecko, Karoline; Horejsi, Renate; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut G.; Reibnegger, Gilbert

    1998-05-01

    Recent advances in obesity research have shown that the product of the ob-gene named leptin is related to total body fast mass in humans. There is, however, a debate if leptin levels are pulsatile and linked to body fat distribution. In this study we therefore investigated the subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top) measured by means of the newly developed device Lipometer and leptin levels during a 24 hours beginning at 0715am ending the same time in the next day. Blood samples for measurement of leptin were taken every 3 hours in a male subject. Measurements of SAT-Top were performed at 15 body sites from neck to calf at the left and right body site at the same time interval. We observed an almost symmetrically reaction of the left and right body site with a maximum of the mean value of all body sites in the evening at 0715pm. There was a negative correlation between serum leptin levels and SAT-Top using the set of certain body sites (R2 equals 0.80, p equals 0.01). If these combination of body sites is inversed and set against serum leptin levels, both curves show almost identical shape and time dependence. We conclude that SAT-Top by means of Lipometer is changed in a short time and related to leptin levels in the investigated male subject.

  6. Determination of element levels in human serum: Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, U.; Łyżwa, P.; Łyżwa, K.; Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Stabrawa, I.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.; Antczak, G.; Borkowska, B.; Góźdź, S.

    2016-08-01

    Deficiency or excess of elements could disrupt proper functioning of the human body and could lead to several disorders. Determination of their concentrations in different biological human fluids and tissues should become a routine practice in medical treatment. Therefore the knowledge about appropriate element concentrations in human organism is required. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Pb) in human serum and to define the reference values of element concentration. Samples of serum were obtained from 105 normal presumably healthy volunteers (66 women aged between 15 and 78 years old; 39 men aged between 15 and 77 years old). Analysis has been done for the whole studied population and for subgroups by sex and age. It is probably first so a wide study of elemental composition of serum performed in the case of Świętokrzyskie region. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) method was used to perform the elemental analysis. Spectrometer S2 Picofox (Bruker AXS Microanalysis GmbH) was used to identify and measure elemental composition of serum samples. Finally, 1st and 3rd quartiles were accepted as minimum and maximum values of concentration reference range.

  7. Characterization of a deep-level compensation ratio through picosecond four-wave mixing on a transient reflection grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadys, A.; Delaye, Ph; Roosen, G.; Jarasiunas, K.

    2007-09-01

    We demonstrate a novel application of a time-resolved four-wave mixing technique for the determination of a deep-level compensation ratio in a semi-insulating crystal. The approach is based on photoexcitation of carriers from deep impurity levels, formation of a space-charge electric field in deep traps, and monitoring dynamics of photorefractive, free- carrier and absorption gratings by light diffraction. The analysis of anisotropic diffraction features on the reflection grating provided requirements for crystal orientation in order to discriminate contribution of amplitude grating from the photorefractive phase grating, both being related to deep-trap occupation. Contributions of these optical nonlinearities were studied experimentally in (0 0 1)-oriented GaAs wafers by using a transient reflection grating configuration with a very small grating period (150 nm). Comparison of the reflection grating picosecond kinetics and its diffraction efficiency with modeling curves allowed us to ascribe the slow decay component to amplitude grating in recharged deep traps and determine their compensation ratio. The proposed technique allowed the determination of the compensation ratio of a deep EL2 donor, equal to 0.6 ± 0.05 in the given GaAs crystal.

  8. Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Estellano, Victor H; Pozo, Karla; Efstathiou, Christos; Pozo, Katerine; Corsolini, Simonetta; Focardi, Silvano

    2015-10-01

    Polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed over 4 sampling periods of 3-5-months (≥ 1 year) at ten urban and rural locations throughout the Tuscany Region. The purpose was to assess the occurrence and seasonal variations of ten current-use pesticides (CUPs). PUF disk extracts were analyzed using GC-MS. The organophosphates insecticides; chlorpyrifos (3-580 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (below detection limit - to 570 pg m(-3)) presented the highest levels in air, and showed seasonal fluctuation coinciding with the growing seasons. The relative proportion urban/(urban + rural) ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 showing no differences between urban and rural concentrations. Air back trajectories analysis showed air masses passing over agricultural fields and potentially enhancing the drift of pesticides into the urban sites. This study represents the first information regarding CUPs in the atmosphere of Tuscany region using PAS-PUF disk.

  9. Acute myocardial infarction is reflected in salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 activation level.

    PubMed

    Buduneli, Eralp; Mäntylä, Päivi; Emingil, Gülnur; Tervahartiala, Taina; Pussinen, Pirkko; Barış, Nezihi; Akıllı, Azem; Atilla, Gül; Sorsa, Timo

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study is to compare salivary and serum biomarker levels and degrees of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and systemically healthy patients (non-AMI) with similar periodontal conditions. A total of 92 patients (47 AMI and 28 non-AMI patients with gingivitis or periodontitis; and 17 systemically and periodontally healthy patients as a control group) were recruited. Clinical periodontal measurements were recorded; stimulated whole saliva and serum samples were collected. AMI patients were clinically examined within 3 to 4 days after admission to the coronary care unit. Saliva samples were analyzed for levels of MMP-8, MMP-7, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Serums were tested for MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 levels by immunofluorometric assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Molecular forms and degree of activation of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-13 were analyzed by computer-scanned immunoblots. Total salivary MMP-8 assessed by immunofluorometric assay method and immunoblot densitometric units was higher in non-AMI than in AMI patients' saliva, but a significantly higher percentage of AMI patients' MMP-8 was activated polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) type (P <0.001) regardless of periodontal diagnosis.Serum MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 levels were significantly higher in AMI (for all markers and all comparisons,P <0.05). Characteristic for AMI was dominance of active PMN MMP-8 in saliva [corrected].

  10. Narrowing the Gap between a Vision of Reform and Teaching Practice: Middle Level Teachers' Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Donna H.

    2010-01-01

    The research objectives were to identify the middle level mathematics teachers' conceptions of mathematics teaching and learning and ascertain changes in their conceptions and instructional behavior at the end of a three-year professional development (PD) project. These changes were studied through the qualitative analysis of their reflective…

  11. Blister fluid and serum cytokine levels in severe sepsis in humans reflect skin dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Koskela, M; Ala-Kokko, T I; Gäddnäs, F; Herzig, K-H; Karhu, T; Oikarinen, A; Koivukangas, V

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of sepsis-related end-organ inflammation in vivo is limited. We investigated the cytokine response in skin and in serum in sepsis and its relation to multiorgan failure (MOF) and survival. Cytokines were analysed in serum and in suction blister fluid of intact skin of 44 patients with severe sepsis and 15 healthy controls. Blister fluid and serum samples were collected within 48 h of the first sepsis-induced organ failure. This is a substudy of a larger follow-up study on wound healing in sepsis. Cytokine levels were higher in patients with sepsis vs. controls (interleukin [IL]-10, blisters: 65.9 vs. 4.3 pg/ml, P < 0.001, serum: 25.7 vs. 4.5 pg/ml, P = 0.004; IL-6, blisters: 41.9 vs. 0.03 pg/ml, P < 0.001, serum: 45.5 vs. 2.1 pg/ml, P < 0.001). Patients with MOF had higher levels of IL-10 (116.4 vs. 21.3 pg/ml, P = 0.015), IL-4 (0.7 vs. 0.07 pg/ml, P = 0.013) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (25.9 vs. 9.5 pg/ml, P = 0.027) in blister fluid than patients without MOF. In blister fluid, survivors had lower levels of IL-10 (43.3 vs. 181.9 pg/ml, P = 0.024) and bFGF (15.8 vs. 31.9 pg/ml, P = 0.006) than non-survivors. In serum, survivors had higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (152.2 vs. 14.7 pg/ml, P = 0.012) and lower levels of IL-6 (38.5 vs. 91.1 pg/ml, P = 0.011) than non-survivors. The blister fluid levels of bFGF, TNF and VEGF did not correlate with the serum levels. Cytokine responses in skin blister fluid in patients with sepsis differed from those in healthy controls. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Urinary soluble CD163 level reflects glomerular inflammation in human lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Nobuhide; Tsuboi, Naotake; Furuhashi, Kazuhiro; Shi, Yiqin; Du, Qiuna; Abe, Tomoko; Hori, Mayuko; Imaizumi, Takahiro; Kim, Hangsoo; Katsuno, Takayuki; Ozaki, Takenori; Kosugi, Tomoki; Matsuo, Seiichi; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2016-12-01

    In addition to classically activated macrophages that have effector roles in tissue injury, alternatively activated M2 macrophages are involved in the resolution of inflammation in animal models of kidney disease. To clarify the clinical relevance of macrophage phenotypes in human glomerular diseases, we evaluated the renal accumulation of macrophages and plasma and urine levels of CD163, an M2 marker, in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. Kidney biopsies and plasma and urine samples were obtained from LN patients who underwent renal biopsy between 2008 and 2012. CD163(+), CD68(+) and CD204(+) cells were counted in paraffin-embedded and frozen sections. LN histological activity was evaluated semiquantitatively using the biopsy activity index. Plasma and urinary soluble CD163 (sCD163) concentrations were also measured and evaluated for their significance as potential LN biomarkers. Immunohistological analysis of glomeruli from LN patients revealed that >60% of CD68(+) macrophages had merged with CD163(+) cells. The increased number of glomerular CD163(+) macrophages was correlated with LN severity, as determined by the biopsy active index (r = 0.635). Urinary (u-) sCD163 level was strongly correlated with glomerular CD163(+) cell counts and histological disease score as well as urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels (r = 0.638 and 0.592, respectively). Furthermore, the u-sCD163 level was higher in patients with active LN than in those with other diseases. Glomerular CD163(+) macrophages are the predominant phenotype in the kidneys of lupus patients. These findings indicate that the u-sCD163 level can serve as a biomarker for macrophage-dependent glomerular inflammation in human LN. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of Genetic Algorithm in the Modeling of Leaf Chlorophyll Level Based on Vis/Nir Reflection Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haiqing; Yang, Haiqing; He, Yong

    In order to detect leaf chlorophyll level nondestructively and instantly, VIS/NIR reflection spectroscopy technique was examined. In the test, 70 leaf samples were collected for model calibration and another 50 for model verification. Each leaf sample was optically measured by USB4000, a modular spectrometer. By the observation of spectral curves, the spectral range between 650nm and 750nm was found significant for mathematic modeling of leaf chlorophyll level. SPAD-502 meter was used for chemometrical measurement of leaf chlorophyll value. In the test, it was found necessary to put leaf thickness into consideration. The procedure of shaping the prediction model is as follows: First, leaf chlorophyll level prediction equation was created with uncertain parameters. Second, a genetic algorithm was programmed by Visual Basic 6.0 for parameter optimization. As the result of the calculation, the optimal spectral range was narrowed within 683.24nm and 733.91nm. Compared with the R2=0.2309 for calibration set and R2=0.5675 for on the spectral modeling is significant: the R2 of calibration set and verification set has been improved as high as 0.8658 and 0.9161 respectively. The test showed that it is practical to use VIS/NIR reflection spectrometer for the quantitative determination of leaf chlorophyll level.

  14. Seasonal and inter-individual variation in testosterone levels in badgers Meles meles: evidence for the existence of two endocrinological phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Buesching, Christina Dagmar; Heistermann, Michael; Macdonald, David W

    2009-09-01

    Elevated testosterone levels can lower condition and increase parasites. We analysed testosterone in 84 blood samples of wild European badgers Meles meles collected at regular intervals (winter = mating season; spring = end of mating season; summer = minor mating peak; autumn = reproductive quiescence), and related variation to body condition, subcaudal gland secretion, parasite burden, and bite wounding. All males showed elevated levels in winter and low levels in autumn. In neither season did testosterone correlate with fitness-related parameters. However, two different endocrinological phenotypes existed in spring and summer. Whilst some males lowered their testosterone to levels comparable to autumnal quiescence (Type 1), others maintained elevated levels comparable to those during winter (Type 2). In spring and summer high levels were correlated with lower body condition and increased parasite burden, and Type 2 males tended to suffer higher mortality rates than Type 1. No animals older than 6 years adopted phenotype 2, indicating that males either switch phenotypes with age or that Type 2 results in lower life expectancy, evidencing the costs of male reproduction in badgers.

  15. Does seasonality drive spatial patterns in demography? Variation in survival in African reed warblers Acrocephalus baeticatus across southern Africa does not reflect global patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Dorine YM; Abadi, Fitsum; Harebottle, Doug; Altwegg, Res

    2014-01-01

    Among birds, northern temperate species generally have larger clutches, shorter development periods and lower adult survival than similarly-sized southern and tropical species. Even though this global pattern is well accepted, the driving mechanism is still not fully understood. The main theories are founded on the differing environmental seasonality of these zones (higher seasonality in the North). These patterns arise in cross-species comparisons, but we hypothesized that the same patterns should arise among populations within a species if different types of seasonality select for different life histories. Few studies have examined this. We estimated survival of an azonal habitat specialist, the African reed warbler, across the environmentally diverse African subcontinent, and related survival to latitude and to the seasonality of the different environments of their breeding habitats. Data (1998–2010) collected through a public ringing scheme were analyzed with hierarchical capture-mark-recapture models to determine resident adult survival and its spatial variance across sixteen vegetation units spread across four biomes. The models were defined as state-space multi-state models to account for transience and implemented in a Bayesian framework. We did not find a latitudinal trend in survival or a clear link between seasonality and survival. Spatial variation in survival was substantial across the sixteen sites (spatial standard deviation of the logit mean survival: 0.70, 95% credible interval (CRI): 0.33–1.27). Mean site survival ranged from 0.49 (95% CRI: 0.18–0.80) to 0.83 (95% CRI: 0.62–0.97) with an overall mean of 0.67 (95% CRI: 0.47–0.85). A hierarchical modeling approach enabled us to estimate spatial variation in survival of the African reed warbler across the African subcontinent from sparse data. Although we could not confirm the global pattern of higher survival in less seasonal environments, our findings from a poorly studied region

  16. Circulating irisin levels reflect visceral adiposity in non-diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hakki; Cakmak, Muzaffer; Darcin, Tahir; Inan, Osman; Sahiner, Enes; Demir, Canan; Aktas, Aynur; Bilgic, Mukadder Ayse; Akcay, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that increased visceral adiposity is a strong independent risk factor for cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Irisin, which is a novel myokine, can play critical roles in diabetes and adiposity. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether serum irisin levels are associated with body mass index, waist circumference (WC), and total fat mass in non-diabetic patients undergoing maintenance HD. This cross-sectional study included 108 non-diabetic HD patients and 40 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy subjects. Serum irisin concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body fat composition (TBF-410 Tanita Body Composition Analyzer) was measured and calculated. Serum irisin levels did not differ between HD patients and the healthy controls (523.50 ± 229.32 vs. 511.28 ± 259.74, p = 0.782). Serum irisin levels were associated with age (r = 0.314; p =0.006), HOMA-IR (r = 0.472; p = 0.003), WC (r = 0.862; p < 0.001), and total fat mass (r = 0.614; p < 0.001). In multivariate regression analysis, WC (β = 1.240, p < 0.001) and total fat mass (β = 0.792, p = 0.015) were the variables that were significantly associated with irisin concentrations (R(2 )=( )0.684, p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounding factors (age and HOMA-IR). These results suggest that serum irisin levels are related to visceral adiposity in non-diabetic HD patients.

  17. Serum TNF-α levels reflect the clinical severity of envenomation following a Hemiscorpius lepturus sting.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Amir; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad H; Taraz, Mohammad; Khodadadi, Ali; Makvandi, Manocher; Rowan, Edward G

    2011-03-01

    Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus), found in south-western areas of Iran and south of Iraq, is considered to be the most dangerous scorpion in the region, and poses a significant risk to the health of the indigenous population due to the unique, clinical manifestations associated with its sting.. In the present study, 36 patients from the Khuzestan province in the southwest of Iran, displaying varying degrees of envenomation following an H. lepturus scorpion sting, were admitted to hospital. Serum levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured using double-ligand, enzyme-linked, immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, and were compared with 30 healthy controls and ten age-matched patients stung by the Mesobuthus eupeus (M. eupeus) scorpion, a less dangerous species that produces primarily neurotoxic manifestations. Blood samples from M. eupeus and H. lepturus victims were taken on admission, and from H. lepturus-stung patients six hours after serotherapy with multivalent anti-venom. When compared to healthy volunteers, with the exception of TNF-α, significantly higher serum cytokine levels were measured in patients following M. eupeus envenomation. However, all three groups of H. lepturus-stung patients showed significantly, and in a severity-related manner, higher mean values for all the interleukins that were measured, including TNF-α, when compared with M. eupeus-stung cases. Six hours after serotherapy, there was a greater reduction in cytokine and TNF-α levels in patients classed as having mild symptoms, in comparison with patients classed as having moderate to severe symptoms. The results of the present study suggest that, unlike M. eupeus, the toxic manifestations observed following being stung by H. lepturus are associated with increased serum TNF-α levels and correlate positively with the clinical severity of the symptoms. Furthermore, serotherapy is only effective when

  18. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  19. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  20. Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.

    PubMed

    Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account.

  1. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels reflect organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Enocsson, Helena; Wetterö, Jonas; Skogh, Thomas; Sjöwall, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Assessments of disease activity and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remain challenging because of the lack of reliable biomarkers and disease heterogeneity. Ongoing inflammation can be difficult to distinguish from permanent organ damage caused by previous flare-ups or medication side effects. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has emerged as a potential marker of inflammation and disease severity, and an outcome predictor in several disparate conditions. This study was done to evaluate suPAR as a marker of disease activity and organ damage in SLE. Sera from 100 healthy donors and 198 patients with SLE fulfilling the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and/or the Fries criteria were analyzed for suPAR by enzyme immunoassay. Eighteen patients with varying degree of disease activity were monitored longitudinally. Disease activity was assessed by the SLE disease activity index 2000 and the physician's global assessment. Organ damage was evaluated by the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SDI). Compared with healthy control subjects, serum suPAR levels were elevated significantly in patients with SLE. No association was recorded regarding suPAR levels and SLE disease activity in cross-sectional or consecutive samples. However, a strong association was observed between suPAR and SDI (P < 0.0005). Considering distinct SDI domains, renal, neuropsychiatric, ocular, skin, and peripheral vascular damage had a significant effect on suPAR levels. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between serum suPAR and irreversible organ damage in SLE. Further studies are warranted to evaluate suPAR and other biomarkers as predictors of evolving organ damage.

  2. T cell Bim levels reflect responses to anti–PD-1 cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dronca, Roxana S.; Liu, Xin; Harrington, Susan M.; Chen, Lingling; Cao, Siyu; Kottschade, Lisa A.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Block, Matthew S.; Nevala, Wendy K.; Thompson, Michael A.; Mansfield, Aaron S.; Park, Sean S.; Markovic, Svetomir N.

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint therapy with PD-1 blockade has emerged as an effective therapy for many advanced cancers; however, only a small fraction of patients achieve durable responses. To date, there is no validated blood-based means of predicting the response to PD-1 blockade. We report that Bim is a downstream signaling molecule of the PD-1 pathway, and its detection in T cells is significantly associated with expression of PD-1 and effector T cell markers. High levels of Bim in circulating tumor-reactive (PD-1+CD11ahiCD8+) T cells were prognostic of poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma who did not receive anti–PD-1 therapy and were also predictive of clinical benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma who were treated with anti–PD-1 therapy. Moreover, this circulating tumor-reactive T cell population significantly decreased after successful anti–PD-1 therapy. Our study supports a crucial role of Bim in both T cell activation and apoptosis as regulated by PD-1 and PD-L1 interactions in effector CD8+ T cells. Measurement of Bim levels in circulating T cells of patients with cancer may provide a less invasive strategy to predict and monitor responses to anti–PD-1 therapy, although future prospective analyses are needed to validate its utility. PMID:27182556

  3. Hormone levels in neonatal hair reflect prior maternal stress exposure during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele R; Ziegler, Toni E; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress during pregnancy affected the concentrations of glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones in the hair of neonatal rhesus monkeys. Hair from 22 infant monkeys exposed to 5 weeks of gestational disturbance was compared to specimens from 13 infants from undisturbed control pregnancies. Using an LC/MS/MS based technique, which permitted seven steroid hormones to be quantified simultaneously, we found 2 hormones were significantly different in infants from disturbed pregnancies. Cortisol and testosterone levels were lower in the hair of both male and female neonates. Maternal hair hormone levels collected on the same day after delivery no longer showed effects of the disturbance earlier during pregnancy. This study documents that a period of acute stress, lasting for 20% of gestation, has sustained effects on the hormones to which a developing fetus is exposed.

  4. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease.

  5. Hormone levels in neonatal hair reflect prior maternal stress exposure during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Amita; Lubach, Gabriele R.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Hormones present in hair provide summative information about endocrine activity while the hair was growing. Therefore, it can be collected from an infant after birth and still provide retrospective information about hormone exposure during prenatal development. We employed this approach to determine whether a delimited period of maternal stress during pregnancy affected the concentrations of glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones in the hair of neonatal rhesus monkeys. Hair from 22 infant monkeys exposed to 5 weeks of gestational disturbance was compared to specimens from 13 infants from undisturbed control pregnancies. Using an LC/MS/MS based technique, which permitted seven steroid hormones to be quantified simultaneously, we found 2 hormones were significantly different in infants from disturbed pregnancies. Cortisol and testosterone levels were lower in the hair of both male and female neonates. Maternal hair hormone levels collected on the same day after delivery no longer showed effects of the disturbance earlier during pregnancy. This study documents that a period of acute stress, lasting for 20% of gestation, has sustained effects on the hormones to which a developing fetus is exposed. PMID:26802598

  6. Circulating ADAM17 Level Reflects Disease Activity in Proteinase-3 ANCA-Associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Anna; Lovric, Svjetlana; Engel, Alissa; Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Hertel, Barbara; Park, Joon-Keun; Becker, Jan U.; Kegel, Johanna; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion

    2015-01-01

    ANCA-associated vasculitides are characterized by inflammatory destruction of small vessels accompanied by enhanced cleavage of membrane-bound proteins. One of the main proteases responsible for ectodomain shedding is disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 17 (ADAM17). Given its potential role in aggravating vascular dysfunction, we examined the role of ADAM17 in active proteinase-3 (PR3)-positive ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). ADAM17 concentration was significantly increased in plasma samples from patients with active PR3-AAV compared with samples from patients in remission or from other controls with renal nonvascular diseases. Comparably, plasma levels of the ADAM17 substrate syndecan-1 were significantly enhanced in active AAV. We also observed that plasma-derived ADAM17 retained its specific proteolytic activity and was partly located on extracellular microparticles. Transcript levels of ADAM17 were increased in blood samples of patients with active AAV, but those of ADAM10 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, which inhibits ADAMs, were not. We also performed a microRNA (miR) screen and identified miR-634 as significantly upregulated in blood samples from patients with active AAV. In vitro, miR-634 mimics induced a proinflammatory phenotype in monocyte-derived macrophages, with enhanced expression and release of ADAM17 and IL-6. These data suggest that ADAM17 has a prominent role in AAV and might account for the vascular complications associated with this disease. PMID:25788529

  7. Comparison of phytohormone levels and transcript profiles during seasonal dormancy transitions in underground adventitious buds of leafy spurge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) is an herbaceous perennial weed that maintains its perennial growth habit through generation of underground adventitious buds (UABs) on the crown and lateral roots. These UABs undergo seasonal phases of dormancy under natural conditions, namely para-, endo-, and eco...

  8. Skin conductance levels may reflect emotional blunting in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Aditi; Mendez, Mario F; Kaiser, Natalie; Jimenez, Elvira; Mather, Michelle; Shapira, Jill S

    2014-01-01

    Emotional blunting is a core diagnostic feature of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). The authors evaluated skin conductance as a measure of emotional blunting among 10 patients with bvFTD compared with 10 with Alzheimer's disease and 14 healthy control subjects. Despite responses to an auditory startle stimulus, skin conductance levels (SCLs) were lower in the patients with bvFTD compared with the other groups. The low SCLs significantly correlated with ratings of emotional blunting. The authors conclude that low SCLs in bvFTD indicate a low resting sympathetic state and low emotional arousal. The measurement of SCLs may be a useful noninvasive diagnostic test for bvFTD.

  9. BOREAS Level-2 NS001 TMS Imagery: Reflectance and Temperature in BSQ Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lobitz, Brad; Spanner, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    For BOREAS, the NS001 TMS images, along with the other remotely sensed data, were collected to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes detailed land cover and biophysical parameter maps such as fPAR and LAI. Collection of the NS001 images occurred over the study areas during the 1994 field campaigns. The level-2 NS001 data are atmospherically corrected versions of some of the best original NS001 imagery and cover the dates of 19-Apr-1994, 07-Jun-1994, 21-Jul-1994, 08-Aug-1994, and 16-Sep-1994. The data are not geographically/geometrically corrected; however, files of relative X and Y coordinates for each image pixel were derived by using the C130 INS data in an NS001 scan model. The data are provided in binary image format files.

  10. Higher levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 in patients with RA reflect disease activity and structural damage.

    PubMed

    Skacelova, Martina; Hermanova, Zuzana; Horak, Pavel; Ahmed, Kazi; Langova, Katerina

    2017-04-26

    To evaluate the serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) as a potential marker of disease activity and joint damage in 92 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), compared to 24 osteoarthritis (OA) patients and 26 healthy controls. The concentrations of MMP-3 were measured by ELISA using the commercial kit AESKULISA DF MMP-3 (AESKU.Diagnostics, Germany) and compared with other laboratory parameters routinely used to assess the disease status, clinical score (DAS28) and radiographic stage in the group of RA patients. The mean serum concentrations of MMP-3 were 199.1 ± 160 ng/mL in RA patients, 113.9 ± 96.9 ng/mL in OA patients and 48.3 ± 19.2 in healthy controls. The differences were highly significant: RA patients and healthy controls (P<0.0001), RA and OA patients (P=0.008) as well as between OA patients and controls (P=0.009). MMP-3 concentrations were further compared with other laboratory parameters and clinical and structural damage data. There were correlations between MMP-3 and CRP (r=0.304, P<0.01), DAS28 (r=0.301, P<0.05), levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (r=0.241, P<0.05), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.200, P=0.059) and radiographic disease stage (r=0.197, P=0.063). These results demonstrated that measurement of MMP-3 could become a marker of disease activity in RA patients.

  11. The effect of removal of seminal plasma, egg yolk level and season on sperm freezability of canary buck (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Cabrera, F; González, F; Batista, M; Calero, P; Medrano, A; Gracia, A

    2005-06-01

    Goat semen is different from that of other domestic species in its limited tolerance to the inclusion of egg yolk in the freezing medium, and this tolerance depends on the presence of enzymes in the seminal plasma that react with egg yolk, producing toxic compounds to the spermatozoa. Moreover, the goat is a seasonal breeder that shows variations in semen quality throughout the year, and those variations may affect semen freezability; hence in freezing protocols, for instance, removal of seminal plasma (washing) yields varying results. This work was designed to study this problem in Canary goats: semen from six males was collected in spring, autumn or winter, washed or non-washed, diluted in a freezing extender with 1.5, 6 or 12% egg yolk, frozen, and thawed after 2 days, 2 or 6 months of cryopreservation. The effect of egg yolk concentration in the freezing extender was far more important than the effect of washing or season on sperm cryosurvival. The quality of frozen-thawed semen tended to improve as egg yolk concentration increased regardless of the effects of season, washing or period of cryopreservation. Washing produced a positive effect on frozen-thawed semen collected during spring or autumn, but the difference decreased as the concentration of yolk increased. However, washing produced a negative effect on frozen-thawed semen collected during winter, diluted with either 6 or 12% egg yolk. There was no apparent seasonal effect on gross measures of sperm production but the seasonal effect was ever present and was reinforced by freezing.

  12. Perceived depth in natural images reflects encoding of low-level luminance statistics.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Norcia, Anthony M

    2014-08-27

    Sighted animals must survive in an environment that is diverse yet highly structured. Neural-coding models predict that the visual system should allocate its computational resources to exploit regularities in the environment, and that this allocation should facilitate perceptual judgments. Here we use three approaches (natural scenes statistical analysis, a reanalysis of single-unit data from alert behaving macaque, and a behavioral experiment in humans) to address the question of how the visual system maximizes behavioral success by taking advantage of low-level regularities in the environment. An analysis of natural scene statistics reveals that the probability distributions for light increments and decrements are biased in a way that could be exploited by the visual system to estimate depth from relative luminance. A reanalysis of neurophysiology data from Samonds et al. (2012) shows that the previously reported joint tuning of V1 cells for relative luminance and binocular disparity is well matched to a predicted distribution of binocular disparities produced by natural scenes. Finally, we show that a percept of added depth can be elicited in images by exaggerating the correlation between luminance and depth. Together, the results from these three approaches provide further evidence that the visual system allocates its processing resources in a way that is driven by the statistics of the natural environment.

  13. NEURAL CHANGES WITH TACTILE LEARNING REFLECT DECISION-LEVEL REWEIGHTING OF PERCEPTUAL READOUT

    PubMed Central

    Sathian, K.; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Stilla, Randall

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable work, the neural basis of perceptual learning remains uncertain. For visual learning, although some studies suggested that changes in early sensory representations are responsible, other studies point to decision-level reweighting of perceptual readout. These competing possibilities have not been examined in other sensory systems, investigating which could help resolve the issue. Here we report a study of human tactile microspatial learning in which participants achieved >six-fold decline in acuity threshold after multiple training sessions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was carried out during performance of the tactile microspatial task and a control, tactile temporal task. Effective connectivity between relevant brain regions was estimated using multivariate, autoregressive models of hidden neuronal variables obtained by deconvolution of the hemodynamic response. Training-specific increases in task-selective activation assessed using the task-by-session interaction, and associated changes in effective connectivity, primarily involved subcortical and anterior neocortical regions implicated in motor and/or decision processes, rather than somatosensory cortical regions. A control group of participants tested twice, without intervening training, exhibited neither threshold improvement nor increases in task-selective activation. Our observations argue that neuroplasticity mediating perceptual learning occurs at the stage of perceptual readout by decision networks. This is consonant with the growing shift away from strictly modular conceptualization of the brain towards the idea that complex network interactions underlie even simple tasks. The convergence of our findings on tactile learning with recent studies of visual learning reconciles earlier discrepancies in the literature on perceptual learning. PMID:23516304

  14. Neural changes with tactile learning reflect decision-level reweighting of perceptual readout.

    PubMed

    Sathian, K; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Stilla, Randall

    2013-03-20

    Despite considerable work, the neural basis of perceptual learning remains uncertain. For visual learning, although some studies suggested that changes in early sensory representations are responsible, other studies point to decision-level reweighting of perceptual readout. These competing possibilities have not been examined in other sensory systems, investigating which could help resolve the issue. Here we report a study of human tactile microspatial learning in which participants achieved >six-fold decline in acuity threshold after multiple training sessions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during performance of the tactile microspatial task and a control, tactile temporal task. Effective connectivity between relevant brain regions was estimated using multivariate, autoregressive models of hidden neuronal variables obtained by deconvolution of the hemodynamic response. Training-specific increases in task-selective activation assessed using the task × session interaction and associated changes in effective connectivity primarily involved subcortical and anterior neocortical regions implicated in motor and/or decision processes, rather than somatosensory cortical regions. A control group of participants tested twice, without intervening training, exhibited neither threshold improvement nor increases in task-selective activation. Our observations argue that neuroplasticity mediating perceptual learning occurs at the stage of perceptual readout by decision networks. This is consonant with the growing shift away from strictly modular conceptualization of the brain toward the idea that complex network interactions underlie even simple tasks. The convergence of our findings on tactile learning with recent studies of visual learning reconciles earlier discrepancies in the literature on perceptual learning.

  15. Seasonal, locational and size variations in mercury and selenium levels in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) from New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    We examined total mercury and selenium levels in muscle of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) collected from 2005 to 2008 from coastal New Jersey. Of primary interest was whether there were differences in mercury and selenium levels as a function of size and location, and whether the legal size limits increased the exposure of bass consumers to mercury. We obtained samples mainly from recreational anglers, but also by seine and trawl. For the entire sample (n = 178 individual fish), the mean (± standard error) for total mercury was 0.39 ± 0.02 μg/g (= 0.39 ppm, wet weight basis) with a maximum of 1.3 μg/g (= 1.3 ppm wet weight). Mean selenium level was 0.30 ± 0.01 μg/g (w/w) with a maximum of 0.9 μg/g). Angler-caught fish (n = 122) were constrained by legal size limits to exceed 61 cm (24 in.) and averaged 72.6 ± 1.3 cm long; total mercury averaged 0.48 ± 0.021 μg/g and selenium averaged 0.29 ± 0.01 μg/g. For comparable sizes, angler-caught fish had significantly higher mercury levels (0.3 vs 0.21 μg/g) than trawled fish. In both the total and angler-only samples, mercury was strongly correlated with length (Kendall tau = 0.37; p < 0.0001) and weight (0.38; p < 0.0001), but was not correlated with condition or with selenium. In the whole sample and all subsamples, total length yielded the highest r2 (up to 0.42) of any variable for both mercury and selenium concentrations. Trawled fish from Long Branch in August and Sandy Hook in October were the same size (68.9 vs 70.1 cm) and had the same mercury concentrations (0.22 vs 0.21 ppm), but different selenium levels (0.11 vs 0.28 ppm). The seined fish (all from Delaware Bay) had the same mercury concentration as the trawled fish from the Atlantic coast despite being smaller. Angler-caught fish from the North (Sandy Hook) were larger but had significantly lower mercury than fish from the South (mainly Cape May). Selenium levels were high in small fish, low in medium-sized fish, and increased again in larger

  16. Isolation of flowering genes and seasonal changes in their transcript levels related to flower induction and initiation in apple (Malus domestica).

    PubMed

    Hättasch, Conny; Flachowsky, Henryk; Kapturska, Danuta; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2008-10-01

    Flower development in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) extends over two consecutive seasons. During the first season, most shoot apical meristems change to reproductive growth and initiate flowers. After winter dormancy, flower development continues during the second season and ends with anthesis in the spring. To determine the beginning of the transition to reproductive growth at the molecular level and to identify genes involved in this critical phase of flower development, we examined transcript levels of the putative flowering genes MdCOL1, MdCOL2, MdFT, MdSOC1, MdMADS2, MdMADS5, MdTFL1-1 and MdTFL1-2 in vegetative terminal buds of the apple cultivar Pinova during the first season by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcript levels of these genes peaked at the end of April during blooming of coexisting floral buds. Subsequently, there was a large increase in transcription, which started on May 22 for AFL2 and MdMADS2, followed by MdFT and AFL1 one week later. We propose that the increased transcription at the end of May marks the beginning of flower induction. Transcript levels of MdSOC1, MdTFL1-1 and MdTFL1-2 increased at the end of June, suggesting that these genes are involved in flower initiation, which follows flower induction. In contrast, MdMADS5 transcription was too weak to be quantified, and the transcript levels of MdCOL1 and MdCOL2 showed no detectable trends during the study.

  17. Influence of light/dark, seasonal and lunar cycles on serum melatonin levels and synaptic bodies number of the pineal gland of the rat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Soriano, F; Ruiz-Torner, A; Armañanzas, E; Valverde-Navarro, A A

    2002-01-01

    Synaptic bodies (SB) are ultrastructural organelles observed in the pinealocytes of mammals. According to its shape, they have been classified into synaptic ribbons (SR), synaptic spherules (SS), and intermediate synaptic bodies (ISB). They have been related to the melatonin regulation and production mechanisms of the pineal gland. Circadian and circannual fluctuations of both melatonin and SB have been reported. The possibility that other external factors, apart from light-dark or seasonal cycles, might influence pineal function has been suggested. We studied the evolution of the number of SB and serum melatonin levels not only during light-dark and seasonal phases but also during lunar cycles. Forty male wistar rats were used. Experiment was first carried out in winter and repeated identically in spring. Each season, one group of animals was killed during the new-moon days and a second group during the full-moon days: half of both groups in the photophase and the other half in the scotophase. The number of SB was measured at electron microscopic level whereas serum melatonin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay techniques. Main results showed that SR number and serum melatonin levels were higher during scotophases, winter and full-moon days. The SS only showed a light predominance during winter, whereas predominance of the ISB was found only during the scotophases. These results support the influence of the photophasic factors on the SR and ISB variations. In the case of the SS the influence of the lunar cycles is always dependent on the other factors. Finally, the serum level of melatonin is clearly influenced by the photophasic rhythms and the seasonal periods but not by the lunar cycles.

  18. The Expression of Pre- and Postcopulatory Sexually Selected Traits Reflects Levels of Dietary Stress in Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed ‘n3LC’) influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet ‘quantity’ treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males’ colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits. PMID:25170940

  19. IGF-I levels reflect hypopituitarism severity in adults with pituitary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tirosh, Amit; Toledano, Yoel; Masri-Iraqi, Hiba; Eizenberg, Yoav; Tzvetov, Gloria; Hirsch, Dania; Benbassat, Carlos; Robenshtok, Eyal; Shimon, Ilan

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) as a surrogate marker of severity of hypopituitarism in adults with pituitary pathology. We performed a retrospective data analysis, including 269 consecutive patients with pituitary disease attending a tertiary endocrine clinic in 1990-2015. The medical files were reviewed for the complete pituitary hormone profile, including IGF-I, and clinical data. Age-adjusted assay reference ranges of IGF-I were used to calculate IGF-I SDS for each patient. The main outcome measures were positive and negative predictive values of low and high IGF-I SDS, respectively, for the various pituitary hormone deficiencies. IGF-I SDS correlated negatively with the number of altered pituitary axes (p < 0.001). Gonadotropin was affected in 76.6 % of cases, followed by thyrotropin (58.4 %), corticotropin (49.1 %), and prolactin (22.7 %). Positive and negative predictive values yielded a clear trend for the probability of low/high IGF-I SDS for all affected pituitary axes. Rates of diabetes insipidus correlated with IGF-I SDS values both for the full study population, and specifically for patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas. IGF-I SDS can be used to evaluate the somatotroph function, as a valid substitute to absolute IGF-I levels. Moreover, IGF-I SDS predicted the extent of hypopituitarism in adults with pituitary disease, and thus can serve as a marker of hypopituitarism severity.

  20. The expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits reflects levels of dietary stress in guppies.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Moshiur; Turchini, Giovanni M; Gasparini, Clelia; Norambuena, Fernando; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal's life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed 'n3LC') influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet 'quantity' treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males' colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits.

  1. Diet of red-throated divers Gavia stellata reflects the seasonal availability of Atlantic herring Clupea harengus in the southwestern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guse, Nils; Garthe, Stefan; Schirmeister, Bernd

    2009-11-01

    Red-throated divers are piscivorous seabirds considered to be opportunistic feeders. The overall knowledge about their diet at sea is scarce. A large sample size of 82 by-caught red-throated divers from two winter (2001-02 and 2002-03) and three spring periods (2003, 2004 and 2005) offered the unique opportunity to analyse their dietary composition in the Pomeranian Bight. This area represents a hot spot in their winter distribution in the southwestern Baltic Sea and a marine protected area has been established due to its importance for the divers and other seabird species. Diet composition was analysed based on stomach and gut contents. The comparison of the different prey species was mainly based on reconstructed biomass using regressions between skeletal hard parts such as otoliths and original fish length and weight. The diet of the divers comprised eleven different fish species and nine different families. No interannual differences in the consumption of the nine most important prey species could be observed. However, in contrast to the other fish species the consumption of Atlantic herring and zander differed significantly between seasons. Herring supplied the majority of prey biomass in all three spring periods and zander in both winter periods. Moreover, the average length of herring consumed differed significantly between seasons. In winter, smaller herring was consumed compared to spring. The distinct seasonal changes in the diet composition were paralleled and most probably evoked by the migration pattern of the Western Baltic spring spawning herring which has its main spawning grounds adjacent to the study area. Based on the habitat requirements of the different prey species it could be inferred that mostly the coastal waters of the bight were used for foraging. Its function as spawning, nursery area and feeding ground with numerous resident and migrating fish species available might explain the important role of the Pomeranian Bight as wintering and

  2. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Striberny, Anja; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Jobling, Malcolm; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), Agouti related Peptide (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R) genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep) in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2) and Leptin Receptor (LepR) genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38’N) and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May), feeding charr (July), and non-feeding charr (January). Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January) had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July). In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr. PMID:26421838

  3. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Anja; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Jobling, Malcolm; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), Agouti related Peptide (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R) genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep) in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2) and Leptin Receptor (LepR) genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38'N) and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May), feeding charr (July), and non-feeding charr (January). Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January) had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July). In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr.

  4. A 12-year record reveals pre-growing season temperature and water table level threshold effects on the net carbon dioxide uptake in a boreal fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Matthias; Öquist, Mats; Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Sagerfors, Jörgen; Grelle, Achim; Lindroth, Anders; Nilsson, Mats

    2014-05-01

    This study uses a 12-year time series (2001-2012) of eddy covariance measurements to investigate the long-term net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and inter-annual variations in relation to abiotic drivers in a boreal fen in Northern Sweden. The peatland was a sink for atmospheric CO2 in each of the twelve study years with a 12-year average (± standard deviation) NEE of -58 ± 21 g C m-2 y-1. For ten out of twelve years, the cumulative annual NEE was within a range of -42 to -79 g C m-2 y-1 suggesting a general state of resilience of NEE to moderate inter-annual climate variations. In two years however, the annual NEE diverged considerably from this common range with -18 and -106 g C m-2 y-1 measured in 2006 and 2008, respectively. The lower annual CO2 uptake in 2006 was mainly due to late summer emissions related to an exceptional drop in water table level. A positive relationship (r2 = 0.65) between pre-growing season (January to April) air temperature and summer (June to July) gross ecosystem production (GEP) was observed. We suggest that enhanced GEP due to mild pre-growing season air temperature in combination with air temperature constraints on ecosystem respiration (ER) during the following cooler summer explained the greater net CO2 uptake in 2008. Differences in the annual and growing season means of other abiotic variables (e.g. radiation, vapor pressure deficit, precipitation) and growing season properties (i.e. start date, end date, length) were unable to explain the inter-annual variations of NEE. Overall, our findings suggest that this boreal fen acts as a persistent contemporary sink for atmospheric CO2 that is however susceptible to severe anomalies in water table level and pre-growing season air temperature associated with predicted changes in climate patterns for the boreal region.

  5. Two-season study of the influence of regulated deficit irrigation and reflective mulch on individual and total phenolic compounds of nectarines at harvest and during storage.

    PubMed

    Pliakoni, Eleni D; Nanos, George D; Gil, Maria I

    2010-11-24

    The influence of deficit irrigation (Deficit) and reflective mulch (Reflective) of Caldesi 2000 nectarines on the content of individual phenolic compounds was studied at harvest and during storage for 2, 4, and 6 weeks at 2 °C during two consecutive years (2007 and 2008). Individual phenolic groups in the edible fruit part consisted mainly of proanthocyanidins (200 mg/100 g fw), lower content of phenolic acids (17 mg/100 g fw), and minor content of flavonols (5 mg/100 g fw) and anthocyanins (1.2 mg/100 g fw). Deficit irrigation increased the content of total phenolics, including proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids, reaching similar amounts in both years. Sun-exposed fruit (upper part of canopy) showed higher content than shaded fruit (lower part of canopy). However, Reflective significantly increased the content of total phenolics, particularly phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins, of fruit located in the lower part of the canopy. During storage, Deficit and Reflective did not affect the content of phenolic acids, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins when compared to the content at harvest. Optimizing cultural practices can be a way to increase the phenolic content of nectarines.

  6. Postoperative Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Levels Reflect the Graft’s Function and Predict Survival after Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Mocchegiani, Federico; Coletta, Martina; Brugia, Marina; Montalti, Roberto; Fava, Giammarco; Taccaliti, Augusto; Risaliti, Andrea; Vivarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background The reduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) plasma levels is associated with the degree of liver dysfunction and mortality in cirrhotic patients. However, little research is available on the recovery of the IGF-1 level and its prognostic role after liver transplantation (LT). Methods From April 2010 to May 2011, 31 patients were prospectively enrolled (25/6 M/F; mean age±SEM: 55.2±1.4 years), and IGF-1 serum levels were assessed preoperatively and at 15, 30, 90, 180 and 365 days after transplantation. The influence of the donor and recipient characteristics (age, use of extended criteria donor grafts, D-MELD and incidence of early allograft dysfunction) on hormonal concentration was analyzed. The prognostic role of IGF-1 level on patient survival and its correlation with routine liver function tests were also investigated. Results All patients showed low preoperative IGF-1 levels (mean±SEM: 29.5±2.1), and on postoperative day 15, a significant increase in the IGF-1 plasma level was observed (102.7±11.7 ng/ml; p<0.0001). During the first year after LT, the IGF-1 concentration remained significantly lower in recipients transplanted with older donors (>65 years) or extended criteria donor grafts. An inverse correlation between IGF-1 and bilirubin serum levels at day 15 (r = -0.3924, p = 0.0320) and 30 (r = -0.3894, p = 0.0368) was found. After multivariate analysis, early (within 15 days) IGF-1 normalization [Exp(b) = 3.913; p = 0.0484] was the only prognostic factor associated with an increased 3-year survival rate. Conclusion IGF-1 postoperative levels are correlated with the graft’s quality and reflect liver function. Early IGF-1 recovery is associated with a higher 3-year survival rate after LT. PMID:26186540

  7. Seasonal variations in reproductive activity of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: Vitellogenin expression and levels of vitellogenin in the hemolymph during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Thongda, Willawan; Chung, J Sook; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Zmora, Nilli; Katenta, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In general, season affects the physiology and behavior of most animals. Warmer temperatures accelerate growth and reproduction of ectotherms, whereas these processes are slowed or halted in colder temperatures. Female blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay, exhibit a seasonal migratory behavior that is closely tied with spawning and the release of larvae. To better understand reproductive activities of the migratory adult females, we examined two reproductive parameters of these crabs sampled monthly (April-December, 2006): the levels of vitellogenin (VtG) in the hemolymph and VtG expression in the hepatopancreas and ovary. The full-length cDNA of VtG (CasVtG-ova) has been isolated from the ovary. The putative CasVtG sequence found in the ovary is >99% identical to that of the hepatopancreas and is related most closely to the sequences reported in other crab species. In female C. sapidus, the hepatopancreas produces over 99% of the total VtG toward the ovarian development. Ovarian stages 2 and 3 in the sampled females are characterized by significant high levels of VtG in hemolymph and VtG expression in both the hepatopancreas and ovary. However, during the southbound migration in fall, females at ovarian stages 2 and 3 have decreased VtG levels, compared to those in spring and summer. The decreased vitellogenesis activity during the fall migration suggests seasonal adaptation to ensure successful spawning and the larval release.

  8. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Chiu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust) and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis. PMID:23840530

  9. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Yan, Dah-Chin; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Tang, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Chiu-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust) and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis.

  10. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Two-level statistical modeling of background exposure and time-activity patterns during three seasons.

    PubMed

    Deffner, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Pitz, Mike; Cyrys, Josef; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Gu, Jianwei; Geruschkat, Uta; Peters, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Personal exposure to air pollution is associated with time- and location-specific factors including indoor and outdoor air pollution, meteorology and time activities. Our investigation aims at the description and identification of factors determining personal exposure to particle number concentration (PNC) in everyday situations. Ten volunteers recorded their personal exposure to PNC and kept an activity diary in three different seasons besides stationary measurements of ambient air pollution and meteorology. Background exposure to PNC was modelled using the most predictive variables. In a second step, the effects of the activities were calculated adjusted for the background exposure. The average personal PNC level was highest in winter and was three times higher than the mean stationary PNC level while staying indoors and two times higher while staying outdoors. Personal indoor PNC levels were significantly increased during the use of candles, cooking and the occurrence of smell of food. High stationary outdoor PNC levels and low dew point temperatures were associated with increased personal outdoor PNC levels. Times spent in public transport were associated with lower personal PNC levels than other times spent in transportation. Personal PNC levels in everyday situations exhibited a large variability because of seasonal, microenvironment-specific and activity-specific influences.

  11. Analysis of Changes in Parathyroid Hormone and 25 (OH) Vitamin D Levels with Respect to Age, Gender and Season: A Data Mining Study.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Muhittin A; Batu Can, Başar; Kilercik, Meltem; Durer, Zeynep A; Aksungar, Fehime Benli; Serteser, Mustafa; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Ozpinar, Aysel; Unsal, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are important regulators of calcium homeostasis. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the cut-off for sufficient 25(OH)D in a four-season region and the influence of age, seasons, and gender on serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels. Laboratory results of 9890 female and 2723 male individuals aged 38.8±22.1 years who had simultaneous measurements of 25(OH)D and PTH were retrospectively analyzed by statistical softwares. Serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels were measured by a mass spectrometry method and by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels showed a sinusoidal fluctuation throughout the year and were significantly (p<0.01) higher in summer and autumn. On the other hand, PTH levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) in women and showed an opposite response to seasonal effects relative to 25(OH)D. Lowest levels of 25(OH)D were detected in people aged between 20 and 40 years whereas PTH hormone levels were gradually increasing in response to aging. The significant exponential inverse relationship that was found between PTH and 25(OH)D (PTH=exp(4.12-0.064(*)sqrt(25(OH)D)) (r=-0.325, R- squared=0.105, p<0.001)) suggested that the cut-off for sufficient 25(OH)D should be 75 nmol/L. Our retrospective study based on large data set supports the suitability of the currently accepted clinical cut-off of 75 nmol/L for sufficient 25(OH)D. However, the issue of assessing Vitamin D deficiency remains difficult due to seasonal variations in serum 25(OH)D. Therefore, PTH measurements should complement 25(OH)D results for diagnosing Vitamin D deficiency. It is imperative that seasonally different criteria should be considered in future.

  12. Analysis of Changes in Parathyroid Hormone and 25 (OH) Vitamin D Levels with Respect to Age, Gender and Season: A Data Mining Study

    PubMed Central

    Batu Can, Başar; Kilercik, Meltem; Durer, Zeynep A.; Aksungar, Fehime Benli; Serteser, Mustafa; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Ozpinar, Aysel; Unsal, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are important regulators of calcium homeostasis. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the cut–off for sufficient 25(OH)D in a four-season region and the influence of age, seasons, and gender on serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels. Methods Laboratory results of 9890 female and 2723 male individuals aged 38.8±22.1 years who had simultaneous measurements of 25(OH)D and PTH were retrospectively analyzed by statistical softwares. Serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels were measured by a mass spectrometry method and by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, respectively. Results Mean serum 25(OH)D levels showed a sinusoidal fluctuation throughout the year and were significantly (p<0.01) higher in summer and autumn. On the other hand, PTH levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) in women and showed an opposite response to seasonal effects relative to 25(OH)D. Lowest levels of 25(OH)D were detected in people aged between 20 and 40 years whereas PTH hormone levels were gradually increasing in response to aging. The significant exponential inverse relationship that was found between PTH and 25(OH)D (PTH=exp(4.12–0.064*sqrt(25(OH)D)) (r=–0.325, R– squared=0.105, p<0.001)) suggested that the cut–off for sufficient 25(OH)D should be 75 nmol/L. Conclusions Our retrospective study based on large data set supports the suitability of the currently accepted clinical cut–off of 75 nmol/L for sufficient 25(OH)D. However, the issue of assessing Vitamin D deficiency remains difficult due to seasonal variations in serum 25(OH)D. Therefore, PTH measurements should complement 25(OH)D results for diagnosing Vitamin D deficiency. It is imperative that seasonally different criteria should be considered in future. PMID:28680352

  13. Assessment of total and organic vanadium levels and their bioaccumulation in edible sea cucumbers: tissues distribution, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Qingxin; Xu, Jie; Xue, Yong; Liu, Xiaofang; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the levels, inter-species-specific, locational differences and seasonal variations of vanadium in sea cucumbers and to validate further several potential factors controlling the distribution of metals in sea cucumbers. Vanadium levels were evaluated in samples of edible sea cucumbers and were demonstrated exhibit differences in different seasons, species and sampling sites. High vanadium concentrations were measured in the sea cucumbers, and all of the vanadium detected was in an organic form. Mean vanadium concentrations were considerably higher in the blood (sea cucumber) than in the other studied tissues. The highest concentration of vanadium (2.56 μg g(-1)), as well as a higher degree of organic vanadium (85.5 %), was observed in the Holothuria scabra samples compared with all other samples. Vanadium levels in Apostichopus japonicus from Bohai Bay and Yellow Sea have marked seasonal variations. Average values of 1.09 μg g(-1) of total vanadium and 0.79 μg g(-1) of organic vanadium were obtained in various species of sea cucumbers. Significant positive correlations between vanadium in the seawater and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 81.67 %, p = 0.00), as well as between vanadium in the sediment and V org in the sea cucumber (r = 77.98 %, p = 0.00), were observed. Vanadium concentrations depend on the seasons (salinity, temperature), species, sampling sites and seawater environment (seawater, sediment). Given the adverse toxicological effects of inorganic vanadium and positive roles in controlling the development of diabetes in humans, a regular monitoring programme of vanadium content in edible sea cucumbers can be recommended.

  14. A 12-year record reveals pre-growing season temperature and water table level threshold effects on the net carbon dioxide exchange in a boreal fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Matthias; Öquist, Mats; Ottosson Löfvenius, Mikaell; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Sagerfors, Jörgen; Grelle, Achim; Lindroth, Anders; Nilsson, Mats B.

    2014-05-01

    This study uses a 12-year time series (2001-2012) of eddy covariance measurements to investigate the long-term net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and inter-annual variations in relation to abiotic drivers in a boreal fen in northern Sweden. The peatland was a sink for atmospheric CO2 in each of the twelve study years with a 12-year average (± standard deviation) NEE of -58 ± 21 g C m-2 yr-1. For ten out of twelve years, the cumulative annual NEE was within a range of -42 to -79 g C m-2 yr-1 suggesting a general state of resilience of NEE to moderate inter-annual climate variations. However, the annual NEE of -18 and -106 g C m-2 yr-1 in 2006 and 2008, respectively, diverged considerably from this common range. The lower annual CO2 uptake in 2006 was mainly due to late summer emissions related to an exceptional drop in water table level (WTL). A positive relationship (R 2 = 0.65) between pre-growing season (January to April) air temperature (Ta) and summer (June to July) gross ecosystem production (GEP) was observed. We suggest that enhanced GEP due to mild pre-growing season air temperature in combination with air temperature constraints on ecosystem respiration (ER) during the following cooler summer explained most of the greater net CO2 uptake in 2008. Differences in the annual and growing season means of other abiotic variables (e.g. radiation, vapor pressure deficit, precipitation) and growing season properties (i.e. start date, end date, length) were unable to explain the inter-annual variations of NEE. Overall, our findings suggest that this boreal fen acts as a persistent contemporary sink for atmospheric CO2 that is, however, susceptible to severe anomalies in WTL and pre-growing season air temperature associated with predicted changes in climate patterns for the boreal region.

  15. Infection of the lesser spotted dogfish with Proleptus obtusus Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Spirurida) reflects ontogenetic feeding behaviour and seasonal differences in prey availability.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlota; Veríssimo, Ana; Cardoso, Pedro; Cable, Jo; Xavier, Raquel

    2017-06-01

    Proleptus obtusus Dujardin, 1845 is the most common parasite infecting the gut of the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus). This nematode is trophically transmitted from an intermediate crustacean host to the definitive elasmobranch host. Sexual and age-related differences in habitat occupancy and feeding behaviour of the lesser spotted dogfish make this parasite-host dyad ideal for testing which aspects of host biology influence parasite transmission. Here, the relationship between P. obtusus burden and host condition, sex and age were investigated in lesser spotted dogfish captured in the Northeast Atlantic. Prevalence of P. obtusus was of 94.8% with a mean abundance of 23.3 worms per host. Our results indicate that parasite burden is best explained by the interaction between ontogenetic differences in foraging behaviour of the lesser spotted dogfish and seasonal differences in prey availability.

  16. Seasonal variation in the concentrations of nutrients in two green macroalgae and nutrient levels in sediments in the Rı´as Baixas (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villares, R.; Carballeira, A.

    2003-12-01

    Seasonal monitoring of the levels of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in two green macroalgae ( Ulva and Enteromorpha) was carried out at 22 sampling sites in four embayments (rı´as) on the northwest coast of Spain. Sediments were also analysed to determine the concentrations of these elements as well as organic matter, organic carbon, iron and texture. In addition, accumulations of Ulva were monitored. Nitrogen levels in algae were similar to those found in comparable studies, whereas carbon concentrations were generally higher and those of phosphorus were lower. As a result the macroalgae were relatively enriched by carbon and nitrogen compared with phosphorus. Seasonal variations in algal tissue nitrogen and phosphorus followed the usual pattern for temperate zones, with minimum levels in summer and maximum levels in winter. Variations in carbon concentrations were much less accentuated. The low levels of P in the algae appear to indicate limitation by this element, however, comparison of the monthly changes in nitrogen and phosphorus in Ulva with the critical concentrations of these elements suggests dual nutrient limitation in this alga in summer. By contrast, the sediments were more enriched by phosphorus; high retention of this element by the sediment may explain the low levels in algae. The highest accumulations of Ulva occurred in spring and summer; hydrodynamic factors appeared to be important in determining the extent of these accumulations.

  17. Seasonal distribution and contamination levels of total PHCs, PAHs and heavy metals in coastal waters of the Alang-Sosiya ship scrapping yard, Gulf of Cambay, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Reddy, M; Basha, Shaik; Joshi, H V; Ramachandraiah, G

    2005-12-01

    Alang-Sosiya situated on the Gulf of Cambay is one of the largest ship breaking yard in the world. The seasonal distribution and contamination levels of dissolved and/or dispersed total petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in seawater during high tide are investigated. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals are higher in the winter than in the monsoon and summer. The concentrations of total PHCs and PAHs are about three times higher in the winter and two times in the monsoon or summer at Along-Sosiya and about twice in all seasons at two stations one on either side 5 km away from it as compared to the reference station at Mahuva, 60 km away towards the south. Further, the levels of PHCs are correlated with salinity and compared with those of other regions. The concentration of all metals is the highest in the winter season followed by the monsoon and summer. We carried out the quantitative analysis of the possible relationships among 13 variables such as Al, Fe, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, pH, NO3-, NO2 and PO4(3-).

  18. Increased von Willebrand factor levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus reflect inflammation rather than increased propensity for platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Warren D; Eilertsen, Gro Østli

    2016-01-01

    Background von Willebrand factor (VWF) is involved in platelet plug formation and protein transport. Increased VWF levels in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are considered risk factors for vascular events. VWF protein levels, however, do not accurately reflect its platelet-aggregating function, which has not been examined in SLE. Methods Cross-sectional study with clinical and laboratory data obtained in patients with SLE (n=92) from a regional lupus registry. VWF function was determined by ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (VWF ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo) and VWF levels by turbidimetric assay (VWF antigen, VWF:Ag). The platelet-aggregating activity per VWF unit was estimated by the VWF RCo/Ag ratio. Healthy controls served as comparators and associations were evaluated by non-parametric methods. Results VWF:Ag (142% vs 107%, p=0.001) and VWF:RCo levels (123% vs 78%, p<0.041) were increased in patients with SLE, but VWF RCo/Ag ratio was similar as in controls (0.83 vs 0.82, p=0.8). VWF:Ag levels were higher in patients experiencing serositis but unrelated to other manifestations, thrombotic disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematous Disease Activity Index 2000 or Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics-Damage Index. VWF:Ag levels correlated significantly with VWF:RCo levels (Rs 0.8, p<0.001), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (Rs 0.32, p<0.01), anti-dsDNA Ab (Rs 0.27, p<0.01), total IgG (Rs 0.33 p<0.01), fibrinogen (Rs 0.28, p<0.01) and ceruloplasmin (Rs 0.367, p<0.01) levels. VWF:RCo levels were not related to clinical findings but were correlated with ESR, anti-dsDNA and transferrin levels. No serological associations existed for VWF RCo/Ag ratio (all p>0.2). Conclusions In this SLE cohort, VWF:Ag behaved similarly to acute-phase reactants, but VWF:Ag increases were not matched by increases in functional activity per unit of VWF. Thus, more VWF did not increase the propensity for platelet aggregation in SLE. PMID:27651919

  19. Seasonal dynamics of dissolved, particulate and microbial components of a tidal saltmarsh-dominated estuary under contrasting levels of freshwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittar, Thais B.; Berger, Stella A.; Birsa, Laura M.; Walters, Tina L.; Thompson, Megan E.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Mann, Elizabeth L.; Stubbins, Aron; Frischer, Marc E.; Brandes, Jay A.

    2016-12-01

    Tidal Spartina-dominated saltmarshes and estuaries on the Southeast US coast are global hotspots of productivity. In coastal Georgia, tidal amplitudes and saltmarsh productivity are the highest along the Southeast US coast. Coastal Georgia is characterized by a humid subtropical seasonal climate, and inter-annual variability in precipitation, and freshwater discharge. The 2012-2013 timeframe encompassed contrasting levels of discharge for the Savannah River, a major Georgia river, with a 4.3-fold greater discharge in summer 2013 relative to summer 2012. In situ measurements of temperature, salinity, precipitation and Secchi depth, and water samples were collected weekly at high tide throughout 2012 and 2013 from the Skidaway River Estuary, a tidal saltmarsh-dominated estuary in coastal Georgia influenced by Savannah River hydrology. The effects of elevated discharge on the seasonal trends of water column components were evaluated. The shift from low discharge (2012) to high discharge (2013) led to decreased salinity in summer 2013, but no significant increases in inorganic nutrient (NH4, NOx, SiO2 and PO4) concentrations. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations decreased, and DIC stable isotopic signatures (δ13C-DIC values) were depleted in summer 2013 relative to summer 2012. In 2013 dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (DOM: CDOM, FDOM) intensities, specific UV-absorbance (SUVA254) and relative humic-like fluorescence were all higher than in 2012, indicating that, as discharge increased in 2013, estuarine water became enriched in terrigenous DOM. Secchi depth and particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) concentrations displayed clear seasonal patterns that were not significantly altered by discharge. However, δ13C-POC and δ15N-PON isotopic signatures indicated higher terrigenous contributions at elevated discharge. Discharge influenced cyanobacterial composition, but did not

  20. Geometric phase of an accelerated two-level atom in the presence of a perfectly reflecting plane boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Hua; Zhang, Jialin; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-08-15

    We study the geometric phase of a uniformly accelerated two-level atom coupled with vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic fields in the presence of a perfectly reflecting plane. We find that the geometric phase difference between the accelerated and inertial atoms which can be observed by atom interferometry crucially depends on the polarizability of the atom and the distance to the boundary and it can be dramatically manipulated with anisotropically polarizable atoms. In particular, extremely close to the boundary, the phase difference can be increased by two times as compared to the case without any boundary. So, the detectability of the effects associated with acceleration using an atom interferometer can be significantly increased by the presence of a boundary using atoms with anisotropic polarizability.

  1. Optical response of two-level atoms with reflection geometry as a model of a quantum phase gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hisaki; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Sasaki, Keiji

    2005-07-01

    The nonlinear optical response obtained from a model system of a quantum phase gate is investigated. The model system consists of a thin infinite atomic layer of two-level atoms placed in front of a perfect reflecting mirror. The optical response obtained from the model system is semiclassically analyzed using the finite difference time domain method with the optical Bloch equations. It is shown that a nonlinear phase shift of π is achieved when the atomic layer is placed at an antinode of the input field. This result is consistent with the theoretical result obtained from a one-dimensional atom model [H. F. Hofmann, K. Kojima, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, 218 (2003)]. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the position of the atomic layer is also studied in detail.

  2. Levels of reflective thinking and patient safety: an investigation of the mechanisms that impact on student learning in a single cohort over a 5 year curriculum.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Lucy J; Ker, Jean S

    2014-08-01

    Existing research into learning about patient safety focuses on identifying how educational interventions improve educational outcomes but few studies offer evidence that inform educators about the mechanisms involved in learning about patient safety. The current evidence based in undergraduates is also limited to outcomes that relate to knowledge and skills. A realist approach involving three cycles of data collection in a single cohort of students over 5 years used different outcomes in Kirkpatrick's framework to identify the mechanisms that influence students learning about patient safety. Data source 1. Focus groups identified an overarching theoretical model of the mechanisms that influence patient safety learning for medical students. Data source 2 Identified if the mechanisms from data source 1 could be demonstrated at the outcome level of knowledge and attitudes. Data source 3 Established associations between mechanisms and outcomes at skills and behavioural level, in a standardised simulated ward setting. Data source 1: The interpretation of data from seven focus groups involving sixty students identified reflection at two levels of Mezirow's descriptions; reflection and critical reflection as mechanisms that influence learning about error. Data source 2: Sixty-one students participated. The associations found, reflection and knowledge of actions to take for patient safety, r = 0.44 (P = 0.00) and critical reflection and intentions regarding patient safety, r = 0.40 (P = 0.00) Data source 3: Forty-eight students participated. The correlation identified associations between critical reflection and planned changes following feedback was, r = 0.48 (P = 0.00) and reflection and knowledge based errors r = -0.30 (P = 0.03). A realist approach identified two different levels of reflection were associated with different patient safety outcomes for this cohort of students. Critical reflection was associated with attitudes and reflection was associated with

  3. Seasonal changes in ground-water levels in the shallow aquifer near Hagerman and the Pecos River, Chaves County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Pecos River near Hagerman in Chaves County, New Mexico, historically has been a gaining stream. In 1938, the slope of the water table in the shallow alluvial aquifer near Hagerman was toward the Pecos River. By 1950, a large water-table depression had formed in the alluvial aquifer southwest of Hagerman. Continued enlargement of this depression could reverse the direction of groundwater flow to the Pecos River. Water levels were measured during 1981-85 in wells along a section extending from the Pecos River to a point within the depression. Although the water-table depression has not caused a perennial change in direction of groundwater flow, it has caused a seasonal reversal in the slope of the water table between the river and the depression during the growing season when pumpage from the shallow aquifer is the greatest. (USGS)

  4. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  5. Seasonal and time-of-day variations in acute non-image forming effects of illuminance level on performance, physiology, and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Huiberts, L M; Smolders, K C H J; De Kort, Y A W

    2017-05-26

    This study investigated seasonal and time-of-day dependent moderations in the strength and direction of acute diurnal non-image forming (NIF) effects of illuminance level on performance, physiology, and subjective well-being. Even though there are indications for temporal variations in NIF-responsiveness to bright light, scientific insights into potential moderations by season are scarce. We employed a 2 (Light: 165 versus 1700 lx at the eye level, within) × 2 (Season: autumn/winter versus spring, between) × 2 (Time of day: morning versus afternoon, between) mixed-model design. During each of the two 90-min experimental sessions, participants (autumn/winter: N = 34; spring: N = 39) completed four measurement blocks (incl. one baseline block of 120 lx at the eye level) each consisting of a Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and a Backwards Digit-Span Task (BDST) including easy trials (4-6 digits) and difficult trials (7-8 digits). Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) were measured continuously. At the end of each lighting condition, subjective sleepiness, vitality, and mood were measured. The results revealed a clear indication for significant Light * Season interaction effects on both subjective sleepiness and vitality, which appeared only during the morning sessions. Participants felt significantly more vital and less sleepy in winter, but not in spring during bright light exposure in the morning. In line with these subjective parameters, participants also showed significantly better PVT performance in the morning in autumn/winter, but not in spring upon bright light exposure. Surprisingly, for difficult working memory performance, the opposite was found, namely worse performance during bright light exposure in winter, but better performance when exposed to bright light in spring. The effects of bright versus regular light exposure on physiology were quite subtle and largely nonsignificant. Overall, it can be concluded that acute illuminance

  6. Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility

  7. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2001-11-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock plays an important role in the production of medicine since low serum Se levels influence disease resistance in ruminants. It has been proved that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum level has been widely used to evaluate the Se short-term status in animals since there is a good association between serum Se level and the dietary intake of the element over a wide range. The purpose of this work was to determine the Se serum concentration in a population of 78 sucking 2-month-old calves, in order to corroborate a clinical diagnosis of severe deficiency status. The samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) at the ITAL STRUCTURES Research Laboratory. The results obtained from the serum samples presented Se concentrations varying from 10 to 66 ng/ml. The comparison between the obtained values and the expected serum selenium values (60-80 ng/ml), confirmed a mild to severe deficiency status in the investigated population.

  8. Large variations in diurnal and seasonal patterns of sap flux among Aleppo pine trees in semi-arid forest reflect tree-scale hydraulic adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grünzweig, José M.; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Adjustments and adaptations of trees to drought vary across different biomes, species and habitats, with important implications for tree mortality and forest dieback associated with global climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between the patterns of variations in water flux dynamics and drought resistance in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) trees in a semi-arid stand (Yatir forest, Israel). We measured sap flow (SF) and variations in stem diameter, complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of water vapour and CO2 gas exchange, branch water potential and hydraulic conductivity, as well as eddy flux measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) from a permanent flux tower at the site. SF rates were well synchronized with ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees during the rainy season (Dec-Apr). However, during the dry season (May-Nov), the daily trend in the rates of SF greatly varied among trees, allowing classification into three tree classes: 1) trees with SF maximum rate constantly occurring in mid-day (12:00-13:00); 2)trees showing a shift to an early morning SF peak (04:00-06:00); and 3) trees shifting their daily SF peak to the evening (16:00-18:00). This classification did not change during the four years study period, between 2010 and 2014. Checking for correlation of tree parameters as DBH, tree height, crown size, and competition indices with rates of SF, indicated that timing of maximum SF in summer was mainly related to tree size (DBH), when large trees tended to have a later SF maximum. Dendrometer measurements indicated that large trees (high DBH) had maximum daily diameter in the morning during summer and winter, while small trees typically had maximum daily diameter during midday and afternoon in winter and summer, respectively. Leaf-scale transpiration (T) measurements showed typical morning peak in all trees, and another peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Different diurnal

  9. Seasonal variations in energy levels and metabolic processes of two dominant Acropora species ( A. spicifera and A. digitifera) at Ningaloo Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, S.; Patten, N. L.; Allcock, R. J. N.; Saunders, S. M.; Strickland, D.; Waite, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    Seasonal variations in coral health indices reflecting autotrophic activity (chlorophyll a and zooxanthellae density), metabolic rates (RNA/DNA ratio and protein) and energy storage (ratio of storage: structural lipids or lipid ratios) were examined for two dominant Acropora species [ Acropora digitifera ( AD) and Acropora spicifera ( AS)] at Ningaloo Reef (north-western Australia). Such detailed investigation of metabolic processes is important background, with regard to understanding the vulnerability of corals to environmental change. Health indices in AD and AS were measured before and after spawning in austral autumn and winter 2010, and austral summer 2011 at six stations. Health indices showed seasonal and species-specific differences but negligible spatial differences across a reef section. For AD, autotrophic indices were negatively correlated with lipid ratios and metabolic indices. Metabolic indices were significantly higher in AS than AD. No correlation was observed between RNA/DNA ratios and lipid ratios with any autotrophic indices for AS. Lipid ratios were stable throughout the year for AS while they changed significantly for AD. For both species, indices of metabolic activity were highest during autumn, while autotrophic indices were highest in winter and summer. Results suggest that the impact of the broadcast spawning event on coral health indices at Ningaloo Reef occurred only as a backdrop to massive seasonal changes in coral physiology. The La Niña summer pattern resulted in high autotrophic indices and low metabolic indices and energy stores. Our results imply different metabolic processes in A. digitifera and A. spicifera as well as a strong impact of extreme events on coral physiology.

  10. Self-Reflecting in Developmental Context: Variations in Level and Patterning during the First 2 University Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy J.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Watson, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Self-reflection, typically operationalized in scales of egocentrism and introspectiveness, is portrayed as problematic in much of the literature on adolescents. Self-reflection has been linked to dysfunctional self-consciousness, symptomatology, and risk behaviors. Yet, self-reflection also is seen as essential for adolescent development,…

  11. Assessing the usability and potential value of seasonal climate forecasts in land management decisions in the southwest UK: challenges and reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Marta Bruno

    2017-06-01

    The potential usability and benefits of seasonal climate forecasts (SCF) to help inform decision-making processes is widely accepted. However, the practical use of SCF in Europe is still fairly recent and, as such, current knowledge of the added benefits of SCF in supporting and improving decision-making is limited. This study is based on research conducted to co-develop a semi-operational climate service prototype - the Land Management Tool (LMTool) - with farmers in South West regions of the UK. The value of the SCF provided to the farmers was examined to help us understand the usability and (potential) value of these forecasts in farmers' decisions during the winter months of 2015/2016. The findings from the study point to the need to explore and develop (new) research methods capable of addressing the complexity of the decision-making processes, such as those in the farming sector. The farmers who used the SCF perceived it as useful and usable as it helped them change and adapt their decision-making and thus, avoid unnecessary costs. However, to fully grasp the potential value of using SCF, farmers emphasised the need for the provision of SCF for longer periods of time to allow them to build trust and confidence in the information provided. This paper contributes to ongoing discussions about how to assess the use and value of SCF in decision-making processes in a meaningful and effective way.

  12. Seasonal and diurnal methane emissions from a wetland meadow on the Eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: effects of soil temperature, water table level and gross primary productivity (GPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haijun; Guo, Qian; Hong, Bing; Ding, Hanwei; Xu, Chao; Yao, Hu

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands covered about 4.6×109 m2 land surface of the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and accumulated about 7.14×108 t C since the beginning of Holocene. Over the last decades, more than 30% of these peatlands have degradated due to climate change, land management and disturbance. For assessing the magnitude of diurnal and seasonal variations in CH4 fluxes, and identifying the depence of CH4 fluxes on environmental factors, we measured CH4 fluxes in a typical alpine peatland in this region using eddy covariance technique, and tested the depence of CH4 fluxes on soil temperature, water table level and gross primary productivity (GPP). The annual CH4 emission of Hongyuan peatland is 47.04 g CH4/m2, while growing season emissions account for 75 of the annual sum. During growing season, there was a clear diurnal pattern in CH4 fluxes with peaks and valleys appeared at16:30 and 1:00, respectively. While during non-growing season, CH4 fluxes varied at a relatively low level and showed no clear diurnal patterns. The CH4 fluxes were significantly correlated with the variations of soil temperature, and soil temperature at 25 cm depth can explain 83% of the variations in CH4 fluxes. The CH4 emissions during the growing season were barely correlated with the water table level (R2=-0.0001), and the water table mostly varied from 0 cm to -20 cm, which indicate that the anaerobic environment below -20 cm was relatively stable for methanogenesis and CH4 transportation. In addition, considering the fact that CH4 fluxes were more significantly correlated with soil temperature at 25 cm depth, it might be concluded that the CH4 were mostly produced in the peat deposits below -20 cm. The daily mean CH4 emissions were significantly correlated with GPP (R2=0.82), which suggest that CH4 emissions were also regulated by plant growth activities, and the CH4 fluxes might be decreased due to peatland degradation.

  13. Key management practices to prevent high infestation levels of Varroa destructor in honey bee colonies at the beginning of the honey yield season.

    PubMed

    Giacobino, Agostina; Molineri, Ana; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Masciangelo, Germán; Pietronave, Hernán; Pacini, Adriana; Salto, Cesar; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Varroa destructor is considered one of the main threats to worldwide apiculture causing a variety of physiological effects at individual and colony level. Also, Varroa mites are often associated with several honey bee viruses presence. Relatively low levels of Varroa during the spring, at the beginning of the honey yield season, can have a significant economic impact on honey production and colony health. Winter treatments against Varroa and certain management practices may delay mite population growth during following spring and summer improving colonies performance during the honey yield season. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the presence of Varroa destructor in late spring in apiaries from temperate climate. A longitudinal study was carried out in 48 apiaries, randomly selected to evaluate V. destructor infestation level throughout the year. The percentage of infestation with V. destructor was assessed four times during one year and the beekeepers answered a survey concerning all management practices applied in the colonies. We used a generalized linear mixed model to determine association between risk of achieving 2% infestation on adult bees at the beginning of the honey yield season and all potential explanatory variables. The complete dataset was scanned to identify colonies clusters with a higher probability of achieving damage thresholds throughout the year. Colonies that achieved ≥2% of infestation with V. destructor during spring were owned by less experienced beekeepers. Moreover, as Varroa populations increase exponentially during spring and summer, if the spring sampling time is later this growth remains unobserved. Monitoring and winter treatment can be critical for controlling mite population during the honey production cycle. Spatial distribution of colonies with a higher risk of achieving high Varroa levels seems to be better explained by management practices than a geographical condition.

  14. Average high latitude magnetic field: Variations with interplanetary sector and with season. 2: Comparison of disturbance levels and discussion of ionospheric currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Brown, N.

    1973-01-01

    Average high latitude magnetic field data from northern observatories are examined for three ranges of magnetic disturbance level, Kp = 1 minus to 1+,2 minus to 3+, and or = 4 minus. Except for 0-8h MLT, 55-78 deg invariant latitude, during away interplanetary magnetic field sectors, the variations between season and sector have the the same characteristics at all Kp ranges. Because the amplitude of sector differences is much larger at sunlit local times than in the midnight sector, it is concluded that the current system of Svalgaard (1973) is not adequate to describe the sector variations in magnetic disturbance, other current systems are discussed briefly. The disturbance morphology and seasonal variation at all Kp levels confirms the results of previous studies which indicate that latitudinally broad current systems and non-ionospheric sources are present in addition to latitudinally narrow electrojet currents. Comparison of data between Kp levels indicates that the Harang discontinuity shifts toward earlier MLT with increasing Kp level.

  15. Effect of end of season water deficit on phenolic compounds in peanut genotypes with different levels of resistance to drought.

    PubMed

    Aninbon, C; Jogloy, S; Vorasoot, N; Patanothai, A; Nuchadomrong, S; Senawong, T

    2016-04-01

    Terminal drought reduces pod yield and affected the phenolic content of leaves, stems and seed of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of end of season water deficit on phenolic content in drought tolerant and sensitive genotypes of peanuts. Five peanut genotypes were planted under two water regimes, field capacity and 1/3 available water. Phenolic content was analyzed in seeds, leaves, and stems. The results revealed that terminal drought decreased phenolic content in seeds of both tolerant and sensitive genotypes. Phenolic content in leaves and stems increased under terminal drought stress in both years. This study provides basic information on changes in phenolic content in several parts of peanut plants when subjected to drought stress. Future studies to define the effect of terminal drought stress on specific phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in peanut are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Trainable Hearing Aid Algorithm Reflecting Individual Preferences for Degree of Noise-Suppression, Input Sound Level, and Listening Situation.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Hoon; Nam, Kyoung Won; Yook, Sunhyun; Cho, Baek Hwan; Jang, Dong Pyo; Hong, Sung Hwa; Kim, In Young

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to improve hearing aid users' satisfaction, recent studies on trainable hearing aids have attempted to implement one or two environmental factors into training. However, it would be more beneficial to train the device based on the owner's personal preferences in a more expanded environmental acoustic conditions. Our study aimed at developing a trainable hearing aid algorithm that can reflect the user's individual preferences in a more extensive environmental acoustic conditions (ambient sound level, listening situation, and degree of noise suppression) and evaluated the perceptual benefit of the proposed algorithm. Ten normal hearing subjects participated in this study. Each subjects trained the algorithm to their personal preference and the trained data was used to record test sounds in three different settings to be utilized to evaluate the perceptual benefit of the proposed algorithm by performing the Comparison Mean Opinion Score test. Statistical analysis revealed that of the 10 subjects, four showed significant differences in amplification constant settings between the noise-only and speech-in-noise situation (P<0.05) and one subject also showed significant difference between the speech-only and speech-in-noise situation (P<0.05). Additionally, every subject preferred different β settings for beamforming in all different input sound levels. The positive findings from this study suggested that the proposed algorithm has potential to improve hearing aid users' personal satisfaction under various ambient situations.

  17. A Trainable Hearing Aid Algorithm Reflecting Individual Preferences for Degree of Noise-Suppression, Input Sound Level, and Listening Situation

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sung Hoon; Nam, Kyoung Won; Yook, Sunhyun; Cho, Baek Hwan; Jang, Dong Pyo; Hong, Sung Hwa; Kim, In Young

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In an effort to improve hearing aid users’ satisfaction, recent studies on trainable hearing aids have attempted to implement one or two environmental factors into training. However, it would be more beneficial to train the device based on the owner’s personal preferences in a more expanded environmental acoustic conditions. Our study aimed at developing a trainable hearing aid algorithm that can reflect the user’s individual preferences in a more extensive environmental acoustic conditions (ambient sound level, listening situation, and degree of noise suppression) and evaluated the perceptual benefit of the proposed algorithm. Methods Ten normal hearing subjects participated in this study. Each subjects trained the algorithm to their personal preference and the trained data was used to record test sounds in three different settings to be utilized to evaluate the perceptual benefit of the proposed algorithm by performing the Comparison Mean Opinion Score test. Results Statistical analysis revealed that of the 10 subjects, four showed significant differences in amplification constant settings between the noise-only and speech-in-noise situation (P<0.05) and one subject also showed significant difference between the speech-only and speech-in-noise situation (P<0.05). Additionally, every subject preferred different β settings for beamforming in all different input sound levels. Conclusion The positive findings from this study suggested that the proposed algorithm has potential to improve hearing aid users’ personal satisfaction under various ambient situations. PMID:27507270

  18. Advanced seasonal reproductive development in a male urban bird is reflected in earlier plasma luteinizing hormone rise but not energetic status.

    PubMed

    Davies, Scott; Behbahaninia, Hirbod; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Meddle, Simone L; Waites, Kyle; Deviche, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Urban animals inhabit an environment considerably different than do their non-urban conspecifics, and to persist urban animals must adjust to these novel environments. The timing of seasonal reproductive development (i.e., growth of gonads and secondary sex organs) is a fundamental determinant of the breeding period and is frequently advanced in urban bird populations. However, the underlying mechanism(s) by which birds adjust the timing of reproductive development to urban areas remain(s) largely unknown. Here, we compared the timing of vernal reproductive development in free-ranging urban and non-urban male Abert's Towhees, Melozone aberti, in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, and tested the non-mutually exclusive hypotheses that earlier reproductive development is due to improved energetic status and/or earlier increase in endocrine activity of the reproductive system. We found that urban birds initiated testicular development earlier than non-urban birds, but this disparity was not associated with differences in body condition, fat stores, or innate immune performance. These results provide no support for the hypothesis that energetic constraints are responsible for delayed reproductive development of non-urban relative to urban male Abert's Towhees. Urban birds did, however, increase their plasma luteinizing hormone, but not plasma testosterone, earlier than non-urban birds. These findings suggest that adjustment to urban areas by Abert's Towhees involves increases in the endocrine activity of the anterior pituitary gland and/or hypothalamus earlier than non-urban towhees. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of corn dry distiller grains plus solubles supplementation level on performance and digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during forage growing season.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, M F; Calderón-Mendoza, D; Islas, A; Encinias, A M; Loya-Olguín, F; Soto-Navarro, S A

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of corn dry distiller grains plus condensed solubles (DDGS) supplementation level on performance digestion characteristics of steers grazing native range during the forage growing season. In the performance study, 72 (206 ± 23.6 kg; 2008) and 60 (230 ± 11.3 kg; 2009) English crossbred steer calves were used in a randomized complete block design replicated over 2 yr. The grazing periods lasted 56 and 58 d and started on August 11 and 18 for 2008 and 2009, respectively. Each year, steers were blocked by BW (light, medium, and heavy), stratified by BW within blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 grazing groups. Each grazing group (6 steers in 2008 and 5 in 2009) was assigned to a DDGS supplementation levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW). Grazing group served as the experimental unit with 12 groups per year receiving 1 of 4 treatments for 2 yr (n = 6). In the metabolism study, 16 English crossbred steers (360 ± 28.9 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulas grazing native range during the summer growing season were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate treatment effects on forage intake and digestion. The experiment was conducted during the first and second weeks of October 2008. Steers were randomly assigned to supplement level (0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW; n = 4) and grazed a single native range pasture with supplements offered individually once daily at 0700 h. In the performance study, ADG (0.64, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.86 ± 0.03 kg/d for 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6% BW, respectively) increased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. In the metabolism study, forage OM, NDF, CP, and ether extract (EE) intake decreased (P ≤ 0.05) linearly with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Total CP and EE intake increased (P ≤ 0.002) with increasing DDGS supplementation level. Digestibility of OM, NDF, and EE increased (linear; P ≤ 0.008) whereas the soluble CP fraction of forage masticate sample

  20. [The effect of the season of the year and the stage of pregnancy on selenium levels in the blood of sheep].

    PubMed

    Vrzgula, L; Prosbová, M; Kovác, G; Skalka, J

    1982-08-01

    During one year selenium dynamics in the blood serum of 19 sheep was studied in relation to the degree of gravidity. Seasonal character of selenium dynamics with a positive reaction was demonstrated during the period of grazing, and a dependence of selenium serum concentration on the degree of gravidity was also proved; the highest mean value of selenium was recorded in ewes in the seventh month of gravidity (3.67 mumol.l-1). Delivery and onset of lactation reduced negatively selenium concentrations in the blood serum to the lowest selenium levels (2.15-1.89 mumol/l-1).

  1. Seasonality and fasting effect in raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides serum leptin levels determined by canine leptin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Kitao, Naoya; Fukui, Daisuke; Shibata, Haruki; Saito, Masayuki; Osborne, Peter G; Hashimoto, Masaaki

    2011-02-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived peptide hormone that acts on the brain and regulates food intake and energy balance. Several previous reports have suggested that overwintering raccoon dogs Nyctereutes procyonoides are able to control their adiposity efficiently, but the contribution of leptin to weight regulation in these animals remains unclear. To study the seasonality of overwintering raccoon dogs as well as the effects of fasting on them, serum leptin levels were investigated using a newly established canine leptin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Of the nine animals studied, five were fed and four were fasted (deprived of food for 2 months in winter). Blood samples and body fat weights were monitored once a month throughout the experimental period (July 2007-March 2008). Leptin concentrations obtained by ELISA were significantly higher than and had a positive correlation with those obtained by previously used multispecies radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits. Moreover, ELISA showed a clearer correlation between the body fat weight and leptin levels compared with RIA, suggesting the efficacy of canine leptin-specific ELISA kit for leptin estimation in raccoon dogs. Autumnal fattening was observed in both groups of animals, but the wintertime loss of adipose tissue was more obvious in the fasted group. Serum leptin concentrations determined by ELISA showed seasonal changes without significant differences between the fed and fasted animals. Therefore, high levels of leptin may be responsible for the suppression of feeding behavior in raccoon dogs before winter. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. The Effect of Breast Cancer Fear Levels of Female Seasonal Agricultural Laborers on Early-Diagnosis Behaviors and Perceptions of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Polat, Perihan; Ersin, Fatma

    2017-04-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of breast cancer fear levels of female seasonal agricultural laborers between ages 40 and 60 on breast cancer early-diagnosis behaviors and perceptions. This is a cross-sectional study. The data of the study were collected between February and September 2014 in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. A sample of the study group consisted of 350 women. The data were assessed by using SPSS 16.0 statistics package software. Descriptive statistics, t test, chi-square, and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. Considering that breast cancer fear levels are effective on the breast cancer early-diagnosis behaviors and health beliefs, it can be recommended for the health care staff to carry out initiative works to reduce the fear levels.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (N.W. Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content.

    PubMed

    Carro, Nieves; García, Isabel; Ignacio, María; Mouteira, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including ΣDDTs, γ-HCH, HCB, aldrin, isodrin, trans-nonachlor, heptachlor and dieldrin, were determined in the razor clam, Ensis siliqua, collected monthly from February 2003 to April 2004 from the Islas Cíes in Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain). The sum of DDTs ranged from 2.17 to 26.9 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). Principal component analysis showed seasonal trends in the levels of some OCPs (γ-HCH and dieldrin). Pearson correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between OCP levels and the biometric parameters of condition index and body lipids.

  4. A Season for Birth

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education reflects on changing seasons and how birth remains a constant wonder. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  5. Contribution of seasonal presence of cetaceans, earthquakes, drifting icebergs and anthropogenic activity to the ambient noise level in the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang-Hin-Sun, Eve; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-04-01

    Assessing the ambient sound level in the oceans is essential for a better understanding of the interactions between the ecosystem and anthropogenic activities. Ambient noise studies conducted in the North Pacific and Atlantic oceans, have shown that since the 60's oceanic noise level increases with the ship traffic, even if potential impacts of shipping noise on the ecosystem is not yet fully understood. However long-term acoustic records for the Indian Ocean are still limited. Here we present long-term statistics on the ambient sound in the Southern Indian Ocean basin based on 2 years of data collected at 5 widely distributed autonomous hydrophones. The data consist of single hydrophone spectra (10-100 Hz in 1-Hz bins) averaged using Welch's method over 200 s. Spectral probability distributions of the ambient sound level are analyzed in order to identify the main sound sources and their geographical and time variability. The mean sound level within the array is 10 to 20 dB lower than in other oceans, revealing a weaker influence of shipping on the Southern Indian Ocean noise budget. Seismic events are evenly distributed in time and space and mostly contribute to the general low-frequency background noise. Periodic signals are mainly associated with the seasonal presence of 3 types of blue whales and fin whales whose signatures are easily identified at target frequencies. Winter lows and summer highs of the ambient noise levels are also well correlated with ice volume variations. Icebergs are found to be a major sound source, strongly contributing to seasonal variations even at northernmost sites of the array. Although anthropogenic factors do not seem to dominate the noise spectrum, shipping sounds are present north and east of the array. Observed higher sound levels are consistent with the proximity of major traffic lanes.

  6. CYP3A4 and seasonal variation in vitamin D status in addition to CYP2D6 contribute to therapeutic endoxifen level during tamoxifen therapy.

    PubMed

    Teft, Wendy A; Gong, Inna Y; Dingle, Brian; Potvin, Kylea; Younus, Jawaid; Vandenberg, Theodore A; Brackstone, Muriel; Perera, Francisco E; Choi, Yun-Hee; Zou, Guangyong; Legan, Robin M; Tirona, Rommel G; Kim, Richard B

    2013-05-01

    Tamoxifen is a widely utilized adjuvant anti-estrogen agent for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, known to undergo CYP2D6-mediated bioactivation to endoxifen. However, little is known regarding additional genetic and non-genetic determinants of optimal endoxifen plasma concentration. Therefore, 196 breast cancer patients on tamoxifen were enrolled in this prospective study over a 24-month period. Blood samples were collected for pharmacogenetic and drug-level analysis of tamoxifen and metabolites. Regression analysis indicated that besides CYP2D6, the recently described CYP3A4*22 genotype, seasonal variation, and concomitant use of CYP2D6-inhibiting antidepressants were significant predictors of endoxifen concentration. Of note, genetic variation explained 33 % of the variability while non-genetic variables accounted for 13 %. Given the proposed notion of a sub-therapeutic endoxifen concentration for predicting breast cancer recurrence, we set the therapeutic threshold at 18 nM, the 20th percentile for endoxifen level among enrolled patients in this cohort. Nearly 70 % of CYP2D6 poor metabolizers as well as extensive metabolizers on potent CYP2D6-inhibiting antidepressants exhibited endoxifen levels below 18 nM, while carriers of CYP3A4*22 were twofold less likely to be in sub-therapeutic range. Unexpectedly, endoxifen levels were 20 % lower during winter months than mean levels across seasons, which was also associated with lower vitamin D levels. CYP3A4*22 genotype along with sunshine exposure and vitamin D status may be unappreciated contributors of tamoxifen efficacy. The identified covariates along with demographic variables were integrated to create an endoxifen concentration prediction algorithm to pre-emptively evaluate the likelihood of individual patients falling below the optimal endoxifen concentration.

  7. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  8. Sedimentary archaeal amoA gene abundance reflects historic nutrient level and salinity fluctuations in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng

    2015-12-01

    Integration of DNA derived from ancient phototrophs with their characteristic lipid biomarkers has been successfully employed to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, it is poorly known that whether the DNA and lipids of microbial functional aerobes (such as ammonia-oxidizing archaea: AOA) can be used for reconstructing past environmental conditions. Here we identify and quantify the AOA amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) preserved in a 5.8-m sediment core (spanning the last 18,500 years) from Qinghai Lake. Parallel analyses revealed that low amoA gene abundance corresponded to high total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, while high amoA gene abundance corresponded to low TOC and salinity. In the Qinghai Lake region, TOC can serve as an indicator of paleo-productivity and paleo-precipitation, which is related to historic nutrient input and salinity. So our data suggest that temporal variation of AOA amoA gene abundance preserved in Qinghai Lake sediment may reflect the variations of nutrient level and salinity throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Qinghai Lake region.

  9. Sedimentary archaeal amoA gene abundance reflects historic nutrient level and salinity fluctuations in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Dong, Hailiang; Hou, Weiguo; Li, Gaoyuan; Wu, Geng

    2015-01-01

    Integration of DNA derived from ancient phototrophs with their characteristic lipid biomarkers has been successfully employed to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, it is poorly known that whether the DNA and lipids of microbial functional aerobes (such as ammonia-oxidizing archaea: AOA) can be used for reconstructing past environmental conditions. Here we identify and quantify the AOA amoA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenases) preserved in a 5.8-m sediment core (spanning the last 18,500 years) from Qinghai Lake. Parallel analyses revealed that low amoA gene abundance corresponded to high total organic carbon (TOC) and salinity, while high amoA gene abundance corresponded to low TOC and salinity. In the Qinghai Lake region, TOC can serve as an indicator of paleo-productivity and paleo-precipitation, which is related to historic nutrient input and salinity. So our data suggest that temporal variation of AOA amoA gene abundance preserved in Qinghai Lake sediment may reflect the variations of nutrient level and salinity throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Qinghai Lake region. PMID:26666501

  10. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces reflect more effortful processing at the individual level.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Grit

    2016-07-01

    The N250 and N250r (r for repetition, signaling a difference measure of priming) has been proposed to reflect the activation of perceptual memory representations for individual faces. Increased N250r and N250 amplitudes have been associated with higher levels of familiarity and expertise, respectively. In contrast to these observations, the N250 amplitude has been found to be larger for other-race than own-race faces in recognition memory tasks. This study investigated if these findings were due to increased identity-specific processing demands for other-race relative to own-race faces and whether or not similar results would be obtained for the N250 in a repetition priming paradigm. Only Caucasian participants were available for testing and completed two tasks with Caucasian, African-American, and Chinese faces. In a repetition priming task, participants decided whether or not sequentially presented faces were of the same identity (individuation task) or same race (categorization task). Increased N250 amplitudes were found for African-American and Chinese faces relative to Caucasian faces, replicating previous results in recognition memory tasks. Contrary to the expectation that increased N250 amplitudes for other-race face would be confined to the individuation task, both tasks showed similar results. This could be due to the fact that face identity information needed to be maintained across the sequential presentation of prime and target in both tasks. Increased N250 amplitudes for other-race faces are taken to represent increased neural demands on the identity-specific processing of other-race faces, which are typically processed less holistically and less on the level of the individual.

  11. Seasonal variation in airborne endotoxin levels in indoor environments with different micro-environmental factors in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Dong Uk; Ahn, Jae Kyoung; Yoon, Chung Sik

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the variation over a year in airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environment of five university laboratories in Seoul, South Korea, and examined the micro-environmental factors that influenced endotoxin levels. These included temperature, relative humidity, CO2, CO, illumination, and wind velocity. A total of 174 air samples were collected and analyzed using the kinetic limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Endotoxin levels ranged from <0.001 to 8.90EU/m(3), with an overall geometric mean of 0.240EU/m(3). Endotoxin levels showed significantly negative correlation with temperature (r=-0.529, p<0.001), CO2 (r=-0.213, p<0.001) and illumination (r=-0.538, p<0.001). Endotoxin levels tended to be higher in winter. Endotoxin levels in laboratories with rabbits were significantly higher than those of laboratories with mice. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the environmental factors affecting endotoxin levels were temperature (coefficient=-0.388, p<0.001) and illumination (coefficient=-0.370, p<0.001). Strategies aimed at reducing airborne endotoxin levels in the indoor environments may be most effective if they focus on illumination.

  12. A region-wide study of lobolly pine seedlings growth relative to four competition levels after two growing seasons

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Bruce Zutter

    1987-01-01

    A common study design was simultaneously established at 13 locations in the Southern United States to examine the scope of regional variation in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) growth relative to four competition levels. The following competitoin levels were created and maintained for 2 years using selective herbicides: (a) complete control of all...

  13. Longitudinal changes in blood lead level in children and their relationship to season, age, and exposure to paint or plaster.

    PubMed Central

    McCusker, J

    1979-01-01

    Children screened for lead poisoning in the Brownsville district of New York City in either summer or winter were followed with blood lead tests for approximately six months to one year from screening to measure longitudinal changes in blood lead level and to identify some determinants of the changes. Only minimal evidence was found of the hypothesized summer rise in blood lead level, while the predominant trend seemed to be for blood lead levels to display statistical regression to the mean. In children found to have low to intermediate blood lead levels (less than 55 microgram/100ml) at screening, variables which were found to predict a rise in blood lead level of 10 microgram/100ml or greater from winter to summer were under age three and/or exposure to paint or plaster. PMID:426160

  14. The Effects of Experiential Learning with an Emphasis on Reflective Writing on Deep-Level Processing of Leadership Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Copie; Boyd, Barry L.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential learning and reflective writing are important components of college instructors' repertoires. Learning is not complete without proper reflection. The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate students' perceptions of learning in a leadership course that emphasized experiential learning methods. The respondents included the…

  15. Seasonal variation in cutaneous melanoma incidence, link with recent UV levels: a population-based study in Belgium (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Rommens, Kristine; Jegou, David; De Backer, Hugo; Weyler, Joost

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis of a short-term late-promoting effect of ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the development of cutaneous melanoma as an explanation for the summer peak in melanoma incidence. Therefore, we studied seasonal variation in melanoma incidence in relation to recent UV levels by direct UV measurements. Data from the Belgian Cancer Registry on invasive cutaneous melanoma diagnosed during 2006-2011 were used for analysis. Daily data on UV measurements in Belgium were obtained from the Royal Meteorological Institute. Simple and multiple negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the influence of recent UV levels on melanoma incidence. The sum of the mean UV doses in the 2 months before diagnosis was used as a proxy for recent UV exposure in the population. To include variable sunburn risks during the year, the categorical variable 'semester' was created. The incidence of melanoma in Belgium shows a distinct seasonal variation, with peaks in June or July. We found that part of this variation could be explained by the variation in dermatologic activity and, therefore, used this as an offset in our models. We found a linear relationship between melanoma incidence and UV dose in the 2 months preceding the diagnosis. UV levels had more impact in the first semester. The effect of UV levels was not modified by sex nor age. The interaction between anatomical site and UV levels was significant (P=0.002) and showed a higher effect on the upper and lower limbs compared with the head and neck and trunk.

  16. Ostertagia ostertagi in first-season grazing cattle in Belgium, Germany and Sweden: general levels of infection and related management practices.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Johannes; Demeler, Janina; Höglund, Johan; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Dorny, Pierre; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2010-07-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevailing levels of infection with Ostertagia ostertagi in first-season grazing calves and related management factors in three European countries (Belgium, Germany and Sweden). A cross-sectional survey was performed in first-season grazing dairy cattle during 2 consecutive years. Levels of infection with O. ostertagi were assessed by a standardized serum pepsinogen assay at the end of the grazing periods 2006 and 2007 and information on control measures against gastrointestinal nematodes were collected at the same time through a questionnaire. Information was collected from a total of 358 herds in 2006 and 726 herds in 2007. The general infection patterns were similar in the different countries and the 2 years with the majority of the herds having a low (<1 UTyr) or intermediate pepsinogen result (1-3 UTyr) and only 2-6% of the herds having levels of infection that are considered to induce significant production losses (>3 UTyr). The level of nematode control was high in each country, which is illustrated by the widespread use of anthelmintics (69-83% of herds) and the frequent combination of anthelmintic use and control through pasture management (>50% of herds combined two or more protective measures). However, the used control methods showed clear differences between the countries. After taking into account the effect of anthelmintic treatment, herd mean pepsinogen levels were significantly lower in large herds, in calves grazing on a small paddock (vs. pasture) and on mown (vs. non-mown) pastures and if turn out on pasture was postponed. The collected data may serve as a baseline from which we can monitor the methods and success of gastrointestinal nematode control in dairy cattle. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P < 0.001) with a greater increase after HVT (+0.8 km · h(-1) vs. +0.5 km · h(-1) after HIIT, P = 0.04). Maximal velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P < 0.003). Both training programmes seem to be promising means to improve endurance capacity in high-level youth football players during pre-season conditioning.

  18. Insulin and body weight but not hyperandrogenism seem involved in seasonal serum 25-OH-vitamin D3 levels in subjects affected by PCOS.

    PubMed

    Gallea, Mariateresa; Granzotto, Marnie; Azzolini, Sara; Faggian, Diego; Mozzanega, Bruno; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    PCOS patients were frequently characterized by lower plasma vitamin D levels. The mechanisms involved in this dysfunction remains still debated, therefore we evaluated the role of androgen, insulin and body weight on the serum VitD levels in women with or without PCOS. Eighty one patients 18-42 yrs old were studied into "SUMMER" and "WINTER" seasonal period: thirty seven PCOS, seventeen no-ovarian hyperandrogenic (noPCOS), twelve functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) and finally fifteen healthy (Con). Patients were further divided into: lean (L), obese (O), normo- (nINS) and hyperinsulinemic (hINS). All hormonal and metabolic parameters were measured at 1-7 days of the menstrual cycle. Our results show that VitD levels were lower in PCOS and in noPCOS than in FHA and Con, in particular in (O) and (hINS) PCOSs. Both in summer and in winter, PCOSs had basal VitD levels significantly lower than FHA and Con, whereas they were similar to noPCOS. Yet, LhINS and OPCOS had VitD levels lower than Con and noPCOS. VitD levels were comparable in LnINS PCOS and Con. In conclusion, PCOSs had levels of VitD lower than controls. Weight and hyperinsulinemia had a significant influence on these values. Finally, over 70% of our healthy patients had VitD deficiency.

  19. [Effect of Seasonal Temperature Increasing on Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil of the Water Level Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorge Tributary During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-jie; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Bin; Xiao, Xiao-jun; Ma, Hui-yan; Yu, Zhi-guo

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the effect of seasonal temperature increasing on nitrogen mineralization in soil of the water level fluctuating soil zone of three gorge reservoir areas in the Yangtze river tributary during the dry period, surface soils were collected from the water level fluctuating zone of Pengxi river crossing two hydrological sections, i.e., upstream and downstream and three water level altitudes, 155 m (low), 165 m (middle) and 175 m (high). We incubated the soil at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C to determine the transformation rates of nitrogen in soil of Pengxi river basin during the dry period. The result showed that TN and NO3- -N contents in the soil of upstream section and higher (175 m) altitude of water level were higher than those in downstream and low (165 m) altitude of water level, whereas the pattern for NH4+ -N was different, with higher NH4+ -N contents in downstream and low water level. The inorganic nitrogen was dominated by NO3- -N, which accounted for up to 57.4%-84.7% of inorganic nitrogen. Generally, soil ammoniation, nitration and net N mineralization increased with the rising water level altitude and stream sections (P < 0.05). In summary, nitration and net N mineralization significantly increased with increasing temperature, (P < 0.05), while ammoniation showed no difference (P > 0.05).

  20. Continuous Measurements of Canopy-level Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence for Inferring Diurnal and Seasonal Dynamics of Photosynthesis in Crop Fields in the Midwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, G.; Guan, K.; Yang, X.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.; Cai, Y.; Masters, M. D.; Peng, B.

    2016-12-01

    Plants emitted photons of red and far-red light, called chlorophyll fluorescence, after sunlight absorption for photosynthesis. This solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) is generated simultaneously while plants actively photosynthesize. The link between photosynthesis and SIF resulting from the competition for the same excitation energy has long been investigated and applied for inferring the rate of photosynthesis. Recent development of continuous SIF observational technology is furthering the inferring potential as well as our understandings of fluctuations of SIF and photosynthesis with changes in environmental conditions. To better understand this photosynthesis-SIF link at multiple time scales and their relationships with environmental drivers, we deployed two newly developed tower-based SIF systems (FluoSpec) in a corn (Zea mays L., C4 plant) field and a soybean (Glycine max L., C3 plant) field at University of Illinois Energy Farm and conducted continuous near-surface SIF measurements at canopy scale from mid-growing season of 2016. Eddy covariance flux towers were installed in parallel at both sites for canopy-scale gas exchange measurements. Relationship between SIF and flux tower photosynthesis will be analyzed to derive the empirical models for photosynthesis retrieval from SIF signals. Preliminary results indicate that canopy SIF can reflect diurnal and seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis. Mechanistic analysis on SIF fluctuations and responses to environmental variations will be conducted as well for a closer look at mechanism of photosynthetic responses. Corn and soybean SIF and photosynthesis-SIF relationship will be compared to investigate the difference between C4 and C3 plants.

  1. Intercritical circulating levels of neo-epitopes reflecting matrixmetalloprotease-driven degradation as markers of gout and frequent gout attacks.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Ana M; Manon-Jensen, Tina; Abhishek, Abhishek; Jenkins, Wendy; Siebuhr, Anne Sofie; Karsdal, Morten A; Doherty, Sally; Zhang, Weiya; Richardson, Helen; Doherty, Michael; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent flares constitute the main clinical burden of gout. Our aim was to assess whether biomarkers measuring MMP tissue degradation could be used as markers of frequent gout flares. Fasting plasma samples from 112 men with gout and 170 controls, along with serum samples from 447 men with gout collected at baseline from an ongoing clinical trial, were analysed by ELISA for neo-epitopes from MMP degradation of collagens type I (C1M) and type III (C3M). The log10 levels of both markers were compared between cases and controls and between gout patients with three or more gout attacks in the past year and those with two or less attacks. The circulating levels of C1M and C3M correlated with gout status in the case-control study. Levels of both markers were associated with frequent gout flares (⩾3 attacks in the past year) in both cohorts (odds ratio, OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 6.8; P = 0.0056 for log10C1M, and OR = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.3, 19.3; P = 0.0005 for log10C3M). The area under the curve in a receiver operating characteristic analysis of frequent flares increased from 0.68 to 0.74 in one cohort and from 0.60 to 0.66 in the other when log10C1M and log10C3M were added to clinical variables of the model. C1M and C3M, reflective of interstitial matrix destruction, are associated with gout status and with frequent gout flares in men, suggesting that increased MMP activity may contribute to gout flares. Further research is needed to find out whether this is independent of dietary and lifestyle risk factors for acute gout. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  3. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  4. Passive air sampling for determining the levels of ambient PCDD/Fs and their seasonal and spatial variations and inhalation risk in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yajun; Nie, Zhiqiang; Tian, Shulei; Liu, Feng; He, Jie; Yang, Yufei; Wang, Xingrun; Die, Qingqi; Fang, Yanyan; Huang, Qifei

    2015-09-01

    The seasonal and spatial variations, compositional profiles, and possible sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air samples in Shanghai of China were investigated by passive air samplers, and the potential inhalation risks posed by these chemicals were evaluated. The following results were obtained: (1) The World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency (TEQ) values for PCDD/Fs were in the range of 10.8-259 fg m(-3) (mean 63.4 fg m(-3)) in summer and 24.1-154 fg m(-3) (mean 83.4 fg m(-3)) in winter. Atmospheric PCDD/F levels were in the following order: industrial areas > commercial and residential areas > rural areas. (2) 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (24 %), 2,3,7,8-TeCDD (16 %), 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD (13 %), and 2,3,7,8-TeCDF (12 %) were the predominant contributors to the TEQ of PCDD/Fs. (3) There was a slight seasonal trend with higher TEQ values in winter than in summer, which could be related to seasonal variations in the dispersion of PCDD/Fs in ambient air. (4) The children's daily intake was at the lower end of the range for the tolerable daily intake of PCDD/Fs recommended by WHO, which indicates that the inhalation risk of PCDD/Fs for local residents in Shanghai is relatively low.

  5. Stand-level gas-exchange responses to seasonal drought in very young versus old Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Sonia; Schroeder, Matt; Bible, Ken; Falk, Matthias; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2009-08-01

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral (ES) stands (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) (approximately 450-500 years old) forest in the Wind River Experimental Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F(NEE)), latent energy (lambdaE) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E(T)), Bowen ratio (beta), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G(c)), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient (alpha) and a canopy decoupling factor (Omega). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to find out how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in relative soil water content ((r)) and vapour pressure deficit (deltae), differ among the two forest successional stages. Despite different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed site-specific diurnal patterns of E(T), alpha, G(c), deltae and (r) during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) at the OG forest high morning G(c) (> 10 mm s(-1)) coincided with high net CO(2) uptake (F(NEE) = -9 to -6 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), but a strong negative response in OG G(c) to moderate deltae was observed later in the afternoons and subsequently reduced daily E(T) and (2) at the ES stands total E(T) was higher (+72 mm) because midday G(c) did not decrease until very low water availability levels ((r) < 30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that ES stands are more likely than mature forests to experience constraints on gas exchange if the dry season becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were observed in the youngest stands only at the very end of the seasonal drought.

  6. Diurnal, seasonal and interannual variability of carbon isotope discrimination at the canopy level in response to environmental factors in a boreal forest ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M

    2007-10-01

    Accurate estimation of temporal and spatial variations in photosynthetic discrimination of 13C is critical to carbon cycle research. In this study, a combined ecosystem-boundary layer isotope model, which was satisfactorily validated against intensive campaign data, was used to explore the temporal variability of carbon discrimination in response to environmental driving factors in a boreal ecosystem in the vicinity of Fraserdale Tower, Ontario, Canada (49 degrees 52'30''N, 81 degrees 34'12''W). A 14 year (1990-1996 and 1998-2004) hourly CO2 concentration and meteorological record measured on this tower was used for this purpose. The 14 year mean yearly diurnal amplitude of canopy-level discrimination Delta(canopy) was computed to be 2.8 +/- 0.5 per thousand, and the overall diurnal cycle showed that the greatest Delta(canopy) values occurred at dawn and dusk, while the minima generally appeared in mid-afternoon. The average annual Delta(canopy) varied from 18.3 to 19.7 per thousand with the 14 year average of 19 +/- 0.4 per thousand. The overall seasonality of Delta(canopy) showed a gradually increasing trend from leaf emergence in May-September and with a slight decrease at the end of the growing season in October. Delta(canopy) was negatively correlated to vapour pressure deficit and air temperature across hourly to decadal timescales. A strong climatic control on stomatal regulation of ecosystem isotope discrimination was found in this study.

  7. Responses to Global Warming Over the Eastern and Central Tibetan Plateau as Reflected in Day-time and Night-time Temperatures, Extreme Temperature Events, and Growing Season Length During 1961-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Z.; Liu, X.; Shao, X.

    2006-12-01

    This study examines the trends and variation patterns in daily maximum (day-time) and minimum (night-time) temperatures (hereafter referred to as Tm and Tn), extreme events, and growing season lengths over the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP), in comparison with the results from other regions. Data during the period 1961-2003 from 66 weather stations over the eastern and central TP with elevations above 2000 m are used in this study, after going through rigorous quality assessment/quality control procedures. Statistically significant warming trends are identified in various measures of the temperature regime, especially in night- time temperatures, extreme warm/cold events, and diurnal temperature range (DTR). We find that the trends in Tn and Tm display distinct spatial patterns in the study region. The warming trends in winter night-time temperatures are among the highest when compared with studies conducted in other regions. Our results also confirm the asymmetric pattern of greater warming trends in minimum or night-time temperatures as compared to the day-time temperatures, which reduces the DTR in the region. Based on the time-varying percentiles of Tn and Tm, prominent warming trends are found in Tn during cold season months across the relative temperature scale of both warm and cold events. The warming in night-time temperatures causes the number of frost days to decrease significantly and the number of warm days to increase. The mean length of growing season has increased by approximately 17 days during the 43-year study period for the region. Most of the record-setting months for cold events are found in the earlier part of the study period, while that of the warm events have occurred mostly in the later half, especially since the 1990s. The changes in the temperature regime in this region may have brought regional-specific impacts on the ecosystems. It is found that grain production in Qinghai Province, located in the northeastern part of the

  8. Seasonal variation in biological oxygen demand levels in the main stem of the Fraser River, British Columbia and an agriculturally impacted tributary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, S. L.; Fraser, H.; Marsh, S. J.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Voss, B. M.; Marcotte, D.; Fanslau, J.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M.; Hanson-Carson, J.; Luymes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Fraser River basin is one of British Columbia's most diverse and valuable ecosystems. Water levels and temperatures along the Fraser are seasonally variable, with high flow during the spring freshet and low flow during winter months. In the Fraser River, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations impact many aquatic species. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) measures the amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria during the decomposition of organic matter and is an indicator of water quality in freshwater environments. We compared BOD, DO, and pH during winter (November 2011) and summer (July 2012) in the main stem of the Fraser River at Fort Langley and a tributary in an agricultural area of the Fraser Valley, Nathan Creek. In November the BOD of the main stem of the Fraser River was 2.36 mg/L, pH 7.26, and DO 9.13 mg/L. BOD and DO of Nathan Creek was not significantly lower at 1.68 mg/L and DO 8.28 mg/L, however, the pH was significantly lower (p=0.001) at 6.75. In July, the Fraser River had significantly higher BOD levels than in winter at 4.43 mg/L, but no significant change in pH and DO. Nathan Creek BOD was significantly higher than it was in winter and higher than the main stem at 7.34 mg/L, with no significant change in pH and DO. There were strong seasonal differences in BOD in the Fraser River and Nathan Creek, with the highest levels seen in July. The higher BOD seen in Nathan Creek in July may be an indication of agricultural impact. Although all BOD values fell in the range of 1-8 mg/L and are considered to be relatively unpolluted.

  9. Seasonal changes in isoform composition of giant proteins of thick and thin filaments and titin (connectin) phosphorylation level in striated muscles of bears (Ursidae, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Salmov, N N; Vikhlyantsev, I M; Ulanova, A D; Gritsyna, Yu V; Bobylev, A G; Saveljev, A P; Makariushchenko, V V; Maksudov, G Yu; Podlubnaya, Z A

    2015-03-01

    Seasonal changes in the isoform composition of thick and thin filament proteins (titin, myosin heavy chains (MyHCs), nebulin), as well as in the phosphorylation level of titin in striated muscles of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and hibernating Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus ussuricus) were studied. We found that the changes that lead to skeletal muscle atrophy in bears during hibernation are not accompanied by a decrease in the content of nebulin and intact titin-1 (T1) isoforms. However, a decrease (2.1-3.4-fold) in the content of T2 fragments of titin was observed in bear skeletal muscles (m. gastrocnemius, m. longissimus dorsi, m. biceps) during hibernation. The content of the stiffer N2B titin isoform was observed to increase relative to the content of its more compliant N2BA isoform in the left ventricles of hibernating bears. At the same time, in spite of the absence of decrease in the total content of T1 in the myocardium of hibernating brown bear, the content of T2 fragments decreased ~1.6-fold. The level of titin phosphorylation only slightly increased in the cardiac muscle of hibernating brown bear. In the skeletal muscles of brown bear, the level of titin phosphorylation did not vary between seasons. However, changes in the composition of MyHCs aimed at increasing the content of slow (I) and decreasing the content of fast (IIa) isoforms of this protein during hibernation of brown bear were detected. Content of MyHCs I and IIa in the skeletal muscles of hibernating Himalayan black bear corresponded to that in the skeletal muscles of hibernating brown bear.

  10. [Dynamics of seasonal plant growth in halophytic meadows taking into account the temperature factor and soil salinity level].

    PubMed

    Pis'man, T I; Slosar', N A

    2012-01-01

    A mathematical model has been constructed to describe the growth dynamics of various plant communities of halophytic meadows depending on the temperature factor and degree of soil salinity. Field investigation of the yields of halophytic meadow plant communities were performed in the coastal area of Kurinka Lake in the Altaiskii district of the Republic of Khakasia in 2004 and 2006. The results of field investigations and model studies show that there is a correlation between plant growth and air temperature for plant communities growing on soils with the lowest and medium salinity levels. It was proven in model studies that for the plant communities that grow on highly saline (3.58%) soils, not only air temperature but also the salinity level of the soil should be taken into account.

  11. Radionuclide Concentrations in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during the 1997 Growing Season

    SciTech Connect

    L. Naranjo, Jr.; P. R. Fresquez; R. J. Wechsler

    1998-08-01

    Soil and overstory and understory vegetation (washed and unwashed) collected at eight locations within and around Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-were analyzed for 3H, 238Pu, 239Pu, 137CS, 234U, 235U, 228AC, Be, 214Bi, 60Co, 40& 54Mn, 22Na, 214Pb and 208Tl. In general, most radionuclide concentrations, with the exception of 3Ef and ~9Pu, in soils and overstory and understory vegetation collected from within and around Area G were within upper (95'%) level background concentrations. Although 3H concentrations in vegetation from most sites were significantly higher than background (>2 pCi mL-l), concentrations decreased markedly in comparison to last year's results. The highest `H concentration in vegetation was detected from a juniper tree that was growing over tritium shaft /+150; it contained 530,000 pCi 3H mL-l. Also, as in the pas~ the transuranic waste pad area contained the highest levels of 239Pu in soils and in understory vegetation as compared to other areas at Area G.

  12. Vitamin D levels in children of asylum seekers in The Netherlands in relation to season and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A M; Wiegersma, P Auke; Storm, Huub; Bijleveld, Charles M A; Verkade, Henkjan J

    2007-03-01

    Low dietary intake and limited sun